F1 - WES (OIC) 011810

============================================= PROBLEM SOLVING WITH COLOR CODED SOLUTIONS

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Find the Amplitude of a rising body with a Declination of 21º 07.8' N at Latitude 47º 18.6' N. TO FIND AMPLITUDE (AMP):
Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT = Sin 21° 7.8’ / Cos 47° 18.6’ AMPLITUDE = E 32° 7.1’ N NOTE: Prefixed ―E‖ >> Body is Rising [―W‖ if Body is Setting] Suffixed ―N‖ >> Declination is North [―S‖ if DEC is South]

At Latitude 55° 53’N; Long. 130° 18’ W, sun’s Declination is 12° 40’ S. Find True Azimuth (Zn) at sunset. TO FIND TRUE AZIMUTH (Zn): 1.) First find Amplitude:
Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT = Sin 12° 40’ / Cos 55° 53’ AMPLITUDE = W 23° S NOTE: Prefixed ―W‖ >> Body is Setting [ ―E‖ if Body is Rising ] Suffixed ―S‖ >> Declination is South [ ―N‖ if DEC is N ]

2.) Then convert Amplitude to True Azimuth:
To convert AMPLITUDE (AMP) to TRUE AZIMUTH (Zn): 1. E x N 2. E x S 3. W x S 4. W x N >>> >>> >>> >>> 90° – AMP = Zn 90° + AMP = Zn 270° – AMP = Zn 270° + AMP = Zn

In the above example: AMP = W 23° S >> 270° — 23° > > Zn = 247° ( T )

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An observer at Latitude 45° 00’ South took a gyro bearing of the Sun on the horizon and found to be 078°(pgc). The declination of the Sun obtained from the almanac gives 14° 00’ N. Calculate the gyro error. TO FIND GYRO ERROR (G/E):
Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT = Sin 14° / Cos 45° AMPLITUDE = E 20° N NOTE: Prefixed ―E‖ >> Bearing is 078° (pgc) which is Easterly and it means that the Body is Rising. Suffixed ―N‖ >> Declination is North To convert Amp E 20° N to True Azimuth: 90° – 20° = 070° T True Bearing = 070° (T) > > Obtained by calculation Gyro Bearing = 078° pgc ( – ) > > Taken by observation --------------------------------------Gyro Error = – 8° or 8° W > > If result is (–), G/E is W ; If (+) G/E is E . Or you can apply the OLD RULE: Compass BEST, Error WEST… Compass LEAST, Error EAST direction

The bearing of a rising sun at Latitude 38° 08' S was 078° 28'. Find the declination at time of sight.
TO FIND DECLINATION by AMPLITUDE FORMULA: Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT Sin DEC = Sin AMP x Cos LAT Sin DEC = Cos Azimuth x Cos LAT Sin DEC = Cos 78° 28’ x Cos 38° 08’ DECLINATION = 9° 03’ N > > > (N since 078° 28’ is towards North or it has a Northerly component) [ Formula 1 ] [ Formula 2 ]

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You are on a voyage from New York, USA to San Francisco, USA. The distance from pilot to pilot is 5,132 miles. The speed of advance is 13.5 knots. You estimate 32 hours for bunkering at Colon and 14 hours for the Panama Canal transit. If you take departure at 0600 hours (ZD +4) on May 16, what is your ETA (ZD +7) at San Francisco? TO FIND ETA or LZT of ARRIVAL:
a.) By GMT METHOD: LZT departure = 0600 16th May

ZD departure = (+)4 (W) + >>> [ LEG –: E – / W + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GMT departure = 1000 16th May + Steaming Time = 2009 15days >>> [ Steaming Time: always + ] --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GMT arrival = 3009 31st May ZD arrival = (+)7 (W) – >>> [ GEL +: E + / W – ] ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LZT arrival = 2309 31st May Bunkering = 32 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ]

Panama Canal Transit = 14 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ] -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------LZT arrival = 2109 02nd June

b.) By TIME DIFFERENCE (TD) METHOD: ZD departure = (+) 4 ZD arrival = (+) 7 ( – ) >>> Note: always subtract ( – ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Difference = – 3 Steaming Time(D / S) = LZT departure = Bunkering = 2009 15 days 0600 16th May 32 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ] >>> 5,132 miles / 13.5 knots

Panama Canal Transit = 14 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ] ----------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------LZT arrival = 2109 02nd June (Other Methods on the next page ! ! ! )

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c.) By SIMPLE ILLUSTRATION METHOD: Pt. A >_________________+_________________+____________________<Pt. B NYK Colon Panama Canal Transit SFO (ZD+4) (32h) (14h) (ZD+7) S.T. = Distance / Speed = 5132 miles / 13.5 knots = 380.148 hrs 0600 May 16 >>>>>> S.T. 15d 20h 09m >>>>>> ?? 2109 June 2 ??

d.) By HOUR CALCULATION METHOD: Steaming Time = Distance / Speed = 5,132nm/13.5k >>> Departure Time >>> + 380.148 hrs 6 hrs

ZD departure >>>> + (+)4 ZD arrival >>>>>>> – (+)7 DELAYS: Bunkering >>>>>>> + 32 Note: always (- ) hrs

P. Canal Transit >>> + 14 hrs ------------------------------------------------------TOTAL No. of HOURS >>> 429.148 hrs / 24 17.881 days Departure Date >>> + 16th MAY ------------------------------------------------------------------------33.881 How many days in MAY??? >>> – 31 days

-------------------------------------------------------------------------2.881 days ARRIVAL MONTH and DAY!!! >>> – 2nd JUNE ------------------------------------------------------------------------0.881day x 24 ARRIVAL TIME!!! >>> 2109 hrs

NOTE: If ZD is not given, just divide the Longitude by 15. Take the whole number of hour. A fraction of 0.5 and above will be considered to the next hour. ( Ex. 4.4 = ZD 4 but 4.5 = ZD 5)

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At Place A, Long. 175° 10.5’ W, the LMT is 16h 02m 03s Dec 3. Find the LMT and date at place B, Long. 32°08’ W.

TO FIND LMT of PLACE B:

(175° 10.5’ – 32° 08’) = 143° 2.5’ E / 15 = 9h 32m 10s (+) Dec.3, 16h 02m 03s --------------------------------25h 34m 13s Dec.4, 01h 34m 13s

The ZT at place A is 0800. If the Long of A is 49°30’ W, what is the ZT of place B in Long 83°15’ W?

TO FIND ZT of PLACE B:

Long of A = 49° 30’ W / 15 = 3.3 >>> ZD Place A = +3 (–) Long of B = 83° 15’ W / 15 = 5.6 >>> ZD Place B = +6 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Time Difference = –3 Hrs

ZT Place A = 0800 Time Difference = – 3 Hrs ------------------------------------ZT Place B = 0500

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What is the length of the shadow of a man, 6 feet tall, when standing in an open field at local apparent noon of a certain day when the sun’s Declination is about 20º S and his Latitude is 20º S? TO FIND ZENITH DISTANCE if LATITUDE / DECLINATION are given:

LAT = 20° S DEC = 20° (S) N – >> > (always reverse sign; if same name -----------------with Lat + but if diff.name – then affix ZD = 0° sign of quantity with greater value)

NOTE: It means that the sun is exactly at the Zenith (directly above your head), therefore Zenith Distance (ZD) is zero and no shadow will be seen.

Find the height of the observer in Lat 45º N when he is casting a shadow 10 feet long at local apparent noon on a day when the sun declination is 20º N. TO FIND HEIGHT OF OBSERVER:
Lat = 45° N Dec = 20° (N) S – -----------------------ZD = 25° N – 90° -------------------Ho = 65° >>> (always reverse sign; if same name with Lat + but if diff. name – then affix sign of quantity with greater value)

Height of Observer (Ho) = Tan 65° x 10 feet (shadow) = 21.25 feet

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THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS are FINDING HOW FAR is the SUN to the ZENITH of OBSERVER or the FINDING the ANGULAR or the ZENITH DISTANCE:

How far and where will the Sun be from the Zenith of the observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

Tropic of Cancer >>> Lat = 23° 27’ N June 21 or 23 >>> Dec = 23°27’ N ( – ) ------------------------------------------------------ZD = 0°

RULE: If LATITUDE of Observer and DECLINATION of the Sun are of same name, subtract ( – ) and affix the sign of quantity with greater value; if different name, add ( + ).

What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of the observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

Observer is along Tropic of Cancer = 23° 27’ N Declination of the Sun on June 21/23 = 23° 27’ N ( – ) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Angular Distance = 0°

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How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the observer at noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?
Observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer = 23° 27’ N Declination of the Sun on Dec. 21/23 = 23° 27’ S ( + )

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------How far is the Sun to the Observer (ZD) = 46° 54’ South NOTE: It is named ―South‖ since the Sun is south of the Observer.

How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is navigating along the Arctic Circle?
Observer is navigating along the Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N Declination of the Sun on March 21/23 = 0° N/S (+/ – ) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------How far is the Sun to the Observer (ZD) = 66° 33’ South NOTE: It is named ―South‖ since the Sun is south of the Observer.

What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of the observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is navigating along the Arctic Circle?

Observer is along Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N Declination of the Sun on March 21/23 = 0° N/S (+/ – )

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Angular Distance = 66° 33’

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What is the difference of latitude between the Antarctic Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn?
Antarctic Circle >>> LAT = 66° 33’ S Tropic of Capricorn >>> LAT = 23° 27’ S ( – ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------DLAT = 43° 06’

What is the difference of latitude between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer?
Arctic Circle >>> LAT = 66° 33’ N Tropic of Cancer >>> LAT = 23° 27’ N ( – ) ------------------------------------------------------------------DLAT = 43° 06’

How far (in angular distance) is the Arctic Circle from the North Pole?
North Pole = 90° 00’ N Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N ( – ) -----------------------------------------Angular Distance = 23° 27’

How far in angular distance is the Antarctic Circle from the South Pole?
South Pole = 90° 00’ S Antarctic Circle = 66° 33’ S ( – ) -----------------------------------------Angular Distance = 23° 27’

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A ship sailing eastward crosses the 180th meridian at 1130 ZT of June 6. What is the new zone time and date of crossing? TO FIND ZT and DATE when crossing Equator:

a.) By Formula:

ZD before crossing = – 12 (E) ZD after crossing = + 12 (W) ---------------------------------------------Time Difference (TD) = – 24 hrs Or 1 day NOTE:

>>> >>>

LZT = 1130 June 6 TD = 24h or 1d ( –) ----------------------------------LZT = 1130 June 5

< < < ZD dep – ZD arr = (–12) – (+12)

TD is applied between two ZT’s. TD is the difference of two ZD’s.

b.) By Simple Illustration Method:

E Long._______________________(180°)_______________________W Long. IDL >>> 1 >> Day >>Less >>> (Easterly Course) 1130 ZT, June6 1130ZT, June5

( Westerly Course) <<< 1 << Day << More <<<

NOTE: Remember the 180th meridian is the I.D.L. (International Date Line) or I.D.L. means 1 Day Less. In short, crossing the IDL from E to W (eastward), you subtract 1 day. And crossing from W to E (westward), you add 1 day.

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A ship is in Longitude 137° 45' E, clocks keeping ZT. Find the LMT at 1123 ship's time.

TO FIND LMT if LZT or ZT is given:

Long. 137° 45’ E / 15 = 09h 11m (E) > > > Long. in Time (λ t) (hh – mm – ss) = -9 (E) > > > > > > ZD (whole number of hour)

LZT = 1123 (ship’s time) ZD = 9 (E) – -------------------GMT = 0223 (λ t) = 0911 (E) + ---------------------LMT = 1134

Note: [ L E G – / G E L + ] LZT to GMT: E – / W + GMT to LMT: E + / W –

NOTE 1: In converting LZT to LMT or vice versa, you apply Longitude in Time (λ t) and ZD but DO NOT interchange them, otherwise you will get a wrong answer. From LZT to GMT or vice versa , you apply ZD. Both LZT and ZD with ―Z‖ should go hand in hand. From GMT to LMT or vice versa, you apply, of course Long in Time (λ t) at wala ng iba pa.

NOTE 2: Local Zone Time or Zone Time or Local Time is the Standard Time maintained within a certain zone as designated by Zone Description. This standard time is the time being maintained on board ship and this is what we call the Ship’s Time.

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The LMT of sunrise on the standard meridian is 0552H. Your Longitude is 99° 15’ E. What is your ZT of sunrise? TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given:

Long. 99° 15’ E / 15 = 6h 37m = 6h 37m (E) > Long. in Time (λ t) = 7 (E) > > > > ZD

LMT sunrise = 0552 λ t = 0637 (E) – -----------------------------------GMT sunrise = 2315 ZD = 7 (E) + -----------------------------------LZT sunrise = 0615

NOTE: LEG – / GEL + LMT to GMT: E – / W + GMT to LZT: E + / W –

The local mean time of sunset at Long. 73° 30' E is 18h 40m 00s. What is the corresponding local zone time of sunset?

TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given:

Long. 73° 30’ E / 15 = 4h 54m = 4h 54m (E) > Long. in Time(λ t) = 5 (E) > > > > ZD

LMT sunset = 18h 40m 00s λ t = 04h 54m 00s (E) – -----------------------------------GMT sunset = 13h 46m 00s ZD = 5 (E) + ----------------------------------LZT sunset = 18h 46m 00s

[LEG – ] [GEL +]

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The LMT of LAN is 1200H. What will be the zone time of LAN if you are located in Longitude 120° 30’ W?
TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given: Long. 120° 30’ W / 15 = 08h 02m (W) > Long in Time (λ t) = +8 (W) > > > > ZD LMT LAN = 1200 Λt = 0802 (W) + -------------------------------GMT LAN = 2002 ZD = 8 (W) -------------------------------LZT LAN = 1202

The zone time of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73º 15' E. What time would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac to determine the declination of the Sun at LAN?
TO FIND GMT OF LAN: Long = 73° 15’ E / 15 = 4h 53m > > > ZD = – 5 (E) LZT LAN = 1152 ZD = 5 (E) – ---------------------------GMT LAN = 0652 Note: [ L E G – ] LZT to GMT: E - / W +

The ZT at Long. 141° 18’ W is 6h 18m 24s. What is the GMT?
TO FIND GMT: Long = 141° 18’ W / 15 = 9h 25m 12s > > > ZD = + 9 (W) LZT LAN = 06h 18m 24s ZD = 9 (W) + ------------------------------------GMT = 15h 18m 24s Note: [ L E G – ] LZT to GMT: E – / W +

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If the Greenwich Hour Angle of the sun at noon of Feb.26 is 356° 23.6’. What is the Equation of Time? TO FIND EQUATION OF TIME (E.T.):

NOTE: If GHA > 180°, then E.T. = (360° - GHA) / 15 If GHA > 180°, then Mean Sun is Ahead, Apparent Sun is Behind, E.T. +

E.T. = (360° - 356° 23.6’) = 3° 36.4’ / 15 = 00h 14m 26s

The GHA of the sun at 1200 GMT was found in the nautical almanac to be 356° 28.4’. What will be the GMT of the meridian passage? TO FIND GMT at MERIDIAN PASSAGE:
a.) Find first E.T. as above formula: b.) Then find GMT of MP as below: GAT = 12h 00m 00s >>> Greenwich Apparent Time

E.T. = 00h 14m 06s + > > > (see above problem) ---------------------------------GMT = 12h 14m 06s >>> Greenwich Mean Time

Note: If GHA > 180°, then Mean Sun is Ahead, E.T. +

In this problem, GHA = 356° 28.4’ which is more than 180°, therefore, Mean Sun is Ahead and E.T. is +.

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The GHA of the Sun at 1200h GMT was found in the Almanac to be 002° 31.6’. What is the equation of time? TO FIND EQUATION OF TIME (E.T.):
NOTE: If GHA < 180°, then E.T. = GHA / 15 If GHA < 180°, then Mean Sun is Behind, Apparent Sun is Ahead, E.T. –

E.T. = 002° 31.6’ / 15 = 10m 06s

The GHA of the Sun at 1200h GMT was found to be 002° 31.6’. What will be the GMT of Meridian Passage if your longitude is at Greenwich?

TO FIND GMT at MERIDIAN PASSAGE (MP):
a.) Find first E.T. as above formula: b.) Then find GMT of MP as below: GAT = 12h 00m 00s > > > Greenwich Apparent Time

E.T. = 00h 10m 06s – > > > ( see above problem ) ------------------------------------GMT = 11h 49m 54s

Note: If GHA < 180°, then Mean Sun is Behind, E.T. – In this problem, GHA = 002° 31.6’ which is less than180°, therefore, Mean Sun is Behind and E.T. is –.

