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SIXTH EDITION
Compiled and FAited by The Howard W. Sams Engineering Staff
Howard W. Sams & Co.
A Division of Macmillan, Inc. 4300 West 62nd Street, Indianapolis, IN 46268 USA
,:', 1959, 1962, 1964, 1968, 1973, 1979, and 1986 by Howard W. Sams & Co. A Division of Macmillan, Inc.
SIXTH EDITION 1:IRST PRINTING1986
All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein. International Standard Book Number: 0672224690 1.ibrary of Congress Catalog Card Number: 8660032 Editor: Sara Black Illustrator: Ralph E. Lund Interior Design: 7: R. Ernrick Cover Art: Stephanie Ray
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Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v .. Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ~ i List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Chapter 1 ELECTRONICS FORMULAS AND LAWS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ohm's Law for Direct Current . . . . . 1 DC Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Ohm's Law Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ohm's Law Nomograph . . . . . . . . . . 2 Kirchhoff's Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Q Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Admittance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1I Susceptance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I Conductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Energy Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Ohm's Law for Alternating Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Average. RMS. Peak. and PeaktoPeak Voltage and Current . . . . 21 Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Time Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Transformer Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Voltage Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 DCMeter Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Frequency and Wavelength . . . . . . . . 28 TransmissionLine Formulas . . . . . . 30 Modulation Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Decibels and Volume Units . . . . . . . . 32
Chapter 2 CONSTANTS AND STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 ...
Dielectric Constants of Materials . . 39 Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Standard Frequencies and Time Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 World Time Conversion Chart . . . . . 57 Frequency and Operating Power Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Commercial Operator Licenses . . . . 64 Amateur Operator Privileges . . . . . . 69 Amateur ("Ham") Bands . . . . . . . . . 70 Types of Emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Television Signal Standards . . . . . . . 74 Television Channel Frequencies . . . . 77 Frequency SpectrumSound and Electromagnetic Radiation . . . . . . 78 Audiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 Radiofrequency Spectrum . . . . . . . . 79 NOAA Weather Frequencies . . . . . . 83
Chapter 3
SYMBOLS D CODES . 85 AN .
International Q Signals . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Z Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 10Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 1 1Code Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 The International Code . . . . . . . . . . . 94
. . 105 Resistor Color Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 253 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Measures and Weights . . . . . . 247 Index . . . ASCII Code . . . Chapter 6 MATHEMATICAL TABLES AND FORMULAS . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . .227 Degrees. Cube Roots. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 165 . . .. . . . . . . . . 135 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . . 217 . . . . . 1 12 Semiconductor Color Code . 217 Teleprinter Codes . 146 ThreePhase Power Formulas . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Common Logarithms . . . . . Cubes. . 225 Hydraulic Equations . .226 Cost of Operation . .. . . . .137 Mathematical Symbols . . .133 Types o t' Screw Heads . .. . . .. . . . . . 163 Metric System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 Conversion of Matter into Energy . . . . . .. 226 Speed of Sound . . . . Mathematical Constants . .141 Transistor Formulas . . . . . . . . . . .1 1 1 Capacitor Color Codes . . . 95 Letter Symbols and Abbreviations . 141 . 116 Electronics Schematic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Powers of 10 . . . 123 Miniature Lamp Data . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . 147 Current Ratings for Equipment and Chassis Wiring ... . . . . . . . . . 137 CopperWire Characteristics . . . . 130 Receiver Audiopower and Frequency Response Check . . . . . . . . . . . .123 TestPattern Interpretation . . . . . 95 Greek Alphabet . . . .. . VacuumTube Formulas . . . . . .223 I~ISCELLANEOU~ Appendix A CALCULATIONS USING COMMODORE COMPUTER.. . . . 224 Winds . . .170 Trigonometric Functions .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 150 Attenuator Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Geometric Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International and Absolute Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 F'undamentals of Boolean Algebra . . . .. . . . . 219 219 Kansas City Standard . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Algebraic Operations . and Seconds of a Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 GasFilled Lamp Data . . . . 227 . . . . . 225 225 Weight of Water . Characteristics of the Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of Free Space . . . . .227 Grad . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Machine Screw and Drill Sizes . . . . . .229 64@ . . . . . . . . . .217 Temperature Conversion . . and Reciprocals . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Appendix B PROGRAM CONVERSIONS . . . . . . . . .. . 97 Semiconductor Abbreviations . . . . . . . . Decimal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .1 33 SheetMetal Gages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 227 Atomic Second .175 Other Number Systems . .. . 165 . .. .145 Fiber Optics . . .. . . . . . . . .193 Chapter 7 Chapter 5 DESIGN DATA . . . . . 150 Filter Formulas . . . . .SINPO RadioSignal Reporting Code . . 141 Operational Amplifiers (Op Amps) . 144 Heat . 147 Coil Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Millimeter Equivalents .165 Fractional Inch. . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Square Roots. . . . . . . 226 Falling Objects . . . . .. . .174 Binary Numbers . . .. . . . .. . . . . . .123 Coaxial Cable Characteristics . . . . . . . .116 Chapter 4 SERVICED AN INSTALLATION DATA.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .13 1 Speaker Connections ..156 Standard Potentiometer Tapers . . . . Minutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 Squares. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 1The basic formulas and laws. We also detail how to add. Nomographs that speed up the solution of DC power. but hardtoremember constants and governmentand industryestablished standards. Hence. parallel resistance. In previous editions. and divide vectors on a computer as well as work ~ith natural logarithms in computer programs. We also make a distinction between formulas or mathematical concepts and physical objects or measurements. Many suggestions were received and considered. and hobbyistshave told us they would like to have in a comprehensive. we present the volt as a unit of work or energy rather than a unit of electrical pressure or force. we have retained our comprehensive coverage of the broad range of commonly used electronics formulas and mathematical tables from the fifth edition. Dimensions of the electrical units are also discussed. laws of heat flow in transistors and heat sinks. In addition. we clearly distinguish between the phys ical movement of a free electron and the guided wave motion produced by the electron's field. we asked for recommendations of additional items to consider for inclusion in future editions. and reactance. this book contains the information that users of the first five editionsengineers. Computer programs that calculate many of the electronics formulas that appear in the text are part of the two new appendices. technicians. Throughout the text we have attempted to clarify many misconceptions. For example. The comprehensive table of conversion factors is especially helpful in electronics calculations. Where necessary. experimenters. each item in the sixth edition was reviewed. subtract. In addition. Chapter 2Useful. multiply. onestop edition. New developments require frequent updating of information if any handbook such as this is to remain a useful tool. . most of them are incorporated in this volume. additions or changes were made.The electronics industry is rapidly changing. so important in all branches of electronics. With this thought in mind. We have added new sections on resistor and capacitor color codes. students. Chapter 3Symbols and codes that have been adopted over the years. The latest semiconductor information is included. operational amplifiers. and basic fiber optics.
criticisms. and recommendations for any additional data you would like t o see included in a future edition will be welcomed. and reciprocals is a n important feature of this section.Chapter 4Items of particular interest to electronics service technicians. Chapter 5Data most often used in circuit design work. in any branch of electronics. No effort has been spared to make this handbook of maximum value to anyone. roots. The filter and attenuator configurations and formulas are particularly useful to service technicians and design engineers. . and temperature scales. Once again your comments. The comprehensive table of powers. Chapter 6Mathematical tables and formulas. AppendicesComputer programs for basic electronics formulas. Chapter 7Miscellaneous items such as measurement conversions. table of elements.
. . . . . . . . . .126 GasFilled Lamp Data .. .. . 42 26 Metric Prefixes . . . . . . . . .135 Common Gage Practices . . 43 28 Conversion Factors . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 27 Metric Conversion Table . . .131 Drill Sizes and Decimal Equivalents . . . . . .158 . ..134 Machine Screw Tap and Clearance Drill Sizes . . . . . . . . 88 APCO 10Signals . . . . 73 217 Television Channel Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 23 13 Dimensional Units of Mechanical Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 116 Semiconductor Color Code . . Peak. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 60 21 1 Power Limits of Personal Radio Services Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Average. . 64 213 Citizens Band Frequencies and Upper and Lower Tolerances ..150 K Factors for Calculating Attenuator Loss . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and PeaktoPeak Values . . . . .113 Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitor Color Code . . . . . . . .116 Coaxial Cable Characteristics . . . . . .. . . 96 Resistor Color Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 14 Dimensional Units of Electrical Quantities . . . 33 16 Decibel Table (20100 dB) . . . .114 Ceramic Capacitor Color Codes .. . . . . . . . . . . 36 21 Dielectric Constants of Materials . . . . . . . .124 Miniature Lamp Data .. . . . . . . . 65 214 "Ham" Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..138 Recommended Current Ratings (Continuous Duty) . 79 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 310 311 312 313 315 315 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 410 51 52 Q Signals . 93 Law Enforcement I ]Code . . . . . 4 1 24 Common S1 Derived Units . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 215 Maximum Power for the 160m Band . . . . . RMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 218 Cable TV Channel Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112 Molded Paper Tubular Capacitor Color Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .1 14 Tantalum Capacitor Color Codes . . . .135 Comparison of Gages . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 137 CopperWire Characteristics . . . . . 64 212 Frequency Tolerances of Personal Radio Services Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 210 Other Standards Stations .130 External Resistances Needed for GasFilled Lamps . . . 91 CBers 10Code . . 41 23 SIDerived Units with Special Names . . . . . . . . . . .9 dB) . . . . . . . . . 92 Police 10Code . . . . . 72 216 Types of Emission .136 Resistance of Metals and Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 21 12 Time Constants Versus Percent of Voltage or Current . . .. 24 15 Decibel Table (019. . .. . . . 78 219 Frequency Classification . . . . . 95 Greek Symbol Designations . . 44 29 Binary and Decimal Equivalents . 95 Greek Alphabet . . .. 94 SINPO SignalReporting Code . . . . . . . 40 22 SI Base and Supplementary Units . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. 85 ZCode for PointtoPoint Service . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 25 Units in Use with SI . .. . ... . . . . . . . .
182 Gray Code . . . .. . . .228 . . . . . . . . . .219 72 ASCII Code . . . . . . . and Millimeter Equivalents . and Keciprocals . 176 182 Powers of 2 .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubes. . . . . . . . . . . .220 74 Minutes and Seconds in Decimal Parts of a Degree . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .186 Summary of Logical Statements .182 Basic Rules of Symbolic Logic . . . . . . . Square Roots. . Excess3 Code . .189 610 Squares.166 Trigonometric Formulas . . . . . . 220 73 Characteristics of the Elements . . Decimal. . . . . . . . . 175 Natural Trigonometric Functions . . . . . . . . . . . Cube Roots. . . . . . . .194 71 Moore ARQ Code (Compared with 5Unit Teleprinter Code) . . . . . . .Fractional Inch. . . . . . . . . .186 69 Common Logarithms . . . .. .
in watts. referring to Fig. in amperes. in volts. in ohms. R is the resistance. where P i s the power. 11: Note. According to Ohm's law. the volt is the basic unit of potential energy per unit of charge flow. I DCPOWER The power P expended in load resistance R when current I flows under a voltage pressure E can be determined by the formulas: where I is the current. I is the current. in amperes. in volts. . Thus. The volt is the work that is done by a battery or generator in separating unit charges through unit distance. in ohms. R is the resistance.Chapter 1 OHM'S LAW FOR DIRECT CURRENT All substances offer some obstruction to the flow of current. E is the voltage. OHM'S LAW FORMULAS Fig. E is the voltage. 11 A composite of the electrical formulas that are based on Ohm's law is given in Fig. the current that flows is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance.
Such relations are summarized by the basic principle that states equations are mathematical models of electrical and electronic circuits. Example. it would take more than 6025 years for an electron entering the wire at San Francisco to emerge from the wire at New York. E2is physiThe nomograph presented in Fig. the velocity of each free electron is approximately 0. "The sum of the voltage drops around a DC series circuit equals the source or applied voltage. then the formula I = E/R can be used to calculate that I = 5 A.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND 12. Fig. Or. or 100/2 = 50 W. Nevertheless." In other words. disregarding losses due to the wire resistance. the formula P= EZ/ R states a mathematical reality.or lightface figures. Thus. the electrical impulse would be evident at New York in less than 0. as shown in Fig. Formulas are used to calculate unknown values from known values. Similarly. These formulas are virtually indispensable for solving DC electronic circuit problems. however. The value of the resistor is 20 R. and the figures in lightface (on the lefthand side) cover another range. Unknown Value E=IR I=UR R=UI Formulas E=PII I=P/E R=E'P E = a I = ~ R=p/lZ cally unreal.5 A) is flowing through it? What is the power dissipated by the resistor? Answer. although E2is mathematically real. The same answer is obtained whether the formula P = EI or the formula P = E2/R is used. The power dissipated in the resistor is 5 W. The figures in boldface (on the righthand side of all scales) cover one range of given values. For a given problem. that E is physically real and that E2 is physically unreal. 14: . KIRCHHOFF'S LAWS According to Kirchhoff's voltage law. if the wire were run 3000 mi across the country.04 in). 12 OHM'S LAW NOMOGRAPH Free electrons travel slowly in conductors because there is an extremely large number of free electrons available to carry the charge flow (current). Since I = E/R. Note. the formula P = EI can be used to calculate that P = 50 W. E is both physically and mathematically real. Thus. For example. if it is known that E = 10 and R = 2. On the other hand.02 s. although this formula is a physical fiction. E2 is a mathematical steppingstone to g o from one physical reality to another physical reality.000 mi/s. the two unknown values can be determined by placing a straightedge across the two known values and reading the unknown values at the points where the straightedge crosses the appropriate scales.001 i d s . If two values are known. all values must be read in either the bold. What is the value of a resistor if a 10V drop is measured across it and a current of 500 mA (0. the electrical impulse travels along the wire at the rate of 186. 13 is a convenient way of solving most Ohm's law and DC power problems. the formula P = EI can be used to calculate that P = E2/R. because each free electron exerts a force on its adjacent electrons. In other words. If a current of 1 A flows in ordinary bell wire (diameter about 0.
Ohm's law and DC power nomograph. 13.ELECTRONICS FORMULAS LAWS AND Fig. Fig. 14 .
resistance does not flow. and E." Hence. I. are the voltage drops across the individual resistors. if a circuit is divided into several parallel paths.where E. flowing through the circuit. . flowing through the circuit. Although the term "current flow" is in common use. is the total current. are the currents flowing through the individual branches.. 16). E l . or: I.and I. Resistors in series (Fig. and I. Current is defined as the rate of charge flow. 15. = I . According to Kirchhoff's current law. + E. I. is the total current.. where I. are the voltage drops across the individual resistors. in amperes. 15 In a seriesparallel circuit (Fig. 17): Fig. El. as shown in Fig. is the source voltage. Voltage does not flow... E. I. 12..E. in volts. and current does not flow. the sum of the currents through the individual paths must equal the current flowing to the point where the circuit branches. RESISTANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total resistance in a circuit.. 19): where E. = I? Two resistors in parallel (Fig. + I? I . 18): E. the relationships are as follows: Resistors in parallel (Fig. Fig. and E.. is the source voltage. + E. are the currents flowing through the individual branches. = E. I. "The current flowing toward a point in a circuit must equal the current flowing away from that point. 16 Note. in amperes. it is a misnomer in the physical sense of the words. in volts.
is the total resistance. . Parallelresistance nomograph. 110. . 110. 18 R1 RT (Total) R2 Fig. and R. Place a straightedge across the points on scales R. The point at which the Fig. R .. in ohms. R. of the circuit. and R. 17 where R. where the known value resistors fall. are the values of the individual resistors. 19 Fig. R1 R2 R3 Fig. The equivalent value of resistors in parallel can be solved with the nomograph in Fig.
C. and R 2 scales that will produce the needed value. the straightedge can be placed at this value on the R. the physical power is dissipated by the screen and not in the space from cathode to screen.is the total capacitance in a circuit. or more. Example 2.5 W. . 100. 30 R.an 854. 112 Example I . effective resistance is often calculated as an E/I ratio. may be in any unit of measurement as long as all are in the same unit. read answer on R. For example.then consider this 40 R and the 1204 resistor. In turn. are the values of the individual capacitors. scale when the values of the known resistors differ greatly. as required. (First..000Rresistor in parallel? Answer. What is the total resistance of a 50R and a 75Rresistor in parallel? Answer. If the total resistance needed is known..and C. scale. C.) Example. (Use K . The range of the nomograph can be increased by multiplying the values of all scales by 10... C2. If three resistors are in parallel. scale will show the total resistance of the two resistors in parallel. C. What is the total resistance of a 754. are used with the B. 1000. CAPACITANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total capacitance in a circuit. 11 1): Fig.C. the effective resistance is a mathematical reality but a physical fiction.and a 120Rresistor in parallel? Answer. What is the total resistance of a 150052 and a 14. Two capacitors in series (Fig. which will give 30 R. Capacitors in parallel (Fig.5 mA. first find the equivalent resistance of two of the resistors. 111 Capacitors in series (Fig. From a practical viewpoint. Scales R. 113): 30R.straightedge crosses the R . and the potentialenergy difference from cathode to screen is 15. which will give 40 R. consider the 759and 859resistors.. scales. and R. 1355 R.) where C..000V. and R. then consider this value as being in parallel with the remaining resistor. 112): Fig. . Note. will be in this same unit. if the beam current in a T V picture tube is 0. The power dissipated in the effective resistance is 7. In other words. Note... scale and rotated to find the various combinations of values on the R .. Ohm's law states that R = E/I. then the effective resistance from cathode to screen is 30 MR.7.
N is the number of plates. C is the capacitance. k is the dielectric constant.. 114 *For a list of dielectric constants of materials. The drop across each individual capacitor is inversely proportional to its capacitance. Energy Stored The energy stored in a capacitor can be determined by: Fig. is the total capacitance of the series combination. equal to the applied voltage. in volts. The capacitance of a parallelplate capacitor is determined by: Voltage Across Series Capacitors When an AC voltage is applied across a group of capacitors connected in series (Fig. E is the voltage impressed across the capacitor.). with . in inches. The drop across any capacitor in a group of series capacitors is calculated by the formula: where C i s the capacitance. in farads. in picofarads. in volts. C is the capacitance. where E. in volts. E. The parallelresistance nomograph in Fig. a unit capacitor could be a pair of metal plates separated by 0. Charge Stored The charge stored in a capacitor is determined by: Q = CE where Q is the charge. C. in joules (wattseconds). C i s the capacitance of the individual capacitor under consideration.. in square inches. 110 can also be used to determine the total capacitance of capacitors in series. the voltage drop across the combination is.001 in. of course. is the voltage across the individual capacitor in the series (C. 114). in farads.Fig. E is the applied voltage. d is the thickness of the dielectric.. 113 where W is the energy. in volts. is the applied voltage. such as air. see section entitled Constants and Standards. Since a capacitor is composed of a pair o f metal plates separated by an insulator. in farads. C. or C. in coulombs.* A is the area of one plate. in farads.
. in volts. In other words. This force is exerted through a distance of 0.001 in. Fig. Voltage is potential energy per unit charge. or about two long tons. Inductors in series with no mutual inductance (Fig. Q = CE. N is the number of plates. k is the dieleclric coefficient.5 F). E is doubled (2 V). F is the potentialenergy difference. the potentialenergy difference increases to 2 V.002 in. Q remains constant (1 C). in dynes. INDUCTANCE The following formulas can be used for calculating the total inductance in a circuit.HANI)ROOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND an area of 4. As an example of voltage generation (potentialenergy generation) by charge separation. in farads. A is the area of one plate. This unit capacitor lvill have a capacitance of 1 F. + L. twice as much work has been done (the initial voltage has been doubled). A is the area of one side of one plate. but the charge and the force of attraction between the plates remain the same. in centimeters. 1.+ L. in square inches. Initial unit separation was assigned as 0. In other words.15): where C is the capacitance. Because the initial unit separation has been doubled. The sepaunit charges has been ration bet\~~ceri increased through unit distance.001 in in the foregoing example. the potential difference gives the plates potential energy (energy of position). The initial potentialenergy difference will.001 in to 0. The formula for calculating the capacitance is: where F i s the attractive force. in square centimeters. and C i s halved (0. When the separation between plates is doubled.+. k is the dielectric coefficient. Then. in inches.. = L. in turn. the plates will attract each other with a force of approximately 4400 lb. suppose that the capacitor described above has been charged to a potentialenergy difference of 1 V. In turn. be assigned as 1 mV when calculating basic relations. d is the separation between the plates. S is the separation between the plates. if this capacitor is charged to a potentialenergy difference of 1 V (potential difference of I V). if the separation between the plates is increased from 0. The formula for calculating the force of attraction between the two plates is: L. there are 454 g in 1 lb. and E is inversely proportional to the separation between the plates. with the result that a potentialenergy difference of 1 V has been generated.. the voltage (potentialenergy difference) between the plates is doubled. 115 .46 x 10' in'. A dyne is about '/980 g.
L . in henrys. Coupled Inductance Fig. and L. 117 L.ELECTRONICS FORMULAS D LAWS AN Inductors in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig. are the inductances of the 9 . are the inductances of the individual inductors (coils). 110 can also be used to determine the total inductance of inductors in parallel. L. with fields opposing. and L. L. L. 117): The coupled inductance can be determined by the following formulas.2M where The parallelresistance nomograph in Fig. is the total inductance of the circuit. 116): Mutual Inductance The mutual inductance of two coils with fields interacting can be determined by: where M is the mutual inductance of LA and LB. is the total inductance of coils L. In parallel with fields opposing: In series with fields aiding: In series with fields opposing: Fig. is the total inductance of coils L. 116 Two inductors in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig. In parallel with fields aiding: where L. in henrys. with fields aiding. and L. L . and L. in henrys. = L . in henrys. is the total inductance. + L.in henrys.
L . M is the mutual inductance. I is the current. or the frequency at which the reactances of the circuit add up to zero (X. in henrys. are the inductances of the two coils. L is the inductance. It can be determined by the following formulas. where f . and L. For a coil where R and L are in series: . R is the resistance. = X. in farads. C is the capacitance.. in hertz. in amperes. o equals 2nf and f is the frequency. An inductor in a circuit has a reactance of j2nfL R. Transposing the previous formula: Q FACTOR The ratio of reactance to resistance is known as the Q factor. in joules (wattseconds). RESONANCE The resonant frequency. Note. in farads. in hertz. L is the inductance. in henrys. although the reactance opposes current flow. M is the mutual inductance. where Q is a ratio expressing the factor of merit. the coupling coefficient is determined by: For a capacitor where R and C are in series: where K is the coupling coefficient.). in henrys. is determined by: Energy Stored The energy stored in an inductor can be determined by: where W is the energy. is the resonant frequency. Mutual inductance in a circuit also has a 2f reactance equal to j n M R . in ohms. Coupling Coefficient When two coils are inductively coupled to give transformer action. The resonance equation for either L or C can also be solved when the frequency is known. in henrys. The operator j denotes that the reactance dissipates no energy.individual coils. in henrys. L is the inductance. in henrys. C is the capacitance. in henrys.
Inductive susceptance is negative. in siemens. Admittance is also expressed as the reciprocal of impedance. Admittance is equal to conductance plus susceptance. Z is the impedance. in siemens. therefore: where Y is the admittance. in ohms. Conductance is the reciprocal of resistance. its corresponding admittance will have a negative phase angle. SUSCEPTANCE The susceptance of a series circuit is given by: ADMITTANCE The measure of the ease with which alternating current flows in a circuit is the admittance of the circuit. in ohms. and the values of the two phase angles will be the same. Simply lay a straightedge across the values of inductance and capacitance. X i s the reactance. R is the resistance. Ohm's law formulas when conductance is considered are: . 118. R is the resistance. and capacitive susceptance is positive. in ohms. in ohms. R is the resistance. Admittance of a series circuit is given by: When the resistance is zero. If an impedance has a positive phase angle. X i s the reactance. thus: CONDUCTANCE Conductance is the measure of the ability of a component to conduct electricity. where G is the conductance. in ohms.The resonant frequency of various combinations of inductance and capacitance can also be obtained from the reactance charts in Fig. The unit of conductance is the siemens (formerly the mho). susceptance becomes the reciprocal of reactance. and read the resonant frequency from the frequency scale of the chart. Conductance for DC circuits is expressed as the reciprocal of resistance. in ohms. Inductive reactance is positive. in siemens. thus: where B is the susceptance. and capacitive reactance is negative.
T is the time. The inductance needed to produce this same reactance is 5 H. in hertz. f is the frequency. can be obtained. Capacitive Reactance The reactance of a capacitor may be calculated by the formula: . what is the reactance of the capacitor? What value of inductance will give this same reactance? Answer. 118C covers 1. Since X. If the frequency is 10 Hz and the capacitance is 50 pF. on the proper chart [Fig. (Place the straightedge. in hertz. lay the straightedge across the values for the capacitor and the frequency. L is the inductance. It is equivalent to a wattsecond. in amperes. The chart in Fig. which will give the same reactance.1000 kHz.) where P i s the power. in henrys. Read the values indicated on the reactance and inductance scales. in farads. in ohms. the reactance. Then read the reactance from the reactance scale. Fig. is f is the frequency. capacitance.where I is the current. it follows that a 50pF capacitor and a 5H choke are resonant at 10 Hz. 3600 Ws equals 1 Wh. To find the amount of reactance of a capacitor at a given frequency. REACTANCE The opposition to the flow of alternating current by the inductance or capacitance of a component or circuit is called the reactance. in hours.is the reactance. The number of watthours is calculated: where X. in watts. C is the capacitance. By extending the line. 310 R . inductance. Thus. and frequency are shown in Figs. the power is dissipated. 118B covers 1. I18A]. Inductive Reactance The reactance of an inductor may be calculated by the formula: ENERGY UNITS Energy is the capacity or ability to d o work. where X. The watthour is the practical unit of energy.at resonance.1000 MHz. Example. the value of an inductance. and Fig. 118A through 118C. in volts. E is the voltage. Reactance Charts Charts for determining unknown values of reactance. The joule is a unit of energy.1000 Hz. across 10 Hz and 50 pF. the resonant frequency of the combination can be determined. in ohms. One joule is the amount of energy required to maintain a current of 1 A for 1 s through a resistance of I R . 118A covers 1.. See the section entitled Capacitance to determine the energy stored in a capacitor and the section entitled Inductance to determine the energy stored in an inductor. = X. in siemens. by laying the straightedge across the capacitance and inductance values. G is the conductance.
Fig. 118A. 13 . Reactance chart1 Hz to 1 kHz.
118B. 14 .Fig. Reactance chart1 kHz to 1 MHz.
15 . Reactance chart1 MHz to 1000 MHz. 118C.Fig.
capacitance. + + Fig. in siemens..>+ . 121): z = XI.x. X i s the total reactance. 119): C z = XI. 120): Fig. For a single resistance (Fig.. 122): where Z is the total impedance.XI. 121 L For series circuits: For inductances in series with no mutual inductance (Fig.IMPEDANCE The basic formulas for calculating the total impedance are as follows: For parallel circuits: 8 = 0" Rl R2 R3  Fig. 124): For resistances in series (Fig. m Fig.. in ohms. . in siemens. in ohms. and resistance. in ohms.ft k . 124 CI c2 Cg +H . R is the total resistance. 120 For a single inductance (Fig. 122 For a single capacitance (Fig. 123): +tFig. 123 For capacitances in series (Fig. B is the total susceptance. G is the total conductance or the reciprocal of the total parallel resistance. The following formulas can be used to find the impedance of the various combinations of inductance.
is larger than X. 126 I I I I I For inductance and capacitance in series (Fig. ) ~  0 = arc tan L 0 = arc tan X R Fig.x.. is larger than X. 126): 0 = arc tan x.. . 129 For inductances in parallel with no mutual inductance (Fig..: z = x.. inductance.. 127): When X . 127 When X. 125 For resistance and capacitance in series (Fig. 130): 4 + Fig. I I For resistance. ... 129): Fig. 0 = 0"when XI = X.. and capacitance in series (Fig. R For resistances in parallel (Fig.X I Note. 128 x. R A C + Fig.: Fig.ELECTRONICS E~RMULAS LAWS AND For resistance and inductance in series (Fig.. 125): Z= @T(xL x . 128): 1 7 I I Fig. 130 .
:. 8 = arc tan  R X C The graphical solution for resultant reactance of parallel inductive and capaci . 0 = 0 when X . 132 For capacitance and resistance in parallel (Fig. 135): When X .: Fig. 134 For resistance and inductance in parallel (Fig. 133): I 1 Fig. 134): Fig.. 133 The graphical solution for capacitance and resistance in series or in parallel (Fig. is larger than X. = X. 132): For capacitance and inductance in parallel (Fig. 131): Fig.. 135 Note. 131 R IIn~edanceof R and (In Parallel Fig.: R 8 = arc tan  x.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND For capacitances in parallel (Fig. I When X.: is larger than X.
The input impedance of any network can be represented at a given frequency by R and C connected in series or by R and L connected in series. the base line 00 may have any finite length. 139): For inductance.XL). 139 . is larger than X. Conversely. 138): When X.: Fig. and resistance in parallel (Fig. . the output impedance of any network can be similarly represented at a given frequency. capacitance.*+ R I R 2 Fig. 136A and 136B.R" RXC 8 = arc tan R(XL .tive reactances (Figs. 136A parallel with resistance (Fig.Xc) XLXC Fig. 137): 8 = arc tan XL(X. is larger than XL: 8 = arc tan XI R2 R12+ XI. Or the input impedance can be represented at a given frequency by R and C connected in parallel or by R and L connected in parallel. 136B Note. 138 For inductance and series resistance in parallel with capacitance (Fig. Fig. 136A and 136B): When X. In Figs.
which abruptly changes at a critical (resonant) frequency to + 90". in ohms. the "shorthand" form for inductive reactance is Z = X. depending upon the operating frequency. R2)' (X. 141 . its impedance is positive (the circuit is inductive). On the other hand. in amperes. these formulas state absolute values wherein signs are disregarded. the "shorthand" form for capacitive reactance is Z = X. 8 is the phase angle. In an ordinary L C series circuit. It is understood that the impedance is positive.. wherein the signs of quantities and absolute values of quantities are implied rather than expressed. X. in ohms. by which the current leads the voltage in a capacitive circuit or lags the voltage in an inductive circuit. its impedance is positive. in ohms. . In the case of an ordinary R C series circuit. OHM'S LAW FOR ALTERNATING CURRENT Referring to Fig. 8 = 90 ". an LC series circuit has a phase angle of 90°. but its phase angle is negative. in henrys. X..' + XI.') (R12 (RZ2+ X ) : (R. For example. the appropriate signs must be supplied by the reader.X.and it is understood that where E is the voltage. in ohms. R is the resistance. In other words.(R.. at low frequencies.(Rz2 X<. is the capacitive reactance.12 + + where Z is the impedance. 141. in volts. 140): Z=J 8 + XI.') XC(R12+ + = arc tan R.2 + XC2)+ R2(R.For capacitance and series resistance in parallel with inductance and series resistance (Fig. at high frequencies. when the formulas are applied to a circuitaction problem. L is the inductance. its impedance may be either positive or negative. the fundamental Ohm's law formulas for alternating current are given by: E = IZ Fig. in ohms.. 8 = 90". However. I is the current. In turn. and that the phase angle is positive. 140 The formulas in this section are written in "shorthand" form. 0" indicates an inphase condition. At low frequencies. is the inductive reactance. In turn. Fig. its impedance is negative (the circuit is capacitive). in degrees. Z is the impedance. the impedance is negative and that the phase angle is negative.
Example.The power expended in a n AC circuit is calculated by the formula: For a purely reactive circuit where P is the power. I is the current. in watts.707 0. Peak. in degrees. 0. and PeaktoPeak Valtres . E is the voltage. Therefore: For a purely resistive circuit cos 8 = I TAB1. I is the current. in volts.E 11 Average. multiply the given value by the factor listed under the desired value. R is the nonreactive resistance. AND PEAKTOPEAK VOLTAGE AND CURRENT Table 11 can be used to convert sinusoidal voltage (or current) values from one method of measurement to another. in amperes. then find the desired type of reading across the top of the table.707.5 3. To use the table. where 8 is the phase angle.637 0. To convert the given value to the desired value.3535 1. X i s the inductive or capacitive reactance. in degrees. first find the given type of reading in the lefthand column. 6' is the phase angle.T Pertk I'eaktopeak COS e = I average rms peak peaktopeak 0.57 1. in ohms. RMS. In a series circuit. 8 is the phase angle.I. in ohms. What factor must pcak voltage be multiplied by to obtain root mean square (rms) voltage? Answer. PEAK. in watts.414 0. the phase angle is determined by the formula: where P i s the power.9 0. E is the voltage. in amperes. in volts. RMS.0  .828 2. The phase angle is the difference in degrees by which the current leads or lags the voltage in a reactive circuit.11  0.32 1. in degrees.Multiplying factor ttr get For a resonant circuit: Given value Averrcgr R:I. 8 = arc tan X R AVERAGE.14 2.
EI cos 8 (Fig. EI is the apparent power. 143. as when a weight has been raised above ground level. Thus. P. 143. erg). 142 where pf is the power factor.000 Ib a distance of 1 ft in 1 min). in watts. A watt equals 1 J/s. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. A kilowatt is equal to 1000 W. Potential energy is energy of position. thus.+ EI = cos 8 Apparent power ( E I sin 8) does no work Reactive power is measured in vars (voltamperesreactive) Fig.. in voltamperes.. watt. . Energy is equal to work. in watts. energy is measured in such units as kilowatthours and watthours. One coulomb is the quantity of electricity that passes a point in 1 s when the current is 1 A and is equal to the passage of 6. Voltage is basically a unit of work per unit charge. it is basically potential energy. the following relationships exist: True power ( E I cos 8) does work P EI cos 8 p f = I = p. in voltamperes.281 x lO'%lectrons. raising 33. For a resonant circuit: For a purely reactive circuit: Power is the rate of doing work (kilowatt. a horsepower is equal to 746 W and represents the application of 550 lbf through 1 ft each second (or. For example. P.is the apparent power. Work is the product of force times the distance through which the force has been applied. Therefore: For a purely resistive circuit: Fig. using Fig. 142) is the true power. Power triangle.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND POWER FACTOR Power factor is the ratio of true power to apparent power in an AC circuit. 142: 1 POWER As shown in Fig. as when a weight falls to the ground. is the true power. One joule is equal to the movement of 1 C through a potential difference o f 1 V.
144): TIME CONSTANTS A certain amount of time is required after a DC voltage has been applied to an RC or RL circuit and before the capacitor can charge or the current can build up to a portion of the full value. of time constanis Percent charge or buildup Percent discharge or decay Fig. potential energy is transformed into heat energy. However. Electromotive force (emf) is source voltage and is measured in volts. when the voltage source is removed. L is the inductance. C i s the capacitance. Likewise. potential energy merely surges back and forth and does no real work. When a potential difference is applied across a load resistor. in ohms. the capacitor will discharge or the current will decay 63. The time per time constant is calculated as follows. Energy is transformed only when the power factor is unity. 5 99. we speak of potential difference instead of potentialenergy difference. emf are potential energy. instead. which is 86. consequently. Table 12 also gives the percent of full voltage after each time constant for discharge of a capacitor or decay of the current through a coil. in henrys. This time is called the time constant of the circuit. in seconds. the capacitor is charged or the current builds up to 63. after each time constant).2 O/o of the remaining difference.3 0. However. it is the time required to reach 63. During the next time constant. 145 . if the power factor is zero.2'/0. which is 36. Table 12 gives the percent of full charge on a capacitor (or current buildup in an inductance TABLE 12 Time Constants Versus Percent of Voltage or Current No.ELECTRONICS FORMULAS D LAWS AN Generally. Theoretically. For an RC circuit (Fig. the time constant is not the time required for the voltage or current to reach the full value.5 % of the full value. 145): where T is the time.8 O/O of full value during the first time constant.2% of full value.7 1 Fig. R is the resistance. it is usually considered to be 100% after five time constants. as when an AC voltage is applied across an ideal capacitor. The term "electromotive force" is somewhat of a misnomer inasmuch as voltage and. neither the charge on the capacitor nor the current through the coil can ever reach 100%. in farads. 144 For an R L circuit (Fig.
LQLI f'L'TQ? = FLT1.. the characteristic resistance R.capacitance has the dimensions F'L . the R. However. Dimensional units are used extensively in calculating with formulas and in analyz Formulas are customarily simplified insofar as possible. work power velocity acceleration F L T FT:L . This formula provides a resistance in ohms. the formula R. the terms of a formula and the answer that is obtained may require interpretation.' L .? ... As a basic example.QIQTl = F2L. if we write P = EI = E21N. and the correct numerical value will be obtained for R.In addition. = FLTQ?. On the other hand. = . Example. In other words. the dimensional units must always be the same on either side of the equals sign. A representational resistance dissipates no power. For example.SO that R.IIQ > Dimensional units show why the product of capacitance and resistance is equal to time. when L is in henrys and C is in farads. the resistance term is dimensionally correct. no matter how the terms in a formula may be transposed or substituted back and forth.' L lQ' jFLTQ  jF. Resistance has the dimensions FLTQl.1 FL FITt LTI LT? I f we write I = EIK. is a representational resistance and not a simple physical resistance.\~(FLT?Q ?)/(F'L'Q?) or R. inductance has the dimensions F L P Q . then QTI = FLQ'I FLTQ: = Q T .' . TABLE 14 Dimensional Units of Electrical Quantities Symbol Physical unit Dimensional unit charge current voltage resistance inductance capacitance inductive reactance capacitive reactance Q QTI FLQI FLTQ : FLT2Q ' F . the values can also be expressed by the following relationships: T K megohms megohms ohms megohms ohms Cor I.' Q 2 multiplied by FLTQT2 equal to T. Again.. Thus. Dimensional units for is mechanical and electrical units are listed in Tables 13 and 14.' . A dimensional check of a derived electrical formula is comparable to a check of an addition problem by first adding the columns up and then adding the columns down.l Q 2 . F L t M W P v a force length time mass energy.. dimensional units provide a quick check concerning whether an algebraic error has been made. an ideal coaxial cable has a certain capacitance per unit length and a certain inductance per unit length. whereas a simple physical resistance dissipates power. In other words. = J F ~ L ~ T ' Q . seconds seconds microseconds microseconds microseconds microfarads microhenrys microfarads picofarads microhenrys TABLE 13 Dimensional Units of Mechanical Quantities Symbol Physical unit Dimensional unit ing circuit action. Accordingly. when the square root is taken of the LIC ratio. In turn. value cannot be assumed to be a sim . then FITI = FI. R. = m c is used to calculate the characteristic resistance of the cable. In turn. F .
As previously noted. it is a representational resistance (since it cannot dissipate power). each term has a particular interpretation insofar as circuit action is concerned. the new electrical unit of representational resistance is obtained. 146.ple physical resistance. any unknown can be determined from the following formulas: The impedance ratio of a transformer is determined by: . 146 The turns ratio of a transformer is determined by the following formulas: For a stepup transformer: For a stepdown transformer: and By rearranging these equations and by referring to Fig. The foregoing interpretation is based on the circumstance that the LIC ratio has the dimensions F2L?T?Q"which are the dimensions of R'. TRANSFORMER FORMULAS In a transformer. and the current through the windings are expressed by the following equations: I i I Fig. although some of its aspects are similar. In this practical example. the voltage across each winding. a new electrical unit is obtained. This and related principles of circuit action are summarized by the basic principle that although Y = 2X = d4yi is a mathematically correct series of relations. the circuit action of representational resistance is not the same as the circuit action of simple physical resistance. It is a fundamental principle of circuit action that whenever two electrical units are multiplied or divided (or squared or rooted). the relationships between the number of turns in the primary and secondary.
Adjust resistor R. in ohms. The resistance of the meter movement is determined first.is the current through the primary winding. N. The measured value is the resistance of the meter movement.. Z is the impedance ratio. Then connect a variable resistor R. T is the turns ratio. It is determined by the following formula: For a stepdown transformer: where % R is the voltage regulation. and adjust R. The meter can be either a DC milliammeter or a DC microammeter.The impedance of an unknown winding is determined by the following: For a stepup transformer: ments of the power supply. Connects a suitable variable resistor R. is the current through the secondary winding. is the voltage across the secondary winding.. in ohms. El is the noload voltage. E2 is the voltage under load. A series resistor converts the meter to a DC voltmeter. is the number of turns in the primary winding. in volts. N. in percent. and measure its resistance. is the impedance of the secondary winding. in volts. The basic instrument for testing current and voltage is the movingcoil meter. until fullscale deflection is obtained. in volts. is the voltage across the primary winding. and a battery as shown in Fig. VOLTAGE REGULATION When a load is connected to a power supply. E. and a parallel resistor converts the meter to a DC ammeter. in parallel with the meter. in volts. until halfscale deflection is obtained. 147 .is the impedance of the primary winding. 147. DCMETER FORMULAS where E. Z. Disconnect R. I. in amperes. Z. in amperes. I. Voltage regulation is a measure of how much the voltage drops and is usually expressed as a percentage.. is the number of turns in the secondary winding. as follows. the output voltage drops because more current flows through the resistive eleFig.
is the meter resistance. in ohms. I. 148 where R is the multiplier resistance. . in amperes. 149 is a variable resistance for current limiting to keep meter adjusted for fullscale reading with probes open. in ohms.1 2 Ammeter Shunts (Fig. ShuntType Ohmmeter for Low Resistance (Fig. in volts. is the meter resistance. in Fig. is the fullscale reading. 151) Fig. I. is the current reading with unknown resistor connected. in amperes. where R is the resistance of the shunt. E. is the current reading with probes shorted. I. in amperes. I? is the current reading with probes connected across unknown resistor.{I . in amperes. in ohms. is the unknown resistance.Voltage Multipliers (Fig. is the current reading with probes open. in ohms. is the meter resistance. in ohms. R.. in ohms.. R. 149 where R. R. R. in amperes. I. in ohms. is a variable resistance adjusted for fullscale reading with probes shorted together. N is the scale multiplication factor. I. K. 150) Fig. in ohms. = R". where R. I. in amperes. in ohms. is the unknown resistance. 148) R . SeriesType Ohmmeter for High Resistance (Fig.is the meter current.. . is the fullscale reading. is the meter resistance. in amperes. is the shunt current. 149) 1 2 R.
in kilohertz. A is the wavelength. in meters. R . the following formulas should be used: where R? is the intermediate value. it follows that a complete cycle occupies a given distance in space.. + Rz is the total shunt resistance for lowest fullscale reading. in feet. in ohms. For a halfwave antenna: For a quarterwave antenna: . I f either the frequency or the wavelength is known. A is the wavelength. To calculate wavelength in feet. 151 Ammeter With Multirange Shunt (Fig. 152 FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH Formulas Since frequency is defined as the number of complete hertz and since all radio waves travel at a constant speed. N is the scale multiplication factor. R. 152) where f is the frequency. is the meter resistance.where the two waves cross the zero axis in a given direction) constitutes the wavelength. Fig. in kilohertz. in ohms. the other can be computed as follows: Fig. where f is the frequency. in ohms. The distance between two corresponding parts of two waves (the two positive or negative crests or the points The preceding formula can be used to determine the length of a singlewire antenna.
Frequencywavelength conversion chart. 29 .Fig. 153.
75 r . To use the chart.where L is the length of the antenna. ParallelConductor Line Coaxial Line The characteristic impedance of a coaxial line (Fig. and then read the corresponding value from the opposite side of the scale. in inches.) The attenuation of a coaxial line in decibels per foot can be determined by the formula: TRANSMISSIONLINE FORMULAS The characteristic impedance of a transmission line is defined as the input impedance of a line of the same configuration and dimensions but of infinite length. k is the dielectric constant of the insulating material* (k equals 1 for dry air). 154 n Answer. if the wavelength is known. merely find the known value (either frequency or wavelength) on one of the scales. Opposite 4 MHz on the frequency scale find 75 rn on the wavelength scale. 154) is given by: The characteristic impedance of parallelconductor line (twinlead) as shown in Fig. in ohms. Fig. in inches. 155 is determined by the formula: Z" = 7 138 D log dk d 20 276 Z . D is the inside diameter of the outer conductor. in decibels per foot of line. (Find 4 MHz on the third scale from the left. in megahertz. is the characteristic impedance. When a line of finite length is terminated with an impedance equal to its own characteristic impedance. in inches. 153. the line is said to be matched.log  " Jk d . in inches. where a is the attenuation. D is the inside diameter of the outer conductor. the corresponding frequency can be obtained from the chart for wavelengths from 10 cm to 1000 m. Example. Conversion Chart The wavelength of any frequency from 30 kHz to 3000 MHz can be read directly from the chart in Fig. in megahertz. d is the outside diameter of the inner conductor. f is the frequency. in feet. nal? What is the wavelength of a 4MHz sig where Z. Also. f is the frequency. d is the outside diameter of the inner conductor.
The percentage of modulation can be determined by measuring the height of A and B and using the formula: '0M = 1 AB A + B .. as shown in Fig.X . A and B are the dimensions measured in Fig. where '/OMis the percentage of modulation. E. 157. The dimensions A and B are proportional to the crest and trough amplitudes. in inches. 157. I t can be determined by the following formulas: Also. in inches. is the characteristic impedance. 156 is referred to as the percentage of modulation. d is the diameter of the conductors...is the amplitude of the crest of the modulated carrier.where Z. k is the dielectric constant of the insulating material between conductors* (k equals 1 for dry air). Fig. 157 The sideband power of an amplitudemodulated carrier is determined by: .1. 155 MODULATION FORMULAS Amplitude Modulation The amount of modulation of an amplitudemodulated carrier shown in Fig. Fig. *For a list of dielectric constants of materials. 100 where '/OMis the percentage of modulation. is the average amplitude of the modulated carrier. is the amplitude of the trough of the modulated carrier. E. E. see Table 2. the percentage of modulation can be determined by applying the modulated carrier wave to the vertical plates and the modulating voltage wave to the horizontal plates of an oscilloscope. in ohms. D is the centertocenter distance between conductors. 156 Fig. This produces a trapezoidal wave. respectively..
The number of decibels corresponding to a given voltage or current ratio is 20 times the common logarithm of the ratio. I. in watts. (For commercial fm. is the sideband power (includes both sidebands). in volts. in hertz. are the individual power readings.. where M is the modulation index. Af is the change in frequency (or the deviation).. PT is the total radiated power. the equations are: '/OM= Af A for 100°/oM f x 100 where '/OMis the percentage of modulation. 15 kHz. Note. for twoway radio. in watts. for television sound. f.) The modulation index of a frequencymodulated carrier is determined by: 2 dB = 20 log E El 2 dB = 20 log 1 where El and Ez are the individual voltage readings. and the number of times the changes occur per second is determined by the frequency of the modulating signal. in watts. is P. and I.is the modulating audio frequency. Thus: The carrier power does not change with modulation. 75 kHz. O/OM the percentage of modulation. where PI and P. in the same units as f. the amount the carrier frequency changes is determined by the amplitude of the modulating signal. when the impedances across which the signals are being measured are equal. in amperes. The percentage of modulation of a frequencymodulated carrier can be computed from: p 2 dB = 10 log p. DECIBELS AND VOLUME UNITS Equations The number of decibels corresponding to a given power ratio is 10 times the common logarithm of the ratio.. 25 kHz. Frequency Modulation In a frequencymodulated carrier. is the carrier power. is the deviation in frequency. Af for 100 OO is the change in /M / frequency for a 100 OOmodulated carrier. If the impedances across which the sig . in watts.The total radiated power is the sum of the carrier and the radiated powers: where P. are the individual current readings. Thus. f.
nals are measured are not equal. If a decibel value is not listed in Tables 15 and 16. Some of the more common are: dB Gain Loss Gain Loss dBs dBv Japanese designation for dBm system 1 V (no longer in use) dBvg voltage gain dBrap decibels above a reference acoustical power of lo'" . However. in ohms.Y dB)* Power ratio Current or voltage ratio dB = 20 log  where E. Z. in amperes. when no reference level is given. are the individual impedances across which the signals were read.1 . and voltage ratios commonly encountered. I .I'ADI. with their decibel values.~~ZZ I. the equations become: dB = 20 log l2v1L. Reference Levels The decibel is not an absolute value. first subtract one of the given values from the unlisted value (select a value so the remainder will also be listed). 600 R (complex waveforms varying in both amplitude and frequency) E. and I. then find the decibel equivalents for each factor and add them. have been established.E 15 Decibel Table (0. Other units. first factor the ratio so that each factor will be a listed value. E ? V ~ VU 1 mW. it is 6 mV across a 500R impedance. which do have specific reference levels. current. are the individual voltage readings. Then multiply the ratios given in the chart for each value. in volts. and E . To covert a ratio not given in the tables to a decibel value. Usually. and Z . Figure 158 shows the relationship between power and voltage or current. are the individual current readings. the reference level should be stated whenever a value in decibels is given.\% Decibel Table Tables 15 and 16 are decibel tables that list most of the power. it is a means of stating the ratio of a level to a certain reference level. .
'TABLE 15 Conf. Ileribel Table (2.010.9) Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Power ratio Current or voltage ratio dR Gain Loss Gain Loss dB Gain I&ss Gain lass .
