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Clayton County Public Schools is a county-wide system centered in Jonesboro, Georgia 20 minutes south of Atlanta. The system¶s area is made up of several suburban cities and unincorporated areas within the boundaries of Clayton County and is made up of approximately 49,000 students in 63 schools. The student demographics are as follows: 73% black, 16% Hispanic, 4% White, 4% Asian, 3% Other with 85% being economically disadvantaged. Clayton County PS is considered a Title I school system and receives federal funding through this program. (8)
Strengths and Weaknesses
The following information addresses the relative strengths and weaknesses of the Clayton County Public Schools Technology Plan as evaluated by our group. The information is divided into the content sections that were highlighted in the rubric that was used. In addressing the executive summary, the vision is clearly stated in section I at the beginning of the document. Inside the vision is the mission of CCPS in relation to its technology use. The Goals and objectives are quite extensive with 7 goals each with many objectives. There is not a section specifically for conclusions and recommendations; they are addressed as a part of the other sections and in the Strategic Action Plan. Though there is not a section that lists all stakeholders specifically, most stakeholders and their roles are included in the vision statement. The vision statement is comprehensive and covers technological as well as instructional factors, identifies
the users of the technology and indentifies the benefits of use as keeping the students globally competitive. The TP does not include a separate mission statement and instead has mixed the mission statement with the vision statement. The mission statement is very broad with its statement about why the plan is in place. The goals are categorized into instructional, administrative and parent and community focus and each have several very specific objectives. Though the goals do not contain all of the criteria for 3 points the objectives are broken down by the indicators listed. The objectives section is hard to complete because the goals in the Technology Plan for CCPS are broken down into strategies and benchmarks and not necessarily pure objectives. Within the strategies and benchmarks, the information is measurable and clearly delineated from the goals. The steps for completion are listed in the benchmarks and the overall objectives are clear and realistic. Also a part of the Objectives are the evaluation method to be used to assess progress, the source or sources of funding and the person that will be responsible for the implementation of the strategies. The Needs Assessment was not a separate section of the Technology Plan but most of the information that would fall into this category was addressed in the Gap Analysis for Instruction, Administrative and Parent and community. I did not observe any information about a technology assessment or extensive survey that was administered. In the redevelopment of this plan it will be necessary to more clearly define what needs are being addressed through the updated technology plan. In dealing with general issues, the Technology Plan does an excellent job of discussing staff development and technology standards in a thorough manner. The plan certainly addresses the issue of student access and has a plan that ensures student access to computers and new
technology for years to come. The plan does address the integration of new technology with old technology, as the school system makes plans for purchasing new technology on an annual basis. The breakdown of the plan includes the funding source and amount. The plan is missing how they will handle students with limited English proficiency. The Technology Plan does an excellent job within the conclusions and recommendations section. I found it interesting that this is done toward the beginning of the plan. The plan identifies needs and challenges and thoroughly outlines the steps taken to achieve the vision.
The acceptable Use Policy contains general guidelines for proper use and outlines what is expected for use of county software. It also includes statements about the confidentiality of student data and the proper uses of electronic mail. The policy does not include any information on facilities use. Within the technology and learning statement section, the plan incorporates a good background on how technology is currently used and how it will assist n achieving instructional outcomes. A thorough basis is provided on how technology will enhance the current curriculum, along with teaching and learning strategies. The plan does not talk about other reform efforts or what students will do within the environment. As it pertains to Technology Standards, Requirements, and Models for Technology and Learning, the plan includes a comprehensive section devoted to the capabilities of hardware and learning environments. It includes a thorough review of minimum standards and requirements of current and proposed hardware, software, and connectivity. Also included are current and proposed learning environments.
Written into the technology plan is an in-depth portion devoted to staff development, including technical support development. It incorporates several objectives regarding increasing skill level of teachers and staff within technology competence and knowledge. The plan provides excellent strategies and recommendations for professional development resources. Technical support is addressed in two objectives, which includes clear and comprehensive requirements and plans for services available and needed to support technology usage within the system, including network, computer, and software support. The plan thoroughly provides information regarding timelines, budget resources and estimate information. However, there is no prioritized list outlined. It does an excellent job of providing current and projected cost analysis, along with district spending and alternative source spending. The plan is excellently written with active voice tense when appropriate. There are no misspelling, grammar, or punctuation mistakes that were observed.