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The GHA Aries is determined as 348° 16.3’, an observer is located at 178° 39.2’ East . The LHA Aries he will use in solving latitude by Polaris is:
TO FIND LHA OF ARIES:

LHA Aries = GHA Aries +/- Long NOTE: G E L + > > > GHA to LHA: E + / W – LHA of Aries = 348° 16.3’ + 178° 39.2’ E = 526° 55.5´ - 360° LHA of Aries = 166° 55.5’

You depart LAT 50º 06’ N, LONG 153º 06’ E and steam 879 miles on course 090º. What is the LONG of arrival?
TO FIND the LONGITUDE of ARRIVAL:

DLO = DEP / Cos LAT = 879’ / Cos 50°06’ = 1,370’ / 60 DLO = 22° 50’ E

LONG departure = 153 °06’ E DLO = 22° 50’ E + -----------------------------------------------LONG arrival = 175° 56’

You depart LAT 25º 54' N, LONG 9º 38' E and steam 592 miles on

course 270º. What is the LONG of arrival? TO FIND the LONGITUDE of ARRIVAL:
DLO = DEP / Cos LAT = 592’ / Cos 25° 54’ = 658’ / 60 DLO = 10° 58’ W LONG departure = 009° 38’ E DLO = 10° 58’ W – -------------------------------------------------LONG arrival = 001° 20’ W

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TO CONVERT GHA to LONGITUDE:
RULE: If GHA > 180°, then Long = 360° – GHA and named East. If GHA < 180°, then Long = GHA and named West.

What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 232º 27'?
Long = 360° - 232° 27’ = 127° 33’ E

What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 215º 15'?
Long = 360° – 215° 15’ = 144° 45’

What is the longitude of the geographical position of a body whose

GHA is 210º 30'?
Long = 360° – 210° 30’ = 149° 30’

TO CONVERT GEOGRAPHIC LONGITUDE to GHA:
RULE: If Longitude is ‖E‖ then GHA = 360° – Longitude If Longitude is ―W‖ then GHA = Longitude

A position of the Earth has a longitude of 74º 10' E. Its celestial counterpart would have a ________.

GHA = 360° - 74° 10’ = 285° 50’

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At meridian passage, upper transit, the observer’s latitude was found to be 43° 34.7’ N, Dec. is 1° 46.3’ N. Find the observed altitude.
TO FIND OBSERVED ALTITUDE (Ho): Lat. = 43° 34.7’ N Dec. = 1° 46.3’ (N) S – >>> ( always reverse sign; if diff.name – ) ---------------------------ZD = 41° 48.4’ N – 90° >>> (always – 90° since Ho + ZD = 90°) --------------------------Ho = 48° 11.6’ N

The distance to the nearest vertex from any point on a great circle track cannot exceed___________.
The maximum distance from the VERTEX to any point on a GREAT CIRCLE TRACK = 5,400 nautical miles > > > 90° x 60

Your vessel is at the equator at midnight on 1 January, and a star is observed rising. At what time will this same star rise on 1 February, assuming your vessel’s location is still at the equator?
1 solar day = 24h 00m 00s 1 sidereal day = 23h 56m 04s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Difference = 0h 3m 56s < < <Stars rises late daily x 31 days < < < < < Jan.1 to Feb.1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Total Diff. = 2h 01m 56s Midnight Jan.1 = 24h 00m 00s ( – ) ----------------------------------------------------------The star will rise = 21h 58m 04s on Feb.1

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TO FIND LATITUDE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT (UPPER TRANSIT):

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the zenith of the observer at local apparent noon of June 21 or 23?
If the Sun is at the Zenith it means that Altitude( Ho) = 90° - 90° --------------ZD = 0° Declination of the Sun on June 21/23 = 23° 27’ N -----------------------Lat = 23° 27’ N

What is the latitude of a place where the observer is stepping on his shadow at local apparent noon at March 21 or 23?

NOTE: When the Observer is stepping at his shadow at local apparent noon, this means that the Sun is exactly at the Zenith, therefore, the Ho = 90° and ZD = 0°. ZD = 0° DEC = 0° > > > March 21 or 23 ----------------LAT = 0° or at the Equator

The sun crosses the upper branch of the celestial meridian of the observer at a position 15º South of his zenith. If the sun’s declination is 15º S. What is the latitude of the observer?
ZD = 15° S DEC = 15° S (N) >>> (reverse sign; if diff.name – ) -----------------------LAT = 0° or at the Equator

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TO FIND LATITUDE BY MERIDIAN PASSAGE (LOWER TRANSIT):
NOTE: Lower Transit means Passage at the Lower Branch of the Meridian. Lower Transit can only be observed when a body is a circumpolar body. A circumpolar body is a celestial body which does not set but remains above the horizon for 24 hours.

LAT = PX + Ho PX (Polar Distance) = 90° – Declination RULE: Latitude is named according to the name of Declination.

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the horizon at midnight of June 21? Declination of Sun on June 21 = 23° 27’ N
Polar Distance (PX) June 21 = 66° 33’ N >>> (90° - Dec) Ho at Horizon = 0° ( - ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------LATITUDE = 66° 33’ N

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the horizon at midnight of December 21 or 23? Declination of Sun on Dec. 21 or 23 = 23° 27’ S
Polar Distance (PX) Dec21/23 = 66° 33’ S >>> (90° - Dec) Ho at Horizon = 0° ( - ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------LATITUDE = 66° 33’ S

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A ship on course of 253° T at 14 knots. At 2329 a lighthouse was observed bearing 282° T. At 2345 the same lighthouse bears 300° T. What is the ship’s distance off the second bearing? TO FIND DISTANCE BY BOW AND BEAM BEARING: 1. Find first Angles ―A‖, ―B‖ and ―C‖ : a.)Co = 253° T Brg1 = 282° T – -------------------------A = 29° R b.) Co = 253° T Brg2 = 300° T – ------------------------B = 47° R c.) Angle B = 47° R Angle A = 29° R – ------------------------Angle C = 18° R

2. Then solve for AB (Distance Run Between 1st & 2nd Observation) AB = ( Time 2 – Time 1 ) x Speed = ( 2345 – 2329 ) x 14 knots = 16 minutes x 14 knots AB = 3.73 nautical miles 3. Solve for Distance off at second bearing (BC): (By SINE Law) BC = Sin A x AB / Sin C ―Busy SinA AB at SinCha‖ BC = Sin 29° x 3.73 / Sin 18° BC = 5.9 nautical miles (Distance off at 2nd bearing) 4. Solve for Distance at Abeam (CD) : (By SOH – CAH – TOA) CD = BC x Sin B ―Si Dee Busy Rin Ba?‖ CD = 5.9 x Sin 47° CD = 4.3 nautical miles ( Distance at Abeam)

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You are on course 138° T. To check the latitude of your 000 vessel you should observe a celestial body on which bearing? ( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

You are on course 061° T. To check the longitude of your 090 vessel you should observe a celestial body on which bearing? ( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

You are on course 042° T. To check the course of your 132 vessel you should observe a celestial body on which bearing? ( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

You are on course 146 T. To check the speed of your 146 vessel you should observe a celestial body on which bearing? ( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

If the Greenwich Hour Angle of the sun at noon of + 14m 26s February 26 is 356° 23.’6. What is the Equation of Time? At a place A, Longitude 175° 10.5’ W, the LMT is 01h34m13s, Dec 4 16h02m03s, December 3. Find the LMT and date at place B, Longitude 32° 08’ W. The ZT at place A is 0800. If the longitude of A is 49° 30’ 0500 W, find the ZT of place B in longitude 83° 15’ W. The LMT of sunrise on the standard meridian is 0552H. 0615 Your longitude is 99° 15’ E. What is your ZT of sunrise? The local mean time of sunset at Long. 73 deg 30' E. is 18h 18h 46m 00s 40m 00s. What is the corresponding local zone time of sunset?

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The zone time of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73º 15' E. 0652 What time would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac to determine the declination of the Sun at LAN? The LMT of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73deg 15' E. 0659 What time would you used to enter the Nautical Almanac to determine the declination of the sun at LAN? The LMT of LAN is 1210. Your longitude is 70º 30' E. 0728 Which time would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac to determine the declination of the Sun at LAN? How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the 0º observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer? What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 0º the observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

( See F1 Book page NA – 23 ) DATE >>> March21 >>> June21 >>> Sept.23 >>> Sign of Constellation >>> Position of Sun > Declination First Point of Aries > Vernal Equinox > 0° going North First Point of Cancer > Summer Solstice > 23°27’North First Point of Libra > Autumnal Equinox> 0° going South > 23°27’ South

Dec.22 >>> First Point of Capricorn> Winter Solstice

“EQUINOX” = meaning “EQUAL NIGHTS” There are 2 Equinoxes (Vernal and Autumnal). During these dates, the Declination of SUN is 0 degrees. Every place on earth has equal length of daytime and night time. “SOLSTICE” = meaning “ SUN STAND STILL.” There are 2 Solstices (Summer and Winter). During these dates, the SUN has reached its maximum declination 23° 27’ North and South. The length of day time and night time is not equal. Longer nights are experienced in one place while shorter days in another or vice versa.

The vernal equinox in the celestial sphere is where the sun 0º increasing to declination is: maximum north The autumnal equinox is the point in the celestial sphere 0º increasing to where the sun declination is___________. maximum south

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The Autumnal equinox is the point where the Sun is at:

0° declination going to southerly declinations

The First point of Aries is the point where the Sun is at:

0° declination going to northerly declinations autumnal equinox Solstice

Libra is the point of: The declination of the sun was at its maximum what do you call the position or point on the celestial sphere

During the month of October the sun’s declination is:

South and increasing

The winter solstice is the position of the sun on or about : The summer solstice is the position of the sun on or about: When the sun is at the winter solstice its declination is :

Dec. 21 June 21 south and decreasing to 0º

When the sun is at the summer solstice its declination is north and decreasing to __________. 0º Navigationally, the Vernal Equinox is also the: Cancer is the point of: If the declination of the sun is 0º what do you call the position or point on the celestial sphere? First Point of Aries summer solstice Equinox

Vernal Equinox is also known as ______. When the sun is at summer solstice its declination is: During the month of October the Sun’s declination is:

First Point of Aries maximum north south and increasing

One complete turn of the drum of the sextant moves the 1 degree index arm _____ along the arc.

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The DGPS provides accuracy within a range of _______.

10 meters

What is the average speed of movement of a hurricane 10 to 12 knots prior to recurvature? When using GPS (Global Positioning System) you may 10 to 20 meters expect your position to be accurate 95% of the time to within _____. The GPS provides 95% accuracy within a range of ______. The standard sea level pressure of the atmosphere is _____ 100 meters 1013.25 millibars of mercury

A ship sailing eastward crosses the 180th meridian at 1130 11 h 30 m, June 5 ZT of June 6. What is the new zone time and date of crossing? On Dec 10, the LMT of LAN is 1151H. What will be the 1151 ZT zone time of LAN if you are located in Longitude 150 deg 00' W? The equation of time is 8m 40s, apparent sun is ahead of the 11-51-20 ZT mean sun. If you are on central meridian of your time zone, what ZT will the apparent sun will cross your meridian? A ship is in longitude 137 deg 45' E, clocks keeping ZT. 11h 34 m Find the LMT at 1123 ship's time. The sun is the central body of the solar system. It moves in 12 miles per second the direction of Vega at: The LMT of LAN is 1200H. What will be the zone of LAN if 1202 ZT you are located in Longitude 120° 30’ W? The equation of time is 12m 00s and the mean sun is ahead 1212 of the apparent sun. If you are on the central meridian of your time zone, at what ZT will the apparent sun cross the meridian?

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The equation of time is 8m 00s. The mean Sun is ahead of 1216 the apparent Sun. If you are 2º W of the central meridian of your time zone, when will the apparent Sun cross your meridian? A GPS satellite transmits a signal thru the second carrier 1227.60 MHz on: What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 127º 33' E 232º 27'? You are on a voyage from Limon, Costa Rica, to Los 1336, 8 Feb Angeles. The distance from pilot to pilot is 3150 miles. The speed of advance is 14.0 knots. You estimate 24 hours bunkering at Colon, and 12 hours for the Panama Canal transit. If you depart at 1836 hours (ZD+6), on 28 January. What is your ETA (ZD+8) at Los Angeles? What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 144º 45' E 215º 15'? What is the longitude of the geographical position of a body 149º 30' E whose GHA is 10º 30'? The ZT at longitude 141° 18’ W is 6h18m24s What is the 15 h18 m 24s GMT? A GPS satellite transmits a signal thru the first carrier on ___. 1575.42 MHz

Of the 57 navigational stars tabulated in the Nautical 19 Almanac, how many are of the first magnitude? An important lunar cycle affecting the tidal cycle is called 19 years the nodal period. How long is this cycle? A. 19 years B. 19 years C. 6 years D. 16 years

Your vessel is at the equator at midnight on 1 January, and 2158 a star is observed rising. At what time will this same star rise on 1 February, assuming your vessel location is still at the equator?

26

If a sound signal is emitted from the oscillator of a 24 fathoms fathometer, and two seconds elapse before the returning signal is picked up what depth of water is indicated? The Master issues a night order in the Night Order Book. It is valid for: As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how many percent is absorbed by the atmosphere? 24-hour period

19%

As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how many percent is absorbed by the surface of the earth?

52%

As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how many percent is reflected back into space?

29%

The standard sea level pressure of the atmosphere is _____.

29.92 inches

Speed adjustment on the Master Gyro should be made 3 within _______ knots. A. 3 B. 5 C. 7 D. 10

When using GPS, how many position lines are required for 3 a 2D (dimensional) fix? The tabulation data in the Nautical Almanac is for: A sidereal day is shorter than a solar day by about _____. 3 days 3 mins and 56 secs

The GPS provides 99.99% accuracy within a range of 300 meters ______.

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The Sun at the maximum declination north would be Aphelion approximately at ________________.

“ HELION ” refers to the SUN AP is Away or Far. PERI is Near

ApHelion is earth Away or Far from the Sun >>> July PeriHelion is earth Near the Sun >>> January

In each planet’s orbit, the point nearest the sun is called:

Perihelion

The visible diameter of the sun as seen from the Earth 31.5 during aphelion is_____.

The visible diameter of the sun as seen from the Earth 32.6 during perihelion is _____. The Earth is closest to the sun in what month? The sun is at Perihelion during month of ______________. The sun is closest to the earth in what month? The Earth is farthest from the sun in what month? The sun is at Aphelion during the month of ________. January January January July July

Of the 57 navigational stars tabulated in the Nautical 38 Almanac, how many are of the second magnitude? When using GPS, how many position lines are required for 4 a 3D (dimensional) fix that takes into account altitude? The speed of sound in water is approximately ____. 4.5 times its speed in air

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MAJOR CIRCLES OF EARTH MARKED BY THE PATH OF THE SUN

NORTH POLE ------------------- 90° 00’ N North Frigid Zone ARCTIC CIRCLE ------------------ 66° 33’ N North Temperate Zone TROPIC OF CANCER ---------------23° 27’ N North Torrid Zone EQUATOR -------------------- 0° 00’ South Torrid Zone TROPIC OF CAPRICORN -----------23° 27’ S South Temperate Zone ANTARCTIC CIRCLE ---------------66° 33’ S South Frigid Zone SOUTH POLE -------------------- 90° 00’ S NOTE: There are instances that the Latitude of Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of Capricorn appears to be 23°26’ N or S.

Everywhere between the parallels of about 23° 26’ North torrid zone and 23° 26’ South, the Sun is directly overhead during the year. This area is called the: If you are at the Arctic Circle what is your latitude? If you are in the Antarctic Circle what is your latitude? The tropic of Capricorn marks the southern limit of the : 66º 33' North 66º 33' South Torrid Zone

The regions between the frigid zones and the torrid zones temperate zones are called ______. The areas inside the polar circles are called ______. The Arctic Circle marks the________________. frigid zone southern limit of the north frigid zone parallel of latitude parallel of latitude northern limit of the north temperate zone

The Tropic of Cancer is a____________. The Tropic of Capricorn is a _______________. The Arctic Circle marks the ___________________.

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The Antarctic circle marks the _________________.

northern limit of the south temperate zone North Temperate Zone

Places situated in Lat 30° N are within the __________.

The tropic of Capricorn marks the _______________.

northern limit of the south temperate zone

What is the difference of latitude between the Antarctic 43º 06' Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn? What is the difference of latitude between the Arctic Circle and the Tropic of Cancer? 43º 06'

How far in angular distance is the Arctic Circle from the 23º 27' North Pole? What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 46º 54' the observer at noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer? How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the 46º 54' South of the observer at noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is observer navigating along the Tropic of Cancer? What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 66º 33' the observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is navigating along the Arctic Circle? How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of 66º 33' South of the observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is observer navigating along the Arctic Circle? How far (in angular distance) is the Arctic Circle from the 23º 26' North Pole? Following a ship routing system, recommendation is issued to a ship: an initial route 48 to 72 hours prior to sailing 5 to 15 degrees

Which belt of latitude do tropical cyclones form? A. 5 to 15 degrees B. 30 to 45 degrees C. 15 to 30 degrees D. 45 to 60 degrees

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NAVTEX operates in a medium frequency of _____.