42 20.03981 0.05129 0.365 4.77 47.01445 0.05495 0.802 3.38 17.01479 0.7 14.169 4.02399 0.761 6.309 5.2600 0.06761 0.3 16. 35 .674 7.772 9.0 18.07586 0.01023 5.0 11.1799 0.78 18.1 122 0.586 7.66 63.55 25.1216 0.414 8.07413 0.519 4.5 11.07079 0.2570 0.957 6.559 5.2018 0.07 67.1738 0.5 13.6 16.2455 0.02042 0.1462 0.4 19.05 19.333 9.95 56.49 15.1380 0.45 14.4 12.661 9.86 77.1841 0.13 75.99 24.217 4.589 3.8 18.04074 0.01 148 0.62 79.4 14.84 29.1012 *For values from 20 to 100 dB.20 18.677 4.786 4.1 17.5 15.01413 0.71 46.06918 0.2042 0.03162 0.2 14.72 0.65 44.6 11.80 14.4 17.383 6.1035 0.1259 0.01549 0.01905 0.98 17.467 4.48 36.237 6.1884 0.8 19.6 17.511 8.54 58.1660 0.2138 0.7 19.04786 0.310 6.1862 0.69 42.2692 0.998 7.95 20.2786 0.762 7.413 7.918 6.7 13.2188 0.04467 0.36 35.29 52.02692 0.01349 0.02239 0.07762 0.3 12.48 53.TABLE 15 C:ont.13 14.2818 0.6 18.2317 0.433 5.4 12.62 19.1758 0.248 5.1 15.1084 0.1479 0.370 5.0 16.44 74.20 93.1531 0.266 4.852 7.1 16.3 14.12 51.04677 0.9 19.0 13.3 13.1 11.74 41.1318 0.85 16.1585 0.50 97.623 5.18 70.01950 0.1161 0.03020 0.04169 0.02630 0.839 6.43 81.1 19.1995 0.981 4.06607 0.499 7.1820 0.1047 0.2541 0.1230 0.2 12.03631 0.70 26.06457 0.10 64.12 25.03388 0.01660 0.328 7.035 8.2 18.8 12.2 15.1288 0.4 18.821 5.38 21.01698 0.02951 0.67 0.oss 11.1072 0.1778 0.20 30.11 87.1 189 0.1365 0.06166 0.1175 0.074 4.60 16.14 15.9 16.2163 0.5 18.2239 0.02818 0.1303 0.846 3.2 11.936 3.070 5.2065 0.07943 0.91 23.5 14.3 19.1603 0.2371 0.1 14.0331 1 0.04571 0.7 18.1023 0.222 8.02089 0.2512 0.571 4.7 15.732 4.441 9.02344 0.8 14.9 13.1950 0.01096 0.03715 0.0 17.05888 0.318 8.244 7.161 7.01820 0.631 3.50 19.01318 0.9 17.81 40.9 15.416 4.842 4.05623 0.01514 0.59 12.1567 0.607 6.548 3.03548 0.1928 0.1 1 33.1245 0.7 16.226 9.01202 0.888 0.2 13.1514 0.01259 0.943 8.129 5.01778 0.01122 0.2427 0.7 17.2291 0.01230 0.2630 0.2344 0.4 13.1109 0.02884 3.62 32. see Table 1.6 15.10 89.03802 0.03890 0.1698 15.49 13.04266 0.3 17.810 8.0 12.890 3.898 4.8 11.6.18 85.02 38.39 22.019.07244 0.70 54.715 3.61 69.673 3.92 27.90 31.8 17.550 9.1622 0.04898 0.4 11.1202 0.02291 0.1413 0.02188 0.5 19.18 28.8 13.2 19.88 22.01862 0.05012 0.012 5.886 0.1 18.04365 0.1135 0.03467 0.9 12.01380 0.05370 0.754 5.79 15.4 16.44 23.02455 0.57 66.3 18.166 6.01047 0.1641 0.03236 0.8 15.88 34.9 14.610 8.13 91.027 4.121 4.66 43.689 5.026 6.1059 0.710 8.1445 0.955 5.05754 0. 1)ecihel Table ( 1 1.2265 0.01072 0.531 6.1334 0.02138 0.9 35.01995 0.095 6.33 95.01622 0.67 45.1 13.03090 0.79 72.1148 0.2661 0.98 50.315 4.6 12.6 13.0 14.5 12.683 6.1096 0.1396 0.88 13.0 19.2 17.02754 0.31 37.5 16.1549 0.495 5.2754 0.7 11.624 4.06026 0.5 17.02512 0.86 48.1429 0.1496 0.6 19.1679 0.15 38.22 16.21 13 0.120 9.457 6.01288 0.2723 0.1718 0.18 13.2 16.1 12.1905 0.90 39.3 11.02570 0.758 3.188 5.079 7.89 21.05248 0.9 18.7 12.2213 0.54 28.016 9.28 83.1274 0.2089 0.01585 0.9) Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss Power ratio Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss dB Gain Loss dB Gait1 I.8 16.913 9.01175 0.06310 0.01738 0.51 30.30 26.0 15.26 61.88 60.3 15.2399 0.2483 0.6 14.128 8.23 57.1972 0.1349 0.
10‘ Use the same numbers as 010 dB. 50 10' Use the same numbers as 010 dB.c. but shift point four steps to the right. ') 100 Use the same numbers . Use the same numbers as 010 dB.00 Use the same numbers as 020 dB. but shift point two steps t o the left. but shift point three steps to the left. 10. but shift point one step to the right. . 10.. . but shift point five steps to the left. but shift point five steps to the right. but shift point five steps t o the right.1" Use the same numbers as 010 dB.' point two steps to the right. but shift point five steps t o the left. 10" 10. but shift point three steps t o the left.0001 Use the same numbers as 020 dB.10 dB. but shift point one step to the right. 10 Use the same numbers as 010 dB. 30 10. but shift point three steps to the left. but shift point four steps to the right.~ Current or voltage ratio Gain Loss 20 10: Use the same numbers as 010 dB.as 020 dB.001 Use the same numbers as 020 dB." Use the same numbers as 010 dB. 10. but shift point one step to the left. but shift point one step to the left. 100. but shift point three steps to the right. but shift point t\vo steps to the left. 60 70 1000 Use the same numbers as 020 dB. 10 ‘ Use the same numbers as 010 dB. but shift poinr three steps to the ri~ht. .' 0. but shift point t\vo steps to the right. 0. 10" Use the same numbers as 0.1 O6 Use the same numbers as 010 dB. but shift point four steps to the left. 40 Use the same numbers as 010 dB. . 10' Use the same numbers as 010 dB. but shift point one step to the left. 10.00001 Use the same numbers a s 020 dB. lo' Use the same numbers as 010 dB. but shift point four steps t o the left. but shift point two steps to the right. but shift point two steps to the left. 0.000 Use the same numbers as 020 dB." Use the same numbers as 010 dB. but shift point four steps to the left. 100 10'" Use the same numbers as 010 dB.' Use the same numbers as 010 dB.000 Use the same numbers as 020 dB. 0. 80  90 Use the same numbers as 010 dB.01 Use the same numbers as 020 dB. .Decibel Table (20100 dB)* Power ratio dH Gain 1. 10.1000 Use the same numbers as 020 dB. but shift point o n e step to the right. 0. but shift 10. but shift point three steps to the right. 104 Use the same numbers as 010 dB.0. but shift point four steps to the right.
find the current ratio for 40 dB [loo]. 158. Find the decibel equivalent of a power ratio of 0.) voltage ratio is 40 141. Example 3.5 or 43. voltage.) + Fig. factor 150 into 1. Find the current ratio corresponding to a gain of 43 dB. Answer.5 dB. 2dB loss. Multiply 100 x 1. or current ratios. the decibel value for a 3. (First.5 (First.5 is 3. the decibel value for a voltage ratio of 1.5 x 100. Find the decibel value corresponding to a voltage ratio of 150.5 [approximately]. Answer. 43.41].Example I . . then find the current ratio fbr 3 dB [1. 1)ecibels and power. Answer. The decibel value for a voltage ratio of 100 is 40.41 = 141 . Example 2.631. Therefore.
.
Styrofoam.20 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 Temperature I'CI Fig.I5 + 10 U . The dielectric constants of some materials (such as quartz. and Teflon) d o not change appreciably with frequency. Capacitance variation versus temperature for typical commercial capacitors.10 5 e w  15 .. small differences in the composition of materials cause differences in the dielectric constants. A list of materi120 als and the approximate range (where available) of their dielectric constants is given in Table 21..Chapter 2 CONSTANTS STANDARD AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANTS OF MATERIALS The dielectric constants of most materials vary for different temperatures and frequencies. 21. Figure 21 shows the relationship between temperature and change in capacitance. . ? L" 0 t5 l Mylar 2 Paper Mylar 3 4 5 6 7 Polystyrene Mylar Metalized Paper (Res~n) Metallzed Paper (Waxl Metallzed Mylar Metallzed Paper Mylar 8 Polyslyrene 9 Teflon w w I " w c 0 . Likewise. The values shown are accurate enough for most applications. .5 ? = u ( I 0 .
8 4.06.43.78 2.06.5 porcelain (wet process) quartz quartz (fused) rubber (hard) ruby mica 5.422.25.5 3.525 fiber Formica glass (electrical) glass (photographic) glass (Pyrex) glass (window) gutta percha 5.16 2.93.1250 2.) Dielectric constant (approx.7 epoxy resin 3.6 2.3 slate 7. Other common derived units and their symbols are given in Table 24.TABLE 21 Dielectric Constants of Materials Dielectric constant (approx. I Units and Symbols The seven base units and the two supplementary units with their symbols are given in Table 22.43.0 Isolantite Lucite mica (electrical) mica (clear India) mica (filled phenolic) Micaglass (titanium dioxide) Micarta Mycalex Mylar neoprene nylon paper (dry) paper (paraffin coated) paraffin (solid) Plexiglas polycarbonate polyethylene polyimide polystyrene porcelain (dry process) 6.93.0 3.14.022 4.53.5 2.) Material Material Material air amber asbestos fiber Bakelite (asbestos base) Bakelite (mica filled) barium titanate beeswax cambric (varnished) carbon tetrachloride Celluloid 1.7 3. and derived units.5 5.2 9.25.5 4.0 soil (dry) steatite (ceramic) steatite (low loss) Styrofoam Teflon titanium dioxide Vaseline vinylite water (distilled) waxes.42.5 Durite 4. are given in Table 23. Derived units are formed by combining base units.9 silicone (glass) (molding) 3.6 METRIC SYSTEM The international system of units developed by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (abbreviated CGPM).3 3.1 100 2.814.77.0 2.0 2.9 cellulose acetate 2.86.0 3. commonly called the metric system.3 4. .1 2. supplementary units.0 3.42.9 5.5 2.63.1 ebonite 2.0 5.09. supplementary units.8 100.2 2.0 shellac (natural) 2.22.0 2.43.54.04.17 4.7 3.5 4.65.8 5.03 2.0 7. Certain derived units have special names and symbols.3 1.39.5 4.66.0 5.0 2.09.42.75. is the basis for a worldwide standardization of units.54.0 2. along with their symbols and formulas.4 selenium (amorphous) 6.) Dielectric constant (approx. This International System of Units (abbreviated SI) is divided into three classesbase units.4 1.03. and other derived units. mineral wood (dry) 2. These units.5 3478 2.0 7.4 1.74.7 ethyl alcohol (absolute) 6.26.5 7.5 7.94.7 silicone (glass) (laminate) 3.62.7 4.24.42.3 4.
TABLE 22 S Base and Supplementary Units I Quantity length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature amount of substance luminous intensity plane angle solid angle tSupplementarp units.I W 11s kg.m/s2 NlmL N .s Wb/m2 Wb/A cdsr Im/m2 11s J/kg Bq Gy A/m joule per mole Jlmol joule per mole kelvin joule per mole kelvin newton meter henry per meter farad per meter watt per square meter steradian watt per steradian joule per kilogram kelvin joule per kilogram joule per kilogram kelvin cubic meter per kilogram newton per meter watt per tneter kelvin .s C V F R S Wb T H Im Ix W/A C/V VIA AN V. quantity of heat joule power. potential difference.m Jls A. mass electric charge density electric field strength electric flux density energy density entropy heat capacity heat flux density irradiance luminance magnetic field strength molar energy molar entropy molar heat capacity moment of force permcabilit y permittivity radiance radiant intensity specific heat capacity specific energy special entropy specific volume surface tension lhermal conductivity Lnit meter per second squared radian per second squared radian per second square meter mole per cubic meter ampere per square meter kilogram per cubic meter coulomb per cubic meter volt per meter coulomb per square meter joule per cubic meter joule per kelvin joule per kelvin watt per square meter candela per square meter ampere per meter Symbol A K mol cd rad sr "I'hc dcgree Celsius is also urcd for expressing temperature TABLE 23 SI Derived Units with S ~ e c i a Names l Quantity Unit Symbol Formula frequency (of a periodic phenomenon) hertz force newton pressure. TABLE 24 Common S1 Derived Units Symbol m kg S Unit meter kilogram second ampere kelvin* mole candela radiant steradian' Quantity acceleration angular acceleration angular velocity area concentration (of amount of substance) current density density. electromotive force volt capacitance farad electric resistance ohm conductance siemens magnetic flux weber magnetic flux density tesla inductance henry luminous flux lumen illuminance lux activity (of radionuclides) becquerel gray absorbed dose Hz N Pa . work. stress pascal energy. radiant flux watt quantity of electricity. electric charge coulomb electric potential.
nits in lJse with SI Quantity Lnit Symbol IOls exa peta tera gigs mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro E lo1$ 10" 10" 10" 10' P T G M k h* da* d* c* Value 10: 10 I 10I 10.) ex 'a ( a a s in about) as in petal as in terrace jig 'a (a as in about) as in megaphone as in kilowatt heck ' toe deck 'a (a as in about) as in decimal as in sentiment as in military as in microphone nan 'oh (an as in ant) peek 'oh fern 'toe (fern as in feminine) as in anatomy Some units.' 10. The preferred U.S.m2 "The use of hecro." 10. not part of SI. and the nontechnical usc '? of centimeter lor body .S. the sy~nbol " c "1.erc.1111 the r ~ l ~ r n b "Ir .* t I " = (nIl80) rad lf=(1/60)" = (TI10.s cromicro and giga instead of kilomega).: time minute hour day min h d I min = 60 s 1 h = 60min = 3600 s 1d=24h = 86. These units (listed in Table 25) are acceptable for continued uses in the United States.1: lo'< 101s llano pic0 femto atto P f a mass metric ton area (land) hcctarc ha 1ha=10.ltc\ 1 1 s ~ ."'I'lic. TABLE." \r 11icI1 can tic‘ easily 'onfused u.400 s \\.~~ional \yrnhol for lire1 is the low.. The accent is on the first syllable of each prefix. are so widely used they are impractical to abandon. : 10.~. 1111it *The inrern. ohms and farads). Common SI Derived Units Quantity Unit Symbol I! m/s Pa.rnd ccnti should be avoided for SI I I I I I I L ~ ~ I ~except for area and volume.eek month pear plane anglc degree ~ninlctc second volume litc~ rn p 1 1 ' " I. use pico instead of mi .800) rad 1"=(1/60)' = (n1648. Conversion Table Table 27 gives the number of places and the direction the decimal point must be moved to convert from one metric notation to another.g.OO) rad IL=ldrn' 1 t = 10' kg .. The use of more than one prefix is to be avoided (e.g.e"I. dyria~nic pascal second viscosity. square meter pelkinematic second volume cubic ~rieter wavenumber 1 per meter m '1s m' 1/m (U.TABLE 24 Cont. ~ n d clothit~g rncasurcn~cnrs. find the desired Prefixes The sixteen prefixes in Table 26 are used to form multiples and submultiples of the S1 units. 25 1. dcci.. or spelling oul thc t c r t i ~liicr i % prrf'e~red U l ~ i t e d tor Sl. .reiorc. The value labeled "Units" is the basic unit of measurement (e. pronunciation of the terms is also included in the table. To use the table. TABLE 26 Metric Prefixes M~~ltiplicalion factor Prefix Pronunciation Abbreviation velocity 111eterper second viscosity. dcka.
:itto 8 5 3 + + 9 6 6 10 . but use of this term should be restricted to measurements of liquids and gases...S...." not to "kilogram.615129.5 + 7 8 2 36891011 3 356789+ 1011121518212427 234+ 5678• 91215182124 123456 12 8 9 9 +I0 + 6 + 7 .Vono." The megagram may be used for large masses.." and this spelling is recommended by the U.." However.7 30 27 24 22 21 20 19 I8 I7 .8 30 27 +24 21 18 16 15 14 13 12 33 30 27 24 21 19 18 17 +I6 I5 +ll 14 10 13 9 12 .('enri mi Micro+21 18 IS +I2 9 7 6 .Deka. Department of Commerce.3 4 l 2 I 1 2+ 13243546+ 5+ 9812.Ferrrro..I6 15 12 .5 4 3 . T is the thermodynamic temperature. the most widely accepted U.1721.6 . where t is the temperature.1 6 7 8 4 5 6 3 '..6 3 ..6 '3 3+ 63 30 3..tMis not normally ~ l t c d . value in the lefthand column. then follow the horizontal line across to the column with the prefix in which the original value is stated.. While the SI unit for temperature is the kelvin (K).Gigs....4 1 2 3 I 2 1. wide use is also made of the degree celsius ("C) in expressing temperature and temperature intervals in SI. practice is with the "er.:Mego.11151418. However. in degrees Celsius.1 2+ 132I+ 65498+ 712.5 .15 K ..2011 + + 13 10 11 .. Toequals 273. 24 '721 18 15 12 10 0 .9 .TABLE 27 Metric Conversion Table* Oriyinnl value  Desired value Exa 121314151821242730 7• 101 3 6 9 22 12+ 34710131619 'Arrow it~dicares direction decimal moves. the term "metric + exapeta[eragigamegamyria: kilohectodekaunits deciccntimillimicronanopicofemtoatto 3689lo4 I 12+ 131415182124+ 27303336 35678910111215182124273033+ .3 6 3 + t'etu Bra.9  .W~ria*Kilo. the prefix is added to "gram...9 + I5 12 13 10 18 15 14 +I1 + 5 3 2 .2 1 + + .8 4 7 3 6 3.8 14 +I1 12 ... I'rhe pretix "rn?ri.. Thus 0°C = 273.S. Do not use any prefix other than "milli" with "liter.3 63.l'rrits neci.4 5 + 2 + 3 .9+ 6+ 312• 9.Pico. However. to form multiples. Miscellaneous The terms "liter" and "meter" are also spelled "litre" and "metre. The special name "liter" is used for a cubic decimeter..Ilecto. Note. in kelvins.3 .1110IS+ 1413181716+ + + 27 24 21 18 15 13 12 11 ? 10 6 9 ." Note that "kilogram" is the only base unit employing a prefix.15 K ... The Celsius scale (formerly called centigrade) is directly related to thermodynamic temperature (kelvin) as follows: A temperature interval of 1 "Cis exactly cqual to 1 K .. The number and arrow at this point indicate the number of places and the direction the decimal point must be moved to change the original value to the desired value.
. locate either the unit of measure you are converting from or the one you are converting to in the lefthand column." Other units have been used through the years as part of the metric (cgs) system. To use this table. For these conversions. CONVERSION FACTORS Table 28 lists the multiplying factors necessary to convert from one unit of mea Conversion Factors To ennvert Into Multiply by Conversely.g. see the preceding section. from kilo to mega) are not included in Table 28. Note.ton" is also used in commercial applications. No prefixes should be used with "metric ton. gram carats (metric) Celsius square feet square mcters square miles coulombs gilberts ampereturns per inch inches meters square meters feet of water inch of mercury at 0 "C kilogram per square meter millimeter of mercury at 0 "C pascals pounds per square inch square centimeters atmospheres dynes per square centimeter pascals pounds per square inch cubic mcters ergs footpounds joules kilogramcalories horsepowerhours cubic feet cubic meters joules grams Fahrenheit . sure to another. Avoid using them in SI. Conversions from one metric prefix to another (e. Opposite this listing are the multiplying factors for converting either unit of measure to the other unit of measure. multiply by acres acres acres amperehours arnpereturns ampcreturns per centimeter angstrom units angstrom units ares atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres atmospheres at rnospheres at rnospheres barns bars bars bars bars board feet Btu Btu Btu Htu Btu per hour bushels bushels calories.
S.S. multiply by Celsius chains (surveyor's) circular mils circular mils cords cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic inches cubic meters cubic meters cups curies cycles per second degrees (angle) degrees (angle) dynes electron volts ergs ergs ergs per second ergs per square centimeter Fahrenheit Fahrenheit faradays fathoms fathoms feet feet feet feet of water at 4°C feet of water at 4 "C feet of water at 4 "C fermis foot candles foot lamberts footpounds footpounds footpounds footpounds footpounds gallons gallons (1.) liters cubic centimeters cubic feet cubic meters gallons (liquid U.iquid U.) cubic feet cubic yards cubic centimeter becquerels hertz mils radians pounds joules footpounds joules watts watts per square centimeter kelvin Rankine amperehours feet meters centimeters meters mils inches of mercury at 0 "C kilogram per square meter pascals meters lux candelas per square meter gramcentimeters horsepowerhours kilogrammeters kilowatthours ounceinches meters per second cubic meters gallons (liquid British Imperial) .) kelvin feet square centimeters square mils cubic meters cords gallons (liquid U.TABLE 28 Cont.S.S. Conversion Factors Ib convert Into Multiply by Conversely.) gallons (liquid U.
Conversion Factors 'lb convert Into M~iltiply hy Conversel~.Cont.TAHI.b: 22.6"(' joules joules kilogramcalories kilograms kilograms teslas lines per square centimeter lines per square inch tcslas webers per square inch amperes radians dynes grains ounccs (avdp) poundals pounds per inch pounds per cubic inch pounds per square foot acres Mu per minute footpounds per minute footpounds per second horsepower (metric) kilowatts Btu per minute kilogramcalories per tninutc watts centimeters feet meters miles rllils yards pascals pounds per square inch iriches of mercury kilograms per square meter pascals footpounds watthours kilogrammeters tonncs tons (long) tons (short) pounds (avdp) pounds per square foot kilograms kilogran~s kilograms per square . multiply h) gammas gausses paurses gausses gausses gilberts grads prams gratns grams grams grams per centimeter grams per cubic centimeter grams per square centimeter hectares horsepower horsepower horscpower horsepower horsepower horsepo\$cr (metric) horsepower (metric) horsepower (metric) inches inches inches inchcs inches inches inches o f mercury at 0 "(1 inches of mercury at 0 "(' iriches of water at 4 "C inchcs of water at 4°C inches of water at 15.
multiply I)) kilometers kilometers kilometers kilometers per hour kilometers per hour kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kilowatthours kriots k~lots knots larnberts larnberts leagues lirlks links (surveyor's) liters liters liters liters liters liters log. Conversion Factors To convert Conversely.S.S..) cubic centimeters cubic inches cubic rneters gallons (liquid U. leet inches light years feet per niiriute knots Btu footpounds horsepo~verhours joules kilogramcalories kilogrammeters pounds water evaporated from and at 212 "1.) id log. N footcandles footcandles footcandles kilolines rnegalines uebers feet inches lniles yards feet per n~iriute kilometers per hour siemeris feet meters feet kilornctcrs light years miles (nautical) yards feet per rninute .. !V lumens per square foot lumens per square meter lux maxwells nlaxwells ~naxwells meters meters meters rneters meters per minute rneters per minute Mhos rniles (nautical) miles (nautical) rniles (statute) milcs (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles (statute) miles per hour . watthours feet per second rneters per minute niiles per hour candles per square centimeter candles per square inch miles chains inches bushels (dry US.TABLE 28 Cont.) pints ( l i q ~ ~ I1.
909 x 10.' 3.' 3.4 10." 8.6818 0.S.152 25.937 x lo.467 1. dry) quarts (U.2909 60 3484 0. liquid) radians radians radians revolutions per minute revolutions per minute revolutions per minute rods rods rods roentgens feet per second kilometers per hour kilometers per minute knots inches microns meters minutes degrees radians decibels dynes kilograms pascals pounds (avdp) amperes per meter ohms (international) ohms per square millimeter per meter ohms per meter quarts pounds quarts (liquid U.54 x 10. Conversion Factors  To convert Into Multiply by Conversely.6214 37.94 x lo4 0.807 1 .S.S.2 10' 2.666 x lo' 2.28 1.686 10' 0.1020 I 0.TABLE 28 Cont.609 2.) dynes pounds (avdp) grams newtons Btu horsepowerhours kilowatthours cubic feet gallons kilograms per meter dynes per square centimeter pascals degrees radians cubic centimeters cubic centimeters mils minutes seconds degrees per second radians per second revolutions per second feet miles yards coulombs per kilogram 1.438 1.682 x 102 0.1151 lo" 9.8684 3. mullipiy by miles per hour miles per hour miles per hour miles per hour millimeters millimeters mils mils minutes (angle) minutes (angle) nepers newtons newtons newtons per square meter newtons oersteds ohms ohms circularmil per foot ohms per foot ounces (fluid) ounces (avdp) pints poundals poundals pounds pounds (force) pounds carbon oxidized pounds carbon oxidized pounds carbon oxidized pounds of water (dist) pounds of water (dist) pounds per foot pounds per square inch pounds per square inch quadrants quadrants quarts (U.
293 17.228 x 10.58 2.08 STANDARD FREQUENCIES AND TIME SIGNALS WWV.452 loh 645.854 x 10.. Colorado 80521. operated by the National Bureau of Standards at Fort Collins.: 1. and WWVB Time signals and audiofrequencies are I broadcast continuously day and night from WWV.562 x 10.761 x lo? 0.7777 3.5 x l o .3861 1.' 1.067 x 10.587 x 11." 0.' 5." 6. The WWV broadcast frequencies are 2.' lo' 5 x lo' 7. A simi . 44.076 x 10.929 10' 2204.196 640 3.' 6.79 4.59 0.108 x 10.356 746 69.55 x l o .' 2." 4.11 x 1.5.341 x 10.764 27.7378 1.32 10.' IOh 10" 0." 10.536 x 10. 5.174 929.273 1 lo.88 x 10' 9 7.459 32.) 0.63 2240 10' 2000 133.' 3. multiply by slugs slugs square feet square feet square feet square feet square feet square inches square inches square inches square inches square kilometers square meters square miles square miles square millimeters square mils steres stokes tablespoons teaspoons tonnes tonnes tons (long) tons (metric) tons (short) torrs varas watts watts watts watts watts watts wattseconds wattseconds webers webers per square meter yards yards kilograms pounds (avdp) square centimeters square inches square meters square miles square pards circular mils square centimeters square mils square millimeters square miles square yards acres square yards circular mils circular mils cubic meters square meter per second cubic centimeters cubic centimeters kilograms pounds pounds (avdp) kilograms pounds newtons per square meter feet Btu per hour Btu per minute footpounds per minute footpounds per second horsepower kilogramcalories per minute gramcalories (mean) joules maxwells gausses feet varas 1.203 lo' 4. Conversion Factors To convert Into Multiply by Conversely.433 x 0.413 6. WWVH. 10. and 15 MHz and the Is marker tone consists of a 5ms pulse at 1000 Hz.77 4.2389 1 1O E 10' 3 1.29 x 3.26 0.26 x 10.589 x 10.' 0.2 0.273 x 6.6854 3.034 144 9.' 10.TABLE 28 Cont.186 1 10s 10.7854 1 10.' 14.8361 1.944 x 10.' 1.464 x 10.098 x 1973 1.9259 2.155 lo" 1.36 0.3333 0.' 0.
.
The 29th Second pulse om~ned Beg~nn~ng each mlnute ~ d e n t ~ l ~ e d of by 08 sec long 1200 Hz tone Fig. 22 .
9 second astronomical time U T l . I t is analogous to adding the extra day in the leap year. 0 h Om Fig. Minute. to an accuracy of 10 ms. The binarytodecimal weighting scheme is 1248 with the least significant binary 30 June. The minute contains seven bcd groups. The second information is obtained by counting the pulses. 25 contains the timeofyear information. the need of periodic adjustment to agree with the earth's rotation is not needed. Corrections are made at the rate of about 1 second each year and are adjusted by 1 second exactly when required. 23 h 59 m + 1 July 0 h 0 m M~nuteW ~ t hLeao Second Added 30 June. 23 illustrates how the second is added. Fig. and day of year are contained in this UTC timeofyear information. This time code provides a standardized time base for use when scientific observations are being made at two widely separated locations. gaining about I second each year. on a 100Hz subcarrier. The WWV timing code shown in Fig. hour. Normal Minute (No Leap Second Added) It now is transmitted continuously. and three groups for the day of year. The code format is a modified IRIGH time code that produces a 1pps rate and is carried on the 100Hz modulation.7 second. on either December 31 or June 30 when BIH determines they are needed to keep broadcast time signals within & 0. UTC departs from the UTI (earth's rotation time). The code is synchronous with the frequency and time signals. To prevent this difference from exceeding 0. The "on time" occurs at the positivegoing leading edge of all pulses. Accurate time markers. The second is inserted between the end of the 60th second of the last minute of the last day of a month and the beginning of the next minute. 1972. The complete time frame is 1 min. it is necessary to make 1second adjustments each year. France. The code binarycoded decimal (bcd) as shown in Fig. 1971. 23 h 59 m ! 1 July. two groups for minutes. 23 . BIH will announce this occurrence of adding to the second two months in advance. two groups for hours. 24 was initially broadcast on July 1. both by WWV and WWVH. are available for satellite telemetric signals and other scientific data.Bureau International de 1'Heure (BIH) in Paris. Since the new UTC rate became effective January 1.
elc 4 6ppm p o s ~ t ~ o n ldentll~erslP0 through PSl 5 1 pps Index markers Time F tame IMinute x Counl(1 Secondl 30  .40 50 . . 4 0 ? On Time Polo1 A It ~ 0 3 . 24 digit always transmitted first. whereas a binary I consists of 50 cycles of 100 Hz (500ms duration). * . 10 Minutes UTl At Polnl A = 173 Days. 1 I UTI Corredlon  Po PI Poslllon ldenltf~ers(0 770 Second Durallonl W Welghted Code Olgll 10 470 Second Durat~anl C We~ghtedControl Element 10 470 Second Ourallon) Control Fonctlon r 6 1 Blnarv Zero Durlnp. .0 3 Second Dural~on Index Markers. 21 Hours. however. The binary sequence 1010 in the 1248 scheme means ( 1 x 1) + (0 x 2) + (1 x 4) + (0 x 8) = 1 + 0 + 4 + 0 = 5.Minutes I Days . The decimal equivalent of a bcd group is derived by multiplying each binary digit times the weight factor of its respective column and adding the four products together.. Slandard. . s~gnalH001. s e c o n d I C Code llole .Formal H. . TABLE 29 Binary and Decimal Equivalents Binary group Decimal I 2 4 8 equivalent In the standard IRIGH code. . B1"d' One Ourlng "Daylight' Time 170 Second UTC At Polnl A= 173 Days 21 Hours. Unwelghled Code. The binary groups and their basic decimal equivalents are shown in Table 29. one or more of the binary columns may be omitted. a binary 0 pulse consists of exactly 20 cycles of 100Hz amplitude modulation (200ms duration).=0 of Notc Bep~nningof pulse IS represenled by pas~tive golng edge Fig. Example. and Unweighled Control ~lemenl. J tor 0 SeEond Pulse . IS ComDosed 01 the follow~ng 1 1 ppm lrame reference marker R=IPO and 1 0 3 second "HOLE 'I 2 B~narycoded decvmal Ilme01year code word 123 d~gits) 3 Control tunctions 19 dlgllsl used for UTI corrections. . . all tones are suppressed briefly while the seconds pulses are transmitted. 10 M~nules. If fewer than nine decimal digits are needed.. In the WWVl W W V H broadcast format.
L 20 10 ~ ~ n u Set ~ t. . . Thus..I & Reference Time F R e l e r e n c e Marker lor M~nutes Signal I "ON' 1 : * t.0 Second (Typical) Days Set / UTI Relat~onsh~p Tlme at this polnt equals 253 days.'I 7 l I p5 1 UT1 Set Dlnerence of UT. I Pll 1 0. Tlme Frame 1 Mlnute (Index Count 1 Second) .Because the tone suppression applies also to the 100Hz subcarrier frequency. 35 seconds To oblaln the coresspond~ngUTI scale read~ngsubtract 41 m~ll~seconds P4 800 400 200 100 80 20 10 2 I 407.  .Second Elnary 0 (Typlcall I I I  40 20 . 25 .2. 8 4 2 . . Hours Set  1 k0. lrom coded llme ~n m ~ l l ~ s e w n d s Marker i Group 12 Pulse /    Poslllon Marker and Pulse Per~odlcUncoded Marker and Pulse Uncoded Marker and Pulse Elnary 1 Fig. 18 hours 42 mlnules. 10 . it has the effect of deleting the first 30ms portion of each binary pulse in the time code.8 4 .. The leading edge of every pulse coincides with a positivegoing zero crossing of the 100Hz subcarrier. a binary 0 contains only 17 cycles of I Tlme L   100Hz amplitude modulation (170ms duration) and a binary 1 contains 47 cycles of 100 Hz (470ms duration).5Second Elnary 1 (Typ~cal) ! I 1.
If control function No.but it occurs 30 ms after the beginning of the second. control function No. The days set follows P . The U T l . Unlike the bcd data pulses. The six position identifiers are denoted by symbols P I . Control function No. Instead. if it is a binary 1. at 2:00 AM local time). 7. and U T l sets are marked by brackets. and 58 s.1 s are broadcast via bcd pulses during the final 10 s of each frame. Throughout the U. Similarly. the basic binarytodecimal weights are multiplied by 0. Figure 24 shows one frame of the time code as it might appear after being rectified. which occurs at 55 s. ..03s hole followed by eight uncoded pulses and the position identifier P . respectively. o r 100 as appropriate. Control function No. hours. and day of year. each minute actually begins 1030 ms (or 1. No pulse is transmitted during the first second of the minute. all uncoded pulses are set permanently to binary 0.I I ' second. In this example. tens. For synchronization purposes. P. at 56. this schedule allows several hours for the function t o be received before the change becomes effective locally (i.. Within a time frame of 1 min. The coded pulses that occur between the 50th and 59th seconds of each frame are called control functions. hour. 57. to allow enough elements t o represent three decimal digits. tells whether the UTI correction is negative or positive. Each frame starts with a unique spacing of pulses to mark the beginning of a new minute.. the position identifiers consist of 77 cycles of 100 Hz (770ms duration).S. P.. filtered. enough pulses are transmitted to convey in bcd language the current minute. the leading edge of each pulse is considered t o be the positivegoing excursion.. 10. P. U T l corrections to thc nearest 0. and recorded. which occur. T h e coded information always refers to time at the beginning of the Imin frame. the correction is negative. the hours set follows P2. Two bcd groups are needed to express the hour (00 through 23).03 s) prior to the leading edge of the first pulse in the new frame. 1. specify the amount of U T l correction. 6 allows clocks o r digital recorders operating on local time to be programmed to make a n automatic 1hr adjustment in changing from Daylight Saving Time to Standard Time and vice versa. Because all pulses in the time code are 30 ms late with respect to UTC. 8. Thus. and 9. The first 10 s of every frame always include the 1. mainland. the correction is positive. every 10 s a socalled position identifier pulse is transmitted. Seconds may be determined by counting pulses within the frame.. the basic 1248 weights are simply multiplied by 1. and extends for two pulses beyond P .e. and P. T h e pulse train in the figure is annotated t o show the characteristic features of the time code format. 1 is a binary 0. which occurs at 50 s. Because the U T I corrections are expressed in tenths of a . three groups are needed t o express the day of year (001 through 366). T h e minutes set follows P I and consists of two bcd groups separated by a n uncoded pulse. When representing units. days.. a Is space or hole occurs in the pulse train at that time. Control functions No. P. With the exception of the position identifiers. 6. . is programmed as a binary 1 throughout those weeks when Daylight Saving Time is in effect and as a binary 0 when Standard Time is in effect.1 when applied to these control functions. T h e setting of this function is changed at 0000 U T C o n the date of change. or hundreds. and the applicable weighting factors are printed beneath the coded pulses in each bcd group. T h e minutes.
5 s later for a binary I . a binary 1 labeled SUB (subtract) will be broadcast during the 38th second of the minute. binary 1's labeled ADD will be broadcast during the 37th and 39th seconds of the minute. By decoding the hours set and the days set. the correct time on the UT1 scale is 173 days. the least significant digit of the minutes set is (0 x 1) + (0 X 2) + (0 x 4) + (0 x 8) = 0. the 5th. Weather information about major storms in the Atlantic and Pacific areas is broadcast from WWV and WWVH. which is synchronized with the 60kHz car rier signal. and the last pulse in the frame is always P. These broadcasts are given in voice during the 8th.670 kHz and a power output of 10 kW at 7335 kHz. 9th. The frequencies are 3330. The bcd are set up in groups. Hence. 1 100. 0. Eight stations operate around the world. 1700. In Fig.. The UT1 correction is + 0. Therefore. the 3rd and 4th bcd groups specify the hour of the day.3 s. and the 9th. 1 .set follows P. the time was exactly 10 min past the hour. 25. 0600. T h e 8th bcd group specifies if the UTI is fast or slow with the respect to the code time. loth. Ontario. The International Omega Navigation System is a very low frequency (VL17) radio navigation aid operating in the 10. and 50th minute from WWVH. and 2300 U T C by W WV and 0000. the time of day is in the 21st hour on the 173rd day of the year. 6th. i CHU The National Research Council of Ottawa. and 10th minute from WWV and during the 48th. Omega Navigation System status reports are broadcast in voice from WWV at 16 minutes after the hour and from WWVH at 47 minutes after the hour. at point A .670 kHz. Station identifications are made by voice every 30 min by WWV and WW VH..to 14kHz frequency band. and 14. 49th. and 1 l t h bcd groups specify the number of milliseconds to be added o r subtracted from the code time in order to obtain U T l (astronomical time).8 s later for a 10s position marker or for a minute reference marker. and 7th bcd groups specify the day of the year. like other radio navigation systems. broadcasts time signals that can be heard throughout North America and many other parts of the world. If U T l is slow. with one marker occurring each second. 1200. the most significant digit of that set is ( 1 x 10) + (0 x 20) + (0 x 40) = 10.3 second.2 s later for an uncoded marker o r binary 0. and 0. and 1800 U T C by WWVH.03s hole in that frame. T h e transmitter has a power output of 3 kW at frequencies of 3330 and 14. 24. at the beginning of the 1. T h e 12th bcd group is not used to convey information. 21 hours. the carrier power is reduced by 10 dB at the beginning of the corresponding second and restored 0. Canada. Station WWVB broadcasts a continuous binary coded decimal (bcd) signal. The signal consists of 60 markers each minute. The 1st and 2nd bcd groups specify the minute of the hour. If U T l is fast. Times of broadcast are 0500. When a marker is generated. 10 minutes. WWVB uses a levelshift carrier time code. 0. Omega. and the transmission is continuous o n all frequencies. as shown in Fig. is subject t o signal degradation caused by ionospheric disturbances at high latitudes. 7335. T h e Omega announcements on WWV and W W V H are given to provide users with immediate notification of such events and other information o n the status of the Omega system. The frequencies and time signals are derived from a cesium atomic clock that is ac 1/ I 1 56 .
curate t o within a few microseconds per year. At 7 A M Chicago Central Standard Time. An FSK time code is inserted after 10 cycles on the 3 1st t o 39th seconds. i t is 4 AM tomorrow in Moscow..3 s. UTC) o r to any time zone in other parts of the world by using the chart in Fig." The time given refers t o the beginning of the minute pip that follows and is o n the 24hr system. Example. trace horizontally to the right (counterclockwise). 26 .5 Sec 1000 Cycles of 1000 Hz (1.e. The seconds pips are broadcast continuouslv excet>t for the 29th and the 51st to the 59th pips. Always trace in the shortest direction between time zones. and the zero pip of each hour has a duration of 1 s. 60 Mln 1st Min p$+#!C!#Voice Recording Voice Recording 'Hours Exactly" 1 300 Cycles of 1000 Hz ( 0 3 Sec I 29th Pulse Om~tted 500 cycles of 1000 Hz 10. which At 9 P M in New York Eastern Standard Time.hours. it will be yesterday when passing midnight and tomorrow when passing the international date line. The seconds pips consist of 300 cycles of a 1000Hz tone. broadcast similar data. To use this chart. counterclockwise). it will be tomorrow when passing through midnight and yesterday when passing the international date line. 27. .'which are omitted each minute. Table 210 lists some of them as well as some other data about stations operating on the standards frequencies. minutes. Dominion Observatory Canada. 1I WORLD TIME CONVERSION CHART The standard time in any time zone can be converted to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (i. The announcement is as follows: "CHU. A voice announcement of the time is given each minute during the 10s interval between the 50th and 60th second when the pips are omitted. there are many other stations that broadcast similar data. visualize the horizontal line as making a complete circle. At 10 A M in t he Philippines. Other Standards Stations Throughout the world.1 /  1st to 10th Pulses (Incl) Om~tted Fig. Russia (moving left. the 1st to 10th pips are omitted during the first minute of the hour. clocku. but not o n the frequencies assigned for standardfrequency operation. In addition. Moving to the left (clockwise). it is 10 P M in Tokyo. From one time zone.0 Sec.isc). There is n o date change when passing both the international date line and midnight. The remaining seconds pips have a duration of 0.5 s. 26. The zero pip of each minute has a duration of 0. T h e beginning of the pip marks the exact second. Japan the same day (moving left. moving in one direction. I t also lists some other stations in the low frequency (LF) and very low frequency (VLF) bands. Eastern Standard Time. A chart o f t h e broadcast signal is shown in Fig. clockwise). it will be 4 P M yesterday in Hawaii (moving right.
. 5 AM 6AM 7 AM 7 AM 8 AM  9 AM  I 0 AM AM I PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5 PM 6PM . 9AM 13 A M l i Noon I PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5PM 6PM . . . .. l i AM Noon 1 PM 2PM 2 PM 3PM 8AM . .... . . 1 AM ... .. .... .  7 A! 8 AM 9AM !CAM : 3 AM l l AM 1 PM . ..........lOPM llPM . . 1 PM ..  . 113C 1200 1300 1400 1500 IPM 2PM 3PM lOPM . .... $ :. 3PM 4PM . $: h .C m ....  IS A M l l AM NUJVI 1 ' AM Noon 2AM 3 AM 4 AM 3AM 4 AM 5AM 6AM . 6AM .....Noo~ Noon 1 PM 2 PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM  2 PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM IOPM llPM 3 PM 4 PM 5PM 6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM 4 PM 5 PM 6PM 5 PM 6PM 7PM 7 PM 8PM 9PM  8 PM 9PM  :000 l l AM 1 PM 2PM 3PM 4PM 5PM 6PM .. .. .... .. 2 PM 3 PM 4PM 5 PM ..t i. . . .  .. llPM . .  .. ... .. 1PM . ... IAM 2AM 3AM .. ... . lOPM llPM lOPM l l P M .V. 0003 0100 02CG ... 0600 0700 7 AM 8 AM V AM l l AM Noor. . 3AM ... . . . 27 . $ :. IAM 4AM 5 AM 6AM 7AM SAM 6AM 7AM 8AM 9AM 2 AM 3AM 4AM 5AM I AM .. . 2 AM . . 6AM 7 AM 7 AM 8 AM YAM . . . .. 6PM 7PM .. ...... . Noon ..... I AM . Noor.6 PM 7 PM 8PM ... .. .. ... 2 a .gt IAM ...    ...  . ... ....   IPM 2PM 8PM 9PM lOPM 9PM lOPM llPM lOPM llPM llPM $ :. .  13 F. 0300 . . ... .... . I 1 AM . .  8 AM Y AM .. ........ . .... 4PM 5PM . . 7PM 8PM :Zt  6PM 7PM 8PM 9PM . . 0800 0900 . .... . 1 1 AM Naun 1 PM 2 PM 3PM 4PM ... O5Od 6AM ..... . ... .. . I M A .  IAM 2AM 3AM 4 AM 4AM 5AM 6AM I AM 8PM 9PM 10 PM 1lPM 9PM lOPM 11 PM lOPM 1lPM 1900 2000 2100 2206 2300 $ :.. .... .   9 AM I 0 AM . 3 AM 4 AM 5AM ... . . . IAM 2AM 3AM I A M . :2 IAM 2AM . . 9AM i0AM l l AM Noor . 1600 1700 1800 5PM . . 5 AM 6 iiAZ .  0430 5 AM 7 AM .. ... . . . . . .. 7 PM .. PAM . . . . . . 7PM 8PM 9PM . . IAM 2AM 3 AM 4AM 5AM ..IAM 2AM 3 AM 2AM 3AM 4AM 5AM 6AM 7 AM 8AM 9AM . .. . 8 AM  9 AM IOAM :0 A M llAM . 73. . .... .. . .. . 2 AM 6AM 8 AM I0 AM Fig..
. ... 3PM 4PM ... ... .. . IPM .... ... 3 AM 4AM .... .. 2 2 mc m  m G 44 ..3 AM .... .. ..... . .. lOPM .....3 .. k z c o uu g ..  5PM 6PM llPM 4PM ..  . 10 PM . . . ..... . )AM 2AM 3AM ...3 PM 4 pM 5 PM 4 PM IOAM I 1 AM Noon I PM l l AM Noon 5 PM 6PM 7 AM 8AM 9AM I0 AM 11 A M 8 AM PAM 10 A M ll AM Noon 1 pM 2 PM 2 pM 3PM 5 PM 6 PM 7 PM 8 PM 9 PM 1 PM 7 PM 8 PM 9PM 10 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 3 PM 4 PM 4 PM 6 PM 7 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 5 PM 6 PM I PM 2 PM 5 PM 7 PM 8 PM . 4PM . ? .C E$ (C2& s i r 5z: ..... 5 AM 6AM 9 AM .  c " n "2 42 n C zf i i 14 2PM  ....g ... .4+ 'om ... 5AM 6AM 7 AM 8AM .... .   ....... 4PM 7PM 8PM 9PM 7PM llPM . 5 > n 0 " : q 2 ....F G .. 4PM . ?zt 2 AM 3 AM 4 AM 5AM 6 AM 7AM IAM 2AM 3AM . .... . . 9PM . 5AM 6AM . iE . . . .. 2" 2" =qg j! : c: ... Nocn  1 PM 2PM  3PM .. . : . . .  2PM 3PM 3PM  5PM 6PM 7PM . .. ... 5AM 6AM 7 AM 8 AM 9AM 6AM 7AM 8 AM 9AM I 0 AM ll A M Noon 7AM 8AM  8AM 9AM I 0 AM l l AM Noon .. ... . 2: E.. ...E b. 6PM 7PM 8PM . . . 8AM 9AM 10 A M ll AM Noon 9AM  l p 2 PM 3 pM 4 PM 5 PM 6PM ~ 2 p ~3 p ~4 p ~ . . lOPM . 6AM 7 AM 7 AM 8 AM ll AM .. . . .. 5PM ... .. 7AM 8 AM 9 AM IOAM ll A M Noon . 9iEi 4PM 5PM 2 ~ 5. .    9PM .. &? Cs zL= 3 ...   6PM 7 PM 7PM 8 PM 8PM 9 PM ..G 2 . E 7PM 8PM 9PM lOPM llPM . .. ... 4 . I AM 2 AM . lOPM llPM llPM .EGz 2U... llPM $ :. 26.242 cim 8PM ~ = 5e .  4AM SAM 6 AM .... 3 AM 4AM 5AM 6AM 4 AM 5AM 6AM 7 AM 5 AM 6AM 8 AM 9AM IOAM  1 pM ~ 2 p 1 p ... ... .. ?{.. 11 PM $ :.... . IOPM 11 PM llPM :t g IAM 2AM 3AM 4 AM 4AM 5AM . .... night Mid I AM 2AM 3 AM 7AM 10AM . IAM 2AM .. 5PM 6PM . $ :. .. + ...... . .... . . 8 AM 9 AM IOAM IlAM Noon 9AM I0 AM llAM Noon I PM IOAM ll A M Noon Noon I pM 2 pM ~~ P M . ....0" c nJ 9 . .  4 AM 5 AM . i : 2 IOPM . 9PM lOPM ... ... :t g 2AM 3AM ... 9PM lOPM ll PM .. . $ :. ... .. . 4" nu= . 1 AM 2 AM . .. .. IAM . . h 1 AM 2 AM 3 AM 4 AM 4AM ......u * 9 " ? a ........ . ..: : I A M . 8PM 9PM . . $:.
I l h 55m to 12h 06m 23h 55m to 24h 06m continuous 5h 59m 30s to 6h OOm 1 l h 59m 30s to 12h 00m 17h 59m 30s to 18h OOm advanced 1h in summer EBC FFH San Fernando Spain Ste Assise France Ste Assise France continuous from 8h to 16h 25m except on Sunday at 9h and 21 h at 8h and 20h at 9h 30m. Main tlingen Germany. F. R.ocation Frequency (kHz) Schedule (UT) ATA Greater Kailash New Dehli India Pucheng China ChungLi Taiwan China Elmshorn Germany. Dem. Kiel Germany.R. 12h 30m to 3h 30m continuous 3h 30m to 12h 30m 14h to 24h continuous Oh to 14h continuous (except interruption between 35m and 40m) BPM BSF DAM 23h 55m to 24h 06m from 21 October to 29 March 23h 55m to 24h 06m from 30 March to 20 October DAN DAO DCF77 DGI Osterloog Germany. F. Rep. 13h.R. F.TABLE 210 Other Standards Stations Station 1. F. 22h 30m (may be cancelled) 2h 55m to 3h OOm 8h 55m to 9h OOm 14h 55m to 15h OOm 20h 55n1 to 21h OOm continuous GBR Rugby United Kingdom Prangins Switzerland . Oranienburg Germ.R.
