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F1 - WES (OIC) 011810

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PROBLEM SOLVING WITH COLOR CODED SOLUTIONS
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Find the Amplitude of a rising body with a Declination of 21º 07.8' N
at Latitude 47º 18.6' N.

TO FIND AMPLITUDE (AMP):

Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT

= Sin 21° 7.8’ / Cos 47° 18.6’

AMPLITUDE = E 32° 7.1’ N

NOTE: Prefixed ―E‖ >> Body is Rising [―W‖ if Body is Setting]


Suffixed ―N‖ >> Declination is North [―S‖ if DEC is South]

At Latitude 55° 53’N; Long. 130° 18’ W, sun’s Declination is 12° 40’ S.
Find True Azimuth (Zn) at sunset.

TO FIND TRUE AZIMUTH (Zn):

1.) First find Amplitude:

Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT

= Sin 12° 40’ / Cos 55° 53’

AMPLITUDE = W 23° S

NOTE: Prefixed ―W‖ >> Body is Setting [ ―E‖ if Body is Rising ]


Suffixed ―S‖ >> Declination is South [ ―N‖ if DEC is N ]

2.) Then convert Amplitude to True Azimuth:

To convert AMPLITUDE (AMP) to TRUE AZIMUTH (Zn):

1. E x N >>> 90° – AMP = Zn


2. E x S >>> 90° + AMP = Zn
3. W x S >>> 270° – AMP = Zn
4. W x N >>> 270° + AMP = Zn

In the above example: AMP = W 23° S >> 270° — 23° > > Zn = 247° ( T )

1
An observer at Latitude 45° 00’ South took a gyro bearing of the Sun
on the horizon and found to be 078°(pgc). The declination of the Sun
obtained from the almanac gives 14° 00’ N. Calculate the gyro error.

TO FIND GYRO ERROR (G/E):

Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT

= Sin 14° / Cos 45°

AMPLITUDE = E 20° N

NOTE: Prefixed ―E‖ >> Bearing is 078° (pgc) which is Easterly direction
and it means that the Body is Rising.

Suffixed ―N‖ >> Declination is North

To convert Amp E 20° N to True Azimuth: 90° – 20° = 070° T

True Bearing = 070° (T) > > Obtained by calculation


Gyro Bearing = 078° pgc ( – ) > > Taken by observation
---------------------------------------
Gyro Error = – 8° or 8° W > > If result is (–), G/E is W ; If (+) G/E is E .

Or you can apply the OLD RULE:

Compass BEST, Error WEST… Compass LEAST, Error EAST

The bearing of a rising sun at Latitude 38° 08' S was 078° 28'. Find
the declination at time of sight.

TO FIND DECLINATION by AMPLITUDE FORMULA:

Sin AMP = Sin DEC / Cos LAT

Sin DEC = Sin AMP x Cos LAT [ Formula 1 ]

Sin DEC = Cos Azimuth x Cos LAT [ Formula 2 ]

Sin DEC = Cos 78° 28’ x Cos 38° 08’

DECLINATION = 9° 03’ N > > > (N since 078° 28’ is towards North or
it has a Northerly component)

2
You are on a voyage from New York, USA to San Francisco, USA.
The distance from pilot to pilot is 5,132 miles. The speed of advance
is 13.5 knots. You estimate 32 hours for bunkering at Colon and 14
hours for the Panama Canal transit. If you take departure at 0600
hours (ZD +4) on May 16, what is your ETA (ZD +7) at San Francisco?

TO FIND ETA or LZT of ARRIVAL:

a.) By GMT METHOD:

LZT departure = 0600 16th May

ZD departure = (+)4 (W) + >>> [ LEG –: E – / W + ]


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GMT departure = 1000 16th May

+ Steaming Time = 2009 15days >>> [ Steaming Time: always + ]


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
GMT arrival = 3009 31st May

ZD arrival = (+)7 (W) – >>> [ GEL +: E + / W – ]


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LZT arrival = 2309 31st May

Bunkering = 32 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ]

Panama Canal Transit = 14 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ]


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LZT arrival = 2109 02nd June

b.) By TIME DIFFERENCE (TD) METHOD:

ZD departure = (+) 4

ZD arrival = (+) 7 ( – ) >>> Note: always subtract ( – )


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Time Difference = – 3

Steaming Time(D / S) = 2009 15 days >>> 5,132 miles / 13.5 knots

LZT departure = 0600 16th May

Bunkering = 32 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ]

Panama Canal Transit = 14 + >>> [ Any Delays: always + ]


----------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------
LZT arrival = 2109 02nd June

(Other Methods on the next page ! ! ! )

3
c.) By SIMPLE ILLUSTRATION METHOD:

Pt. A >_________________+_________________+____________________<Pt. B
NYK Colon Panama Canal Transit SFO
(ZD+4) (32h) (14h) (ZD+7)

S.T. = Distance / Speed = 5132 miles / 13.5 knots = 380.148 hrs

0600 May 16 >>>>>> S.T. 15d 20h 09m >>>>>> ?? 2109 June 2 ??

d.) By HOUR CALCULATION METHOD:

Steaming Time = Distance / Speed

= 5,132nm/13.5k >>> 380.148 hrs

Departure Time >>> + 6 hrs

ZD departure >>>> + (+)4

ZD arrival >>>>>>> – (+)7 Note: always (- )

DELAYS: Bunkering >>>>>>> + 32 hrs

P. Canal Transit >>> + 14 hrs


-------------------------------------------------------
TOTAL No. of HOURS >>> 429.148 hrs / 24

17.881 days

Departure Date >>> + 16th MAY


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
33.881

How many days in MAY??? >>> – 31 days

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
2.881 days

ARRIVAL MONTH and DAY!!! >>> – 2nd JUNE


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
0.881day x 24

ARRIVAL TIME!!! >>> 2109 hrs

NOTE: If ZD is not given, just divide the Longitude by 15. Take the whole
number of hour. A fraction of 0.5 and above will be considered to the next
hour. ( Ex. 4.4 = ZD 4 but 4.5 = ZD 5)

4
At Place A, Long. 175° 10.5’ W, the LMT is 16h 02m 03s Dec 3.
Find the LMT and date at place B, Long. 32°08’ W.

TO FIND LMT of PLACE B:

(175° 10.5’ – 32° 08’) = 143° 2.5’ E / 15 = 9h 32m 10s


(+)
Dec.3, 16h 02m 03s
---------------------------------

25h 34m 13s

Dec.4, 01h 34m 13s

The ZT at place A is 0800. If the Long of A is 49°30’ W, what is the ZT


of place B in Long 83°15’ W?

TO FIND ZT of PLACE B:

Long of A = 49° 30’ W / 15 = 3.3 >>> ZD Place A = +3


(–)
Long of B = 83° 15’ W / 15 = 5.6 >>> ZD Place B = +6
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Time Difference = –3 Hrs

ZT Place A = 0800

Time Difference = – 3 Hrs


-------------------------------------

ZT Place B = 0500

5
What is the length of the shadow of a man, 6 feet tall, when standing
in an open field at local apparent noon of a certain day when the
sun’s Declination is about 20º S and his Latitude is 20º S?

TO FIND ZENITH DISTANCE if LATITUDE / DECLINATION are given:

LAT = 20° S
DEC = 20° (S) N – >> > (always reverse sign; if same name
------------------ with Lat + but if diff.name – then affix
ZD = 0° sign of quantity with greater value)

NOTE: It means that the sun is exactly at the Zenith (directly above your
head), therefore Zenith Distance (ZD) is zero and no shadow will be seen.

Find the height of the observer in Lat 45º N when he is casting a


shadow 10 feet long at local apparent noon on a day when the sun
declination is 20º N.

TO FIND HEIGHT OF OBSERVER:

Lat = 45° N

Dec = 20° (N) S – >>> (always reverse sign; if same name


------------------------ with Lat + but if diff. name – then affix
ZD = 25° N sign of quantity with greater value)

– 90°
--------------------
Ho = 65°

Height of Observer (Ho) = Tan 65° x 10 feet (shadow)

= 21.25 feet

6
THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS are FINDING HOW FAR is the
SUN to the ZENITH of OBSERVER or the FINDING the ANGULAR or
the ZENITH DISTANCE:

How far and where will the Sun be from the Zenith of the observer at
noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the Tropic
of Cancer?

Tropic of Cancer >>> Lat = 23° 27’ N


June 21 or 23 >>> Dec = 23°27’ N ( – )
-------------------------------------------------------
ZD = 0°

RULE: If LATITUDE of Observer and DECLINATION of the Sun


are of same name, subtract ( – ) and affix the sign of quantity
with greater value; if different name, add ( + ).

What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of the
observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along
the Tropic of Cancer?

Observer is along Tropic of Cancer = 23° 27’ N

Declination of the Sun on June 21/23 = 23° 27’ N ( – )

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Angular Distance = 0°

7
How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the observer at
noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is navigating along the
Tropic of Cancer?

Observer is navigating along the Tropic of Cancer = 23° 27’ N

Declination of the Sun on Dec. 21/23 = 23° 27’ S ( + )

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How far is the Sun to the Observer (ZD) = 46° 54’ South

NOTE: It is named ―South‖ since the Sun is south of the Observer.

How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of observer at
noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is navigating along the
Arctic Circle?

Observer is navigating along the Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N

Declination of the Sun on March 21/23 = 0° N/S (+/ – )


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

How far is the Sun to the Observer (ZD) = 66° 33’ South

NOTE: It is named ―South‖ since the Sun is south of the Observer.

What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of the
observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is navigating
along the Arctic Circle?

Observer is along Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N

Declination of the Sun on March 21/23 = 0° N/S (+/ – )

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Angular Distance = 66° 33’

8
What is the difference of latitude between the Antarctic Circle and
the Tropic of Capricorn?

Antarctic Circle >>> LAT = 66° 33’ S

Tropic of Capricorn >>> LAT = 23° 27’ S ( – )

----------------------------------------------------------------------

DLAT = 43° 06’

What is the difference of latitude between the Arctic Circle and the
Tropic of Cancer?

Arctic Circle >>> LAT = 66° 33’ N

Tropic of Cancer >>> LAT = 23° 27’ N ( – )


-------------------------------------------------------------------

DLAT = 43° 06’

How far (in angular distance) is the Arctic Circle from the North
Pole?

North Pole = 90° 00’ N

Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N ( – )


------------------------------------------

Angular Distance = 23° 27’

How far in angular distance is the Antarctic Circle from the South
Pole?

South Pole = 90° 00’ S

Antarctic Circle = 66° 33’ S ( – )


------------------------------------------

Angular Distance = 23° 27’

9
A ship sailing eastward crosses the 180th meridian at 1130 ZT of
June 6. What is the new zone time and date of crossing?

TO FIND ZT and DATE when crossing Equator:

a.) By Formula:

ZD before crossing = – 12 (E) >>> LZT = 1130 June 6


TD = 24h or 1d ( –)
-----------------------------------
ZD after crossing = + 12 (W) >>> LZT = 1130 June 5
----------------------------------------------

Time Difference (TD) = – 24 hrs < < < ZD dep – ZD arr = (–12) – (+12)
Or 1 day

NOTE: TD is applied between two ZT’s.


TD is the difference of two ZD’s.

b.) By Simple Illustration Method:

E Long._______________________(180°)_______________________W Long.
IDL

>>> 1 >> Day >>Less >>> (Easterly Course)

1130 ZT, June6 1130ZT, June5

( Westerly Course) <<< 1 << Day << More <<<

NOTE: Remember the 180th meridian is the I.D.L. (International Date Line) or

I.D.L. means 1 Day Less. In short, crossing the IDL from E to W (eastward),

you subtract 1 day. And crossing from W to E (westward), you add 1 day.

10
A ship is in Longitude 137° 45' E, clocks keeping ZT. Find the LMT at
1123 ship's time.

TO FIND LMT if LZT or ZT is given:

Long. 137° 45’ E / 15

= 09h 11m (E) > > > Long. in Time (λ t) (hh – mm – ss)

= -9 (E) > > > > > > ZD (whole number of hour)

LZT = 1123 (ship’s time) Note: [ L E G – / G E L + ]


ZD = 9 (E) – LZT to GMT: E – / W +
-------------------- GMT to LMT: E + / W –
GMT = 0223
(λ t) = 0911 (E) +
----------------------
LMT = 1134

NOTE 1: In converting LZT to LMT or vice versa, you apply Longitude in


Time (λ t) and ZD but DO NOT interchange them, otherwise you will get a
wrong answer. From LZT to GMT or vice versa , you apply ZD. Both LZT and
ZD with ―Z‖ should go hand in hand. From GMT to LMT or vice versa, you
apply, of course Long in Time (λ t) at wala ng iba pa.

NOTE 2: Local Zone Time or Zone Time or Local Time is the Standard Time
maintained within a certain zone as designated by Zone Description. This
standard time is the time being maintained on board ship and this is what
we call the Ship’s Time.

11
The LMT of sunrise on the standard meridian is 0552H. Your
Longitude is 99° 15’ E. What is your ZT of sunrise?

TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given:

Long. 99° 15’ E / 15 = 6h 37m

= 6h 37m (E) > Long. in Time (λ t)

= 7 (E) > > > > ZD

LMT sunrise = 0552


λ t = 0637 (E) –
------------------------------------ NOTE: LEG – / GEL +
GMT sunrise = 2315 LMT to GMT: E – / W +
ZD = 7 (E) + GMT to LZT: E + / W –
------------------------------------
LZT sunrise = 0615

The local mean time of sunset at Long. 73° 30' E is 18h 40m 00s.
What is the corresponding local zone time of sunset?

TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given:

Long. 73° 30’ E / 15 = 4h 54m

= 4h 54m (E) > Long. in Time(λ t)

= 5 (E) > > > > ZD

LMT sunset = 18h 40m 00s


λ t = 04h 54m 00s (E) – [LEG – ]
------------------------------------
GMT sunset = 13h 46m 00s
ZD = 5 (E) + [GEL +]
-----------------------------------
LZT sunset = 18h 46m 00s

12
The LMT of LAN is 1200H. What will be the zone time of LAN if you
are located in Longitude 120° 30’ W?

TO FIND LZT or ZT if LMT is given:

Long. 120° 30’ W / 15


= 08h 02m (W) > Long in Time (λ t)
= +8 (W) > > > > ZD

LMT LAN = 1200


Λt = 0802 (W) +
--------------------------------
GMT LAN = 2002
ZD = 8 (W) -
--------------------------------
LZT LAN = 1202

The zone time of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73º 15' E. What time
would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac to determine the
declination of the Sun at LAN?

TO FIND GMT OF LAN:

Long = 73° 15’ E / 15 = 4h 53m > > > ZD = – 5 (E)

LZT LAN = 1152 Note: [ L E G – ]


ZD = 5 (E) – LZT to GMT: E - / W +
----------------------------
GMT LAN = 0652

The ZT at Long. 141° 18’ W is 6h 18m 24s. What is the GMT?

TO FIND GMT:

Long = 141° 18’ W / 15 = 9h 25m 12s > > > ZD = + 9 (W)

LZT LAN = 06h 18m 24s Note: [ L E G – ]


ZD = 9 (W) + LZT to GMT: E – / W +
-------------------------------------
GMT = 15h 18m 24s

13
If the Greenwich Hour Angle of the sun at noon of Feb.26 is 356°
23.6’. What is the Equation of Time?

TO FIND EQUATION OF TIME (E.T.):

NOTE: If GHA > 180°, then E.T. = (360° - GHA) / 15


If GHA > 180°, then Mean Sun is Ahead, Apparent Sun is Behind, E.T. +

E.T. = (360° - 356° 23.6’) = 3° 36.4’ / 15 = 00h 14m 26s

The GHA of the sun at 1200 GMT was found in the nautical almanac
to be 356° 28.4’. What will be the GMT of the meridian passage?

TO FIND GMT at MERIDIAN PASSAGE:

a.) Find first E.T. as above formula:

b.) Then find GMT of MP as below:

GAT = 12h 00m 00s >>> Greenwich Apparent Time

E.T. = 00h 14m 06s + > > > (see above problem)
----------------------------------

GMT = 12h 14m 06s >>> Greenwich Mean Time

Note: If GHA > 180°, then Mean Sun is Ahead, E.T. +

In this problem, GHA = 356° 28.4’ which is more than 180°, therefore,

Mean Sun is Ahead and E.T. is +.

14
The GHA of the Sun at 1200h GMT was found in the Almanac to be
002° 31.6’. What is the equation of time?

TO FIND EQUATION OF TIME (E.T.):

NOTE: If GHA < 180°, then E.T. = GHA / 15

If GHA < 180°, then Mean Sun is Behind, Apparent Sun is Ahead, E.T. –

E.T. = 002° 31.6’ / 15 = 10m 06s

The GHA of the Sun at 1200h GMT was found to be 002° 31.6’. What
will be the GMT of Meridian Passage if your longitude is at
Greenwich?

TO FIND GMT at MERIDIAN PASSAGE (MP):

a.) Find first E.T. as above formula:

b.) Then find GMT of MP as below:

GAT = 12h 00m 00s > > > Greenwich Apparent Time

E.T. = 00h 10m 06s – > > > ( see above problem )
-------------------------------------

GMT = 11h 49m 54s

Note: If GHA < 180°, then Mean Sun is Behind, E.T. –

In this problem, GHA = 002° 31.6’ which is less than180°, therefore,

Mean Sun is Behind and E.T. is –.

15
The GHA Aries is determined as 348° 16.3’, an observer is located at
178° 39.2’ East . The LHA Aries he will use in solving latitude by
Polaris is:

TO FIND LHA OF ARIES:

LHA Aries = GHA Aries +/- Long

NOTE: G E L + > > > GHA to LHA: E + / W –

LHA of Aries = 348° 16.3’ + 178° 39.2’ E

= 526° 55.5´ - 360°

LHA of Aries = 166° 55.5’

You depart LAT 50º 06’ N, LONG 153º 06’ E and steam 879 miles on
course 090º. What is the LONG of arrival?

TO FIND the LONGITUDE of ARRIVAL:

DLO = DEP / Cos LAT LONG departure = 153 °06’ E


= 879’ / Cos 50°06’ DLO = 22° 50’ E +
= 1,370’ / 60 ------------------------------------------------
DLO = 22° 50’ E LONG arrival = 175° 56’

You depart LAT 25º 54' N, LONG 9º 38' E and steam 592 miles on
course 270º. What is the LONG of arrival?