Outline of Changes
The original plan did not highlight the development team in a separate section but rather included the information in various sections. The format made the players in the development process unclear and the reader might believe that not all of the stakeholders were involved in the development. In the update I have included the names of the positions of the individuals that should be involved for the plan to be a accurate representations of the concerns of all stakeholders. I hope that with the added clarity of the improvement, more credibility will be given to the plan by those who view it. A needs assessment section was not part of the original document therefore a completely new section had to be added to the update. The original technology plan had some of the
information that would have been in a formal needs assessment section but the information was scattered throughout the document. I searched for a sample needs assessment that was thorough and was appropriate for the Clayton County Technology Plan. The sample I used had an extensive assessment process which would lead to a detailed needs list. Some potential findings were listed in the tech plan update to simulate what could be found using the instruments that are listed. With a well outlined needs assessment section in the updated Technology Plan, the basis for and direction of the plan should be more apparent to the reader and a clearer path to the goals outlined in the document can be created. The original Mission and Vision in the Clayton County Technology Plan were deemed acceptable based upon qualifications in the evaluation rubric as was the goals and objectives section of the document. Although the mission statement did not original score the maximum points in the original rubric, it was considered more of a deficiency in the formatting of the original document rather than a lack of content so this was not amended. The action plan was originally attached to the vision as part of the broad outlook for the entire plan and now has been made a separate section. The timeline, though originally listed as part of the whole document, is now attached directly to the action plan. Hopefully, with the clear identification of the information as an action plan with a set timeline the plan will appear more straightforward with an added emphasis on the outcomes of the plan. There technology plan did not associate with any other documents. In order for the plan to be successful, the plan should be associated with all vital documents to the school and the district. All documents have been listed under the Program Integration heading. In similar fashion, there is nothing referencing curriculum integration within the plan. It is important to discuss how the technology will integrate with current curriculum and student learning. An
excellent example was found in the technology plan of the Raleigh Charter High School. It has been adapted and adopted to this technology plan. On the other hand, the evaluation of the technology plan and objectives are clearly delineated within the Technology Plan. The plan further provides which tools will be utilized to measure the ability to reach the associated objective. These tools are mentioned in the Evaluation section below. The technology plan does not mention technology standards for equipment. This is very important as it can make providing support very difficult if you have substandard equipment. An excellent example was found at the West Chester Area School District Technology Plan. This example even goes into depth by specifying the makes and models of all equipment that will be posted. This example has been adapted and adopted to this technology plan. The funding sources are clearly delineated within the current plan. However, the plan does not discuss any pilot programs or educational resources that can be incorporated into the school system. After reading through the plan, two pilot projects would fit perfectly in accordance to the plan. The first would be the incorporation of ePortfolios into the classroom. This program could start with 2 English classes and include training for the teachers and students in the first year. By the third year, the entire district could incorporate it within each class. The second pilot project would deal with creating online classes for remediation and enrichment. These classes would be for students who have either failed a course or desired to get ahead within their studies. The pilot program would start with two math classes, Algebra II and PreCalculus. If successful, these could grow to include all subjects offered in the district. These pilot projects correspond to Goal 2 within the Instructional Uses of Technology heading. The current Clayton County Technology Plan does not include a section on either model classroom configuration or facilities so both of these sections are completely new additions to the
updated plan. Exemplars were sought and selected by their relevance to the current technology plan. The provided model classroom configuration section details the necessary equipment and layout of 21st century classrooms and can serve as a model for redesign or future classroom construction. It lists the reasons for each piece of equipment¶s recommendation and suggested uses for the equipment. The hope for inclusion of the model classroom configuration section in the updated technology plan is that it can serve as a checklist for a configuration that enhances technological integration to its highest potential which will also assist in the completion of the included goals. The facilities section creates a strong focus to the county¶s efforts to develop and maintain technologically rich environments that promote the highest feasible technological integration into the curriculum. The section list what is currently being done to support the existing infrastructure and also offers suggestions on what can be done to improve the conditions of the facilities. With the inclusion of this section in the updated technology plan an assurance of continued support and maintenance is established which addresses major concerns of many stakeholders regarding the inclusion and integration of technology. The current plan does not have a section dedicated to maintenance and support. A detailed plan has been created to address maintenance and support. The plan includes automated scheduling and responses to ensure that the need is properly being addressed. Incorporating this plan will allow for expeditious attention to all maintenance and support issues. In addition, it fosters a sense of excellent customer service by the maintenance department to the school staff. The CCPS Technology Plan is void of a software agreement. This puts the system at risk for piracy issues. An excellent plan has been adopted and adapted from the New York Public School System. If this is adopted, the district and school system can protect itself from piracy
and illegal usage of software. This will cut down on teachers and students obtaining and installing illegal software on computers. The Technology Plan includes a detailed Acceptable Use Policy, which includes a section on Copyright laws. The current plan does not address what happens if technology is donated or gifted to the school system and how to properly dispose of technology. Having a policy can assist in properly ensuring that donated gifts are up to technology standards, as set forth by the plan, prior to implementation. Also, improper disposal of technology can lead to a release hazardous waste, which can be harmful to staff, students, administrators, and the environment. An excellent example was found in the Labette County Technology Plan. Unfortunately, the gift portion referencing another policy, which cannot be located at the present time, however, it does include a further portion regarding technology. The plan has a detailed portion related to the disposal of technology related items. This example has been adapted and adopted to fit the current technology plan. If adopted, this will set clear rules for what can be accepted as a gift, when it can be implemented into the current technology scheme, and what to do with obsolete or nonfunctional technology.