21h Rugby United Kingdom Rugby United Kingdom continuous except for an interruption for maintenance from IOh Om t o 1411 Om on the first Tuesday in each month between minutes 0 and 5. 10 and 15. 15h. 12h. advanced by 1 h in summer continuous. Other Standards Stations Station 1. Sunday. and national holidays. except interruption between 35m and 39m I AM IBF JG2AS Torino Italy Sanwa Ibaraki Japan Sanwa l baraki Japan JJY BuenosAires Argentina BuenosAires Argentina MSF l l h to 12h.40 and 45. I l h . 13h. 50 and 55 continuous except from 6h to 12h on the first 'Clredncsday of every month continuous except from 6h to 12h o n the first Wednesday of every month emitted from Podebrady with reduced power continuous except from 6h to 12h o n the first Wednesday of every month OLB5 OMA Podcbrady Czechoslovakia Liblice Czechoslovakia Liblice Czechoslovakia RiodeJaneiro Brazil OM A PPE . 20h to 21h. 23h to 24h l h . 20 and 25. 17h. 14h. except interruptions during communications continuous. advanced l h in summer during 15m preceding 7h.ocation Frequency (kHz) Schedule ( U I ' ) H LA Taedok Rep. 17h to 18h. of Korea Rome Italy Ih t o 8 h Monday to Friday 7h 30m t o 8h 30m 10h 30m to I l h 30m except Saturday afternoon. 9h. 16h. 14h to 15h. 30 and 35.TABLE 210 Cont. 13h. 10h. IXh.
S. 25 25 Frunze U. and 2111 43m to 21 h 52m in winter from 4h 43ni to 4h 52m. and 18h 43m to 18h 52ni in summer from 4h 43m to 4h 52m.S.R. 30m and 40m Oh to 3h 40m.R.S. 40nl and 50m from 7h 43m to 7h 52m and 19h 43m to 19h 52m in winter from 7h 43m to 7h 52m and 20h 43m to 2Oh 521n in summer from 8h 43m to 8h 52m and 1I h 43m to I 1h 52m from Oh 43m to Oh 52m.R. Moscow U.S. 611 43n1 to 6h 52m.000 15. 30m and 40m Oh to 5h IOm 14h to 23h 40m 6h 30m to 13h 10m between Om and 5m.S. Molodechno U.R.000 RTA RTZ lrkutsk U. 5004 10.S. 10h 43m to 10h 52m.S. 50m and 60m between Om and lorn.105 17. 21h 30m RBU RCH Moscow U.S.S. 5h 30m to 23h 40m 5h OOm to 13h 10m 10h to 13h 10m the station siniultaneously operates on three frequencies between minutes 20m and 30m. from Oh to 20h j m .S. Chabarovsk U.R.R.R. 14h 30m.004 15.S.S.996 25 UNW3 Arkhangelsk U. 9h 43m to 9h 52m.500 10.S.S. Tashkent U.S.S. 50 RWM 4996 9996 14. Other Standards Stations Station Location Frequency (kHz) Schedule (LT) PPR RiodeJaneiro Brazil 435 4244 8634 13.S. continuous between minutes Om and 10m.603 66% 2. and 17h 43m to 17h 52m in winter from 2h 43m to 2h 52m.4 22.194.S. ending 22h to 23h 51n in winter from Oh to 19h 5m and 21h to 23h 5m in summer the station simultaneously operates on three frequencies between IOm and 20m.S.R. 25 .S.R. and 22h 43m to 22h 52m in summer RID Irkutsk U.R.000 l h 30m. 6h 43m to 6h 52m.004 10. Novosibirsk U.TABLE 210 Cont.
The operating power of each station shall be maintained as near as practicable to . current. Caracas Venezuela Olifantsfontein South Africa Johannesburg South Africa 4500 7500 12. 13h 43m to 13h 52m.000 FREQUENCY AND POWER OPERATING TOLERANCES AM Broadcast The operating frequency tolerance of each station shall be maintained within + 20 Hz of the assigned frequency. TV Broadcast The carrier frequency of the visual transmitter shall be maintained within + 1000 Hz of the authorized carrier frequency. 1 the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 5 % above and 10% below the authorized power except in emergencies. or power in the radiofrequency line.R.yndhurst Australia Nauen Germ.5 MHz & 1000 Hz above the visual carrier frequency. and 19h 43m to 19h 52m in summer 9h 45m to 21h 30m continuous except 22h 30m to 22h 45m 21 h 45m to 9h 30m continuous except from 8h 15m to 9h 45m for maintenance if necessary continuous 18h to 4h continuous continuous VNG L.000 4525 6 1 00 Y3S Y VTO ZUO ZUO 2500 5000 100. 25 from 5h 43m to 5h 52m. and 18h 43m to 18h 52m in winter from 7h 43m to 7h 52m.S.TABLE 210 Cont. 14h 43m to 14h 52m. FM Broadcast Operating frequency tolerance of each station shall be maintained within + 2000 Hz of the assigned center frequency. The peak power shall be monitored by a peakreading device that reads proportionally t o voltages. The center frequency of the aural transmitter shall be maintained 4. The operating power of each AM broadcast station shall be maintained as near as practicable to the licensed power and shall not exceed the limits of 5 O/O above and 10% below the licensed power except in emergencies. Other Standards Stations Station Ir~cation Frequency (kliz) Schedule (IJT) UTR3 Gorki U.S. The operating power as so monitored shall be maintained as near as practicable to the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 10% above and 20% below the authorized power except in emergencies. Dem. Rep.
0005 0. the FCC issues six types of commercial radio licenses and two types of endorsements. Class of station Personal Radio Service (CB) The maximum power at the transmitter output terminals and delivered to the antenna.01 %. They are: 1 .005* 0.00025 0. A Restricted Radiotelephone general radio service remote control (R/C) service citizens band (CB) service .99527.01 Oo of the authorized power for stations / of 3 W or less and within + 0. . Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit.255 MHz remote control (R/C) service26.255 of MlIz only.005 O/O for stations with an authorized power of more than 3 W. TABLE 211 Power Limits of Personal Radio Services Stations Maximum transmitter output power (W) Industrial Radio Service The carrier frequency of stations operating below 220 MHz in the Industrial Radio Service shall be maintained within k 0. antenna transmission line. or other impedancematched radiofrequency load shall not exceed the values in Table 21 1 under any condition of modulation.005  *Kcmotecontrol stations that have a transmitter output of 2 .12. 0.195 MHz remote control (R/C) service7276 MHz citizens band (CB) radio servicecarrier (where applicable) citizens band (CB) radio servicepeak envelope power (where applicable) 50 25* 4 0. arc permitted a frequency tolerance of 0. used solely for remote co~itrol objccts or devices hy radio of (orher than de\:ices used solely as a means of attracting attention).The operating power of the aural transmitter shall be maintained as near as practicable to the authorized operating power and shall not exceed the limits of 10% above and 20°/o below the authorized power except in emergencies. The frequency tolerance of Industrial Radio Service stations operating between 220 and 1000 MHz is specified in the station authorization.75 4 12 *A maxinlum trarlsnlitter otllp~lt 25 W is permitted on 27. The assigned channel frequencies and upper and lower tolerance limits for citizens band (CB) radio service are listed in Table 213. The carrier frequency of a station in this service shall be maintained within the percentages of authorized frequency shown in Table 2. 5 W or less. TABLE 212 Frequency Tolerances of Personal Radio Services Stations Frequency tolerance ('10) Class of station Fixed and base Mobile COMMERCIAL OPERATOR LICENSES Types of Licenses Currently. general mobile radio service remote control (R/C) service27.
and most VHF marine coast and utility stations. repair. Marine Radio Operator Permit. It does not Operator Permit allows operation of most aircraft and aeronautical ground .S. There is no examination for this license. A Marine Radio Operator Permit is required to operate radiotelephone stations on board certain vessels sailing the Great Lakes. and rules that govern the radio station you will operate A Restricted Radiotelephone Operator License is normally valid for the lifetime of the holder. To be eligible for it you must: Be at least 14 years old Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. or (if not so eligible) hold an aircraft pilot certificate validin the U. FM. or the open sea. maritime radiotelephone stations on pleasure vessels (other than those carrying more than six passengers for hire).TABLE 213 Citizens Band Frequencies and Upper and Lower Tolerances Assigned frequency (MHz) Lower limit (MHz) llpper limit (MHz) Channel stations. and international broadcast stations. It is also required to operate certain aviation radiotelephone stations. 2 . and certain maritime coast radiotelephone stations. laws. any tidewater. It is the only type of license required for transmitter operation.S. and maintenance (including acting as chief operator) of all types of AM. TV. or an FCC radio station license in your name Be able to speak and hear Be able to keep at least a rough written log Be familiar with provisions of applicable treaties.
Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. FM. Maritime. and International Public Fixed radio services.S. General Radiotelephone Operator License. operating procedures.S. and adjustment of FCC licensed radiotelephone transmitters in the Aviation. maintenance. 4. To be eligible for this license. A General Radiotelephone Operator License is required for persons responsible for internal repairs. maintenance. and adjustments of any FCClicensed radiotelegraph transmitter other than an amateur radio transmitter. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. It also conveys all the authority of both the Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit and the Marine Radio Operator Permit.S. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. It is also required for operation of maritime land radio transmitters operating with more than 1500 W of peak envelope power and maritime mobile (ship) and aeronautical transmitters with more than I000 W of peak envelope power. It also conveys all of the authority of the Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. and basic operating procedures (telegraphy) The Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable fiveyear term. and basic electronics The General Radiotelephone I 5 . . To be eligible for this license. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. 3. A Third Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required to operate certain coast radiotelegraph stations. basic operating procedures (telephony). you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass a written examination covering basic radio law and operating procedures The Marine Operator Permit is normally valid for a renewable fiveyear term. To be eligible for this license. A Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required to operate ship and coast radiotelegraph stations in the maritime services and to take responsibility for internal repairs. Operator License is normally valid for the lifetime of the operator.authorize the operation of AM. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 16 code groups per minute and 20 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. or TV broadcast stations.
you must: Be at least 21 years old Have at least one year of experience in sending and receiving public correspondence by radiotelegraph at ship stations. you must: Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is required only for those who serve as the chief radio operator on U. Ship Radar Endorsement. To be eligible for this endorsement. 6 . basic operating procedures (telegraphy).S.S. basic operating procedures (telephony).To be eligible for this license. basic operating procedures (telephony). and electronics technology as applicable to radiotelegraph stations The Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable fiveyear term. To be eligible for this license. To be eligible for this endorsement. you must: Hold a valid First Class or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate . cargo ships. The Ship Radar Endorsement is required to service and maintain ship radar equipment. 7 . A First Class Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 20 code groups per minute and 25 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. First Class Radiotelegraph Operator Cerfificate. The SixMonths Service Endorsement is required to permit the holder to serve as the sole radio operator on board large U. Hold a valid First or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate or a General Radiotelephone Operator License Pass a written examination covering the technical fundamentals of radar and radar maintenance techniques 8. SixMonths Service Endorsement.S. or both Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. Be able to receive and transmit spoken messages in English Pass Morse code examinations at 16 code groups per minute and 20 words per minute plain language (receive and transmit by hand) Pass a written examination covering basic radio law. passenger ships. basic operating procedures (telegraphy). It also conveys all of the authority of the Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate. you must: Be a legal resident of (eligible for employment in) the U. and electronics technology as applicable to radiotelegraph stations The First Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate is normally valid for a renewable fiveyear term.S. coast stations.
equipped with a radiotelegraph station in compliance with Part I1 of Title I11 of the Communications Act of 1934 Have held a valid First Class or Second Class Radiotelegraph Operator Certificate while obtaining the six months of service Have been licensed as a radio officer by the U. The Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit has been converted to the Marine Radio Operator Pemit. the Broadcast Endorsement or the Aircraft Radiotelegraph Endorsement. 1 .S. you should apply for both a Marine Operator Permit and a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit at time of renewal. 229 ah). If you operate stations that require you to hold a Marine Operator Permit and you also operate the transmitter of an AM. The requirement for its use with a Broadcast Endorsement has been abolished.C. Discontinued Licenses The FCC no longer issues the Radiotelephone First or Second Class Operator Licenses. in accordance with the Act of May 12. the Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. The Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License has been .Have at least six months of satisfactory service as a radio officer on board a ship (or ships) of the U. request issuance of a Marine Radio Operator Permit at time of renewal. Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. The Broadcast Endorsement to the Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit formerly required for operations of some classes of broadcast transmitter has been abolished along with the requirement 2. Coast Guard. Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License.S. 1948 (46 U. (No examination is necessary if your Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit expired not more than five years before application. 4. Broadcast Endorsement. FM. Holders of such licenses should follow the following instructions pertaining to the license held when it is time to renew their license. If you are employed as a radio operator aboard vessels or aeronautical stations where its use is required. or TV broadcast station. Persons holding such a license will be issued a General Radiotelephone Operator License when they apply at renewal. apply for a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit at time for renewal. Radiotelephone First Class Operator License. Persons holding the Radiotelephone Second Class Operator License will be issued a General Radiotelephone Operator License when they apply for renewal.S. while obtaining the six months of service renamed the General Radiotelephone Operator License. The Radiotelephone First Class Operator License have been abolished and the requirements for holding such licenses to operate and maintain broadcast transmitters have been eliminated.) If you hold a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit With Broadcast Endorsement for operating a broadcast station.
If you hold a license with such an endorsement. Hadiotelegraph Operuling Practice. Involving intermediate level for general . Advanced Radiotelegruph. Code test at 5 words per minute. I 69 Element 3. including sufficient elementary radio theory to understand these rules. General Code Tesr. Element 6. Code test at 13 words per minute. AMATEUR OPERATOR PRIVILEGES Examination Elements Examinations for amateur operator privileges are composed of questions from various categories. legal. statutes. General Kegulutions. Ship R ~ d a r Techniques. Amateur radio operation and apparatus and provisions of treaties. including electronics technology and radio maintenance and repair techniques applicable to all classes of radiotelegraph stations. the endorsement will be eliminated at renewal. and regulations with which cvery operator in the maritime radio services should be familiar. Intermediate Amateur Pructice. Element 5. Radio operating practices generally followed or required in communicating by radiotelephone in the maritime radio services. Tcch~lical. Rules and regulations essential to beginners'operation. Basic Marine Kudio Law. follo\ved or required in communicating by radiotelephone in the maritime radio services. servicing. Busic Law. Provisions of laws. Aircruft Rudiotelegruph Endorsement. Element 2. called elements. Radiooperating procedure and practices generally followed or required in operation of shipboard radiotelegraph stations. and regulations with which every radio operator in the maritime radio service should be familiar. and other matters. treaties. Element 4(A). 5 . Expert's Code Test. Busic Operating Practice. Examination Elements Written examinations are composed of questions from various categories called elements. Element 2. Technical matters including fundamentals of electronics technology and maintenance techniques as necessary for repair and maintenance of radio transmitters and receivers. E:lement 3. are: Element 1 . T h e various elements a n d their requirements are: Element 1(A). Element 4. GeneruI Radiorelephone. and rules and regulations affecting all amateur stations and operators. treaties. and maintenance of ship radar equipment. Element l(C). a n d t h e types of qiiestions in each.for a Radiotelephone Third Class Operator Permit. i Provisions of lays. Specialized theory and practice applicable to the proper installation. These elements. Holders of this type of license a n d endorsement who have been using it for broadcast transmitter operation shoiild apply for a Restricted Radiotelephone Operator Permit during the last year of the license term. Radio operating procedures and practices generally Element 1(B). Code test at 20 words per minute. The use of radiotelegraphy aboard aircraft has been discontinued and the Aircraft Radiotelegraph Endorsement has been abolished. Beginner's Code Est.
Amateur Extra Class. citizen or other U. Advanced radio theory and operation applicable to modern amateur techniques. Amateur Extra Class. includingbut not limited toradiotelephony. 3. including these privileged frequencies: . 2.175. and 4(B). All amateur bands except those frequencies reserved for Amateur Extra Class and Advanced Class.14. 5.350 kHz 21. Note. Advanced Amateur Practice. Technician Class.0002 1.22521.amateur practice in radio theory and operation as applicable to mod err^ amateur techniques. The number of meters approximates the wavelength at the band of frequencies being designated.225 kHz 2. 2. All amateur bands. General Class. and the transmitter shall be crystal controlled. Novice Class.S. 3. The following selected bands.20021. Elements 1(A).128.025 kHz 14.S. using only Type A 1 emission. Novice Class. Advanced Class.000. Elements 1( C ) . radiotelegraphy. Technician Cluss. 2. 2.15014. Since January 1 . 4. General Class. and (3) similar experimental purposes. and 4(A). 35003525 kHz 37753800 kHz 70007025 kHz 14. All amateur bands except those frequencies reserved for Amateur Extra Class. 3. Advanced Class.2 MHz The DC power input to the stage supplying power to the antenna shall not exceed 250 W. 2.1021. 5 .14. AMATEUR ("HAM") BANDS The frequency bands for various amateur licenses follow. and 3. 4(A). 4. including these privileged frequencies: 38003890 kHz 7 1507225 kHz 14. The various bands of frequencies used by amateur radio operators ("hams") are usually referred to in meters instead of the actual frequencies. and 3. includingbut not limited toradiotelephony and radiotelegraphy. 37003750 kHz 71007150 kHz 21.025 kHz 21. national and will be required to pass examinations as follows: 1. (2) radio control of remote objects. The meter Examination Requirements An applicant for an original license must be a U. Elements 1(B). Complete details are given in the FCC rules.20 and 28. Elements 1(B). 1985 all examinations for amateur radio licenses are given by volunteer amateur examiners. Element 4(R).300 kHz 3. All authorized privileges on amatcur frequency bands above 50 MHz and those assigned to the Novice Class. and transmission of energy for ( I ) measurements and observations applied to propagation. 1.175 kHz 2 1. Elements 1(A) and 2.
A4. F5. A0. F4. A3. FO. F2. F4. A5. A4. A3J AI t:l A3.S.450 MHz 21 . A4.TABI.OW21. A4.700 MHz 28.10010. A I . the symbols in Table 216 are prefixed by a number indicating the bandwidth in kilohertz. A2. F3. F1. Below 10 kHz. F3. F1.5 F3. F4. A l . F l . A3. type of transmission.00021.E: 214 "Ham" Bands Band Frequency band limits 18002000 kHz 35004000 kHz 35003750 kHz 37504000 kHz 5 167.000 MHz 144. FO. F4. F2. F'4. F5. A3 . P P P P bands and their frequency limits are given in Table 2. 1 TYPES OF EMISSIONS Emissions are classified according t o their modulation. F2. F3.109 kHz 10.s of emission (meters) F3. F3. A4. F4. A l . F1. F4. A1 rTI A3.200 MHz 21. F2. F5 P F5.11510. F5 F5 F5 F5 F5. F3. A4. A2. A2. AO. F. F I .140 MHz 144.5 G H z 24. A4. F5. A4. F3. A l . Frequencies between 220 and 225 MHz are sometimes referred to as I '/a m and between 420 and 450 M H z as '1. F5 F3. A3. F4.000 MHz 5 1.82.150 kHz 14. A5. AO.r m.350 kHz 14. F5 A4. A5. F1 A1 F1 A3. F2. A3. A5. A2. F2. A4. AO. A l . A4. A4. A2. A1. A5. F4. AO. A5. F5 F3. F3 A3. FO. AS.500 MHz 28. FO.00029. FO. A4.150 kHz 14. FO. possessions. F2. this number is given t o two significant figures. A3. AS. F l . A4.F3. F5 A4. A2.0 MHz) is shown in Table 215 for all states and U.15014. A l .010.25 G H z 4850. T h e maximum DC plate input power in watts for the 160m band (1. F4. F4. F3.00028. A3. F2. A5.700 MHz 50. F3. A3. FO. A5. A2.00054. F2.450 MHz 28. F3.20021.00014. A l . A3.A I F1 /\3. F2.43. F3. F2. F4. F4. A3. When a full designation of the emissionsincluding bandwidthis necessary.350 kHz 21.000 MHz 220225 MHz 420450 M H z 12151300 MHz 23002450 MHz 33003500 M H z 56505925 MHz 10.14.5 kHz 70007300 kHz 70007150 k H r 70757100 kHz 71507300 kHz 10. A2. F F3. A5. 71 . A I . FO A1 AO. F4. A4. A l . AO. FI. A3. A2. F l . AO. Fl A l . A2. 71 76 G H z Above 300 G H z A1. AO. Note. F1.50029. AS.100148. '1'ypr. A5. A4. F4. AO. F I . A2. A l . A3. A5. A1 F1 A3.A5. F4. F4. A2. . These classifications are given in Table 216. F l . AO. FO. A5. AO. FO. FO. F2. A3A.024. F3.00054. and supplementary characteristics. F5 A5. F1.00014.
TABLE 215 Maximum Power for the 160m Band Maximum D<: plate i n p ~ power in watts ~t 18001825 1825I850 18501875 1 8 7 5 .1 9 0 1900I925 19251950 19501975 19752000 kIIz kHz kfiz kliz kHz kliz kHz kHz Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Colum bia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 50011 00 5001100 5001100 5001100 5001100 0 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 50011 00 5001100 50011 00 5001100 10001200 10001200 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 5001100 50011 00 10001200 5001100 5001100 10001200 10001200 10001200 10001200 5001100 5001100 5001100 10001200 10001200 50011 00 10001200 5001100 5001100 .
TABLE 215 Cont. Johnston. Maximum Power for the 160m Band Maximum DC plate input power in watts 18001825 18251850 18501875 38751900 19001925 19251950 19501975 19752000 kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz kHz Area DayINighr DaylNighr DaylNight DaylNighl DayINight DaylNighl DaylNighl DaylNight Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Swan lsland Serrana Bank Roncador Key Navassa Island Baker. amplitude Type of transmission Supplementary characteristics Symbol absence of any modulation telegraphy without the use of modulating audiofrequency (onoff keying) telegraphy by the keying of a modulating audiofrequency or audiofrequencies or by the keying of the modulated emission (special case: an unkeyed modulated emission) telephony  A0 Al  double sideband. reduced carrier A3 A3a A3b facsimile television  A5 . reduced carrier two independent sidebands. Howland Guam. Jarvis TABLE 216 Types of Emission Type of modulation 1 . full carrier single sideband. Canton. Enderbury. Midway American Samoa Wake Palmyra.
...  telegraplly \vithout the use of modulating .~IANI>ROOKL E C T R ~ N I C : ~ A N D FORMULAS OF E TABLES TAUI.. . audiofrequency or audiofrequencies modulatine the nuke in arnnlitude telegraphy by the keying of' a modulating audiofrequency or of the modulated pulse (special casc: an urikcycd modulated pulse)  P2d P2c P2f audiofre. .. A9 A9c F O FI .. . .. composite transmissions.. . .   F2 . Types of Emission T) pe of modulation Type of transmissinn Supplementary characteristics  Symbol 1.. pulscd emissions absence of' any modulationcarrying inforrrlation ... in iI i !Vote.   ... ... television . .... ..  F5 F9 PO P1 composite transmissions and cases not covered by the abovc 3. ...E 216 Cont. . .  ...audiofrequency .. . .I I Lor alldiofreq~~ericies ~ U C ~ rnodulat ing the width of the nulse audiofrequency or audiofrequencies modulating the phase (or position) of the ~ u l s e amplitudemodulated pulse widthmodulated pulse P3d I'3e P3f P9 tclcphony .phase(or position)modulated pulse ..keying) shift.. 28. . reduced carrier  2....  cases composite transrnissior~rar~tl not covered by the above ....  composite transmissions . ...... . ..  TELEVISION SIGNAL STANDARDS Thc signal standards for tclcvision broadcasting are gi\~en Fig. .. frequency (or phase) modulated ... F4 . ... ..... . the standards are the same except the color burst signal is omitted. The standards given here are for color transmission. telegraphy without the use of modulating audiot'rcquc~icp (I'rcqucncy .. and cases riot covered by the above ... . .. . For monochrome transmission. amplitude .. . .. ... telegraphy by the keying of a modulating audiofrcqucncy or audiol'requencies or by the keying of the modulated emission (special cxse: an unkeyed emission modulated bv audiofrcauencv~ l'acsimile .. . . .  . . absence of any modulation.... .. ..
' I  Hortzonlal Sync Pu!ses  Vert~calBlank~ng 0 07V '!fV Top o l Ptclure Zero Carrter Bottom of P~cture(See Noles 3 and 51 Relerence Wh~leLevel Rear Sope of Verttcal Blanklng (See Note 31 Color Bursl (See Note 81 Zero Carrler / C 1/10 o l Max. 75 . Blanking Deta~lBetween 3 3 In B 5 Hor~rontalD~mens~ons to Scale In A. B.and C Not Fig./ . . 28. Television signal standards.I [Blank~ngLevel Reference Wh~teLevel Equal~zing Pulse lnlerval Verf~calSync Pulse Interval Equal~z~ng Pulse Internal I ! rReference Black ~ e v e l ' / I Max~rnumCarrier Voltage .
Color burst to be omitted during monochrome transmlsslons. Cont. 12.0003% wath a maximum rate of chonge of frequency not to exceed 1/10 Hz per second. 8. I H.  Fig. 9. The dimensions specifled for the burst determ~ne tlmes of storr~ng the ond stopplng the burst but not its phase. Equol~z~ng pulse areo sholl be between 0. Dimension "P" represents the peak excursion of the lum~nonce signol ot blonk~ng level but does not ~nclude the "S>s the sync amplitude above blonk~ng level. 4. Vertical Sync Pulse 0. H=Time from stort of one ljne to ston of next ilne. 7. . The burst frequency shall be 3. 28.  0 125H Max 0 145H Min + Deta~l Between 55 In C E 6. 1 1. Dimens~on ampl~tude. Television signal standards.5H H Detail Between 4 4 In B 0 I NOTES 1. V = T~me from stort of one field to stort of next f ~ e l d .579545 MHz The tolerance o r the frequency sholl be r 0.0004H 11II I) 1 10 004H Max 0 004H Max 9110s Equal~z~ng Pulse Blanking Level. 5. of Dimensions marked wlth oster~sk n d ~ c athat tolerances glven are permitted only for long tlme voriat~ons ~ te and not for successive cycles.04H see Note 61 0. 3. 10. 2. Lead~ng and trailing slopes of horizontal blanking must be steep enough to preserve minimum ond maxlmum values of (x y) ond (z) under all cond~t~ons plcture content. The color burst consists of ompl~tude modulation of o conilnuous sine wave.5 of ore0 of o hor~zontoisync pulse s the equol~zrng pulses ond d u r ~ n g the b r w d Color burst follows each horizontol pulse. Leoding and troil~ngedges of vert~colblonk~ng should be comptete i n less *hen 0. The horizontol scanning frequency shall be 21455 times the burst frequency. but 8 omitted follow~ng vert~colpulses.45 ond 0. D~mens~on IS the peak corrler "C" chrominance signal.
83 852.25 819. color.25 807.83 546.25 843.25 633.75 799.83 792.75 733.83 196. Freq range Video ('arriers <'olor Sound 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 5460 6066 6672 7682 8288 174180 180186 186192 192198 198204 204210 210216 470476 476482 482488 488494 494500 500506 506512 512518 518524 524530 530536 536542 542548 548554 554560 560566 566572 572578 578584 584590 590596 596602 602608 608614 614620 620626 626632 632638 638644 55.75 589.75 793.83 810.83 762.75 781.75 637.83 202.25 205.75 745.83 486. I I a n O secondary baslc.83 480.83 588.25 471.75 847.83 882.83 870.83 558.83 858.75 499.75 559.83 552.TELEVISION CHANNEL FREQUENCIES Table 217 lists the broadcast frequency limits of all television channels and the freTABLE 217 Television Channel Frequencies* Channel no.75 517.75 889.25 825.75 667. Opcrario~l.25 627.75 655.83 816. ~ vhro.75 607.75 583.25 181.75 679.75 493.83 59.75 179.25 867.75 697.25 735.25 537.75 595.75 625.25 61.25 211.25 495.25 855.83 70.83 864.75 547.75 487.75 631.25 187.25 58.75 505.25 639.75 577.25 83.75 529.25 567. I itleo ('arriers ('olor .25 525.83 720.25 58.25 765.83 654.83 80.83 618.25 873.25 783.83 690.83 786.75 81 1.75 81.25 729.83 576.are nou allocated to the land mobile cervice5.83 804.25 591.75 673.75 715.75 859.75 853.83 834.75 835.75 51 1.83 190.25 597.75 709.25 513.75 685.83 624.83 474.25 77. 1 In : Charlrlrls 70X7 (806XYOXIHI).83 756.75 185.83 492.83 666.25 483.'hannel no.25 561.25 789.83 636.75 739. ~ i b l 218 lists the cable channel frequency e assignments generally used.83 612.75 703.75 619.83 732.75 643.75 775.25 175.25 477.75 751.25 861.25 771.83 504.25 879.83 714.83 600.25 885.25 555.25 795.75 787.83 750.83 498.25 705.75 877.83 630.75 841.25 579.83 780.25 723.25 507.75 4 1 i r e q u c ~ ~ c i c \ mcgahcrtc.25 687.83 582.25 711.75 691.75 571.75 553.83 564.75 523.25 609.83 696.25 717.83 702.25 543.83 86.83 876.83 888.83 828.83 540.75 721.83 510.25 699.75 763.75 475.25 849.25 831.83 822. of \ome relc\i\iori trari\lalor\ ma! c'ontinllc on Ilic<c frcqt~cncics.83 846.75 823.75 565.83 516.75 197.83 208.83 744.25 621.75 203.83 798.75 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70' 71' 72' 73' 74' 75' 76' 77' 78' 79' 80' 81' 82' 83' 644650 650656 656662 662668 668674 674680 680686 686692 692698 698704 704710 710716 716722 722728 728734 734740 740746 746752 752758 758764 764770 770776 776782 782788 788794 794800 800806 806812 812818 818824 824830 830836 836842 842848 848854 854860 860866 866872 872878 878884 884890 645.83 840.83 660.83 649.75 727.83 570.83 738.83 684.25 651.75 865.25 663.25 193. The frequencies of the signals are altered on most cable systems.25 489.75 481.75 661.83 768.25 801.~dca\linp.83 774.83 528.75 71.75 215.75 757. 77 .25 66925 675.25 777.83 178.75 769.25 603. and sound carriers of each channel.83 642.83 522.75 541.25 741.25 648.25 549.25 837.75 883.25 693.25 747.25 519.25 531.25 759.83 678.83 708.83 606.25 199.83 672.25 681.25 753.75 829.25 657.75 209.75 817.75 191.83 534.25 615.75 87.75 535.25 501.25 573.75 65.25 67.25 813.83 726.83 64.Solmd (.75 805. Freq rdngc I quency of the video.75 613. t'orn~erl! allocated t o ~ c l e \ i .75 871.83 214.83 184.75 601.83 594.
5 35.5 41.58 58.25 10.75 149. shown in Fig.83 124.75 245.25 235.10 'T1 1 T12 '1'13 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 FM 14 I5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 5.5 47.7535.83 178. All of the different classes of radiowaves are in this region.58 40.5 23.58 40.25 127.75 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 246252 252258 258264 264270 270276 276282 282288 288294 294300 300306 306312 312318 3 18324 324330 330336 336342 342348 348354 354360 360366 366372 372378 378384 384390 390396 396402 7278 7884 8490 9096 96.5 17.25 169.83 196.83 238.108 120126 126132 132138 138144 144150 150156 156162 362168 168174 216222 222228 228234 234240 240246 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 55.25 163.75 197.25 181.75 221.58 34.75 17.83 172.83 64.83 70.5 41.83 220.25 143.75 215.75 35.25 217.83 184.102 102108 108114 114120 * All frequencies in megahertz.75 209.25 205.75 11.83 202.83 190.75 155.83 348.7541.25 193. 29.75 19 1.83 214.25 223.25 21 1. 78 .75 227.75 203.25 139.75 161.83 136.25 145.75 137.7529.75 41. The sound or audiofrequencics start about 8 Hz and the top of the range is around 20 kHz.75 185.75 173.75 125.83 11. The FCC allocation chart starts just below 10 kHz and ends at about 100 GHz.75 81.25 07.Sounrl no.751 1.25 77.75 65.25 175.83 142.58 16.75 233.25 187.7517.83 244.83 86.75 23.FREQUENCY SPECTRUMSOUND AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION The spectrum of electromagnetic waves.83 154.75 143.55 5460 6066 6672 7682 8288 174180 180186 186192 192198 198204 204210 210216 88. Freq range Video Carriers Color Sound 7 T8 ' 9 '1.75 87.83 232.25 229.25 199.7547.83 166.83 80.83 130.25 241. Fret1 rdnge Video Carriers ('olor Channel .25 61.83 226. covers a range of 10" to 1 1/ I i 1 about lo' nm.75 179.25 83.7523.58 46.25 151.75 239.25 121.75 7 1.83 208.5 59.75 167.83 160.58 22.25 157.75 29.75 131. Following the allocation chart frequencies are infrared TABLE 218 Cable 'TV Channel Frequencies* Channel no.
The frequency range of the human ear and the various broadcasting and recording media are also included in Fig.000.000 Hz. The visible light spectrum covers a very small area. Little is known beyond the gammaray frequencies. Figure 21 1 shows the frequency range of various musical instruments and of other sounds. Examnple. and further evolution can be anticipated. 21 1.000 MHz is divided into the various bands shown in Table 219 for easier identification. The prevailing musical temperament is the result of a long history of experimentation with various temperaments (an infinite spectrum is possible). and 5. and octaves have a 2: 1 frequency ratio. vcry low frequencies low freq ~ ~ e l ~ c i e s medium frequencies high HF frcquencies very high VHF frequencies ultrahigh UHF frequencies supcrhigh freq~~encies ext renicly high frequencies . Unisons have a 1:1 frequency ratio. based on the current musical pitch of A = 440 Hz. Figure 210 presents the frcquencies for each tone of the standard organ keyboard. TABLE: 219 Frequency Classification Band AhhreClassification viation I 1 : Prequenc? nu.F VF I 30300 k H z 3003000 kHc. AUDIOFREQUENCY SPECTRUM The audiofrequency spectrum is generally accepted as extending from 15 to 20. For the rt~ajorthird. The additive numerical measure for intervals is a logarithmic function wherein the octave is divided into 1200 cents: Cents = 1200 x log of frequency ratio log 2 RADIOFREQUENCY SPECTRUM The radiofrequency spectrum of 3 kHz to 3.frequencies.955. Xrays. they arc 5:4 and 386.314. 3 . The frequency range shown for each sound is the range needed for faithful reproduction and includes the fundamental frequency and the necessary harmonic frcquencies. The perfect fifth has a 3:2 frequency ratio. visible light frequencies. but thousands of color frequencies are present in this region. and its complcmcnt (the perfect fourth) has a 4:3 frequency ratio. and gamma rays. 30300 Hz 3003000 H z 2 3 i I extrert~elylow f'rcqucncics voice frequer~cies E1. I All musical intervals are based on ratios of products of the prime numbers 2. These are known as cosmic rays. 7he ratio arld cenrs I'or the perfect fifth arc 3:2 and 701.
29 .I Cosmic Ray oolnm H i Gamma nm = nanometers p.m= m~crometers  400 nanometers  700 nanometers I I Fig.
210 81 .Fig.
. . 211 . . Y U Y W _ Y I R X 8 z % " 0 T I 1 I I 0  * N .HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND I . 5 N 2 CI  5 5 % 9 Y ) Y W * I Y . 0 5 O Fig. . .
S. Departrncnt of Comniercc.NOAA WEATHER FREQUENCIES T h e FCC has allocated three frequencies to the U.475 MHz 162. National Occanic and Atmospheric Adnlinistration (NOAA).55 MHz .40 MHz 162. National \+'cather Serv ice for thc dissemination of weather information to the public. T h e frcquencics assigned arc: 162.
.
Decrease power. I am busy (or I am busy with ) . Answer or advice QRA QRn QRD QRE QKF QRG QRH QRI QRJ QRK QRI. 1 am troubled by static. Stop sending. I am headed for . QRM QKN What station are you? How far arc you from me? Where are you headed and from where? What is pour estimated time of arrival? Are you returning to ? What is my exact frequency? Does my frequency vary? How is the tone of my transmission? Do you reccivc me badly? How do your read my signals? Are you busy'! Arc you bein8 interfered with? Are you troubled by static? Shall I increase power'? Shall I decrease power? Shall I speak faster? Shall 1 speak slower? Shall I stop transmitting? QRP QRQ QKS QRT Q KO . Your frequency varies. I am returning t o . Increase power. The signals consist of a series of threeletter groups starting with Q and havTABLE: 31 Signals Signals Question ing the same meaning in all languages. f My ETA is hours. I cannot receive you. . Q signals serve as a convenient means of abbreviation in communications between amateurs. The question is designated by the addition of the question mark after the Q signal. Speak slower. The legibility of' your signal is . Today. The most common Q signals are listed in Table 31. I am being interfered with. Your exact frequency is kHz. Each Q signal has both an affirmative and an interrogative meaning. My station name is I am from your station.Chapter 3 INTERNATIONAL Q SIGNALS The international Q signals were first adopted to enable ships at sea to communicate with each other or to contact foreign shores without experiencing language difficulties. Do not interfere.r o m . Your signals are too weak. Your tone is . Speak faster.
Change to transmission on kHz without changing the type of wave. 1 will listen to on kHz. Please tell that 1 am calling him on kHz. Fix your bearing and distance on my radio signal. I am entering port. I will send on this frequency. Q Signals Signals Question Answer or advice QRU QRV QRM QRX QRY QRZ QSA QSB QSD QSG QSK QSL QSM QSN QSO QSP QSQ QRR QSU QSV QSW QSX QSY QSZ QTA Q'I'B QTC QTE QTF QTG QTH QTI T I QTL QTM QTN QTO QTO Have you anything for me? Are you ready? Shall I inform t h a t you are calling him on kHz? When will you call me again? What is my turn? Who is calling me? What is the strength of my signals'? Are my signals fading? Are my signals mutilated? Shall I send messages at a time? Can you hear me between your signals? Will you send me a confirmation of our communication? Shall I repeat the last message? Did you hear me on kHz? Can you communicate with direct or by relay? Will you relay to free of charge? Have you a doctor aboard? Have the distress calls from been cleared? Shall I send reply on this frequency or on kHz? Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency? Will you send on this frequency? Will you listen to on kHz? Shall I change to transmission on another frequency? Shall 1 send each word or group more than once? Shall I cancel message number? Do you agree with my counting words? How many messages do you have for me? What is my true bearing from you? Will you give me the position of my station according to the bearings of your direction finding station? Will you send two dashes of ten seconds each follo\ved by our call signrepeated t i m e s on kHz? What is your location in latitude and longitude? What is your true trackin degrees? What is your true speed? What is your true headingin degrees? Send signals to enable me to fix my bearing and distance. or reply on kHz. Your keying is incorrect. I will relay. My location is . Wait . My true track is degrees.will call you at Your turn is . Distress calls from Reply on this frequency. You are being called by . degrees. Yes. your signals are bad. Say each word or group of words twice or tlmes. have cleared. . Have you left portldock? Are you going to enter portldock? I have nothing for you. Send a series of Vs.if not sent. True bearing from me is Your bearing is . I give you acknowledgment of receipt. I can hear you. Send messages. My true heading is degrees. My true speed is . I agree. The strength of your signals is Your signals are fading. I left port at hours. Or no.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS A N D FORMULAS OF TABLES TABLE 31 Cant. Repeat the last telegram you have sent me. as Cancel message number . At what time did you depart from . I heard you on kHz. I hours. I have messages for you. or word count i s . 1 am ready. I am sending two dashes of ten seconds each times on kHz at with my call sign hours. . I departed from (place) at hours. I can communicate with direct (or through the medium of 1. we have no doctor. Yes.
. I am proceeding to the position of incident and expect to arrive at hours. . in the following order. height of clouds. for emergency use only. It is the equivalent of SOS as used by ships at sea and must receive the same attention and priority. Q Signals Signals Question Answer or advice Can you communicate with my station by means of the International Code of Signals? What is the correct time? Will you send your call sign for minutes now. QUM QRRR Distress traffic is ended. This is a special signal. 1 have news o f . and if you hear it keep off the frequency except to listen. y . Have you received the distress signal sent 7 by . Listen for me on channel (from to hours). information concerning visibility. 1 am continuing the search f o r . The correct time is hours. or at hours on kHz so that your frequency may be measured? During what hours is your station open? Shall 1 stand guard for you on kHz? Will you keep your station open for further communication with me for hours? Are you proceeding to the position of incident and if so when do you expect to arrive? Are you continuing the search? 7 Do you have news of . My station is open from to hours. Information desired follows: visibility is clouds are wind is knots from a tlatitude longitude. The number of my last message to you is I have urgency signal sent b y .TABLE 31 Cont. unless you are in a position to help. QUC QUF I have received the distress signal sent b I must land now. Barometric pressure at sea level is now Follow course degrees true. I will keep my station open for further communication with you until further notice (or until hours). It is the official ARRL land distress call. Can you give me. Will you be forced to alight (or land)? Will you give me the present barometric pressure at sea level? Will you indicate the true course for me to follow? Is the distress traffic ended? (Official ARRI. land distress call) I will communicate with you by International Code of Signals. or at hours on kHz so you can measure my frequency. direction and velocity of ground wind at (place of observation)? What is the number (or other) of the last message you received from me? Have you received the urgency signal sent 7 by . I will send your call sign for now.
*ZAL ZAN *ZAN *ZAO ZAP *ZAP *ZAQ ZAR *ZAS *ZAT *ZAV *ZAX *ZAY *ZRA *ZBD *ZBE *ZBG *ZBH *ZB1 *ZBL *ZBM ZBN *ZBN *ZBO *%BP A YOU ARE NOT OBSERVING CIRCUIT DISCIPLINE. RYs. Cease using speed key. Retuning. Signal unheard. Your Collation is Different. Rerun tapes run on since P . Answer on . 88 . We file.S. etc. Your Collation Omitted. Your Dots arc too Heavy (long). Conditions poor. CAN'T UNDERSTAND VOICE. Using concentrator. Signal (I) Not understood. mux. (2) Advise disposal. Circuit broken. PLEASE. priority . USE TELEGRAPH. Send on (kHz). listen for telephony. formal messagc. Unable to relay. Alter your wavelength. I shift (or ask ) to (kHz). Revert to Automatic Relay.EASE.). try. Circuit Interrupted. will advise. Unable to receive you. Punching tape for transmission. Make readable signals. Closing down. YOUR SPEED KEY IMPROPERLY ADJUSTED. Message undelivered. via . Pull Back your tape one Yard. Message received by addressee (time). I HAVE TRAFFIC. Make call before transmitting traffic. military also uses these codes. (2) Dots light. ( I ) Will keep trying. mk. Diagnosing Circuit faults. ACKNOWLEDGE. Frequency is Drifting to degree indicated. Are you in direct Communication With 7 1) Hr. CHECK YOUR CENTER FREQUENCY.MHz. 15. Retransmit message to . Put (spccd opr. Shall I send by (method). Expedite reply to my . Break circuit.ZSIGNALS The Zcode signals shown in Table 32 are used to communicate at sea. Last word received (sent) was . You are sending uppercase. Your tape reversed. Work (simplex. Message undelivcred. W E CAN RECEIVE ABSOLUTELY NOTHING. B Cause of delay is . Send Code Twice.Y. C Circuit affected. (2) Not held. You are causing interference. The U. Following was sent (time). Cease Sending. ( I ) Dots heavy. Have been unable to break you. (2) Spacing bad. make warning signals. Run (foxes. ( 1 ) Characters indistinct. Do not use breakin. Will confirm later. Report when in communication with . Reroute the circuit by patching. Check Keying.as groups. Count . Send blind until advised. TABLE 32 Z Code for PointtoPoint Service* Signal Message Signal Message *ZAA *ZAB ZAC *ZAC *ZAD *ZAE *ZAF *ZAH *ZAl *ZAJ ZAL. increase to maximum. (3) Canceling. ads. Transmit only messages of above precedence . Blurring Signals. *ZBQ ZBR *ZBR ZBS *ZBT *ZBU *ZBV *ZBW ZRY ZCA ZCB ZCC ZCD ZCF ZCI ZCK ZCL ZCO ZCl' ZCR ZCS ZCT ZCW *ZDA *ZDB ZDC ZDE *ZDE ZDF *ZDF *ZDG ZDH . Accuracy of followin_gdoubtful. Collate code. When and on what frequency was message received. Advise (Call sign of) frequency you are reading. PL. due to . duplex. Running and available. sb). (4) Rtr. Break and go ahead with New slip. TRANSMIT CALI. LETTERS 1NTELLIGIRI.) this frequency.
You are misusing authenticator. ZMP . Reply message? There is no reply. Receiving conditions No Good for code. 15. M Magnetic activity. Take control of net . 15. No answer required.B Give Long Breaks. please. Not Received. All stations authenticate. Closing down (until ) . 15. Correct version is . Hz. at relayed to . Message for ( 1 ) Action. Following transmitters running dual. 15. Your Dots are Missing. Cancel transmission . *ZKE *%KF Station leaves net temporarily. Stand by for ZMQ mark bias. Frequency shift your signal is Rapidity of Fading is as indicated. This message is a suspected duplicate. Pern~issionnecessary before transmitting messages. Parts marked ZEP coming later. Your Dots Varying length. (2) Info. ALL CLEAR O F TRAFFIC. No private messages until ordered. 89 . This message is classified. Pass this message to Check your FSK shift. Advise. Exercise (drill message). Send High Speed auto w p m . YOUR SIGNALS GETTING STRONGER. YOUR SIGNALS GETTING WEAKER. This is a multipleaddress message. Please Give Priority. ZKW L Z1.IGHTNING STORM. We are Experiencing Dropouts. Z Code for PointtoPoint Service* Signal Message Signal Message ZDL ZDM *ZDM *ZDN *ZDQ *ZDS ZDT *ZDT ZDV *ZDV *ZDY *ZEC ZED ZEF ZEG *ZEI *ZEK *ZEL *%EN *ZEI' *ZEU ZM *ZFA ZFB *%FB ZFC ZFD *ZFD *ZFF *ZFH *ZFI ZFK Z FO ZFQ/x ZFR *ZFR ZFS *ZGB ZGF *ZGF ZGP ZGS ZGW Your Dots are too Light (short). Revert to FSK.Message by . Who is controlling station? or I am . ZIP You have strong Idle Radiation. 15. we send twice. Message just transmitted erroneous. ZIR ZIS Atmospheric Interference. ZLP WE ARE SUFFERING FROM Z LS 1. Advise when message received by . signals Good For wpm. We are Experiencing Fillins. please. ZIM Increase Power.shall 1 I ( o r ) reports into circuit (net). Message intercepted or copied blind. . ZLD Ilistorted Land Line control signals. Report disposal of message . K E 7 Have you received message . . J Frequency Jumping to degree indicated. (3) Comment. Accuracy of heading doubtful. Depth of Fading is as indicated. ZJI: 15. 15. ZKQ What Stations Keeping watch on ? *ZKS Keying weight is (percent). please remedy. ZHA ZHC H How are conditions for Auto reception? HOW ARE YOUR RECEIVING CONDITIONS? %HM/x Harmonic radiation from transmitter. Private message received for . F Failing Auto. Authentication is NO COMMUNICATIONS WITH . Not On the air. Make call signs more distinctly. Say when ready to resume. Don't transmit exercise messages until advised. G Send (answer). 15. SIGNALS FADED OUT. ZblG STAND BY MOMENT.TABLE 32 Cont. *ZKD or . NO CALL LETTERS (IDENTIFICATION) HEARD. Signals are Fading Slightly. We are getting Long Dash from you. ZHY I Industrial or Medical interference. We are Experiencing Garbles. ZLL LOW(minimum) Power. *ZKJ %KO REVERT T O ONOFF KEYING. ZMU/x MUltipath making *ZKA *ZKB N ZNB *%NB ZNC *ZNC *ZND ZNG ZNI ZNN ZNO ZNR No Breaks. This message is correction to . SIGNALS ARE FADING BADLY. ZbIO MisPunch or Perforator failures. ZHS We are Holding Your .