518 kHz

The inclination of the plane of the moon orbit with the 5º plane of the ecliptic is about______. What is the bearing in points that is used to determine the 8 points vortex of a low pressure area when the atmospheric pressure is 20 hPa below the mean pressure? The sun’s diameter is about: 866,000 miles

Tables of tidal stream information are given for certain a diamond shape with a reference denoted by: letter inside A. a diamond shape with a letter inside B. dotted circle with a plus sign inside C. an arrow indicating rate of flood D. a circle with an arrow inside

Which weather change accompanies the passage of a cold front in the Northern Hemisphere? Which instrument is the most useful in forecasting fog? NOTE: “PSYCHROMETER” is an instrument used to find relative humidity. It is a combined Dry Bulb and Wet Bulb Thermometer.

A line of cumulonimbus clouds a sling psychrometer

What is a parallel of declination?

A small circle on the celestial sphere parallel to the celestial equator a solid red line a solid red line with half circles a warm front weather condition

On a weather map, warm fronts are drawn as _________. On a weather map, warm fronts are drawn as _________.

A steady precipitation is typical of: A. a warm front weather condition B. high pressure conditions C. coming cold weather conditions D. scattered cumulus clouds

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With respect to failure warnings and status indications, a warning of loss of GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, _____. position The maximum difference between mean time and apparent time is_______________. All echo-sounders can measure the _____. about 16 minutes

actual depth of water below keel Add the draft of the vessel

What should you apply to a fathometer reading to determine the depth of water?

______________ is a recommendation for slowing or adjustment of SOA increasing the ship’s speed as much as practicable intended to avoid or limit the effect of adverse weather conditions. This is a fog resulting primarily from the movement of warm, humid air over a cold surface, or the movement of very cold air over a relatively warm water surface. advection fog

Lines on the magnetic chart where the variation is zero agonic lines wherein the magnetic meridian and the true meridian coincides are called _______. A. agonic lines B. lines of equal magnetic force C. lines of equal dip D. lines of equal magnetism NOTE: Zero Variation Equal Variation Zero Magnetic Dip Equal Magnetic Dip >>> >>> >>> >>> Agonic ISOgonic Aclinic ISOclinic

Zero = with prefix “A” Equal = with prefix “ISO”

As the South Equatorial Current approaches the east coast Agulhas Current of Africa, it divides with the main part flowing south to form the warm _______. A. Agulhas Current B. Canary Current C. Benguela Current D. Sahara Current

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Storms that enter the Great Lakes Basin from the west and Alberta Lows northwest in October are the products of pressure systems known as _______. A. Alberta Lows B. Fata Morgana C. Westerners D. Polar Highs

Physical checks of gyro, azimuth circle and pelorus are the alignment of the compass following EXCEPT: north to the fore and aft line of the ship Mean low water is the average height of _______. A. all low waters B. high waters and low waters C. the surface of the sea D. the lower of the two daily tides NOTE: The other word for “MEAN” is Average. all low waters

Which characteristic is common to advection fog?

all of the above

A Planning Guide contains information about countries all of these adjacent to applicable ocean basic. It covers: Celestial bodies can be identified by: Each NAVTEX message contains ______. GPS consists the segment/s: Induced magnetism varies with the _____. Major category/ies of NAVTEX is/are: The Nautical Almanac contains: The Night Order Book consists which of the following? The Night Order Book includes: The use of a marine sextant is/are:
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all of these all of these all of these all of these all of these all of these all of these all of these all of these

There is/are type/s of accuracy in Loran. This/these is/are:

all of these

To make a physical check on the compass and binnacle, one all of these must check _____. Tropical warning services have the principal function/s: What is TRUE about a front? When making a voyage planning, a Master should: all of these All of these all of these

When planning and conducting a voyage, the navigator uses all of these many information sources. Such information include: Which component/s comprise/s Loran C? all of these

Which is entered in the Sight Reduction Tables to compute all of these the altitude and azimuth? Which is the minimum chart preparation required for an all of these ocean or coastal transit? Which of the following does a typical binnacle hold? Which of the following is a non-adjustable sextant error? Which of the following is adjustable sextant error? Which of the following is TRUE? all of these all of these all of these All of these

With respect to failure warnings and status indications, all of these GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, ____. Air circulation is caused or affected by ______. all of these causes are correct all of these characteristics are correct

Which characteristic is common to advection fog?

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Fog is formed when _________.

all of these conditions are correct alternating red and blue lines with half circles and triangles

On a weather map, a stationary front is represented as :

An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational altitude azimuth triangle with altitude, declination and latitude, it is called : A body at the observer’s zenith will have a/an ____. The error in refraction increases as the _______. A. altitude of the body decreases B. humidity decreases C. horizontal parallax decreases D. observer’s eye increases Altitude of 90° altitude of the body decreases

The intercepted arc of a vertical circle between the celestial Altitude of the celestial horizon and the almucantar is called the _____. body When the azimuth is measured from east or west and amplitude labeled accordingly, it is called: With respect to failure warnings and status indications, an alarm if a new GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, _____. position has not been calculated within the last two seconds Which condition exists in the eye of a hurricane? An extremely low barometric pressure angle of indraught angle of magnetic dip

This is the angle, which the wind makes with the isobars. The magnetic flux lines enter the surface of the earth at different angles to the horizontal, at different magnetic Latitudes. This angle is called ______.

When a body has crossed the observer’s meridian, this is any of these called:

35

When the moon is at apogee, _______ occurs. A. apogean tide B. priming tide C. lagging tide D. semi-diurnal range

apogean tide

In a moon’s orbit, the point farthest from the sun is called: NOTE: “GEE” also refers to the MOON. APO means Away or Far PERI means Near

apogee

The GHA tabulated in the Nautical Almanac is for the: A. apparent sun B. mean sun C. true sun D. mean and apparent sun

apparent sun

When the time is based on the movement of the visible Sun apparent time along the ecliptic the time is known as __________. ______ is the vector sum of the true wind and the reciprocal apparent wind of the vessel’s course and speed vector. The velocity of a rotary tidal current will be decreased when the Moon is______________. The planet Mars will not be visible___________. at apogee

at or near conjunction

The Moon appears larger in diameter at the zenith than Augmentation when near the horizon. What is this called? Luminous phenomena due to electrical charges in the Aurora atmosphere is called _______. A. aurora B. corona borealis NOTE: C. aureole D. corona

“AURORA” means Light BOREALIS refers to North AUSTRALIS refers to South

Hence, Aurora Borealis is Northern Light Aurora Australis is Southern Light

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The southern lights are also called _______. A. Aurora Australis B. Aurora Borealis C. Aurora D. Corona

Aurora Australis

Northern lights are also called _______. A. aurora borealis B. corona C. aurora australis D. aurora

aurora borealis

The horizontal direction of a celestial point from a terrestrial point expressed as the angular distance from a reference direction is called ______

Azimuth

In weather analysis, the approach of a storm is through atmospheric pressure observation of wind, waves, swell and the ______. The intercepted arc of the horizon between the principal vertical circle and the vertical circle passing through the body when rising or setting is called_____. When the azimuth is measured from north or south and labeled accordingly, it is called: azimuth

azimuth angle

This is a deviation error caused by the miscalculation of A error azimuth or by physical misalignments rather than magnetic effects of soft iron. ______ results from both the fore-and-aft permanent magnetic field across the compass. B error

_____ results from the athwartship permanent magnetic C error field across the compass. This error is due only to induction in the symmetrical D error arrangements of horizontal soft iron. This error is caused by induction in the unsymmetrical arrangements of horizontal soft iron. E error

37

Waves reflected from obstruction, running seaward are Backwash called _______. A. backwash B. surf C. barrier wave D. bluff

A wedge of water building up between the bow and nearer bank cushion bank which forces the bow out and away describes: A. bank cushion B. bank suction C. combined effect D. bend effect

The inner cloud bands in a hurricane viewed from a distance bar of the storm from a mass of dense black cumulonimbus clouds is called the: A. bar of the storm B. eye of the storm C. funnel D. tower of the storm Barber

_______ is a local strong wind carrying damp snow or sleet and spray that freezes upon contact with objects. A. barber B. abroholos C. katabatic wind D. anabatic wind

Ice without snow cover is called _______. A. bare B. plain C. shiny D. slip

Bare

Atmospheric pressure is measured by a _____. What do the numbers on isobars indicate? The evening twilight commences _____. Very Low Frequencies used by Omega is ______.

Barometer barometric pressure before sunset Between 10 to 14 kHz.

This is the current which generally flow northward along the Benguela current west coast of Africa. A. Benguela current B. African current C. Brazilian current D. North Atlantic current

38

______ consist of innumerable tiny droplets of water, or ice crystals formed by condensation of water vapor around microscopic particles in the air. TYPES OF CLOUD AND ITS ALTITUDE: 1. High Clouds ---------------- Above 20,000 Feet (All Clouds with “CIRRUS” Ex. Cirrus, Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus) 2. Middle Clouds ---- Between 6,500 and 20,000 Feet (All Clouds with “ALTO” Ex. Altocumulus and Altostratus) 3. Low Clouds ------------------ Below 6,500 Feet (Any other Cloud without “Cirrus or Alto” Ex. Cumulus, Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus, Cumulonimbus) ( See F1 Book page METEO – 3 and METEO – 4 )

Clouds

High clouds have a mean lower level above ______. Middle clouds have a mean level ______.

20,000 ft between 6,500 ft and 20,000 ft 6,500 ft high clouds middle clouds low clouds Cirrocumulus

Low clouds have a mean level of less than ______. Cirrus and cirrostratus belong to the ______ Altocumulus and altostratus belong to the _____. Cumulus and cumulonimbus belong to the _____. High clouds, composed of small white flakes or scaly globular masses, and often banded together to form a “mackerel sky”, would be classified as ________. A. B. C. D. cirrus cirrocumulus altocumulus cumulonimbus

39

The form of cloud often known as “mackerel sky” which is generally associated with fair weather is ________. A. B. C. D. nimbostratus stratus cirrocumulus cumulonimbus

Cirrocumulus

The thin, whitish, high clouds composed of ice crystals, popularly known as “mare’s tails” are ________. A. B. C. D. cirrostratus cirrocumulus cumulonimbus nimbostratus

Cirrostratus

Which cloud commonly produces a halo about the Sun or Moon? A. B. C. D. Cirrostratus Cirrocumulus Altostratus Altocumulus

Cirrostratus

Clouds commonly produce a halo form, thin and whitish high clouds: A. B. C. D. Altostratus Altocumulus Cirrocumulus Cirrostratus

Cirrostratus

From those listed, which is the highest cloud? A. B. C. D. Altocumulus Cirrus Stratus Cumulus

Cirrus

A cloud of marked vertical development (often anvilshaped) would be classified as ________. A. B. C. D. cirrus cirrocumulus altocumulus cumulonimbus

Cumulonimbus

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Towering Clouds

Cumulonimbus

What are the typical thunder shower clouds that appears in great masses in the form of mountains or towers? A. B. C. D. Cumulonimbus Nimbostratus Nimbus Cumulus

Cumulonimbus

Thunder clouds

Cumulonimbus

The tabulated times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and moonset are based:

between latitudes 72 degrees North and 60 degrees South Black Stream

Kuroshio current is also known as: A. Black Stream B. Tsurumi Current C. Tsushima Current D. Tsunami Current

What is the term used to identify the violent intense cold blizzard wind laden with snow mostly or entirely picked up from the ground? By Convention, the earth’s north magnetic pole is colored: A. blue B. black NOTE: MAGNET EARTH C. red D. green North Pole Red Blue South Pole Blue Red Blue

Just Remember: MAGNET – North - Red ( See F1 Book page MC – 3)

By convention, the south seeking ends of a compass magnets are colored _______. A. blue B. red C. white D. black

Blue

41

On weather maps, cold front is colored: A. blue B. red C. purple D. green

Blue

When a light is first seen on the horizon it will disappear again if the eye is immediately lowered several feet. When the eye is raised is immediately lowered several feet. When the eye is raised to its former height the light will again be visible. This process is called:

bobbing a light

When an observer sees a light and reduces his height, the bobbing a light light disappears; when the observer goes to his original height, the light appears. This is called: In some river mouths and estuaries the incoming high-tide wave crest overtakes the preceding low-tide trough. This results in a wall of water proceeding upstream, and is called a _______. A. bore B. seiche C. boundary wave D. surge Bore

This is high tide wave that abruptly move up to the river of Bore peculiar configuration or location and may present hazards to shipping. A. bore B. eddies C. boggies D. backwash

In shallow water, waves too steep to be stable, causing the Breakers crests to move forward faster than the rest of the wave are called: A. breakers B. rollers C. white caps D. surfers Briza

The northeast monsoon in the Philippines is called _______. A. Briza B. Habagat C. Bora D. Buru

This is a relatively cold current flowing along the northwest Canary current coast of Africa. A. Canary current B. Morrocan current C. Ahlean current D. African current

42

The azimuth of the sun is best taken at the:

center of the sun

What publication contains information regarding the Channel Pilot Guide dangers to navigation in the English Channel? Which Chapter of the Planning Guide describes recommended steamship routes? A conventional representation usually on a plane surface of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface intended primarily for navigation is called ______. All depths indicated on charts are reckoned from some selected levels of the water called______. Chapter 4

chart

chart sounding datum

This term refers to a heavenly body which has two meridian circumpolar passages one above and one below the elevated pole. A convenient way of keeping a record of updated latest Chart/Publication correction of chart is: Correction Record Card System The average long term meteorological condition of a place or region is called _____. climate

WIND CIRCULATION:
“ NLCC” >>> N.H. > L.P. > Counter Clockwise N.H. > H.P. > Clockwise S.H. > L.P. > Clockwise S.H. > H.P. > Counter Clockwise

Low Pressure (L.P.) > Inward High Pressure (H.P.) > Outward

43

The circulation around a Low Pressure (L.P.) center in the Northern Hemisphere (N.H.) is:

Counterclockwise

A. Counterclockwise B. Variable C. Clockwise D. Anticyclone The wind circulation around a high pressure center in the clockwise moving northern hemisphere is: outward from high A. clockwise moving outward from high B. counterclockwise and moving outward from the high C. clockwise and moving towards the high D. counterclockwise and moving towards the high

The wind circulation around a low pressure area in the Counter clockwise and Northern Hemisphere is: inward A. clockwise outward B. clockwise inward C. counterclockwise inward D. counterclockwise outward

The flow of air around an anticyclone in the Southern Counter clockwise and Hemisphere is: outward A. clockwise and outward C. counterclockwise and inward B. clockwise and inward D. counterclockwise and outward

What is the wind circulation around a high pressure center Clockwise and moving in the N. hemisphere? outwards from the high A. Counterclockwise and moving outwards from the high B. Counterclockwise and moving outward from high C. Clockwise and moving outwards from the high D. Clockwise and moving towards from the high

The wind circulation around a high pressure area in the counterclockwise Southern Hemisphere is: outward A. counterclockwise outward B. counterclockwise inward C. clockwise outward D. clockwise inward Low pressure

In the Northern Hemisphere, an area of counterclockwise wind circulation surrounded by higher pressure is a: A. B. Low pressure High pressure C. Warm front D. Cold front

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The dense black cumulonimbus clouds surrounding the eye cloud walls of a hurricane are called: The inter tropical convergence zone is generally associated cloudy skies and showers with _______. A. cloudy skies and showers B. very hot and dry weather C. clear skies and sunny weather D. windy and humid air

The radius of the almucantar is equal to the ______. Chart intended for inshore coastwise navigation where the course may lie inside outlying reefs and shoals, for entering and leaving harbours is called _______.

co-altitude coast chart

You are entering a harbor for the first time which of the Coast pilot publications would The Sailing Directions information on all of (Planning Guide) contain Coastal features

The Sailing Directions Planning Guide contains information Coastal features on all of the following EXCEPT: _______ is a relatively low pressure neck between two Col cyclones. A. col B. through C. wedge D. ridge co-Latitude

In the Celestial Equator System of coordinates, when the body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator, the altitude during upper transit will be equal to the: The value of the intercepted arc of a meridian between the elevated pole and the observer’s zenith is known as ____. On weather maps, blue color indicates: A. cold front B. warm front C. occluded front D. stationary front

co-Latitude

cold front

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In the northern hemisphere, winds veering sharply to the west or northwest with increasing velocity are indications that a: An occluded front is usually caused by a ______.

cold front has passed

cold front overtaking a warm front

On a weather map, the half circles in a stationary front are colder air pointing towards _____. ______ refers to any change of permanent magnet or soft compass adjustment iron correctors to reduce normal compass errors. Deviation is eliminated as nearly as practicable by: A. compass adjustment B. degaussing C. compass weighing D. compass compensation Compass error by amplitude compass adjustment

The method used when finding the compass error when the compass bearing of a body is observed at the moment of rising or setting? A. Compass error by amplitude B. Compass error by azimuth angle C. Compass error by azimuth D. Compass error by true bearing

The ratio expressed in tenths describing the mean areal density of ice in a given area is called _______. A. concentration B. okta C. ablation D. accumulation

Concentration

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

consult the chart for the location and light characteristics of all navigational aids; consult the Light Lists for their detailed description

Which type of GPS receiver has at least four channels to Continuous process information from several satellites simultaneously?