TO FIND the LONGITUDE of ARRIVAL:

DLO = DEP / Cos LAT LONG departure = 009° 38’ E


= 592’ / Cos 25° 54’ DLO = 10° 58’ W –
= 658’ / 60 --------------------------------------------------
DLO = 10° 58’ W LONG arrival = 001° 20’ W

16
TO CONVERT GHA to LONGITUDE:

RULE: If GHA > 180°, then Long = 360° – GHA and named East.

If GHA < 180°, then Long = GHA and named West.

What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 232º 27'?

Long = 360° - 232° 27’ = 127° 33’ E

What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 215º 15'?

Long = 360° – 215° 15’ = 144° 45’

What is the longitude of the geographical position of a body whose


GHA is 210º 30'?

Long = 360° – 210° 30’ = 149° 30’

TO CONVERT GEOGRAPHIC LONGITUDE to GHA:

RULE: If Longitude is ‖E‖ then GHA = 360° – Longitude

If Longitude is ―W‖ then GHA = Longitude

A position of the Earth has a longitude of 74º 10' E. Its celestial


counterpart would have a ________.

GHA = 360° - 74° 10’ = 285° 50’

17
At meridian passage, upper transit, the observer’s latitude was
found to be 43° 34.7’ N, Dec. is 1° 46.3’ N. Find the observed altitude.

TO FIND OBSERVED ALTITUDE (Ho):

Lat. = 43° 34.7’ N


Dec. = 1° 46.3’ (N) S – >>> ( always reverse sign; if diff.name – )
----------------------------
ZD = 41° 48.4’ N
– 90° >>> (always – 90° since Ho + ZD = 90°)
---------------------------
Ho = 48° 11.6’ N

The distance to the nearest vertex from any point on a great circle
track cannot exceed___________.

The maximum distance from the VERTEX to any point on a GREAT CIRCLE
TRACK = 5,400 nautical miles > > > 90° x 60

Your vessel is at the equator at midnight on 1 January, and a star is


observed rising. At what time will this same star rise on 1 February,
assuming your vessel’s location is still at the equator?

1 solar day = 24h 00m 00s


1 sidereal day = 23h 56m 04s
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Difference = 0h 3m 56s < < <Stars rises late daily
x 31 days < < < < < Jan.1 to Feb.1
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Diff. = 2h 01m 56s
Midnight Jan.1 = 24h 00m 00s ( – )
-----------------------------------------------------------
The star will rise = 21h 58m 04s on Feb.1

18
TO FIND LATITUDE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT
(UPPER TRANSIT):

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the zenith of the
observer at local apparent noon of June 21 or 23?

If the Sun is at the Zenith it means that Altitude( Ho) = 90°


- 90°
---------------
ZD = 0°
Declination of the Sun on June 21/23 = 23° 27’ N
------------------------
Lat = 23° 27’ N

What is the latitude of a place where the observer is stepping on his


shadow at local apparent noon at March 21 or 23?

NOTE: When the Observer is stepping at his shadow at local apparent noon,

this means that the Sun is exactly at the Zenith, therefore, the

Ho = 90° and ZD = 0°.

ZD = 0°
DEC = 0° > > > March 21 or 23
-----------------
LAT = 0° or at the Equator

The sun crosses the upper branch of the celestial meridian of the
observer at a position 15º South of his zenith. If the sun’s declination
is 15º S. What is the latitude of the observer?

ZD = 15° S
DEC = 15° S (N) >>> (reverse sign; if diff.name – )
------------------------
LAT = 0° or at the Equator

19
TO FIND LATITUDE BY MERIDIAN PASSAGE
(LOWER TRANSIT):

NOTE: Lower Transit means Passage at the Lower Branch of the Meridian.
Lower Transit can only be observed when a body is a circumpolar body.
A circumpolar body is a celestial body which does not set but remains above
the horizon for 24 hours.

LAT = PX + Ho
PX (Polar Distance) = 90° – Declination
RULE: Latitude is named according to the name of Declination.

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the horizon at


midnight of June 21?

Declination of Sun on June 21 = 23° 27’ N

Polar Distance (PX) June 21 = 66° 33’ N >>> (90° - Dec)


Ho at Horizon = 0° ( - )
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LATITUDE = 66° 33’ N

What is the latitude of a place where the sun is at the horizon at


midnight of December 21 or 23?

Declination of Sun on Dec. 21 or 23 = 23° 27’ S

Polar Distance (PX) Dec21/23 = 66° 33’ S >>> (90° - Dec)


Ho at Horizon = 0° ( - )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LATITUDE = 66° 33’ S

20
A ship on course of 253° T at 14 knots. At 2329 a lighthouse was
observed bearing 282° T. At 2345 the same lighthouse bears 300° T.
What is the ship’s distance off the second bearing?

TO FIND DISTANCE BY BOW AND BEAM BEARING:

1. Find first Angles ―A‖, ―B‖ and ―C‖ :

a.)Co = 253° T b.) Co = 253° T c.) Angle B = 47° R


Brg1 = 282° T – Brg2 = 300° T – Angle A = 29° R –
-------------------------- ------------------------- -------------------------
A = 29° R B = 47° R Angle C = 18° R

2. Then solve for AB (Distance Run Between 1st & 2nd Observation)

AB = ( Time 2 – Time 1 ) x Speed

= ( 2345 – 2329 ) x 14 knots

= 16 minutes x 14 knots

AB = 3.73 nautical miles

3. Solve for Distance off at second bearing (BC): (By SINE Law)

BC = Sin A x AB / Sin C
―Busy SinA AB at SinCha‖

BC = Sin 29° x 3.73 / Sin 18°

BC = 5.9 nautical miles (Distance off at 2nd bearing)

4. Solve for Distance at Abeam (CD) : (By SOH – CAH – TOA)

CD = BC x Sin B
―Si Dee Busy Rin Ba?‖

CD = 5.9 x Sin 47°

CD = 4.3 nautical miles ( Distance at Abeam)

21
 You are on course 138° T. To check the latitude of your 000
vessel you should observe a celestial body on which
bearing?

( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

 You are on course 061° T. To check the longitude of your 090


vessel you should observe a celestial body on which
bearing?

( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

 You are on course 042° T. To check the course of your 132


vessel you should observe a celestial body on which
bearing?

( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

 You are on course 146 T. To check the speed of your 146


vessel you should observe a celestial body on which
bearing?

( See F1 Book page PF – 17 )

 If the Greenwich Hour Angle of the sun at noon of + 14m 26s


February 26 is 356° 23.’6. What is the Equation of Time?

 At a place A, Longitude 175° 10.5’ W, the LMT is 01h34m13s, Dec 4


16h02m03s, December 3. Find the LMT and date at place
B, Longitude 32° 08’ W.

 The ZT at place A is 0800. If the longitude of A is 49° 30’ 0500


W, find the ZT of place B in longitude 83° 15’ W.

 The LMT of sunrise on the standard meridian is 0552H. 0615


Your longitude is 99° 15’ E. What is your ZT of sunrise?

 The local mean time of sunset at Long. 73 deg 30' E. is 18h 18h 46m 00s
40m 00s. What is the corresponding local zone time of
sunset?

22
 The zone time of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73º 15' E. 0652
What time would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac
to determine the declination of the Sun at LAN?

 The LMT of LAN is 1152. Your longitude is 73deg 15' E. 0659


What time would you used to enter the Nautical Almanac
to determine the declination of the sun at LAN?

 The LMT of LAN is 1210. Your longitude is 70º 30' E. 0728


Which time would you use to enter the Nautical Almanac
to determine the declination of the Sun at LAN?

 How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the 0º
observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is
navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

 What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 0º


the observer at noon of June 21 or 23 if the observer is
navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

 ( See F1 Book page NA – 23 )

DATE >>> Sign of Constellation >>> Position of Sun > Declination


March21 >>> First Point of Aries > Vernal Equinox > 0° going North

June21 >>> First Point of Cancer > Summer Solstice > 23°27’North

Sept.23 >>> First Point of Libra > Autumnal Equinox> 0° going South

Dec.22 >>> First Point of Capricorn> Winter Solstice > 23°27’ South

“EQUINOX” = meaning “EQUAL NIGHTS”


There are 2 Equinoxes (Vernal and Autumnal). During these dates,
the Declination of SUN is 0 degrees. Every place on earth has equal length of daytime
and night time.

“SOLSTICE” = meaning “ SUN STAND STILL.”


There are 2 Solstices (Summer and Winter). During these dates, the SUN has
reached its maximum declination 23° 27’ North and South. The length of day time and
night time is not equal. Longer nights are experienced in one place while shorter days
in another or vice versa.

 The vernal equinox in the celestial sphere is where the sun 0º increasing to
declination is: maximum north

 The autumnal equinox is the point in the celestial sphere 0º increasing to


where the sun declination is___________. maximum south

23
 The Autumnal equinox is the point where the Sun is at: 0° declination going to
southerly declinations

 The First point of Aries is the point where the Sun is at: 0° declination going to
northerly declinations

 Libra is the point of: autumnal equinox

 The declination of the sun was at its maximum what do you Solstice
call the position or point on the celestial sphere

 During the month of October the sun’s declination is: South and increasing

 The winter solstice is the position of the sun on or about : Dec. 21

 The summer solstice is the position of the sun on or about: June 21

 When the sun is at the winter solstice its declination is : south and decreasing to

 When the sun is at the summer solstice its declination is north and decreasing to
__________. 0º

 Navigationally, the Vernal Equinox is also the: First Point of Aries

 Cancer is the point of: summer solstice

 If the declination of the sun is 0º what do you call the Equinox


position or point on the celestial sphere?

 Vernal Equinox is also known as ______. First Point of Aries

 When the sun is at summer solstice its declination is: maximum north

 During the month of October the Sun’s declination is: south and increasing

 One complete turn of the drum of the sextant moves the 1 degree
index arm _____ along the arc.

24
 The DGPS provides accuracy within a range of _______. 10 meters

 What is the average speed of movement of a hurricane 10 to 12 knots


prior to recurvature?

 When using GPS (Global Positioning System) you may 10 to 20 meters


expect your position to be accurate 95% of the time to
within _____.

 The GPS provides 95% accuracy within a range of ______. 100 meters

 The standard sea level pressure of the atmosphere is _____ 1013.25 millibars of
mercury

 A ship sailing eastward crosses the 180th meridian at 1130 11 h 30 m, June 5


ZT of June 6. What is the new zone time and date of
crossing?

 On Dec 10, the LMT of LAN is 1151H. What will be the 1151 ZT
zone time of LAN if you are located in Longitude 150 deg
00' W?

 The equation of time is 8m 40s, apparent sun is ahead of the 11-51-20 ZT


mean sun. If you are on central meridian of your time zone,
what ZT will the apparent sun will cross your meridian?

 A ship is in longitude 137 deg 45' E, clocks keeping ZT. 11h 34 m


Find the LMT at 1123 ship's time.

 The sun is the central body of the solar system. It moves in 12 miles per second
the direction of Vega at:

 The LMT of LAN is 1200H. What will be the zone of LAN if 1202 ZT
you are located in Longitude 120° 30’ W?

 The equation of time is 12m 00s and the mean sun is ahead 1212
of the apparent sun. If you are on the central meridian of
your time zone, at what ZT will the apparent sun cross the
meridian?

25
 The equation of time is 8m 00s. The mean Sun is ahead of 1216
the apparent Sun. If you are 2º W of the central meridian of
your time zone, when will the apparent Sun cross your
meridian?

 A GPS satellite transmits a signal thru the second carrier 1227.60 MHz
on:

 What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 127º 33' E


232º 27'?

 You are on a voyage from Limon, Costa Rica, to Los 1336, 8 Feb
Angeles. The distance from pilot to pilot is 3150 miles. The
speed of advance is 14.0 knots. You estimate 24 hours
bunkering at Colon, and 12 hours for the Panama Canal
transit. If you depart at 1836 hours (ZD+6), on 28 January.
What is your ETA (ZD+8) at Los Angeles?

 What is the geographic longitude of a body whose GHA is 144º 45' E


215º 15'?

 What is the longitude of the geographical position of a body 149º 30' E


whose GHA is 10º 30'?

 The ZT at longitude 141° 18’ W is 6h18m24s What is the 15 h18 m 24s


GMT?

 A GPS satellite transmits a signal thru the first carrier on 1575.42 MHz
___.

 Of the 57 navigational stars tabulated in the Nautical 19


Almanac, how many are of the first magnitude?

 An important lunar cycle affecting the tidal cycle is called 19 years


the nodal period. How long is this cycle?

A. 19 years C. 6 years
B. 19 years D. 16 years

 Your vessel is at the equator at midnight on 1 January, and 2158


a star is observed rising. At what time will this same star
rise on 1 February, assuming your vessel location is still at
the equator?

26
 If a sound signal is emitted from the oscillator of a 24 fathoms
fathometer, and two seconds elapse before the returning
signal is picked up what depth of water is indicated?

 The Master issues a night order in the Night Order Book. 24-hour period
It is valid for:

 As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how 19%
many percent is absorbed by the atmosphere?

 As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how 52%
many percent is absorbed by the surface of the earth?

 As radiant energy from the sun arrives at the earth, how 29%
many percent is reflected back into space?

 The standard sea level pressure of the atmosphere is _____. 29.92 inches

 Speed adjustment on the Master Gyro should be made 3


within _______ knots.

A. 3 C. 7
B. 5 D. 10

 When using GPS, how many position lines are required for 3
a 2D (dimensional) fix?

 The tabulation data in the Nautical Almanac is for: 3 days

 A sidereal day is shorter than a solar day by about _____. 3 mins and 56 secs

 The GPS provides 99.99% accuracy within a range of 300 meters


______.

27
 The Sun at the maximum declination north would be Aphelion
approximately at ________________.

“ HELION ” refers to the SUN

AP is Away or Far. PERI is Near

ApHelion is earth Away or Far from the Sun >>> July

PeriHelion is earth Near the Sun >>> January

 In each planet’s orbit, the point nearest the sun is called: Perihelion

 The visible diameter of the sun as seen from the Earth 31.5
during aphelion is_____.

 The visible diameter of the sun as seen from the Earth 32.6
during perihelion is _____.

 The Earth is closest to the sun in what month? January

 The sun is at Perihelion during month of ______________. January

 The sun is closest to the earth in what month? January

 The Earth is farthest from the sun in what month? July

 The sun is at Aphelion during the month of ________. July

 Of the 57 navigational stars tabulated in the Nautical 38


Almanac, how many are of the second magnitude?

 When using GPS, how many position lines are required for 4
a 3D (dimensional) fix that takes into account altitude?

 The speed of sound in water is approximately ____. 4.5 times its speed in air

28
 MAJOR CIRCLES OF EARTH MARKED BY THE PATH OF THE SUN

NORTH POLE ------------------- 90° 00’ N


North Frigid Zone
ARCTIC CIRCLE ------------------ 66° 33’ N
North Temperate Zone
TROPIC OF CANCER ---------------23° 27’ N
North Torrid Zone
EQUATOR -------------------- 0° 00’
South Torrid Zone
TROPIC OF CAPRICORN -----------23° 27’ S
South Temperate Zone
ANTARCTIC CIRCLE ---------------66° 33’ S
South Frigid Zone
SOUTH POLE -------------------- 90° 00’ S

NOTE: There are instances that the Latitude of Tropic of Cancer or Tropic of
Capricorn appears to be 23°26’ N or S.

 Everywhere between the parallels of about 23° 26’ North torrid zone
and 23° 26’ South, the Sun is directly overhead during the
year. This area is called the:

 If you are at the Arctic Circle what is your latitude? 66º 33' North

 If you are in the Antarctic Circle what is your latitude? 66º 33' South

 The tropic of Capricorn marks the southern limit of the : Torrid Zone

 The regions between the frigid zones and the torrid zones temperate zones
are called ______.

 The areas inside the polar circles are called ______. frigid zone

 The Arctic Circle marks the________________. southern limit of the


north frigid zone

 The Tropic of Cancer is a____________. parallel of latitude

 The Tropic of Capricorn is a _______________. parallel of latitude

 The Arctic Circle marks the ___________________. northern limit of the


north temperate zone

29
 The Antarctic circle marks the _________________. northern limit of the
south temperate zone

 Places situated in Lat 30° N are within the __________. North Temperate Zone

 The tropic of Capricorn marks the _______________. northern limit of the


south temperate zone

 What is the difference of latitude between the Antarctic 43º 06'


Circle and the Tropic of Capricorn?

 What is the difference of latitude between the Arctic 43º 06'


Circle and the Tropic of Cancer?

 How far in angular distance is the Arctic Circle from the 23º 27'
North Pole?

 What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 46º 54'
the observer at noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is
navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

 How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of the 46º 54' South of the
observer at noon of December 21 or 23 if the observer is observer
navigating along the Tropic of Cancer?

 What is the angular distance of the sun from the zenith of 66º 33'
the observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer
is navigating along the Arctic Circle?

 How far and where will the sun be from the zenith of 66º 33' South of the
observer at noon of March 21 or 23 when the observer is observer
navigating along the Arctic Circle?

 How far (in angular distance) is the Arctic Circle from the 23º 26'
North Pole?

 Following a ship routing system, an initial route 48 to 72 hours prior to


recommendation is issued to a ship: sailing

 Which belt of latitude do tropical cyclones form? 5 to 15 degrees

A. 5 to 15 degrees C. 15 to 30 degrees
B. 30 to 45 degrees D. 45 to 60 degrees

30
 NAVTEX operates in a medium frequency of _____. 518 kHz

 The inclination of the plane of the moon orbit with the 5º


plane of the ecliptic is about______.

 What is the bearing in points that is used to determine the 8 points


vortex of a low pressure area when the atmospheric
pressure is 20 hPa below the mean pressure?

 The sun’s diameter is about: 866,000 miles

 Tables of tidal stream information are given for certain a diamond shape with a
reference denoted by: letter inside

A. a diamond shape with a letter inside


B. dotted circle with a plus sign inside
C. an arrow indicating rate of flood
D. a circle with an arrow inside

 Which weather change accompanies the passage of a cold A line of


front in the Northern Hemisphere? cumulonimbus clouds

 Which instrument is the most useful in forecasting fog? a sling psychrometer

NOTE: “PSYCHROMETER” is an instrument used to


find relative humidity. It is a combined Dry Bulb and Wet
Bulb Thermometer.