Y. Rerun slip before one now running. Relay to your substations. Negative (No). Transmit your tnessage (give info. Send tuning signals on present frequency. Transmission temporarily Interrupted. YOUR SIGNALS ARE UNREADABLE. W Name of operator on watch. Wait. Microvolt input to receiver is . Give instructions for routing traffic. T Transmit by Auto. Check your frequency on this circuit. Printer Carriagereturn not received. Y WHAT IS YOUR SPEED O F TRANSMISSION? Z Incorrect. R Reverse Auto tape. Printer motor Slow. Wipers or Clicks here. 90 . On Line. WILL DO SO AT .. Signals fading. . 0 Have checked (call letters) OK. Send Plain Twice. Revert to Traffic. Hear you best on (kHz). Unable to comply. Mail delivery permissible. . S SEND FASTER. Printer motor 1'ast. l receive (usb. SEND WORDS TWICE. Wavelength (frequency) is Swinging. 15. Punch Plain only. OK? Run Reversals. Timing signal will be transmitted. \Vhal traffic have you On Hand? WE ARE RECEIVING OK. Rerun message No. Can you accept message? (or) Give me message. YOUR SIGNALS WEAK BUT READABLE. S Signal strength. Transmit Slips Twice. Relayed signal Bad. Obtain retrans~nissionof message . Send Slower. Act as radio link between me and . 0 Overall readability. ZKM *ZRM ZRN ZRO ZRR ZRS ZRT ZRY ZSF Here New Slip. % Code for PointtoPoint Service* Signal Message Signal Message ZNS ZOA *ZOC ZOD *ZOL) *ZOE *ZOF *%OG ZOH ZOK *%OK ZOI. Signals Varying in Frequency. Signals Varying in intensity. P Propagation. Punch Everything. You are correct. Transmit Slips Once. N Noise. Pass at once to substations. Transmit Only Reversals. C Conditions Unsuitable for Automatic recording. I Interference. *ZOM ZOR *ZOU *ZOZ ZPA *ZPA ZPC *I 3 C L ZPE ZI'F ZPO ZPP ZI'R ZPS ZPT ZRA *ZKA ZRB *ZKB ZRC *ZRC *ZRE *ZRF ZKK ZRI. SEND WORDS ONCE. Observing will transfer when better. Affirmative (Yes). UNABLE T O COMP1. V Varying Bias. WE HAVE BEEN UNABLE T O BREAK YOU. Your Speed Varying.). or tune your transmitter to . Relay this message. YOUR SIGNALS STRONG AND READABLE. ROUGH NOTE. isb). ZSH ZSlIx ZSMIx ZSN ZSO ZSR ZSS ZST ZSU ZSV ZTA ZTH ZT1 ZUA *ZUA ZUB ZUC *ZUE *ZUG *ZUH *ZUJ ZVB ZVF ZVP *ZVR ZVS *ZWB ZWC Z\VO ZWR ZWS ZWT ZYS *ZZF *ZZG P Printer line Advance not received. Stand by. Run tcst slip. Please furnish Signal Intensity. Send Plain Once. ARE YOU KECEIVINC. My f'rcquency OK? Your frequency is . Isb. Relay this message via OK. STATIC HEAVY HERE. Send Vs Please. Rcruns slip at Present Running. Give SINPO report on . Reversed Keying.TABLE 32 Cont. 15. Transmit by Hand. adjust receiver. Plcasc Remove blodulation from . Your speech distorted. please. Can you Receive Code? Shall I.
Multiplex Cease traffic. The one in Table 33. Revert to MUX frames channels. You are Jumping out of phase. Send Dashes. send As on A channel. Limits High. Is your synchronizing correct? Limits are Low. PIX Conditionally accepted. Your modulation is Varying. yet most of the needed sigTABLE 33 APCO 10Signals Number Meaning Number nals are included. Two other versions. Change from multiplex to single Printer. Go ahead with Pix. (3) illoderate. also sometimes used by law enforcement agencies. (2) slight. You are floating Slow. \V. Meaning Number Meaning signal weak signal good stop transmitting affirmative (OK) relay (to) busy out of service in service say again negative o n duty stand by (stop) existing conditions message information message delivered reply to message enroute urgent (in) contact location call ( ) by phone disregard arrived at scene assignment completed report to (meet) estimated arrival time licenselpermit information oanership information records check dangerlcautioll pickup units needed specifylnumberltype help me quick time . (5) extreme. Make bias Neutral. Allied Cornmunication Procedures.S. Check Your Keying on channel . please. military usage. is the result of an indepth study to develop a uniform code that could be used by all radio services. it is easier to memorize than the others. Please put o n MUX revolutions. ZXA ZXC ZXD ZXF ZXH ZXJ ZXK ZXL ZXO ZXP ZXS ZXV Radiophoto and Facsimile Adjust to receive speeds . reduce Hz. losignals Numerous versions of 10signals are in use.TABLE 32 Cont. (APCO). You are Floating Fast. Last run defaced due to . Check Your Thyratrons. 11CODE SIGNALS Table 36 is the 11code. L. Numbcrs 15 following the "2" signal mean: ( I ) very slight. errors stored your end.. ACP131 ( A ) . Z Code for PointtoPoint Service* Signal Messslge Signal Message ZYA ZYC ZYK ZYM ZYN ZYP ZYR ZYT ZY Xlx TRY AGAIN. 'Asterisk indicates U. Inc. Sources: Cable and Wireless Ltd. increase Hz.?AFI\I. Cycling on ARQ. are given in Tables 34 and 35. Change from single printer to Multiplex. (4) severe. Containing only 34 signals. one used primarily by CBers and the other by police agencies. adopted by the Associated Public Safety Communications Officers.S. Army Communications Manual SIG 4392.
stand by. Fire at . Repeat. Please tune to c h a n n e l . all units secure. Negative contact. Speed trap at . Emergency traffic at this station. Relay message. Wrecker needed. In service (subject to call). Weather and/or road conditions. Wrecker needed at . Reserve lodging (room). Does not conform to FCC Rules. Your message delivered. Telephone number. Out of service (leaving air). Reserve hotel room for . signal good. Trouble at this station.TABLE 34 CBers 10Code Number Meaning Number Meaning Receiving poorly. Break channel. Report in person to . Ambulance needed at . Talk closer to mike. Net clear. OK. Stop transmitting. signal weak. . Location. All units comply. standing by. use phone. Correct time. I will give you a radio check. Call . Frequency check. Awaiting your next message/assignment. I have TVI. Transmission completed. My address is Radio repairmen needed at .? Disregard last information. Transmitting (talking) too rapidly. or number by . Completed last assignment. Proceed with transmission in sequence. You are causing interference. Please give me a long count. Time is up for contact. Busy. Your transmitter is out of adjustment. Rest room pause. or repeat message.phone. need help. or relay to . I have a message for you (or ) . Confidential information. Stand by. message received. Transmit dead carrier for 5 seconds. Can you contact . Mission completed. Urgent business. I am moving to c h a n n e l . acknowledgment. Net directed to . return to base. Anything (message) for us? Nothing for you. Receiving well. Traffic accident at . Traffic tieup at . Visitors (or officials) present. Ambulance needed. . All units within range. Assist motorist. Police needed at . Identify your station. please report. What is next message number? Unable to copy. Make pickup at .
1049 1050 105 1 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 108 1 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 Traffic light out. Arrived at scene. Beginning tour of duty. Intoxicated driver. In contact with. Animal carcass in lane a t Assist motorist. Convoy or escort. Location. Improperly parked vehicle. Domestic trouble. Negative. . by Disregard. Ending tour of duty. Weather and road report. . Emergency road repairs needed. Prisonerslsubject in custody. Mental subject. change location. Acknowledgment. Direct traffic. Drag racing. Reply in message. Civil disturbance. Message cancellation. Riot. Emergency. due to . expedite. Information. Drivers license information. I f meeting. Fight in progress. Livestock on highway. Chase in progress. Accident . Reserve lodging. Fire alarm. Pick upldistribute checks. Detaining subject. Ambulance needed. Hit and run. Intoxicated pedestrian. Unable to copy.PI. Nothing for you. Advise present telephone number. advise ETA. Delayed. Personnel in area. Urgentuse light and siren. Enroute. PD). (F. Clear to read next message. Dog case. Meet complainant. Repeat. ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival). Report progress on fire. Bank alarm a t . Bomb threat. Officerloperator on duty. Advise nature of fire. Correct time. stand by unless urgent. Prepare to make written copy. Prisonljail break. Request permission to leave patrol for P. Squad in vicinity. Silent run. Notify coroner. Man with gun. Crime in progress. Check records for wanted. Net message assignment. Major crime alert. no light and siren. Records indicate wanted or stolen. Wrecker needed. Dispatch information. Need assistance. Message for local delivery. Report in person t o . Blockade. In service. Road blocked. Stopping suspicious vehicle. Signal good. Complete assignment quickly. . Stop transmitting. Stand by. Vehicle registration information. Smoke report. Traffic standard needs repair. Check (test) signal. Report of prowler.TABLE 35 Police 10Code Number Meaning Number Meaning 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 Caution. Investigate suspicious vehicle. Breathalizer report. Relay (to). return t o . Pick up prisonerlsubject. Busy. Assignment completed. Work school crossing a t . Illegal use of radio. Out of service (give location).phone. Call .
Injured person. Traffic accidentno injury. Prowler. 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1165 1166 1170 1171 1179 1 180 1181 1182 1183 1 184 1185 1186 1187 1 198 1199 Doctor required. Traffic accidentno details. Death report. Ball game in street. Traffic accidentminor injury. Take a report. Person calling for help. Traffic accidentserious injury. Dispatch tow truck. Traffic signal out of order. Assist other unit. THE INTERNATIONAL CODE d dah i duh d d d t i ii i duh d duh dt i dah d d t ii dt i d d dah d t i i i duh dah d t i d d d dt i i ii d dt ii 1 2 3 4 5 question mark error wait d dah dah doh i dah d dah i d dah d dt i ii dah dah dah d t i duh dah duh i d dah dah d t i dah dah d doh i d dah d t i i 6 7 8 d d dt i ii dah d d dah i i d d d duh i i i di dah dah doh d d doh i i duh d dah duh i dah dah d d t ii d dah dah dah doh i d d dah dah dah i i d d d dah dah i i i d d d d dah i i i i d d d d dt i i i ii d d dah dah d df i i ii d d d d d d d dt i i i i i i ii d dah d d d t i i ii 9 0 dah d d d d t i i ii doh duh d d dt i ii dah dah doh d dr ii dah dah dah dah dt i dah dah duh duh duh d dah d dah d duh i i i dah dah d d dah dah i i rli duh d dah d t i i period comma end of message . Subject has no record and is not wanted. Traffic accidentambulance sent. Meet officer. Request ambulance. Ambulance not required. Coroner required. Fire alarm. Vehicletraffic hazard. Dead animal. Abandoned vehicle. Officer needs help. Wires down. Provide transportation. Attempted suicide.TABLE 36 Law Enforcement 11Code Signal Meaning Signal Meaning 116 117 118 1110 1112 1113 1114 1115 1 117 1124 1125 l 125X 1127 1 128 1129 1130 1131 1140 1 141 1142 Illegal discharge of firearms. Subject has felony record but is not wanted. Injured animal. Special detail. Fire report. Animal bite. Advise if ambulance is needed. Person down. Traffic signal light out. Incomplete phone call. Female motorist needs assistance. Rush vehicle registration informationdriver is being detained. Direct traffic.
The code has a five number rating scale.SINPO RADIOSIGNAL REPORTING CODE SINPO is an acronym for Signal Strength. $ o M mu X 9 fl + nu XI omicron pi rho sigma tau upsilon phi chi psi omega TABLE 37 SINPO SignalReporting Code Degrading effect of Rating scale Signal strength Interference fL)RM) Noise fQRN) Propagation di. and provides a rapid and fairly accurate means for evaluating and reporting the quality of a received radio signal. ' 1 B 1 x H O I K A X p alpha beta gamma delta epsilon zeta eta theta iota kappa lambda t o T N & 0 e o 7 n P C T 'T u 6 y .sturbance Overall readability (QRK) 5 4 3 2 1 excellent good fair poor barely audible nil slight moderate severe extreme nil slight moderate severe extreme nil slight moderate severe extreme excellent good fair poor unusable . Noise. Interference. as shown in Table 37. Propagation. TABLE 38 Greek Alphabet Letter Small Capital (Y Letter Name Small Capital v Name A /3 7 B A 6 t r . and Overall merit. The items for which each letter is a symbol are listed in Table 39. r E % GREEK ALPHABET The Greek alphabet is given in Table 38.
shear stress. absorptance. normal stress. surge i~npedance permeability. transmittance signaling speed angle (plane).1416 . angular phase displacement. Boltzmann's constant. Poisson's ratio. angular acceleration. phase angle heat flow. magnetic flux radiant power luminous flux cartesian coordinate electric susceptibility magnetic susceptibility angle (plane) electric flux angle. wavelength. luminous efficiency. angular frequency. capacitivity. luminous flux. . transfer ratio magnetic induction electrical conductivity. propagation coefficient. electrostatic potential. reluctivity Avogadro's constant coordinates 3. sign of variation permittivity. angles. cylindrical coordinates thermal resistivity wavenumber. permittivity.TABLE 39 Greek Symbol Designations Symbol Designates Symbol Designates angles. angle length thermal conductivity. linear current density angles. magnetic flux linkage amplification factor. angular velocity critical angular frequency synchronous angular frequency resonance angular frequency resistance in ohms. linear density charge critical wavelengths wavelength in a guide resonance wavelength logarithmic decrement. coefficients characteristic impedance. circular and angular wave number eddycurrent coefficient form factor hysteresis coefficient electric field strength. phase coefficient. modulation index (FM) magnetic field strength temperature. relative permittivity. specific quantity reciprocal inductance. . surface density of charge sign of summation time constant. electric field strength coordinate. propagation constant electric constant magnetic constant density. radiant power. coupling coefficient. determinant linear strain. resistivity. Poisson's ratio. volume strain. (circumference divided by diameter) volume density of charge. coefficients. damping coefficient. susceptibility conductivity. permeability magnetic susceptibility initial (relative) permeability relative (magnetic) permeability permeability of vacuum frequency. dielectric constant total emissivity electric susceptibility emissivity (a function of \vavelength) energy. efficiency. angles (solid) . base of natural logarithms complex dielectric constant relative capacitivity.
gauss* (tesla) ggram g/cm3gram per cubic centimeter galgallon Gbgilbert* (ampere turn) GeV gigaelectronvolt GHzgigahertz grgram Gy gray Hhenry hhecto (10').") fcfootcandle* (lux) fLfootlambert* (candela per square meter) ftfoot ft 2square foot ft3cubic foot ft3/mincubic foot per minute ft3/scubic foot per second ftlminfoot per minute ftlsfoot per second ft/s2foot per second squared ftalbf footpound (force) (. may be different for different languages. Unit symbols are most commonly written in lowercase letters except when the unit name is derived from a proper name. They have been included because they are used frequently. ampere turn Ahamperehour A/mampere per meter Aangstrom* (micrometer) aatto (lo'') Bbe1 bbit. each has a separate and distinct use. with few exceptions. are restricted to the Greek and English alphabets. Letter symbols. The terms marked with an asterisk (*) in the following list are not the preferred unit in SI.LETTER SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS Although letter symbols are often regarded as being abbreviations. hour hphorsepower* (watt) Hzhertz ininch in2square inch in3cubic inch inlsinch per second Jjoule . therefore. and is the same in all languages.giga (lo9). The distinction between capital and lowercase letters is part of the symbol and should be followed. Letter Symbols Aampere. An abbreviation. An abbreviation is a letter or a combination of letters (with or without punctuation marks) that represent a word or name in a particular language. The preferred SI unit may be included in parentheses ( ) following the previously used unit.day dadeka (10) dBdecibel dyndyne* (newton) Eexa (10") ergerg* (joule) eVelectronvolt Ffarad OFdegree Fahrenheit ffemto (10. barn Bdbaud Bqbecquerel BtuBritish thermal unit Ccoulomb "Cdegree Celsius ccenti cycle cdcandela cd/m2candela per square meter Cicurie* (becquerel) cmcent imeter cm3cubic centimeter cmilcircular mil CIScycle per second* (hertz) ddeci (lo'). A symbol represents a unit or quantity.
') pAmicroampere pFmicrofarad pHmicrohenry pmmicrometer psmicrosecond 98 .K)watt per meter kelvin Wlsrwatt per steradian W/(srm2)watt per steradiansquare meter Wbweber (V5) Whwatthour ydyard yd2square yard ydJcubic yard pmicro (10.001 in) minminute (time) molmole Nnewton nnano (10. milli (lo') m2square meter m3cubic meter m3/scubic meter per second mAmilliampere mHmillihenry mhomho* (siemens) mLmilliliter mmmillimeter msmillisecond mVmillivolt mWmilliwatt milhmile per hour milmil (0.kilometer km/hkilometer per hour kV.kilovolt kVA.radian rdrad* (gray) rlminrevolutions per minute rlsrevolutions per second Ssiemens (R') ssecond time srsteradian Ttera (10").kilogram kHzkilohertz kgkilohm km.") N emnewtonmeter N/m2newton per square meter* (pascal) N*s/m2newtonsecond per square meter nA nanoampere nFnanofarad nmnanometer nsnanosecond Oeoersted* (ampere per meter) Ppeta (10 I'). lambert* (candela per square meter) lbpound lmlumen Im/m2lumen per square meter Im/wlumen per watt 1m.slumen second Ixlux (Im/m2) Mmega (10") MeV megaelect ronvolt MHzmegahertz MRmegohm Mxmaxwell* (Weber) Mymyria* (10') mmeter.kilovoltampere kWkilowatt kwhkilowatthour Lliter.JIKjoulc per kelvin Kkel\~in kkilo (10') kg.") pFpicofarad ptpint pW picowatt qtquart Hroentgen OHdegree Rankine rad. tesla u(unified) atmoic mass unit Vvolt VIAvoltampere Vlmvolt per meter varvar Wwatt W/(m. poise* (pascal second) Papascal ppico (10.
coulomb "CCelsius temperature scale DBdouble break dblrdoubler dBdecibel DCdirect current. frontconnected dplxrduplexer 1)PSTdoublepole. singlethrow DPSWdoublepole switch DSBdoublesideband 1)SCdouble silkcovered DSSBdouble singlesideband DTdouble throw 99 . collector.balance BCbroadcast BFObeat frequency oscillator bnd."degree (plane angle) 'minute (plane angle) "second (plane angle) Abbreviations ACalternating current AFaudiofrequency AFCautomatic frequency control AGCautomatic gain control AMamplitude modulation ammammeter ampampere amp hrampere hour amplamplifier amptdamplitude AN1. audio autoautomatic. backconnccted DPDTdoublepole.American Wire Gage BABuffer amplifier bal.band BOblocking oscillator bpbandpass buzbuzzer bwbandwidth bypbypass B&SBrown & Sharpe Wire Gage BtuBritish thermal unit calcalibrate capcapacitor carrcarrier cathcathode CBcommon base CCcolor code CCW counterclockwise CEcommon cmittcr cermetceramic metal element CFcathode follower chanchannel ckt circuit CRTcat hoderay tube clscyclc pcr second CTcenter tap C to Ccenter to center CWcontinuous wave. clockwise cy cycle Ccapacitance. attenuator audaudible. automobile auxauxiliary AVCautomatic volume control avg average AWG. capacitor. doublethrow DPFCdoublepole.automatic noise limiter antantenna APCautomatic phase control ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information Interchange assy assembly attenattenuation. double contact DCCdouble cottoncovered degdegree degusgdegaussing demoddemodulator detdetail. detach DFdirection finder discdisconnect dischdischarge DLdelay line dly delay dmgzdemagnetize dmrdimmer DPdoublepole DPBCdoublepole.
installation instminstrumentation instrinstrument insulinsulate. emitter. horsepower HSIIhot side HThigh tension HVhigh voltage HVRhighvoltage regulator hybhybrid hyphypotenuse IDinside diameter IFintermediate frequency illurnilluminate impdimpedance imprgimpregnate incandincandescent incrincrease. voltage f frequency. infinity inpinput inspinspect instinstall. gate GMTGreenwich mean time hdst headset HFhigh frequency HFOhighfrequency oscillator hifihigh fidelity hkphookup hndst handset hphigh pass. high pressure. graphic ammeter galvnmgalvanometer gdlkgrid leak gl~gglowplug gndground Ggain. increment indindicate ind Ipindicating lamp infinfinite. electric flux density EBCDICextended bjnarycoded decimal interchange code KCenamel covered ECOelectronic checkout EDTelectronic discharge tube EFemitter follower elctdelectrode elecelectric elekelectronic elexelect ronics EMelectromagneticepitaxial mesa EMFelectromotive force emsnemission EMTelectrical metallic tubing emtremitter engy energy envenvelope EPepitaxial planar ERelectrical resistance ERPeffective radiated power eselectrostatic EVMelectronic voltmeter EVOMelectronic voltohmmeter exctrexciter Eeast.filament FMfrequency modulation focfocus freq chgfrequency changer freq confrequency converter freqmfrequency meter FSCfull scale fufuse fubxfuse box fuhlrfuse holder FVfull voltage FWfull wave OFFahrenheit temperature scale FETfieldeffect transistor ggrounded gagage. insulation . force FATRfixed autotransformer FBfuse block fdbkfeedback FFflipflop fil. duty factor.DTVMdifferential thermocouple voltmeter dty cyduty cycle dyndynamo dynrndynamotor dynmtdyamometer Ddrain.
magnetic mag ampmagnetic amplifier mag modmagnetic modulator MCmomentary contact. magnetron micmicrophone mommomentary mtmount MOSmetaloxide semiconductor MOSFETmetaloxide semiconductor fieldeffect transistor NCNo coil. inductance.Hleft hand limlimit lim swlimit switch LIRLYloadindicating relay Ikgleakage Ikrotlocked rotor Ilresloadlimiting resistor LOlocal oscillator loff leakoff LPlow pass LPOlow pourer output LRload resistor (relay) 1. intercommunication invinverter 110inputoutput IRinsulation resistance ITinsulating transformer Icurrent ICintegrated circuit IGFETinsulatedgate fieldeffect transistor JBjunction box jctjunction jkjack JANJoint ArmyNavy JANAFJoint ArmyNavyAir Force JFETjunction fieldeffect transistor Kdielectric constant kn swknife switch KOknock out kWhm.intercomintercommunicating. no connection. mode MAmecury arc 101 magmagnet.SBlower sideband 1.kilowatthour meter Ilength. inductor. oscillator OSMVoneshot multivibrator outoutput ovldoverload ovrdoverride ppole. multichip mdlmodule melecmicroelectronics MFmicrofilm mgmagnetic armature mgnmagneto. luminance lamlaminate Iclinecarrying 1. normally closed nelecnonelectric neut neutral N1:noise figure.SRloadswitching resistor It swlight sivitch lyrlayer LSHIlargescale hybrid integration LSIlargescale integration mmagnaflux. noise frequency nfsdnonfused nmagnonmagnetic NOnormally open NOLnormal overload nomnominal normnormal ntnneutron nylnylon Nnorth OCover current OCOopencloseopen OCRovercurrent relay ohmohmmeter oproperate ORLYoverload relay oscoscillate. probe PApulse amplifier PAMpulseamplitude modulation PB SWpullbutton switch PCprinted circuit .Flow frequency 1.FOlowfrequency oscillator 1.
Y relay rmsroot mean square rmt remote rot rotate rpmrevolutions per minute rpsrevolutions per second rpt. single cottoncovered SCEsingle cotton enamel schemschematic SCRshortcircuit ratio scrtermscrew terminal seesecond. quantity of electricity rradius radradio rcdrrecorder rcv receive rcvrreceiver rechrg recharge rectrectifier ref reference reg.repeat rtrrotor RTTY radio teletypewriter Rresistance. sensitivity seqsequence servoservomechanism sftshaft shshunt SHFsuperhigh frequency 102 .regenerate resresistor resnresonant rev curreverse current RFradiofrequency RFCradiofrequency choke RFIradiofrequency interference rgltrregulator RHright hand RIFIradio interference field intensity rinsulrubber insulation RI.PCMpulsecode modulation. resistor RCresistancecapacitance RC cpldresistancecapacitance coupled RLresistanceinductance RLCresistanceinductancecapacitance RTLresistortransistor logic SBsideband SCsingle contact SCCsingleconductor cable. pulse frequency PFMpulsefrequency modulation pFpicofarad phphase phenphenolic phmphase meter PIMpulseinterval modulation pkpeak PLBpull button plnrplanar plspulse plyphpolyphase plzpolarize plznpolarization PNPpositivenegativepositive pospositive potpotentiometer prpair preamppreamplifier priprimary PRVpeak reverse voltage psiv passive PUpickup PVCpolyvinyl chloride pwrpower pwr splypower supply qtzquartz Qmerit of a capacitor or coil. pulsecount modulation pct percent PDMpulseduration modulation PECphotoelectric cell pelecphotoelectric pentpentode permbpermeability PFpower factor. secondary sel selector semicondsemiconductor senssensitive.
temperature templtemplate termterminal tet tetrode TFthin film TFTthinfilm transistor thermothermostat thmsthermistor thrmthermal thymothyratron motor thyrthyristor tlgtelegraph tlmtelemeter tlmy telemetry TMtemperature meter TMXtelemeter transmitter tphotelephotograph tprteleprinter TRFtuned radiofrequency tsteqtest equipment 103 . singlethrow SPST SWsinglepole. single throw STA1. voltage standingwave ratio SCRsemiconductorcontrolled rectifier SHshield (electronic device) SWGStubs Wire Gage ttemperature. split ring SRI.telecommunications temp.Ostabilized local oscillator STAMOstabilized master oscillator st & spstart and stop stbscpstroboscope stby standby stdf standoff subassy subassembly subminsubminiature substrsubstrate sup cursuperimposed current supprsuppressor svmtrservomotor svoservo swshortwave. doublethrow switch spkspike spkrspeaker SPSTsinglepole. time tach tachometer TBterminal board TCthermocouple. doublethrow SPDT SWsinglepole. singlethrow switch SP SW singlepole switch sqsquare sqcqsquirrel cage sqwsquare wave SRslip ring.Y series relay SSsubsystem SSBsinglesideband SSBOsingle swing blocking oscillator SSCsingle silkcovered SSWsynchro switch STsawtooth. shielding shortshort circuit SHTCshort time constant sigsignal sig gensignal generator slpslope slvsleeve SLWLstraightline wavelength SNRsignaltonoise ratio snsrsensor solsolenoid SPsingle pole spdrspider SPDTsinglepole. switch swbdswitchboard swgrswitchgear swpsweep swp expsweep expand swp gensweep generator swp integsweep integrator SWRstandingwave ratio (voltage) symsymbol synsynchronous syncsynchronize syssystem syncapsynchroscope Ssignal power.shldshield. Schmitt trigger. time constant TCUtape control unit teltelephone telecom.
singlethrow . varistor varhmvarhour meter varistorvariable resistor VCvoice coil VCOvoltagecontrolled oscillator VUvoltage drop vdetvoltage detector vernvernier VFvariable frequency.fourpole 4Pl)Tfourpole. doublepole switch 3PHthreephase 3PSTthreepole. visual vidampvideo amplifier VFvideo frequency VLFvery low frequency vmvoltmeter vovoice volvolume VOMvoltohmmilliammeter VRvoltage regulator VRLY volt age relay VSMvestigialsideband modulation VSWRvoltage standingwave ratio VTvacuum tube VTVMvacuumtube voltmeter VOXvoiceoperated transmitter keyer VUvolume unit wwide whwide band wdwatt demand meter wdgwinding wfrwafer WGwaveguide.capacitive reactance X. singlethrow 3PST SW threepole.T SWtemperature switch. test switch TTteletype TTY teletypewriter TVtelevision TVMtachometer voltmeter TStelegraph system UFultrasonic frequency UHFultrahigh frequency undcundercurrent undf underfrequency unf unfused unrgltdunregulated USBupper sideband utilutility UJTunijunction transistor USGUnited States Gage vvertical. singlethrow switch 3W threewire 3way t hreeway 4lCfour conductor 4P. doublethrow 3PDT SW threepole. vibration vidvideo. doublethrow switch 4PST.fourpole. wire gage WHIIMwatthour demand meter WHMwatthour meter WLwavelength WMwattmeter wndwound wpgwiping WRwall receptacle wrgwiring wtrprfwaterproof WVworking voltage ww wirewound X reactance X.inductive reactance y admittance yryear ZAzero adjusted %impedance. doublethrow 4PDT SWfourpole. zone Ilcsingle conductor 1 PHsinglephase 3lCt hreeconductor 3Pthreepole 3PDTthreepole. voice frequency VFOvariablefrequency oscillator vfreq clkvariablefrequency clock VHFvery high frequency vibvibrate. voltage vacvacuum vamvoltammeter varvariable.
. shortcircuit... with gate connected to the guard terminal of a threeterminal bridge C. shortcircuit..transition frequency g. with gate and source connected to the guard terminal of a threeterminal bridge C... forwardcurrent. collectortoemitter Cd.shortcircuit reverse transfer capacitance (common collector) C.shortcircuit reverse transfer capacitance (common base) C....gatesource capacitance.. transferratio cutoff frequency (common base) fh.drainsource capacitance..shortcircuit output capacitance (common base) C.opencircuit input capacitance (common emitter) Ci.static transconductance (common base) g.smallsignal...cstatic transconductance (common collector) g.. emittertobase C..shortcircuit output capacitance (gatedrain shortcircuited to AC) C.opencircuit gatedrain capacitance C.maximum frequency of oscillation f .shortcircuit input capacitance (common base) Ci.opencircuit output capacitance (common base) Cob. ccollector electrode Ccbinterterminal capacitance..shortcircuit reverse transfer capacitance (common emitter) C. transferratio cutoff frequency (common collector) fh. with gate shortcircuited to source C.d. with the source connected to the guard terminal of a threeterminal bridge Dduty cycle ddamping coefficient E....interterminal capacitance..opencircuit output capacitance (common emitter) C...opencircuit drainsource capacitance C. eemitter electrode fhibsmallsignal. forwardcurrent..smallsignal... bbase electrode for units employing a single base h. reverse C. shortcircuit. b..shortcircuit output capacitance (common emitter) C.smallsignal transconductance (common collector) . forwardcurrent...opencircuit input capacitance (common base) Cib..drainsubstrate capacitance.drainsource capacitance..smallsignal transconductance (common base) g..breakdown voltage.. commonbase shortcircuit current gain B.4PST SWfourpole. transferratio cutoff frequency (common emitter) f. etc. aalpha..base electrodes for more than one base Bbeta...interterminal capacitance. 4Wfourwire 4way fourway singlethrow switch SEMICONDUCTOR ABBREVIATIONS T h e following abbreviations have been adopted for use with semiconductor devices..draingate capacitance.opencircuit gatesource capacitance Cib.. collectortobase C. commonemitter shortcircuit current gain BY. with drain shortcircuited to source C..shortcircuit input capacitance (common emitter) Ci..
.smallsignal transducer power gain (common base) G.static value of opencircuit output conductance (common collector) hotsmallsignal value of opencircuit output admittance (common collector) h.. forwardcurrent.smallsignal.smallsignal transducer power gain (common collector) G...smallsignal.. common source h. reversevoltage transfer ratio (common collector) h.... reversevoltage transfer ratio (common base) h.g..largesignal average power gain (common collector) GI.static value of the input resistance (common emitter) hiesmallsignal value of shortcircuit input impedance (common emitter) hi. shortcircuit....... static transconductance (common emitter) g. common gate G.smallsignal value of opencircuit.. reversevoltage transfer ratio (common emitter) I. forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common base) HI.smallsignal value of opencircuit.inherent largesignal.largesignal transducer power gain (common emitter) G. common source G.. transfer ratio h.largesignal average power gain (common base) Gp. iintrinsic region of a device (where neither holes nor electrons predominate) I.static value of the forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common collector) hi.....smallsignal..static value of opencircuit output conductance (common emitter) h.smallsignal average power gain (common base) G... forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common collector) h.. shortcircuit.smallsignal average power gain (common emitter) Gp.largesignal average power gain (common emitter) G.static value of the forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common emitter) h...base current (DC) . shortcircuit..static value of the input resistance (common base) hi..smallsignal transducer power gain.smallsignal insertion power gain.smallsignal transducer power gain (common emitter) G.smallsignal value of opencircuit. (real)real part of smallsignal value of shortcircuit input impedance (common emitter) h.static value of the input resistance (common collector) hitsmallsignal value of shortcircuit input impedance (common collector) h....largesignal transducer power gain (common base) GI.largesignal transducer power gain (common collector) G.smallsignal transducer power gain..smallsignal insertion power gain.static value of the forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common base) hi..smallsignal value of opencircuit output admittance (common emitter) h.smallsignal average power gain (common collector) G.static value of opencircuit output conductance (common base) huhsmallsignal value of opencircuit output admittance (common base) h.. common gate G..smallsignal transconductance (common emitter) Gegermanium G.smallsignal value of shortcircuit input impedance (common base) h. forwardcurrent transfer ratio (common emitter) h...
.. base open I. pregion of a device where holes are the majority carriers P...forward current. alternating component &forward current (instantaneous) I. (external) gatesource resistance specified I1..*drain current....drain current (DC) I..source current.drain current.emitter cutoff current (DC)..source current 15.average output rectified current I...:.. gatesource condition specified I....... direct I....substate current I.overload onstate current I. overload I.peakpoint current (doublebase transistor) I..reverse gate current I.peak reverse current..total power input (DC or average) to the base electrode with respect to the emitter electrode .. gatedrain condition specified I. zero gate voltage Is.alternating component of reverse current (rms value) i.regulator current. reference current (DC) I.forward current..Ocollector cutoff current (DC).holding current (DC) 6infectionpoint current I(. DC value with alternating component I. with base shortcircuited to emitter I.. reference current (DC maximum rated current) KOthermal derating factor LCconversion loss Mfigure of merit N.emitter current (instantaneous) I......source current...gate current (DC) I(..regulator current....forward current (DC) I....drain cutoff current I...collector current (rms) i.onstate current surge (nonrepetitive) I.oreverse recovery current I....forward current. with specified resistance between base and emitter I.breakover current. peak repetitive I.emittercollector offset current I.collector cutoff current (DC).emitter current (rms) i....base current (rms) i..current cutoff current (DC)..regulator current...... with specified circuit between base and emitter I. collector open I.collector cutoff current (DC).forward gate current I...:emitter current (DC) I.. base shortcircuited to collector I. repetitive I. nregion of a device where electrons are the majority carriers NFnoise figure NFooverall noise figure NR. reference current (DC nar breakdown knee) I.forward current.forward current...I...... valleypoint current (doublebase transistor) I.Ssdrain current..reverse current... repetitive In.emitter cutoff current (doubleemitter transistors) I.collector cutoff current with specified voltage between base and emitter I....reverse current (instantaneous) i..emitter cutoff current (DC)......peak forward gate current I.. collector current (instantaneous) I.. total rms value I.output noise ratio P....forward gate current (DC) IF(.base current (instantaneous) I.collector current (DC) I.......reverse current (DC) I.collector current (DC).... peak surge I.forward current. zero gate voltage ].. emitter open I.peak onstate current.....collector leakage current (cutoff current) I. peak total value IF.
fall time t.external emitter resistance RE.junction temperature to.smallsignal output power (common collector) P.reverse recovery time . junctiontocase r.smallsignal input power (common base) P.....operating temperature ?.total power input (DC or average) to the emitter electrode with respect to the base electrode P.....total power input (instantaneous) to the emitter electrode with respect to the base elect rode P..ambient temperature Tccase temperature ?....pulse time t..total power input (instantaneous) to the base electrode with respect to the emitter electrode PI.smallsignal output power (common emitter) P. 'C.forward recovery time T. forward power loss (instantaneous) P. junctiontoambient Re.t hermal resistance..damping resistance R.smallsignal input power (common emitter) PO.forward power loss (DC) p. casetoambient Re..surge nonrepetitive power P.collectortoemitter saturation resistance r.. emitter zero (doublebase transistor) r..largesignal input power (common base) Pi.resistance between two bases.total power input (DC or average) to the collector electrode with respect to the base electrode PC.turnoff time tanturnon time Tug...reverse power loss pareverse power loss (instantaneous) P.P..delay time ?.smallsignal emitteremitter onstate resistance (double emitter transistors) ridynamic resistance at inflection point R..total power input (instantaneous) to all electrodes Q.total power input (instantaneous) to the collector electrode with respect to the emitter electrode P.thermal resistance...drainsource power dissipation P.external base resistance r.largesignal input power (common emitter) Pi.rise time ?.recovered charge (stored charge) R. total peak value PI..forward power loss.....smallsignal output power (common base) Po....slope resistance Sisilicon Ttemperature T.thermal resistance..largesignal input power (common collector) Picsmallsignal input power (common collector) P...collectorbase time constant &.load resistance Rethermal resistance R.total power input (DC or average) to all electrodes p.largesignal output power (common base) Po.external collector resistance r..total power input (DC or average) to the collector electrode with respect to the emitter electrode PC.emitterbase junction resistance (assume 4 R average) re.largesignal output power (common emitter) Pa....largesignal output power (common collector) Po.total power input (instantaneous) to the collector electrode with respect to the base electrode P.
basetoemitter voltage (instantaneous) V. collectortobase.breakdown voltage. with circuit between base and emitter VI.......draintosource voltage (DC) V.. floating potential.. with base shortcircuited to emitter V.offstate voltage (direct) Vl.t.. emittertocollector V.. with base shortcircuited to emitter V.. collectortobase V....basetoemitter voltage (DC) V... voltage between base and emitter V...breakdown voltage.basetocollector voltage (DC) Vb.. drain shortcircuited to source V(... emittertoemitter (doubleemitter transistor) V..R.....forward voltage (DC) ..collectortoemitter voltage (DC) V..emittertocollector voltage (DC) V.... collectortoemitter V..emitter voltage (DC) V......breakdown voltage......reverse breakdown voltage VR.. drain shortcircuited to source VlRRIGssHbreakdown voltage. with specified resistance between base and emitter VC. collector to emitter Vc. breakdown voltage.... with voltage between base and emitter V. gatetosource. reverse voltage to gatesource.collector voltage (DC) VCRcollectortobase voltage (DC) VCR..storage temperature t.peak offstate voltage Vl......collectortoemitter voltage (DC).. emittertobase V. working V..drain supply voltage (DC) Vl...bias DC voltage between base 2 and base 1 (doublebase transistor) V.... floating potential..DC opencircuit voltage..draintosubstrate voltage (DC) V..... drain shortcircuited to source V(nn. with emitter open VcCcollector supply voltage (DC) V.... emitter open V..) V...DC opencircuit voltage. forward voltage applied to gatesource..collectortobase voltage (instantaneous) Vc.breakdown voltage..collectortoemitter voltage (rms) V... floating potential. collector open V....storage time TSStangential signal sensitivity T. with specified resistance between base and emitter V.. collectortoemitter.basetocollector voltage (instantaneous) VR. emittertobase.emittertobase voltage (DC).. collectortoemitter...saturation voltage... collectortoemitter... with base open V...DC opencircuit voltage. circuit between base and emitter V...... nonrepetitive V. base to emitter Vb..collectortobase voltage (DC).collectortoemitter voltage (DC).collectortoemitter voltage (DC).... collectortoemitter.basetocollector voltage (rms) vb...breakdown voltage...k. floating potential.... base open (formerly B V.peak offstate voltage......collectortoemitter voltage (DC)..emittertobase voltage (DC) V.breakdown voltage....base supply voltage (DC) V...bcollectortobase voltage (rms) v...... emittertocollector.collectortoemitter voltage (DC)..peak offstate voltage repetitive V.breakdown voltage...breakover voltage (instantaneous) V....DC opencircuit voltage.basetoemitter voltage (rms) vb.....R.. collectortoemitter.emitter supply voltage (DC) V....peak offstate voltage.draintogate voltage (DC) VI..saturation voltage...breakdown voltage. with collector open V.pulse average time VRbase voltage (DC) V.. base open V.breakdown voltage........ssFbr~akd~wn voltage..
.. total rms value V.... junctiontocase 2...smallsignal.h.. common emitter Y...smallsignal..smallsignal.gate nontrigger (direct) voltage V. reachthrough voltage V..smallsignal.. reference impedance (smallsignal at I. common collector Yi.. peak total value V..) z/... shortcircuit output admittance..... maximum recurrent V..source supply voltage (DC) V...... (peak) working V.gate trigger voltage (direct) V.. shortcircuit input admittance.alternating component of forward voltage (rms value) t...forward voltagc...projected peakpoint voltage V.reverse voltage..reverse voltage.inflectionpoint voltage V.rcvcrsc voltage (DC) V.gate turnoff voltage (direct) V..smallsignal.....transient thermal impedance.regulator voltage. common base Yi...... forward \roltage (instantaneous) V.onstate voltage...oltage.... junctiontoambient Z$...peak forward gatc voltage V.. common emitter %.V.impedance..threshold voltage V...gatetosource voltage (DC) V.peakpoint voltage (doublebase transistor) V. shortcircuit reverse transfer admittance..smallsignal.minimum gate trigger voltage V..... sourcetosubstrate voltage (DC) V.reverse gatetosource voltage (DC). modulator frequency load zK. shortcircuit input admittance...smallsignal... shortcircuit reverse transfer admittance. shortcircuit output admittance. total rms value V....impedance......minimum onstate voltage V. shortcircuit forward transfer admittance.) .. shortcircuit forward transfer admittance.gatetosource cutoff voltage Vf. common source Y.regulator voltage.......i.alternating component of reverse voltage (rms value) v.reverse voltage..gate supply voltage (DC) V.....forward gate voltage (direct) V. shortcircuit input admittance.. of such polarity that an increase in its magnitude causes the channel resistance to decrease V......smallsignal..smallsignal. reference voltage (DC at maximum rated current) Y. of such polarity that an increase in its magnitude causes the channel resistance to increase V.regulator impedance. radio frequency %. common base Y..smallsignal..transient thermal impedance... shortcircuit output admittance. common base Y..transient thermal impedance %. shortcircuit forward transfer admittance. reference impedance (smallsignal at I..... common collector Y.gatetosource theshold voltage V.fornard \. reference voltage (DC working voltage) V..sourcesubstrate voltage V... common base Yo. common emitter Y..video impedance 2... valleypoint voltagc (doublebase transistor) V.. common emitter Y. gatetosubstrate voltage (DC) V.for\r:ard gatetosource voltage (DC). shortcircuit reverse transfer admittance...regulator impedance..smallsignal. direct V. peak transient V..reverse collectortobase voltage. punchthrough voltage V..smallsignal.reverse voltage... common collector Y.reverse voltagc (instantaneous) V..
31.esign! ficanr figures) .g~irc Boclyendclot system Bodyend band sy. 1st S~gnlticantF~gure m I I I .sietn + j / Fig.\ I 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant Res~storsw ~ t hblack body are composlt~on non~nsulated Res~storsw ~ t h colored body are composlt~on Insulated Wlre wound Res~storshave the 1st color band double width Colorband sysleni (two significant fig~ilrs) Colorband systetn (1llrc. The various rnethods of marking the resistors are shown in Fig. /. 31 Mult~pl~er 2nd S~gnlticanlFigure 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant Dashband systrtn Miniature resistor code . Table 310 gives the significance of each color.. Mult~pl~er Tolerance 2nd S~gn~llcant Flgure 1st S~gnit~cant Figure ! / I Mult~plier #* : '.: Mult~pl~er Tolerance I 1st S ~ g n ~ f ~ c F~gure ant 2nd S~gnif~cant Figure 2nd Slgn~llcantF~gure Bodydot system Dotband systetti lolerance htdi:ipl~e~ 211dSlgn111:dnt ':go:? & i 121 S~g~l~l~can! i . \'.RESISTOR COLOR CODES Both composition resistors and the smaller types of wirewound resistors are 1 q~* * 2nd Slgnll~cantFlgure colorcoded for values.
and the manufacturer's preference.000.: Mdy 11e on edher end \>nd S ~ g n ~ l ~ c Voltage F~gure ani May also be lnolcated by olher inelhacs such as lypograph~~al d r k ~ r ~ g blach s l ~ ~ i l e .1 0.lotiage f~gures One band :ndlca:Ps voltage rallilgs u.TABLE 310 Resistor Color Code Color Significant figures Multiplier Tolerance (%) Failure rate* Rlack Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 0 1 2 3 4 5 6  7 8 9 1 10 1 00 1. Is! 2nd S~g~llllcanl Sign:l cant F:gure F.O 0.go:e hlull~pl~er \ \ / lole~ancp Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitors Molded flat paper and mica capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig. Is! S1gmflrant m o: 'lgure Add two x r o s l o slgn bcanf . depending on the type of capacitor.000 0.000 10.000 1 00. 33 and Table 312. Molded Paper Tubular Capacitors Molded paper tubular capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig.000 1. the age of the unit.000. O n film r e s i b l o r i n d i c a t e s s o l d e r a b l c t c r r r l i l l a l . Some of the ones listed in the following are no longer in use.01 0.01 + 20 &I 2 3 &4 &  1.000 10.1 0. Ceramic and Molded Insulated Capacitors Ceramic and molded insulated capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig. Indicates outer !a. 34 and Table 313. 32 and Table 311.000. However. 32 . c r ) CAPACITOR COLOR CODES There are several methods of color coding capacitors. they are included for reference.001     Solderable*  + 10 + 20 2 5  *01i o ~ i i p o s i t i ~cn i s t o r i n d i c a t e s f a i l u r e & p c r 1000 h o u r s .000 100.iaer 1000 V I Fig.
000 10.000 + 20   +5    8 9  + 10. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 10 100 1. 33 Silvered mica bullon .000 1. +5 2 10 + 20  1st Significant Figure Black or Brown Body m Multiplier 1st Slgnlftcant F~gure ldentlfter 2nd Slgnlllcant F~gure Whlte (EIAI Black ( M ~ c a l 2nd S~gnificant Figure lnd~catorStyle Opt~onal Characlerlstlc Capacrlance Tolerance Multlpl~er Voltage Molded mica (6dot) DC Work~ng Voltage Molded flat paper (commercial grade) 1st Significant Figure 2nd Significant Figure Wh~le lElA ldent~f~erl V ~ b r a l ~ oGrade (Mil I n %& Operating Temperature Range lnd~catarOpt~onal Molded mica (9 dot rearfront is same as for 6dot code) Molded flat paper (military grade) Characteristic Tolerance Multiplier Significant Figures 1st (When Applicable) 2nd (or 1st) 3rd (or 2nd) Fig.000.TABLE 31 1 Molded Paper Tubular Capacitor Color Code* Color First & second significant figures Multiplier Iblerance ('10) Black Brown Red Orange Yeliow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color *All values in picofarads.000 100.
Tolerance Multiplier 1 10 100 1.~rads. and production test requirements. figs.5 (EIA)' + 10 1000 (EIA)    "All talues i l l picofarad\. 'Denotes specifications of tlesign involving Q l'actors. ('la\\ 3 arc low voltilgc ceritinics where dielectric loss. 20% where space permits. Class I Multiplier I0 pF or less Over I0 pF Tolerance1 Class 2 'I'emperature coefficient Significant figure Color Black Brown Red Orange YcIIo\v Green Blue Violet Gray White Silvcr Gold pprn "C' MuNiplier *All values in pic.0 PI:.000 l0. t o r + 5. Class 2 are for circuits where 0 .)   + 85 "C + 125 "C + 150°C (MIL) 300 500 102000 Hz  9 0. tClabc I cnpacltors are for circuits requiring tcnlperaturc coinpel~sationand high 0. All other5 arc specified lolcrailcc or + I . whichever is greater. . temperature coefficients. is TABLE 313 Ceramic Capacitor Color Codes* Capacitance Ist & 2nd sig.000 (EIA) (%) DC working voltage Operating temperature range 55 to 55 to 55 to 55 to Vibration grade (MIL) 1055 HZ D E F  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 + 20 +l +2 +5  I00 (EIA) + 70°C (MIL.1 0.ot'. 'lblcrance of Class 3 ceramics is typographically marked with code \l for + 20% or code % foi + 80%.TABLE 312 Molded Flat Paper and Mica Capacitor Color Code* Capacitance Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Bluc Violet Gray White Gold Silver Characteristic' A (EIA) B C Ist & 2nd sig. figs.lnd stability are not required.01 (EIA)    + 0.0 pt. wliicl~cvcr greater. high insulation resistance and stability are not of major irnportar~cc.