46

Ascending and descending air masses with different temperature is part of an important heat transmitting process in our atmosphere called ________.

Convection

______ diverts the air from a direct path between high and Coriolis force low pressure areas. _______ are colored rings around the sun or moon covered by a thin cloud. A. corona B. halo C. aureole D. aurora borealis Corona

When the sun or moon is seen through altostratus clouds Corona and appears surrounded by a glow of light, this glow is called: A. corona B. aurora C. halo D. parantiselene

The relative motion line, when extended past the CPA represented position of the observer’s ship, shows: What type of cloud formation would you expect to see to the cumulus cloud lined up west of an approaching tropical wave? in rows extending in a northeast to southwest direction It is the atmosphere in the vicinity of a low pressure area. cyclone

This is an outside force from the center of high or low cyclostrophic forces pressure: A. cyclostrophic forces B. geostrophic force C. pressure gradient force D. coriolis force date of correction

A good chart can be distinguished from indifferent one by: A. date of correction B. date of printing C. its edition D. date of survey

All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Declination Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT ______.

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The angular distance measured along the hour circle to the Declination of the point diurnal circle of the celestial point is known as: Which of the following conditions does not indicate an Decrease in wind velocity approaching tropical storm? A. Decrease in wind velocity B. Cirrus clouds C. Halos about the sun or moon D. Long, high swells

Satellites are located within the confines of: A. deep space B. the outer space C. the inner space D. the universe

deep space

Which star is at the head of the Northern Cross? The distance between any two meridians measured along a parallel of latitude and expressed in miles is the _______. This is the celestial pole below the horizon of opposite name of the latitude.

Deneb Departure

depressed pole

The recording fathometer produces a graphic record of the: depth underneath the keel against a time base The primary use of apparent time in marine navigation is determine the time of to________. meridian transit The angle between the magnetic meridian and the axis of a deviation compass card expressed in degrees east or west to indicate to indicate which direction is the compass card offset from the magnetic north is called ______. What is the most elusive factor of a magnetic compass which change with every direction given to the ships heading? Deviation

The highest level of commercial navigational accuracy is DGPS, within a coverage provided by________. area

48

The height of the tide is the _______.

difference between the depth of the water and A. difference between the depth of the water and area’s tidal area’s tidal datum datum B. depth of water at specific time due to tidal effect C. difference between the depth of the water and high water tidal level D. difference between the depth of the water at high tide and the depth of the water at low tide ≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (c ) Level of water (b) to ( c ) = ( e ) Height of Tide ___________________ (b) Tidal Datum or Chart Datum ( a) to (b) = ( d) Charted Depth ================== (a) Sea bed or bottom ( See F1 Book page TC – 4 )

The range of the tide is the _______. A. difference between the heights of high and low tide B. distance the tide moves out from the shore C. duration of time between high and low tide D. maximum depth of the water at high tide ≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (b) High Water or High Tide ( a ) to ( b ) = Range of Tide ≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (a) Low Water or Low Tide

difference between the heights of high and low tide

The distance between the surface of the water and the tidal datum is the: A. height of tide B. chartered depth C. range of tide D. actual water depth

height of tide

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What is the definition of height of tide? A. The vertical distance from tidal datum to the level B. The vertical difference between the heights of low and high water C. The vertical difference between a datum plane and the ocean bottom D. The vertical distance from the surface of the water to the ocean floor

The vertical distance from tidal datum to the level

“Stand” of the tide is that time when _______. A. the vertical rise or fall of the tide has stopped B. slack water occurs C. tidal current is at a maximum D. the actual depth of the water equals the chartered depth

the vertical rise or fall of the tide has stopped

Pressure Gradient is a _______________.

difference in pressure in unit distance measured at right angles to the isobars direct range

In a _______ mode of Omega, the receiver measures the distance between it and two or more transmitting stations to determine lines of position. What will cause a variable error in the gyro?

Dirty mercury and points distant winds

Swell is the rise and fall of the ocean’s surface due to: A. distant winds B. local storms C. fetch D. the pull of the Moon

______ is an underway adjustment in track and is intended diversion to avoid or limit the effect of adverse weather conditions. A belt of low pressure at the earth’s surface near the Doldrums equator is called _____. The diurnal pressure variation is most noticeable in the doldrums _____.

50

Where is the diurnal pressure variation most noticeable? A. Doldrums B. Horse latitude C. Polar regions D. Roaring forties

Doldrums

During the middle of the high water period, there is often slight fall, the effect of which is to create a longer period of stand at high water and is called: A. double high water tide B. apogean tide C. perigean tide D. bore

double high water tide

Which of the following will act to dissipate fog?

Downslope motion of an air mass along a coast

One of the two stars pointing to Polaris in the Ursa Major Dubhe is: In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E: N coordinates, when the body rises to the left of the Prime Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named _____. In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E: S coordinates, when the body rises to the right of the Prime Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named: What are the relative positions of the Sun, the Earth, and a Earth is between the Sun planet when the planet is at opposition? and the Planet A. Earth is between the Sun and the Planet B. Sun is between the Earth and the Planet C. Planet is between the Earth and the Sun D. The Planet, the Sun and the Earth are not in line

The movement of water away from shore or downstream is ebb current called a(n): A. ebb current B. reversing current C. flood current D. slack current

When using a recording depth finder in the open ocean, Echoes from a deep what phenomena is most likely to produce a continuous scattering layer trace that may not be from the actual ocean bottom? The path of the sun appears to take among the stars due to ecliptic the annual revolution of the earth in its orbit is called:

51

At meridian passage, the bearing of the body will be:

either North or South

The difference between local apparent time (LAT) and local equation of time mean time (LMT) is indicated by the_______. The sun crosses the upper branch of the celestial meridian Equator of the observer at a position 15º South of his zenith. If the sun declination is 15º S. What is the latitude of the observer? The hour circle that passes through the First Point of Aries is known as the _______________. Equinoctial Colure

The points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial Equinoxes equator are called_______. A cloudy patch of matter in the heavens outside the galaxy Extragalactic nebula is called _____. Frost smoke will occur when ___________. extremely cold air from shore passes over warmer water

The cumulonimbus cloud which is dense and dark Eye surrounding the typhoon is called _______. A. eye B. cyclonic spiral C. spiral bands D. funnel clouds

On the approach of a warm front, barometric pressure falls usually ______. A tropical wave is located 200 miles due west of your position, which is north of the equator. Where will the wave be located 24 hours later? Ice which is attached to the ground is called ________. A. fast ice B. ground ice C. icelands D. growler farther away to the west

fast ice

The speed of sound through ocean water is nearly always faster than the speed of ____. calibration for the fathometer

52

Squall lines with an almost unbroken line of threatening fast-moving cold front black clouds and sharp changes in wind direction, generally a/an __________. _______ is the identification of complex mirage due to fata morgana objects generally magnified and distorted. A. fata morgana B. spectrum mirage C. inferior mirage D. superior mirage

This is a complex mirage characterized by marked fata morgana distortion on objects, magnified and at times, even multiplied generally in the vertical and even appeared towering. The original date of issue of a new chart is shown on top center margin written with ______. The sidereal day begins when the___________. first edition

first point of Aries is over the upper branch of the reference meridian

In the Horizon system of coordinates, the arc of the horizon First Quadrant measured from the East point of the horizon in a direction towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant? In the Horizon System of coordinates, the arc of the horizon Fourth Quadrant measured from the West point of the horizon in a direction towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant? What is the phase of the moon when it rises about noon and First quarter sets about midnight? What describes an accurate position that is NOT based on fix any prior position? When adjusting a compass with induced magnetism in Flinder’s bar vertical soft iron, which corrects this coefficient of the deviation? A. Flinder’s bar B. quadrantal spheres C. heeling magnet D. bar magnets in the binnacle

53

What kind of component is Parameter P? A. fore and aft component B. athwartship component C. vertical component D. horizontal component

fore and aft component

Which can be set while the vessel is heading magnetic east or west? A. fore and aft magnets B. quadrantal spheres C. heeling magnet D. athwartship magnets

fore and aft magnets

The largest waves or swells created by a typhoon or forward and to the right hurricane will be located: of its course Which theoretical minimum number of measurements from Four satellites does a GPS receiver need in order to provide an exact three-dimensional position? A boundary between two masses is a _______________. front

This is the resultant of the commencement of the air when it frontal depression forces its way to the cold air. A. frontal depression B. occluded front C. quasi-frontal D. cyclonic front

What would occur when an extremely cold air from shore frost smoke passes over warmer water? A. frost smoke B. advection fog C. convection fog D. ground fog

The moon is rising while sun is setting. What is the Full moon approximate phase of the moon? What is the phase of the moon when it rises about sunset? When the moon is at opposition, the phase of the moon is: The moon will wane from____________. full moon Full moon Full Moon to Last Quarter

54

Which is TRUE about Light Lists?

furnishes complete information about navigation lights and other navigational aids

A cloudy patch of matter in the heavens within the galaxy Galactic Nebula of which the sun is a part is called: A vast collection cluster of stars and clouds of gas is called: Milky Way is a term associated with___________. Chart intended for coastwise navigation outside of outlying reefs and shoals is called______. Dashed lines in TSS, precautionary areas, two-way routes and deep water routes are _______. A. general maritime limits B. limits of precautionary area C. limits of fishing area D. limits of recommended route Galaxy Galaxy general chart

general maritime limits

The difference in apparent position as observed from the Geocentric Parallax surface of the Earth and the center of the Earth is ______. If the surface of the spheroid is altered so as to be geoid everywhere perpendicular to the direction of gravity, the Earth is considered a/an _____. You plot a fix using three lines of position and find they geometric center of the intersect in a triangle. The actual position of the vessel is triangle the : If the isobars are straight, the wind blowing is called : If the isobars are curve, the wind blowing is called : geostrophic wind gradient wind

A position of the Earth has a longitude of 74º 10' E. Its GHA of 285º 50' celestial counterpart would have a ________.

55

What part of the gyro compass is use to support the Gimbals gyroscope in such a manner that it remains horizontal even when the support is tilted? A. Gimbals B. East component C. South component D. West component glare on clouds on the horizon

The proximity of pack ice may be indicated by _______. A. glare on clouds on the horizon B. changes in seawater salinity C. changes in air temperature D. cooling of sea water

GPS means ________.

Global Positioning System GMT

Meridian Passage as tabulated in the Nautical Almanac is given in _______. A projection where points on the earth are transferred directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is the center of the earth is called _______.

gnomonic

Which statement is TRUE with respect to ship handling in go astern with extreme ice? care with rudder amidships A. go astern with extreme care with rudder amidships B. never go astern because it might damage the propeller C. approach ice at moderate speed to reduce impact D. navigate in zigzag to crack the ice A low HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) number good fix such as 2 indicates a ____. A tropical wave is usually preceded by _________. good weather

Often expressed in time units, it is the arc between the hour Greenwich Apparent circle of the apparent sun and the lower branch of the Time Greenwich meridian. The geographical position (GP) of a celestial body is Greenwich Hour Angle determined from its declination and the _______. A. Greenwich Hour Angle B. sidereal hour angle C. right ascension D. observe altitude

56

A strong northeast wind of the central Mediterranean is Gregale called _______. A. Gregale B. Mistral C. Scirocco D. Harmattan

KEY WORD: Centrale >>> Gregale

The error in a compass which indicates the direction in gyro error which the axis of the compass is offset from true north is the ____. A compass which is north-seeking depends upon gyroscopic inertia, gyroscopic precession, the earth’s rotation, and gravity is ______. An automatic device for steering a vessel by means of control signals received from a gyro compass is called _____. A rapidly rotating mass free to move about one or both axes perpendicular to the axis of rotation and to each other is called ______. The horizontal rotation of the spin axis of a gyroscope about the vertical axis is called: The property of a gyroscope of resisting any force which tends to change its axis of rotation is called _____. One of the stars pointing to the Southern Cross is the: The full moon nearest the autumnal equinox is called____________. The typhoon track is the line which a typhoon _______. A. has already passed B. is forecasted to pass C. will definitely pass D. has stayed stationary gyrocompass

gyropilot

gyroscope

gyroscopic drift

gyroscopic inertia

Hadar Harvest moon

has already passed

57

Spring tides are tides that _______. A. have lows lower than normal highs higher than normal B. have lows higher than normal and highs lower than normal C. are unpredictable D. occur in the spring of the year

have lows lower than normal highs higher than normal

Deviation changes with a change in _______. A. heading C. longitude B. latitude D. sea conditions The compass deviation changes as the vessel changes : A. heading C. geographical position B. speed D. longitude The vessel’s direction pointed at anytime is called _______. A. heading B. course C. trackline D. course over ground

Heading

Heading

Heading

What kind of weather would you expect to accompany the heavy rain and passage of a tropical wave? cloudiness This is a permanent magnet placed vertically in a tube under the center of the magnetic compass: A. heeling magnet B. athwartship magnet C. fore and aft magnet D. flinders bar heeling magnets heeling magnet

_______ is a compass corrector that cannot be et on a heading of magnetic east or west. A. heeling magnets B. fore and aft tray C. Flinder’s bar D. fore and aft magnets

Geographical range of a light depends upon the?

height of both the light and the observer Heliocentric parallax

The difference in apparent position as viewed from the Earth and the sun is known as _____.

The first indications a mariner will have of the approach of high cirrus clouds a warm front will be: gradually changing to cirrostratus and then to altostratus

58

Conditions for crossing a bar would be best at: A. high water slack B. high water ebb C. low water slack D. low water ebb

high water slack

When the pressure gradient is closely spaced, it means that you expect to encounter: A. high winds B. overcast skies C. calm and smooth weather D. fog or heavy rainfall

high winds

When navigating using GPS, what is an indicator of the geometry of the satellites that your receiver is locked onto? Current refers to the _______. A. horizontal movement of the water B. vertical movement of the water C. density changes in the water D. none of these

Horizontal Dilution of Precision

horizontal movement of the water

What describes an ebb current? A. B. C. D.

Horizontal movement of the water away from the Horizontal movement of the water away from the land land following high tide following high tide Horizontal movement of the water away from the land following low tide Horizontal movement of the water toward the land following the low tide Horizontal movement of the water toward the land following the high tide

The diurnal pressure variation is commonly observed on horse latitude the area of: Along the pole ward side of each trade wind belt and approximately with the belt of high pressure in each hemisphere is a region with weak pressure gradients and correspondingly with light, variable winds. These winds are called the ______. horse latitudes

The area of high pressure with weak pressure gradients and horse latitudes light variable winds on the pole side of the trade wind belt is called _______. A. horse latitudes B. geostropic winds C. doldrums D. prevailing westerlies

59

The region of calms and variable winds coinciding with the subtropical high pressure belts on the pole ward side is called _______. A. horse latitudes B. polar belt C. doldrums D. polar region

horse latitudes

The region of high pressure extending around the earth is horse latitudes called _______. A. horse latitudes B. prevailing westerlies C. troposphere D. doldrums

What kind of conditions would your observe as the eye of a Huge waves approaching storm passes over your vessel’s position? from all directions, clearing skies, light winds and an extremely low barometer. _______ is a measure of the atmosphere’s vapor content. Which condition will occur after a cold front passes? humidity Humidity decreases

A swift current occurring in a narrow passage connecting hydraulic current two large bodies of water, which is produced by the continuous changing difference in height of tide at the end of passage is called a: A. hydraulic current B. rotary current C. rectilinear current D. harmonic current hydraulic current

Tides at the two ends of a strait are seldom in phase or equal in range and the current is generated largely by the continuously changing difference in height of water at the two ends called _______. A. hydraulic current B. differential current C. resultant current D. semi-diurnal current

In a _______ mode of Omega, the receiver measures the difference in phase between two transmitters.