 What is a parallel of declination? A small circle on the


celestial sphere parallel
to the celestial equator

 On a weather map, warm fronts are drawn as _________. a solid red line

 On a weather map, warm fronts are drawn as _________. a solid red line with half
circles

 A steady precipitation is typical of: a warm front weather


condition
A. a warm front weather condition
B. high pressure conditions
C. coming cold weather conditions
D. scattered cumulus clouds

31
 With respect to failure warnings and status indications, a warning of loss of
GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, _____. position

 The maximum difference between mean time and about 16 minutes


apparent time is_______________.

 All echo-sounders can measure the _____. actual depth of water


below keel

 What should you apply to a fathometer reading to Add the draft of the
determine the depth of water? vessel

 ______________ is a recommendation for slowing or adjustment of SOA


increasing the ship’s speed as much as practicable intended
to avoid or limit the effect of adverse weather conditions.

 This is a fog resulting primarily from the movement of advection fog


warm, humid air over a cold surface, or the movement of
very cold air over a relatively warm water surface.

 Lines on the magnetic chart where the variation is zero agonic lines
wherein the magnetic meridian and the true meridian
coincides are called _______.

A. agonic lines
B. lines of equal magnetic force
C. lines of equal dip
D. lines of equal magnetism

NOTE: Zero Variation >>> Agonic


Equal Variation >>> ISOgonic
Zero Magnetic Dip >>> Aclinic
Equal Magnetic Dip >>> ISOclinic

Zero = with prefix “A”


Equal = with prefix “ISO”

 As the South Equatorial Current approaches the east coast Agulhas Current
of Africa, it divides with the main part flowing south to form
the warm _______.

A. Agulhas Current C. Benguela Current


B. Canary Current D. Sahara Current

32
 Storms that enter the Great Lakes Basin from the west and Alberta Lows
northwest in October are the products of pressure systems
known as _______.

A. Alberta Lows C. Westerners


B. Fata Morgana D. Polar Highs

 Physical checks of gyro, azimuth circle and pelorus are the alignment of the compass
following EXCEPT: north to the fore and aft
line of the ship

 Mean low water is the average height of _______. all low waters

A. all low waters


B. high waters and low waters
C. the surface of the sea
D. the lower of the two daily tides

NOTE: The other word for “MEAN” is Average.

 Which characteristic is common to advection fog? all of the above

 A Planning Guide contains information about countries all of these


adjacent to applicable ocean basic. It covers:

 Celestial bodies can be identified by: all of these

 Each NAVTEX message contains ______. all of these

 GPS consists the segment/s: all of these

 Induced magnetism varies with the _____. all of these

 Major category/ies of NAVTEX is/are: all of these

 The Nautical Almanac contains: all of these

 The Night Order Book consists which of the following? all of these

 The Night Order Book includes: all of these

 The use of a marine sextant is/are: all of these

33
 There is/are type/s of accuracy in Loran. This/these is/are: all of these

 To make a physical check on the compass and binnacle, one all of these
must check _____.

 Tropical warning services have the principal function/s: all of these

 What is TRUE about a front? All of these

 When making a voyage planning, a Master should: all of these

 When planning and conducting a voyage, the navigator uses all of these
many information sources. Such information include:

 Which component/s comprise/s Loran C? all of these

 Which is entered in the Sight Reduction Tables to compute all of these


the altitude and azimuth?

 Which is the minimum chart preparation required for an all of these


ocean or coastal transit?

 Which of the following does a typical binnacle hold? all of these

 Which of the following is a non-adjustable sextant error? all of these

 Which of the following is adjustable sextant error? all of these

 Which of the following is TRUE? All of these

 With respect to failure warnings and status indications, all of these


GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, ____.

 Air circulation is caused or affected by ______. all of these causes are


correct

 Which characteristic is common to advection fog? all of these


characteristics are
correct

34
 Fog is formed when _________. all of these conditions are
correct

 On a weather map, a stationary front is represented as : alternating red and blue


lines with half circles and
triangles

 An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational altitude azimuth


triangle with altitude, declination and latitude, it is called :

 A body at the observer’s zenith will have a/an ____. Altitude of 90°

 The error in refraction increases as the _______. altitude of the body


decreases
A. altitude of the body decreases
B. humidity decreases
C. horizontal parallax decreases
D. observer’s eye increases

 The intercepted arc of a vertical circle between the celestial Altitude of the celestial
horizon and the almucantar is called the _____. body

 When the azimuth is measured from east or west and amplitude


labeled accordingly, it is called:

 With respect to failure warnings and status indications, an alarm if a new


GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum, _____. position has not been
calculated within the last
two seconds

 Which condition exists in the eye of a hurricane? An extremely low


barometric pressure

 This is the angle, which the wind makes with the isobars. angle of indraught

 The magnetic flux lines enter the surface of the earth at angle of magnetic dip
different angles to the horizontal, at different magnetic
Latitudes. This angle is called ______.

 When a body has crossed the observer’s meridian, this is any of these
called:

35
 When the moon is at apogee, _______ occurs. apogean tide

A. apogean tide C. lagging tide


B. priming tide D. semi-diurnal range

 In a moon’s orbit, the point farthest from the sun is called: apogee

NOTE: “GEE” also refers to the MOON.


APO means Away or Far
PERI means Near

 The GHA tabulated in the Nautical Almanac is for the: apparent sun

A. apparent sun C. true sun


B. mean sun D. mean and apparent sun

 When the time is based on the movement of the visible Sun apparent time
along the ecliptic the time is known as __________.

 ______ is the vector sum of the true wind and the reciprocal apparent wind
of the vessel’s course and speed vector.

 The velocity of a rotary tidal current will be decreased at apogee


when the Moon is______________.

 The planet Mars will not be visible___________. at or near conjunction

 The Moon appears larger in diameter at the zenith than Augmentation


when near the horizon. What is this called?

 Luminous phenomena due to electrical charges in the Aurora


atmosphere is called _______.

A. aurora C. aureole
B. corona borealis D. corona

NOTE: “AURORA” means Light

BOREALIS refers to North

AUSTRALIS refers to South

Hence, Aurora Borealis is Northern Light

Aurora Australis is Southern Light

36
 The southern lights are also called _______. Aurora Australis

A. Aurora Australis C. Aurora


B. Aurora Borealis D. Corona

 Northern lights are also called _______. aurora borealis

A. aurora borealis C. aurora australis


B. corona D. aurora

 The horizontal direction of a celestial point from a Azimuth


terrestrial point expressed as the angular distance from a
reference direction is called ______

 In weather analysis, the approach of a storm is through atmospheric pressure


observation of wind, waves, swell and the ______.

 The intercepted arc of the horizon between the principal azimuth


vertical circle and the vertical circle passing through the
body when rising or setting is called_____.

 When the azimuth is measured from north or south and azimuth angle
labeled accordingly, it is called:

 This is a deviation error caused by the miscalculation of A error


azimuth or by physical misalignments rather than magnetic
effects of soft iron.

 ______ results from both the fore-and-aft permanent B error


magnetic field across the compass.

 _____ results from the athwartship permanent magnetic C error


field across the compass.

 This error is due only to induction in the symmetrical D error


arrangements of horizontal soft iron.

 This error is caused by induction in the unsymmetrical E error


arrangements of horizontal soft iron.

37
 Waves reflected from obstruction, running seaward are Backwash
called _______.

A. backwash C. barrier wave


B. surf D. bluff

 A wedge of water building up between the bow and nearer bank cushion
bank which forces the bow out and away describes:

A. bank cushion C. combined effect


B. bank suction D. bend effect

 The inner cloud bands in a hurricane viewed from a distance bar of the storm
from a mass of dense black cumulonimbus clouds is called
the:

A. bar of the storm C. funnel


B. eye of the storm D. tower of the storm

 _______ is a local strong wind carrying damp snow or sleet Barber


and spray that freezes upon contact with objects.

A. barber C. katabatic wind


B. abroholos D. anabatic wind

 Ice without snow cover is called _______. Bare

A. bare C. shiny
B. plain D. slip

 Atmospheric pressure is measured by a _____. Barometer

 What do the numbers on isobars indicate? barometric pressure

 The evening twilight commences _____. before sunset

 Very Low Frequencies used by Omega is ______. Between 10 to 14 kHz.

 This is the current which generally flow northward along the Benguela current
west coast of Africa.

A. Benguela current C. Brazilian current


B. African current D. North Atlantic current

38
 ______ consist of innumerable tiny droplets of water, or Clouds
ice crystals formed by condensation of water vapor
around microscopic particles in the air.

TYPES OF CLOUD AND ITS ALTITUDE:

1. High Clouds ---------------- Above 20,000 Feet


(All Clouds with “CIRRUS” Ex. Cirrus,
Cirrocumulus and Cirrostratus)

2. Middle Clouds ---- Between 6,500 and 20,000 Feet


(All Clouds with “ALTO” Ex. Altocumulus and
Altostratus)

3. Low Clouds ------------------ Below 6,500 Feet


(Any other Cloud without “Cirrus or Alto” Ex. Cumulus,
Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus, Cumulonimbus)

( See F1 Book page METEO – 3 and METEO – 4 )

 High clouds have a mean lower level above ______. 20,000 ft

 Middle clouds have a mean level ______. between 6,500 ft and


20,000 ft

 Low clouds have a mean level of less than ______. 6,500 ft

 Cirrus and cirrostratus belong to the ______ high clouds

 Altocumulus and altostratus belong to the _____. middle clouds

 Cumulus and cumulonimbus belong to the _____. low clouds

 High clouds, composed of small white flakes or scaly Cirrocumulus


globular masses, and often banded together to form a
“mackerel sky”, would be classified as ________.

A. cirrus
B. cirrocumulus
C. altocumulus
D. cumulonimbus

39
 The form of cloud often known as “mackerel sky” which is Cirrocumulus
generally associated with fair weather is ________.

A. nimbostratus
B. stratus
C. cirrocumulus
D. cumulonimbus

 The thin, whitish, high clouds composed of ice crystals, Cirrostratus


popularly known as “mare’s tails” are ________.

A. cirrostratus
B. cirrocumulus
C. cumulonimbus
D. nimbostratus

 Which cloud commonly produces a halo about the Sun or Cirrostratus


Moon?

A. Cirrostratus
B. Cirrocumulus
C. Altostratus
D. Altocumulus

 Clouds commonly produce a halo form, thin and whitish Cirrostratus


high clouds:

A. Altostratus
B. Altocumulus
C. Cirrocumulus
D. Cirrostratus

 From those listed, which is the highest cloud? Cirrus

A. Altocumulus
B. Cirrus
C. Stratus
D. Cumulus

 A cloud of marked vertical development (often anvil- Cumulonimbus


shaped) would be classified as ________.

A. cirrus
B. cirrocumulus
C. altocumulus
D. cumulonimbus

40
 Towering Clouds Cumulonimbus

 What are the typical thunder shower clouds that appears Cumulonimbus
in great masses in the form of mountains or towers?

A. Cumulonimbus
B. Nimbostratus
C. Nimbus
D. Cumulus

 Thunder clouds Cumulonimbus

 The tabulated times of sunrise, sunset, moonrise and between latitudes 72


moonset are based: degrees North and 60
degrees South

 Kuroshio current is also known as: Black Stream

A. Black Stream C. Tsushima Current


B. Tsurumi Current D. Tsunami Current

 What is the term used to identify the violent intense cold blizzard
wind laden with snow mostly or entirely picked up from the
ground?

 By Convention, the earth’s north magnetic pole is colored: Blue

A. blue C. red
B. black D. green

NOTE: North Pole South Pole


MAGNET Red Blue

EARTH Blue Red

Just Remember: MAGNET – North - Red

( See F1 Book page MC – 3)

 By convention, the south seeking ends of a compass Blue


magnets are colored _______.

A. blue C. white
B. red D. black

41
 On weather maps, cold front is colored: Blue

A. blue C. purple
B. red D. green

 When a light is first seen on the horizon it will disappear bobbing a light
again if the eye is immediately lowered several feet. When
the eye is raised is immediately lowered several feet.
When the eye is raised to its former height the light will
again be visible. This process is called:

 When an observer sees a light and reduces his height, the bobbing a light
light disappears; when the observer goes to his original
height, the light appears. This is called:

 In some river mouths and estuaries the incoming high-tide Bore


wave crest overtakes the preceding low-tide trough. This
results in a wall of water proceeding upstream, and is
called a _______.

A. bore C. boundary wave


B. seiche D. surge

 This is high tide wave that abruptly move up to the river of Bore
peculiar configuration or location and may present hazards
to shipping.

A. bore C. boggies
B. eddies D. backwash

 In shallow water, waves too steep to be stable, causing the Breakers


crests to move forward faster than the rest of the wave are
called:

A. breakers C. white caps


B. rollers D. surfers

 The northeast monsoon in the Philippines is called _______. Briza

A. Briza C. Bora
B. Habagat D. Buru

 This is a relatively cold current flowing along the northwest Canary current
coast of Africa.

A. Canary current C. Ahlean current


B. Morrocan current D. African current

42
 The azimuth of the sun is best taken at the: center of the sun

 What publication contains information regarding the Channel Pilot Guide


dangers to navigation in the English Channel?

 Which Chapter of the Planning Guide describes Chapter 4


recommended steamship routes?

 A conventional representation usually on a plane surface chart


of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface
intended primarily for navigation is called ______.

 All depths indicated on charts are reckoned from some chart sounding datum
selected levels of the water called______.

 This term refers to a heavenly body which has two meridian circumpolar
passages one above and one below the elevated pole.

 A convenient way of keeping a record of updated latest Chart/Publication


correction of chart is: Correction Record Card
System

 The average long term meteorological condition of a place climate


or region is called _____.

 WIND CIRCULATION:

“ NLCC” >>> N.H. > L.P. > Counter Clockwise

N.H. > H.P. > Clockwise

S.H. > L.P. > Clockwise

S.H. > H.P. > Counter Clockwise

Low Pressure (L.P.) > Inward

High Pressure (H.P.) > Outward

43
 The circulation around a Low Pressure (L.P.) center in the Counterclockwise
Northern Hemisphere (N.H.) is:

A. Counterclockwise
B. Variable
C. Clockwise
D. Anticyclone
 The wind circulation around a high pressure center in the clockwise moving
northern hemisphere is: outward from high

A. clockwise moving outward from high


B. counterclockwise and moving outward from the high
C. clockwise and moving towards the high
D. counterclockwise and moving towards the high

 The wind circulation around a low pressure area in the Counter clockwise and
Northern Hemisphere is: inward

A. clockwise outward C. counterclockwise inward


B. clockwise inward D. counterclockwise outward

 The flow of air around an anticyclone in the Southern Counter clockwise and
Hemisphere is: outward

A. clockwise and outward


C. counterclockwise and inward
B. clockwise and inward
D. counterclockwise and outward

 What is the wind circulation around a high pressure center Clockwise and moving
in the N. hemisphere? outwards from the high

A. Counterclockwise and moving outwards from the high


B. Counterclockwise and moving outward from high
C. Clockwise and moving outwards from the high
D. Clockwise and moving towards from the high

 The wind circulation around a high pressure area in the counterclockwise


Southern Hemisphere is: outward

A. counterclockwise outward C. clockwise outward


B. counterclockwise inward D. clockwise inward

 In the Northern Hemisphere, an area of counterclockwise Low pressure


wind circulation surrounded by higher pressure is a:

A. Low pressure C. Warm front


B. High pressure D. Cold front

44
 The dense black cumulonimbus clouds surrounding the eye cloud walls
of a hurricane are called:

 The inter tropical convergence zone is generally associated cloudy skies and showers
with _______.

A. cloudy skies and showers


B. very hot and dry weather
C. clear skies and sunny weather
D. windy and humid air

 The radius of the almucantar is equal to the ______. co-altitude

 Chart intended for inshore coastwise navigation where the coast chart
course may lie inside outlying reefs and shoals, for
entering and leaving harbours is called _______.

 You are entering a harbor for the first time which of the Coast pilot
publications would

 The Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) contain Coastal features


information on all of

 The Sailing Directions Planning Guide contains information Coastal features


on all of the following EXCEPT:

 _______ is a relatively low pressure neck between two Col


cyclones.

A. col C. wedge
B. through D. ridge

 In the Celestial Equator System of coordinates, when the co-Latitude


body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator,
the altitude during upper transit will be equal to the:

 The value of the intercepted arc of a meridian between the co-Latitude


elevated pole and the observer’s zenith is known as ____.

 On weather maps, blue color indicates: cold front

A. cold front C. occluded front


B. warm front D. stationary front

45
 In the northern hemisphere, winds veering sharply to the cold front has passed
west or northwest with increasing velocity are indications
that a:

 An occluded front is usually caused by a ______. cold front overtaking a


warm front

 On a weather map, the half circles in a stationary front are colder air
pointing towards _____.

 ______ refers to any change of permanent magnet or soft compass adjustment


iron correctors to reduce normal compass errors.

 Deviation is eliminated as nearly as practicable by: compass adjustment

A. compass adjustment C. compass weighing


B. degaussing D. compass compensation

 The method used when finding the compass error when the Compass error by
compass bearing of a body is observed at the moment of amplitude
rising or setting?

A. Compass error by amplitude


B. Compass error by azimuth angle
C. Compass error by azimuth
D. Compass error by true bearing

 The ratio expressed in tenths describing the mean areal Concentration


density of ice in a given area is called _______.

A. concentration C. ablation
B. okta D. accumulation

 Which of the following statements is TRUE? consult the chart for


the location and light
characteristics of all
navigational aids;
consult the Light Lists
for their detailed
description

 Which type of GPS receiver has at least four channels to Continuous


process information from several satellites simultaneously?

46
 Ascending and descending air masses with different Convection
temperature is part of an important heat transmitting
process in our atmosphere called ________.