35 .Lel11 :Vhlte Banu D ~ s t ~ t ~ g u ~ s h e siolerance Capac~tot From Res~stor Mult:p!~er Tolerance Molded insulated faxiul 1eud) Molded insulated (using resistor color code) Stundoff IS: Signif!can. ~ ~ : ~ fdultijtl~er Feedthrougl? 1st Sign~!~cant 2no Si~~i~t~car~t Tet?Iperdluie Coeft.gn$t~cant Figure I st 2nc S:gn$t:rant 15: r.?iler S ~ e n ~ l ~ c a n l Coeft~c~ent I lgure Mrtlt~vi~er Tubular high capacitance Fig.petalure Coelt~c~ent !~ull.~ W IU Disc ( M o t ) Is: Scgniftcan: Button 2nd Slgntlrcar~t F .lult~pl~ei Tslerance Voltage lo~tioilat~ 1en.lle Figure iolerance t.!st 2% Signrficanl 1st S:gn than1 2nd S.gure !t!ultioiter Slgn~licar:: pl~hlre 1y 6 2r!d S~gn~t~rant Figure !OIUIIIP~I~~ ~cmperature' Coett~c~ent Tolerar~ce Temperature Coetl~c:enl a Tolerance Disc (3dot) IS1 Slenltlcanl %we.c~ent M~ri!~pl~er loleraiice COPII. 34 Tubular tetnperature compensating Tubular extended runge temperuture conlpensating Tantalum Capacitors Tantalum capacitors are color coded as shown in Fig. 35 and Table 314. 1st S ~ g n ~ l i c a F ~ g u r e nl 2nd Signif~cantFigure I Fig. ' 2r'd S~giicltcant . i!gure 2nd SI~III~IC~III F~gure Ist 2nc S~en~t~cantS~gn~t~caril i~gure F~gure Tolerance 2nd 1st Sign~t~cant S~ge~~t~catrt Feg.
alusb ill 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 3 4 5 1 10 100 10  1 '10 20. An R included in the digits indicates a decimal point. TABLE 315 Semiconductor Color Code ~p Yurnber Color Suffix letter 0 1 P .2 3 O/o Color sig. and dielectric. 2nd sig.5 8 lr~icrofaradt 9 8 9  ' SEMICONDUCTOR COLOR CODE The sequence numbers of semiconductor type numbers and suffix letters may use the colorcoding indicated in Table 315. The significance of these letters is as follows: ELECTRONICS SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS The most common schematic symbols are illustrated in Fig 36.01 0. fig.Special .TABLE 314 Tantalum Capacitor Color Codes 1st X H . fig.GMV 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 black brown red orange yellow green blue violet gray white not applicable A B C D E F G H J . The actual method of marking will vary with manufacturers but one group of markings will usually indicate the type.25 pF pF k 0.3 16 20 C D  0. and another group the capacitance value and tolerance. the multiplier or number of zeros to add to obtain the value in picofarads. voltage. A letter following the value indicates the tolerance.1 pF &  0. The first two (or three) digits in the value indicate the significant digits of the value and the last digit. The colors conform to EIA standard for numerical values. Rated DC Multiplier voltage G F B  + 2 O/o k Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Pink 'All \. Typographically Marked Capacitors A system of typographical marking to indicate the various parameters of capacitors is becoming popular.1 6 7  25 3 35 6.
D~ode Tr~ode Tetrode Pentode or Sheet Beam Beam Power f Pentagrld Converter & Eye Tube Gas F~lledRect~f~er @ Photo Tube Q Hlgh Voltage Rectlf~er Full Wave Rect~f~er Duo D ~ o d e Tr~ode 4 k Filament + Two Sect~on Dual Tr~ode ea. Tubes (1 n < Cathode 1 EyeTube DeflectIan Plate Photo Cathode I Gr~d Plate r Cold Cathode Beam Formlng Plate Gas Fllled Tube elements Fig. . Electronics schematic symbols. 36A.
118 . 36B. Electronics schematic symbols.* Diode or Metallic Rect~fler Zener b o d e Elpolar Voltage Llm~ter (Symmetr~cal Zener D~ode) Va(actor Tunnel D~ode @ Pln Dlode Vollage Dependent Res~stor % Photod~ode IPhotosens~t~ve Type) Current Dependent Res~stor Llght E m ~ d ~ n g D~ode (LED1 4 Res~slor Temperature Sens~t~ve D~ode @69Bldirectronal Trlgger Dtac (PNP) @ @ Tugger D~ac lNPNl 63 3 6Llghl Dependent Temperature Dependent Res~stor T T Tr~ggerD~ac (PNPI @ T Q Or $ c q Un~junct~on Trans~stor IProgrammableI B~d~rect~onal Tugger D~ac (NPNl Phototrans~stor INPNI w : m:: e a: 3 a: Un~lunct~on Tfanslstor (N Type Basel Un~~unct~on Translslor IP Type Base) N Channel Juncl~onGate P Channel Junct~onGate F~eldEffect Transistors (FETI v v Trans~stor (PNP) Trans~stor INPNI @$LIB N Channel Deplet~on S @m : N Channel Enhancement MDSFETS S @$LIB P Channel Enhancement P Channel Deplet~on G N Channel Deplel~on Insulated Gale P Channel Deplet~on Insulated Gate m : u B S B !&$ U P Channel Enhancement Insulated Gate N Channel Enhancement Insulated Gale Dual Gate MDSFETS Semiconductor devices Fig.
Electronics schematic symbols..r a&& . 119 . DP Common Cathode Dtsplay Pln Dlagram Common Anode Display 'Decimal polnt ID P available for r~ghthand.  N Type Gate P Type Gate Semtconductor Controlled Rectitlers ISCRSI Thyr~stor Bldlrectlonal Triode DarllngtonType Trans~stor PNP TransverseB~asedBase Trans~stor Semiconductor devices (conr) Common 6D.   RHDP' L. or untversalmust specify 7Segment led indicator A >AB B Buffer lnverter A N D Gate A 6 B A + B ? I X  N A N D Gate OR Gate N O R Gate I g " " A  D ) A B E x c l u s ~ v e Gate OR Exclusive N O R Gate Logic synzbols Fig. I 7.P. 36C. left hand.
Galvanometer MAMilliammeter pA. 361). Electronics schematic symbols.Ammeter VVoltmeter G.+ ~1~1~1~1~tMult~cell Frequency Determining Monaural Phono Cartridges Stereo OneCell Piezoelecrric crystal Bar reries Fixed Wires Connected W~res Crossed W ~ r eConnecting Var~able Tapped Resistors Male Female AI~ Core PowderedIron Core Iron Core Var~able Core Wiring Inductors ti Filament A. 120 .Translormer Variable Core 4 Shielded ++s+ Fuses Grounds i7unsfortners General Dynam~c Electrostatic Stereo Speakers Electr~~stafic ~ransducer Fig.M~croammeter Neon Air Core Iron Core IF Latnps meters Power Auto.
.. Dynamlc.  n .i+ i .  Circuit breakers I I I I  L. Crystal.T T T Flxed I Reset Button . etc.&Shlelded Wlre ! I L . n. 36E. 4 I Polarized NonPolarized Electrolytics spark plate I ..Polar~zed =a AC receptucles d o 0 =a d o Polartred zr oO 6PST Magnetic recording head A 0 ' o 40 / P o 0 0 o d"o PLP SPST SPDT DPST DPDT Push Bunan Wafer Switches Fig. Shields General Telescop~ng D~pole Loop Jacks Antennas 'Indicate type by letter. Electronics schematic symbols.  I I I I I 4 /7  A b Capacitors . A C voltage sources 12 1 . R = Record RIP = RecordlPlay P = Playback E = Erase =c Non..I 6 L  7 Sh~eldedPalr D Microphones Sh~eldedAssembly lndlcate type by note: Ceramic.
.
The test pattern is broadcast as a "station check of performance. The vertical wedges (E) or any other pattern details in the vertical plane are used to determine horizontal resolution. the wedge has separate lines that seem to come together at a certain point and become one wide vertical line. and appropriate adjustments can be made on the receiver. The test pattern broadcast from the television station follows the characteristics of the Indian Head test pattern (Fig. the significance of various test patterns is given. and linearity. 4l). and the outside diameter in inches or millimeters. the test pattern is transmitted before the station starts its broadcasting day. Generally. It is also a check of performance for the receiver. The electrical specifications include the impedance in ohms. if the test pattern has a vertical wedge. Also. they serve to check the overall videoamplifying circuits and receiver alignment. Horizontal and vertical lines (B) may be used to check linearity. That would indicate a problem associated with the receiver. (See page 30 for formulas. The point where the vertical lines are no longer clear indicates the extent of horizontal resolution. attenuation in decibels per 100 ft and 100 m. and diagonal lines (C) can be used to check interlace. Hence. which has been in use since the start of television broadcasting. In the following explanation. A person trained in electronics can see at a glance if a receiver is operating properly. ." indicating proper operation of the transmitter equipment. or a combination of color bars and test pattern. capacitance in picofarads per foot.) TESTPATTERN INTERPRETATION Many television stations transmit a test pattern.Chapter 4 COAXIAL CABLE CHARACTERISTICS Table 41 lists the most frequently used coaxial cables. There should not be any black or white trailing edges from the vertical wedge or circle. a color bar pattern. The roundness of the circles (A and G) in the test pattern provide a quick check on the width. height.
0 20.1 3.5 0.2 4.0 20.0 0.3 6.1 101.8 5.1 2.54 1. purpose gen.2 4.5 95.8 3.1 68.9 13.9 4.4 34.83 10. mlnlature Teflon.5 0.8 4. trans.60 6.9 9.7 36.69 3.3 66.5 13.4 4.5 13.5 92.3 21.0 max 29.0 20.880 22.96 2.2 12.4 2.03 29.4 11.0 1.555 14.4 11.06 4.5 13.242 0.1 4.160 7.3 6.070 28.23 5.5 92.195 0.5 92.0 29.1 2.242 0.4 3. 95.5 11. purpose.4 14.30 2.1 0. Teflon.5 99. gen.2 10. 2 shield miniature Teflon.1 101. purpose double shield flexible.7 20.1 68.4 13.5 66.5 92.1 0.9 6.0 3.7 4.5 88.5 13.2 6.2 9.5 7.0 19.1 20.5 28.9 max 65.53 10.9 4.6 6.6 6. TV mil.1 5.0 3.1 4.5 50 50 50 73 75 93 93 93 93 125 93 50 50 50 50 50 75 95 75 50 95 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 17. mlnlature pulse.2 6. U/L listed transmission low capacitance transmission Teflon.8 13.206 0.8 3.8 2.0 56.4 14.420 0.3 44.405 0.110 27.9 1.9 34.5 66.6 7.5 20.80 30.8 15.8 2.3 33.1 4.5 92.0 2.1 7.5 20. with armor RF power gen.5 29.1 17.5 18.5 28.5 29.250 0.14 30.5 29.8 15.1 2.4 15.3 95.2 10. purpose.3 23.1 3. purpose double braid low attenuation low attenuation1 armor double braid.5 10.4 31.6 3. trans.4 4. trans.9 5.880 22.206 0.1 29.3 33.135 0.45 30.1 0.2 9.415 0.080 2.412 10.15 10.4 16.0 max 21.0 95.0 21.4 3.8 3.2 7.4 0.5 65.0 2.8 9.54 6.6 44.0 28.1 0.45 30.0 2.0 5.1 3.4 1.8 101.7 95.78 2.5 53.95 5.3 3.3 3.0 max 29.242 0.195 30.1 41.53 30.29 30.425 10. purpose gen.8 max 95.5 53.1 4.4 15.8 6.3 1.49     .100 29. impbdancx Nominal Nominal cnpncltnnrr Nominal OD Nominal attenunUon I MHz W 2 MHz W 400 Mffz 9W MHz 6 6A 8 8A 9 9B 11 I1A 12A 14A 17A 19A 228 55 55B 58 58 58A 58A 58C 59 59B 62 62A 62A 628 638 718 122 141A 142B 174 1788 1798 180B 187A l88A 195A I%A 212 213 214 215 217 218 219 223 316 75 75 52 52 51 50 75 75 75 52 52 52 95 53.95 4.3 4.0 4.6 6.15 6.0 7.5 10.5 16.7 13.5 29.8 16.0 2.1 0.1 28.5 28.7 20.46 30.4 10.4 15.54 3.3 15.3 0. spec. mil.67 10. tv mil.9 4.7     64.5 16.1 3.3 34.9 2.7 0.6 26.1 6.0 10.0 3. purpose gen.6 95.9 8.242 0.2 14.81 2.7 7.8 21.5 9.8 10.7 97. purpose gen.0 2.5 2.2 11.206 0.29 10.29 12. small double braid U/L listed double shield test leads double shield mil.5 30.5 1.9 2.23 4.9 7.4 14. mlnlature Teflon.8 4. gen.3 0.8 4.3 97..5 max 9. Teflon.81 3.195 0. mil commun.0 3.2 10.8 29.9 4.8 68.3 20.8 4. low capacity.0 6.3 44.5 1. spec.9 22.7 95.0 2.3 20.3 101.110 57.21 0.1 0.4 4.2 4.5 30.67 5.5 53.3 47.0 42.140 19.2 6.6 10.9 2.5 101.9 5.0 97.885 1.8 10.1 0. small mil.9 16.5 7.8 30.8 101.28 4.4 2.5 4.6 6.8 22.56 2.95 0.0 2.8 7.95 6.098 5.0 49. spec.5 7. spec.5 95.5 64.0 11.1 2.8 4.5 7.7 5.216 95.8 30.2 6.37 7.8 67.430 0.6 6.558 0.9 11.5 13.405 0.9 55.1 6.405 0.2 6.15 6.3 23.7 95.15 6.2 41.1 12.6 max CATVMATV IF & video small.8 15.6 7.2 30.9 54. trans.9 3.0 max 20.0 15.100   15.0 max 17.3 0.405 10.5 29. miniature double braid gen.29 10.2 10.17 22.9 23.2 14. Fiberglas Teflon.1 9.8  29.0 0.2 2.336 7.8 23.0 3.1 23.5 12.5 14.8 13.3 4.5 10.7 52.23 4.5 29.8 23.1 1.2 4.0 97.8 9.7 3.475 0.6 8.4 9.8 17.29 10.5 30.6 6.260 0.0 6.5 2.195 0. mil.405 0.1 15.83 4.1 4. low cap.8 101.9 67.3 0.3 1.6 max 55.4 0.3 6.5 95.7 26.0 13.420 0. .290 0.TABLE 41 Coaxial Cable Characteristics Type RG .0 30.7 20.4 max 65.95 2.7 4.2 0. .336 0.8 9.0 max 17.242 0.5 9.5 14. Teflon.9 9. Teflon.5 0.3 9.4 2.1 17.95 4.95 0.5 max 20. spec.1 16.0 97.5 6.07 14.1 44.0 max 9.7 4.0 max 21. purpose.195 0.48 28. purpose gen. IFIvideo gen..5 9.95 4.8 3.0 97.15 6.1 14.155 2.9 3.6 8. trans.6 0.1 1.190 8.92 10.
42. The horizontal bars (H) are used to check for lowfrequency phase shift. as wcll as the videoamplifying and picturetube circuits.C Fig. Highfrequency ringing can be checked using the single resolution lines (I). Various breaks in the lines indicate the number of lines the receiver is capable of producing. brightness. There are one or two diagonal wedges (F) that indicate the contrast ratio." . 41 A horizontal wedge (D) in the test pattern is used to indicate the vertical resolution and interlace of the receiver. Generally these wedges have numbers. then to blue. and automatic gain controls. ranging from black at the center to light gray at the outermost point o n the wedge. Therefore. The color pattern consists of rcd to yellow t o green. When videoamplifying and picturetube circuits are operating properly and the con I I I I i trols arc properly adjusted. It is also used for "receiver color setup. Another test pattern is the color bar pattern shown in Fig. they can be used to check the adjustments of the contrast. and is used for a station check of the color transmitter. four degrees of shading should be observed.
44. The test pattern is also a part of the information for overall setup of the station transmitter or of the color receiver. 42 I Fig. MINIATURE LAMP DATA Table 42 lists the most common miniature lamps and their characteristics. Volts Amps Bead color Base Bulb type Outline fig. blue green yellow brown white green blue white white blue green t blue brown pink flange flange flange flange flange flange flange flange flange 2pin screw screw 2pin bayonet bayonet screw bayonet bayonet bayonet screw bayonet screw 126 . 43 is a hybrid in which the test pattern is a set of color bars of different widths.Fig. TABLE 42 Miniature Lamp Data Lamp no. 43 The test pattern of Fig. The outline drawings for each lamp are shown in Fig.
l T.l B6 B6 S8 S8 RPI 1 . pink white white white white white bayonet screw bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet ba).amp no.l T.13/4 'r1 3/4 T.amr.1314 T. Volts Amps Read color Base Bulb type Outline fig.1 T.onet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet screw screw bayonet wedge wedge Lvedge wedge screw bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet flanged flanged flanged flanged grooved flanged flanged flanged grooved wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet T3'/4 G3'/2 (33 ' / 2 G3 '/z G4'12 G4'h G5 G6 G5 G5 S8 S8 G5 S8 TL3 (33 '/2 Ci4'/2 T3 '/4 T3 '/4 T3 '/4 T3 '/4 TL3 G5 G5 G6 S8 S8 S8 S11 T3 '/a T.1 T.1314 T.1 '14 T.I '14 T.1 T. Data [.1314 T.TABLE 42 Cont.1 T. Miniature I.l T.13/4 'r1 314 T.
24 0.0 14.0 28.25 3.0 28.20 0.0 28.25 0.27 0.1 '/4 T1% T.0 6.24 0.10 0.2 28.15 0.20 0. 12.8 5.17 0.1" 4 T3 '/4 T3 'A T3 '/4 T3 '/4 G4'h T.014 0.06 0.0 13.10 1.5 12.5 14.4 14.1 3/4 T.0 5.30 0.0 10.0 28.04 0.ireterminal wise terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal S8 S8 S8 RP11 RP11 Ci3I/2 G3'h T3 '/4 'r4'/2 T1"4 T1% T1% T.06 \vIiite white white white pink bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet screw baponct bayonet wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet wire terminal bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet bayonet wire terminal wire terminal \+.3 5.33 0.'ro.8 12.08 0.09 0.4 18.0 28.1 T1% K (2 Q CC CC E B D 7 N N N N D D D L) D D D D D D N D D D D F N N N 0 0 M Y I.135 0.0 1.0 28.15 0.06 0.l T.0 28.04 0.5 A and w l ~ i r e bead.115 0.35 2.0 0.0 6. Miniature Lamp Data  Lamp nu.34 6.0 3.l T14 T.0 28.0 5.27 0. t.7 28.33 0.24 0.3 10.0 14.35 2.8 12.0 28.3 14.10 0.0 6.1 3/4 T.08 0.0 14.0 5.0 6.04 0.0 1.16 0.46 0.10 2. V \ I I\ V V V tSo~ne brands are 0. Volts Amps Bead rvlor Rase Rulh tlpe Outline fig.07 0.0 14.014 0.06 0. 1156 1157 1176 1183 1195 1445 1447 1490 1495 1728 1738 1764 1784 1813 1815 1816 1819 1820 1829 1847 1850 1864 1866 1869 1888 1889 1891 1803 1895 2162 2182 21 87 6832 6833 6838 6839 7152 7327 7328 7344 7382 7387 793 1 " I.10 0.0 14.0 14.1'/4 T.06 0. .04 0.lcd.Stior~.20 0.3 l/4 T3 '/4 T3'h '1'3 '14 T3 'kt 1'3 '/a T3 ]/4 T3 v4 T3 '/4 T3'/4 T.40 0.l3/4 TI$ T7/4 T.0 6.TABLE 42 Cont.0 14.13/4 T.I %I '1.
Fig. 44 .
flanged 2in wire terminal 2in wire terminal telephone slide telephone slide doublecontact bayonet doublecontact bayonet Iin wire terminal medium screw doublecontact bayoncts candelabra screw singlecontact bayonet doublecontact bayonet miniature bayonet miniature bayonet miniature bayonet medium screws candelabra screws candelabra screw miniature bayonet 2in wire terminal 1in wire terminal Iin wire terminal liri wire terminal 1in wire terminal Iin wire terminal I in wire terminal lin wire terminal 0.0003 0.0015 0.0019 0.0065 0.50 0.I: 43 CasFilled Lamp Data Number Average life (h)* Type gas Maximum length (in) Type of base Amps Volts Wattst AKI AR3 A K4 NE2 SE2A NI'21) NE2E !SL:2H NE2.25 0.7 0.08 0.04 0.000 25.0003 0.000 10.003 0.03 0. 111e .007 0.04 *I.0003 0.0005 0.000 over 5000 over 5000 1000 5000 6000 10.04 0. C.GASFILLED LAMP DATA Thc charactcristics of thc more common gasfillcd lamps are given in Table 43.02 0.03 0.012 0.0003 0.25 0.005 0.0035 0.002 0.002 0.I 6 KEI7 NE23 NE30 NE32 NE45 NE47 NL148 NE5 I NE5 I H NE51s NF56 NE57 N1:58 NE67 NL68 NE75 YE.000 over 25.02 0.:76 YE:8 1 NE83 NE86 NL96 NE97 3000 1000 1000 over 25. Slri I)(' circui~?.02 0. o n UC is appt.14 0. 1'AHI.03 0.03 0.25 0.000 10.0003 0. t l'lic dimcririon is for plass orily.000 25.005 0.000 25.04 1 0.000 25.oxiliiarely 60% of AC values.0002 0.0019 0.0003 0.25HB 0.018 0.ro 125V opsr. riegari\e.000 over 7500 5000 over 7500 over 15.0005 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 6090 5590 6090 5365 105125 6090 105125 105.25 0.0024 0. t k o r I(.000 25.0035 0.5 0.04 0. The I I value of external resistancc needed for operation with circuit voltages from 110 to 600 V is given in Table 44.000 25.ire terminal S. mid.5 0.002 0.25 0.002 0.1 SE2V NE2AS KL3 riE4 NI.0004 0.25 0.000 25.007 0.03 1 1 0.25 0.0015 0.000 5000 over 7500 25.0002 0.04 0.0003 0.125 105125 105125 105125 105125 105125 5590 210250 105125 105125 5590 5265 6090 6876 6480 60100 5590 6080 6080 2 0.08 0.002 0.25HB 0.000 5000 2000 2000 5000 5000 5000 6000 6000 argon argon arson neon neon neon neon neon neon ncon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon ncon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon neon mediurn screw candelabra screw doublecontact bayonet 1in wire terminal 2in \\.ifr. mid: flanged 2in wire terminal 2in wire terminal S..012 0. C.~riori.0012 0. 1)asc \liol~I(lI).1 0.003 0.000 25.002 0.0004 0.
000 30. This check shows the overall ability of the receiver to pass all audiosignals in the voice communications range (Fig.000 includcd in base 7.500 included in basc 30.000 47.000 100.1.000 30.000 included in base included in base includcd in base RECEIVER AUDIOPOWER AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE CHECK Normally the first receiver check performed is the audiopower check. then the frequency re sponse can be quickly and easily checked by comparing the audio output power at 400 and 2500 Hz to a 1000Hz reference.0 W and 1 . This determines whether the receiver is dead.TAB1.I AR3 AR4 NE2 NE2A YE2D NE2E NE2H NE2H NE2\' NE17 NE30 NE32 NE45 NE47 NE48 NE5 1 NE5 1H NE56 NE57 NE58 included in base included in base 15. respectively. Figures 45 and 46 provide conversion charts of audiovoltage to audiopower for 0. If it is found that audiopower output is as specified.000 200.10 W. it will show whether it can deliver appropriate audiopower.O.1 . 21 1). If not.000 30.000 30.E 44 External Resistances Needed for GasFilled L a m ~ s AK.000 100.000 200.000 100. .000 200.
Fig. 45 .
Single speaker. Speakers in parallel. 410. 6 screw with 32 threads per inch. MACHINE SCREW A N D DRILL SIZES The decimal equivalents of No. Fig. Fig. together with the tap and clearance drill sizes. Fig. . T h e number listed under the "Type" column is actually a combination of the screw size and the number of threads per inch. For example. are given in Table 46. Fig. 80 to 1in drills are in Table 45.or multiplespeaker operation. T h e most common screw sizes and threads.7V hookop using matching transformers. 70. Two speakers in series. 47. 49.SPEAKER CONNECTIONS Figures 47 through 410 show the proper connection methods for single. 48. 632 screw denotes a size no. a No.
TABLE 45 Drill Sizes and Decimal Equivalents Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal Drill size Decimal .
bronze. steel. I Flat Round Oval F:ll~ster I B~nd~ng Stove Her Washer Ph~lllps Allen Recess Br. and BWG hoop iron. some usual practices are shown in Tables 47 and 48. While materials can usually be had specially in any system. and telegraph wire BWG steel wire.TYPES OF SCREW HEADS The most common types of screw heads are listed and illustrated in Fig. telephone.k: 46 Machine Screw Tap and Clearance 1)rill Sizes Type Tap drill Clearance drill I1 Poz~dr~vk' Robertson!" Fig. sheet 3&S copper B&S AWG(B&S) iron. except telephone and telegraph \I. band. 41 1.slo Clutch TABI.'&M steel sheet US tank steel BWG zinc sheet "zinc gage" proprietary . 411 SHEETMETAL GAGES Materials are customarily made to certain gage systems. steel. TABLE 47 Common Gage Practices Material Sheet Wire aluminum B&S AWG (R&S) brass.
02846 0.432 0.01594 0.265625 0.08081 0.032 0.032 0.37500 0.016 0.0060 0.01420 0.00781250 0.156250 0.1920 0.0140625 0..01264 0.140625 0.165 0.006   'These thicknesses are intended to express he tlebired thickness in decimal l'racrions of an inch.00570 0.021 8750 0.171875 0.00859375 0.109 0.380 0.134 0.025 0.218750 0.028 1250 0.006640625 0.092 0.220 0.009 0.056 0.012 0.01 180 0.380 0.028 0.028 0.0540 0.004453 0.46875 0.187500 0.0800 0.02040 0.058 0.340 0.0720 0.01003 0.0915 0.464 0.01280 0.072 0.00650 0.01 16 0.01400 0.007080 0.093750 0.ondon or Old English  United States Standard (US) American Standard preferred thickness*  0.02010 0.065 0.148 0.160 0.109375 0.00950 0.220 0.01220 0. & Moen (W&M) 0.005 0.1055 0. 'l'l~eyhave no rc1.03589 0.083 0.180 0.0625 0.180 0.120 0.1019 0.004  0.0052 0. Courtesy Whitehead Metal Prodi~cts Co.01810 0.0250000 0.0171875 0.2815 0.5165 0.010 0.040 0.014 0.05707 0.120 0.006305 0.003145  0.165 0.0148 0.012 0.005615 0.259 0.0092 0.010 0. 136 .2043 0.042 0.01020 0.232 0.020 0.02300 0.104 0.2070 0.0164 0.0084 0.ition to gage numbers.024 0.008 0.2830 0.04030 0.192 0.090 0.00950 0.1819 0.00900 0.0165 0.2625 0.01372 0.01093750 0.460 0.035 0.09074 0.03 15 0.340 0.372 0.0068 0.008 0.03 175 0.095 0.34375 0.430 0.1350 0.1443 0.016 0.252 0.1 144 0.300 0.0048 1.224 0.238 0.009 0.4600 0.01730 0.040 0.06408 0.203125 0.080 0.0625000 0.2576 0.116 0.032 0.07 1 0.064 0.0108 0.4096 0.2294 0.03015625 0.00500 0.022 0.212 0.036 0.022 0.02580 0.01126 0.01 1 0.31250 0.348 0.300 0.007031250 0.07 196 0.125000 0.022 0.02535 0.0437500 0.0136 0.259 0.01790 0.0500000 0.0076 0.00450 0.058 0.109 0.05082 0.0312500 0.04526 0.0205 0.425 0.049 0.50000 0.500 0. rhcy are approxitnately rclarcd lo AWti sizes 334.00750 0.112 0.324 0.020 0.1620 0.3249 0.0562500 0.01500 0.063 0.1483 0.00800 0.040 0.080 0.0230 0.03196 0.0100 0.203 0.1285 0.00353 1 0.014 0.00850 0.0410 0.176 0.490 0.020 0.095 0.454 0.025 0.072 0.00750 0.065 0.160 0.078 125 0.01040 0.01620 0.050 0.276 0.200 0.01 56250 0.036 0.072 0.284 0.028 0.018 0.005000 0.128 0.0343750 0.01320 0.006250000    0.083 0.100 0.0348 0.048 0.02257 0.008928 0.00900 0.284 0.3648 0.3625 0.00937500 0.134 0.003965 0.148 0.125 0.0475 0.007950 0.140 0.425 0.TABLE 48 Comparison of Gages Birmingham or Stubs (RWG) Gage 0000000 OOOO00 0000 0000 000 00 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 AWG (B&S)  \\'ash.2253 0.2893 0.1205 0.007 0.43750 0.3065 0.0155 0.0125000 0.40625 0.0270 0.035 0.045 0.056 0.018 0.0250 0.0124 0.02860 0.00700 British Standard (NBS SWG) 0.013 0.234375 0.300 0.0295 0.01120 0.5800 0.0703 125 0.2437 0.3310 0.3938 0.049 0. Inc.1770 0.203 0.1620 0.007 0.018 0.144 0.180 0.400 0.0187500 0.0375000 0.250000 0.238 0.0187 0.454 0.
RESISTANCE OF METALS AND ALLOYS The resistance for a given length of wire is determined by: TABLE 49 Resistance of Metals and Alloss Material Symbol Resistance (Rlcir mil foot) where R is the resistance of the length of wire. L is the length of the wire. The resistance. area in circular mils. in mils. nichrome tophet A nichrome V chromax steel. feet per pound. in ohms per circular mil foot. The resistance shown is for 20°C (68 O F ) . in ohms. pure phosphorbronze highbrass potassium molybdenum tungsten rhodium aluminum chromium gold copper silver selenium NiFeCr NiCr NiCr CrNiFe CCrNiFe NiCr MnCFe NiCoMnFe Ti CuNi CuMnNi NiCuFeMn As NiAlMnSi CuZnNi Pb CFe NiMn Ta Sn Pd Pt Fe Ni SnPCu CuZn K Mo W Rh A1 Cr Au Cu Ag Se . K is the resistance of the material. of many of the materials used for conductors or heating elements is given in Table 49. COPPERWIRE CHARACTERISTICS Copperwire sizes ranging from American wire gage (B&S) 0000 to 60 are listed in Table 410. unless otherwise stated. d is the diameter of the wire. diameter. in ohms per circular mil foot. and resistance per 1000 ft are included in the table. manganese kovar A titanium constantan manganin monel arsenic alumel nickelsilver lead steel manganesenickel tantalum tin palladium platinum iron nickel. The turns per linear inch. in feet. stainless chrome1 steel. currentcarrying capacity.
TABLE 410 CopperWire Characteristics Nominal hare diameter (in) Nominal circitlar mils Nominal feet per pound (bare) Nominal ohms per 1000 f i @ 20 "C Currentcarrying cdpacily 0 7 0 0 CMlA Turns per linear inch AW(. Singe film coated Hea vJ? f l coated im .
SERVICEN D INSTALLATION DATA A TABI. filnr coated .Single Ileavy filtn coated 1000 ft @ 20 "C AW<.E 410 Conl. CopperWire Characteristics Nominal hare diameter (in) Nominal circular mils Nominal feet per pound (bare) Nominal ohms per (:urrentcarrying capacity @I 700 CMlA Turns per linear inch .
.
is the plate voltage. constant) AIb Mutual Conductance (Transconductance): AIb g. g. E.. r. Input Resistance: r. + r. is the A C plate resistance.Chapter 5 DESIGN DATA VACUUMTUBE FORMULAS T h e following formulas can be used to calculate the vacuumtube properties listed. I.  4 constant) The current gain of the commonbase configuration is alpha (a): a = M<(with i/:constant)  where p is the amplification factor. in volts... in volts. Amplification Factor: p = AEb (with I.. Ec is the grid voltage.. = AEb (with E.(with E. constant) AEc Current Gain (Fig. i A C (Dynamic) Plate Resistance: 1 TRANSISTOR FORMULAS The following formulas can be used to calculate the transistor properties listed...is the plate current. in siemens. is the plateload resistance.is the mutual conductance. R. in ohms.. = M: (with  Gain of a n Amplifier Stage: Gain = p R. constant)  AE: A is the variation or change in value. 51): A . R.. in ohms. in amperes. = . AIc ..
Power Gain: Fig.Jh Collector Power: AIc  (with AI.. = 2 (with A v. 511). Voltage Gain: A..I b = aIc = h. Base Current: Fig.Fig.r. Common base. Common collector. 51B. 51A. 51C. = I.constant) I. P. v. Collector Current: The current gain of the common emitter is beta (0): /J = rc = r c . A Vb I<constant) Output Resistance: Fig. (Total Current) . = y. Emitter Current: A direct relationship exists between the alpha and beta of a transistor: + 1.Common emitter. Basic current paths.!.
in amperes.is the input power. Terminology: hi.. = forward shortcircuit current amplification factor .. is the base voltage. in amperes.. in amperes.. in microsiemens. in amperes. is the emitter current. is transconductance. in watts. is /3 = a/(l .. P... A. = reverse opencircuit voltage amplification factor h. or h?. I: is the input current. C. is upper frequency limit (unity gain). in volts. is the input resistance. f. is the power gain. is the collector current.. P. in volts. A . P. o r hz. J. A. is emitter current. in picofarads. is the output power. in amperes. in ohms. in amperes. is the output resistance.is the base current. in amperes.. is collector power. I. in megahertz. in volts. in volts. in watts. in volts.?.is the beta cutoff frequency (3dB point). Input Capacitance: Upper Frequency Limit: Bandwidth: C. V. is the current gain.. is the alpha cutoff frequency (3dB point). R.o r h. in farads. in milliamperes. in watts.. is total capacitance. [ is the input voltage.. rc is smallsignal emitter resistance. is input capacitance. K is the output voltage. Transconductance: where I. in volts. in watts. = input impedance with output shortcircuited (CE mode) h. 13 is the current gain in a commonemitter configuration. is the output current. in ohms. Ktis the collectoremitter voltage. I/: is the collector voltage. is emitter current. in amperes. h. I..SmallSignal Emitter Resistance: where I... = output admittance with opencircuit input where a is the current gain of a commonbase configuration. R. A. in ohms. I. I. in milliamperes.a ) . or h. is the voltage gain. g. h.
capital letters denote DC relations. . A generalpurpose op amp typically develops an openloop gain of 100. with an input impedance of 5 MR and a low output impedance rated for working into a 1000R load. Openloop gain refers to the voltage gain of the op amp (without feedback) and working into its rated load value. mixers. magnetic recording pickup head amplifiers. or its maximum possible rate of change in output voltage (transient response). with progressively falling frequency response. Audio amplifier. In turn.005 Dual Power Supply Fig. 52 through 56. and lowercase letters denote AC smallsignal relations. limiters. A generalpurpose op a m p may have a rated slew rate of 0. and filters with optimized characteristics. Since a typical op amp has very low input impedance due to substantial negative feedback. +12v Single Power Supply Fig. 52. and a wide range of instrumentation applications. 53. The op amp is almost always operated with a large amount of negative feedback so that it has an essentially flat frequency response. Op amps are used as electronic integrators and differentiators to obtain characteristics that approximate mathematical integration and differentiation. o p amps are also used as basic amplifiers. comparators.Conventionally. the voltage gain of the am Vlrlual Ground 10 kl ! lllLlul +'I 0. Although originally designed for analog computers. o p amps are now used in radio and TV receivers. As shown in Figs.000 times.5 Vlps at unity gain. and some operate from the same power supply as the digital ICs in a computer. Audio amplifier. Although many op amps require a positive as well as a negative powersupply source. Typical o p amps have very high input impedance and very low output impedance. A basic rating is its slew rate. various o p amps can operate from a single powersupply source. A typical generalpurpose o p amp provides full power output to 10 kHz and decreases to unity gain at 1 MHz. the input terminal is regarded as a virtual ground that is almost at ground potential. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (OP AMPS) An o p a m p is a DCcoupled highgain differential amplifier in integratedcircuit (IC) form. This type of op amp can provide an outputvoltage swing of + 10 V. An o p a m p has very high openloop gain at zero frequency (DC).
divided by the input resistance. Electrical Equivalent o f Heat plifier is equal to the sum of the series input resistance and feedback resistance. Limiting amplifier.100. the noninverting input is indicated by a plus sign. For example. Calorie: 1 cal is cqual lo 4. 1 cal equals I / M O Wh. Fig. 1 cal will hcat 1 g of water by 1°C. 54. the following equations will be useful: Joule: The unit of energy rcquired to move one coulomb bctwecn two Fig. Note that the inverting input of an o p amp is indicated by a minus sign. 56.293 Wh will heat 1 Ib of water lot'. HEAT When working with po\vcr transistors. intcgrated circuits. 1 kWh cquals 860. Audio mixer. if the series input resistance is 1000 R and the feedback resistance is . 55.18605 J. 0. ' Low Pass 0 47 It0 outpul Fig. or 101 times.000 R.000/ 1000. points having a potentialenergy diffcrcncc of 1 V.000 cal.Inputs A u d ~ oM~xer 11200 1111 T\ %Y? 2 Virtual Ground . the voltage gain of the op amp is essentially 101. . 252 cal will heat 1 Ib of water 1°F. Active filter (1200 Hz). and heat sinks.
= junction temperature T. Oj. each of which may have a diameter of 50 or 100 mm. then the thermal resistance from transistor case to heat sink can be neglected. and transmission. A simple round fiber (single mode fiber) is less efficient than a multimode fiber. Coherent light sources require either gradedindex fibers or singlemode fibers. FIBER OPTICS Glass fibers (thin strands) are used to transmit light in curved paths. Bundles of fibers are analogous to coaxial cables and waveguides. The junctiontocase thermal resistance is added to the sinktoambient thermal resistance to obtain the total thermal resistance. The unit of thermal conductivity is one calorie of heat flow per second per square centimeter per centimeter of thickness per degree Celsius temperature difference from one surface to the next.. or it may be a different type of glass with a widely different index of refraction. Although fiberoptics transmission is very costly at present. into the optic fiber.k(unple. A small transistor has a maximum rated junction temperature of 85°C and a thermal rcsistance o f 0. in turn. = junction to ambient temperature .5"C'/rnW. . where electromagnetic radiation is transmitted along an arbitrary path. irl [his case. At the receiving end. thc transistor may dissipate an amount of powcr to raise the junction tcmperature to 85°C. the glass fiber is surrounded by a tubular cladding. as shown in Fig.. A graded index fiber is formed with a gradual change in refractive index from the core to the surface. This cladding may be plastic. refraction. P. A multimode fiber is formed like a coaxial cable.. = ambient temperature O. absorption. A light source feeds into an optical coupler and. = junction to case temperature O.. O. = sink to ambient temperature O. miniature construction. Circular fibers. so that the light is continually refracted back toward the center of the core. from a power of 120 mW in the transistor: If a heat sink is correctly installed with thermally conducting washers... 57. Thermal Resistance The value of thermal resistance specified in a transistor data sheet is used to calculate the maximum permissible power dissipation at a given ambient temperature. while the other half transmit data in the opposite direction. An opticfiber cable is composed of hundreds of fibers.. and proper bolting pressure. = temperature rise I.. = power dissipated 8. the optic fiber drives a n optical coupler. are generally used. and fiber optics is based on principles of reflection. If the ambient tempcrature is 2S°C. it has the advantages of unusually high information capacity.= ambient temperature junction thermal resistance P. and immunity to various types of electromagnetic interference. Half of the fibers transmit data in one direction. = 8 + O.. which in turn feeds into a photodetector. I. silicone grease. This increase in te~nperatureof 60°C will result.Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity.
Fig. Delta connection. is the secondary voltage. Multimode fiber. Cladding Core E== Fig. Singlemode fiber. Yto Y: E.Fig. Y connection. there is one coil between each pair of terminals. Epis the primary voltage. The powersupply input transformers may be connected in either a delta or a Y (star). COIL WINDINGS SingleLayer Coils (Fig. THREEPHASE POWER FORMULAS In a threephase system. each separated by a phase difference of 120 ". 57A. Gradedindex fiber. = E. in volts. there are two.. x N where E. 57C. 57B. 59) The inductance of singlelayer coils can be calculated to an accuracy of approximately 1 O/O with the formula: . in the Y connection. there are three voltages. Figure 58 shows how the terminals are placed in relationship to the coils. 58B. The formulas for determining the voltage across the secondary winding for each of the four possible connections are as follows: Fig. 58A. The voltage between two terminals of the Yconnected coil is equal to a t i m e s the voltage across one winding. in volts. N is the turns ratio. In the delta connection. Fig.
What is the inductance of a singlelayer aircore coil having 80 turns wound to 4 in in length on a coil form 2 in in diameter? Answer." Then lay the straightedge as indicated by the line labeled "Example 1B.") . in inches. in inches. the diameter. The point at which this line intersects the "Inductance" scale indicates the inductance. of the coil. in microhenrys. After finding the number of turns. 510) The inductance of a multilayer coil of rectangular cross section can be computed from the formula: where L is the inductance. consult Table 48 to determine the size of wire t o be used. B is the length of the coil. Multilayer Coils (Fig. method for determining either the inductance o r the number of turns for singlelayer coils. the foregoing formula is rearranged as follows: Fig. When the length of the winding. the inductance can be found by placing a straightedge from the "Turns" scale to the "Ratio" (diameter . 51 1 provides an easy 130 pH. C i s the depth of the coil. in inches. N is the number of turns. 59 To find the number of turns required for a singlelayer coil with a given inductance.Fig. and the number of turns of the coil are known.length) scale and noting the point where the straightedge intersects the "Axis" scale. (First lay the straightedge as indicated by the line labeled "Example IA. N is the number of turns. A is the mean radius. in inches. B is the length of the coil. in microhenrys. in microhenrys. in inches. t. A is the mean radius.:xample. The number of turns can be determined by reversing the procedure. 510 where L is the inductance. SingleLayer AirCore Coil Chart The chart in Fig. Then lay the straightedge from the point of intersection of the "Axis" scale to the "Diameter" scale.
Fig. 51 1 . . Singlelayer coil chart.
Figure 512 gives the circuit configurations. I3undle\ of fewer [ha11 I5 \vires (nay have the allowal)le s u ~ i of rhe load Cllrrcrllh increased a s tlic bundle . The three basic configurations are the T. i es .lriarions due t o r o u ~ ~ d i n g I) hcy should be ucetl for uirc i r ~ . Itarnrtses.) at the zero TABLE 51 Recommended Current Ratings (Continuous Duty) Maximum current ( A ) Wire size Cnpper cunduclur ( 100clC:) nominal resistance Copper wire Wiriug in . The impedance of the filter is equal to the characteristic impedance of the line (Z.4luminum wire Wiring in jree air Wiring confined* A LVG C'ircular nli1.HANDBOOK ELIXTRONICS OF TABLESN D FORMULAS A CURRENT RATINGS FOR EQUIPMENT AND CHASSIS WIRING Table 51 lists the recommended current rating (for continuous duty) for various wire sizes used on electronic equipment and chassis wiring.lres. 'l'hese ratings approximate 60% of the frceair ratings (with home \.free air Wiring confined* . cable. contluil. and pi. and impedance characteristics of the three types of constantk lowpass filters. and pcncral chassis conditionr. The attenuation of the L section is equal to half that of the T or pi sections. FILTER FORMULAS Constantk Filters A constantk filter presents an impedance match to the line at only one fre 1 l quency and a mismatch at all others. L (halfsection). in a billidle. r p p ~ o a c l ~ the singlewire c o ~ ~ d i t i o n . A constantk lowpass filter will pass frequencies below and attenuate those above a set frequency.s ( ~ / 1 0 0 0t ) f '"Wiring confined" ratings arc based o n I or more wire. witli the \ u ~ n a11 the acrual load current\ of the I)ul~dledwires not of cscueding 20% of the purniitrcd "'UI irine conl'inctl" sun1 [oral carrying capacity ol'llic bundled u. attenuation characteristics.
512. 513. Cz. must be divided in half. The values for L .. and C. That is. and impedance characteristics of constantk highpass filters are given in Fig. or Z. For all other frequencies. The circuit configurations. Z. the input and output impedance of the filter are equal to Z. C. can be computed from the following formulas: are equal to onehalf the computed value. The formulas for computing L. '.frequency only. Z. and the capacitors in the L and pi sections. where specified in Fig. and f. 512. attenuation characteristics. . are as follows: The values computed for L. the coils in the T and L sections.. as shown in Fig. A highpass filter will pass all frequencies above and attenuate all those below a set frequency.. .. a n d f .
C. Likewise.Fig. 514A. c Notice that the values computed for C i n the foregoing formulas must be doubled in the T and L sections. 513B. the value computed for L must be doubled in the L and pi sections. Pi section. Transmission characteristics. 1 Fig.F'T. T section. Configuration. Fig. 1 1 (Z 1 Fig. The formulas for computing the various values are: f"! = m = 2na 2nlIL. 513A. 514. L section. The configuration and the transmission characteristics for a constantk bandpass filter are given in Fig. Bandpass filters will pass frequencies of a certain band and reject all others. zi . 513C. . 5L4B.~~ i '1 j fc f Fig.
in farads. in hertz.. hence.6. By selecting the proper value for m. The configuration and the transmission characteristics of a constantk bandrejection filter are given in Fig. the designer can control either the impedance or the attenuation characteristics. andf. this value is usually employed. f. are the frequencies of infinite attenuation.are involved in the design of mderived filters. it is possible to control the spacing between the two frequencies. A bandrejection filter will reject a certain band of frequencies and pass all others. 5. some values must be doubled or halved. Z. The best impedance match is obtained when m is equal to 0.. a n d f . 515A. . frequencies. passband. where L. in henrys. are the inductances of the coils.As before. are the frequencies at the edge of the passband. The formulas for computing the component values. 515B. C .the cutoff and the frequency of infinite attenuation . The attenuation characteristics for the various values of m are given in Fig. in ohms. Its value governs the characteristics of the filter. in hertz.Transmission characteristics. and line impedance are: Fig. is the line impedance. 514. as shown in Fig. f. and L.Configuration. The term m is a positive number between zero and one. in hertz. Two frequencies . f is the frequency at the center of the .15. The values are first computed as for a constantk filter and then modified by an algebraic expression containing the constant m. 517. Figure 516 shows the effect different values of m have on the impedance characteristics. mDerived Filters In an mderived filter. Fig. and C2are the capacitances of the capacitors.
If 1. 517 . 516 20 Ratio of 11 or !.Frequency c Fig. wh~cheveris greater than I 0 Fig.
The formulas for computing the component values are: Fig. This graph applies to both low.and highpass filters. The value of m is determined from the formulas: For a series mderived highpass filter (Fig. 520. Fig. The formulas are as follows: The configurations for shunt mderived lowpass filters are given in Fig. 519). The configurations for mderived filters are classified as either series or shunt. Those for the series mderived lowpass filters are given in Fig. 518A. 518C. Pi section. 518.The attenuation rises to maximum and then drops on all curves. Fig. 518B. L section. . T section. the formulas are: Select the formula that will give a positive number.
and L. is the line impedance. Fig. T section. 521). Pi section.:is the cutoff frequency. are the inductances of the coils. 520A. C. T section. Fig.are the capacitances of the capacitors. L section. For shunt mderived highpass filters (Fig. in hertz. Pi section. 519B. Pi section. and C. 520C. the formulas are: where L. 521A.Fig. L section. T section. ATTENUATOR FORMULAS General An attenuator is an arrangement of noninductive resistors used in an electrical 156 . 520B. Fig. Fig. 0 1 1 C Fig. L section. in farads. f. 519C. Fig. 521B. 521C. Fig. 519A. in henrys. in ohms. 2. rn is a constant between 0 and 1. Fig.
Combining or Dividing Network (Fig. they are often used as impedancematching networks. (2) If impedances are unequal. hence. Called K. 522. it is the ratio of current. (4) Calculate the resistor values using the following formulas. or vice versawhichever gives a value of more than one. find the value of K for the desired loss. Table 52 gives the value of K for the more common loss values. 522 .circuit to reduce the audio. The four steps in the design of a pad are: (1) Determine the type of network required. calculate the ratio of input to output impedance (or output to input impedance) and refer to Fig. or power corresponding to a given value of at tenuation in decibels.or radiosignal strength without introducing distortion. Any attenuator working between unequal impedances must introduce a certain minimum loss. These values are given in the graph of Fig. (3) From Table 52. voltage. A factor is used in the calculation of resistor values in attenuator networks. The impedance ratio is the input impedance divided by the output impedance. The resistors may be fixed or variable. 523) Impedance Ratlo Z!. 522 for the minimum loss value.Z7 or Z2:Zi Fig. Attenuators can be designed to work between equal or unequal impedances.
TABLE 52 K Factors for Calculating Attenuator Loss
where R, is the resistance of the buildingout resistors, in ohms, N is the number of circuits fed by the source impedance, Z is the source impedance, in ohms.
TType Attenuator (Between Equal Impedances) (Fig. 524)
R and I?, =
(=)
K  1
Z
where K is the impedance factor, K,, Rz, and R, are the measured resistances, in ohms.
3
1
Fig. 523
Fig. 524
1.58
HType Attenuator (BalancedT Attenuator)
Calculate the values for R , , R,, and R, as for an unbalanced Tattenuator (Fig. 524). Then halve the values of K ,and R?, as shown in Fig. 525. The tap on R, is exactly in the center.
BridgedT Attenuator (Unbalanced) (Fig. 527)
R, and R, are connected to a common shaft, and each varies inversely in value with respect to the other.
Fig. 525
Taper Pad (TType Attenuator Between Unequal Impedances) (Fig. 526)
Fig. 527
Balanced BridgedT Attenuator
Calculate the values for R , , R,, and R, as for a n unbalanced bridgedT attenuator (Fig. 527). Then halve the values as shown in Fig. 528. where K is the impedance factor, R , , Rz, and R, are the measured resistances, in ohms, Z , is the larger impedance, in ohms, Z, is the smaller impedance, in ohms.
Fig. 526
Fig. 528
LType Attenuators
An Ltype attenuator can supply an impedance match in only one direction. If the impedances it works out of and into are unequal, it can be made to match eitherbut not bothimpedances. The arrows in Figs. 529 through 532 indicate the direction of impedance match. Between equal impedances and with the impedance match in the direction of the series arm:
Between unequal impedances and with the impedance match toward the larger value:
where S equals
a.
Fig. 531
Between unequal impedances and with the impedance match toward the smaller value:
Fig. 529
Between equal impedances and with the impedance match in the direction of the shunt arm:
where S equals
a.