Hyperbolic

60

Which of the following is TRUE? I. Coriolis force tends to divert air toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere II. Coriolis Force tends to divert air toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere III. Coriolis Force tends to divert air toward the left in the Northern Hemisphere, to the right in the Southern Hemisphere

I & II

Which of the following can be measured from the Horizon I, II, III System of Coordinates? I. Zenith Distance II. Amplitude III. Co-altitude

Which statement is true when operating in area where sea Icebergs may travel in ice and iceberg are present? direction very different from sea ice A. Icebergs may travel in direction very different from sea ice B. Both icebergs and sea ice move in same direction and same speed C. Icebergs and sea ice move in same direction but of different speed D. Icebergs and sea ice move in same direction but iceberg slower due its volume Sidereal time is NOT used____________. in sight reduction of planet observation in the doldrums in the navigable semicircle

The diurnal variation of pressure is most noticeable: In a tropical cyclone, in the Northern Hemisphere, a vessel hove to with the wind shifting counterclockwise would be: A. in the navigable semicircle B. ahead to the storm center C. in the dangerous semicircle D. directly in the approach path of the storm

61

Where is the vessel located in a tropical cyclone in the S. In the navigable Hemisphere if a vessel hove to with the wind shifting semicircle clockwise? A. In the navigable semicircle B. Directly behind the storm center C. Ahead of the storm center D. In the dangerous semi circle

In the Southern Hemisphere, a vessel hove to with the wind shifting clockwise would be _______. A. in the navigable semi-circle B. in the dangerous semi-circle C. ahead of the storm track D. behind the storm center

in the navigable semicircle

The principle of a sextant is that, when a plane surface reflects a light ray, the angle of reflection equals the angle of: The movable arm of the sextant is the:

incidence

index arm

The error remaining in the sextant after the navigator has index error removed side error perpendicularity error and collimation error is: Which of the four adjustable errors in the sextant is the principal cause of index error? A. index mirror and horizon glass not parallel B. index mirror not perpendicular to the frame C. horizon glass not perpendicular to the frame D. telescope not parallel to the frame index mirror and horizon glass not parallel

Magnetism under the influence of an external field is called: A. induced magnetism C. residual magnetism B. permanent magnetism D. sub-permanent magnetism

induced magnetism

Elongation becomes zero at ________________. In low latitudes, trade winds converge in an area called : A. Inter tropical convergence zone B. temperature zone C. inter tropical divergence zone D. torrid zone

inferior conjunction Inter tropical convergence zone

62

Trade winds converge in an area in low latitudes called : A. inter tropical convergence zone B. inter tropical divergence zone C. torrid zone D. temperate zone

Inter tropical convergence zone

The normal variation between the actual depth of water is extremely cold and the indicated depth on an electronic depth sounder due to water conditions is on the side of safety. This would NOT be true in a case when the water______________. At some distance above the earth’s surface, the wind tends Isobars to blow along lines connecting points of equal pressure called: The line joining all places having the same temperature on weather maps is called: A. isotherm B. isobars C. isallobars D. col it is more comfortable to use a corrected compass in bad weather It may be suspended without warning its velocity Jupiter Isotherm

Reasons for correcting compass are the following EXCEPT:

Which statement concerning GPS is TRUE?

The steepness of a cold front depends on_____________. The largest of the known planets is ______.

This is a fast moving current of air with strong lateral and jet stream shears which is located immediately below the troposphere is called _______. A. jet stream B. cold front C. warm front D. cold front

One of the two pointers in the Ursa Minor pointing to Kochab Polaris is:

63

What do you call the current which is similar to the gulf Kuroshio current stream predominantly flows on north-north-easterly direction? A. Kuroshio current B. California current C. Benguela current D. Oyasho Current

What is the phase of the moon when it rises about midnight Last quarter and sets at about noon? The process of changing solid to liquid state is called : A. latent heat of fusion B. latent heat of sublimation C. latent heat of accumulation D. latent heat of vaporization latent heat of fusion

The process of changing solid state to vapor state is called : A. latent heat of sublimation C. latent heat of accumulation B. latent heat of fusion D. latent heat of vaporization

latent heat of sublimation

The change from liquid to vapor requires: A. latent heat of vaporization B. latent heat of sublimation C. latent heat of deposition D. latent heat of fusion

latent heat of vaporization

The amplitude will be numerically equal to the declination Latitude is zero only when _____. What line of position can you derive foremost during meridian passage? latitude line

In the Celestial Equator system of coordinates, when the latitude of the observer body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator, the meridional zenith distance is equal to the _____. The intercepted arc along the observer’s celestial meridian latitude of the observer between the celestial horizon and the elevated pole is equal to the: If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90 degrees, the ______. Latitude of the observer is at the pole

64

The earth’s rotation affects the direction of the current in Left the Southern Hemisphere by deflecting the set towards the : A. left C. center B. right D. outside Local sidereal time is equal to the_________. While voyage planning and navigating, a mariner must refer to both texts and tables. Text includes the following EXCEPT: T-shaped dashes in areas to be avoided and defined ends of inshore traffic zones are _______. A. limits of restricted areas B. limits of recommended track C. limits of inshore traffic D. limits of recommended route KEYWORD: T-shaped >>> restricTed areas line joining places having an equal change of pressure LHA of Aries Light Lists

limits of restricted areas

Isallobar is a ________________.

The line connecting Vernal Equinox to Autumnal Equinox Line of equinoxes is called: The angle at the pole between the body’s hour circle and LMT the observer’s lower meridian: The data for sunrise and sunset in the Nautical Almanac is LMT given in ______. The time of meridian passage in the Nautical Almanac is given in: A. LMT B. GMT C. LAN D. ZT LMT

65

Your vessel is an ice-reinforced about to enter pack ice. You look for areas of rotten should _______. ice and enter the edge perpendicularly A. look for areas of rotten ice and enter the edge perpendicularly B. take maximum advantage of coastal leads caused by offshore winds C. trim to an even keel or slightly down by the bow D. enter the pack ice on the windward side _______ is a glow observed from a light below the horizon or Loom hidden by obstacles. A. loom B. halo C. corona D. aurora borealis 0.25 nautical miles

The accuracy of Loran position is within ______.

_______ is a hyperbolic system of navigation using a long Loran A range medium frequency. _______ is a hyperbolic system of navigation using a long Loran C range low frequency. What kind of pressure system travel in tropical waves? low pressure

Your vessel goes aground in soft mud. You would have the low water spring best chance of refloating it on the next tide if it grounded at: A. low water spring B. high water neap C. low water neap D. high water spring lower left hand corner lower left hand corner

New edition is marked on the chart ________. When a first edition of a chart is printed, the original date of issue of a new chart

The revision date of a chart is printed on what area of the lower-left corner chart? What is the maximum range at which an observer sees a luminous range light under existing visibility conditions?

66

An irregularity in the motion of the Earth due to the lunar pertuberance disturbing effect of other celestial bodies, principally the moon is called ______. NOTE: “ LUNAR” refers to the MOON

An instrument for indicating a horizontal difference magnetic compass relative to the earth depending upon the magnetic attraction of the earth is called ______. Deviation and variation are applied to the _____. magnetic compass

The curve that passes thru the places of zero DIP and magnetic equator WITHOUT inclination on the compass needle is called ________. A. magnetic equator C. magnetic north B. magnetic meridian D. magnetic field This phenomenon occurs when a stream of charged particles Magnetism around the nucleus of an atom is called: A. magnetism B. electron C. magnetic charges D. magnetic disturbance magnetism from the earth magnetic field magnetism within the vessel maintain ships speed at all times Map

Variation in a compass is caused by____________.

Compass deviation is caused by__________.

The Night Order Book includes the following EXCEPT:

A conventional representation usually on a plane surface of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface is called _______. A conventional representation usually on a plane surface of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface intended primarily for marine navigation is called :

marine chart

During meridian passage, the LHA and meridian angle of maximum altitude the body is zero. What is its altitude?

67

The reference datum used in determining the heights of land mean high water features on most charts: A. mean high water B. mean low water C. mean sea level D. half-tide level

The average height of all low waters at a given place is called mean low water _______. A. mean low water B. low water datum C. mean lower low water D. tropic lower low water mean rate of the sun

The correction table for GHA of planets is based upon the:

The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of mean sea level the tide over a 19 year period is called _______. A. mean sea level B. mean low water C. mean high water D. half-tide level

The GMT in the Nautical Almanac is based on the reference mean sun point of: A. mean sun B. true sun C. apparent sun D. mean and apparent sun

A conic projection upon a plane, the cylinder conceived as mercator being tangent along the equator is a _______. Superior conjunction is possible for___________. Which two planets are inside the orbit of the earth? Mercury Mercury and Venus

All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Meridian angle Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT ______. The term “gegenschein” is associated with_________. Zodiacal light is related to_____________. A Pulse length is expressed in: meteors meteors micro-seconds

68

Asteroids lie chiefly between Mars and Jupiter and are Minor Planets considered _____. What do you call the type of tide where the presence of a mixed tides diurnal wave is conspicuous by a large inequality in the heights of either the two high tides or two low tides usually occurring each tidal day? The process in which an air mass changes in temperature and or moisture characteristics is called: Modification

This is a seasonal wind blowing from a large land mass to Monsoon the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer: A. Monsoon B. Front C. Gradient D. Climate Moon being at its maximum declination

Tropic tides are caused by the _______. A. Moon being at its maximum declination B. Moon crossing the equator C. Sun and Moon both being near 0-deg. declination D. Moon being at perigee

Loran-C uses the multi pulse system because: A. more signal energy is available at the receiver B. less signal energy is necessary for receiver operation C. it significantly increases the peak power D. it increases the signal capacity

more signal energy is available at the receiver

The period between the time prior to sunrise is called_____. morning twilight In the relatively calm area near the hurricane center, the mountainous and seas are___________. confused The apparent wind speed can be zero only when two must be from dead conditions are present. One condition is that the true wind astern _____________. The graphic presentation of the earth’s surface that is constructed to include known dangers and aids to navigation is called _______. A. nautical chart B. coastal chart C. general chart D. pilot chart nautical chart

69

What represents part of the spherical earth on a plane surface? In a tropical cyclone, if you are in the northern hemisphere and experience backing winds, it would mean that you are in the _______. A. navigable semi-circle B. dangerous semi-circle C. eye of the storm D. track of the storm

nautical chart

navigable semi-circle

The edge of a hurricane has overtaken your vessel in the navigable semi-circle Gulf of Mexico and the northwest wind of a few hours ago has shifted to the west. This is an indication that you are located in the: A. navigable semi-circle B. low pressure area C. dangerous semi-circle D. eye of the hurricane

When planning and conducting a voyage, the navigator uses navigational charts many information sources that includes the following EXCEPT: Prior to getting the ship underway, the navigator should navigational check list make a/an: ____________ is a maritime radio warning system consisting of a series of coast stations transmitting radio teletype safety messages . When the moon is at first quarter or third quarter phase, what type of tides will occur? A. neap B. spring C. perigean D. apogean near 60 deg S NAVTEX

Neap

The west wind drift is located _______. A. near 60 deg S B. near 5 deg S C. between Greenland and Europe D. on the Equatorial Current

Tropical cyclone does not occur in the doldrums due to: A. negligible coriolis force B. always with high humidity C. lack of frontal areas D. due to high temperature

negligible coriolis force

70

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? I. II. The body rises at the Prime Vertical when the Declination is greater than the Latitude and same names The body will set at the Prime vertical when the Latitude is numerically equal to declination and same names

neither I and II

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? I. II. Meridian Passage of the sun occurs before 1200 LMT if mean sun is ahead of apparent sun. Meridian Passage of the sun occurs after 1200 LMT if apparent sun is ahead of the mean sun.

Neither I nor II

Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? I. II. Night is longer than day when the sun’s declination is numerically equal and same name as your latitude Day is longer than night when the sun’s declination is north and you are in south Latitude.

Neither I nor II

Ship A observed in his radar ship B on her own portside to neither of the ships be on a collision course on a dense for, which ship has the right of way? A. neither of the ships B. ship A C. ship B D. both ships

Ship A observed in his radar ship B on her own starboard neither of the two vessels side to be on a collision course, on a dense fog, which ship has the right of way? A. neither of the two vessels B. Ship A C. Ship B D. both ships

At the time of printing, correction are too numerous new edition making previous printing obsolete, a printing is made called______. What is the phase of the moon when it rises and sets with New moon the sun? What is the phase of the moon when it rises during sunrise? New moon

71

What is the phase of the moon when it seems to rise and set with the sun? When the moon is in conjunction, the moon phase is :

new moon

New moon

When the moon is in inferior conjunction the moon phase new moon is: The moon will wax from : New Moon to First Quarter

A ship is at DR longitude 67?25?W at 1815 ZT steaming on New ZD (+5); New ZT, a westerly course when the navigator informs the Captain 1800 that the ship is about to enter a new time zone. The Captain orders that the ship’s clocks be set to the new zone time when the next hour is struck What will be the new zone description, and what will be the zone time by ship? Clock immediately on being set to new zone time. The maximum distance at which a light can be seen in weather conditions where the visibility is 10 miles is known as: nominal range

Which current flows westward in the general area of the North Equatorial northeast trades. Current A. North Equatorial Current B. Cape Horn Current C. Davidson Current D. Labrador Current

If your weather bulletin shows the center of a low pressure north to northwest area to be 100 miles due east of your position, what winds can you expect in the northern hemisphere? According to Buys Ballot Law, when an observer in the Northern Hemisphere experiences a northwest wind, the center of the low pressure is located to the ____ . northeast

The prevailing winds from approximately 5 deg N to 30 deg northeast trade winds N are the _______. A. northeast trade winds B. prevailing westerlies C. southeast trade winds D. doldrums

72

Because of the low temperatures near the geographical poles of the earth, the surface pressure tends to remain higher than in surrounding regions since cold air is denser than warm air. Consequently, winds blow outward from the poles called: The Humboldt current flows: A. northerly B. southerly C. easterly D. westerly

northeasterlies in the Arctic

Northerly

If the gyro compass is operating properly, the rotor shaft is aligned to: A. North-South B. East-West C. Vertical D. Horizontal

North-South

The pressure gradient between the horse latitudes and north-south doldrums runs _________: The southeast trade winds blow toward _______. A. northwest B. southeast C. south D. northeast Null Northwest

_______ is the least signal or complete absence of signal where this varies with direction. A. null B. blind spot C. out of range D. 180 deg out of phase

Sailing Directions contain:

numbered sections along a coast or through a strait

This is a rocky crag or small mountain projecting from and Nunatak surrounded by glacier or ice sheet. A. Nunatak B. Rime C. Nilas D. Sastrugi obliquity of the ecliptic

The sun changing declination is caused by:

73

On weather maps, purple color indicates: A. occluded front B. stationary front C. cold front D. warm front

occluded front

This is a kind of front which appears on weather maps as a solid purple line with at alternating triangles and half circles. What cyclone is in its final stage of development? A. occluded front B. polar cyclone C. anticyclone D. tornado

occluded front

occluded front

In the last stages of extratropical cyclone, the closing of its Occlusion warm sector by an overtaking cold front which races about the system’s center is called _______. A. occlusion B. frontolysis C. frontogenesis D. through of negligible Coriolis force

Tropical cyclones do not form within 5° of the Equator because _____________.

_______ is a radio navigation system which operates in the Omega very low frequency. The navigational triangle is NOT formed when the body is: on the observer’s meridian

If the vessel is in the dangerous semi-circle in the Southern on the port bow and Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. make as much headway as possible A. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible B. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible C. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible D. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as possible If the vessel is in the dangerous semi-circle in the Northern on the starboard bow Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. and make as much headway as possible A. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible B. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible C. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as possible D. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible

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If the vessel is in the navigable semi-circle in the Northern on the starboard quarter Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. and make as much headway as possible A. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as possible B. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible C. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible D. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible You are attempting to locate your position with reference to on the storm track a hurricane center in the Northern Hemisphere. If the wind behind the center direction remains steady, but with diminishing velocity, you are most likely. A tide is called diurnal when _______. A. only one high and one low water occur during a lunar day B. the high tide is higher and the low tide is lower than usual C. the high tide and low tide are exactly six hours apart D. two high tides occur during a lunar day only one high and one low water occur during a lunar day

After passing the First Quarter phase, the moon becomes Opposition full moon at _____. If the age of the moon is approximately 14 &1/2 days, it is opposition said to be at: If the moon reaches a point wherein it is completely illuminated, it is at: Opposition

The sun rises exactly at the time when the moon is setting. Opposition The moon is at _____. The superior planets are brightest and closest to the earth Opposition at_____________. When the moon sets during sunrise, it is at _____. When the moon’s R.A. is 12 hours different with that of the sun, the moon is said to be at: Opposition opposition

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This is the type of rain that falls on the weather side of a orographic rain mountain ranges and give some of the heaviest rain known: NOTE: “ORO” refers to Mountain

In making compass adjustments at sea, which international Oscar Quebec flag signal is hoisted? The altitude correction that compensates for the equivalent Parallax reading to the center of the earth is: A. parallax B. dip C. index D. semi-diameter

_______ is a form of halo consisting of an image of the sun at anthelion the same altitude and some distance from it. A. parhelion B. paranthelion C. anthelion D. anti-helion perigean tide

When the moon is at perigee, _______ occurs. A. perigean tide B. priming tide C. lagging tide D. semi-diurnal range

In a moon’s orbit, the point nearest the sun is called: A ship has a ______ magnetism. The ratio of the strength of the magnetic field inside the metal to the strength of the external field is: A. permeability B. retentivity C. coercivity D. remanence

Perigee permanent magnetism Permeability

A pulse feature designed to eliminate sky wave is ______. The sun’s surface is called ______.

phase coding photosphere

Which of the following should be consulted to obtain Pilot chart information about

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The SOA chosen for each track leg in voyage planning is the:

PIM speed

The Sailing Directions are published in the Enroute format Planning Guide and the _____. Which of the following statements is TRUE? Planning Guides are relatively permanent

The best position of the bow of the vessel when you are pointing to seaward maneuvering on ice and intend to stop in ice close inshore is: A. pointing to seaward B. pointing to inwards C. pointing to the ridge D. pointing to shore points of intended movement

In voyage planning, PIM means:

The angle measured from the elevated pole along the hour Polar Distance circle to the diurnal circle passing by the body is called: Any piece of metal on becoming magnetized will develop Poles regions of concentrated magnetism called ______. Along the coast of Australia, a current called Darwin poleward current flows: A. poleward B. eastward C. northward D. westward

In order for the gyro to have its North-South axis maintain Precession its position in line with the Meridian, it must be capable of: The reaction of a gyro compass to an applied force is called: A. precession B. counter effect C. gyroscopic inertia D. gravity effect Precession

This is the property of a gyroscope of resisting any force Precession which tends to change its axis of rotation.