 ______ diverts the air from a direct path between high and Coriolis force
low pressure areas.

 _______ are colored rings around the sun or moon covered Corona
by a thin cloud.

A. corona C. aureole
B. halo D. aurora borealis

 When the sun or moon is seen through altostratus clouds Corona


and appears surrounded by a glow of light, this glow is
called:

A. corona C. halo
B. aurora D. parantiselene

 The relative motion line, when extended past the CPA


represented position of the observer’s ship, shows:

 What type of cloud formation would you expect to see to the cumulus cloud lined up
west of an approaching tropical wave? in rows extending in a
northeast to southwest
direction

 It is the atmosphere in the vicinity of a low pressure area. cyclone

 This is an outside force from the center of high or low cyclostrophic forces
pressure:

A. cyclostrophic forces C. pressure gradient force


B. geostrophic force D. coriolis force

 A good chart can be distinguished from indifferent one by: date of correction

A. date of correction C. its edition


B. date of printing D. date of survey

 All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Declination


Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT ______.

47
 The angular distance measured along the hour circle to the Declination of the point
diurnal circle of the celestial point is known as:

 Which of the following conditions does not indicate an Decrease in wind velocity
approaching tropical storm?

A. Decrease in wind velocity


B. Cirrus clouds
C. Halos about the sun or moon
D. Long, high swells

 Satellites are located within the confines of: deep space

A. deep space C. the inner space


B. the outer space D. the universe

 Which star is at the head of the Northern Cross? Deneb

 The distance between any two meridians measured along Departure


a parallel of latitude and expressed in miles is the
_______.

 This is the celestial pole below the horizon of opposite depressed pole
name of the latitude.

 The recording fathometer produces a graphic record of the: depth underneath the
keel against a time base

 The primary use of apparent time in marine navigation is determine the time of
to________. meridian transit

 The angle between the magnetic meridian and the axis of a deviation
compass card expressed in degrees east or west to indicate
to indicate which direction is the compass card offset from
the magnetic north is called ______.

 What is the most elusive factor of a magnetic compass Deviation


which change with every direction given to the ships
heading?

 The highest level of commercial navigational accuracy is DGPS, within a coverage


provided by________. area

48
 The height of the tide is the _______. difference between the
depth of the water and
A. difference between the depth of the water and area’s tidal area’s tidal datum
datum
B. depth of water at specific time due to tidal effect
C. difference between the depth of the water and high water
tidal level
D. difference between the depth of the water at high tide and
the depth of the water at low tide

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (c ) Level of water

(b) to ( c ) = ( e ) Height of Tide

___________________ (b) Tidal Datum or Chart Datum

( a) to (b) = ( d) Charted Depth

================== (a) Sea bed or bottom

( See F1 Book page TC – 4 )

 The range of the tide is the _______. difference between the


heights of high and low
A. difference between the heights of high and low tide tide
B. distance the tide moves out from the shore
C. duration of time between high and low tide
D. maximum depth of the water at high tide

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (b) High Water or High Tide

( a ) to ( b ) = Range of Tide

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈ (a) Low Water or Low Tide

 The distance between the surface of the water and the tidal height of tide
datum is the:

A. height of tide C. range of tide


B. chartered depth D. actual water depth

49
 What is the definition of height of tide? The vertical distance
from tidal datum to the
A. The vertical distance from tidal datum to the level level
B. The vertical difference between the heights of low and
high water
C. The vertical difference between a datum plane and the
ocean bottom
D. The vertical distance from the surface of the water to
the ocean floor

 “Stand” of the tide is that time when _______. the vertical rise or fall of
the tide has stopped
A. the vertical rise or fall of the tide has stopped
B. slack water occurs
C. tidal current is at a maximum
D. the actual depth of the water equals the chartered depth

 Pressure Gradient is a _______________. difference in pressure


in unit distance
measured at right
angles to the isobars

 In a _______ mode of Omega, the receiver measures the direct range


distance between it and two or more transmitting stations
to determine lines of position.

 What will cause a variable error in the gyro? Dirty mercury and
points

 Swell is the rise and fall of the ocean’s surface due to: distant winds

A. distant winds C. fetch


B. local storms D. the pull of the Moon

 ______ is an underway adjustment in track and is intended diversion


to avoid or limit the effect of adverse weather conditions.

 A belt of low pressure at the earth’s surface near the Doldrums


equator is called _____.

 The diurnal pressure variation is most noticeable in the doldrums


_____.

50
 Where is the diurnal pressure variation most noticeable? Doldrums

A. Doldrums C. Polar regions


B. Horse latitude D. Roaring forties

 During the middle of the high water period, there is often double high water tide
slight fall, the effect of which is to create a longer period of
stand at high water and is called:

A. double high water tide C. perigean tide


B. apogean tide D. bore

 Which of the following will act to dissipate fog? Downslope motion of an


air mass along a coast

 One of the two stars pointing to Polaris in the Ursa Major Dubhe
is:

 In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E: N


coordinates, when the body rises to the left of the Prime
Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named _____.

 In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E: S


coordinates, when the body rises to the right of the Prime
Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named:

 What are the relative positions of the Sun, the Earth, and a Earth is between the Sun
planet when the planet is at opposition? and the Planet

A. Earth is between the Sun and the Planet


B. Sun is between the Earth and the Planet
C. Planet is between the Earth and the Sun
D. The Planet, the Sun and the Earth are not in line

 The movement of water away from shore or downstream is ebb current


called a(n):

A. ebb current C. flood current


B. reversing current D. slack current

 When using a recording depth finder in the open ocean, Echoes from a deep
what phenomena is most likely to produce a continuous scattering layer
trace that may not be from the actual ocean bottom?

 The path of the sun appears to take among the stars due to ecliptic
the annual revolution of the earth in its orbit is called:

51
 At meridian passage, the bearing of the body will be: either North or South

 The difference between local apparent time (LAT) and local equation of time
mean time (LMT) is indicated by the_______.

 The sun crosses the upper branch of the celestial meridian Equator
of the observer at a position 15º South of his zenith. If the
sun declination is 15º S. What is the latitude of the
observer?

 The hour circle that passes through the First Point of Equinoctial Colure
Aries is known as the _______________.

 The points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial Equinoxes


equator are called_______.

 A cloudy patch of matter in the heavens outside the galaxy Extragalactic nebula
is called _____.

 Frost smoke will occur when ___________. extremely cold air from
shore passes over
warmer water

 The cumulonimbus cloud which is dense and dark Eye


surrounding the typhoon is called _______.

A. eye C. spiral bands


B. cyclonic spiral D. funnel clouds

 On the approach of a warm front, barometric pressure falls


usually ______.

 A tropical wave is located 200 miles due west of your farther away to the
position, which is north of the equator. Where will the west
wave be located 24 hours later?

 Ice which is attached to the ground is called ________. fast ice

A. fast ice C. icelands


B. ground ice D. growler

 The speed of sound through ocean water is nearly always faster than the speed of
____. calibration for the
fathometer

52
 Squall lines with an almost unbroken line of threatening fast-moving cold front
black clouds and sharp changes in wind direction, generally
a/an __________.

 _______ is the identification of complex mirage due to fata morgana


objects generally magnified and distorted.

A. fata morgana C. inferior mirage


B. spectrum mirage D. superior mirage

 This is a complex mirage characterized by marked fata morgana


distortion on objects, magnified and at times, even
multiplied generally in the vertical and even appeared
towering.

 The original date of issue of a new chart is shown on top first edition
center margin written with ______.

 The sidereal day begins when the___________. first point of Aries is


over the upper branch of
the reference meridian

 In the Horizon system of coordinates, the arc of the horizon First Quadrant
measured from the East point of the horizon in a direction
towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North
Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

 In the Horizon System of coordinates, the arc of the horizon Fourth Quadrant
measured from the West point of the horizon in a direction
towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North
Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises about noon and First quarter
sets about midnight?

 What describes an accurate position that is NOT based on fix


any prior position?

 When adjusting a compass with induced magnetism in Flinder’s bar


vertical soft iron, which corrects this coefficient of the
deviation?

A. Flinder’s bar C. heeling magnet


B. quadrantal spheres D. bar magnets in the binnacle

53
 What kind of component is Parameter P? fore and aft component

A. fore and aft component C. vertical component


B. athwartship component D. horizontal component

 Which can be set while the vessel is heading magnetic east fore and aft magnets
or west?

A. fore and aft magnets C. heeling magnet


B. quadrantal spheres D. athwartship magnets

 The largest waves or swells created by a typhoon or forward and to the right
hurricane will be located: of its course

 Which theoretical minimum number of measurements from Four


satellites does a GPS receiver need in order to provide an
exact three-dimensional position?

 A boundary between two masses is a _______________. front

 This is the resultant of the commencement of the air when it frontal depression
forces its way to the cold air.

A. frontal depression C. quasi-frontal


B. occluded front D. cyclonic front

 What would occur when an extremely cold air from shore frost smoke
passes over warmer water?

A. frost smoke C. convection fog


B. advection fog D. ground fog

 The moon is rising while sun is setting. What is the Full moon
approximate phase of the moon?

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises about sunset? full moon

 When the moon is at opposition, the phase of the moon is: Full moon

 The moon will wane from____________. Full Moon to Last


Quarter

54
 Which is TRUE about Light Lists? furnishes complete
information about
navigation lights and
other navigational aids

 A cloudy patch of matter in the heavens within the galaxy Galactic Nebula
of which the sun is a part is called:

 A vast collection cluster of stars and clouds of gas is called: Galaxy

 Milky Way is a term associated with___________. Galaxy

 Chart intended for coastwise navigation outside of general chart


outlying reefs and shoals is called______.

 Dashed lines in TSS, precautionary areas, two-way routes general maritime limits
and deep water routes are _______.

A. general maritime limits


B. limits of precautionary area
C. limits of fishing area
D. limits of recommended route

 The difference in apparent position as observed from the Geocentric Parallax


surface of the Earth and the center of the Earth is ______.

 If the surface of the spheroid is altered so as to be geoid


everywhere perpendicular to the direction of gravity, the
Earth is considered a/an _____.

 You plot a fix using three lines of position and find they geometric center of the
intersect in a triangle. The actual position of the vessel is triangle
the :

 If the isobars are straight, the wind blowing is called : geostrophic wind

 If the isobars are curve, the wind blowing is called : gradient wind

 A position of the Earth has a longitude of 74º 10' E. Its GHA of 285º 50'
celestial counterpart would have a ________.

55
 What part of the gyro compass is use to support the Gimbals
gyroscope in such a manner that it remains horizontal even
when the support is tilted?

A. Gimbals C. South component


B. East component D. West component

 The proximity of pack ice may be indicated by _______. glare on clouds on the
horizon
A. glare on clouds on the horizon
B. changes in seawater salinity
C. changes in air temperature
D. cooling of sea water

 GPS means ________. Global Positioning


System

 Meridian Passage as tabulated in the Nautical Almanac is GMT


given in _______.

 A projection where points on the earth are transferred gnomonic


directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is
the center of the earth is called _______.

 Which statement is TRUE with respect to ship handling in go astern with extreme
ice? care with rudder
amidships
A. go astern with extreme care with rudder amidships
B. never go astern because it might damage the propeller
C. approach ice at moderate speed to reduce impact
D. navigate in zigzag to crack the ice

 A low HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) number good fix


such as 2 indicates a ____.

 A tropical wave is usually preceded by _________. good weather

 Often expressed in time units, it is the arc between the hour Greenwich Apparent
circle of the apparent sun and the lower branch of the Time
Greenwich meridian.

 The geographical position (GP) of a celestial body is Greenwich Hour Angle


determined from its declination and the _______.

A. Greenwich Hour Angle C. right ascension


B. sidereal hour angle D. observe altitude

56
 A strong northeast wind of the central Mediterranean is Gregale
called _______.

A. Gregale C. Scirocco
B. Mistral D. Harmattan

KEY WORD: Centrale >>> Gregale

 The error in a compass which indicates the direction in gyro error


which the axis of the compass is offset from true north is the
____.

 A compass which is north-seeking depends upon gyrocompass


gyroscopic inertia, gyroscopic precession, the earth’s
rotation, and gravity is ______.

 An automatic device for steering a vessel by means of gyropilot


control signals received from a gyro compass is called
_____.

 A rapidly rotating mass free to move about one or both gyroscope


axes perpendicular to the axis of rotation and to each
other is called ______.

 The horizontal rotation of the spin axis of a gyroscope gyroscopic drift


about the vertical axis is called:

 The property of a gyroscope of resisting any force which gyroscopic inertia


tends to change its axis of rotation is called _____.

 One of the stars pointing to the Southern Cross is the: Hadar

 The full moon nearest the autumnal equinox is Harvest moon


called____________.

 The typhoon track is the line which a typhoon _______. has already passed

A. has already passed C. will definitely pass


B. is forecasted to pass D. has stayed stationary

57
 Spring tides are tides that _______. have lows lower than
normal highs higher
A. have lows lower than normal highs higher than normal than normal
B. have lows higher than normal and highs lower than normal
C. are unpredictable
D. occur in the spring of the year

 Deviation changes with a change in _______. Heading


A. heading C. longitude
B. latitude D. sea conditions

 The compass deviation changes as the vessel changes : Heading


A. heading C. geographical position
B. speed D. longitude

 The vessel’s direction pointed at anytime is called _______. Heading

A. heading C. trackline
B. course D. course over ground

 What kind of weather would you expect to accompany the heavy rain and
passage of a tropical wave? cloudiness

 This is a permanent magnet placed vertically in a tube heeling magnet


under the center of the magnetic compass:

A. heeling magnet C. fore and aft magnet


B. athwartship magnet D. flinders bar

 _______ is a compass corrector that cannot be et on a heeling magnets


heading of magnetic east or west.

A. heeling magnets C. Flinder’s bar


B. fore and aft tray D. fore and aft magnets

 Geographical range of a light depends upon the? height of both the light
and the observer

 The difference in apparent position as viewed from the Heliocentric parallax


Earth and the sun is known as _____.

 The first indications a mariner will have of the approach of high cirrus clouds
a warm front will be: gradually changing to
cirrostratus and then to
altostratus

58
 Conditions for crossing a bar would be best at: high water slack

A. high water slack C. low water slack


B. high water ebb D. low water ebb

 When the pressure gradient is closely spaced, it means that high winds
you expect to encounter:

A. high winds C. calm and smooth weather


B. overcast skies D. fog or heavy rainfall

 When navigating using GPS, what is an indicator of the Horizontal Dilution of


geometry of the satellites that your receiver is locked Precision
onto?

 Current refers to the _______. horizontal movement of


the water
A. horizontal movement of the water
B. vertical movement of the water
C. density changes in the water
D. none of these

 What describes an ebb current? Horizontal movement of


the water away from the
A. Horizontal movement of the water away from the land land following high tide
following high tide
B. Horizontal movement of the water away from the land
following low tide
C. Horizontal movement of the water toward the land
following the low tide
D. Horizontal movement of the water toward the land
following the high tide

 The diurnal pressure variation is commonly observed on horse latitude


the area of:

 Along the pole ward side of each trade wind belt and horse latitudes
approximately with the belt of high pressure in each
hemisphere is a region with weak pressure gradients and
correspondingly with light, variable winds. These winds
are called the ______.

 The area of high pressure with weak pressure gradients and horse latitudes
light variable winds on the pole side of the trade wind belt is
called _______.

A. horse latitudes C. doldrums


B. geostropic winds D. prevailing westerlies

59
 The region of calms and variable winds coinciding with the horse latitudes
subtropical high pressure belts on the pole ward side is
called _______.

A. horse latitudes C. doldrums


B. polar belt D. polar region

 The region of high pressure extending around the earth is horse latitudes
called _______.

A. horse latitudes C. troposphere


B. prevailing westerlies D. doldrums

 What kind of conditions would your observe as the eye of a Huge waves approaching
storm passes over your vessel’s position? from all directions,
clearing skies, light
winds and an extremely
low barometer.

 _______ is a measure of the atmosphere’s vapor content. humidity

 Which condition will occur after a cold front passes? Humidity decreases

 A swift current occurring in a narrow passage connecting hydraulic current


two large bodies of water, which is produced by the
continuous changing difference in height of tide at the end of
passage is called a:

A. hydraulic current C. rectilinear current


B. rotary current D. harmonic current

 Tides at the two ends of a strait are seldom in phase or hydraulic current
equal in range and the current is generated largely by the
continuously changing difference in height of water at the
two ends called _______.

A. hydraulic current C. resultant current


B. differential current D. semi-diurnal current

 In a _______ mode of Omega, the receiver measures the Hyperbolic


difference in phase between two transmitters.

60
 Which of the following is TRUE? I & II

I. Coriolis force tends to divert air toward the right in the


Northern Hemisphere
II. Coriolis Force tends to divert air toward the left in the
Southern Hemisphere
III. Coriolis Force tends to divert air toward the left in the
Northern Hemisphere, to the right in the Southern
Hemisphere

 Which of the following can be measured from the Horizon I, II, III
System of Coordinates?

I. Zenith Distance
II. Amplitude
III. Co-altitude

 Which statement is true when operating in area where sea Icebergs may travel in
ice and iceberg are present? direction very different
from sea ice
A. Icebergs may travel in direction very different from sea
ice
B. Both icebergs and sea ice move in same direction and
same speed
C. Icebergs and sea ice move in same direction but of
different speed
D. Icebergs and sea ice move in same direction but iceberg
slower due its volume

 Sidereal time is NOT used____________. in sight reduction of


planet observation

 The diurnal variation of pressure is most noticeable: in the doldrums

 In a tropical cyclone, in the Northern Hemisphere, a vessel in the navigable


hove to with the wind shifting counterclockwise would be: semicircle

A. in the navigable semicircle


B. ahead to the storm center
C. in the dangerous semicircle
D. directly in the approach path of the storm

61
 Where is the vessel located in a tropical cyclone in the S. In the navigable
Hemisphere if a vessel hove to with the wind shifting semicircle
clockwise?