Fig. 530
Fig. 532
PiType Attenuator (Between Equal Impedances) (Fig. 533)
0Type Attenuators
Calculate the values for a pitype attenuator (Figs. 533 and 534), then halve the values for the series resistors as shown in Figs. 535 (balanced) and 536 (unbalanced).
Fig. 535
Fig. 533
PiType Attenuator (Between Unequal Impedances) (Fig. 534)
Fig. 536
UType Attenuator (Figs. 537 and 538)
For impedance match in the direction of the series arms:
where S equals
Fig. 534
Fig. 537
HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLES FORMULAS AND For impedance match in the direction of the shunt arm:
LadderType Attenuator (Fig. 540)
R, =
(3
(KS)
where The arrows indicate the direction of the impedance match, S equals
~/z,/z~.
where K depends on the loss per stepnot the total loss.
on
Fig. 538
LatticeType Attenuator (Fig. 539)
Fig. 540
Fig. 539
Note. An instructive special case of an Lsection resistive network with equal input and terminating resistances, regardless of the number of sections, is shown in Fig. 541. Observe that if 10R series resistors and 100R shunt resistors are used with a 27R terminating resistance, the input resistance will always be 37 R , regardless of the number of sections. (The characteristic resistance of the network is 37 R.)
audio) 10% resistance at 50% clockwise rotation lefthand 5 O/O resistance at 50% of clockwise rotation Taper T Taper Y Taper V . 542 Taper W Taper Z lefthand 20% resistance at 50% of clockwise rotation lefthand (log.'More precisely 31 015621 1! "More precisely 21 015621 !! Fig. 541 STANDARD POTENTIOMETER TAPERS (Fig. 542) Taper S straight or uniform resistance change with rotation righthand 30% resistance at 50% of counterclockwise rotation righthand 20% resistance at 50% of counterclockwise rotation Fig.
.
2486 MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS x or .Chapter 6 MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS logn log n + =0. multiplied by .9943 log & = 0.divided by = equals Z does not equal < is less than + plus or minus .4971 0.
'. DECIMAL. are: *Any number to the zero power is 1 .square root ' FRACTIONAL INCH. Likewise.000001. Some of the submultiples of 10 from 0. and minus > is greater than I equal I equal I i to or greater than to or less than .1 to 0. add. Decimal. with their equivalents in powers of 10. therefore I I parallel to L angle 6 is much less than + is much greater than I perpendicular to In 1 absolute value of n E is approximately equal to v. and Millimeter Equivalents f'ractinnal inch 1)ecimal Millimel~r Fractional Vecimal Millimeter inch inch equivalent inch equivalent . some of the multiples of 10 from 1 to 1.000. and plus I TABLE 61 Fractional Inch. with their equivalents in powers of 10.= identical with I + positive. subtract. POWERS OF 10 Exponent Determination Large numbers can be simplified by using powers of 10. For example.negative. AND MILLIMETER EQUIVALENTS Table 61 gives the decimal inch and millimeter equivalents of fractional parts of an inch by 64ths to four significant figures. powers of 10 can be used to simplify decimal expressions. are: 166 .000.
subtract the exponent of the denominator from the exponent of the numerator. The numbers can then be added or subtracted. Example. first convert all numbers to the same power o f 10. Addition and Subtraction To add or subtract using powers of 10. If the decimal point is moved to the right.Any whole number can be expressed as a smaller whole number. Division To divide using powers of 10. If the decimal point is moved to the left. by moving the decimal point to the left or right and expressing the number as a power of 10. . and the answer will be in the same power of 10. the power is negative and is equal to the number of places the decimal point was moved. and any decimal can be expressed as a whole number. Example. the power is positive and is equal to the number of places the decimal point was moved. Example. Multiplication To multiply using powers of 10. add the exponents.
Reciprocal To take the reciprocal of a number using powers of 10. and divide the power of 10 by 2. but it will have the opposite sign. ' Square and Square Root 1 i To square a number using powers of 10. 400 ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS Transposition of Terms Example. Then divide this number into 1. The power of 10 in the answer will be the same value as in the original number. first convert it to an even power of 10.HANDBOOK ELECTRONICS OF TABLESN D FORMULAS A Combination Multiplication and Division Problems involving a combination of multiplication and division can be solved using powers of 10 by multiplying and dividing.) Extract the square root of the number. first (if necessary) state the number so the decimal point precedes the first significant figure of the number. (If the number is an odd power of 10.0025 1 I The following rules apply to the transposition of terms in algebraic equations: If A = BIC. then: . and double the exponent. do the opposite. I To extract the square root of a number using powers of 10. Example.0025 = 0. I Reciprocal of 400 = . Example. until the problem is completed. multiply the number by itself. as called for. I Example. Reciprocal o f 0. Example.
then: A =  Laws of Exponents BC D A power o f a fraction is equal to that power of the numerator divided by the same power of the denominator: The product of two powers of the same base is also a power o f that base. the exponent o f the product is equal to the product of the exponents: If A = m.then: A = CB The quotient of two powers of the same base is also a power of that base. with a positive exponent numerically equal to the original exponent : . the exponent o f the product is equal to the sum of the exponents of the two factors: IfA +B = C. the exponent o f the quotient is equal to the numerator exponent minus the denominator exponent: If A 2 = I / ( D ~ )then: . then: A negative exponent of a base is equal to the reciprocal of that base.If AIB = CID. The power of a power of a base is also a power o f that base.
62 Rectangle (Fig.A fractional exponent indicates that the base should be raised to the power indicated by the numerator of the fraction. 63): area (A) = ab I 170 Fig. the root indicated by the denominator should then be extracted: GEOMETRIC FORMULAS Triangle (Fig. 61 Square (Fig. 62): area (A) = b2 Quadratic Equation The general quadratic equation: ux' + bx may be solved by: +c=0 Fig. 61): area ( A ) =  bh 2 A root of a fraction is equal to the identical root of the numerator divided by the identical root of the denominator: I A root of a product is equal to the product of the roots of the individual factors: Fig. 63 .
69 . 67 Trapezoid (Fig. 66): area (A) =  1 [b(H 2 + h) + ah + CHI Octagon (Fig.Parallelogram (Fig. 66 I 171 Fig. 69): area (A) = 4. 65): area (A) =  h (a 2 + b) Regular hexagon (Fig. 64): area (A) = ah Regular pentagon (Fig.828 a2 Fig. 67): area (A) = 1. 68): area (A) = 2.598 a' Fig. 65 IFig.720 a Z Fig. 68 a  1 Trapezium (Fig. 64 Fig.
614 172 . 61 1 area (A) =  bR 2 area ( A ) = nab Fig. 613): area ( A ) = n(R2 . 610 through 612): circumference ( C ) = 2nR = nD area (A) = nR2 Circular ring (Fig.r Z )= 0. 613 Ellipse (Fig.Circle (Figs. 610 " ' 1 D chord (c) = d 4 ( 2 h ~ h 2 )  Fig.7854 ( D 2d2) Fig. 614): circumference (C) = Fig. 612 Fig.
616): area (A) = 6b' volume ( V ) = b' volume ( V ) =  nK2h 3 Fig.! ~ : Fig. 617): area ( A ) = 2 (ab + bc volume ( V ) = abc + uc) 4 volume ( V ) = nR' 3 Fig. 615): Rectangular solid (Fig.6. 618 Fig.n ~ v : + h.Sphere (Fig. 6. 616 . 617 Cone (Fig.15 Cube (Fig.18): area ( A ) = nRS .
6. 622) In any right triangle. A equals the side adjacent to L h and opposite L u. 621 Ring of (Fig. 620): rectangular cross section volume ( V ) = nc  4 ( D ?. 619 Fig.Cylinder (Fig.4630 X d' Fig. 621): of circular cross section + h) total surface = 4n2Rr = n2Dd volume ( V ) = 2nR x r' = 2.c2h .19): cylindrical surface = n 0 h total surface = 2nR(R volume ( V ) = nR'h .4n Torusring (Fig. Fig. B equals the side opposite L b and adjacent to L a . b equals the acute angle formed by the hypotenuse and the base leg. . 620 C equals the hypotenuse.d ? ) TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Plane Trigonometry (Fig. the values in Table 62 are valid if: a equals the acute angle formed by the hypotenuse and the altitude leg.
TABLE 62 Trigonometric Formulas
Known vnlues Formulas for unknown values of .4
B
C'
Lb
La
H A
arc tan
arc tan arc sin
A H
A arc cos . C
A tan ~b
A
A C
cos ~b
A
90"  ~ 1 )
tan
LU
sin
LO
arc sin

B C
B arc cos . C
B tan Lb
B.. . sin L I ~
.
B
C cos ~h Csin La
' I I I c ~spression "arc [;inpent i \ . . .".
Csin ~b ccos
L U
\ill"
or "\i~ll" ' ~ l d i c a t e \ ~ "the ;ri~glc\c.ho,c hint i\ . . . ." Silnilarly, ";trc tail" or
"r;trl
1"
indic;tic\ " ~ l l c;rr~glcwllo\c
the headings at the top of the table and the degree listings in the lefthand column. For angles from 45 " t o 90°, use the headings at the bottom of the table and the degree listings in the righthand column.
IFig. 622
A

I
Note.
Read the degree listings in the righthand column from bottom to top; thus, the 10' listing directly above 89" signil'ies 89" I0 '.
/
Table of Trigonometric Functions
Table 63 gives the natural sines, cosines, tangents, and cotangents of angles. To find these values for angles from 0 " to 45 ", use
BINARY NUMBERS
Binary Digits
In the binary system of numbers, there are only two digits0 and I . A11 numbers
I
175
TABLE 63 Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
sin
cos
tan
rot
w
0" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 l o00' 10 20 30 40 50 2" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 3" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 4" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 5 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 6 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 7 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50
0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.01 16 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0436 0.0465 0.0494 0.0523 0.0552 0.058 1 0.0610 0.0640 0.0669 0.0698 0.0727 0.0756 0.0785 0.0814 0.0843 0.0872 0.0901 0.0929 0.0958 0.0987 0.1016 0.1045 0.1074 0.1103 0.1132 0.1161 0.1190 0.1219 0.1248 0.1276 0.1305 0.1334 0.1363
cos
1. O O OO 1 .0000 1 .OOOO 1. O O OO 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9994 0.9993 0.9992 0.9990 0.9989 0.9988 0.9986 0.9985 0.9983 0.9981 0.9980 0.9978 0.9976 0.9974 0.9971 0.9969 0.9967 0.9964 0.9962 0.9959 0.9957 0.9954 0.995 1 0.9948 0.9945 0.9942 0.9939 0.9936 0.9932 0.9929 0.9925 0.9922 0.9918 0.9914 0.991 1 0.9907
sin
0.0000 0.0029 0.0058 0.0087 0.01 16 0.0145 0.0175 0.0204 0.0233 0.0262 0.0291 0.0320 0.0349 0.0378 0.0407 0.0437 0.0466 0.0495 0.0524 0.0553 0.0582 0.0612 0.0641 0.0670 0.0699 0.0729 0.0758 0.0787 0.08 16 0.0846 0.0875 0.0904 0.0934 0.0963 0.0992 0.1022 0.1051 0.1080 0.1110 0.1 139 0.1 169 0.1 198 0.1228 0.1257 0.1287 0.1317 0.1346 0.1376
rot
343.77 171.89 114.59 85.940 68.750 57.290 49.104 42.964 38.188 34.368 31.242 28.636 26.432 24.542 22.904 21.470 20.206 19.081 18.075 17.169 16.350 15.605 14.924 14.301 13.727 13.197 12.706 12.251 11.826 1 1.430 11.059 10.712 10.385 10.078 9.7882 9.5144 9.2553 9.0098 8.7769 8.5555 8.3450 8.1443 7.9530 7.7704 7.5958 7.4287 7.2687
tan
90" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 89" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 88" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 87" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 86" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 85" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 84" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 83" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees
TABLE 63 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
sin cos tan cot
8 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 9 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 10" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 11" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 12" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 13" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 14" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 15" 00' 10 20 30 40 50
0.1392 0.1421 0.1449 0.1478 0.1507 0.1536 0.1564 0.1593 0.1622 0.1650 0.1679 0.1708 0.1736 0.1765 0.1794 0.1822 0.1851 0.1880 0.1908 0.1937 0.1965 0.1994 0.2022 0.2051 0.2079 0.2108 0.2136 0.2164 0.2193 0.2221 0.2250 0.2278 0.2306 0.2334 0.2363 0.2391 0.2419 0.2447 0.2476 0.2504 0.2532 0.2560 0.2588 0.2616 0.2644 0.2672 0.2700 0.2728
cos
0.9903 0.9899 0.9894 0.9890 0.9886 0.9881 0.9877 0.9872 0.9868 0.9863 0.9858 0.9853 0.9848 0.9843 0.9838 0.9833 0.9827 0.9822 0.9816 0.981 1 0.9805 0.9799 0.9793 0.9787 0.978 1 0.9775 0.9769 0.9763 0.9757 0.9750 0.9744 0.9737 0.9730 0.9724 0.9717 0.9710 0.9703 0.9696 0.9689 0.968 1 0.9674 0.9667 0.9659 0.9652 0.9644 0.9636 0.9628 0.9621
sin
0.1405 0.1435 0.1465 0.1495 0.1524 0.1554 0.1584 0.1614 0.1644 0.1673 0.1703 0.1733 0.1763 0.1793 0.1823 0.1853 0.1883 0.1914 0.1944 0.1974 0.2004 0.2035 0.2065 0.2095 0.2126 0.2156 0.2186 0.2217 0.2247 0.2278 0.2309 0.2339 0.2370 0.2401 0.2432 0.2462 0.2493 0.2524 0.2555 0.2586 0.2617 0.2648 0.2679 0.271 1 0.2742 0.2773 0.2805 0.2836
cot
7.1154 6.9682 6.8269 6.6912 6.5606 6.4348 6.3138 6.1970 6.0844 5.9758 5.8708 5.7694 5.6713 5.5764 5.4845 5.3955 5.3093 5.2257 5.1446 5.0658 4.9894 4.9152 4.8430 4.7729 4.7046 4.6382 4.5736 4.5107 4.4494 4.3897 4.3315 4.2747 4.2193 4.1653 4.1 126 4.061 1 4.0108 3.96 17 3.9136 3.8667 3.8208 3.7760 3.7321 3.6891 3.6470 3.6059 3.5656 3.5261
tan
82" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 81" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 80" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 79" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 78" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 77" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 76" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 75" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees
TABLE 63 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions
Degrees
sin
cos
tan
cot
cos
sin
cot
tan
Degrees
TABLE 63 Cont. Natural Trigonometric Functions

Degrees
sin
EOS
tan
cot
24" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 25" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 26" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 27" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 28" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 29" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 30" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 31" 00' 10 20 30 40 50
0.4067 0.4094 0.4120 0.4147 0.4173 0.4200 0.4226 0.4253 0.4279 0.4305 0.433 1 0.4358 0.4384 0.4410 0.4436 0.4462 0.4488 0.45 14 0.4540 0.4566 0.4592 0.4617 0.4643 0.4669 0.4695 0.4720 0.4746 0.4772 0.4797 0.4823 0.4848 0.4874 0.4899 0.4924 0.4950 0.4975 0.5000 0.5025 0.5050 0.5075 0.5100 0.5125 0.5150 0.5175 0.5200 0.5225 0.5250 0.5275
cos
sin
0.4452 0.4487 0.4522 0.4557 0.4592 0.4628 0.4663 0.4699 0.4734 0.4770 0.4806 0.4841 0.4877 0.4913 0.4950 0.4986 0.5022 0.5059 0.5095 0.5 132 0.5169 0.5206 0.5243 0.5280 0.5317 0.5354 0.5392 0.5430 0.5467 0.5505 0.5543 0.5581 0.5619 0.5658 0.5696 0.5735 0.5774 0.5812 0.585 1 0.5890 0.5930 0.5969 0.6009 0.6048 0.6088 0.6128 0.6168 0.6208
cut
2.2460 2.2286 2.21 13 2.1943 2.1775 2.1609 2.1445 2.1283 2.1 123 2.0965 2.0809 2.0655 2.0503 2.0353 2.0204 2.0057 1.9912 1.9768 1.9626 1.9486 1.9347 1.9210 1.9074 1.8940 1.8807 1.8676 1.8546 1.8418 1.8291 1.8165 1.8040 1.7917 1.7796 1.7675 1.7556 1.7437 1.7321 1.7205 1 .7090 1.6977 1.6864 1.6753 1 .6643 1.6534 1.6426 1.6319 1.6212 1.6107
tan
66" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 65" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 64" 00 50 40 30 20 10 63" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 62" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 61" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 60" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 59" 00' 50 40 30 20 10
Degrees
5108 1.8434 0.6830 0.3514 1.5495 0.2647 1.5712 0.7934 0.6661 0.7826 0.3190 1.5688 0.7735 0.8355 0.6412 0.5925 0.7310 0.8290 0.3597 1.7844 0.5324 0.5301 1.8243 0.2276 1.7813 0.7133 0.8342 cot 1.7002 0.6065 0.8292 0.7907 0.TABLE 63 Cont.7860 0.5995 0.6202 0.5422 0.4919 1.7089 0.8073 0.2131 1.7698 0.4193 1.7880 0.8418 0.8002 0.5544 0.6289 0.7177 0.4550 1.4733 1.3351 1.8158 0.7445 0.7265 0.8090 0.8004 0.7766 0.7400 0.2723 1.5697 1.4106 1.4370 1.627 1 0.3270 1.5664 0.61 1 1 0.8208 0.8403 0.7790 0.5900 1.8274 0.795 1 0.8 175 0.7679 sin 0.8225 0.8307 0.8195 0.7355 0.5736 0.8141 0.8387 0.2572 1 .6134 0.7771 0.6916 0.7627 0.8323 0.5204 1.7954 0.8056 0.6293 0.6330 0.5948 0.7673 0.6494 0.637 1 0.8465 0.5901 0.7862 0.8450 0.8258 0.5013 1.2059 1.5519 0.6088 0.7490 0.8192 0.3764 1.8107 0.3680 1.6003 1.8021 0.5640 0.8146 0.7916 0.5568 0.5972 0.5471 0.2349 1. Natural Trigonometric Functions Degrees sin cos tan COI 32" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 33" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 34" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 35" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 36" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 37" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 38" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 39" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 0.6316 0.6787 0.5299 0.8371 0.6180 0.5446 0.5398 0.5597 1.7808 0.2954 1.2203 1.7046 0.2876 1.8124 0.6041 0.5497 1.5878 0.6248 0.4641 1.3032 1.3848 1.5592 0.7720 0.5373 0.7898 0.8339 0.6453 0.6249 0.6361 0.7969 0.583 1 0.2497 1.4460 1.6225 0.4019 1.4281 1.5616 0.3111 1.3432 1.5807 0.5798 1.5854 0.6959 0.6619 0.4826 1.2423 1.6406 cos 0.8480 0.6873 0.6157 0.5760 0.6577 0.6703 0.8050 0.5783 0.7536 0.5348 0.6018 0.6383 0.6536 0.3934 1.8039 0.7753 0.2799 1.7986 0.7221 0.8098 0.7581 0.1988 tan 58" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 57" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 56" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 55" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 54" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 53" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 52" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 51" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 Degrees .7716 0.6338 0.6745 0.8241 0.5399 1.
743 1 0.9770 0.7133 0.6756 0.9884 0.7353 0.7193 0.9271 0. Binary 1010 actually means: 3487 With binary numbers.9827 0. 110.1436 1.0235 1.0477 1.7373 0.MATHEMATIC:AI.0913 1.9004 0.01 17 1. 101. Each number is written as a succession of powers of 2.7642 0.0058 1.6494 0.0850 1. a like system is used except the base (radix) is 2 instead of .9601 0. 1001.7092 0.1369 1.71 12 0.0416 1.7392 0.7163 0. Decimal 3487 is actually: 10.9163 0.7660 0. Actually.8796 0.OOOO tan 50" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 49" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 48" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 47" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 46" 00' 50 40 30 20 10 45" 00' Degrees are written as successive powers of 2.6820 0.1778 1.8441 0.6472 0.6734 0.7173 0.(I295 1.OOOO rot 1.7030 0. 1 1 1.6691 0.9545 0.1571 1.7528 0. the binary numbers corresponding to decimal numbers 0 through 10 are 0.9325 0.6884 0.6988 0.1303 1. 11.rarnple.8744 0.0724 1. 10.6583 0.7604 0.7294 0. Exumple.8899 0.9713 0.6947 0.9942 1 .1640 1.6862 0.6539 0.1918 1 .6713 0.7333 0.7412 0.6905 0.745 1 0.7585 0.8693 0. all numbers are written as successive powers of 10.7050 0.7009 0.7623 0.7314 0.9217 0.6428 0. 1000. Natural Trigonometric Functions Ilcgreeq \in cos tan cot 40" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 41 " 00' 10 20 30 40 50 42" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 43" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 44" 00' 10 20 30 40 50 45 " 00 ' 0.9435 0.7547 0.7490 0. 1010.7214 0.7274 0.6967 0.0661 1. 1.7509 0.707 1 sin 0.1504 1.8391 0.8591 0.1106 1.7234 0.8952 0.8491 0.8847 0. in the decimal system. 100.6561 0. TABLES N D FORMULAS A TABLE 63 Cont.6450 0. E.0176 1.1041 1.1237 1.7071 ros 0.1171 1.0977 1.0786 1.9657 0.6626 0.6926 0.6841 0.6670 0.6799 0.9490 0.7254 0.7566 0.0538 1.9380 0.91 10 0.0599 1.7470 0.8541 0.6517 0.6648 0.6604 0.I847 1.8642 0.0355 1 .9057 0. For example.6777 0.1708 1.
until the division gives a 0. add it to the third digit. you could use Table 64 and compute the equivalent in the other numbering system.(I~U~N. successively divide the decimal num 1 1 i The least significant figure is at the top. double it. Then double this number. To convert from decimal to binary.The powers of 2. thus. from 0 to 20. (See also the discussion of the ASCII Code in Chapter 7. and write the sum under the third digit. and add your answer to the second digit.) TABLE 65 Excess3 Code Decimal Binary rode 14 15 1001 1000 I ( i I I ber by 2. there are simpler methods.ray code ~)ecirna~ U. To covert decimal 22 to binary.. take the first binary digit. Con 182 . are given in Table 64.048. Write down a 1 if there is a remainder and a 0 if not. j Conversion To convert from binary to decimal or from decimal to binary. However. the binary number corresponding to decimal 22 is 101 10. respectively. to write a number above decimal 1. Write this sum under the second digit. Exumple.056 using binary numbers requires a minimum of 21 digits! TABLE 64 Powers of 2 Power Decimal Power 1)ecimal Power Decimal TABLE 66 Gray Code (. Thus. I Binary numbers are also arranged into widely used codes such as the Excess3 and Gray Codes shown in Tables 65 and 66. To convert from binary to decimal.
Multiplication Following these rules. Example. any binary number can be added. Example.tinue this process up to and including the last digit. a number is complemented by merely changing all 0's to 1's and all 1's to 0's and adding 1 to the final digit. as follows: However. + 1001 11000 1111 Addition Binary addition has only four rules Answer. it is simpler to complement the subtracted number and add. as follows: Division Binary division is similar to decimal division. To multiply 1011 by 101: To simplify the carry when 1 + 1 = 10. In the binary system. Hence. All products are the same as in decimal multiplication. the same as before. as follows: . That is: Example. Then add the partial total and the carries. Example. place the carry under the next digit. To divide 1101001 by 101: Subtraction Binary numbers can be subtracted directly. 1111 01 1 1 complemented  The number under the last digit (45) is the decimal equivalent of binary 101101. The first digit in the answer is disregarded. Binary multiplication is similar to decimal multiplication. the answer is 1000 (decimal 8).
Here. When a subtraction causes a negative number. 4. This positive remainder is shifted left but is still smaller than the divisor. there was n o 0 generated in the quotient. o r what is termed a n overdraw. . When the next digit was transferred down. decimal 25 in BCD is 0010 0101 and decimal 372 in BCD is 001 1 01 1 1 0010. That is. Dividing 45 by 9: that the remainder is larger than the divisor until the subtraction operation is performed. there were n o remainders smaller than the divisor. the remainder was larger than the quotient. where two o r more decimal digits are needed. The binary coded decimal (BCD) is widely used. This is done by adding the divisor to the remainder prior to the next shift operation. the computer must restore the remainder t o the original value before the next dividend is used. For example. T h e successivesubtraction method used by a computer follows: Quotient Subtract 101101 100100 Shift Restoreadd Shift 010010 100100 101110 100100 010010 100100 100100 0 1 After the first subtraction. 2. A computer has n o way of detecting For larger decimal numbers. T h e following example shows what steps must be taken when a 0 is generated.Handling Negative Remainders In the preceding example of binary division. Binary Coded Decimal Various codes based on the binary 1 and 0 concept have evolved to meet the needs of digital equipment operation. Example. Therefore a 0 was placed in the quotient. Each digit position has a definite value o r weight in the order 8. additional fourbit BCD combinations are used. 1 and each four digit combination in the BCD represents one digit of a decimal number as follows: Bringing down the next digit resulted in a remainder smaller than the divisor. the number is positive. Subtracting now would result in a negative number. One indication is that the highest order will require a borrow. four bits are used t o represent each digit of the decimal number.
the circuit is considered to be closed if all of the switches are closed. Hexadecimal numbers (often abbreviated hex) also find wide usage. Two logical connectivesAND and ORexpress relationships between two statements. ANDis symbolized by a multiplication sign (. Since 8 is a power of 2. then the open position may be considered the opposite or negation of the closed Thus. The hexadecimal system has 16 as its base. if two parallel switches are connected in a circuit. then the negation of A is false. The contradiction of any statement A is called the negation of A. 21 in octal is the equivalent of decimal 17 and binary 10001. AND is the logical equivalent of a series switch circuit. Thus. the digits 0 through 7 are used as follows: Decimal Octal equivalent Thus. if a switch has two positions. the circuit is considered to be closed if at least one of the switches is closed. conversion between the octal and binary systems is a n easy operation. Likewise 1A in hexadecimal is the equivalent of decimal 26. OR is the logical equivalent of a parallel switch circuit.OTHER NUMBER SYSTEMS Octal is a numbering system with a base of 8. which requires that a statement be either true or falseit can be nothing else. Thus: Hexadecimal equivalent Decimal . If A is true. The conventional numbers are used from 0 through 9 and the letters A through F for decimal 10 through 15. if two series switches are connected in a circuit. and C a r e used to designate various conditions.) or no sign at all. 21 in hexadecimal is the equivalent of decimal 33 and binary 100001. Similarly. Two or more statements connected by the word "or" are considered to form a single true statement if at least one of the original statements is true. Similarly. the opposite or contradiction of that statement can be formed. Thus. and vice versa. The symbols A . Two or more statements connected by the word "and" are considered to form a single true statement if all of the original statements are true. Similarly. which may be characterized by statements. Given any statement. Thus. B. FUNDAMENTALS OF BOOLEAN ALGEBRA Boolean algebra is based on symbolic logic. It is symbolized by a plus sign.
and hence TABLE 68 Summary of Logical Statements  1I Circuit Logic Meaning 0. is generally said to have a truth value of 0. Negation is indicated by a superior bar () or prime ( '). i f A = I . 623 through 626. tu  r 9 " i an open circuit. or an open switch in the circuit. at B. A closed in parallel .'I'ABI. and shows the equivalent switch circuits for the statements. the gate is represented by an appropriate electrical circuit.?  4  1 = 1 ' & a L '  0 +0 = 0 e I I 0+ I = I I+ I = I with a closed is closed. At A in each figure. 'The circuit is open. In the A N D truth tables.0 = 0 0. or a closed switch. An open in parallel with a closed is closed. Table 68 summarizes the various logical statements. The truth table for the AND . and hence a closed circuit. is generally said to have a truth value of 1. /i = 1 . position. A is iri 0 /  series with H.ogir Switch Meaning Circuit 1 true false series closed open A and H The statement is true. Conversely. A closed in series \vith a closed is closed. A = 0).K 67 Basic Rules of Symbolic Logic Symbol I . A 1 represents a true statement. The statement is false. A true statement. The various symbols are given in Table 67. a false statement. Applying the AND and OR (. An open in series with a closed is open. An open in parallcl with an open is open. The circuit is closed.1 =0 1 I I I An open in series with an open is open. A further explanation of these Boolean algebra concepts is given by Figs. The A N D gate is shown as having two inputs A and B and an output C. 1 8 + parallel AorB A is in parallel with B. and NOR gates. The gate is not limited to two inputs. NAND. and a truth table for each circuit is given at C. 623). which shown AND. the symbol for the gate is given. they would all be shown in series in the circuit of f3 (Fig. explains their meanings. a 0 represents a false statement. OR. any number could be used. Opposire of A (if A = 0. and + ) relations to the truth values (0 and 1) yields the multiplication and addition tables of binary arithmetic. Regardless o f the number.
then. Also. this would be represented by a closed switch in place of an open one. and. 624 A B ) 1npu1 output 1 1 0 1 OR Gale 1 gate shows. 625. In the gate circuits. d o not forget that a 0 in the truth table now produces a closed switch and a 1 produces an open switch. If either A or B. a statement can be negated or contradicted by any device that inverts the input by 180 ". The input that produced an output with the A N D gate now produces no output with the NAND gate. This means that an input that would normally produce an output produces no output. 626 1 1 1 NOR Gate 0 . These examples are represented by the last three lines in the truth table. The circuit shows that a n output is obtained when one or the other. or by an open switch in place of a closed one. are 0. 625 A 8 F Input output 1 1 NAND Gate Fig. or both. and vice versa.Fig. switches are closed. The output column for the AND gate is the direct opposite or contradiction of the output column for the N A N D gate. The OR gate (Fig. and a truth table. 623 AND Gale Fig. no output is obtained. Since this is a contradic Fig. as shown by the first three lines of the truth table.A NAND gate is represented in Fig. and vice versa. The negation of an A N D gate is a NAND gate (short for NOT AND). a circuit. If both switches are open (first line of the table). that an output is obtained in only one case: when both A and B are 1. Figure 626 shows a NOR gate. instead of in series as they were for thc A N D gate. the inputs that produced no output with the A N D gate now produce outputs with the N A N D gate. In logic circuits. conversely. Notice in the circuit that switches are now shown in parallel. 624) is represented by switches in parallel. then the output is 0. or both.
When the base is omitted. of a logarithm is obtained from Table 69. logarithms. The characteristic of a whole number.999 are: For most computations. To find the logarithm of 6673. Characteristic of a Logarithm The wholenumber portion of a logarithm is called the characteristic. Thus. they are written log. of the output column for the OR gate. or Briggs.8241. greater accuracy will not be required. has a positive value equal to one less than the number of digits preceding the decimal point.0002. Example. any number may be used as the base. in the column under the third figure of the number. which is 2. the circuit shows the switches in series instead of in parallel. or 3. or of a whole number and a fraction. A 0 input produces a closed switch. The output column is the direct opposite.tion of the OR gate. To find the mantissa for the logarithm of any number. the base 10 is understood. will produce the given number. the mantissa for that number will be found. Numbers Characteristic COMMON LOGARITHMS The logarithm of a quantity is the power to which a given number (base) must be raised in order to equal that quantity. 3 is the logarithm of 1000. Thus. A common logarithm of a given number is the number which. not the logarithm for 6673. The mantissa of a logarithm is usually positive. then follow across to the column numbered 7..8241 plus 0. or simply log. then. The characteristics of numbers between 0. The most common system is the base 10. Use of Logarithm Table The mantissa. The charactcristic for the logarithm of 6673 is 3. The mantissa for 667 (8241) is located at this point.8241). or decimalfracton portion. the logarithm of 6670 is 3. 2 is the common logarithm of 100. the logarithm for 6673 is 3. whereas a characteristic may be either positive or negative. Using the "Proportional parts" column to find the proportional part for 3. first locate 66 in thc lefthand column ( N ) . The total logarithm is the sum of the mantissa and the . and a 1 input produces an open switch. when applied to the number 10 as an exponent. The characteristic of a decimal fraction has a negative value equal to one more than the number of zeros immediately following the decimal point. since 10' equals 1000. The foregoing example demonstrated how to obtain the logarithm for 6670 (3. Therefore. From this we can see that the logarithm of any number except a whole number power of 10 consists of a whole number and a decimal fraction. or contradiction.0001 and 99.. since 10' equals 100. These columns list the numbers to be added to the logarithm to obtain fourplace accuracy. locate the first two figures of the number in the lefthand column (N). the columns labeled "Proportional parts" may be used. Logarithms with the base 10 are known as common.8243. If accuracy to four places is desired..
TABLE 69 Common Logarithms N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Prvporiivnal parts .
TABLE 69 Cont. Common Logarithms N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts . W 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Prupurlional parts .
A negative logarithm is difficult to use. Record the number in the N column directly opposite the mantissa located. it is more convenient to convert the logarithm to a positive number. and the characteristic is 2. Common Logarithms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Proportional parts Proportional parts characteristic. except that the 10 must be consid ered in determining the characteristic of the answer. Thus.3692 10. Antilogarithms An antilogarithm (abbreviated antilog or log.MATHEMATICAL AND FORMULAS TABLES TABLE 69 Cont. To find an antilog. Thus.0234 is 3692. or a multiple thereof. or .') is a number corresponding to a given logarithm. to the characteristic when it is negative. and annex to this the number on the top line immediately above the mantissa. The total logarithm is 2 + 0.6308. the mantissa of 0. locate in the logarithm table the mantissa closest to that of the given logarithm. Next determine where the decimal point is located by counting off the number of places indicated by the character + .3692. This logarithm may equals 8 now be used like any other positive logarithm. therefore.0234 would be written 8. This is possible by adding 10.3692 0. and compensating for this by indicating the subtraction of 10 from the entire logarithm. the logarithm of 0. since 2 + 0.3692 10.1.
03 + log 0. lows: log N = log 39. Find the antilog of 3. proceed as fol /kample.4548.200 . I f greater accuracy is desired.30 = 4 + 0.03 X 0.4346 log N = 3.4771 .2 = 1. lows: To divide 0.4771 = 0.0the antilog of 3.200 = 4.4771 ~ Division antilog 4 + 0.6964 log N = 5. in the same manner already described for finding the mantissa.200 by 27. Multiplication Numbers are multiplied by adding their logarithms and finding the antilog of the sum.6320 .log 27.0003 Numbers are divided by subtracting the logarithm of the divisor from the logarithm of the dividend and finding the antilog of the difference.2 log 39.log 0.10 = 7.1587 = 1441 To divide 39.istic. Locate the decimal point by counting off three places to the right. Locate 4548 in Table 69. 1 1! I log N = log 0.4771 + 0.10 = 9.007 = 1 3 + 0.5933 log 27.6320 = 42. and to the left if it is negative.4548. Example.3 by 0.5 log 0.4771 + 0.5.5302 Raising to Powers A given number can be raised to any power by multiplying the logarithm of the given number by the power to which the number is to be raised and finding the antilog of the product.8451 . the three figures of the antilog are 285.03 + log 0.10 log N = 26. To multiply 0. the "Proportional parts" columns of the logarithm table can be used.5 ~ + log 0. proceed as fol log N = log 0. count to the right if the characteristic is positive.4771 .02 x 0. proceed as fol In the foregoing example.log 0. Then read the first two figures of the antilog from the Ncolumn (28) and the third figure directly above the mantissa (5).4548.02 + log 0. 10\vs: log N = log 682 To n~ultiply682 x 497.02 = 2 = 2 = 1 + 0.8451 = 9.86 + log 497 log 682 = 2.0 + log 497 antilog 1. the procedure would have been the same except for the location of the decimal point. if the logarithm had been 2 + 0.6990 = 8. and counting two places to the left to obtain 0.1587 antilog 3.2.4548. proceed as follows: .0285the antilog of 2 + 0. Thus.3 = .3010 + 0.6990 .3 .007 log 0. from the point between the 2 and the 8. Example.007.000 Example.3010 .10 = 8. Starting between the first and second digits.4771 .10 log N = 1.8338 = 2. antilog 5.5302 = 339. The decimal point in this example would be located by starting at the point between the 2 and the 8. Example. to obtain 2850.
7244 antilog 0. proceed as follows: log A. though perhaps approximately. except that a natural logarithm uses the base 2. First. CUBES.1732 + 3 = 0. the square or cube obtained will be approximate. (If there are any numbers to the right of the decimal point. and a power of 10. = log 39. Note that e = 2.e. proceed as follows: log N = log 149 . Example. the value of a?or a%eing read from the table.5988 log N = 1. SQUARE ROOTS. Thus.5988 x 3 = 4. dB power gain = 10 * log. cubes. .. write the given number as the product of a number between 100 and 1000. To find the reciprocal of n (viz. The " 10001n" column contains the product of lln and 1000. move the decimal point three places to the left). its square and cube may be quickly. CUBE ROOTS..301 Natural Logarithms Natural logarithms are similar to common logarithms.lO. Disregard the nonzero digits. the programmer must convert terms with common logarithms into corresponding terms with natural logarithms. to the right of the decimal point of the number between 100 and 1000. For any number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000. To find the square root of a number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000. if any. lln). square roots.71828 instead of the base 10. Natural logarithms are important because many desktop computers process natural logarithms but d o not process common logarithms.7964 = 62. AND RECIPROCALS Table 610 gives.570 SQUARES. ( P 2 P l ) and (a x lob)' = a 3 x the square or cube of the given number may be obtained.) Using the equations: Extracting Roots Any root can be extracted from a given number by dividing the logarithm of the given number by the index of the root and finding the antilog of the quotient. (P2/PI)/logC(10) x 3 log 39. divide the entry for n in the "10001n" column by 1000 (i.7 Programmer writes: dB power gain = 10 * log.7 = 1.7964 antilog 4.3 log 149 = 2. Example. log.x = log.MATHEMATICAL TABLESN D FORMULAS A Example.71828. cube roots.7244 = 5.7 to the third power. In turn.. for the natural numbers up to 1000. The term 1 O 2 9 r may be calculated mentally. To raise 39. obtained as follows. and reciprocals multiplied by 1000.1732 log N = 2. To extract the cube root of 149.. the squares.
and Keci~rocals . to the right of the decimal point of the number a. where a is between 10 and 1000 and b is even and can be positive or negative. Disregard the nonzero digits. Disregard thc nonzero digits. if any. and so on. 2 is less than 1. (If there are any numbers to the right of the decimal point. the square root obtained will be approximate. and trigonometric terms. if any. to the right of the decimal point of the number a. Multiplying this cube root by lob3 the cube root of the given number. write the given number in the form a x loh. where a is between 1 and 1000 and b is divisible by 3 and can be positive or negative. and the computer processes negative numbers accordingly.or threedigit number a in the n column. Multiplying this square root by 10" :gives the square root of the given number. 7 . The decimal numbers are 0.3 v q . +j denotes inductive reactance. and j denotes capacitive reactance. Note. square root. The imaginary numbers are +q. and read its cube gives root. 2. the binary numbers arc 0 and 1 . . 4 . 6 . 2 v ' 7 . 3 . I . Various kinds of' numbers are used in electric and electronics formulas. 8 . (If there are any.ocate the two. 5 .) 1. and 9. and the computer processes absolute values accordingly. . The negative numbers are 1. To find the cubc root of a number that is not a natural number between 1 and 1000. Although 2 is greater than 1. Cube Roots. the cubc root obtained will be approximate. 3.v ' q . and read its square root. Sauare Koots. Cubes. and so on. Small computers cannot process imaginary numbers. The absolute value of 2 is greater than the absolute value of 1. The \ q 'is called the j operator in electricity and electronics. and such formulas must bc converted into square.) Locate the number a in the n column of Table 610. + + TABLE 610 Sauares.write the number in the form a x lo". 2 .
Cube Roots. and Recisrocals . Chbes. Squares.TABLE 610 Cont. Sauare Roots.
Cube Roots. Squares. Square Roots. and Reciprocals n n ' n! \ n <F 1000 n . Cubes.TABLE 610 Cont.
7914 4.4881 10.09091 9.69565 8.9187 1000 n 110 11 1 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 12100 12321 12544 12769 12996 13225 13456 13689 13924 14161 1331000 1367631 1404928 3442897 1481544 1520875 1560896 1601613 1643032 1685159 10.9049 4. Squares. Square Kools.7238 10.677 1 10.8167 10.40336 .8346 4. Cube Roots.84956 8.54701 8.8910 4. and Reciprocals n II' nr \ n <K 4.8628 10.5830 10.8059 4.92857 8.8770 4.8629 4.47458 8.8203 4. Cubes.TABLE: 610 Cant.6301 10.5357 10.0090 1 8.7703 10.9087 9.77193 8.62069 8.6488 4.
Cubes. Squares.TABLE 610 Cont. Square Roots. Cube Roots. and Reciprocals n n* n ' v'y .r : loo0 n .
\ n 3:\ n loo0 n .TABLE 610 Cont. Square Roots. and Reciprocals n n2 n' . Squares. Cube Roots. Cubes.
Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n n'
11
I 11
1,
\
n
I000 I1
Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, and Reciprocals
n nJ nI .
v' n

v 11
1
IOU0 n
TABLE 610 Cont. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n
tt2
JI.~
v' n
(:z
. 
1000
n
TABLE 610 Cant. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
TAH1,E 010 Cont. Squares, Cubes, Square Roots, Cube Roots, and Reciprocals
n
?I' N'
\'
n
.I\'
n
1000 n
Square Roots. Cube Roots. and Reciprocals . Squares. Cubes.TABLE 610 Cant.
Squares.TABLK 610 Cont. Square Hoots. Cubes. and Reciprocals .
TABLE 610 Cont. and Reciprocals . Square Roots. Squares. Cubes.
.
MATHEMATICAL TABLES D FORMULAS AN TABLE 610 Cont.52672 1. Cubes. ~ v' n v 11 4 : I000 n 650 65 1 652 65 3 654 655 656 657 658 659 422500 42380 1 425 104 426409 4277 16 429025 430336 43 1649 432964 434281 274625000 27589445 1 277 167808 278445077 279726264 28101 1375 2823004 16 283593393 2848903 12 286191 179 25.6668 8.53139 1.6757 8. Cube Roots. and Reciprocals .6934 8.6624 8.7022 1.53374 1.6320 25.52905 1.495 1 25. n n' t ~ .5734 25.53610 1.5147 25.6801 8. Squares.52207 1.5539 25.6978 8.51745 .53846 1.6515 25.52439 1 .5930 25. Square Roots.6125 25.6845 8.6713 8.5343 25.6710 8.6890 8.51976 1..
Cube roots. and Reciprocals . Cubes.TABLE 610 Cont. Squares. Square Roots.
I.0775 9.2580 27.0491 9.2029 27.34409 1.3679 1.0735 9.3130 27.34228 1.0654 9.335 1 1 .33690 1.2947 27.0532 9.0450 9.3477 1 1.2397 27.08 16 1000 I 1 740 74 1 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 547600 54908 1 550564 552049 553536 555025 5565 16 558009 559504 56 100 1 405224000 40686902 1 4085 18488 4 10 172407 41 1830784 41 3493625 415160936 416832723 4 18508992 4201 89749 27.2764 27.0572 9.34953 1.33869 I . Cubes.34048 1..3496 27. Squares. Cube Roots.0694 9.3313 27. Square Hoots.35135 1.0613 9.34590 1.2213 27. and Reciprocals n tr2 tlJ v' n  .TABLE: 610 Cont. 9.
and Reciprocals . Cube Roots.TABLE 610 Cont. Square Roots. Squares. Cubes.
19617 1. Squares.4279 9.8097 28.3978 9. Square Hoots.4316 1.I9904 1.4241 9.20337 1.8964 28.9310 28.19332 1.19474 1.9137 28.4053 9. Cube Roots.20482 1.4091 9.20192 1 .4129 9.4016 9.4166 9.8444 28. and Reciprocals n n2 11' v' n  3.20048 1 .9482 28.19760 1.4204 9. Cubes.8271 28.TABLE 610 Cont.9655 9.8791 28.19189 .8617 28. \: n 1000 n 830 83 1 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 688900 690561 692224 693889 695556 697225 698896 700569 702244 70392 1 571787000 573856191 575930368 578009537 580093704 582182875 584277056 586376253 588480472 590589719 28.
5756 9. Cube Roots. Squares.13895 1.5683 9.63 1 1 29. and Reciprocals 11 11! n' \ n i 11 z 1000 n 876 877 878 879 767376 769 129 770884 772641 67222 1376 674526133 6768361 52 679 151439 29.6479 9.14025 1.6142 29.14155 1.5792 1. Square Roots.5719 9.13766 .5973 29.TABLE 610 Cont. Cubes.
Squares. TABLES D AN TABLE 610 Cont. Cube Roots. Cubes. and Reciprocals n ' n 11 ~RMUI. . : ( I1 1000 .AS ' L' n .MATHEMATICAI. Square Roots.
and Reciprocals n n' nq v' n  . Cubes.( : 1000 n . Cube Roots.TABLE 610 Cont. Square Roots. Squares.
The following formulas can be used to convert from any temperature to the other: O = ("C F O = R O = R + 459.273. Celsius and centigrade scales differ slightlythe Celsius scale is based on 0" at the triple point of water (0. Note the degree sign (") is not used with Kelvin.16"C.Chapter 7 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION The nomograph in Fig.67 ("C X 915) + 491. in place of centigrade.01 "C).67 x 915) + 32 TELEPRINTER CODES Letter and figure assignments for teleprinter codes are given in Table 71. The term Celsius was officially adopted. the SI unit of temperature. The Celsius absolute scale is the Kelvin0 K = .273.67 O F OR = 915 (K . the two terms are interchangeable.67"F. and centigrade has 0" at the freezing point of water. Actually. by international agreement in 1948.16) + 491. 71 can be used to convert from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius (or vice versa) for any temperature between absolute zero and 540°F (281°C). . Two absolute temperature scales are also in use. For all practical purposes. The Fahrenheit absolute scale is called the RankineOOR = 459. though.
. 71. Temperature nomograph.Fig.
and 0's represented by four cycles of 1200 Hz (Fig. and each bit has the same duration (7. T h e ASCII Code. However.TABLE 71 Moore ARQ Code (Compared with FiveUnit Teleprinter Code) Code assignments  ASCII CODE T h e American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Code is used extensively in computer data transmission. A variation of the Kansas City standard employs the same frequencies for 1 and 0. It is a frequencyshift keying (FSK) mode of operation using tone bursts. 72 . C 1100100 01 101 C 001 1001 01 110 K ( 1101000 01 1 1 1 T 5 IOlOOOI 1 0 0 0 0 Z 1000110 10001 L 1 0100011 10010 W 2 1010010 1001 1 H ri 0100101 10100 Y 6 1010100 10101 P 0 0101001 101 10 Q 1 I 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 11 0 9 0110001 11000 B ? 1001 100 11001 G L. which is produced by most computer keyboards.452 ms). but with different durations. is shown in Table 72. 100001 1 11010 figures figures 01 10010 1101 1 M 1000101 11 100 X 1 0110100 11101 1001001 1 1 110 v letters letters 0 I I 1000 1 1 1 11 blank E line feed A space blank 3 linefeed KANSAS CITY STANDARD The Kansas City standard is a widely used digital tape format. consisting of 1's represented by eight cycles of 2400 Hz. whereas a 0 has its frequencytransition point twothirds from the start of the burst. Monre ARQ Hveunit code TTY code Bit Letters case Figures case numbers 7654321 Bif numhers 54321 11 10000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 10 0 0 0 0 1 0001 10 1 000 10 0101 100 0001 1 space 000101 100100 apostrophe 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 S 1 8 0 0 0 0 11 1 0 0 1 1 0 u 7 0100110 00111 carriage return carriage return I 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 D $3 001 110001001 R 4 001001 101010 J bell 1 100010 0101 1 N comma 0010101 01 I00 I' . + signal 1 idle a idle /3 signal 1 idlea idle /3 001 01 10 1001010 00 1 I 0 10 1200 Hz &our Cycles1 2400 Hz ~ E ~ gCycles! ht Notc: Transmission Order: Bit ]Bit 7 Fig. Each bit starts with a 3700Hz frequency and ends with a 2400Hz frequency. 72). a 1 has its frequencytransition point onethird from the start of the burst.