77

Any or all forms of water particles whether liquid or solid precipitation that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground is _____. Military users use the ______ which provides extremely Precise Positioning accurate positioning. System Pressure gradient is a measure of ______________. pressure difference over horizontal distance pressure gradient

A change in pressure with horizontal distance is called ____. On the poleward side of the high pressure belt in both hemispheres, the atmospheric pressure again diminishes. The wind in motion moves towards the poles and diverted by the earth’s rotation toward the east. This wind system is called _______.

prevailing westerlies

What is the airflow along the poleward side of the high Prevailing westerlies pressure belt in each hemisphere diverted by the earth’s rotation towards the East? A. Prevailing westerlies B. Doldrums C. Geostrophic winds D. Horse latitude

The charts _______ reflects the latest Notice to Mariners print date used to update the chart. When the faces of the sextant shade glasses and mirrors are not parallel, the error is called: prismatic error

____________ in GPS is the true distance between the pseudorange satellite and the plus an offset due to frequency error of the user’s clock. The characteristics on which range resolution depends is: Occluded front is colored _______. A. purple B. blue C. red D. green Pulse length Purple

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On weather maps, occluded front is colored: A. purple B. red C. blue D. green

purple

The 8-mm radar uses the: Which deviation change signs approximately each 90 degrees change of headings caused by induced magnetism in horizontal soft iron? This is a gyro error caused by the rolling of the vessel whose effect can reach a maximum on inter-cardinal heading: A. quadrantal error B. ballistic error C. damping error D. tilting error

Q-Band Quadrantal deviation

quadrantal error

The component of space motion in the line of sight is called _____. A type of deformed ice formed by one piece of ice overriding another. Spoking would be indicated on the radar receiver by:

Radial motion

rafted ice

Random, pie-shaped wedges on the PPI Read reciprocal directions

If the rotor on a gyro is turning in the wrong direction it will cause the gyro to:

When using an echo sounder in deep water, it is NOT receive a strong return at unusual to _____. about 200 fathoms (366 meters) during the day, and one nearer the surface at night A dashed outlined arrow applied on precautionary areas, recommended direction two-way routes, recommended routes and deep-water routes of traffic flow is called _______. A. recommended direction of traffic flow B. recommended track C. established direction of flow D. recommended route

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Dashed line and dashed outlined arrows in recommended recommended routes routes are ________. A. recommended routes B. recommended traffic flow C. recommended track D. recommended direction of traffic

Dashed lines with arrowheads generally reserved for use by charting authorities are _______. A. recommended tracks C. recommended routes B. recommended flow D. recommended two way area

recommended tracks

Cold front is colored _______. A. red B. blue C. purple D. green

red

On weather maps, warm front is colored: A. red B. blue C. purple D. green

red

On weather maps, stationary front is colored: A. red/blue B. purple C. blue D. red

red/blue

Planetary aberration is due, in part, to______________.

refraction of light as it enters the Earth atmosphere

The ratio of the pressure of water vapor present in the relative humidity atmosphere to the saturation vapor pressure at the same temperature is called ______. It is the deviation of a magnetic compass after adjustment residual deviation or compensation. The remaining value that cannot be eliminated in deviation residual deviation is called: A. residual deviation B. constant deviation C. minimal deviation D. all of these

80

After attempting to neutralize magnetism of the vessel, the residual magnetism remaining is called _______. A. residual magnetism B. sub-permanent magnetism C. sub-permanent magnetism D. permanent magnetism revised print

A print which does not supersede a current edition is called _______.

The elongated area of high pressure extending outwards ridge from an anticyclone area is called _______. A. ridge B. col C. through D. doldrums right

The earth’s rotation affects the direction of the current in the Northern Hemisphere by deflecting the set towards the _______. A. right B. left C. center D. lower latitude

The date of a revised print is on the charts ______. As a cold front passes an observer, pressure _______.

right of the edition date rises and winds become variable rises, often quite rapidly, with clearing skies

After a cold front passes the barometric pressure usually ____.

In the Southern Hemisphere, the westerlies blow roaring forties throughout the year steadily approaching that of the trade winds. These are called the ______. This is a swell wave emanating from distant storms which rollers continue their progress across the oceans till they reach shallow water when they abruptly steepen, increase in height and sweep to the shore. A. rollers B. tidal wave C. surf D. tsunami rotation of the Earth on its axis

Diurnal aberration is due to_______________.

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What is a region between two highs and two lows? A. Saddle B. Secondary law C. V-shaped low D. Parallel isobars

Saddle

In making a synoptic observation, the following should be safety of life considered EXCEPT: Charts used for planning , fixing position at sea on a long sailing charts voyage are called _______. Which nautical publication gives an information if there will be a chance to meet an iceberg during the course of the voyage. A. sailing directions B. coast pilot C. pilot chart D. coastal chart Sailing Directions sailing directions

While voyage planning and navigating, a mariner must refer to both texts and tables. Tables include the following EXCEPT: A 10-cm radar uses the:

S-Band

This is the result when the sea is warm compared with the sea smoke air which flows over the surface of the sea. Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit to have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning Service receiver capability? Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit to have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning Service receiver capability? Selective Availability

Selective Availability

With regard to GPS, a civilian receiver may be capable of selective availability is achieving the same accuracy as a military receiver set to zero when________. The class of tide that prevails in the greatest number of important harbors on the Atlantic Coast is: A. semi-diurnal B. interval C. mixed D. diurnal semi-diurnal

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When there are small differences between the heights of two successive high tides or two low tides, in a tidal day, the tides are called _______. A. semi-diurnal B. diurnal C. solar D. mixed

semi-diurnal

The radar control that reduces weak echoes out to a limited sensitivity time control distance from the ship is the _______. The radar control used to reduce sea return at close ranges sensitivity time control is the __________. A tint, 3 mm wide in TSS and between TSS and inshore separation line traffic is _______. A. separation line B. limit line C. boundary line D. demarcation line separation zone

A tint, any shape in TSS and between TSS and inshore traffic is _______. A. separation zone B. limit zone C. boundary zone D. demarcation zone

Which of the following will not contribute to the Ship's speed commercial GPS receiver position error? The celestial coordinate of a star that is relatively constant in Sidereal hour angle value is the: A. Sidereal hour angle B. Local hour angle C. Greenwich Hour Angle D. Meridian angle

What do you call the snow and rain falling together, frozen sleet consisting of transparent, rounded, hard rain-drop sized grain of ice? A. sleet B. hail C. frozen drizzle D. frost sling psychromotor small circle

Which instrument is the most useful in forecasting fog? A line on Earth parallel to the equator is a __________.

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A parallel of latitude other than the equator is a ______. The earth receives 1,360 watts per square meter of the solar energy. This is called: A. solar constant B. solar energy C. solar wave D. radiation

small circle solar constant

The sun continuously emits charge particles called _____.

solar wind

An electronic depth finder operates on the principle that sound waves travel at a ____. constant speed through water In the area of prevailing westerlies, and ocean current that South Atlantic Current generally flows in the easterly direction to a point west of Cape of Good Hope is called _______. A. South Atlantic Current B. North Atlantic Current C. South American Current D. Argentinian Current South Atlantic Ocean

Tropical storms occur in all oceans EXCEPT in the: A. South Atlantic Ocean B. South Indian Ocean C. Western South Pacific Ocean D. Arabian Sea

_______ flows westward in the general direction of the southeast trades. A. South Equatorial Current B. Cape Horn Current C. Davidson Current D. Labrador Current

South Equatorial Current

In magnetism, it is the region in which the lines of force south pole enter the iron. Because of the low temperatures near the geographical poles of the earth, the surface pressure tends to remain higher than in surrounding regions since cold air is denser than warm air. Consequently, winds blow outward from the poles called: According to Buys Ballot law, when an observer in the northern hemisphere experiences a northeast wind the center of low pressure is located to the __________. southeasterlies in the Antarctic

south-southeast

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According to Buys Ballot Law, when an observer in the south-southwest southern hemisphere experiences a northwest wind, the center of the low pressure is located to the______. If a weather bulletin shows the center of a low pressure system to be 100 miles due east of you, what winds can you expect in the southern hemisphere? Kamchatka current flows: A. southward B. northward C. westward D. eastward south-southwesterly

southward

The usual sequence of directions in which a tropical cyclone southwest, south and moves in the Southern Hemisphere is ________________. southeast In which direction does the Brazil Current flows? southwesterly

A. southwesterly B. northwesterly

C. southerly D. northerly Speed

Most GPS receivers use the Doppler shift of the carrier phase to compute ____.

_______ is the gyro compass error introduced by the ship’s speed error forward motion along its track. A. speed error B. latitude error C. track line error D. deflection error speed of advance Spring

In voyage planning SOA means: When the moon is new or full, what type of tides occur? A. Spring B. Neap C. Diurnal D. Apogean

Temperature decreases with height called _____. These are stars in the galaxy that tend to congregate in groups arranged in long spiral arms.

standard lapse rate Star clouds

85

In the Nautical Almanac, are tabulated GHA of both the stars 57 sun and Aries, and also the declination of ______. On weather maps, alternate red and blue color indicates: A. stationary front B. occluded front C. cold front D. warm front steadily falling barometric pressure stationary front

Which of the following is a characteristic of the weather preceding an approaching warm front?

Which of the following is typical of warm front weather steady precipitation conditions? Monsoons are characterized by _______. A. steady winds that reverse direction semi-annually B. light, variable winds with little or no humidity C. strong, gusty winds D. strong, cyclonic winds steady winds that reverse direction semiannually

A projection where points on the earth are transferred stereographic directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is the point opposite the plane point of tangency is called______. It is a single crest wave and has no period or wavelength called: A. storm surge B. tsunami C. swell D. ripples stretch of water over which wave-forming wind blows storm surge

Fetch is the _____________.

When solid particles is changed to water vapor, the process sublimation is: A. sublimation B. condensation C. vaporization D. convection Sub-refraction

If a layer of cold, moist air over rides a shallow layer of warm, dry air, which of the following may occur?

86

_______ is a squall with violent thunder, lightning, and rain, which blows at night in the Malacca Straits especially during the southwest monsoon. A. Sumatra B. Javaean C. Malaccan D. Taku

Sumatra

The star nearest to the earth is: A. sun B. Vega C. Sirius D. Altair

sun

The path followed by the sun towards Vega is called : Azimuth of the sun for compass error is best taken at:

Sun’s way sun's low altitude

An upper layer of warm, dry air over a surface layer of a Super-refraction cold, moist air causes which of the following? It is a motion with a period intermediate between that of the surge ordinary wind wave and that of the tide: A. surge B. bore C. swell D. seiche cyclone in the Southern SW, S and SE

The sequence of tropical Hemisphere is: A. SW, S and SE B. NW, W and S

C. N, NW and E D. W, NW and N

This is wave motion caused by meteorological disturbance swell which persists after the disturbance has move away. A. swell B. surge C. seiches D. sea current tangent latitude error

This is the gyro compass error applicable in which damping is accompanied by offsetting the point of application of the force from a mercury ballistic. A. tangent latitude error B. damping error C. ballistic error D. quadrantal error

87

Fog forms when the air.

Temperature equals or is below the dew point temperature

The line separating the illuminated and darkened portions Terminator of the moon is called: If it is impossible to avoid a hurricane in the Northern that half of the storm Hemisphere, the most favorable place to be when storm lying to the left of the passes is in ____________. storm path Little or no change in the barometric reading over a twelve that present weather hour period indicates________. conditions will continue Planetary aberration is due in part, to______________. the body orbital motion during the time required for its light to reach the earth the declination of the moon

The diurnal inequality of the tides is caused by _______. A. the declination of the moon B. changing the weather conditions C. the Moon being at apogee D. the Moon being at perigee

Fog forms when the air temperature is at or below: The longitude of the GP of a celestial body will be East if :

The dew point The Greenwich Hour Angle is more than 180 The Moon appears larger as the elevation increases the OIC

What happens because of augmentation?

Who has the con while navigating when the Master is on the bridge? Which of the following statements is TRUE?

the OIC must never leave his post in the bridge if not properly relieved

88

The same side of the moon is always turned towards the the period of rotation is Earth because_______. equal to the period of revolution What are the relative positions of the Sun, the earth, and a planet when the planet is at inferior conjunction? A. the Planet is between the Earth and the Sun B. the Sun is between the earth and the Planet C. the Earth is between the Planet and the Sun D. the Planet is between the Earth and Mercury the Planet is between the Earth and the Sun

The gyro compass has the least directional power at the : The term “velocity of escape” means____________.

the sensitive element the speed at which the molecules of the gas making up the atmosphere should attain in order to overcome the force of gravity

If the Earth’s rotation were stopped, which of the following The sun will rise from conditions will happen? the West and sets to the East due to revolution Apparent time is based on______________. the visible sun moving along the ecliptic

The area of lowest pressure along a line with minimum through cyclonic curvature in the isobars on surface charts is called: A. through B. ridge C. wedge D. low pressure through

The lowest intervening part of the wave is called : A. through B. crest C. fetch D. range

A cold front moving in from the northwest can produce :

Thunderstorms, hail, and then rapid clearing

89

_______ is a periodic motion of the sea due to gravitational forces of various celestial bodies. A. tidal phenomenon B. tidal effect C. tidal current D. tidal stream

tidal phenomenon

An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational time and altitude triangle with meridian angle, declination and altitude, it is azimuth called _________________. An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational time azimuth triangle with meridian angle, declination and latitude, it is called ____________________. The equation of time measures the___________. time between the passage of the mean sun and the apparent sun over a meridian

When the equation of time is taken from the Nautical time of local apparent Almanac for use in celestial navigation, it is used to noon determine _______. You are steaming west in the North Atlantic in an extratropical cyclonic storm, and the wind, and the wind is dead ahead. According to Buy Ballots Law, the center of the law pressure lies _________. to the north of you

A dangerous semi-circle in the Northern Hemisphere is that to the right of the storm area of the storm: track A. to the right of the storm track B. between the ship’s heading and the eye C. to the left of the storm track D. between the ship’s heading and the left of the storm

In the Southern Hemisphere, the navigable semi-circle is: A. to the right of the storm track B. in the dangerous semi-circle C. ahead of the storm track D. behind the storm center

to the right of the storm track

The navigable semicircle of a typhoon in the Southern Hemisphere is the area:

to the right of the storm track

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Original date of issue of a new chart is shown at the : The strength of the field at any point, measured in a direction parallel to the field is called _______. A. total intensity B. parallel intensity C. horizontal intensity D. vertical intensity

top center margin total intensity

This is the belt of light and variable winds and fine clear trade wind belt weather marking the central regions of the sub-tropical high pressure belt. The winds blowing consistently from the horse latitudes to the doldrums are called _______. A. trade winds B. polar easterlies C. roaring forties D. prevailing westerlies trade winds

The winds that has the greatest effect on the set, drift, and trade winds depth of the equatorial currents are the: A. trade winds B. doldrums C. prevailing westerlies D. equatorial winds

Winds that blow from the belts of high pressure towards trade winds the equatorial belts of low pressure are the ______. A device which converts electrical energy into sound energy transducer and vice versa is called: In modern fathometers the sonic sound waves are produced transducer electrically by means of a/an____. SATNAV has the following units EXCEPT: A. transmitter B. antenna C. data processor D. video display Tropic tides transmitter

When the Moon’s declination is maximum north, which of the following will occur? A. Tropic tides B. Higher high tides & lower low tides C. Mixed-type tides D. Equatorial tides

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Which of the following weather disturbances is classified by Tropical disturbance from and intensity and which does not have closed isobars? Low pressure disturbances, which travel along the inter- tropical waves tropical convergence zone, are called__________. The velocity of the apparent wind can be less than the true true wind from dead wind and from the same direction, if certain conditions are astern present. One condition is that the ___________. The velocity of the apparent wind can be more than the true wind must be from true wind, and come from the same direction, if certain dead ahead conditions are present. One condition is that the ______. A strong tidal wave is called _______. A. tsunami B. tsurami C. cyclonic wave D. tsushima tsunami

Between the parallels of about 23º 26 N and about 23º 26 S Twice the sun is directly overheard at some time during the year. If you are situated between these two parallels how many times in a year will the sun pass your zenith? Between the parallels of about 23º 26 North and 23º 26 South the sun is directly overhead at sometime of the year. If you are situated between these two parallels how many times in a year will the sun pass you zenith? When operated over a muddy bottom, a fathometer may indicate _____ Which factor has the greatest effect on the amount of gain required to obtain a fathometer reading? twice

two depth reading

Type of bottom

If a navigational computer is not available for constructing use of gnomonic chart to a track in voyage planning, the easiest method is the: plot a great circle route The angle between the magnetic and geographic meridians variation at any place east or west to indicate the direction of magnetic north from the true north is called : Conjunction is not possible for ___________. Venus

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Inferior conjunction is possible for ____________.