A. In the navigable semicircle


B. Directly behind the storm center
C. Ahead of the storm center
D. In the dangerous semi circle

 In the Southern Hemisphere, a vessel hove to with the wind in the navigable semi-
shifting clockwise would be _______. circle

A. in the navigable semi-circle C. ahead of the storm track


B. in the dangerous semi-circle D. behind the storm center

 The principle of a sextant is that, when a plane surface incidence


reflects a light ray, the angle of reflection equals the angle
of:

 The movable arm of the sextant is the: index arm

 The error remaining in the sextant after the navigator has index error
removed side error perpendicularity error and collimation
error is:

 Which of the four adjustable errors in the sextant is the index mirror and
principal cause of index error? horizon glass not
parallel
A. index mirror and horizon glass not parallel
B. index mirror not perpendicular to the frame
C. horizon glass not perpendicular to the frame
D. telescope not parallel to the frame

 Magnetism under the influence of an external field is called: induced magnetism

A. induced magnetism C. residual magnetism


B. permanent magnetism D. sub-permanent magnetism

 Elongation becomes zero at ________________. inferior conjunction

 In low latitudes, trade winds converge in an area called : Inter tropical


convergence zone
A. Inter tropical convergence zone
B. temperature zone
C. inter tropical divergence zone
D. torrid zone

62
 Trade winds converge in an area in low latitudes called : Inter tropical
A. inter tropical convergence zone convergence zone
B. inter tropical divergence zone
C. torrid zone
D. temperate zone

 The normal variation between the actual depth of water is extremely cold
and the indicated depth on an electronic depth sounder due
to water conditions is on the side of safety. This would NOT
be true in a case when the water______________.

 At some distance above the earth’s surface, the wind tends Isobars
to blow along lines connecting points of equal pressure
called:

 The line joining all places having the same temperature on Isotherm
weather maps is called:

A. isotherm C. isallobars
B. isobars D. col

 Reasons for correcting compass are the following it is more comfortable


EXCEPT: to use a corrected
compass in bad
weather

 Which statement concerning GPS is TRUE? It may be suspended


without warning

 The steepness of a cold front depends on_____________. its velocity

 The largest of the known planets is ______. Jupiter

 This is a fast moving current of air with strong lateral and jet stream
shears which is located immediately below the troposphere is
called _______.

A. jet stream C. warm front


B. cold front D. cold front

 One of the two pointers in the Ursa Minor pointing to Kochab


Polaris is:

63
 What do you call the current which is similar to the gulf Kuroshio current
stream predominantly flows on north-north-easterly
direction?

A. Kuroshio current C. Benguela current


B. California current D. Oyasho Current

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises about midnight Last quarter
and sets at about noon?

 The process of changing solid to liquid state is called : latent heat of fusion

A. latent heat of fusion


B. latent heat of sublimation
C. latent heat of accumulation
D. latent heat of vaporization

 The process of changing solid state to vapor state is called : latent heat of
sublimation
A. latent heat of sublimation C. latent heat of accumulation
B. latent heat of fusion D. latent heat of vaporization

 The change from liquid to vapor requires: latent heat of


vaporization
A. latent heat of vaporization C. latent heat of deposition
B. latent heat of sublimation D. latent heat of fusion

 The amplitude will be numerically equal to the declination Latitude is zero


only when _____.

 What line of position can you derive foremost during latitude line
meridian passage?

 In the Celestial Equator system of coordinates, when the latitude of the observer
body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator,
the meridional zenith distance is equal to the _____.

 The intercepted arc along the observer’s celestial meridian latitude of the observer
between the celestial horizon and the elevated pole is equal
to the:

 If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90 degrees, the ______. Latitude of the observer
is at the pole

64
 The earth’s rotation affects the direction of the current in Left
the Southern Hemisphere by deflecting the set towards the :
A. left C. center
B. right D. outside

 Local sidereal time is equal to the_________. LHA of Aries

 While voyage planning and navigating, a mariner must Light Lists


refer to both texts and tables. Text includes the following
EXCEPT:

 T-shaped dashes in areas to be avoided and defined ends of limits of restricted


inshore traffic zones are _______. areas

A. limits of restricted areas


B. limits of recommended track
C. limits of inshore traffic
D. limits of recommended route

KEYWORD: T-shaped >>> restricTed areas

 Isallobar is a ________________. line joining places having


an equal change of
pressure

 The line connecting Vernal Equinox to Autumnal Equinox Line of equinoxes


is called:

 The angle at the pole between the body’s hour circle and LMT
the observer’s lower meridian:

 The data for sunrise and sunset in the Nautical Almanac is LMT
given in ______.

 The time of meridian passage in the Nautical Almanac is LMT


given in:

A. LMT C. LAN
B. GMT D. ZT

65
 Your vessel is an ice-reinforced about to enter pack ice. You look for areas of rotten
should _______. ice and enter the edge
perpendicularly
A. look for areas of rotten ice and enter the edge perpendicularly
B. take maximum advantage of coastal leads caused by
offshore winds
C. trim to an even keel or slightly down by the bow
D. enter the pack ice on the windward side

 _______ is a glow observed from a light below the horizon or Loom


hidden by obstacles.

A. loom C. corona
B. halo D. aurora borealis

 The accuracy of Loran position is within ______. 0.25 nautical miles

 _______ is a hyperbolic system of navigation using a long Loran A


range medium frequency.

 _______ is a hyperbolic system of navigation using a long Loran C


range low frequency.

 What kind of pressure system travel in tropical waves? low pressure

 Your vessel goes aground in soft mud. You would have the low water spring
best chance of refloating it on the next tide if it grounded at:

A. low water spring C. low water neap


B. high water neap D. high water spring

 New edition is marked on the chart ________. lower left hand corner

 When a first edition of a chart is printed, the original date lower left hand corner
of issue of a new chart

 The revision date of a chart is printed on what area of the lower-left corner
chart?

 What is the maximum range at which an observer sees a luminous range


light under existing visibility conditions?

66
 An irregularity in the motion of the Earth due to the lunar pertuberance
disturbing effect of other celestial bodies, principally the
moon is called ______.

NOTE: “ LUNAR” refers to the MOON

 An instrument for indicating a horizontal difference magnetic compass


relative to the earth depending upon the magnetic
attraction of the earth is called ______.

 Deviation and variation are applied to the _____. magnetic compass

 The curve that passes thru the places of zero DIP and magnetic equator
WITHOUT inclination on the compass needle is called
________.
A. magnetic equator C. magnetic north
B. magnetic meridian D. magnetic field

 This phenomenon occurs when a stream of charged particles Magnetism


around the nucleus of an atom is called:

A. magnetism C. magnetic charges


B. electron D. magnetic disturbance

 Variation in a compass is caused by____________. magnetism from the


earth magnetic field

 Compass deviation is caused by__________. magnetism within the


vessel

 The Night Order Book includes the following EXCEPT: maintain ships speed at
all times

 A conventional representation usually on a plane surface Map


of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface
is called _______.

 A conventional representation usually on a plane surface marine chart


of all or part of the physical features of the earth surface
intended primarily for marine navigation is called :

 During meridian passage, the LHA and meridian angle of maximum altitude
the body is zero. What is its altitude?

67
 The reference datum used in determining the heights of land mean high water
features on most charts:

A. mean high water C. mean sea level


B. mean low water D. half-tide level

 The average height of all low waters at a given place is called mean low water
_______.

A. mean low water C. mean lower low water


B. low water datum D. tropic lower low water

 The correction table for GHA of planets is based upon the: mean rate of the sun

 The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of mean sea level
the tide over a 19 year period is called _______.

A. mean sea level C. mean high water


B. mean low water D. half-tide level

 The GMT in the Nautical Almanac is based on the reference mean sun
point of:

A. mean sun C. apparent sun


B. true sun D. mean and apparent sun

 A conic projection upon a plane, the cylinder conceived as mercator


being tangent along the equator is a _______.

 Superior conjunction is possible for___________. Mercury

 Which two planets are inside the orbit of the earth? Mercury and Venus

 All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Meridian angle
Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT ______.

 The term “gegenschein” is associated with_________. meteors

 Zodiacal light is related to_____________. meteors

 A Pulse length is expressed in: micro-seconds

68
 Asteroids lie chiefly between Mars and Jupiter and are Minor Planets
considered _____.

 What do you call the type of tide where the presence of a mixed tides
diurnal wave is conspicuous by a large inequality in the
heights of either the two high tides or two low tides usually
occurring each tidal day?

 The process in which an air mass changes in temperature Modification


and or moisture characteristics is called:

 This is a seasonal wind blowing from a large land mass to Monsoon


the ocean in winter and in the opposite direction in summer:

A. Monsoon C. Gradient
B. Front D. Climate

 Tropic tides are caused by the _______. Moon being at its


maximum declination
A. Moon being at its maximum declination
B. Moon crossing the equator
C. Sun and Moon both being near 0-deg. declination
D. Moon being at perigee

 Loran-C uses the multi pulse system because: more signal energy is
available at the
A. more signal energy is available at the receiver receiver
B. less signal energy is necessary for receiver operation
C. it significantly increases the peak power
D. it increases the signal capacity

 The period between the time prior to sunrise is called_____. morning twilight

 In the relatively calm area near the hurricane center, the mountainous and
seas are___________. confused

 The apparent wind speed can be zero only when two must be from dead
conditions are present. One condition is that the true wind astern
_____________.

 The graphic presentation of the earth’s surface that is nautical chart


constructed to include known dangers and aids to
navigation is called _______.

A. nautical chart C. general chart


B. coastal chart D. pilot chart

69
 What represents part of the spherical earth on a plane nautical chart
surface?

 In a tropical cyclone, if you are in the northern hemisphere navigable semi-circle


and experience backing winds, it would mean that you are
in the _______.

A. navigable semi-circle C. eye of the storm


B. dangerous semi-circle D. track of the storm

 The edge of a hurricane has overtaken your vessel in the navigable semi-circle
Gulf of Mexico and the northwest wind of a few hours ago
has shifted to the west. This is an indication that you are
located in the:

A. navigable semi-circle C. dangerous semi-circle


B. low pressure area D. eye of the hurricane

 When planning and conducting a voyage, the navigator uses navigational charts
many information sources that includes the following
EXCEPT:

 Prior to getting the ship underway, the navigator should navigational check list
make a/an:

 ____________ is a maritime radio warning system NAVTEX


consisting of a series of coast stations transmitting radio
teletype safety messages .

 When the moon is at first quarter or third quarter phase, Neap


what type of tides will occur?

A. neap C. perigean
B. spring D. apogean

 The west wind drift is located _______. near 60 deg S

A. near 60 deg S C. between Greenland and Europe


B. near 5 deg S D. on the Equatorial Current

 Tropical cyclone does not occur in the doldrums due to: negligible coriolis force

A. negligible coriolis force C. lack of frontal areas


B. always with high humidity D. due to high temperature

70
 Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? neither I and II

I. The body rises at the Prime Vertical when the Declination


is greater than the Latitude and same names
II. The body will set at the Prime vertical when the Latitude
is numerically equal to declination and same names

 Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? Neither I nor II

I. Meridian Passage of the sun occurs before 1200 LMT


if mean sun is ahead of apparent sun.
II. Meridian Passage of the sun occurs after 1200 LMT if
apparent sun is ahead of the mean sun.

 Which of the following statements is/are TRUE? Neither I nor II

I. Night is longer than day when the sun’s declination is


numerically equal and same name as your latitude
II. Day is longer than night when the sun’s declination is
north and you are in south Latitude.

 Ship A observed in his radar ship B on her own portside to neither of the ships
be on a collision course on a dense for, which ship has the
right of way?

A. neither of the ships C. ship B


B. ship A D. both ships

 Ship A observed in his radar ship B on her own starboard neither of the two vessels
side to be on a collision course, on a dense fog, which ship
has the right of way?

A. neither of the two vessels


B. Ship A
C. Ship B
D. both ships

 At the time of printing, correction are too numerous new edition


making previous printing obsolete, a printing is made
called______.

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises and sets with New moon
the sun?

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises during sunrise? New moon

71
 What is the phase of the moon when it seems to rise and new moon
set with the sun?

 When the moon is in conjunction, the moon phase is : New moon

 When the moon is in inferior conjunction the moon phase new moon
is:

 The moon will wax from : New Moon to First


Quarter

 A ship is at DR longitude 67?25?W at 1815 ZT steaming on New ZD (+5); New ZT,


a westerly course when the navigator informs the Captain 1800
that the ship is about to enter a new time zone. The Captain
orders that the ship’s clocks be set to the new zone time
when the next hour is struck What will be the new zone
description, and what will be the zone time by ship? Clock
immediately on being set to new zone time.

 The maximum distance at which a light can be seen in nominal range


weather conditions where the visibility is 10 miles is
known as:

 Which current flows westward in the general area of the North Equatorial
northeast trades. Current

A. North Equatorial Current C. Davidson Current


B. Cape Horn Current D. Labrador Current

 If your weather bulletin shows the center of a low pressure north to northwest
area to be 100 miles due east of your position, what winds
can you expect in the northern hemisphere?

 According to Buys Ballot Law, when an observer in the northeast


Northern Hemisphere experiences a northwest wind, the
center of the low pressure is located to the ____ .

 The prevailing winds from approximately 5 deg N to 30 deg northeast trade winds
N are the _______.

A. northeast trade winds C. southeast trade winds


B. prevailing westerlies D. doldrums

72
 Because of the low temperatures near the geographical northeasterlies in the
poles of the earth, the surface pressure tends to remain Arctic
higher than in surrounding regions since cold air is denser
than warm air. Consequently, winds blow outward from
the poles called:

 The Humboldt current flows: Northerly

A. northerly C. easterly
B. southerly D. westerly

 If the gyro compass is operating properly, the rotor shaft is North-South


aligned to:

A. North-South C. Vertical
B. East-West D. Horizontal

 The pressure gradient between the horse latitudes and north-south


doldrums runs _________:

 The southeast trade winds blow toward _______. Northwest

A. northwest C. south
B. southeast D. northeast

 _______ is the least signal or complete absence of signal Null


where this varies with direction.

A. null C. out of range


B. blind spot D. 180 deg out of phase

 Sailing Directions contain: numbered sections along


a coast or through a
strait

 This is a rocky crag or small mountain projecting from and Nunatak


surrounded by glacier or ice sheet.

A. Nunatak C. Nilas
B. Rime D. Sastrugi

 The sun changing declination is caused by: obliquity of the ecliptic

73
 On weather maps, purple color indicates: occluded front

A. occluded front C. cold front


B. stationary front D. warm front

 This is a kind of front which appears on weather maps as occluded front


a solid purple line with at alternating triangles and half
circles.

 What cyclone is in its final stage of development? occluded front

A. occluded front C. anticyclone


B. polar cyclone D. tornado

 In the last stages of extratropical cyclone, the closing of its Occlusion


warm sector by an overtaking cold front which races about
the system’s center is called _______.

A. occlusion C. frontogenesis
B. frontolysis D. through

 Tropical cyclones do not form within 5° of the Equator of negligible Coriolis


because _____________. force

 _______ is a radio navigation system which operates in the Omega


very low frequency.

 The navigational triangle is NOT formed when the body is: on the observer’s
meridian

 If the vessel is in the dangerous semi-circle in the Southern on the port bow and
Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. make as much headway
as possible
A. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible
B. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible
C. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible
D. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as
possible

 If the vessel is in the dangerous semi-circle in the Northern on the starboard bow
Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. and make as much
headway as possible
A. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible
B. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible
C. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as
possible
D. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible

74
 If the vessel is in the navigable semi-circle in the Northern on the starboard quarter
Hemisphere, the best action is to have the wind _______. and make as much
headway as possible
A. on the starboard quarter and make as much headway as
possible
B. on the port quarter and make as much headway as possible
C. on the starboard bow and make as much headway as possible
D. on the port bow and make as much headway as possible

 You are attempting to locate your position with reference to on the storm track
a hurricane center in the Northern Hemisphere. If the wind behind the center
direction remains steady, but with diminishing velocity, you
are most likely.

 A tide is called diurnal when _______. only one high and one
low water occur during a
A. only one high and one low water occur during a lunar day lunar day
B. the high tide is higher and the low tide is lower than usual
C. the high tide and low tide are exactly six hours apart
D. two high tides occur during a lunar day

 After passing the First Quarter phase, the moon becomes Opposition
full moon at _____.

 If the age of the moon is approximately 14 &1/2 days, it is opposition


said to be at:

 If the moon reaches a point wherein it is completely Opposition


illuminated, it is at:

 The sun rises exactly at the time when the moon is setting. Opposition
The moon is at _____.

 The superior planets are brightest and closest to the earth Opposition
at_____________.

 When the moon sets during sunrise, it is at _____. Opposition

 When the moon’s R.A. is 12 hours different with that of opposition


the sun, the moon is said to be at:

75
 This is the type of rain that falls on the weather side of a orographic rain
mountain ranges and give some of the heaviest rain known:

NOTE: “ORO” refers to Mountain

 In making compass adjustments at sea, which international Oscar Quebec


flag signal is hoisted?

 The altitude correction that compensates for the equivalent Parallax


reading to the center of the earth is:

A. parallax C. index
B. dip D. semi-diameter

 _______ is a form of halo consisting of an image of the sun at anthelion


the same altitude and some distance from it.

A. parhelion C. anthelion
B. paranthelion D. anti-helion

 When the moon is at perigee, _______ occurs. perigean tide

A. perigean tide C. lagging tide


B. priming tide D. semi-diurnal range

 In a moon’s orbit, the point nearest the sun is called: Perigee

 A ship has a ______ magnetism. permanent magnetism

 The ratio of the strength of the magnetic field inside the Permeability
metal to the strength of the external field is:

A. permeability C. coercivity
B. retentivity D. remanence

 A pulse feature designed to eliminate sky wave is ______. phase coding

 The sun’s surface is called ______. photosphere

 Which of the following should be consulted to obtain Pilot chart


information about

76
 The SOA chosen for each track leg in voyage planning is PIM speed
the:

 The Sailing Directions are published in the Enroute format Planning Guide
and the _____.

 Which of the following statements is TRUE? Planning Guides are


relatively permanent

 The best position of the bow of the vessel when you are pointing to seaward
maneuvering on ice and intend to stop in ice close inshore is:

A. pointing to seaward C. pointing to the ridge


B. pointing to inwards D. pointing to shore

 In voyage planning, PIM means: points of intended


movement

 The angle measured from the elevated pole along the hour Polar Distance
circle to the diurnal circle passing by the body is called:

 Any piece of metal on becoming magnetized will develop Poles


regions of concentrated magnetism called ______.

 Along the coast of Australia, a current called Darwin poleward


current flows:

A. poleward C. northward
B. eastward D. westward

 In order for the gyro to have its North-South axis maintain Precession
its position in line with the Meridian, it must be capable of:

 The reaction of a gyro compass to an applied force is Precession


called:

A. precession C. gyroscopic inertia


B. counter effect D. gravity effect

 This is the property of a gyroscope of resisting any force Precession


which tends to change its axis of rotation.