62 1.30 725  1140  1350 271.97 243 * 121.7 615  2.76 39.2 (820)t  3220 2467 7600 1380 185.70 6.36 247* 9.5 189. The symbol. b.73 3. 1 b. @ A B C D E F G H 1 < = ? > J K L M N 0 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ a b c d e f g h i j k 1 m n P q r s t u v w x y \ ] z { .50 1. J b. and atomic weight are included for each element. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. the melting and boiling points of each element are also given. Element Symbol Melting point ("C) Boiling point ( "C) Density (LO "C) (glcm actinium aluminum americium antimony argon arsenic astatine barium berkelium beryllium bismuth boron Ac A1 Am Sb A As At Ba Bk Be Bi B 89 13 95 51 18 33 85 56 97 4 83 5 227* 26.82 1050 660.00 10.TABLE 72 The ASCII Code Bit numbers n n n II 1 1 1 I b.944 74.91 210* 137. 1 b.82 9. Where known.3 2300 2970 1560 2550 220 . NUL DLE SP S O H D C l STX DC2 ETX DC3 # EOT DC4 $ ENQ NAK O/O ACK SYN & BEL ETB ' BS C A N ( H T E M ) LF S U B * V T E S C + F F F S I C R G S S O R S .78' 5. atomic TABLE 73 Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight number.  A i o DEL..80 2. J b. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEMENTS A list of all the known elements (105) is given in Table 73. SI US / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : . J Column Howl .1 1000 630.013 209. L b.
r C..a LM' I'b lai Lu klg Mri Mv H. gold hafnium hatimiurn helium holmium hydrogen indium iodine iridium iron krypton lanthanuni lawrencium lead lithium lutetium magnesium manganese niendeleviurn mercury molybdenum neodymium neon neptunium nickel niobium nitrogen nobcliurn I.c Kr I. Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight Melting point ( "C) Boiling point ("C) Ilensity (20 "C) (glcm ') Element Symbol bromine cadmium calcium californium carbon cerium cesium chlorine chromium cobalt copper curium dysprosiunl einsteinium erbium europium fermiurrl fluorine francium gadolinium gallium germanium Br Cd Ca Cf C Ce Cs C1 Cr Co Cu Crn Ily E Er Eu Frn 1. 2! Mo Nd Nc Np Ni Nb N No .d Ga Ge Au Hf Ha Hc Ho H In I Ir J.TABLE 73 Cont.
1 ( > 5300):~ . Element Symbol 1)ensity (20 "C) (glcm ') osmium 0s oxygen 0 palladium I'd phosphorus platinum Pt plutor~ium Pu poloniun~ Po potassium K praseodymium P r promethium Pni protactinium Pa Ka radium radon Kn rhenium Ke rhodium Rh rubidium Rb Ku ruthenium rutherfordium Rf' or or kurchatoniurn K u samariunl Sni scandium Sc sclcniun~ Se silicon Si silver Ag sodium Na strontium Sr sulfur S tantalum Ta technetium Tc tellurium Te terbium 'l'b tlialliu~n TI thorium 'fh thuliu~n Tm Sn tin titanium 'Ti tungsten W uranium U vanadiurri V xenon Xe yrterbiunl Yb yttri~~ni \i zinc %n zirconi~lrn Zr 190.975 195.100 140.7 30.48 1. .00 1.23 244 210 39.45   0.63 5.cts\ 11131 11ie \illuc niiiy be lower: > indicates that the value ma! he Iiiglict.40' 20.53 12.48 101.2   1140 62 5627 3960 700 4111 J 260* 'hlaxc nulnbcr of thc lo~igc\tli\ed the known avit~lahlc of l'orriic o f the elcrnent.33181 12.86 6.000 106.rlr~cs i l l parcl~tlleses indicate an approxilllatc \slue.31 102.2 16. 4 < iridic.TABLE 73 Cont.183 2927 280 3800 3250 960 760 3127 2730 22.00 12. Characteristics of the Elements Atomic number Atomic weight Melting point ( "C) Boiling point ( "C) .00 4.91 85.05 222 186. .82 2 1. tV.44 1.92 145* 23 1 * 226. IGrit~iisper 111cr. il\uall! \ y ~ ~ [ l i c t ~ c .
28 1 bushels rods = 43.1 feet = 1.2006 cubic inches = 8 quarts 1 peck 1 township = 537.605 cubic inches I bushel = 4 pecks 1 1 acre 1 acre = 2150.419 cubic inches I barrel = 3.S.1508 statute = 4 quarts = 42 gallons miles = 3 miles = 3 1 l/2 gallons = 2 barrels (63 gallons) = 252 gallons Square Measure 1 square foot 1 square yard 1 square rod 1 section (of land) = 144 square 1 tun inches Dry Measure 1 quart = 9 square feet = 301/4 square yards = 1 square mile = 6 miles square (36 square miles) = 160 square I = 2 pints = 67.MEASURES AND WEIGHTS Linear Measure 1 inch 1 square mile = 640 acres Volume Measure = 1000 mils = 4 inches = 12 inches = 3 feet I hand 1 foot 1 yard 1 fathom 1 rod 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard = 1728 cubic inches = 27 cubic feet = 23 1 cubic inches 1 U. gallon = 6 feet = 5 l/2 yards = 40 rods = 8 furlongs = 5280 feet 1 furlong I statute mile 1 statute mile Liquid Measure 1 pint 1 quart 1 gallon 1 barrel (petroleum) 1 barrel 1 hogshead = 4 gills = 2 pints 1 nautical mile 1 nautical mile 1 league = 6076.560 square feet 223 = 7056 cubic inches .
etc.3437 grains* = 16 drams = 16 ounces = 25 pounds = 4 quarters = 20 hundredweights = 2000 pounds = 2240 pounds 1 scruple (s ap) = 12 ounces apoth = 96 drams apoth = 288 scruples = 5760 drams = 20 grains* 1 pound (Ib) 1 quarter 1 hundredweight (cwt) METRIC SYSTEM Linear Measure 10 millimeters 10 centimeters 1 ton (tn) I short ton 1 long ton = 1 centimeter = I decimeter = I meter = I kilometer 10 decimeters Troy Weight (for gold.) 1 dram (dr) 1 ounce (oz) 1 pound apoth (lb ap) = 27. silver.) 1 pennyweight (dwt) I000 meters 1 = 24 grains* Area Measure 100 square millimeters 100 square centimeters 100 square decimeters 1 1 ounce troy (oz t ) = 20 pennyweights 1 pound troy (Ib t) = 12 ounces troy = 240 pennyweights = 5760 grains = 1 square centimeter = 1 square decimeter = 1 square meter Apothecaries' Weight (for drugs) I = 3 scruples = 8 drams apoth Volume Measure 1000 cubic millimeters 1000 cubic centimeters 1 dram apoth (dr ap) 1 ounce apoth (oz a ~ ) = I cubic centimeter = 1 cubic decimeter = 1 cubic meter I " 1 grain = 0. silver. etc.Avoirdupois Weight (for other than drugs. gold.0648 gram I 1000 cubic decimeters 224 .
0360 pound = 0.Liquid Measure 10 milliliters 10 centiliters 10 deciliters 1 = 1 centiliter = 1 deciliter = 1 liter 1. it is common to consider this value as being equal to the sum of the friction head and the actual head: 1 cubic foot .0 pounds = 1 kilogram = 1 metric ton HYDRAULIC EQUATIONS pounds per square inch WINDS Designatinn Miles per hour = 0. gallons = 8.0 pounds = 10. D is the diameter.31 x pounds per square inch Approximate loss of head due to friction in clean iron pipes is: WEIGHT OF WATER 1 cubic inch 12 cubic inches 1 cubic foot = 0.4 pounds = 7.S. in feet.45 U.0 pounds = 2240.0 pounds = 112.434 x head of water in feet calm light air light breeze gentle breeze moderate breeze fresh breeze strong breeze moderate gale fresh gale strong gale whole gale storm hurricane less than I 13 47 812 1318 1924 253 1 3238 3946 4754 5563 6472 above 72 head in feet = 2.0 pounds = 2240. gallons where L is the length of pipe. In calculating the total head t o be pumped against.433 pound = 62.48052 U.8 cubic feet 35. in feet.0 pounds Weight Measure 10 milligrams 10 centigrams 10 decigrams 10 grams 10 dekagrams 10 hectograms 1000 kilograms = 1 centigram = 1 decigram = 1 gram = 1 dekagram = 1 hectogram 1 U.33 pounds = 112. in feet per second.96 cubic feet 1 imperial gallon 11. gallons 269.0 U.S.2 imperial gallons 224 imperial gallons = 1 12.0 pounds = 2240. V is the velocity of flow.S.S. gallon 13.
= 8.000 where V is the speed.Horsepower of waterfall  6 2 x A x V x H 33. c is the cost per kilowatthour of electricity. where A is the cross section of water. f is the time.&r) ? ' FALLING OBJECT The speed acquired by a falling object is determined by the formula: V = 32t = 2. in feet per minute.7 . in feet.257 x lo(' Hlm permittivity = E. . and at normal temperature. in degrees Celsius. in seconds. COST OF OPERATION The cost of operation of an electrical device is determined by the formula: SPEED OF SOUND The speed of sound through air at 0 ° C is usually considered to be 1087. in feet. H i s the head of fall.280 mils = 984 x lo6 ft/s permeability = p. The speed of sound through any given temperature of air is determined by the formula: Wtc c= 1000 where C i s the cost of operation. = where V is the velocity. I is the time. in feet per second. in hours. 1130 ftls. in seconds.85 x lo" = (36n x lo9)'Flm characteristic impedance = Z. The distance traveled by a falling object is determined by the formula: (tr = 376.I (~. in square feet. in watts. in feet per second. W is the wattage of the device. V is the velocity of flow.= 12071 S2 where d is the distance traveled. = 4n x lo? = 1.42 ftls.998 x lO%ls = 186. I is the time. PROPERTIES OF FREE SPACE velocity of light = c . t is the temperature.
1967. m is the mass of the matter.296. or 1. Computers designed for engineering applications may provide a choice of degrees.600 minutes. There are 2 n (6. in centimeters per second (c' = 9 x 10"). INTERNATIONAL AND ABSOLUTE UNITS The following list shows the international unit values compared to the absolute values. It was chosen to be identical with the ephemeris second.000165 absolute joule = 1. c is the speed of light. The atomic second is defined as the duration of 9. MINUTES. 1 international henry II 1 international farad absolute farad ATOMIC SECOND The atomic second was permanently adopted as the International Unit of Time by the 13th General Conference on Weights and Measures. . in Paris on October 13. 1 international joule = 1.770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between two specific hyperfine levels of the fundamental state of the cesium133 atom.63 1.00049 absolute henry = 0. Thus.192.) radians in 360 ". or grads.999505 where E is the energy. radians. GRAD A grad is equal to 0.000165 absolute watt 1 international watt DEGREES. Each degree is made up of 60 equal parts called minutes. a circle consists of 360 degrees or 21.999835 absolute coulomb = 1.000 seconds.00033 absolute volt . 1 international volt = 1. in grams. .01 of a right angle. Table 74 converts minutes and seconds to decimal parts of a degree. The values used will vary from one country to another.CONVERSION OF MATTER INTO ENERGY The conversion of matter into energy (Einstein's theorem) is expressed by: 1 international ohm 1 international coulomb = 1. and each minute is made up of 60 seconds.2832 . AND SECONDS OF A CIRCLE A complete circle consists of 360 equal divisions called degrees. in ergs.000495 absolute ohm = 0.
TABLE 74 Minutes and Seconds in Decimal Parts of a Degree Minutes Degrees Minutes Degrees Seconds Degrees Seconds Ilegrees .
Kruse The following pages contain programs which may be run on the Commodore 64 @ computer to perform the following calculations: 1. 5. Impedance and phase angle of For each application two programs are included. Input impedance and phase angle of R L C parallel resonant circuit. Conversion of vectors from rectangular to polar form and polar form to rectangular form. . Unsymmetrical twosection lag circuit (with or without resistive load).I resultant for two vectors (phasors) in parallel. 4. Conversion of impedance to . Unsymmetrical twosection lead circuit (with or without resistive load). 2. T h e first is for use without a printer and the second for use with a printer. 6. 3. admittance and admittance t o impedance.Appendix A Robert L.
:CLOSEl.Ol*INT((TH*360/6.B 180 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 190 PRINT "Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)".Y:PRINT#l.2832)*100) 370 PRINT " Z PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".O : X .:PRINT#l.GG 260 INPUT "B (SIEMENS)".G:CLOSE1.S:THATN(X/R) 295 TP.Y 195 PZ.9 .O : B B ~ O : P H .R 10G OPENl.O : G .OlaINT(X*lOO) 320 PRINT "X REACTANCE (OHMS)".LA 390 PRINT "(POLAR F0RR)":PRINT 900 PRINT ""*'*****************O***********."IF IMPEDANCE DATA." *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 27 PRINT#l.:CLOSE1.2832~*100) 210 PRINT "Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".R:CLOSEl.''R (OHMS!".Y:INPUT "R (OHMS)".O : T H ~ O : Z ~ O 90 PRINT "IF IMPEDANCE DATA.01*INT(Z*100) 350 PRINT " 2 IMPEDANCE (OHMS)".RUN 290" 50 OPENl.9:PRINT#l.:CLOSE1.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA."G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS)"."X (OHMS)".O : Y ~ O : G G .B:CLOSE1.R 110 INPUT "X (OHMS)".RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA.G 150 OPENl.TP 310 LP.B 170 OPEN1.LP 390 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 395 PL.S:PHATN(B/G):PHPH 140 PRINT "G CONDUCTANCE CSIEMENSI"."BSUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)".Y:PRINT#1.X:PRINT#l..Y:PRINT#l.PL 355 LA.RUN 2YO":END 90 PR1NT:INPUT "R (OHMS)".9:END 90 PR!NT:OPENl.RUN 240" 60 PRINT#l.Y 110 INPUT "X (OHMS)".(*..9 30 PR1NT:PRINT:RO:XO:GO:BO:YO:GGO:BBO:PHO:TH~O:Z~O YO PRINT "IF IMPEDANCE DATA.X 115 OPENl.BB:PRINT 280 RGG/ (GG TZ+BB t 3 : XBB/(GG ?2+BB t ) 2 2 290 Z(RTZ+XT2) t.'+:PRINT#l.'l:PRINT#l.5: PHATNCBIG): pHPH 190 PRINT "G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS)".I'HOGRAM 1 Conversion of impedance to admittance and admittance to impedance 5 REM PRG 1 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*" 20 PRINT " *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 30 P R I N T : P R I N T : R .(***":pRINT 910 END 5 REm PRG 1 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*" 15 OPEN1.PZ 230 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT:END 240 INPUT "G (5IEflENS)"."*CONUERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE*":CLOSE1.Ol*INT(CPH*360/6.Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.G 160 PRINT "B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)".9 20 PRINT " *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE*" 25 OPENl.:CLOSEl.X 120 GR/CRt2+Xt23:BX/CRt2+XT2):PRINT 130 YCGT2+BtZ)T.4 160 PRINT "B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS)".O : B .RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE DATA.4 120 GR/(RT2+Xt2l:BX/(Rt2+Xt2):PRINT 130 Y'(Gt2+BT2>t.01*INT(R*100) 300 PRINT "R RESISTANCE (OHMS)".
Y 260 INPUT "B (SI EMENS I ."Z PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".***********.LA 380 OPEN1.T THATN(X/R) :PRINT .Y 193 OPENl.BB:PRINT#l.GG 250 OPENl.LP:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.:CLO~E~.5: 295 TP."CPOLAR FORM)":END:CLOSEl."Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)"."G (SIEMENS)".LP 330 OPENl.Y 280 RGG/ (GG.9 390 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 392 OPENl.:CLOSEl.9:PRINT#l."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9 195 PZ.T2)XBB/(GG f2+BB~t2) : 290 Z(Rf.9:INPUT "G (SIEMENS)".T2+BB.TP 305 OPENl.GG:CLOSEl.2+XT2I.RUN 90:IF ADMITTANCE OATA.Y 310 LP.Ol*INT((TH*360/6.PZ 220 OPENl.9 355 LA."(POLAR FORM)":CLOSE1.9:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.BE03 B SUSCEPTANCE (SIEMENS). BB 270 OPEN1.PZ:CLOSE1.Y 190 PRINT "Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS)".9 230 PRINT "(POLRR FORM)" 235 OPENl.~ 910 END "CONUERSION OF IMPEDANCE TO ADMITTANCE* *OR ADMITTANCE TO IMPEDANCE* IF IMPEDANCE DATA.Y:PRINT#l."Z IMPEDANCE COHMSI".PL 353 OPENl."Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".180 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 185 OPENl.01*INTCX*100) 320 PRINT "X REACTANCE (OHMS)"."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.01*INT(R*100) 300 PRINT "R RESISTANCE (OHMS)".2B32)*100) 210 PRINT "Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES>".LA:CLOSE1.6.Y:PRINT#l.BE03 Y PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)53.Ol*INT(Z*lOO) 350 PRINT "Z IMPEDANCE (OHMS)"."R RESISTANCE (OHMS)"."B (SIEMENS)".Y:PRINT#l."X REACTANCE (OHMS)"." .L*****":pRINT 905 OpEN1.Ol*INT(CPH*360/6.9:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.PL:CLOSE1.9E03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) Y ADMITTANCE (SIEMENS).9:PRINT#1.Y:CLOSE1.2B32)*100) 370 PRINT "2 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".9 390 PRINT "(POLAR FORM)" 395 OPEN 1.RUN 290 G CONDUCTANCE (SIEMENS).9 395 PL.:CLOSE1.9 900 PRINT "*********************I.9:PRINT#l.TP:CLOSEl.13 (POLAR FORM) ."****~**II********~*I*i**~****************":pRINT#~.~:pRINT#1.Y:PRINT#l.9.Y 290 PRINT:OPEN1.
... OHMS)".Y 15 PRINT "AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM*":PRINT 20 OPEN1 ... OHMS)".9 25 PRINT#l.2832/360):KJC*SIN(D*6..:CLOSEl.:CLOSEl.12 (POLAR FORM) .2832~*100) 190 PRINT " 2 (ANGLE. DEGREES)".9:PRINT#l.01*INT(CQP*360/6... RUN 170" 90 OPEN1..OHflS)"..99 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 2 IMPEDANCE (OHMS).9 90 INPUT "2 (REACTIVE COMPONENT.53."Z (REACTIVE COMPONENT..I**'@ 160 END 170 PR1NT:INPUT "2 (MAGNITUDE. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR." 15 PRINT "AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORMf":PRINT 30 PRINT "IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR...129.9 50 PRINT#l."AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM*":PRINT#l... RUN 170" 60 PRINT#l.5: 72) QPpATNCB/A) 115 LM.99.2832/3601 215 QQ.A 0 90 INPUT " 2 (REACTIVE COMPONENT.B:CLOSEl. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR..01*INT~JK*1001 220 PRINT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT. PROGRAM 2Conversion rertang~~lar form l4'i!/!oi(t Printer of vectors from rectangular to polar form and from polar to 5 REM PRG 2 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONVERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM.99 2 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).79.Y:PRINT#l." 12 OPEN1."Z CRESISTIUE COMPONENT..QZ 260 PRINT H**************rr*********************~~:p~~~~ 270 END 5 REU PRG 2 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "*CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM.Z+B f .B 110 PQCA. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR.A 0 80 OPENl. RUN 170":END 7 PR1NT:INPUT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT...QQ 230 QZ...01*INT(KJ*100) 290 PRINT "2 (REACTIVE COflPONENT.99 X REACTANCE (OHMS)..D 210 JKC*COSCDi6. OHMS)".01*INTCPQ*100) 120 PRINT "2 (MAGNITUDE... OHMS)".Y 13 PRINT#l.Y:END 7 PR1NT:INPUT " 2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT...R RESISTANCE (OHMS).. DEGREES)"....T." 19 CLOSE1."IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR...LM 130 ML. OHMS)". OHMS)"..B 100 OPENl.Y 110 PQ(A T2+BT2) T. OHMS)".A:CLOSE1.5:QPATN(B/A) . OHMS)".C 190 INPUT "2 (ANGLE....ML 150 PRINT "**********************************i*."*CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULRR TO POLAR FORM.. OHMS)".9 30 PRINT "IF POLAR TO RECTANGULAR...
QZ:CLOSE1... OHMS).Y 130 ML..QQ:CLOSEl..."Z (REACTIUE COMPONENT..115 LM. OHMS).'k:ENO 170 PR1NT:INPUT "Z (MAGNITUDE. DEGREES)"......C 150 INPUT "22 REACTANCE (OHMS)"...Y 210 JKC*COSC0*6...9:PRINT#l...ML 195 OPEN1..30 (RESISTIUE COMPONENT...69.."*****W111*(......Y:PRINT#l. 155 OPEN1.....95 37..2B32)*100) 190 PRINT " 2 CANGLE.... OHMS)"..."Z CMAGNITUDE.Y:PRINT#l..ML:CLOSE1.C:CLOSEl.D:PRINT:GOTO 265 .. OHMS)".QQ 225 OPENl. RUN 80":END 80 PR1NT:PRINT 90 INPUT "21 RESISTANCE (OHMS)".. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA. DEGREES)".Y:PRINT#1... AND FROM POLAR TO RECTANGULAR FORM* IF POLAR TO RECTANGULRR.2832/360) 215 QQ. OHMS)".. OHMS) . DEGREES)"."Z CRESISTIVE COMPONENT..****il*********":pRINT 6 265 OPEN1.LM:CLOSEl...."Z CANGLE..Y 190 INPUT "2 (ANGLE.69.9:PRINT#l....."Z (ANGLE.5 PROGRAM 3Impedance and phase angle of resultant for two vectors (phasors) in parallel Withouf Prinfer 5 REM PRG 3 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS CPHASORS)" 12 PRINT 30 PRINT "IF POLAR DATA.. OHMS)"..B 130 INPUT "22 RESISTANCE (OHMS)"..01*INT(PQ*100) 120 PRINT " 2 (MAGNITUDE...D:CLDSEl..."*********************il***************~* 160 PRINT#l... OHMS). (MAGNITUDE..A 110 INPUT "21 REACTANCE (OHMS)".9:PRINT#l.****************************":CLOSEl..........01*INTC(PP*360/6. RUN 70:IF RECTANGULAR TO POLAR..C 180 OPENl..D 200 OPENl. OHMS)...Y 230 QZ....99 2 CANGLE..9 2 0 PRINT lJ*********************wII.95 (REACTIUE COMPONENT..QZ 250 OPENl.... 0HnS)". RUN 170 Z (RESISTIVE COMPONENT.79...'k:PRINT#l.Ol*INT(KJ*lOO) 290 PRINT "Z CREACTIUE COMPONENT...Ol*INTCJK*lOO) 220 PRINT "2 (RESISTIVE COMPONENT... DEGREES)". OHMS)"... DEGREES)...:CLOSEl.. DEGREES)...LM 125 OPENl..~ 270 END Sample Kun *CONUERSION OF UECTORS FROM RECTANGULAR TO POLAR FORM. 2 Z 2 Z .9 150 PRINT .........9:PRINT#l. OHMS)"..."Z CMAGNITUDE..2832/360):KJC*SINCD16. OHMS)"...75 CANGLE..30 Z (REACTIVE COMPONENT.37... OHMS).5 Z (MAGNITUDE.
2832)*100) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".2832/36O~:PRINT:PRINT CG*COS(H*6.WH PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT QA+C:QQB+D WI.2B32)*100) 234 .01*INT(O*100~ PRINT "X2 (OHMS)".170 190 210 230 250 260 265 270 275 280 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".UP 610 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT 620 AQNN/Y:QAMMTH 625 WQ.5:JJD/C:HPATNCJJ) WG.WL 510 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 520 'i(Q't2+QQ.WK 985 WL.5:XYQQ/Q: THATNCXY 525 WM.WQ 635 WR.01*INT(BS*100) 680 PRINT "21 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE>".2832~*100) 590 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".WE WF.Ol*INTCNN*lOO) 980 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS)".01*INTCAQ*100) 530 PRINT "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS)".WO 585 WP.WI WJ.01*INT(C*100) PRINT "R2 (OHMS)".WO PRINT "(RECTANGULAR COMP0NENTS)":PRINT E(A 72+B 721 7.Ol*INT(B*lOO) PRINT "XI (OHMS)".01*INTC(PH*360/6.2832)*100) 990 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".E INPUT "21 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".01*INT(E*100) PRINT "21 (OHMS)".5:NJB/A: PHATNCNJ) WE.H:PRINT AE*COS(F*6.Ol*INT(CRM*360/6.01*INTCCTH*360/6.WB WC.Ol*INT(RZ*lOO) 580 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)".WF PRINT "CPOLAR F0RfI)":PRINT G(Ct2+OT2)T.2832)*100) 690 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".F INPUT "22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)".2832/360):BE~SIN~F*6.01*INT(XZ*100) 590 PRINT "21022 (OHMS RERCTANCEI".01*INT(CHP*360/6.2832/360) WA.Ol*INTCQQ*lOO) 990 PRINT "21+22 (OHMS REACTANCE)".WM 535 WN.01*INT(G*100) PRINT "22 (OHMS)".Ol*INTCSB*lOO) 285 290 295 300 310 320 325 330 335 390 360 370 375 380 385 330 910 920 925 930 935 INPUT "21 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)".US 685 WT.We WB.2832/360):0G*SINCH*6.01*1NT(CQR*360/6.G INPUT "22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".01*INT(Y*100) 530 PRINT "21+22 (OHMS)".WR 660 PRINT "CPOLAR F0RM)":PRINT 670 BSAQ*COS(QA):SBAQ*SIN(QA) 675 WS.WN 560 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 570 RZNN*COSCMR):XZNN*SIN(VM) 575 WO.WC UD.T2)7. WG WH.WJ 960 PRINT "CRECTANGULRR FORRIn:PRINT 970 NNE*G:MMPH+HP 975 WK.01*INTCQ*100) PRINT "21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)".01*INT(A0100) PRINT "R1 (OHMS)".
Y:PRINT#l.9:END 8 PR1NT:PRINT 0 30 INPUT "21 RESISTANCE (OHMS)".2832/360):DG*SIN(H*6.B 120 OPENl. RUN 80" PRINT#l.":PRINT "SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED URLUES MAY OCCUR DUE TO" "SINGLEPRECISION AND ROUNDINGOFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING.70 0 720 730 750 760 770 780 70 9 80 0 PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT PRINT 810 END "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)".Y:PRINT#l. RUN 80" OPENl."22 RESISTANCE (OHMS)".F:CLOSEl.2832/360) 265 WR.Y 130 INPUT "21 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".B:CLOSEl.C 190 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" "THE UECTOR DIAGRAM.Y:PRINT#l."ZZMAGNITUDE (OHMS)".E:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#1.H:PRINT 290 OPENl.Y 0 210 INPUT "22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)".WD:CLOSEl.WE:CLOSEl."22 REACTANCE COHMS)d".Y:PRINT#l.WB:CLOSEl." "THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER.Y 110 INPUT "21 REACTANCE (OHMS)".Y 250 RE*COS(F*6.Y 130 INPUT "22 RESISTANCE (OHMS>"."Zl MAGNITUDE (OHMS)".A 100 OPENl.H:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.2832/360):BE*SIN(F*662832/36O~:PRINT:PRINT 10 15 20 30 YO 50 260 CG*COS(H*6.Y:GOTO265 170 INPUT "21 MAGNITUDE (OHMS)".Y:PRINT#l.Y 150 INPUT "22 REACTANCE (OHMS)".01*INT(C*1001 2 0 PRINT "R2 (OHMS)".Y 335 WF.5:N.Y 235 ."IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS" PRINTBl.Y:PRINT#l.Y 275 WB.WF 350 OPENl."Xl (OHMS)"."Rl (OHMS)".01*INT(B*100) 280 PRINT "XI (OHMS)".WC:CLOSEl.9 PRINT "IF POLAR DATA.Y 320 E(AT2+Bft) T.Y 230 INPUT "22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".WF:CLOSEl.:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.Y 295 WD.WD 305 OPENl.G 220 OPENl."Zl RESISTANCE (OHMS)".01*INTCD*100) 300 PRINT "X2 (OHMS)".JB/A: PHATN(NJ1 325 WE.WB 283 OPENl.WE 333 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.Y 285 WC.E 180 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."Zl (OHMS)".D:PRINT#l.~ 310 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS1":PRINT 315 OPENl."(RECTANGULAR COflPONENTS)":PRINT#l.C:CLOSEl. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA.WA:CLOSEl.G:CLOSEl.:CLOSEl.:CLOSEl."RZ (OHMS)".WA 273 OPENl.D:PRINT 160 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l."Zl REACTANCE (OHMS)"."Zl PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".:CLOSE1.:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.WT "(RECTANGULAR F0RM)":PRINT "****************************************":PRINT "WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.01*INT(R*100) 270 PRINT "R1 (OHMS)".F 2 0 OPENl.Y:PRINT#1." Wirh Printer 5 REM PRG 3 WITH PRINTER PRINT "IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS (PHASORS)" OPENl.2832)*100) 390 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".01*INTCCPH*360/6.Ol*INTCE*lOO~ 330 PRINT "21 (OHMS)"." "TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.Y:PRINT#1."22 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)"." (PHASORS)":PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.A:CLOSEl."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)". WC 9 293 OPENl."IF POLAR DATA."X2 IOHMSI".
01*INT((QA*360/6.9:PRINT#l.9:PRiNT#l.WR:CLOSEl.Ol*INT((HP*360/6."(PGLRR FORR)":PRINT#l.WO:CLOSEl."PHRSEANGLE (DEGREES)".360 PRIYT "<POLAR FORR1":PRINT 365 370 375 380 383 385 390 900 910 915 OPENl.:CLOSEl.9 PRINT "(POLAR FORU1":PRINT OPENl."CPOLAR FOREI":PRINT#l.WR 650 OPENl.01*INT((TH*360/6.01*INT<NN*100) 980 PRINT "ZlfZ2 <OHflS)".9 960 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F3RM)":PRINT 965 OPENl.UP 600 OPEh1.9 670 BSAQ*COS(QA):SBAQ*SIN(QA) 675 WS.WP:CLOSEl.Ol*INT(XZ*lOO) 590 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)".WK 983 OPEN1.?:?RINT#l.WH OPENl.:CLOSE1.9 985 WL=.WS:CLOSEl.9 610 PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RR)":PRINT 615 OPENl.WR:CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#l.Cl*INT(BS*lOO) 680 PRINT "I1 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE)".Y 635 WR."CRECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.WG OPENl.Ol*INTCQQ*lCO) 990 PRINT "Zl+Z2 (OHRS REACTANCE)".01*!NT(RZ*100) 560 PRINT "21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)".Y 585 WP."Zl 9ND 2 2 IN PARQLLEL (OHMS)"."Z2 COHYSI"."!POLAR FORM)":PRINT#l.Y 685 WT."Z1*22 (OHMS)".01*INT(SB*100) 236 .:CLOSE1.Q Q / ~ THATN(XY) rz) X : 525 Wflo.WU 533 OPEN1.? 510 PRINT "CPOLRR FORR1":PRINT 515 OPENl.WN 550 OPENl.:CLOSE1.9 520 Y(9 ~ Z + Q Q ! .? 935 WJ.2832)*100) 690 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".01*INT(G*100) PRINT "22 (OHRS)=".:CLOSEl.WL 500 OPENl.9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9 WH.WQ:CLOSEl.9:PRINT#l."."(POLAR FORR)":PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.:CLOSE1.? 560 P!?INT "(POLAR F0Rfl)":PRINT 565 OPEN1.".Y:PRINT#I.WO 583 OPEN1.28321*100~ 590 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)=".US 683 OPENl.9:PR!NT#l."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".2632~*100) PRINT "PHRSE ANGLE (DEGREES)".9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.9 G(C:Z+D : Z ) t .01*INT(Q*100) 930 PRINT "Zl+ZZ COHMS RESISTANCE)"."Zl+ZZ{OHMS RESISTANCE)"."Zl*Z2 (OHRS RESISTANCEIP"."Zl*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)".5: JJD/C:HPATNCJJ) WG.s: Y .WQ 633 OPENl.?:PRINT#l."Zl+ZZ(OHMS REACTANCE)".Y 660 PRINT "(POLAR F0RM)":PRINT 665 OPENl.WG:CLOSE1.Li:PR!NT#l."PHASERNGLE (DEGREES)".9 620 AQNN/Y:QARMTH 625 WQ.9:PRINT#l.3l*!NT(CflM*360/6.01*INTCAQ*1001 630 PRINT "21 AND 2 2 IN PARALLEL (OHMS)".Oi*!NT<Y*lOO) 530 PRLNT "Z?+22 (OHUS."Zl AND 22 IN PARALLEL COHMS RESISTANCE)".?:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.WN:CLOSEl.Y 970 NNE*G:URPH+HP 975 WK.WL:CLOSEl.WJ:CLOSEl.Y 570 RZNN*COS(MR):XZNN*SIN(MM) 575 WO=."PHRSEANGLE (DEGREES)".WI 933 OPENl.WI:CLOSEl.9 920 Q."Z1+22:OHMS.9:PRINT#l.WH:CLOSE1."(POLAR FORM)":PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.WJ 950 OPEN?.9:PRINT#l.9 535 WN=."(RECTANGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l.2832)*103) 990 PRINT "PHASE RNGLE (3EGREES)".WK:CLOSE1.A+C: QQB+D 925 WI.
. 6 5 (RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS)  21 (OHMS).99 X1 (OHMS).:CLOSEl.29." OPENl."SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED UQLUES RAY OCCUR DUE TO" CLOSE1. .60 MAGNITUDE (OHMS).Y PRINT "THE UECTOR DIAGRAR.":PRINT#l.700 710 720 725 730 750 755 757 760 763 765 767 770 773 775 777 70 8 785 7 0 9 793 795 797 80 0 803 805 807 810 81s 820 PRINT "21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)".":PRINT OPENl.2 5 . .WT:CLOSEl.20 (POLAR FORM) ."(RECTRNGULAR FORM)":PRINT#l. . . .Y PRINT "(RECTANGULAR F0RR)":PRINT OPENl. .Y:PRINT#l.75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)= 20 R1 (OHMS)."TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.~****I*~~~******~********~******~****~*~* END IRPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RESULTANT FOR TWO UECTORS ( PHASORS 1 IF POLAR DATA.5 0 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). . . .Y PRINT "TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.3 R2 COHRS) 70.Y PRINT#l. ."THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE ARBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER.:CLOSEl. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" CLOSE1. . . . .Y:PRINT#l. ."WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED. ."THEUECTOR DIAGRAM. . . . ." OPEN1. RUN 170: IF RECTANGULAR DATA. RUN 80 21 21 22 22 MAGNITUDE (OHMS).Y:PRINT#l.Y PRINT "SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN CORPUTED UALUES RAY OCCUR DUE TO" OPEN1."Zl AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE)". . .Y PR1NT:PRINT PRINT "WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED. ." CLOSE1. . . .Y PRINT#l. O~EN~. .Y PRINT "THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE ARBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER. . .Y PRINT "SINGLEPRECISION AND ROUNDINGOFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING. . .53 (POLAR FORM) 22 (OHMS>. .:PRINT#l.50 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)." OPEN1.~:~RINT#~." CLOSE1.WT OPENl. . . . . ."SINGLEPRECISION AND ROUNDINGOFF PROGRAMRING AND PROCESSING." CLOSE1.55. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF" OPEN1.75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).Y PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.97 X2 (OHMS).93. .Y PRINT#l. .Y PRINT .
..25.99 (POLAR FORM) 22 (OHMS)......21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)... SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED VALUES MAY OCCUR DUE TO SINGLEPRECISION AND ROUNDINGOFF PROGRAMMING AND PROCESSING..99.70.35 (RECTANGULAR FORM) Zl*ZZ (OHMS).3 RESISTANCE (OHMS)..99 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS).25..68.83 CPOLAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE).99 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).93.89 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)..03 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). 21 21 22 22 RESISTANCE (OHMS).22..99 CPOLAR FORM) 21+22 (OHMS RESISTANCE).97 E X2 (OHMS)..97 21+22 (OHMS REACTANCE)..35.99 (POLAR FORM) .99. THERE IS A POSSIBLE 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER..19...16 (POLAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARnLLEL COHPlS RESISTANCE)..75 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)....80 (POLAR FORM) 21+22 (OHMS).651.. MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF THE VECTOR DIAGRAM..65 .03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS)...97 Zl+Z2 (OHMS REACTANCE).59.18 (RECTANGULAR FORM) WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.79..3750.. TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE APlBIGUITY..29 R! (OHMS).22. R1 (OHMS)...117.95..70.95..3693..77 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).69 (RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS) 21 (OHMS).89 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL COHl'lS REACTANCE).31.68.16 21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)..38 REACTANCE (OHMS).3750 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)..25 REACTANCE (OHMS).25 X1 (OHMS)= Y3...
.:CLOSE1.19 (RECTANGULAR FORM) WHEN ANGLES GREATER THAN 90 DEGREES ARE BEING PROCESSED.q 15 PRINT#l.31.C 50 INPUT "RL (OHMS)". lBROGRAM 4Input Wirhour Printer impedance and phase angle of KI......2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)"..651....35..22..9 20 PRINT .3633.83 (POLAR FORM) 21*22 (OHMS RESISTANCE)..S:ZC(RCT2+XCt2)t..2R32*F*C*10f6) 100 110 120 125 130 135 190 150 ZL=(RLt2+XLTZ)?... SLIGHT INACCURACIES IN COMPUTED VALUES nAY OCCUR DUE TO SINGLEPRECISION AND ROUNDINGOFF PROGRAMflING AND PROCESSING..QP END 5 REM PRG 3 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PRRALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 12 OPEN1.77 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)..F 0 90 PRINT 90 XL6."INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 17 PRINT#l.21+22 (OHMS). TO CHECK FOR 180 DEGREE AMBIGUITY.....2832*F*L*.03 (RECTANGULAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS).89 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS REACTANCE).001:XC1/C6.C parallel resonant circuit 5 REM PRG 9 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PRRALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT" 20 PRINT 3 0 INPUT "L CMHI"..35 21*22 (OHMS REACTANCE)....L 90 INPUT "C CMFDI".RL 60 INPUT "RC COHMSI".. ... MAKE A ROUGH SKETCH OF THE UECTOR DIAGRAM..22..99...S:LZATN(XL/RL):CZATNCXC/RC) RTRL+RC:XTXLXC:DE(RTT2+XTT2lt.117.5:EDATNCXT/RT) BSZL*ZC:SBLZ+CZ:HSBS/DE:SHSBED QQINT(HS1 PRINT "ZIN (OHMS)".16 (POLAR FORM) 21 AND 22 IN PARALLEL (OHMS RESISTANCE).RC 7 INPUT "F (HZ)".....QQ QPINT(SH*360/6.89 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)... THERE IS A POSSIBLE 190 DEGREE AMBIGUITY IN THE FINAL ANSWER.
"ZIN (OHMS)"."F (HZ)".A T N ( X C / R C ~ 110 RTRL+RC: XTXI.QQ:CLOSE1.9 135 QPINT(SH*360/6.RL:CLOSE1.B5 I'KOGRAM 5llnsymmetrical twosection lag circuit.C 9 5 OPENl.RL 180 INPUT "F (HZ)"."C CMFDI".RO 0 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)".CT 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)"." 7 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLEm:PRINT 0 8 INPUT "R1 (OHMS)".RC 6 5 OPENl.F:PRINT#l. 5:EDATNCXT/RT) V 120 BSZL*ZC:SBLZ+CZ:HS=BS/DE:SHHSBED 125 QQINTCHS) 130 PRINT "ZIN (OHMS>".Y 150 END INPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT CIRCUIT ZIN (OHMS).RC:CLOSE1. with and without resistive load I.T2) .C:CLOSE1.QQ 132 OPENl.2832*F*L*.9 90 INPUT "C CWFD)".L:CLOSE1.9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.b'.F:PRINT 200 XOl/C6."PHRSE ANGLE CDEGREESI". ~ : L Z .2832*F*CO*lOf6) 202 XTl/C6.C R L T ~ + X L ~ ~ ) ~ ~ .L 35 OPENl.F 0 75 OPENl."RL (OHMS)".Y:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.RT 120 INPUT "C1 (MFDI".9 50 INPUT "RL (OHMS)".QP:CLOSEl.XC: DECRT t2+XT.C R C T Z + X C T ~ ) T .A T N ( X L / R L ) : C Z .9:PRINT#l.9 7 INPUT "F (HZ)".9 60 INPUT "RC (OHMS)".9 8 PRINT 0 90 XL6.9:PRINT#l.2832*F*CT*lOt6) .19099 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).itlhoul Prit~ler 5 REn PRG 5 W/O PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL ?SECTION LAG CIRCUIT" 20 PRINT " CWITH/WITHOUT RESISTIVE LOAD)" 30 PRINT n********************************~**ll:p~~~~ 90 PR1NT"COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE" 50 PRINT "CTHEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLElu:PRINT 60 PRINTnCOMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.:CLOSE1.CO 190 INPUT "C2 CMFDI".RL 55 OPENl."L (MHI".?:PRINT#l. ~ : Z C .2832) 190 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".2B32*F*C*lOt6) 100 Z L .OOl:XCl/C6."RC COHMS)="..QP 192 OPENl.30 INPUT "L CMH)".
" 6 5 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l. " * * * * * * * L * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * H # .DEGREES CRL OPEN)"."COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE ANC PHQSE ANGL.Y 3 0 PRINT 3 B * * i * * * * * * * * * + * * * * * * * * * * * i * * * * ~ * * * * * i i : p ~ ~ ~ ~ 35 O P E N 1 .Y 20 PRINT " (WITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LORD)" 25 OPEN1.2B32/9:GUuPU*RL HUAN*COS(NR):JUAN*SIN(NR):UGGUP WC.WB TUUU*COS(UU):UTUU*SIN(UU):ZWUT+XO RS(TUt2+ZWfZ).2832)*100) W i f h Printer 5 REM PRG 5 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LAG CIRCUIT" 15 OPENl.2832/9:AKAFXT:KAAFA6.Y:PRINT#l.2832/9 ACm(RO TZ+XO1.CO 130 OPENl."Cl CNFDI".205 210 215 220 225 230 235 290 295 297 250 255 260 265 270 290 295 300 305 307 ABRO*XO:BR6.9:PRINT#l."COUPUTES UNLOADED ECUT/EIN AND PHRSE ANGLE. : C ~ C S E ~ .2) T.9:PRINT#l.9 120 INPUT "C1 (MFD)=".WE WFINTCNA*360/6.2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE.2832/9 RLCRGt2+AKt2)T. ~ : P R I N T # 1 .t.RO:CLOSE1.Ol*INT((UP*360/6."LOADEDEOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE":PRINT#l.01*INT(PU*100) PRINT"EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN)".RT 110 OPENl.WH:PRINT 930 PRINT u * * * * w * + * * * * * w * * ~ * ~ * * i i * * i * a * t * * * * * * * * * s 2 : p ~ ~ ~ ~ 990 END 310 315 320 325 330 390 350 360 370 WBINTCNA*360/6.5:XWATN(XY/RT) UWWX*YZ:WUXW+ZY:UUUW/XO:UUC!WU+6.2B32)*100) 910 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".2B32/'i PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".Ol*INTCCUN*360/6.WD WEINTCAN) PRINT "THEUENIN IMPEDANCE COHUSI". 5 ULATN(JU/KU):NUGU/LU:UNUGUL WD.01*INT(NU*100) 390 PRINT "EOUT/EIN (LORDED)".9:PRINT#l.9:PRINT#l.Y 80 INPUT "R1 ( OHMS)" .9:PRINT#l.9 60 PRINT"COUPUTE5 UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.9:PRINT#l.RT:CLOSE1.9 50 PRINT "(THEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHRSE ANGLE2":PRINT 55 OPEN1.:CLGSE1.WF 380 WG."CTHEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE)":PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.5:SRATNCZW/TU) PUXT/RS:UPSR6.2832) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".5 HAATN(AF/AG):RJRH*XT JAHA6.5:CAATN(XO/RO) ADAB/RC:DABACA:AERD*COS(DA) AFAD*SINCDA):AGAE+RT:AH(AGt2+AFt21.WC KUHURL: LU(KU t2+JUT2) T .9 24 1 .5: ZYATN(XO/RO) WAINTCAN) PRINT "ZOUT (OHMS)"."UNSYMUETRICAL 2SECTION LAG CIRCUIT":CLJSEl.T.":CLCSEI."Rl (OHUS)=".Y:PRINT#l." (WITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LDADI":CLOSEl.WG 900 WH."R2 (CHMSln".'t 70 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLEn:PRINT 7 5 OPEN1.WA XYXO+XT:WXCRTf2+XY!2)?.9 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)".5:LAQTN(AK/AG) RMAJ/AL:MAJALA:ANRU:NAAMA:PFFF*NA YZm(RO t2+XOt2) T .CO:CLOSE1. ~ 90 PRINT"C0MPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE QNGLE" 9 5 DPENl.En 96 CLOSE1. RO 90 OPEN1.
01*INTCNU*100) 390 PRINT "EOUT/EIN (LOADED)".Y:PRINT#l.Y 3Y0 WEINTCAN) 350 PRINT "THEUENIN IMPEDANCE (OHMS)".Y:PRINT#l.WC:CLOSEl. " * V O * O * S * O i * ~ O * S * * O ~ * ~ * * * * ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ S ~ * ~ S ~ ' ~ ~ p '+YO CLOSE1.2832) 270 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE.Y:PRINT#l."ZOUT (OHMS)".Y XO1/(6.Y:END 1Y0 150 160 170 180 190 200 202 205 210 215 220 225 230 235 2Y0 295 297 250 253 255 . DEGREES (RL OPEN)". DEGREES (RL OPEN)".2832*F*CO*lOr6) XTl/C6."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)"."EOUT/EIN (LOADED)".WC 312 OPENl.Y 360 WFINTCNA*360/6.WD 335 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.WE:CLOSEl.2832> 370 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".WO:CLOSEl.5:LAATNCAK/AG) AMAJ/AL:WAJALA:ANAn:NFIMA:PFFF*NA YZ(R0 T2+XO T ) 1.CT:CLOSEl.WB:CLOSEl.2B32/Y 265 WBINTCNA*360/6.Y:PRINT#l."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".Y:PRINT#l.Y INPUT "F (HZ)".INPUT "C2 (MFD)".?:PRINT#l.01*1NT((UN*360/6.F:PRINT#l.Y 290 TUUU*COS<UU):UTUU*SINCUUl:ZWWUT+XO 295 RS(TU12+ZWTZ) T.WF 375 OPENl.WG:CLOSEl.5:SRATNCZW/TU) 300 PUXT/RS:UPSR6.WH:PRINT#l.WE 355 OPENl."C2 CMFD)".2832*F*CT*lOT61 ABRO*XO:BA6.WG 395 OPENl.RL:CLOSEl.5:ZYATNCXO/ROl 2 WAINTCAN) PRINT "ZOUT (OHMS)".RL OPENl. 5 320 ULATNCJU/KU):NUGU/LU:UNUGUL 325 WD.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.WH:PRINT 920 OPENl.WF:CLOSEl.Y 330 PRINT ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ Y35 O P E N ~ .2832/Y AC(RO 72+XO 1 ) 7 5: 2 CAATNCXO/RO) ADAB/AC:OABACA:AEAD*COSCDA) AFAD*SIN(DA):AGAE+RT:AHHCAGT2+AFT2)tt5 HAATNCAF/AG):AJAHSXT JAHA6.Y INPUT "RL (OHMS)".CT OPENl.Y XYmXO+XT:WXCRT T2+XY 1 1 f 5: 2 XUATN(XY/RT) 260 UWWX*YZ:WUXW+ZY:UUUW/XO:UUWU+6.Y:PRINT#l. Y : P R I N T # ~ ."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)"."PHASE ANGLE.28321~100~ 910 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".Y YO0 WH."EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN)".01*INT((UP*360/6. WA OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.Y 380 WG."F (HZ)".2B32/Y:GUuPU*RL 305 HU=AN*COSCNA):JUAN*SINCNA):UGGUP 307 WC.WA:CLOSEl.2832/Y:AKAFXT:KAAFA6.WB 280 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.2832IY AL'CAGT2+AKT2) t.01*INTCPU*100) 310 PRINT"EOUT/EIN CRL OPEN)".2832)*100) 330 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)"."THEUENIN InPEDANCE (OHMS)"."RL (OHMS)".F:PRINT OPENl.Y 315 KUHURL:LU(KUT2+JUl2) 7 .
79.91735 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).2832*F*CT*lO.RT 120 INPUT "C1 CMFDI".17 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES).2E32:KAAKA180 290 IF ABSCKA>>lBO THEN KAKA+lBO 250 IF N1 THEN 295 255 WA.T.62 THEUENIN IMPEDANCE COHRSI.191 EOUT/EIN (RL OPEN).F:PRINT:N0 20 PRINT" 200 XO1/(6.T.CO 190 INPUT "C2 (MFD>=".92 I'KO(..UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LAG CIRCUIT CWITH/WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD) ********************a************** COMPUTES UNLOADED OUTPUT IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE (THEUENIN IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE) COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.CT 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)".191 EOUT/EIN (LOADED)...01*INT(AK*100) .RO 0 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)".KAM 6Unsymmetrical Withour Prinrrr 5 REM PRG 6 W/O PRINTER twosection lead circuit. DEGREES (RL OPENI. 5 1 210 BAATNCXT/RS):ACCROTZ+XO~T2)t.V61 205 RSmRO+RT : ABC RST 2+XT 1.91735 PHASE ANGLE. with and without resistive load 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT" (WITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)" 30 PRINT "******irr****rrar**a****************":pRINT 5 0 PRINT "COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE." 6 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE" 0 70 PR1NT:PRINT 8 INPUT "R1 (OHMS)".RL 180 INPUT "F (HZ)".2+AG.2832*F*CO*lOf6) 203 XT1/(6.108. 5: 230 AKRT/AJ:KAJA:KAKA936O/6.63 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES). LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE ZOUT (OHMS>.2 .5 215 CAATN(XO/ROl:ADAB*AC:DAABA+CA:AE=AD/RO 220 EADA:AFAE*COSCEA):AGGAE*SINCEA) 225 AHAFRO : AJCAH.T2) JARTNCAG/AHI t.