Venus

Which of the planet in the Solar System has almost the same Venus size as the Earth? A. Venus B. Neptune C. Pluto D. Mars

What is the point on the track of a tropical cyclone where vertex the curvature is greatest? A. vertex B. trough C. vortex D. eye Vertical movement of the water

What does the term “tide” refer to? A. Vertical movement of the water B. Horizontal movement of the water C. Mixing tendency of the water D. Salinity constant of the water

The extreme horizontal distance at which prominent objects visibility can be seen and identified by the unaided eye. Clouds appearing in the following order: cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, status, and nimbostratus usually indicate the approach of a (n) ______________. If the cloud is observed to appear in the following order: cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus stratus and nimbostratus, this would indicate the approach of a/an: A. warm front B. cold front C. occluded front D. thunderstorm warm front warm front

warm front

On weather maps, red color indicates: A. warm front B. cold front C. occluded front D. stationary front

Fog is most commonly associated with a (an). On a weather map, triangles are pointing toward the :

Warm front at night warmer air

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On mid-ocean waters, the height of a wind-generated wave water depth exceeding is not affected by the: 100 feet Fog is most commonly associated with a/an: water front at night

A small whirling storm over the ocean or inland waters and waterspout is like a funnel-shaped cloud dropping to the ocean is called _______. A. waterspout B. whirlwind C. depression D. tornado

This is the vertical distance between the trough and the wave height crest. A. wave height B. altitude C. wave range D. wave length

This is the vertical distance between the trough and the wave height crest. A Loran receiver’s major advantage is its ability to store : waypoints

The state of the atmosphere with respect to temperature, weather humidity, precipitation, visibility, cloudiness, and other factors is called ______. Which gyro pilot adjustment is set to zero except when it is desirable to allow the ship to respond to the temporary action of heavy seas? ______ is a transmission sent to the ship advising the master of expected adverse conditions, duration and geographic extent. Charts through Notice To Mariners are updated: Light Lists through Notice To Mariners are updated: Notice To Mariners is published: The Local Notice to Mariners is usually published _____. weather adjustment

weather advisory

Weekly weekly weekly weekly

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Because of the earth rotation, the moving air is deflected toward the ______. The North Equatorial Current flows to the _______. A. west B. east C. northeast D. southwest

west

west

In the middle latitudes, wind travels generally from: A. west to east B. north to south C. south to north D. east to west

west to east

Current that flows easterly around Antarctica is termed as West wind drift _______. A. West wind drift B. Falkland Current C. Antarctic Current D. Gulf Stream

In the Antarctic the circulation is generally from west to east West Wind Drift in a broad, slow-moving current extending completely around Antarctica, this is called the _______. A. West Wind Drift B. Circumpolar Wind Drift C. East Wind Drift D. Antarctica Current westerly direction

The precession of the equinoxes occurs in a(n) _______. A. westerly direction B. northerly direction C. easterly direction D. southerly direction

Agulhas current generally flows: A. westward B. northward C. eastward D. southward

westward

Neap tides occur only _______. A. when the Moon is at quadrature B. at a new or full moon C. when the Sun, Moon and Earth are in line D. at approximately 28-day intervals

when the Moon is at quadrature

95

Priming of the tides occurs _______. A. when the Moon is between new and first quarter and between third quarter and new B. at times of new and full Moon C. when the Earth, Moon and Sun are lying approximately on the same line D. when the Moon is between first quarter and full and between third quarter and new

when the Moon is between new and first quarter and between third quarter and new

Spring tides occur _______. A. B. C. D.

when the Sun, Moon and Earth are nearly in line, when the Sun, Moon and Earth are nearly in line, in any in any order order at the start of spring, when the Sun is nearly over the equator only when the Sun and Moon are on the same side of the earth and nearly in line when the Sun and Moon are at approximately 90-deg. to each other as seen from the Earth

In a river subject to tidal currents, the best time to dock a when there is a head ship without the assistance of tugs is____________. current A warm front marks the region _________________. where a warm air is replacing cold air wind and density differences

Two generating forces of ocean currents are: A. wind and density differences B. water depth and ocean contour C. density and water depth D. temperature and salinity

The wind in the dangerous semi-circle of a tropical cyclone wind circulation and is higher in velocity due to the: forward motion of the storm A. wind circulation and forward motion of the storm B. extension of the low pressure ridge C. direction of circulation and pressure gradient D. recurvature effect The wind velocity is higher in the dangerous semi-circle of a wind circulation and tropical cyclone because of the _______. forward motion of the storm A. wind circulation and forward motion of the storm B. extension of the low pressure ridge C. direction of circulation and pressure gradient D. recurvature effect

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Appendices of the Planning Guide contains the following wind force and current information EXCEPT : sets The apparent wind speed can be zero only when two wind speed equals the conditions are present. One condition is that the true ship speed _____________. Capricorn is the point of: winter solstice

What publication contains information about the port World Port Index facilities in Cadiz, Spain? The difference of latitude between the GP and your position, zenith distance at the time when the celestial body is on the meridian, is represented by: A. zenith distance B. co-latitude C. altitude D. declination zero

When the moon is at New Moon its elongation is ______.

A circular band of the sky extending 8 degrees on each side zodiac of the ecliptic is called: A faint glow observed extending upward along the ecliptic zodiacal light before sunrise and after sunset is called ______. This is a faint cone of light which extends upward from the zodiacal light horizon along the ecliptic after sunset or before sunrise. You are using a racetrack turn to recover a man overboard. The vessel is first steadied when how many degrees away from the original heading? A. 60° to 70° B. 90° C. 135° D. 180° 180°

In a racetrack turn, to recover a man overboard, the vessel is steadied for the SECOND time after a turn of how many degrees from the original heading? A. 60° B. 135° C. 180° D. 360°

360°

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The axis of precession describes an angle of inclination as the earth moves towards the direction of star VEGA, caused by a force which tends to rotate the earth axis perpendicular to plane of the ecliptic. This physical character has a cycle of:

41,000 years

Tropical cyclones normally form within which of the following belts of latitude? A. B. C. D. 5° to 15° 15° to 30° 30° to 45° 45° to 60°

5° to 15°

In the Celestial Equator System of coordinates, when the body is along the Pn-Ps line, therefore the Meridian Angle is:

90°

Which of the following should NOT be used as an indicator that ice may be nearby? A. B. C. D. a dark appearance of the sky A gradual drop in sea water temperature to below 32° F A yellowish glare in the sky The presence of seals or certain type birds

a dark appearance of the sky

The Coordinator Surface Search (CSS) in a SAR situation should display by night:

a distinctive signal promulgated by the CSS

What is an “Anticyclone”? A. A system of high atmospheric pressure B. A system of low atmospheric pressure C. A secondary depression in the rear of a low pressure system D. It is the correct meteorological name for a typhoon/hurricane

A system of high atmospheric pressure

NOTE:

“CYCLONE” = Low Pressure High Pressure

“ANTI-CYCLONE” = (ANTI means opposite)

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What classification of tropical cyclone would have closed isobars, counter clockwise rotary circulation, and sustained winds between 34 and 63 knots? A. B. C. D. A tropical disturbance A tropical depression A tropical storm A hurricane

A tropical storm

What level of development of a tropical cyclone has a hundred mile radius of circulation, gale force winds, less than 990 millibars of pressure and vertically formed cumulonimbus clouds? A. B. C. D. A tropical disturbance A tropical depression A tropical storm A typhoon

A tropical storm

As the South Equatorial Current approaches the East Coast of Africa, it divides with the main part flowing South to form the warm: A. B. C. D. Agulhas current Benguela current Canary current Madagascar current

Agulhas current

What will occur when relating to humidity at 100%?

AIR is saturated or there will be RAIN

Major category(ies) of NAVTEX is/are _______. A. B. C. D. all of these meteorological warnings meteorological forecasts navigational warnings

all of these

Fog is formed when: A. B. C. D. all of these conditions are correct the moisture in the air condenses into small droplets air is cooled to its dew point the base of a cloud is on the ground

all of these conditions are correct

99

A stationary front on a weather chart is colored: A. B. C. D. red alternating red and blue purple blue

alternating red and blue

Which of the following when subtracted from 90 ° will give the radius of almucantar?

Altitude

It is a small circle parallel to the sensible horizon and passes through the body.

Altitude circle

What can you find in the last pages of the NAUTICAL Almanac? A. B. C. D. altitude corrections for sun, stars and planet altitude correction of Mercury and Venus altitude correction of the moon dip table

altitude correction of the moon

A body at the observer’s zenith will have a/an:

Altitude of 90°

Gray patches . . .

Altocumulus

Ball shaped masses . . .

Altocumulus

The angular distance between the prime vertical and the hour circle of the body with prefix sign is otherwise known as:

Amplitude

It is the angular distance between the prime vertical and the sun during rising and setting.

Amplitude

With respect to failure warnings and status indications, GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum:

an alarm if a new position has not been calculated within the last two seconds

100

A submerged ice attached to the bottom irrespective of the nature of its formation is called: A. B. C. D. anchor ice iceberg compact ice polynya

anchor ice

The optical principle of a marine sextant is when a ray of light is reflected from a plane surface, the angle of reflection is equal to the_________.

Angle of incidence

What is Right Ascension?

angular distance of a celestial body east of Aries

It is the altitude of the centre of a heavenly body when measured from the sensible horizon.

Apparent altitude

A relatively thin shell of air, water vapor, and suspended particulates surrounding the earth is called: A. B. Stratosphere Ionosphere C. Troposphere D. Atmosphere

Atmosphere

The intercepted arc of the horizon between the principal vertical circle and the vertical circle passing through the body when rising or setting is called:

Azimuth

It is the arc of the horizon measured either clockwise or counter clockwise through 180º starting at the North point of the horizon in the North latitude and the South point of the horizon the South latitude

Azimuth angle

Developed with tangent plane. With the result that bearing of a point from the centre are correctly represented.

Azimuthal projection

101

The inner cloud bands of a hurricane, when viewed from a distance, form a mass of dense, black cumulonimbus clouds called the ________. A. B. C. D. bar of the storm eye of the storm funnel front

bar of the storm

The inner cloud bands in a hurricane viewed from a distance from a mass of dense black cumulonimbus clouds is called the: A. bar of the storm B. eye of the storm C. funnel D. tower of the storm

bar of the storm

This is a local strong wind carrying damp snow or sleet and spray that freezes upon contact with objects: A. B. C. D. barber katabatic wind anabatic wind abroholos

Barber

The passing of a low pressure system can be determined by periodically checking the____________. A. B. Barometer thermometer C. hygrometer D. anemometer

Barometer

Which do the numbers on isobars indicate? A. B. barometric pressure temperature C. rain in inches D. wind speed

barometric pressure

Parallax is caused by :

Being on the surface of the earth rather at its center

On a voyage from Cape Town to London, the favorable ocean current off the coast of Africa is the: A. B. C. D. Canary current Agulhas current Benguela current South Atlantic current

Benguela current

102

Which current would you encounter on a direct passage from London, England to Cape Town, South Africa? A. B. C. D. Falkland current Norway current Brazil current Benguela current

Benguela current

A cold front on a weather chart is colored: A. B. C. D. blue purple red alternating red and blue

Blue

If Declination plus the latitude equals 90° and of the same names, the: A. B. C. D. Body passes exactly at the zenith of the observer Body does not rise anymore Body is exactly to the horizon at upper transit Body is tangent to the horizon at lower transit

Body is tangent to the horizon at lower transit

What current flows southward along the west coast of the United States and causes extensive fog in that area? A. B. C. D. Davidson Current North Pacific Current Alaska Current California Current

California Current

Chart legends which indicate a conspicuous landmark are printed in:

capital letters

The imaginary sphere of infinite radius with the earth at its centre.

Celestial sphere

Zenith is the point on the ___________ vertically overhead of the observer.

celestial sphere

Equinoctial is formed by projecting the earth’s equator to the:

celestial sphere

103

The imaginary sphere of infinite radius with the earth at its center.

Celestial sphere

A sextant error where the pivot of the index bar is not at the center of the arc.

Centering error

Chart symbols and abbreviations are shown in _______.

Chart No.1

Earth’s representation on a surface either plane or curved according to a definite plan.

Chart projection

In the Northern Hemisphere, the major ocean currents tend to flow: A. clockwise around the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans B. clockwise or counter-clockwise depending on whether it is a warm or a cold current C. counter-clockwise except in the Gulf Stream D. counter-clockwise around the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans

clockwise around the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans

The radius of the almucantar is equal to the:

co-altitude or zenith distance

You are entering a harbor for the first time, which of the publications would you consult?

Coast pilot

The Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) contain information on all of the following EXCEPT:

Coastal features

Neck of low pressure between two highs.

Col

In the celestial equator system of coordinates, when the body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator, the altitude during upper transit will be equal to the:

Co-latitude

104

When cold air displaces warm air you have a (n) _______. A. B. C. D. cold front occluded front stationary front warm front

cold front

An occluded front is usually caused by a:

cold front overtaking a warm front

A sextant error when the axis of the telescope is not parallel Collimation error to the plane of the instrument.

________ is a sailing in which you take a parallel sailing to limit the altitude of your track.

composite sailing

The heat transfer from particle to particle is known as: A. B. C. D. radiation conduction convection induction

Conduction

Developed on a tangent or secant cones or cones.

Conic projection

When the air is warmed, it tends to rise. This heat transfer is called: A. B. Advection Conduction C. Convection D. Radiation

Convection

Ascending and descending air masses with different temperature is part of an important heat transmitting process in our atmosphere called ____. A. B. Convection radiation C. conduction D. barometric inversion

Convection

The direction in which a vessel is steered is the course the path actually followed is the:

Course over the ground

105

What do you call the relatively low pressure area which is generally circular. A. B. Anticyclone Cyclone C. Col D. Squall

Cyclone

It is developed on a tangent cylinder, which is then spread out to form a plane.

Cylindrical projection

A good chart can be distinguished from indifferent one by:

date of correction

All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT:

Declination

The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of the celestial equator measured along the hour circle of the body is known as:

Declination

The polar distance of the body is said to be equal to 090º when

Declination of the body is 0º

“Ease the rudder” means to:

Decrease the rudder angle

The highest level of commercial navigational accuracy is provided by ____.

DGPS, within a coverage area

It is the angle between the horizontal plane through observers eye .

Dip

This is the correction to the sextant altitude applied to the visible horizon to obtain the sensible horizon .

Dip

The daily path of a celestial body that is parallel to the equinoctial.

Diurnal circle

106

Katabatic wind blows: A. B. C. D. Up an incline due to surface heating In a circular pattern Down an incline due to cooling of air Horizontally between a high and a low pressure area

Down an incline due to cooling of air

NOTE: Katabatic = Down Anabatic = Up

This is the wind blowing up on an incline as a result of surface heating. A. anabatic wind B. foehn C. katabatic wind D. fall wind

anabatic wind

What kind of wind which blows up an incline usually as a Anabatic wind result of surface heating? A. B. C. D. Katabatic wind Foehn Fall wind Anabatic wind

PrimE vertical:

E/W

(East/West)

PrinNcipal vertical circle:

N/S (North/South)

In mid-oceans, the characteristics of a wave are determined by three factors. What is NOT one of these factors? A. B. C. D. effect of the moon’s gravity fetch wind velocity length of time the wind is blowing

effect of the moon’s gravity

If a celestial body is at your meridian the azimuth is:

Either North or South

The hour cycle that passes through the First Point of Aries is known as the:

equinoctial colure

It is the term used when the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator.

Equinoxes

107

The points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator are called_______.

Equinoxes

In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of coordinates, when the body rises to the left of the Prime Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named.

E-N

In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of coordinates, when the body rises to the right of the Prime Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named:

E-S

Salinity in the Mediterranean is increased by:

Evaporation

You are proceeding to the area of reported distress. When you arrive at the reported position, the vessel in distress is not sighted. What type of search should be conducted? A. B. C. D. Sector search Expanding square Track crawl Parallel track search

Expanding square

At the top of the center of the chart is the date of ______.

first edition of the chart

In the Horizon system of coordinates, the arc of the horizon First Quadrant measured from the East point of the horizon in a direction towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

In the Horizon System of coordinates, the arc of the horizon Fourth Quadrant measured from the West point of the horizon in a direction towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

What describes an accurate position that is not based on any prior position? A. B. C. D. Dead-reckoning position Estimated position Fix Running fix

Fix

108

The height of a wave is the vertical distance: A. from the still water plane to the crest B. from the still water plane to the trough C. from the crest to trough D. between the water levels at one quarter of wave’s length

from the crest to trough

Which of the following would occur when an extremely cold Frost smoke air from shore passes over warmer water? A. B. Advection fog Frost smoke C. Convection fog D. Land breeze

Chart with a natural scale of 1:180,000 is classified as a:

General chart

________ are intended for coastwise navigation outside of outlying reefs and shoals.

general charts

What distance of visibility is that which light may be seen in Geographical range clear weather computed in nautical miles for a height of the observer’s eye of 15 feet above sea level? A. B. C. D. Visible range Geographical range Computed range Luminous range

It is the angular distance measured from the Greenwich meridian to the body.