77
 Any or all forms of water particles whether liquid or solid precipitation
that fall from the atmosphere and reach the ground is
_____.

 Military users use the ______ which provides extremely Precise Positioning
accurate positioning. System

 Pressure gradient is a measure of ______________. pressure difference over


horizontal distance

 A change in pressure with horizontal distance is called pressure gradient


____.

 On the poleward side of the high pressure belt in both prevailing westerlies
hemispheres, the atmospheric pressure again diminishes.
The wind in motion moves towards the poles and diverted
by the earth’s rotation toward the east. This wind system
is called _______.

 What is the airflow along the poleward side of the high Prevailing westerlies
pressure belt in each hemisphere diverted by the earth’s
rotation towards the East?

A. Prevailing westerlies C. Geostrophic winds


B. Doldrums D. Horse latitude

 The charts _______ reflects the latest Notice to Mariners print date
used to update the chart.

 When the faces of the sextant shade glasses and mirrors prismatic error
are not parallel, the error is called:

 ____________ in GPS is the true distance between the pseudorange


satellite and the plus an offset due to frequency error of the
user’s clock.

 The characteristics on which range resolution depends is: Pulse length

 Occluded front is colored _______. Purple

A. purple C. red
B. blue D. green

78
 On weather maps, occluded front is colored: purple

A. purple C. blue
B. red D. green

 The 8-mm radar uses the: Q-Band

 Which deviation change signs approximately each 90 Quadrantal deviation


degrees change of headings caused by induced magnetism
in horizontal soft iron?

 This is a gyro error caused by the rolling of the vessel quadrantal error
whose effect can reach a maximum on inter-cardinal
heading:

A. quadrantal error C. damping error


B. ballistic error D. tilting error

 The component of space motion in the line of sight is Radial motion


called _____.

 A type of deformed ice formed by one piece of ice rafted ice


overriding another.

 Spoking would be indicated on the radar receiver by: Random, pie-shaped


wedges on the PPI

 If the rotor on a gyro is turning in the wrong direction it Read reciprocal


will cause the gyro to: directions

 When using an echo sounder in deep water, it is NOT receive a strong return at
unusual to _____. about 200 fathoms (366
meters) during the day,
and one nearer the
surface at night

 A dashed outlined arrow applied on precautionary areas, recommended direction


two-way routes, recommended routes and deep-water routes of traffic flow
is called _______.

A. recommended direction of traffic flow


B. recommended track
C. established direction of flow
D. recommended route

79
 Dashed line and dashed outlined arrows in recommended recommended routes
routes are ________.

A. recommended routes
B. recommended traffic flow
C. recommended track
D. recommended direction of traffic

 Dashed lines with arrowheads generally reserved for use recommended tracks
by charting authorities are _______.

A. recommended tracks C. recommended routes


B. recommended flow D. recommended two way area

 Cold front is colored _______. red

A. red C. purple
B. blue D. green

 On weather maps, warm front is colored: red

A. red C. purple
B. blue D. green

 On weather maps, stationary front is colored: red/blue

A. red/blue C. blue
B. purple D. red

 Planetary aberration is due, in part, to______________. refraction of light as it


enters the Earth
atmosphere

 The ratio of the pressure of water vapor present in the relative humidity
atmosphere to the saturation vapor pressure at the same
temperature is called ______.

 It is the deviation of a magnetic compass after adjustment residual deviation


or compensation.

 The remaining value that cannot be eliminated in deviation residual deviation


is called:

A. residual deviation C. minimal deviation


B. constant deviation D. all of these

80
 After attempting to neutralize magnetism of the vessel, the residual magnetism
remaining is called _______.

A. residual magnetism C. sub-permanent magnetism


B. sub-permanent magnetism D. permanent magnetism

 A print which does not supersede a current edition is revised print


called _______.

 The elongated area of high pressure extending outwards ridge


from an anticyclone area is called _______.

A. ridge C. through
B. col D. doldrums

 The earth’s rotation affects the direction of the current in right


the Northern Hemisphere by deflecting the set towards the
_______.

A. right C. center
B. left D. lower latitude

 The date of a revised print is on the charts ______. right of the edition date

 As a cold front passes an observer, pressure _______. rises and winds become
variable

 After a cold front passes the barometric pressure usually rises, often quite
____. rapidly, with clearing
skies

 In the Southern Hemisphere, the westerlies blow roaring forties


throughout the year steadily approaching that of the trade
winds. These are called the ______.

 This is a swell wave emanating from distant storms which rollers


continue their progress across the oceans till they reach
shallow water when they abruptly steepen, increase in height
and sweep to the shore.

A. rollers C. surf
B. tidal wave D. tsunami

 Diurnal aberration is due to_______________. rotation of the Earth on


its axis

81
 What is a region between two highs and two lows? Saddle

A. Saddle C. V-shaped low


B. Secondary law D. Parallel isobars

 In making a synoptic observation, the following should be safety of life


considered EXCEPT:

 Charts used for planning , fixing position at sea on a long sailing charts
voyage are called _______.

 Which nautical publication gives an information if there sailing directions


will be a chance to meet an iceberg during the course of the
voyage.

A. sailing directions C. pilot chart


B. coast pilot D. coastal chart

 While voyage planning and navigating, a mariner must Sailing Directions


refer to both texts and tables. Tables include the following
EXCEPT:

 A 10-cm radar uses the: S-Band

 This is the result when the sea is warm compared with the sea smoke
air which flows over the surface of the sea.

 Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit Selective Availability
to have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning
Service receiver capability?

 Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit Selective Availability
to have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning
Service receiver capability?

 With regard to GPS, a civilian receiver may be capable of selective availability is


achieving the same accuracy as a military receiver set to zero
when________.

 The class of tide that prevails in the greatest number of semi-diurnal


important harbors on the Atlantic Coast is:

A. semi-diurnal C. mixed
B. interval D. diurnal

82
 When there are small differences between the heights of semi-diurnal
two successive high tides or two low tides, in a tidal day,
the tides are called _______.

A. semi-diurnal C. solar
B. diurnal D. mixed

 The radar control that reduces weak echoes out to a limited sensitivity time control
distance from the ship is the _______.

 The radar control used to reduce sea return at close ranges sensitivity time control
is the __________.

 A tint, 3 mm wide in TSS and between TSS and inshore separation line
traffic is _______.

A. separation line C. boundary line


B. limit line D. demarcation line

 A tint, any shape in TSS and between TSS and inshore separation zone
traffic is _______.

A. separation zone C. boundary zone


B. limit zone D. demarcation zone

 Which of the following will not contribute to the Ship's speed


commercial GPS receiver position error?

 The celestial coordinate of a star that is relatively constant in Sidereal hour angle
value is the:

A. Sidereal hour angle C. Greenwich Hour Angle


B. Local hour angle D. Meridian angle

 What do you call the snow and rain falling together, frozen sleet
consisting of transparent, rounded, hard rain-drop sized
grain of ice?

A. sleet C. frozen drizzle


B. hail D. frost

 Which instrument is the most useful in forecasting fog? sling psychromotor

 A line on Earth parallel to the equator is a __________. small circle

83
 A parallel of latitude other than the equator is a ______. small circle

 The earth receives 1,360 watts per square meter of the solar constant
solar energy. This is called:

A. solar constant C. solar wave


B. solar energy D. radiation

 The sun continuously emits charge particles called _____. solar wind

 An electronic depth finder operates on the principle that sound waves travel at a
____. constant speed through
water

 In the area of prevailing westerlies, and ocean current that South Atlantic Current
generally flows in the easterly direction to a point west of
Cape of Good Hope is called _______.

A. South Atlantic Current C. South American Current


B. North Atlantic Current D. Argentinian Current

 Tropical storms occur in all oceans EXCEPT in the: South Atlantic Ocean

A. South Atlantic Ocean C. Western South Pacific Ocean


B. South Indian Ocean D. Arabian Sea

 _______ flows westward in the general direction of the South Equatorial


southeast trades. Current

A. South Equatorial Current C. Davidson Current


B. Cape Horn Current D. Labrador Current

 In magnetism, it is the region in which the lines of force south pole


enter the iron.

 Because of the low temperatures near the geographical southeasterlies in the


poles of the earth, the surface pressure tends to remain Antarctic
higher than in surrounding regions since cold air is denser
than warm air. Consequently, winds blow outward from
the poles called:

 According to Buys Ballot law, when an observer in the south-southeast


northern hemisphere experiences a northeast wind the
center of low pressure is located to the __________.

84
 According to Buys Ballot Law, when an observer in the south-southwest
southern hemisphere experiences a northwest wind, the
center of the low pressure is located to the______.

 If a weather bulletin shows the center of a low pressure south-southwesterly


system to be 100 miles due east of you, what winds can
you expect in the southern hemisphere?

 Kamchatka current flows: southward

A. southward C. westward
B. northward D. eastward

 The usual sequence of directions in which a tropical cyclone southwest, south and
moves in the Southern Hemisphere is ________________. southeast

 In which direction does the Brazil Current flows? southwesterly

A. southwesterly C. southerly
B. northwesterly D. northerly

 Most GPS receivers use the Doppler shift of the carrier Speed
phase to compute ____.

 _______ is the gyro compass error introduced by the ship’s speed error
forward motion along its track.

A. speed error C. track line error


B. latitude error D. deflection error

 In voyage planning SOA means: speed of advance

 When the moon is new or full, what type of tides occur? Spring

A. Spring C. Diurnal
B. Neap D. Apogean

 Temperature decreases with height called _____. standard lapse rate

 These are stars in the galaxy that tend to congregate in Star clouds
groups arranged in long spiral arms.

85
 In the Nautical Almanac, are tabulated GHA of both the stars 57
sun and Aries, and also the declination of ______.

 On weather maps, alternate red and blue color indicates: stationary front

A. stationary front C. cold front


B. occluded front D. warm front

 Which of the following is a characteristic of the weather steadily falling


preceding an approaching warm front? barometric pressure

 Which of the following is typical of warm front weather steady precipitation


conditions?

 Monsoons are characterized by _______. steady winds that


reverse direction semi-
A. steady winds that reverse direction semi-annually annually
B. light, variable winds with little or no humidity
C. strong, gusty winds
D. strong, cyclonic winds

 A projection where points on the earth are transferred stereographic


directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is
the point opposite the plane point of tangency is
called______.

 It is a single crest wave and has no period or wavelength storm surge


called:

A. storm surge C. swell


B. tsunami D. ripples

 Fetch is the _____________. stretch of water over


which wave-forming
wind blows

 When solid particles is changed to water vapor, the process sublimation


is:

A. sublimation C. vaporization
B. condensation D. convection

 If a layer of cold, moist air over rides a shallow layer of Sub-refraction


warm, dry air, which of the following may occur?

86
 _______ is a squall with violent thunder, lightning, and Sumatra
rain, which blows at night in the Malacca Straits especially
during the southwest monsoon.

A. Sumatra C. Malaccan
B. Javaean D. Taku

 The star nearest to the earth is: sun

A. sun C. Sirius
B. Vega D. Altair

 The path followed by the sun towards Vega is called : Sun’s way

 Azimuth of the sun for compass error is best taken at: sun's low altitude

 An upper layer of warm, dry air over a surface layer of a Super-refraction


cold, moist air causes which of the following?

 It is a motion with a period intermediate between that of the surge


ordinary wind wave and that of the tide:

A. surge C. swell
B. bore D. seiche

 The sequence of tropical cyclone in the Southern SW, S and SE


Hemisphere is:

A. SW, S and SE C. N, NW and E


B. NW, W and S D. W, NW and N

 This is wave motion caused by meteorological disturbance swell


which persists after the disturbance has move away.

A. swell C. seiches
B. surge D. sea current

 This is the gyro compass error applicable in which tangent latitude error
damping is accompanied by offsetting the point of
application of the force from a mercury ballistic.

A. tangent latitude error C. ballistic error


B. damping error D. quadrantal error

87
 Fog forms when the air. Temperature equals or is
below the dew point
temperature

 The line separating the illuminated and darkened portions Terminator


of the moon is called:

 If it is impossible to avoid a hurricane in the Northern that half of the storm


Hemisphere, the most favorable place to be when storm lying to the left of the
passes is in ____________. storm path

 Little or no change in the barometric reading over a twelve that present weather
hour period indicates________. conditions will continue

 Planetary aberration is due in part, to______________. the body orbital motion


during the time required
for its light to reach the
earth

 The diurnal inequality of the tides is caused by _______. the declination of the
moon
A. the declination of the moon
B. changing the weather conditions
C. the Moon being at apogee
D. the Moon being at perigee

 Fog forms when the air temperature is at or below: The dew point

 The longitude of the GP of a celestial body will be East if : The Greenwich Hour
Angle is more than 180

 What happens because of augmentation? The Moon appears


larger as the elevation
increases

 Who has the con while navigating when the Master is on the OIC
the bridge?

 Which of the following statements is TRUE? the OIC must never


leave his post in the
bridge if not properly
relieved

88
 The same side of the moon is always turned towards the the period of rotation is
Earth because_______. equal to the period of
revolution

 What are the relative positions of the Sun, the earth, and a the Planet is between
planet when the planet is at inferior conjunction? the Earth and the Sun

A. the Planet is between the Earth and the Sun


B. the Sun is between the earth and the Planet
C. the Earth is between the Planet and the Sun
D. the Planet is between the Earth and Mercury

 The gyro compass has the least directional power at the : the sensitive element

 The term “velocity of escape” means____________. the speed at which the


molecules of the gas
making up the
atmosphere should
attain in order to
overcome the force of
gravity

 If the Earth’s rotation were stopped, which of the following The sun will rise from
conditions will happen? the West and sets to the
East due to revolution

 Apparent time is based on______________. the visible sun moving


along the ecliptic

 The area of lowest pressure along a line with minimum through


cyclonic curvature in the isobars on surface charts is called:

A. through C. wedge
B. ridge D. low pressure

 The lowest intervening part of the wave is called : through

A. through C. fetch
B. crest D. range

 A cold front moving in from the northwest can produce : Thunderstorms, hail,
and then rapid clearing

89
 _______ is a periodic motion of the sea due to gravitational tidal phenomenon
forces of various celestial bodies.

A. tidal phenomenon C. tidal current


B. tidal effect D. tidal stream

 An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational time and altitude


triangle with meridian angle, declination and altitude, it is azimuth
called _________________.

 An azimuth determined by solution of the navigational time azimuth


triangle with meridian angle, declination and latitude, it is
called ____________________.

 The equation of time measures the___________. time between the passage


of the mean sun and the
apparent sun over a
meridian

 When the equation of time is taken from the Nautical time of local apparent
Almanac for use in celestial navigation, it is used to noon
determine _______.

 You are steaming west in the North Atlantic in an to the north of you
extratropical cyclonic storm, and the wind, and the wind
is dead ahead. According to Buy Ballots Law, the center
of the law pressure lies _________.

 A dangerous semi-circle in the Northern Hemisphere is that to the right of the storm
area of the storm: track

A. to the right of the storm track


B. between the ship’s heading and the eye
C. to the left of the storm track
D. between the ship’s heading and the left of the storm

 In the Southern Hemisphere, the navigable semi-circle is: to the right of the
storm track
A. to the right of the storm track
B. in the dangerous semi-circle
C. ahead of the storm track
D. behind the storm center

 The navigable semicircle of a typhoon in the Southern to the right of the


Hemisphere is the area: storm track

90
 Original date of issue of a new chart is shown at the : top center margin

 The strength of the field at any point, measured in a total intensity


direction parallel to the field is called _______.

A. total intensity C. horizontal intensity


B. parallel intensity D. vertical intensity

 This is the belt of light and variable winds and fine clear trade wind belt
weather marking the central regions of the sub-tropical
high pressure belt.

 The winds blowing consistently from the horse latitudes to trade winds
the doldrums are called _______.

A. trade winds C. roaring forties


B. polar easterlies D. prevailing westerlies

 The winds that has the greatest effect on the set, drift, and trade winds
depth of the equatorial currents are the:

A. trade winds C. prevailing westerlies


B. doldrums D. equatorial winds

 Winds that blow from the belts of high pressure towards trade winds
the equatorial belts of low pressure are the ______.

 A device which converts electrical energy into sound energy transducer


and vice versa is called:

 In modern fathometers the sonic sound waves are produced transducer


electrically by means of a/an____.

 SATNAV has the following units EXCEPT: transmitter

A. transmitter C. data processor


B. antenna D. video display

 When the Moon’s declination is maximum north, which of Tropic tides


the following will occur?

A. Tropic tides
B. Higher high tides & lower low tides
C. Mixed-type tides
D. Equatorial tides

91
 Which of the following weather disturbances is classified by Tropical disturbance
from and intensity and which does not have closed isobars?

 Low pressure disturbances, which travel along the inter- tropical waves
tropical convergence zone, are called__________.

 The velocity of the apparent wind can be less than the true true wind from dead
wind and from the same direction, if certain conditions are astern
present. One condition is that the ___________.

 The velocity of the apparent wind can be more than the true wind must be from
true wind, and come from the same direction, if certain dead ahead
conditions are present. One condition is that the ______.

 A strong tidal wave is called _______. tsunami

A. tsunami C. cyclonic wave


B. tsurami D. tsushima

 Between the parallels of about 23º 26 N and about 23º 26 S Twice


the sun is directly overheard at some time during the year.
If you are situated between these two parallels how many
times in a year will the sun pass your zenith?

 Between the parallels of about 23º 26 North and 23º 26 twice


South the sun is directly overhead at sometime of the year.
If you are situated between these two parallels how many
times in a year will the sun pass you zenith?

 When operated over a muddy bottom, a fathometer may two depth reading
indicate _____

 Which factor has the greatest effect on the amount of gain Type of bottom
required to obtain a fathometer reading?

 If a navigational computer is not available for constructing use of gnomonic chart to


a track in voyage planning, the easiest method is the: plot a great circle route

 The angle between the magnetic and geographic meridians variation


at any place east or west to indicate the direction of
magnetic north from the true north is called :

 Conjunction is not possible for ___________. Venus

92
 Inferior conjunction is possible for ____________. Venus

 Which of the planet in the Solar System has almost the same Venus
size as the Earth?