~ 50 PRINT "COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.9 20 PRINT" CWITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)" 25 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.Y 190 INPUT "C2 CMFDI".RO 0 90 OPENl.C RS T2+XT *2 t .Y:PRINT#l.260 265 270 290 295 300 305 310 330 390 PRINT "UNLOADED EOUT/EIN".Y 160 INPUT "RL (OHMS)"."LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE."R2 (OHUS)".WA:CLOSE1.F:PRINT:N0 190 OPENl.2832*F*CO*lOT6) 203 XT1/(6.Y:PRINT#l.WC 303 OPENl." 55 OPENl."F (HZ)".Y 120 INPUT "C1 CMFD)=".CT:CLOSEl.Y 200 XO1/(6.:CLOSEl."RL (OHMS)"."PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".Y:PRINT#l.CO:CLOSEl.01*INTCKA*100) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".RT:CLOSEl.Y 290 RTRT*RL/(RT+RL):GOTO 200 295 WC." CWITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD)":CLOSEl.Ol*INTCKA*lOO) 270 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)". JAATNCAG/AH) 5: 230 AKRT/RJ:KAJA:KAPKA*360/6.Y:PRINT#l." 0 6 5 OPENl.":PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.":CLOSEl.RL 170 OPENl.Y:PRINT#l.Ol*INT(KA*lOO) 310 PRINT "PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)".WD PRINT "****************************************":PRINT END With Printer 5 REM PRG 6 WITH PRINTER 10 PRINT "UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT" 15 OPENl.WB:NmN+l 280 OPENl."UNLOADED EOUT/EIN".WC WD.5 1 210 BRATNCXT/RS) : A C .WB:NN+l RTRT*RL/CRT+RL):GOTO 200 WC.WD 244 .Y:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.CT 150 OPENl.C R O T ~ + X O F . 5) T~ 215 CAATN(XO/RO):ADAB*AC:DABA+CA:AEEAD/R0 220 EADA:AFAE*COSCEA):AGGAE*SIN(EA) 225 AHAFRO: AJ(AH VZ+AG t21.2832*F*CT*lOV6) 205 RSRO+RT : RB.RL:CLOSEl.*":PRINT 90 OPEN1.01*INTCAK*100) PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN".Y 100 INPUT "R2 (OHMS)".CO 130 OPENl.Lf 70 PR1NT:PRINT 8 INPUT "R1 C0HMS)"."COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.WC:CLOSEl."***************I*********************":pRINT#l.Ol*INTCRK*lOO) 260 PRINT "UNLOADED EOUT/EIN".F:PRINT#l.Ol*INTCAK*lOO) 300 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN"."C2 (flFD)".WB:CLOSEl.Y:PRINT#l.****I.Y:PRINT#l.:CLOSEl.RO:CLOSE.Y 6 PRINT "LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE.~:PRINT#1.Y 305 WD.9 265 WB.WA 263 OPENl. 68 CLOSE1."LOAnED EOUT/EIN".Y:PRINT#l.2B32:KAKA180 290 IF ABS(KA)>lBO THEN KRKA+lBO 250 IF N1 THEN 295 255 WA.l.:PRINT#l.Y:PRINT#l.RT 110 OPENl."UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LEAD CIRCUITW:CLOSE1.Ol*INT(KA*lOO) PRINT "PHASE ANGLE CDEGREESI"."Rl (OHMS)"."Cl (MFDI".WA WB.Y 180 INPUT "F (HZ)".t.Y 30 PRINT ~~*******+**+**********+*****t*i.
337 CLOSE1.Y:PRINT#1.. Y : P R I N T # l .. LOADED EOUT/EIN AND PHASE ANGLE."***t************************************":pRINT#l.31 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES>108.25 **********************************a***** .63 LOADED EOUT/EIN. UNLOADED EOUT/EIN. " P H A S E ANGLE (DEGREES)".Y 330 P R I N T "***~****************~*I.WD:CLOSEl.Y 3 9 0 END UNSYMMETRICAL 2SECTION LEAD CIRCUIT (WITH OR WITHOUT RESISTIUE LOAD) **a********************************** COMPUTES UNLOADED EOUT/EIN AND P H A S E ANGLE.3 2 0 O P E N l .08 PHASE ANGLE (DEGREES)133.I****************~~:~RINT 3 3 5 OPEN1.
.
Appendix B
Robert L. Kruse
IBM@ PC AND PC JR.TM
A conversion of the Commodore 64 Program No. 5 (Appendix A) for the IBMB P C o r P C Jr.lM may be written as shown in points: Fig. B1. Observe the follo~ling
lines, starting with an L P R I N T code as shown in Fig. B1.
2. Typically, values will be processed to the seventh decimal place. To control the number of decimal places that will be printed out (roundingoff process), a subroutine using string functions is employed to accommodate the IBM PC. This is shown in line 8 of Fig. B1. Here the entry A$ = "######" indicates that when a P R I N T USING A$ or LPRINT USING A$ statement follows, a whole number is to be printed. Changing t o "######.#" indicates one decimal place; "######.##" indicates two decimal places, etc. This is illustrated at lines 13, 14, and 15 of Fig. B1. The L P R I N T USING A$ and P R I N T USING A$ produce the whole numbers 19095 and 86 in the results. Without the rounding off of the results, the numbers would have been 19094.82 and 85.77663. Thus in the conversion of any of the programs for use on the IBM P C , insert a string function to indicate the number of decimal places desired.
The programs provided in Appendix A illustrate the distinctions that are involved in running routines with a printer, and without a printer. Note that when a printer is used, a duplicate line will be required to the input and print command lines, with its proper coding. This duplicate line permits the program to be displayed on both the video monitor and on the printer. Printer coding for the Commodore is more complex than for the IBM, as seen in the examples. Because the Commodore program opens with a file and device number (open1,4), print the file number (print#l,) and then close the file (closel,4), the free memory is diminished and the amount of data that may be processed is limited in a long program. By way o f comparison, t h IBM PC merely requires addition of a duplicate line to the input and print
I
1
I
I
1 LF'RINT
"INF'UT
I M P E D A N C E AND F'HGSE ANGLE OF R L C F ' A R A L L E L RESONANT C I R C U I T "
2 F ' R I N T " I N F ' U T INF'EDANCE AND F'HASE ANGLE OF R L C F A R A L L E L RESONANT C I R C U I T "
? Lt:'RINTU":F'RINT"": INF'UT " L !mH) = " ; L 4 LF'RINT "L (mH)=";L: INF'LJT " C ! M f i J ) = " ; C 5 L P R I N T " C ( M f d ) = " : C : INF'UT " R L ( O h m s ! = " : R L 6 L F R I N T " R L ( O h m s ) = " : R L : I N P U T "RC ( O h m c  j = " ; R C 7 L F ' R I N T "F:C ! O h m s ) = " :KC: I N F ' U T " f i l  4 . = " ! , F O LF'RINT " F (Hz)=":I=:LFRINT"":F'RINT"":Arb="######" 9 XL=6.2332XFtLrl:.OOl: XC=1/ ( 6 . 2 8 3 2 $ F $ C f 1ij"'.6, 1r:) Z L = (F:L""Z+XL".2) 5 : ZC= ( R C ' 2 + X C '  2 ) 5: L Z = A T N ( X L / R L ) :CZ=ATN ( X C / R C ) 1 1 RT=RL.+RC: XT=XLXC: DE= ( R T . " ^ ? + X T . " 2 ) . " . . 5: ED=ATN ( X T / R T ) 12 H S = Z L 1 Z C : SH=LZ+CZ :H S = B S / D E : SH=SHED 15 L F ' R I N T " Z i n ! O h m s ) = " ; U S I N G AB:HS:F'RII\IT " Z i n ( O h m s ) = " : U S I N G r?$;HS 14 L F ' R I N T " F ' h a s e A n q 1 e ( E e i j r e e s ) = " ;U S I N G A%; S H $ 3 6 ( : ) / 6 . 2 8 3 2 15 F'F:INT " F ' h a s e A n g l e ! D e g r e e s ! =";UL;Il;10 AB;SHdZoi:)/b.Z8J2 1 6 END
'
:..
'.
I N F ' U T IMF'EDANCE AND F'kiASE ANGLE OF R L C F ' A R A L L E L RESONFlNT C I R C U I T
L (mH!= IbC) C i M f d ! = . 15 F:L ( O h m s ) := S RC ( O h m s ) = 1 f !HZ ) = 1C q ( j
Z i n / O h i n s ) = 19095 F'hace A n g l e ( D e g r e e s ) =
86
Fig. B1
APPLE@ IIe AND I1
+
2. Roundingoff printout (number of
displayed decimal places) is controlled by means of a subroutine employing the INT function when coding Apple IIe and 11 + programs. Note that the Commodore 64 also uses the INT function for this purpose. The proper entries to obtain the desired number of decimal places are:
Q = INT(R) Q = .l*INT(R*lO) Q = .01* INT(R* 100) Q = .001 *INT(R* 1000) Etc.
Apple@I1 conversions for the Commodore 64@programs (Appendix A) may be written as shown in Fig. B2. Observe the following points: 1. Comparatively, Apple I1 + printer coding is somewhat similar to that of the Commodore 64 in that the input and print command lines are duplicated with an opening command (PR#l) and a closing command (PR#O).
+
[Whole Number] [One Place] [Two Places] [Three Places]
Thus the statement:
60 PRINT "R1 (OHMS) = ";R
should be written
55 Q = .Ol*INT(R*lOO) 60 PRINT "R1 (OHMS) = ";Q
to obtain a result to two decimal places.
10
)
31
90
50 60 70
8C)
91 82 83 H4 83 86 CO ? 1(:1(:) 110 120 125 130
1; 3 1.10
144 145 146 147 148
GOSUB 1 4 5 P R I N T " " :P R I N T " " : INF'UT " L i m H ) = " ; L INF'UT "C ( M f d ) = " ; C INF'UT " R L ( O h m s ) = " ; R L INPUT "RC ( O h m s ) = " ; R C INPUT " f i H z ) = ; F F'RINT " " : P R I N T " " : HOME : GOSUN 1 4 7 PR# 1: P R I N T " " : P R I N T " " : P R I N T " L ( m H ) = " ; L P R I N T "C ( M f d ) = ; C F'RINT " R L i O h m s ) = " ; R L P R I N T "RC ( O h m s ) = " ; R C P R I N T " f ( H z ) = " .3 F P R I N T " " :F'RINT " " : PR# 0 X L = 6.2832 4 F $ L .(>01: XC = 1 / i 6 . 2 8 3 2 X F 1 C 1i;) : ZL = (RL . . 3 + X L . 2 ) .'.  5 : z c = ( R E ."" 2 + xc ". 2 ) . 5 : L Z = ATN ! X L / R L ) : CZ =  ATN i X C / RC) RT = R L + KC : XT = XL  XC : DE = i R T '. 2 + XT 7 ) .".  5 : ED = aTN ( X T / RT) BS = Z L X ZC : SB = L Z + CZ : HS = BS / DE : SH = SB  ED 8 8 = I N T (HS) PR# 1 : P R I N T " Z i n i O h m s ) = " ; B Q 8 P = I N T (SH X 360 / 6 . 2 8 3 2 ) PRINT "Phase A n g l e i D e g r e e s ) = " : l 2 F END F'RINT "INF'UT IMPEDANCE AND FHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C U I T " : PRINT " " RETURN PF:# 1: F'RINT " I N P U T IMPEDANCE AND FHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C F'RINT " " : FR# (1) UIT" : RETlJRN
'
?''
I I N F ' U T IMPEDANCE AND PHASE ANGLE OF RLC PARALLEL RESONANT C I R C U I T
Z i n i 0 h m s ) =191:)94 P h a s e A n g l e ( D e g r e e s ) =85
Fig. B2
TYPICAL CONVERSION "BUGS"
Error messages resulting from incorrect coding are frequently vague, and the programmer must carefully proofread the routine. Inasmuch as programmers tend to repeat "pet" coding errors, someone else should also proofread the routine. Some common "bugs" are:
1. Numeral 0 typed in instead of capital 0.
9. Factors used incorrectly (e.g., l o 6 for 10"or 6.28321360 for 36016.2832). Note also that logarithms of negative numbers will not be processed.
When a RUN stops at some point during the processing interval and an error message is displayed (or when a RUN stops with no error message), the programmer can operate the computer in its calculator (direct) mode to display successively the value of variables that have been processed up to the "bug" point. Accordingly, errors often become obvious. For example, the programmer may find a zero value for a variable or an extremely large value for a variable indicating (division by zero). Or, the programmer may note that the computed value for the variable is greater than one, although its correct value must be less than one (or vice versa). Patience and reasoning will help the programmer identify the coding error. Programs sometimes appear to have coding "bugs" when the difficulty is actually an erroneous INPUT. Consider, as an illustration, the programmer who accidentally INPUTS 1500 instead of 15000. Because of this small error, a "bug" will appear to be in the program. It is good practice to reRUN such a program, to ensure that the trouble is actually in the coding and not in a n erroneous INPUT.
2. Letters in a twoletter variable reversed (e.g., PQ for QP). 3. Semicolon typed in instead of a colon (or vice versa).
4. Complete program line omitted.
5. "Bug" hidden in the program memory caused by "illegal" wordprocessing operation. (Retype the complete line if this trouble is suspected.)
6. Plus sign erroneously used for a required minus sign, or plus sign inserted in a coded data line that requires a blank space to imply a plus sign.
7. Improper units employed in assignment of INPUT variables. Numerical values can, for example, be specified within pern~issibleranges by using compatible units in coding of programs (e.g., the programmer has a choice of farad, microfarad, or picofarad units).
LINEBYLINE CHECKOUT
Although a program may RUN without any error messages, an incorrect answer is sometimes printed out. This difficulty requires a careful linebyline checkout. Incorrect variables are often responsiblethis involves "slips" such as R for RE, or V U for UV. A more subtle error in variable specification is encountered when a heuristic program is written with "recycled" equations.
8. Reserved word used illegally for variables. For example, if the programmer attempts to use OR, AND, COM, or INT as a variable, the program will not run.
In this situation, the INPUT variables may be A, B, C, and D. Then, the values of these INPUT variables may be redefined in following equations, and redefined again in following loops. Accordingly, the INPUT values must be kept separate from the redefined values; this is accomplished by coding AA = A*f(X), instead of A = A*f(X). When an initial linebyline checkout does not identify the "bug," remember that a PRINT command can be inserted into the program following each equation or logical operation. In turn, the programmer can re
view the processing action in a printout and find the error in the program. This is a particularly helpful procedure when equations are "recycled" in a survey or heuristic routine. Sometimes, the programmer is unable to identify the "bug(s)" in a long and involved routine. In this situation, it is advisable to ask sorneone else to retype the program. This procedure allows a fresh viewpoint, as well as eliminates the programmer's favorite and frequently repeated typing errors.
.
44 Ampereturns. 44 Argon. 24825 1 Area rncasurements. 161 pitype. operating power of. 44 Actinium. resistance of. resistance of. 2021 Alumel. conversion of. 220 Apothecaries' weight. 7071. dielectric constant of. 22 Apple Ile and I1 +. 6970 Amber. 144145 Amplitude modulation. 78 AC (dynamic) plate resistance formula. 183 powers of 10 arid. characteristics of. 97 list of. (APCO). 168170 Alloys. 156 balanced bridgedt. voltage across series capacitors. 220 resistance of. frequency bands for. list of. conversion of. 63 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) Code. 186. 227 Attenuator formulas. 69 Algebraic operations. 157158 htype. conversion of. 157. 40 AM broadcast. 162 Itype. 187 Angstrom units. 220 Associated Public Safety Communications Officers. 162 latticetype. 185. 220 Americium. 137 Asbestos fiber. characteristics of. 135 resistance of. 137. 159 combining or dividing network. 220 gage practices of. Inc. characteristics of. operational (op amps). conversion of. conversion of.Note: Pages listed in bold type indicate coverage in charts or tables Amplification factor formula. formula for gain of an. 1051 10 Absolute units. 220 Addition binary numbers and. 219. characteristics of. 227 AC. 160 otype. 44 Atomic second. 137 Alternating current. 219. 40 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Code. 60 Atmospheres. 230232 difference between letter symbols and. program conversions for. 191192 Antimony. 159 K factor and. 3 132 AND staterncnt. 44 . dielectric constant of. 141 Amplifiers. 1 1 formulas for. 99105 semiconductor. 141 Acres. 137 Amateur licenses. 220 Ammeter shunts. dielectric constant of. conversion of. 40 Aircraft radiotelegraph endorsement. 224 Ares. 161 Abbreviations conversion of impedance to. 44 Antilogarithms. 91 Astatine. 220 Arsenic characteristics of. 137 Aluminum characteristics of. Ohm's law for. characteristics of. 158 laddertype. 71 Amateur operator privileges. 10signals of. 2728 Amperehours. 167 Admittance definition of. 220 ATA. 1 1 Air. 141 Amplifier. 159 bridgedt. 224 Apparent power.
characteristics of. 18 and resistance in scrics and impedance. conversion of. 159 l3riggs logarithms. characteristics of. dielectric constant of. 44 Boolean algebra. 78 Carats (metric). 220 l3inary arid clecirnal equivalents. 18 and resistance in parallel and impedance. 12 susceptanct. 6869 Bromine. 1 12. 40 Celsius conversion of. 224 Bakelite. diclcctric constant of.153 Bandrejection filters. taper pad. conversion o f . 21 7 .188 Boron. common Broadcast cndorserncnt. 221 Bronze. 220 Beryllium. 68 impedance arid. 16. 221 C:alories conversion of gram. 7 series. 53 coded decimal (bcd). 18 and series resistance i r ~ parallel with inductance and series resistance and impedance. 175. 184 converting from. characteristics of. 16 single. 7 molded flat papcr and mica. characteristics of. 175. 78 voltage across series. 3 52. conversior~of. 44 definition of. characteristics of. conversion of. gage practices of.45. 40 CB. 7 parallelresistatlcc nomograph and. 181184 Bismuth. 159 Itype. dielectric constant of. 7 determining energy stored in. 137 Bridgedt attcnuatol. 221 Carbon tetrachloride. 161162 ~ t t o . 112. 17. 158 utype. 116 determining charge stored in. 44 Base current formula. 220 BPM. and impedance.43 . 112. 143 Bariurn. 114 molded paper tubular. 7071. coriversiori of. 40 Barns. 60 Brass gage practices of. 24 formulas lor calculating. 7273 I3andwidth for~iiula. 44 Bureau International de I'Heure (BIH). 40 Capacitance and inductance in parallel and impedance. characteristics of. 44. 113114. 181183 numbers. 142 I3eeswax. 44 Bars. 13 1 A\!erage values. 67 tantalum. 221 C:aliforniun~. 135 resistance of high. 52 Bushels. 16 Capacitive reactance. 44 Carbon. 217 scale. 145 Cambric. 40 Balanced bridgcdt attcnuatol. 6 parallelplate. dielectric constant of. 153 Bands amateur licenses and frequency. to decimal. 115.42. Audiofrequency spectrum. characteristics of. 220 Barium titanate. 1151 16. 60 R t u . and impedance. 116 typo_eraphically marked. 21. 182183 digits. diclectric constant of. 40 Cellulose acetate. cfiaracteristics of. 220 Board feet.Attenuator form~tlascotlr. and impedance. 40 Berkeliurri. dielectric constarit of. characteristics of. characteristics of. 70 Audiopower check. I I Capacitors ceramic and ~nolded insulated. 71 maxitnu~n power for the 160m. 221 Calcium. 18 parallelplate capacitol. See Logarithms. dielectric constant o f . 185. 44 Cable tclcvision channel frequencies. 18. 113 parallel. 116 unit. 135 USF. 114 color codes for. See Citizens band Celluloid. 7 scrics. 20 parallel. 43 versus centigrade. conversion of. 78 Cadmium. converting. 20 dimensional units and. 1 1. 1 12. 159 Baridpass filters. 21 Avoirdupois weight. 5253.
formula for. definition of. 45 Circular ring. 45 Cost of operation. 210. 50. 173 Constantan. 4243. 116 teleprinter.220 capacitor color. 142 movingcoil meter for testing. 137 Constantk filters. I I for DC circuits. 150 rms. 137 Chromium characteristics of. 221 Cesium. characteristics of. 221 resistance of. 1 12. 1 16. 64 frequencies and tolerances for. 57. resistarlcc of. 5657 Circle area of. 141. 112. 217 Conversion table and prefixes. 1 l I.126 Color codes capacitor. 172 Citizens band. 116 excess3. 4 Current gain formulas. 1 16. 1112 <:one. 21 ratings. charactcristics of. 221 Chains (surveyor's). 21 Current flow. 137 Chromel. See Logarithms. 21 base. 165 time. 52 Copper characteristics of. 10 Cube(s) area of. 45 Cubic meters. 115116. conversion of. 40 mathematical. charactcristics of. formulas. 113114. resistance of. conversion of. 45 Curium. formulas for. 227 Conversion of temperatures. 217. 112 semiconductor color. 174 DAM. 30 Cobalt. resistance of. common Conductance definition of. conversion of. 229245 Commorl logarithms. 92 Coaxial cable characteristics. 11 formulas for. 45 Curies. 182 Moore ARQ. conversion of. 137 Copperwire charactcristics. 60 . area of. 221 gage practices of. 221 Current average. 194216 Cubic feet. conversion of. 137. 114 Cerium. conversion of. 2325 Conversion chart of world time. 142 Collector power formula.142 Cycles per second. 45 Cubic inches. conversion of. characteristics of. 4449 Conversion of matter into energy. 45 Charge stored in capacitors. 43 Centigrade.Ccnti. area of. 147148 Collector current formula. 65 10signals code of. 219 See also Signals Coil windings. 142 collector. 7 Chlorine. 142 emitter. 227 Circular mils. 226 Coupled inductance. 123. conversion of. 1 12. 137 CHU. 173 finding the. determining. 910 Coupling coefficient. 45 Cylinder. area of. finding. 182 gray. 5859 Conversion factors. minutes. 116 resistor.. 112 semiconductor. 42. 44. formula for. and seconds of a. 45 Cups. 115116. characteristics of. 125. 6469 Commodore 64 computer. 116 Commercial operator licenses. 172 degrees. 21 peaktopeak. calculations using the. 219 resistor color. 39. 193 roots. 150153 Constants dielectric constants of materials. 26 peak. I l I. 124 Coaxial line. 138139 Cords. 142 Color bar pattern. 194 tables for. 113114. 135 resistance of. conversion of. 43 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). 221 Codes ASCII. See Celsius scale Ceramic and molded insulated capacitors. 221 Chromax. 1 112 Ohm's law for~nulas and.
conversion of. 33. 182 Exponent determination. characteristics of. 1 lleci. 22 Energy stored in capacitors. 22 of position. 24 how to use. determining. 226 Faradays. laws of. characteristics of. 71. 221 Einstein's theorem. 60 Dielectric constanrs of rriaterials. 133. 22 potential. 40 Erbium. 39. 40 Dynes. 40 Dimerlsional units for mechanical and electrical units. dielectric constant of. 152153 bandrejection.170 Extracting roots and logarithms. 192 powers of 10 and. 220222 1 1signals. 45 Feet of water. and. 223 Duritc.43 Fermis. 91. conversion of. dielectric constant of. 133. 53 drill sizes and. forlnulas for. 45 Ethyl alcohol. characteristics of. dielectric constant of. 45 Fathoms. 23 Electrorlics schematic symbols. conversion of. dielectric constant of. 60 DAO. definition of. 217 Falling object. 155156 Fluorine. conversion of.43 DGI. convcrsion of. 42. condrlctance and. 1511 52 mderived. dielectric constant of. dielectric constant of. 155156 bandpass. 145 Electromotive torce (emf). 146 Filter formulas. 42. 134 fractional inch. 221 Ergs. 40 Fiber optics. 3336 Decimal converting from binary to. 40 Europiurn. 221 FM broadcast. 221 Ellipse. 63 Foot candles. 220. 45. 142 Energy definition of. area of. 37. 228 Dccimal equivalents binary groups and. 94 Fahrenheit. conversion of. 221 Exa. 150153 highpass. characteristics of.DAN. 23 kinetic. 45 Elements. 12 heat. conversion of. 45 Dysprosium. 33 tables. 1 1 DCF77. 45 Footpounds. 227 converting minutes and seconds to decimal parts of' a degree. characteristics of. conversion of. 221 FFH. 8. 60 DC circuits. speed of. 60 Ebonite. 166 Degrees (angle). types of. 3233 reference levels and. 40 Einsteinium. 42. 42. 43 Decibel equations. 45 Formica. 60 Fiber. 167168 Drill sizes and decimal equivalents. characteristics of.60 DCmeter formulas. 45 Foot lamberts. 10 Epoxy resin. 40 hrl~~ulas AC (dynamic) plate resistance. determining. conversion of. 172 Emissions. 2628 DC power. millimeter. conversion of. 150153. characteristics of. 169. 45 Fermium. 7 in inductors. 134 Dry measure. 183184 logarithms and. 166167 Exponenls. 227 Electrical equivalent of heat. 45 Degrees of a circle. 141 . 2425 Division binary numbers and. conversion of. 182183 and seconds to decimal converting minr~tcs parts of a dcgree. 7374 Emitter current formula. 116121 Electron volts. 193 EBC. 228 Deka. conversion of. operating power of. 43 Excess3 code. 45 Feet. 153. conversion of. 45 Femto. 153 constantk.
1620 inductance in a circuit. 221 Gallons. 12 seriestype ohmmeter for high resistance. 227 cost of operation. 3 132 mutual conductance. 156. 142 collector power. characteristics of. 45 . 21 power gain. 141142 geometric. 221 Frcquency(ies) bands for amateur licenses.148 collector current. 141 modulation. 29. 12. 143 speed of a falling object. 60 FTN87. 83 response check and receiver audiopower. and millimeter equivalents. 12 input capacitance. 141. 1 decibels. 28 frequency modulation. 7 voltage gain.10 inductivc reactance. 141 voltage drop across scrics capacitors. 147 time per time constant. 910 coupling coefficient. 64 Frequency and wavelength conversion chart for. 8. 2728 amplification factor. 79. 226 coupled inductance. audio and radio. 64. 7071. 131 spectrum. 2021 output resistance. 303 1 phase angle. 7 coaxial line. 7779. 221 Gagcs. 303 1 trigonometric. 28 Fractional inch. 141 amplitude modulation. 46 resonant frequency.60 FTK77. 226 susceptancc. 141 mutual inductance. 142 parallelconductor line. 155156 frequency and wavelength. 23 transconductance. 27 voltage regulation. 143 input resistance. 28 FTH42. 217 thrccphase power. 143 vacuumtube. 32 gain. 150153. characteristics of. 143 base current. 142 energy stored in capacitors. 27 for smallsignal emitter resistance. 5256 tolerances for citizens band. 141144 transmissionline. 135136 Gain formulas transistor. 2526 transistor. characteristics of. 12 charge stored in a capacitor. 101 1 . 78 time signals and standard. 10 reactance. 226 Q factor. 3132 attenuator. 1 1 temperature conversion. 10 DCmctcr. 142 capacitancc in a circuit. 32 NOAA weather. 1 1 ammeter shunts. 68 capacitive rcactancc. 10 filter. decimal. 3233 emitter current. 142 voltage niultipliers. 143 transformer. 4950.admittance. 12 resistance in a circuit. 1 1 . 141 amplifier. 30 coil windings. shcctmetal. conversion of. 147. 226 speed of sound.162 bandwidth. 135. 175 upper frequency limit. 142 properties of free space.60 Gadolinium. 9 Ohm's law. 170174 impedance. 65 toleranccs of personal radio serviccs stations.142 vaccuumtubc. 79 television channel. 2628 DC power. 142 conductance.12 conversion of martcr into energy. 26 watthours. 27 1 shunttype ohmnie~er low resistance. 141 Gallium. 71 modulation. 166 Francium. 7 energy stored in inductors. 12 wavclcngtli and frequency. 30 formulas for. 1112 Ohm's law for alternating current. 77.
227 Grams. 46 Hecto. conversion of.10 coupling coefficient and. 6364 Input capacitance formula. conversion of. 46 Inches of rriercury. 247248. 9. conversion of. 8 Industrial Radio Service.146 Heat energy. 9596 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). 85. 40 Hafnium. 143 Input resistance formula. characteristics of. 130131 Ciausses. 9. characteristics of. 40 units and symbols for. and impedance. 170174 Germanium. characteristics of. 4142 See ulso Metric system Iodine. and resistance in parallel and impedance. 185 Hexagon. 46 definition of.. 40. 19 in parallel. conversion of. 42. 141 International and absolute units. 43 Helium. I I conversion of admittancc to. conversion of. 2526 transmissionline formulas and. 10. dielectric constant of. 159 Hydraulic equations. 16. 46 Grams pcr centimeter. 182 Greek alphabet. 10 parallel. 19 capacitance. 46 Grams per cubic centimeter. 50. 233239 ratio of a transformer. 12 susceptance. characteristics of. 46 Gray code. 61 IBM PC and PC Jr.. 221 . 61 IBF. 303 1 Inches. no mutual. 151152 HL. 8587 International System of Units (SI). conversion of. 40 Gold characteristics of. 221 Inductance and capacitance in series and impedance. 60 Heat. 221 HBC. equations for. 61 Holmium. 57 Ciutta percha. 221 Ciilberts.Gallons (liquid U. 9 single. area of regular. 46 Gasfilled lamp data. 56 International Q signals. 24 formulas for calculating. 19 and series resistance in parallel with resistance and impedance. characteristics of. conversion of. 221 Hahmium. conversion of. 221 resistance of. 16 parallelresistance nomograph and. 46 Inches of water. no mutual. program conversions for. 145. 239240 phase angle of resultant for two vectors in parallel. 94 International Omega Navigation System status reports. 16 Inductive reactance. characteristics of. 227 International Atomic Time (IAT). impedance. 221 IAM. 1 I Inductors determining energy stored in. and phase angle of RLC parallel resonant circuit. 46 Indium. 43 GBK. 60 Geometric formulas. conversion of. conversion of. 23 Hectares. 810 impedance and. 171 Highpass filters. 42.S. I6 mutual. characteristics of. 1620 as input. 137 Grads conversion of. 130.). dielectric constant of. conversion of. 10 dimensional units and. 46 Glass. 52 International code. 45 Gammas. impedance. 11. conversion of. 46 Grams per square centimeter. characteristics of. conversion of. 95. 46 Ciiga. 221 Horsepower. operating power of. 230232 f o r m ~ ~ l for. 19 coupled. 225226 Hydrogen. 221 Hexadecimal numbering system. 17 in series. 9 series. 25025 1 lrnpcdarice admittance and. 17. 17 and series resistance in parallel with capacitance and impedance. 46 Htype attenuator.A.
43 Kilograms per square meter. 192 extracting roots. list of. summary of. 221 IRIGH time code. characteristics of. basic rules of symbolic.etter symbols. characteristics of. types of. 221 gage practices of. with or without resistive load. 46 definitions of. 47 Logic. 6469 Linear measure. 47 Lutetium. 47 1. 46 prefix and. 52. 192 raising to powers and. 47 Lamp data gasfilled. conversion of. 186 1. 169. 4 Knots. 53 Iron characteristics of. dielectric constant of. conversion of. 191 multiplication and. 130131 miniature. 47 Kovar A. for alternating current. unsymmetrical twosection.01. 243245 I. 47 Kilometers per hour. 12.Iridium. 157. 223 metric.61 LOL3. 4 of exponents. 47 Kilowatthours. 135 resistance of. 137 Krypton.193 tables for. with or without resistive load. 1112 Ohm's. 192. 202 1 1. 188. 221 resistance of. 91. commercial operator. conversion of. 186 Logical statements. 137 Isolantite. 47 Kinetic energy. characteristics of. characteristics of.61 Ltype attenuator. 222 Laddert ypc attenuator. unsymmetrical twosection. conversion of. 130. 126128 Lanthanum. 221 I. 9799 Licenses. 221 Kurchatonium. 12. dielectric constant of. 158 Kilo. 217 K factor and attenuator. 225 Liter(s) conversiori of. 40 Lumens. 189191 Logarithms.. characteristics of. 94 Lawrencium. N. 43 versus litre. conversion of. conversion of. 240243 Lamberts. conversion of. 43 Kilogramcalories. 43 Kelvin scale. 162 Law enforcement. 47 Liquid measure. 221 Laws Kirchhoffs. natural. 193 how to find the mantissa. 20 Lead characteristics of. 188 division and.C series circuit. 126.eagucs. I Isignals of. common antilogarithms. conversion of. 162 Lag circuit. 47 Machine screws . 47 prefix with. 223 metric. 61 Joule conversion of. 193 Log. 40 JCi2AS. 160 Lucite. characteristics of.170 Ohm's. conversion of. 191192 characteristic of. conversion of. 137 Lead circuit. 2. 61 JJY. conversion of. 224 Links. characteristics of. 221 Lux. conversion of. 42. 46 Kilometers. 22 Kirchhoffs laws. 1.ogarithms. resistance of. 43 Lithium. 61 LOL2. impedance and. 2. 145 Kansas City standard. 221 Latticetype attenuator. 46 Kilograms conversion of. symbol of. definition of. 219 Kelvin (K).
natural Natural trigonometric functions. 191 Marine radio operator permit. 4243. 40 conversion factors. conversion of. 186. 10. 48 Newtons per square meter. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. resistance of. 221 Neon. 221 resistance of. 40 Micarta. 137 Nickel characteristics of. conversion of. 47 versu5 metrc. 26 MSF. 40 Micaglass. sizes of. 221 Manganesenickcl. resistance of. conversion of. 48 Nichrome. 83 Nobelium. 43 Millimeters convcrsion of. 224225 Metric ton. 141 Mutual inductance. characteristics of. 221 Metals. 221 Nitrogen. conversion of.43 National Bureau of Standards. 183 logarithms and. 137 bleter(s) conversion of. 42. conversion of.letric system classes in. 192 powers of 10 and. 114 Molded paper tubular capacitors. 47 Milli. 153. 42. 47 See ulso Siemens Mica capacitors. 155156 Measures and weights. 188. conversion of. 133. 40 Mylar. ho\v to find thc. 47 Mderived filters. 42. 187 Nano. resistance of. 137 hloore A R Q code. 43 Megagram. 56 Natural logarithms. and equivalents for.so International Systern of Units hlhos conversion of. charactcristics of. 42 See al. 43 Meters pcr minute. 40 Micro.characteristics of. See Logarithms. 1 12. formula for. characteristics of. 167. 135 hlngnesium. 114 dielectric constant of. 48 Minutes of a circle. resistance of. dielectric constant of. 137 Nickelsilver. 135 types of heads. 42. 168 Mutual conductance formula. 223225 Mega. 148 Multiplication binary numbers and.\. 4449 convcrsion table and prefixcs. 137. handling. 228 Modulation formulas.Vlachinc screwscont. 137 Manganiri. 49 National Research Council. 221 Neoprene. 176181 Ncgataive remainders. 43 Miles (nautical). 3132 Molded flat paper capacitors. resistance of. 43 Mendeleviu~n. 47 Metric measurements. 137 Mantissa. 219 Movingcoil meter. dielectric constant of. 112. 48 fractional inch. 221 resistance of pure. 40 Myria. 221 hlanganese. 40 Nepers. 137 Moncl. 137 Niobium. 221 \4ercury. 4344 . 1 12. 165166 h~laxwells. characteristics of. 44. 6566 hlathematical constants. 43 NAND gatc. 113 Molybdenum characteristics of. 221 . 126128 Minutes (angle). 227 convcrting minutes and seconds to decimal parts of a degree. corivcrsion ol'. 43 prefixes. diclectric constant of. 137 Nichrome V. dielectric constant of. convcrsion of. 48 Neptunium. 16 Mycalcx. resistance of. 165 symbols. conversion of. 61 Multilayer coils. convcrsion of. characteristics of. resistance of. 166 Mils. 47 Miles per hour. characteristics of. 221 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) weather frequencies. 126. 48 Miniature lamp data. 221 Newtons. characteristics of. 9. dccimal. 184 Neodymium. 42. 4748 Milcs (statute). charactcristics of.
161 Ounces (avdp). formulas for. 6364 I'eta. operating power of. 1 . 21 Pentagon. 56 total capacitancc of capacitors in scrics determined by. 48 Output resistance formula. characteristics o f . 40 Plutonium. 187 Osmium. dielectric constant of. 23 Potentialenergy definition of. resistancc of. 303 1 Parallelogram. 222 resistance of. 61 Omega Navigation System status reports. 42. 61 OMA. 48 I'ourids (force). 22 check of audio. 7 I'arallelresistaiice nomographcon!. area of regular. 137 Potential difference. types of. 43 Pints. 40 Polyetliylcnc. 48 Ounces (fluid). dielectric constant of. 48 Pitype attenuator. 16 inductors. conversion of. 2021 for direct current. convcrsion of vcctors and. area of. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. 48 Pov\:er apparent. 48 Pounds of water. conversion of. 142 Oxygen.C parallel resonant circuit. 1 formulas for. characteristics o f . 46 Parallelconductor line. 222 Polar form. 22 gcncration. convcrsion of. of K1. 186.B5. dielectric constant of. 161 Plane trigonometry. 222 resistance of. 2 OI. dielectric constant ol'. 40 Parallcl capacitors. 13 1 DC. 21 Peak \!slues. 40 Polyimide. 21. 21. conversion of. 137 Plexiglas. in total inductance of irid~ictors parallel detcrmincd b!:. 40 Porcelain. 185 Oersteds. 40 Octagon. conversion of. area of. 8 Poundals. 7 resistors. 174 Platinum characteristics of. 222 Polycarbonate.Nomographs Ohm's lair. Pounds. 222 Pico. 187188 Nylon. 144 Opcrational anlplifiers (op amps). conversion o f . 185. 222 0type attenuator. 233239 input impedance and. 9 Pcaktopeak values. 137 I'hosphorus. 56 Openloop gain. 27 Ohms. convcrsion of. 9 plate capacitor. 144145 OR statement. characteristics of. coriversior~ 48 of. 48 Ohmmeters. 40 I'olystprerie. dielectric constant of. 21 8 NOR gate. conversion of.12 for alternating current. of resultant for two vectors in parallel. 48 Pounds per foot. 137 Paper. conversion of. 2 parallelresistance. 1 1 . 21 impedance and. convcrsion of. 48 I'ourids per square inch. 232233 I'olice 10signals codc. 48 Ohm's law conductance and. 6 impcdancc and. 40 Paraffin. conversion of. 239240 Phosphorbronze. dielectric constant of. 7 temperature. 42. 17 1 Parallelresistance nomograph. 12 nomograph. 17 1 I'ersonal Radio Service (CI3). 222 PPalladium characteristics of. 43 Phase angle determining in a series circuit.. dielectric constant of. converting. 17 1 Octal numbering system. 93 I'oloniurn. 222 resistance of. 186. 48 I'ounds carbon oxidized. 40 Potassiunl charactcristics of. converting. 56.
20 Reactance capacitive. 4 formulas for calculating total.Powercont. 66 Radiotelephorle first class operator license. 43 Promethiutn. 12. 62 KC series circuit. and capacitance in series. 12 charts. 79 Industrial Radio Service. characteristics of. 170 conversion of vectors and. 68 Radium. 66 Radiotelephonecant. 22. 1 I . restricted. 23 gain formula. 168 tables for. 6469 Radiotelegraph operator certificate first class. 18 and inductatlce in series. 6667 third class. 222 Rankirie scale.193 ten. 42. 22 true. 222 Prefixes metric. 68 operator license. 17 ohnlmeters for. 79. 142 limits of personal radio services stations. dielectric constant of. characteristics of. 18 inductance. 232233 Rectangular solid. 65 frequency spectrum. impedance. 112 . 22 resistive circuit and. 192. 16. 46 impedance and. 10 of parallel inductive and capacitive. time per time constant and. 23 RCH. l 1 1. 17. formula for. 4243. 95 types of licenses for. 68 third class operator permit. 62 RC circuit. 48 Quadratic equation. 42 metric conversion table for. and impedance. impedancc and. 33 Resistance and capacitance in series and impedance. 21 power factor and. 1315 definition of. impedance. conversion of. 56 series. 12 formulas for. 194216 Rectangle area of. 10 Q signals. international. 64 operating tolerances and frequency. 173 Reference levels and decibels. 62 Praseodymium. 24 flow and. 193 powers of 10 and. characteristics of. 6465 second class operator license. 21 power factor and. 22 Resistor color codes. 222 Q factor. characteristics of. 64 SINPO radiosignal reporting code. impedance. area of. 8587 Quadrants. 222 Properties of free space. conversion of. forniulas for. 40 Radians. impedancc. 17 parallelresistance nomograph. 166168 two. 22 f'owers of logarithms and raising. characteristics of. general. 61 PPR. 95. 1819 Reactive circuit phase angle in. 12 inductors and. 48 Radio citizens band. 64 Personal Radio Service. 22 factor. impedancc. 22 resonant circuit and. 85. operator permit. 6364 reactive circuit. 17 dimensional units and. 217 R13U. 27 parallel. 16 single. 182 PPE. 22 Reciprocal finding the. 12 inductive. 22 Reactive power. impedance. 67 second class. 16 Resistive circuit phase angle in. 1 I. 170 Quarts. 64. 48 Quartz. definition of. 226 Protactinium. conversion of. 222 Radon. 17 and inductance in parallel.
conversiori o f . 40 Sound. 21 power factor arid. converhion o f . 226 Sphere. 40 Steel gage practices o f . 222 Screws. dielectric constant o f . 135136 Shellac. 40 Ship radar cndorsemerlt. dielectric constarit of. 222 Rhodiurn characteristics of. 95. characteristics o f . 21 Seriesparallel circuit. 193. 21. converting. characteristics of. 62 Rubber. 137 RID. 88. 67 inlpedance and. conversion of. S P Internationi~lSysterri of Units ~ Sicmenh. I74 R L circuit. 67 S1. converjion of. 49 kilometers. 222 resistance of. 48 Roentgens. 91. f o r m u l a for falling object. 91. 101 1. con\. characteristic\ o f . 133 Speed. 1 16. 137 Singlelayer aircore coils chart. 5256 frequencies and tir~ic potentiometer tapers. 222 Scandium. 4 Service endorsement. 46 Resonant circuit phase angle in. 49 natural riurnbers arid finding the. 21 Rods. definition o f . 85. 62 RTZ.Resistors. 222 dielectric constant of. 173 Scl~rarc area o f . tlielectric constant of. 135. dielectric constant ot'. 222 RWh4. 23 RMS values. 222 Ruby mica. extracting. 149 Singlelayer coils. conversion of. 137 . 222 Soil.194 tables for. 49 S~nallsignal cniitter rcsi\tance formula. 95. 133. 16 inductors in. characteristics of. forr~iulafor. 49 measure. conversion o f . tirne per time constarit and. 135 resistance of. 223 meters. dielectric constant o f . characteristics of. list o f . 1051 10 Semiconductor color codes. 40 resistance of.147148 SINPO radiosignal rcl)orting code.crsion of. 6768 Sheetmetal gages.reek alphabet. characteristics of. 222 resistance of. 193 roots. dielectric constant o f . 22 Resonant frequenc). finding. 94 <. 62 Samarium. 143 Sodium. 40 Rubidium. 94 international 0 . 172 area of rectangular cross section. voltage drops and. machine sizes o f . characteristics of. 222 Silicone. formula for speed o f . 9193 %code. 135 Seconds of a circle. 48 Rhenium. 163 Steatite. determining phase angle in. 8 Series circuit. 95 Slate. 40 Rutheriiurti. 49 ~nils. 226 Speaker conriections. 62 Ring area of circular. 228 Selenium characteristics o f . 40 Slugs. 170 I'eet. conversiori o f . 116 Series capacitors in. 9596 irilernational cotie. 135 types of heads. 49 miles. I2 Revolution\ per minute. 1 1 Signals I Isignalj. cori\. 4950. 40 Silver characteristics of. 8891 Silicon. dielectric constan1 o f . 49 niillirneters. 194216 Standard signals. 8587 SINt'O radiosignal reportirig code. conversion of. 148. 222 Rutherfordium. characteristics ol'. determining. area o f . sixmonths. 168 inches. 226 jound. 227 converting to decimal parts of a degree. conversiori o f . 95 10signals. 193 R'I'A. 49 finding with powers of 10 . parallel.ersion o f . 48 Roots. 137 Semiconductor abbreviations. 95.
169 Trapezium. 40 Teleprinter cocles. 222 resistance of. 49 ? . 147 Thulium. cliaractcristics o f . 137 T~tper pad attcnuator. 49 'Tons (long). 97 electronic3 whenlatic. 174 lorus. 159 'l'apcrs. basic rules o f .Stepclown transfortnc~. 74 'li. characteristics of. standard pote~itiomcter. 2526 Transistor formulas. arca o f . formulas for. 146 rcsistirnce. charactcristics o f . 77.lluri~~m. 137 Titanium dioxide. 222 rcsistancc o f . 137 Torrs. 57. 5859 Timc constants definition of. 222 Ternpcraturc coriversion. 168. 167 Sulfur. 9193 Tera. 9596 letter. clielectric constant of. 49 'Tons (metric). 222 E f l o n . conversion of. 217. 222 Styrofoam. chatactcristics of'. 176181 Trigoriorrletry. arca of. 1 16121 Greek alpllabct. arca of.144 Traristriissionline fortnulas.175. 2526 Stepup transformer.nlbois cliffererice bcttvccn abbreviations a n d . formulas for. 222 Threephase power formulas. 2526 Stcrcs. 123. 5256 Tin charactcristics o f . 219 Rlevisioti channcl frequencies. Transconductance formula. characteristics of. 222 resistance of. 146 'Thermodynamic temperature. Stroriti~~rri. 174. characteristics o f . 137 Titanium charactcristics of. 163 Teaspoons. 49 Tank shcct. 21 7 rlomograph. charactcristics of. conversion o f . conversion of. 42. 4950. conversion o f . rcsistancc of. diclcctric constant of. 137 Unit capacitors. area of. 2 18 10signals. 9 I. 183 poLrers of I0 and.43 Terbiurn. 24 formula for time per time constant. 186 S!. gage practices of. 23 Titnc signals and standard frequencies. 141. 174 Troy weight. 116 charactcristics of. 303 1 Transposition of terms. 40 Su blraction binar!. conversion o f . 1 1 itiductivc. 222 'I'itne. 143 Transformer formulas. 49 I b n s (short). convcrsioti of. 95. I I Ibrniulas for. 1 15. 165. 158 Tungsten charactcristics of. 22 'Ttype attenuntor. 40 Tonnes. 6364 signal standards.62 . 17 1 Trapezoid. 78 Ilriits. 222 Thermal conductivity. 7779. 224 ' h u e power. 49 Stokes. 222 resistance o f . plane. 222 Susccptance capacitive. 222 I'eqtpattern ilitcrpretation. 125126 Thallium. 43 UNW3. 170 Trigonometric formulas. 49 Tophct A . 171 Triangle. conversion o f . 9799 mathcmatical. conversion chart ot' ivorld. 23 dimensional units and. 78 operatitig powcr of. characteristics o f . riurrlbers and. conversion o f . con~er5ion 49 of. 43 Thorium. I I Syrilbolic logic.366 liiblespoons. 23 versus pcrccnt of voltage or current. dielectric constarit of. 135 I:dntalutn capacitors. 175 functions. 49 Ikchnetium.
characteristics of. 40 Weather broadcasts. conversion of. 135 Zirconium. 49 Weight measure metric. 161162 Vacuumtube forrrlulas. 222 Y V. definition of. 49 LL'ebers per square meter. 224 Watts. 12 %code signals. 12 formula for calculating. 5256 M!WVB. current ratings for. 63 . characteristics of. 222 Varas. characteristics o f . 225 Wiring. conversion of. 223 metric. 62 IJ'I'C. 1 Voltage across series capacitor\. measures and. See Coordinated Universal Time U'fK3. 232233 Vinylite. 78 average. 22 World time conversion cfiart. conversion of. dielectric constant of.1'0. 8891 Zinc. 30 formulas for. 63 Water dielectric constant of. 88. 28 Waxes. 4950. 222 ZUO. 49 Vaseline. 63 Ytterbium. 143 UQC'3. 225 of water. 222 IJS132. characteristics o f . 49 Wattseconds. 62 Uranium. definition of.63 Utype attcnuator. 5256 WtlFVH. 4950. conversion of. 142 ~r~ovingcoil meter for testing. 225 Watthours definition of. gage practices o f . characteristics o f . 27 peak. conversion o f . 62 Upper frequency limit fortnula. 4 gain formula. 63 Volt. 26 rms. 5256 Xenon.4950. dielectric constant o f . 222 Yards. 222 Yttrium. 40 VN<i.UPIl8. 49 Wavelength conversion chart for. dielectric constant o f . convcrsior~o f . 29. 150 Miood. cliaracteristics of. 40 Work. 26 niultiplicrs. 21 peaktopeak. 21 Volume measure. 5859 M'WV. 225 tlicights. 2 1 clefinition o f . 40 Vectors. convcrsion o f . characteristics of'. 223225 Winds. 141 Vanadium. 222 Zinc sheet. 40 weight of. 56 LVebcrs. dielectric constant of. 49 Y3S. 22 flow and. 57. 21 regulation.
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