GHA

A projection where points on the earth are transferred directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is the center of the earth is called:

gnomonic

Which is commonly used for planning great circle track?

gnomonic chart

Which chart is commonly used for planning great circle track?

gnomonic chart

All lines represent a great circle tracks on a chart.

Gnomonic projection

109

It is based on a plane tangent at one point.

Gnomonic projection

All parallels except the equator appear as curved lines.

Gnomonic projection

The projection in which the meridians appear as straight lines converging toward the nearer pole is called _______.

gnomonic projection

Which of the following statements is TRUE with respect to ship handling procedures in ice? A. Never go “full astern” at any time while in ice B. Go astern in ice with extreme care-always with rudder amidships C. Enter ice at medium speeds to reduce impact D. The presence of a snow cover on the ice assists a vessel’s progress through an ice field

Go astern in ice with extreme care-always with rudder amidships

A low HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) number such as 2 indicates a:

good fix

Which is NOT a contributing cause of ocean currents? A. B. C. D. surface winds density differences in water underwater topography gravitational effects of celestial bodies

gravitational effects of celestial bodies

It is a circle on the surface of the sphere, where plane passes through the center of the sphere.

Great circle

_____________ involves a solution of courses, distances, and points along a track between two points.

great circle sailing

An ocean current that generally flows along the coast of Florida towards the North Atlantic is called: A. B. C. D. Gulf Stream Guinea Current North Stream Florida Current

Gulf Stream

110

________ are intended for navigation and anchorage in harbor and small waterways.

harbor charts

A great circle through the celestial poles and a point or body on the celestial sphere

Hour circle

Vertical circle is to the horizon system, what Great circle is for celestial equator system of coordinates?

Hour circle

The hillock of a broken ice is: A. B. C. D. floe hummock moraine nunatak

Hummock

Which of the following can be measured from the Horizon System of Coordinates? I. Zenith distance II. Amplitude III. Co-altitude A. B. C. D. I and II only II and III only II only I, II and III

I, II and III

This is composed of ice crystals and reduces visibility. A. B. C. D. haze ice fog sleet frost

ice fog

It is the sextant error when the horizon and index mirror are not parallel.

Index error

You plot a fix in three lines of position and find they intersect in a triangle, this actual position of the vessel: A. B. C. D. Is outside of the triangle May be anywhere in a triangle May be inside or outside of the triangle Is the geometric center of the triangle

Is the geometric center of the triangle

111

The current that, in many respects, is similar to the Gulf Stream is the: A. B. C. D. Kuroshio Oyashio California current Benguela current

Kuroshio

Which current is “warm” based on the latitude in which it originates and on the effect it has on climates? A. B. C. D. Kuroshio current Peru current Benguela current California current

Kuroshio current

The cold ocean current which meets the warm Gulf Stream between latitudes 40° and 43° N to form the “cold wall” is called the _________. A. B. C. D. North Cape current Greenland current Labrador current North Atlantic current

Labrador current

Which current is responsible for the movement of the icebergs into the North Atlantic shipping lanes? A. B. C. D. Iceland current Labrador current Baltic current Baffin current

Labrador current

It is a conic projection chart features straight lines, which closely approximates a great circle.

Lambert conformal

It is the practical charts used in very high latitudes.

Lambert conformal

It is a conic projection with two standard parallels. Developed on a cone which intersects the sphere or spheroids at two standard parallels.

Lambert conformal projection

In the daily pages of the Nautical Almanac, a circle with the Last quarter right hand side fully shaded indicates:

112

The amplitude will be numerically equal to the declination only when:

Latitude is zero

If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90 degrees, the:

Latitude of the observer is at the pole

It is the angular distance measured westerly from the observer’s meridian to the hour circle passing through the body.

LHA

It is the angular distance measured from the local celestial meridian westward through 360º .

LHA

What do you call the line connecting perihelion and the aphelion?

Line of apsides

For sunrise and sunset in the Nautical Almanac given. . .

LMT

In the lower right hand column of the daily pages of the Almanac, the time of Meridian Passage (M.P.) is given in:

LMT

This cannot be used as a standard time since it differs from every meridian. Its principal use in rising, setting and twilight tables.

LMT

In the time diagram, the time-arc of the celestial equator between the hour circle of the vernal equinox to the observer’s Meridian is called:

Local Sidereal Time

New edition on the chart is found on the:

Lower left hand corner

When a first edition of a chart is printed, the original date of issue of a new chart is shown at the top center margin and;

lower left hand corner

The revision date of a chart is printed on what area of the chart?

lower-left corner

113

During meridian passage, the LHA and meridian angle of the body is zero. What is its altitude?

Maximum altitude

The length of a wave is the length: A. B. C. D. of the wave’s crest of the wave’s trough measured from crest to trough measured from crest to crest

measured from crest to crest

It is a cylindrical projection.

Mercator chart

It is a conformal map projection.

Mercator projection

A cartographer cannot transfer a sphere to a flat surface without distortion , he must project the surface of a sphere onto a plane surface. An example of this projection is that the cylinder tangent along the Equator called :

Mercator projection

________________ is similar to plane sailing but uses meridional difference and difference in longitude in place of difference of latitude and departure.

Mercator sailing

The angle measured from the observer’s meridian either eastward or westward to the body and named East if rising and West if setting.

Meridian angle

All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT:

Meridian angle

________ uses the mean latitude for converting departure to difference of longitude when the course is not due east or west.

middle latitude sailing

Small “v” in the nautical almanac. A. B. C. D. Moon Stars Sun Sun/Moon

Moon

114

________ represents part of the spherical earth on a plane surface.

nautical chart

What is the phase of the moon when it rises during sunrise? New moon

The maximum distance that a light be seen when the weather is clear is called: A. nominal range B. luminous range C. geographic range D. computed range

nominal range

When the Gulf stream decreases speed until it becomes slow, it is called: A. B. C. D. Florida Current North Atlantic Current Labrador Current Norwegian Current

North Atlantic Current

Sailing Directions contain:

numbered sections along a coast or through a strait

What type of projection is formed if a plane is tangent to the earth, and the points are geometrically form the center of the Earth?

Oblique gnomonic

A cyclone in its final stage of development is called a (n) : A. B. C. D. tornado anticyclone occluded cyclone or occluded front polar cyclone

occluded cyclone or occluded front

Tropical cyclones do not form within 5° of the Equator because : A. B. C. D. there are no fronts in that area it is too hot it is too humid of negligible Coriolis force

of negligible Coriolis force

115

The navigational triangle is NOT formed when the body is:

on the observer’s meridian

If the GHA of the moon differs by 180° by that of the sun, it said to be at:

Opposition

NOTE: OPPOSITION means 180 degrees difference or exactly opposite

If the moon reaches a point wherein it is completely illuminated, it is at:

Opposition

The sun rises exactly at the time when the moon is setting. The moon is at__________.

Opposition

After passing the first Quarter phase, the moon become full Opposition moon at:

If the age of the moon is approximately 14 & 1/2 days, it is said to be at:

Opposition

Which of the following is NOT a function of the Ice Navigation Center? A. B. C. D. Schedule Coast Guard ice reconnaissance Keep abreast of merchant vessel movement Keep abreast of Coast Guard icebreaker movement Organize and equip the Ice Patrol

Organize and equip the Ice Patrol

If terrestrial points are projected geometrically from infinity to a tangent plane, the projection is called :

orthographic projection

Emanating from a point at infinity, are perpendicular to a tangent plane.

Orthographic projection

Projecting lines are parallel to each other.

Orthographic projection

116

Cold water flowing southward through the western part of the Bering Sea between Alaska and Siberia is joined by water circulating counter-clockwise in the Bearing Sea to form the: A. B. C. D. Alaska current Kuroshio current Subartic current Oyashio current

Oyashio current

These are circular pieces of ice called: A. B. C. D. ice cake frazil ice pancake ice ice floes

pancake ice

This correction is not applicable when taking the sight of the star.

Parallax

What correction to the altitude of the moon but not to the altitude of the sun is taken from the daily pages of the almanac? A. B. C. D. Refraction Parallax Coriolis Semi-diameter

Parallax

_________ is the interconversion of departure and difference of longitude when a vessel is proceeding due east or west.

parallel sailing

What is the search pattern system called using more than one ship? A. B. C. D. Parallel System Cross System Circle System Triangle System

Parallel System

It is the sextant error on the index mirror when not perpendicular to the plane of the instrument.

Perpendicularity error

117

Which of the following should be consulted to obtain information about the general current circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean?

Pilot chart

_______ solves problems involving a single course and distance, difference of latitude

plane sailing

Water in the air, except: A. B. C. D. Water vapor Water droplet Ice particle Plasma

Plasma

It is the distance measured from the hour circle from the elevated pole to the body.

Polar distance

Are the points on the sphere which are 90º removed from all points on the great circle.

Poles of great circle

Suitable for marine surveying.

Polyconic Chart

Distance is measured by parallel lines.

Polyconic chart

Developed on a series of tangent cones, which is then spread Polyconic projection out to form a plane.

Series of cones tangent at selected parallels.

Polyconic projection

The great circle that passes through the Zenith and Nadir

Prime vertical

Vertical circle with passes through the East and west point of the horizon

PrimE vertical circle

An occluded front on a weather chart is colored: A. B. C. D. red red and blue purple blue

Purple

118

What will act to dissipate Fog? A. convection B. evaporation C. radiation D. conduction

Radiation

A warm front on a weather chart is colored: A. B. C. D. purple blue alternating red and blue red

Red

This is the result when the rays of light passes from one medium to another of different density

Refraction

The angular distance measured from vernal equinox eastward and usually expressed in unit of time

Right ascension (RA)

It is the angular distance measured easterly from the first point of Aries to the body.

Right ascension (RA)

This is a swell wave emanating from distant storms which continue their progress across the oceans till they reach shallow water when they abruptly steepen, increase in height and sweep to the shore. A. rollers B. tidal wave C. surf D. tsunami

rollers

The smallest scale chart used for planning, fixing position at sea and for plotting the dead reckoning while proceeding on a long voyage is the _____.

sailing chart

Which nautical publication gives an information if there will be a chance to meet an iceberg during the course of the voyage?

sailing directions

The ratio of a given distance on the chart to the actual distance it represents on the earth

Scale

119

While you are on watch, you learn that a crewman has not been seen on board for the past three hours. What type of turn is best in this man overboard situation? A. Round B. Scharnow C. Racetrack D. Single turn 180 degrees

Scharnow

The most probable position of the search target at a given Search Datum time taking into consideration the effect of DRIFT since the initial position of the incident was established.

Any circle which passes through the poles of another great circle

Secondary great circle

A man was sighted as he fell overboard. After completing a Sector search Williamson turn, the man is not sighted. What type of search should be conducted? A. B. C. D. Expanding circle Sector search Parallel track pattern Datum-drift search

Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit to have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning Service receiver capability?

Selective Availability

It is the angle actually measured between the body and the visible horizon

Sextant altitude

It is the angular distance measured from the first point of Aries to the star.

SHA

Angle at the pole measured from 000º to 360º westward from the meridian of the star.

SHA

It is the sextant error if the horizon mirror is not perpendicular to the plane of the instrument

Side error

The scale is correct along any meridian

Simple conic projection

120

Any circle on the surface of the sphere which does not pass through the centre of sphere and therefore does not divide the sphere into two equal halves

Small circle

Which current would you encounter on a direct passage from South Africa to Argentina, South America? A. B. C. D. South Atlantic Current Agulhas South Equatorial Guinea

South Atlantic Current

An ocean current that generally flows in the easterly direction to a point west of Cape of Good in the arc of prevailing westerlies is called: A. B. C. D. South Atlantic Current South American Current North Atlantic Current Argentinian Current

South Atlantic Current

The usual sequence of directions in which a tropical cyclone southwest, south and moves in the Southern Hemisphere is _______. southeast A. B. C. D. northwest, west, and south southwest, south and southeast north, northwest and east west, northwest and north

________ results from projecting points on the surface of the Earth onto a tangent plane, from a point on the surface of the Earth opposite the point of tangency.

stereographic projection

Radial lines from any point on the surface to a plane to the antipode of the point of the projection.

Stereographic projection

Projecting rays is the point opposite the planes point of tangency.

Stereographic projection

The horizontal area covered by cyclonic condition is the: A. B. C. D. stormy area vertex storm field vortex

storm field

121

A relatively thin shell of air, water vapor, and suspended particulates surrounding the earth is called _____. LAYERS of Atmosphere (TSMTE) TROPOSPHERE TROPOPAUSE STRATOSPHERE STRATOPAUSE MESOSPHERE MESOPAUSE THERMOSPHERE THERMOPAUSE EXOSPHERE Note: Layer = SPHERE Upper Layer = PAUSE UPPER LAYERS

Atmosphere

On top of the tropopause is the layer ______.

stratosphere

Layer between thermosphere and exosphere.

Thermopause

The layer of the atmosphere between the troposphere and the stratosphere is the: A. B. Stratopause Mesopause C. Exosphere D. Tropopause

Tropopause

The top of the troposphere is marked by a transition layer called:

tropopause

A layer in the atmosphere with a negligible quantity of gas, thermosphere whose temperature increases with increase in height. A. thermosphere B. ionosphere C. stratosphere D. mesosphere

As altitude increases, air pressure decreases due to troposphere decreased weight of air above. More than of the air is concentrated within a layer called _____. The layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere is called: mesosphere

122

Fetch is the: A. distance a wave travels between formation and decay B. stretch of water over which a wave forming wind blows C. time in seconds required for two crests to pass a given point D. measurement of a wave steepness

stretch of water over which a wave forming wind blows

A sea breeze is a wind: A. B. C. D. That blows towards the sea at night That blows towards an island during the day Caused by cold air descending a coastal incline Caused by the distant approach of a hurricane

That blows towards an island during the day

What wind results from a land mass cooling more quickly at night than the adjacent water area? A. B. C. D. Coastal breeze Sea breeze Land breeze Mistral

Land breeze

The Geographical longitude of the body will be numerically the body is setting equal to the Meridian angle only when:

The Coordinator Surface Search in a SAR situation should display by day: A. B. C. D. The code flags FR Code flag Quebec over a black ball A black ball over a black diamond shape Two black diamond shapes in a vertical line

The code flags FR

If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90°, therefore: A. B. C. D. The Polar distance is also 90° The Declination is indeterminate The latitude of the observer is at the pole The Polar distance equals the declination

The latitude of the observer is at the pole

The ecliptic is:

the path the Sun appears to take among the stars

123

What are the relative positions of the Sun, the Earth and a Planet when the planet is at inferior conjunction?

the Planet is between the Earth and the Sun

Which of the following is NOT an indication that pack ice may be nearby? A. B. C. D. The presence of icebergs Ice blink Absence of wave motion Sighting a walrus in the Arctic

The presence of icebergs

Your ship is navigating independently in heavy ice when it becomes beset. Which of the following statements is NOT true? A. B. C. D.

The propeller is more susceptible to ice damage when turning slowly than when The vessel will most likely require an icebreaker to free stopped her The vessel may be able to free herself by pumping ballast from side to side The propeller is more susceptible to ice damage when turning slowly than when stopped It is advisable to clear the rudder area of ice by using ahead turns before backing down

The date of the chart-Nautical charts bear three dates which are important to persons using them. The first edition date (month year) printed centrally in the upper margin.

This issue contains all up to date which are hand corrected in the old issues.

The date of the chart-Nautical charts bear three dates which are important to persons using them. The first edition date (month year) printed centrally in the upper margin.

This issue contains all up to date which are hand corrected in the old issues.

The path of intended travel between three or more points is the:

Track

________ combines plane sailing solutions when there are two or more courses and determines the equivalent course and distance made good by a vessel steaming along a series of rhumblines.

traverse sailing

124

The angular distance of the body above the rational horizon. An arc of the vertical circle which passes through the body contained between the rational horizon and the body is called:

True altitude

What are leaning type of letters in Nautical charts used for?

underwater and floating features

One of the factors which affects the circulation of ocean current is: A. Humidity B. Varying densities of water C. Vessel traffic D. The jet stream

Varying densities of water

This is defined as the speed the molecules making up the atmosphere in order to overcome the force of gravity.

velocity of escape

It is a great circle passing through the observer’s zenith which is perpendicular to the rational horizon.

Vertical circle

When a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass, the contract surface is called a: A. line squall B. water spout C. cold front D. warm front

warm front

What is the distance from the bottom of a wave trough to the top of a wave crest? A. wave length B. wave breadth C. wave height D. wave depth

wave height

Weather system in the middle latitudes generally travel from:

West to East

Appendices of the Planning Guide contains the following information EXCEPT:

wind force and current sets

Which publications can give you an accurate information on the availability of repairs you need in a particular port?

World port index

125

What publication contains information about the port facilities in Cadiz, Spain?

World Port Index

126

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