A. Venus C. Pluto
B. Neptune D. Mars

 What is the point on the track of a tropical cyclone where vertex


the curvature is greatest?

A. vertex C. vortex
B. trough D. eye

 What does the term “tide” refer to? Vertical movement of the
water
A. Vertical movement of the water
B. Horizontal movement of the water
C. Mixing tendency of the water
D. Salinity constant of the water

 The extreme horizontal distance at which prominent objects visibility


can be seen and identified by the unaided eye.

 Clouds appearing in the following order: cirrus, warm front


cirrostratus, altostratus, status, and nimbostratus usually
indicate the approach of a (n) ______________.

 If the cloud is observed to appear in the following order: warm front


cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus stratus and nimbostratus,
this would indicate the approach of a/an:

A. warm front C. occluded front


B. cold front D. thunderstorm

 On weather maps, red color indicates: warm front

A. warm front C. occluded front


B. cold front D. stationary front

 Fog is most commonly associated with a (an). Warm front at night

 On a weather map, triangles are pointing toward the : warmer air

93
 On mid-ocean waters, the height of a wind-generated wave water depth exceeding
is not affected by the: 100 feet

 Fog is most commonly associated with a/an: water front at night

 A small whirling storm over the ocean or inland waters and waterspout
is like a funnel-shaped cloud dropping to the ocean is called
_______.

A. waterspout C. depression
B. whirlwind D. tornado

 This is the vertical distance between the trough and the wave height
crest.

A. wave height C. wave range


B. altitude D. wave length

 This is the vertical distance between the trough and the wave height
crest.

 A Loran receiver’s major advantage is its ability to store : waypoints

 The state of the atmosphere with respect to temperature, weather


humidity, precipitation, visibility, cloudiness, and other
factors is called ______.

 Which gyro pilot adjustment is set to zero except when it weather adjustment
is desirable to allow the ship to respond to the temporary
action of heavy seas?

 ______ is a transmission sent to the ship advising the weather advisory


master of expected adverse conditions, duration and
geographic extent.

 Charts through Notice To Mariners are updated: Weekly

 Light Lists through Notice To Mariners are updated: weekly

 Notice To Mariners is published: weekly

 The Local Notice to Mariners is usually published _____. weekly

94
 Because of the earth rotation, the moving air is deflected west
toward the ______.

 The North Equatorial Current flows to the _______. west

A. west C. northeast
B. east D. southwest

 In the middle latitudes, wind travels generally from: west to east

A. west to east C. south to north


B. north to south D. east to west

 Current that flows easterly around Antarctica is termed as West wind drift
_______.

A. West wind drift C. Antarctic Current


B. Falkland Current D. Gulf Stream

 In the Antarctic the circulation is generally from west to east West Wind Drift
in a broad, slow-moving current extending completely
around Antarctica, this is called the _______.

A. West Wind Drift C. East Wind Drift


B. Circumpolar Wind Drift D. Antarctica Current

 The precession of the equinoxes occurs in a(n) _______. westerly direction

A. westerly direction C. easterly direction


B. northerly direction D. southerly direction

 Agulhas current generally flows: westward

A. westward C. eastward
B. northward D. southward

 Neap tides occur only _______. when the Moon is at


quadrature
A. when the Moon is at quadrature
B. at a new or full moon
C. when the Sun, Moon and Earth are in line
D. at approximately 28-day intervals

95
 Priming of the tides occurs _______. when the Moon is
between new and first
A. when the Moon is between new and first quarter and quarter and between
between third quarter and new third quarter and new
B. at times of new and full Moon
C. when the Earth, Moon and Sun are lying approximately
on the same line
D. when the Moon is between first quarter and full and
between third quarter and new

 Spring tides occur _______. when the Sun, Moon and


Earth are nearly in line,
A. when the Sun, Moon and Earth are nearly in line, in any in any order
order
B. at the start of spring, when the Sun is nearly over the
equator
C. only when the Sun and Moon are on the same side of the
earth and nearly in line
D. when the Sun and Moon are at approximately 90-deg. to
each other as seen from the Earth

 In a river subject to tidal currents, the best time to dock a when there is a head
ship without the assistance of tugs is____________. current

 A warm front marks the region _________________. where a warm air is


replacing cold air

 Two generating forces of ocean currents are: wind and density


differences
A. wind and density differences
B. water depth and ocean contour
C. density and water depth
D. temperature and salinity

 The wind in the dangerous semi-circle of a tropical cyclone wind circulation and
is higher in velocity due to the: forward motion of the
storm
A. wind circulation and forward motion of the storm
B. extension of the low pressure ridge
C. direction of circulation and pressure gradient
D. recurvature effect

 The wind velocity is higher in the dangerous semi-circle of a wind circulation and
tropical cyclone because of the _______. forward motion of the
storm
A. wind circulation and forward motion of the storm
B. extension of the low pressure ridge
C. direction of circulation and pressure gradient
D. recurvature effect

96
 Appendices of the Planning Guide contains the following wind force and current
information EXCEPT : sets

 The apparent wind speed can be zero only when two wind speed equals the
conditions are present. One condition is that the true ship speed
_____________.

 Capricorn is the point of: winter solstice

 What publication contains information about the port World Port Index
facilities in Cadiz, Spain?

 The difference of latitude between the GP and your position, zenith distance
at the time when the celestial body is on the meridian, is
represented by:

A. zenith distance C. altitude


B. co-latitude D. declination

 When the moon is at New Moon its elongation is ______. zero

 A circular band of the sky extending 8 degrees on each side zodiac


of the ecliptic is called:

 A faint glow observed extending upward along the ecliptic zodiacal light
before sunrise and after sunset is called ______.

 This is a faint cone of light which extends upward from the zodiacal light
horizon along the ecliptic after sunset or before sunrise.

 You are using a racetrack turn to recover a man 180°


overboard. The vessel is first steadied when how many
degrees away from the original heading?

A. 60° to 70° C. 135°


B. 90° D. 180°

 In a racetrack turn, to recover a man overboard, the vessel 360°


is steadied for the SECOND time after a turn of how many
degrees from the original heading?

A. 60° C. 180°
B. 135° D. 360°

97
 The axis of precession describes an angle of inclination as 41,000 years
the earth moves towards the direction of star VEGA,
caused by a force which tends to rotate the earth axis
perpendicular to plane of the ecliptic. This physical
character has a cycle of:

 Tropical cyclones normally form within which of the 5° to 15°


following belts of latitude?

A. 5° to 15°
B. 15° to 30°
C. 30° to 45°
D. 45° to 60°

 In the Celestial Equator System of coordinates, when the 90°


body is along the Pn-Ps line, therefore the Meridian Angle
is:

 Which of the following should NOT be used as an indicator a dark appearance of


that ice may be nearby? the sky

A. a dark appearance of the sky


B. A gradual drop in sea water temperature to below 32° F
C. A yellowish glare in the sky
D. The presence of seals or certain type birds

 The Coordinator Surface Search (CSS) in a SAR situation a distinctive signal


should display by night: promulgated by the
CSS

 What is an “Anticyclone”? A system of high


atmospheric pressure
A. A system of high atmospheric pressure
B. A system of low atmospheric pressure
C. A secondary depression in the rear of a low pressure
system
D. It is the correct meteorological name for a
typhoon/hurricane

NOTE: “CYCLONE” = Low Pressure

“ANTI-CYCLONE” = High Pressure


(ANTI means opposite)

98
 What classification of tropical cyclone would have closed A tropical storm
isobars, counter clockwise rotary circulation, and sustained
winds between 34 and 63 knots?

A. A tropical disturbance
B. A tropical depression
C. A tropical storm
D. A hurricane

 What level of development of a tropical cyclone has a A tropical storm


hundred mile radius of circulation, gale force winds, less
than 990 millibars of pressure and vertically formed
cumulonimbus clouds?

A. A tropical disturbance
B. A tropical depression
C. A tropical storm
D. A typhoon

 As the South Equatorial Current approaches the East Agulhas current


Coast of Africa, it divides with the main part flowing South
to form the warm:

A. Agulhas current
B. Benguela current
C. Canary current
D. Madagascar current

 What will occur when relating to humidity at 100%? AIR is saturated or


there will be RAIN

 Major category(ies) of NAVTEX is/are _______. all of these

A. all of these
B. meteorological warnings
C. meteorological forecasts
D. navigational warnings

 Fog is formed when: all of these conditions


are correct
A. all of these conditions are correct
B. the moisture in the air condenses into small droplets
C. air is cooled to its dew point
D. the base of a cloud is on the ground

99
 A stationary front on a weather chart is colored: alternating red and blue

A. red
B. alternating red and blue
C. purple
D. blue

 Which of the following when subtracted from 90 ° will give Altitude


the radius of almucantar?

 It is a small circle parallel to the sensible horizon and Altitude circle


passes through the body.

 What can you find in the last pages of the NAUTICAL altitude correction of
Almanac? the moon

A. altitude corrections for sun, stars and planet


B. altitude correction of Mercury and Venus
C. altitude correction of the moon
D. dip table

 A body at the observer’s zenith will have a/an: Altitude of 90°

 Gray patches . . . Altocumulus

 Ball shaped masses . . . Altocumulus

 The angular distance between the prime vertical and the Amplitude
hour circle of the body with prefix sign is otherwise known
as:

 It is the angular distance between the prime vertical and Amplitude


the sun during rising and setting.

 With respect to failure warnings and status indications, an alarm if a new


GPS receivers should provide, at a minimum: position has not been
calculated within the
last two seconds

100
 A submerged ice attached to the bottom irrespective of the anchor ice
nature of its formation is called:

A. anchor ice
B. iceberg
C. compact ice
D. polynya

 The optical principle of a marine sextant is when a ray of Angle of incidence


light is reflected from a plane surface, the angle of
reflection is equal to the_________.

 What is Right Ascension? angular distance of a


celestial body east of
Aries

 It is the altitude of the centre of a heavenly body when Apparent altitude


measured from the sensible horizon.

 A relatively thin shell of air, water vapor, and suspended Atmosphere


particulates surrounding the earth is called:

A. Stratosphere C. Troposphere
B. Ionosphere D. Atmosphere

 The intercepted arc of the horizon between the principal Azimuth


vertical circle and the vertical circle passing through the
body when rising or setting is called:

 It is the arc of the horizon measured either clockwise or Azimuth angle


counter clockwise through 180º starting at the North point
of the horizon in the North latitude and the South point of
the horizon the South latitude

 Developed with tangent plane. With the result that bearing Azimuthal projection
of a point from the centre are correctly represented.

101
 The inner cloud bands of a hurricane, when viewed from a bar of the storm
distance, form a mass of dense, black cumulonimbus clouds
called the ________.

A. bar of the storm


B. eye of the storm
C. funnel
D. front

 The inner cloud bands in a hurricane viewed from a bar of the storm
distance from a mass of dense black cumulonimbus clouds
is called the:

A. bar of the storm C. funnel


B. eye of the storm D. tower of the storm

 This is a local strong wind carrying damp snow or sleet and Barber
spray that freezes upon contact with objects:

A. barber
B. katabatic wind
C. anabatic wind
D. abroholos

 The passing of a low pressure system can be determined by Barometer


periodically checking the____________.

A. Barometer C. hygrometer
B. thermometer D. anemometer

 Which do the numbers on isobars indicate? barometric pressure

A. barometric pressure C. rain in inches


B. temperature D. wind speed

 Parallax is caused by : Being on the surface of


the earth rather at its
center

 On a voyage from Cape Town to London, the favorable Benguela current


ocean current off the coast of Africa is the:

A. Canary current
B. Agulhas current
C. Benguela current
D. South Atlantic current

102
 Which current would you encounter on a direct passage Benguela current
from London, England to Cape Town, South Africa?

A. Falkland current
B. Norway current
C. Brazil current
D. Benguela current

 A cold front on a weather chart is colored: Blue

A. blue
B. purple
C. red
D. alternating red and blue

 If Declination plus the latitude equals 90° and of the same Body is tangent to the
names, the: horizon at lower transit

A. Body passes exactly at the zenith of the observer


B. Body does not rise anymore
C. Body is exactly to the horizon at upper transit
D. Body is tangent to the horizon at lower transit

 What current flows southward along the west coast of the California Current
United States and causes extensive fog in that area?

A. Davidson Current
B. North Pacific Current
C. Alaska Current
D. California Current

 Chart legends which indicate a conspicuous landmark are capital letters


printed in:

 The imaginary sphere of infinite radius with the earth at its Celestial sphere
centre.

 Zenith is the point on the ___________ vertically overhead celestial sphere


of the observer.

 Equinoctial is formed by projecting the earth’s equator to celestial sphere


the:

103
 The imaginary sphere of infinite radius with the earth at its Celestial sphere
center.

 A sextant error where the pivot of the index bar is not at Centering error
the center of the arc.

 Chart symbols and abbreviations are shown in _______. Chart No.1

 Earth’s representation on a surface either plane or curved Chart projection


according to a definite plan.

 In the Northern Hemisphere, the major ocean currents clockwise around the
tend to flow: North Atlantic and
North Pacific oceans
A. clockwise around the North Atlantic and North Pacific
oceans
B. clockwise or counter-clockwise depending on whether it
is a warm or a cold current
C. counter-clockwise except in the Gulf Stream
D. counter-clockwise around the North Atlantic and North
Pacific Oceans

 The radius of the almucantar is equal to the: co-altitude or zenith


distance

 You are entering a harbor for the first time, which of the Coast pilot
publications would you consult?

 The Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) contain Coastal features


information on all of the following EXCEPT:

 Neck of low pressure between two highs. Col

 In the celestial equator system of coordinates, when the Co-latitude


body’s diurnal circle coincides with the celestial equator,
the altitude during upper transit will be equal to the:

104
 When cold air displaces warm air you have a (n) _______. cold front

A. cold front
B. occluded front
C. stationary front
D. warm front

 An occluded front is usually caused by a: cold front overtaking a


warm front

 A sextant error when the axis of the telescope is not parallel Collimation error
to the plane of the instrument.

 ________ is a sailing in which you take a parallel sailing to composite sailing


limit the altitude of your track.

 The heat transfer from particle to particle is known as: Conduction

A. radiation
B. conduction
C. convection
D. induction

 Developed on a tangent or secant cones or cones. Conic projection

 When the air is warmed, it tends to rise. This heat transfer Convection
is called:

A. Advection C. Convection
B. Conduction D. Radiation

 Ascending and descending air masses with different Convection


temperature is part of an important heat transmitting
process in our atmosphere called ____.

A. Convection C. conduction
B. radiation D. barometric inversion

 The direction in which a vessel is steered is the course the Course over the ground
path actually followed is the:

105
 What do you call the relatively low pressure area which is Cyclone
generally circular.

A. Anticyclone C. Col
B. Cyclone D. Squall

 It is developed on a tangent cylinder, which is then spread Cylindrical projection


out to form a plane.

 A good chart can be distinguished from indifferent one by: date of correction

 All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Declination


Horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT:

 The angular distance of a celestial body north or south of Declination


the celestial equator measured along the hour circle of the
body is known as:

 The polar distance of the body is said to be equal to 090º Declination of the body
when is 0º

 “Ease the rudder” means to: Decrease the rudder


angle

 The highest level of commercial navigational accuracy is DGPS, within a


provided by ____. coverage area

 It is the angle between the horizontal plane through Dip


observers eye .

 This is the correction to the sextant altitude applied to the Dip


visible horizon to obtain the sensible horizon .

 The daily path of a celestial body that is parallel to the Diurnal circle
equinoctial.

106
 Katabatic wind blows: Down an incline due to
cooling of air
A. Up an incline due to surface heating
B. In a circular pattern
C. Down an incline due to cooling of air
D. Horizontally between a high and a low pressure area

NOTE: Katabatic = Down

Anabatic = Up

 This is the wind blowing up on an incline as a result of anabatic wind


surface heating.

A. anabatic wind C. katabatic wind


B. foehn D. fall wind

 What kind of wind which blows up an incline usually as a Anabatic wind


result of surface heating?

A. Katabatic wind
B. Foehn
C. Fall wind
D. Anabatic wind

 PrimE vertical: E/W (East/West)

 PrinNcipal vertical circle: N/S (North/South)

 In mid-oceans, the characteristics of a wave are determined effect of the moon’s


by three factors. What is NOT one of these factors? gravity

A. effect of the moon’s gravity


B. fetch
C. wind velocity
D. length of time the wind is blowing

 If a celestial body is at your meridian the azimuth is: Either North or South

 The hour cycle that passes through the First Point of Aries equinoctial colure
is known as the:

 It is the term used when the ecliptic intersects the celestial Equinoxes
equator.

107
 The points of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial Equinoxes
equator are called_______.

 In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E-N


coordinates, when the body rises to the left of the Prime
Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named.

 In the orthographic projection of the horizon system of E-S


coordinates, when the body rises to the right of the Prime
Vertical (PV), the amplitude is named:

 Salinity in the Mediterranean is increased by: Evaporation

 You are proceeding to the area of reported distress. When Expanding square
you arrive at the reported position, the vessel in distress is
not sighted. What type of search should be conducted?

A. Sector search
B. Expanding square
C. Track crawl
D. Parallel track search

 At the top of the center of the chart is the date of ______. first edition of the chart

 In the Horizon system of coordinates, the arc of the horizon First Quadrant
measured from the East point of the horizon in a direction
towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North
Celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

 In the Horizon System of coordinates, the arc of the horizon Fourth Quadrant
measured from the West point of the horizon in a direction
towards the Principal Vertical circle through the North
celestial Pole will give an amplitude in which quadrant?

 What describes an accurate position that is not based on Fix


any prior position?

A. Dead-reckoning position
B. Estimated position
C. Fix
D. Running fix

108
 The height of a wave is the vertical distance: from the crest to trough

A. from the still water plane to the crest


B. from the still water plane to the trough
C. from the crest to trough
D. between the water levels at one quarter of wave’s
length

 Which of the following would occur when an extremely cold Frost smoke
air from shore passes over warmer water?

A. Advection fog C. Convection fog


B. Frost smoke D. Land breeze

 Chart with a natural scale of 1:180,000 is classified as a: General chart

 ________ are intended for coastwise navigation outside of general charts


outlying reefs and shoals.

 What distance of visibility is that which light may be seen in Geographical range
clear weather computed in nautical miles for a height of the
observer’s eye of 15 feet above sea level?

A. Visible range
B. Geographical range
C. Computed range
D. Luminous range

 It is the angular distance measured from the Greenwich GHA


meridian to the body.

 A projection where points on the earth are transferred gnomonic


directly to a plane and the origin of the projecting rays is
the center of the earth is called:

 Which is commonly used for planning great circle track? gnomonic chart

 Which chart is commonly used for planning great circle gnomonic chart
track?

 All lines represent a great circle tracks on a chart. Gnomonic projection

109
 It is based on a plane tangent at one point. Gnomonic projection

 All parallels except the equator appear as curved lines. Gnomonic projection

 The projection in which the meridians appear as straight gnomonic projection


lines converging toward the nearer pole is called _______.

 Which of the following statements is TRUE with respect to Go astern in ice with
ship handling procedures in ice? extreme care-always
with rudder amidships
A. Never go “full astern” at any time while in ice
B. Go astern in ice with extreme care-always with rudder
amidships
C. Enter ice at medium speeds to reduce impact
D. The presence of a snow cover on the ice assists a
vessel’s progress through an ice field

 A low HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision) number good fix


such as 2 indicates a:

 Which is NOT a contributing cause of ocean currents? gravitational effects of


celestial bodies
A. surface winds
B. density differences in water
C. underwater topography
D. gravitational effects of celestial bodies

 It is a circle on the surface of the sphere, where plane Great circle


passes through the center of the sphere.

 _____________ involves a solution of courses, distances, great circle sailing


and points along a track between two points.

 An ocean current that generally flows along the coast of Gulf Stream
Florida towards the North Atlantic is called:

A. Gulf Stream
B. Guinea Current
C. North Stream
D. Florida Current

110
 ________ are intended for navigation and anchorage in harbor charts
harbor and small waterways.

 A great circle through the celestial poles and a point or Hour circle
body on the celestial sphere

 Vertical circle is to the horizon system, what Great circle is Hour circle
for celestial equator system of coordinates?

 The hillock of a broken ice is: Hummock

A. floe
B. hummock
C. moraine
D. nunatak

 Which of the following can be measured from the Horizon I, II and III
System of Coordinates?

I. Zenith distance
II. Amplitude
III. Co-altitude

A. I and II only
B. II and III only
C. II only
D. I, II and III

 This is composed of ice crystals and reduces visibility. ice fog

A. haze
B. ice fog
C. sleet
D. frost

 It is the sextant error when the horizon and index mirror Index error
are not parallel.

 You plot a fix in three lines of position and find they Is the geometric center
intersect in a triangle, this actual position of the vessel: of the triangle

A. Is outside of the triangle


B. May be anywhere in a triangle
C. May be inside or outside of the triangle
D. Is the geometric center of the triangle

111
 The current that, in many respects, is similar to the Gulf Kuroshio
Stream is the:

A. Kuroshio
B. Oyashio
C. California current
D. Benguela current

 Which current is “warm” based on the latitude in which it Kuroshio current


originates and on the effect it has on climates?

A. Kuroshio current
B. Peru current
C. Benguela current
D. California current

 The cold ocean current which meets the warm Gulf Stream Labrador current
between latitudes 40° and 43° N to form the “cold wall” is
called the _________.

A. North Cape current


B. Greenland current
C. Labrador current
D. North Atlantic current

 Which current is responsible for the movement of the Labrador current


icebergs into the North Atlantic shipping lanes?

A. Iceland current
B. Labrador current
C. Baltic current
D. Baffin current

 It is a conic projection chart features straight lines, which Lambert conformal


closely approximates a great circle.

 It is the practical charts used in very high latitudes. Lambert conformal

 It is a conic projection with two standard parallels. Lambert conformal


Developed on a cone which intersects the sphere or projection
spheroids at two standard parallels.

 In the daily pages of the Nautical Almanac, a circle with the Last quarter
right hand side fully shaded indicates:

112
 The amplitude will be numerically equal to the declination Latitude is zero
only when:

 If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90 degrees, the: Latitude of the observer
is at the pole

 It is the angular distance measured westerly from the LHA


observer’s meridian to the hour circle passing through the
body.

 It is the angular distance measured from the local celestial LHA


meridian westward through 360º .

 What do you call the line connecting perihelion and the Line of apsides
aphelion?

 For sunrise and sunset in the Nautical Almanac given. . . LMT

 In the lower right hand column of the daily pages of the LMT
Almanac, the time of Meridian Passage (M.P.) is given in:

 This cannot be used as a standard time since it differs from LMT


every meridian. Its principal use in rising, setting and
twilight tables.

 In the time diagram, the time-arc of the celestial equator Local Sidereal Time
between the hour circle of the vernal equinox to the
observer’s Meridian is called:

 New edition on the chart is found on the: Lower left hand corner

 When a first edition of a chart is printed, the original date lower left hand corner
of issue of a new chart is shown at the top center margin
and;

 The revision date of a chart is printed on what area of the lower-left corner
chart?

113
 During meridian passage, the LHA and meridian angle of Maximum altitude
the body is zero. What is its altitude?

 The length of a wave is the length: measured from crest to


crest
A. of the wave’s crest
B. of the wave’s trough
C. measured from crest to trough
D. measured from crest to crest

 It is a cylindrical projection. Mercator chart

 It is a conformal map projection. Mercator projection

 A cartographer cannot transfer a sphere to a flat surface Mercator projection


without distortion , he must project the surface of a sphere
onto a plane surface. An example of this projection is that
the cylinder tangent along the Equator called :

 ________________ is similar to plane sailing but uses Mercator sailing


meridional difference and difference in longitude in place
of difference of latitude and departure.

 The angle measured from the observer’s meridian either Meridian angle
eastward or westward to the body and named East if rising
and West if setting.

 All of the following arcs or angles can be measured in the Meridian angle
horizon system of coordinates EXCEPT:

 ________ uses the mean latitude for converting departure middle latitude sailing
to difference of longitude when the course is not due east or
west.

 Small “v” in the nautical almanac. Moon

A. Moon
B. Stars
C. Sun
D. Sun/Moon

114
 ________ represents part of the spherical earth on a plane nautical chart
surface.

 What is the phase of the moon when it rises during sunrise? New moon

 The maximum distance that a light be seen when the nominal range
weather is clear is called:

A. nominal range C. geographic range


B. luminous range D. computed range

 When the Gulf stream decreases speed until it becomes North Atlantic Current
slow, it is called:

A. Florida Current
B. North Atlantic Current
C. Labrador Current
D. Norwegian Current

 Sailing Directions contain: numbered sections


along a coast or through
a strait

 What type of projection is formed if a plane is tangent to Oblique gnomonic


the earth, and the points are geometrically form the center
of the Earth?

 A cyclone in its final stage of development is called a (n) : occluded cyclone or


occluded front
A. tornado
B. anticyclone
C. occluded cyclone or occluded front
D. polar cyclone

 Tropical cyclones do not form within 5° of the Equator of negligible Coriolis


because : force

A. there are no fronts in that area


B. it is too hot
C. it is too humid
D. of negligible Coriolis force

115
 The navigational triangle is NOT formed when the body is: on the observer’s
meridian

 If the GHA of the moon differs by 180° by that of the sun, Opposition
it said to be at:

NOTE: OPPOSITION means 180 degrees difference or


exactly opposite

 If the moon reaches a point wherein it is completely Opposition


illuminated, it is at:

 The sun rises exactly at the time when the moon is setting. Opposition
The moon is at__________.

 After passing the first Quarter phase, the moon become full Opposition
moon at:

 If the age of the moon is approximately 14 & 1/2 days, it is Opposition


said to be at:

 Which of the following is NOT a function of the Ice Organize and equip the
Navigation Center? Ice Patrol

A. Schedule Coast Guard ice reconnaissance


B. Keep abreast of merchant vessel movement
C. Keep abreast of Coast Guard icebreaker movement
D. Organize and equip the Ice Patrol

 If terrestrial points are projected geometrically from orthographic projection


infinity to a tangent plane, the projection is called :

 Emanating from a point at infinity, are perpendicular to a Orthographic


tangent plane. projection

 Projecting lines are parallel to each other. Orthographic


projection

116
 Cold water flowing southward through the western part of Oyashio current
the Bering Sea between Alaska and Siberia is joined by
water circulating counter-clockwise in the Bearing Sea to
form the:

A. Alaska current
B. Kuroshio current
C. Subartic current
D. Oyashio current

 These are circular pieces of ice called: pancake ice

A. ice cake
B. frazil ice
C. pancake ice
D. ice floes

 This correction is not applicable when taking the sight of Parallax


the star.

 What correction to the altitude of the moon but not to the Parallax
altitude of the sun is taken from the daily pages of the
almanac?

A. Refraction
B. Parallax
C. Coriolis
D. Semi-diameter

 _________ is the interconversion of departure and parallel sailing


difference of longitude when a vessel is proceeding due east
or west.

 What is the search pattern system called using more than Parallel System
one ship?

A. Parallel System
B. Cross System
C. Circle System
D. Triangle System

 It is the sextant error on the index mirror when not Perpendicularity error
perpendicular to the plane of the instrument.

117
 Which of the following should be consulted to obtain Pilot chart
information about the general current circulation in the
North Atlantic Ocean?

 _______ solves problems involving a single course and plane sailing


distance, difference of latitude

 Water in the air, except: Plasma

A. Water vapor
B. Water droplet
C. Ice particle
D. Plasma

 It is the distance measured from the hour circle from the Polar distance
elevated pole to the body.

 Are the points on the sphere which are 90º removed from Poles of great circle
all points on the great circle.

 Suitable for marine surveying. Polyconic Chart

 Distance is measured by parallel lines. Polyconic chart

 Developed on a series of tangent cones, which is then spread Polyconic projection


out to form a plane.

 Series of cones tangent at selected parallels. Polyconic projection

 The great circle that passes through the Zenith and Nadir Prime vertical

 Vertical circle with passes through the East and west point PrimE vertical circle
of the horizon

 An occluded front on a weather chart is colored: Purple

A. red
B. red and blue
C. purple
D. blue

118
 What will act to dissipate Fog? Radiation
A. convection
B. evaporation
C. radiation
D. conduction

 A warm front on a weather chart is colored: Red

A. purple
B. blue
C. alternating red and blue
D. red

 This is the result when the rays of light passes from one Refraction
medium to another of different density

 The angular distance measured from vernal equinox Right ascension (RA)
eastward and usually expressed in unit of time

 It is the angular distance measured easterly from the first Right ascension (RA)
point of Aries to the body.

 This is a swell wave emanating from distant storms which rollers


continue their progress across the oceans till they reach
shallow water when they abruptly steepen, increase in
height and sweep to the shore.

A. rollers C. surf
B. tidal wave D. tsunami

 The smallest scale chart used for planning, fixing position sailing chart
at sea and for plotting the dead reckoning while proceeding
on a long voyage is the _____.

 Which nautical publication gives an information if there sailing directions


will be a chance to meet an iceberg during the course of the
voyage?

 The ratio of a given distance on the chart to the actual Scale


distance it represents on the earth

119
 While you are on watch, you learn that a crewman has not Scharnow
been seen on board for the past three hours. What type of
turn is best in this man overboard situation?

A. Round C. Racetrack
B. Scharnow D. Single turn 180 degrees

 The most probable position of the search target at a given Search Datum
time taking into consideration the effect of DRIFT since the
initial position of the incident was established.

 Any circle which passes through the poles of another great Secondary great circle
circle

 A man was sighted as he fell overboard. After completing a Sector search


Williamson turn, the man is not sighted. What type of
search should be conducted?

A. Expanding circle
B. Sector search
C. Parallel track pattern
D. Datum-drift search

 Which feature, when set to zero, might allow a GPS unit to Selective Availability
have an accuracy equivalent to Precise Positioning Service
receiver capability?

 It is the angle actually measured between the body and the Sextant altitude
visible horizon

 It is the angular distance measured from the first point of SHA


Aries to the star.

 Angle at the pole measured from 000º to 360º westward SHA


from the meridian of the star.

 It is the sextant error if the horizon mirror is not Side error


perpendicular to the plane of the instrument

 The scale is correct along any meridian Simple conic projection

120
 Any circle on the surface of the sphere which does not pass Small circle
through the centre of sphere and therefore does not divide
the sphere into two equal halves

 Which current would you encounter on a direct passage South Atlantic Current
from South Africa to Argentina, South America?

A. South Atlantic Current


B. Agulhas
C. South Equatorial
D. Guinea

 An ocean current that generally flows in the easterly South Atlantic Current
direction to a point west of Cape of Good in the arc of
prevailing westerlies is called:

A. South Atlantic Current


B. South American Current
C. North Atlantic Current
D. Argentinian Current

 The usual sequence of directions in which a tropical cyclone southwest, south and
moves in the Southern Hemisphere is _______. southeast

A. northwest, west, and south


B. southwest, south and southeast
C. north, northwest and east
D. west, northwest and north

 ________ results from projecting points on the surface of stereographic


the Earth onto a tangent plane, from a point on the surface projection
of the Earth opposite the point of tangency.

 Radial lines from any point on the surface to a plane to the Stereographic
antipode of the point of the projection. projection

 Projecting rays is the point opposite the planes point of Stereographic


tangency. projection

 The horizontal area covered by cyclonic condition is the: storm field

A. stormy area
B. vertex
C. storm field
D. vortex

121
 A relatively thin shell of air, water vapor, and suspended Atmosphere
particulates surrounding the earth is called _____.

LAYERS of Atmosphere (TSMTE) UPPER LAYERS

TROPOSPHERE
TROPOPAUSE
STRATOSPHERE
STRATOPAUSE
MESOSPHERE
MESOPAUSE
THERMOSPHERE
THERMOPAUSE
EXOSPHERE

Note: Layer = SPHERE


Upper Layer = PAUSE

 On top of the tropopause is the layer ______. stratosphere

 Layer between thermosphere and exosphere. Thermopause

 The layer of the atmosphere between the troposphere and Tropopause


the stratosphere is the:

A. Stratopause C. Exosphere
B. Mesopause D. Tropopause

 The top of the troposphere is marked by a transition layer tropopause


called:

 A layer in the atmosphere with a negligible quantity of gas, thermosphere


whose temperature increases with increase in height.

A. thermosphere C. stratosphere
B. ionosphere D. mesosphere

 As altitude increases, air pressure decreases due to troposphere


decreased weight of air above. More than of the air is
concentrated within a layer called _____.

 The layer of the atmosphere above the stratosphere is mesosphere


called:

122
 Fetch is the: stretch of water over
which a wave forming
A. distance a wave travels between formation and decay wind blows
B. stretch of water over which a wave forming wind blows
C. time in seconds required for two crests to pass a given
point
D. measurement of a wave steepness

 A sea breeze is a wind: That blows towards an


island during the day
A. That blows towards the sea at night
B. That blows towards an island during the day
C. Caused by cold air descending a coastal incline
D. Caused by the distant approach of a hurricane

 What wind results from a land mass cooling more quickly Land breeze
at night than the adjacent water area?

A. Coastal breeze
B. Sea breeze
C. Land breeze
D. Mistral

 The Geographical longitude of the body will be numerically the body is setting
equal to the Meridian angle only when:

 The Coordinator Surface Search in a SAR situation should The code flags FR
display by day:

A. The code flags FR


B. Code flag Quebec over a black ball
C. A black ball over a black diamond shape
D. Two black diamond shapes in a vertical line

 If the altitude of the elevated pole is 90°, therefore: The latitude of the
observer is at the pole
A. The Polar distance is also 90°
B. The Declination is indeterminate
C. The latitude of the observer is at the pole
D. The Polar distance equals the declination

 The ecliptic is: the path the Sun


appears to take among
the stars

123
 What are the relative positions of the Sun, the Earth and a the Planet is between
Planet when the planet is at inferior conjunction? the Earth and the Sun

 Which of the following is NOT an indication that pack ice The presence of
may be nearby? icebergs

A. The presence of icebergs


B. Ice blink
C. Absence of wave motion
D. Sighting a walrus in the Arctic

 Your ship is navigating independently in heavy ice when it The propeller is more
becomes beset. Which of the following statements is NOT susceptible to ice
true? damage when turning
slowly than when
A. The vessel will most likely require an icebreaker to free stopped
her
B. The vessel may be able to free herself by pumping
ballast from side to side
C. The propeller is more susceptible to ice damage when
turning slowly than when stopped
D. It is advisable to clear the rudder area of ice by using
ahead turns before backing down

 The date of the chart-Nautical charts bear three dates This issue contains all
which are important to persons using them. The first up to date which are
edition date (month year) printed centrally in the upper hand corrected in the
margin. old issues.

 The date of the chart-Nautical charts bear three dates This issue contains all
which are important to persons using them. The first up to date which are
edition date (month year) printed centrally in the upper hand corrected in the
margin. old issues.

 The path of intended travel between three or more points is Track


the:

 ________ combines plane sailing solutions when there are traverse sailing
two or more courses and determines the equivalent course
and distance made good by a vessel steaming along a series
of rhumblines.

124
 The angular distance of the body above the rational True altitude
horizon. An arc of the vertical circle which passes through
the body contained between the rational horizon and the
body is called:

 What are leaning type of letters in Nautical charts used underwater and floating
for? features

 One of the factors which affects the circulation of ocean Varying densities of
current is: water

A. Humidity C. Vessel traffic


B. Varying densities of water D. The jet stream

 This is defined as the speed the molecules making up the velocity of escape
atmosphere in order to overcome the force of gravity.

 It is a great circle passing through the observer’s zenith Vertical circle


which is perpendicular to the rational horizon.

 When a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass, the warm front
contract surface is called a:

A. line squall C. cold front


B. water spout D. warm front

 What is the distance from the bottom of a wave trough to wave height
the top of a wave crest?

A. wave length C. wave height


B. wave breadth D. wave depth

 Weather system in the middle latitudes generally travel West to East


from:

 Appendices of the Planning Guide contains the following wind force and current
information EXCEPT: sets

 Which publications can give you an accurate information World port index
on the availability of repairs you need in a particular port?

125
 What publication contains information about the port World Port Index
facilities in Cadiz, Spain?

126