The Technology Plan should be developed through a team effort that touches a broad spectrum of community stakeholders. This group should be Broad-Based made up of teachers and principals from each Support school affected by the plan, senior leadership of the school district including Superintendants business and coordinator of Technology, partners, and parents. Assessment Process: A comprehensive needs assessment utilizing : 1. State Technology Inventory
Grade Technology literacy Assessment
3. Training Surveys for 21 Century Class room Professional learning
4. locally Developed Pre and Post Teacher Technology Integration Assessment Tool 5. Instructional Technology Surveys a. laptop Distribution, Desktop Allocation, and Instructional Setting Survey b. Media Specialist Focus Group Feedback 6. Internal Human Resources Desk Audit and Job Analysis 7. Annual Technology Budget Annual Digital Content and Software 8. Utilization Report 9. Gap Analysis Report 10. Local School Administrators' Technology Observation Tool was conducted to analyze the current status of technology in the district and determine future needs. Items analyzed included: infrastructure, hardware, software, programs, courses, professional development, student achievement, technology resources, and technical support. Existing Conditions: The following technology is currently in place: District-Wide Direct connection to the Internet via Fiber Optic leased lines to the (ISP) District web servers in place providing district information and student work. Written policies in place on acceptable use of the Internet, World Wide Web content, network management, and equipment donations. Distance learning lab available for students, staff, and community members. Expansive district web site providing current information for students, parents, teachers, and administrators. Web site provides information such as individual campus information, district and campus performance reports, internet safety, lesson plan information for teachers, and
financial aid information for parents and students. The district offers parental access to student grades via locally managed web servers. The district has a fully-configured firewall and internet filter server that serve as a security device and as an Internet filter that helps meet CIPA requirements. District email servers in place to provide staff, parent and student communication. All district computers have the necessary software to integrate technology as a tool and for increased student achievement. District uses (Information Management software) for financial and student data management. District has implemented online attendance and grading system. Four Terminal Service / Citrix servers are used to provide access to all Special Ed. Department staff for use of Special Ed. Software as well as other applications used by department. Intranet web servers are in use to provide internal access to applications for technology repair, Peims reports, enrollment reports, attendance, discipline, labels, medical, benchmark testing, online evaluations for nonprofessional employees, purchasing, and publishing of internal information. The district uses an internal Syslog / Monitoring server to archive and report the day to day network, internet and email utilization. Laptop computers issued to all teachers in district to aid in instruction. Each campus has a Campus Webmaster to aid in maintaining individual campus web sites as well as aid in training and integration of technology in the classroom. Office-scan software is used on workstations and laptops throughout the district to provide
defense against computer viruses. TMS software is used on the districts intranet to automate maintenance repairs and work orders. T.O.M.S. software is used on the districts intranet to provide automation of field trip scheduling. Edulog software is used on the network to provide bus route information as well as enrollment demographic information. Technology Needs: Based on (System) comprehensive needs assessment, the following items represent the highest priorities of the identified needs: 1. Additional instructional technology, including document cameras, multimedia projectors, DVD burners, printers, scanners, and digital cameras. 2. Additional wireless connectivity 3. Course specific software 4. Mobile Laptop Carts 5. Increased efficiency of Infrastructure and Internet access 6. Additional support for automating administrative functions 7. Continuation of district s 25% replacement plan including more reliable computers. 8. Continued support for professional development 9. Full time technicians / more technician time 10. Support for additional electronic library and media services. (9) It is the mission of Clayton County Public Schools Technology Department to provide flexible and responsive direction for access to information systems, instructional technology, and technology services to enhance student achievement for all students. Over the next three years, the Technology Department plans to increase support services that deliver on time,
on budget, and support student students.
with quality services academic success for
The vision of Clayton County Public Schools Technology Department is to become a recognized model school district both in the state of Georgia and nationally for the access and utilization of innovative technology and cutting edge strategies to ensure that students are prepared to compete globally. Our Vision, which was developed by key stakeholders including teachers, principals, senior leadership, business partners and parents addresses the districts Balanced Scorecard/ Strategic Action Plan goals and objectives as well as aligning with state and national standards. Pages 13-20 http://www.clayton.k12.ga.us/departments/technol ogy/new/techplan/TechPlan.pdf The following will be met between July 31, 2009 and June 30, 2012: All teachers and students will be proficient
Goals and Objectives
in identifying and effectively using 21 century skills, tools, methodologies, and standards. Administrators, teachers, media specialists, and central office curriculum staff will use technology resources to access data systems needed to improve and personalize instructional delivery for all students. All administrators will be empowered to observe, monitor, and recognize effective and impactful classroom instructional technology use by teachers and students. Central office and administrative staff will utilize appropriate technology tools to connect with teachers, parents, students, and community. Parents will receive timely and up-to-date
Action Plan/Multiyear Planning
information about their child, the district's goals and initiatives, and general news through interactive online resources, such as teacher web pages, video and audio presentations, pod casts, and a parent portal. Teachers will have access to rigorous professional development workshops, activities, courses, and plans, which target successful
classroom integration of digital content, 21 century skills, tools, methodologies, resources, and learning assets. Media Specialists will have access to an ongoing, interactive learning community and network to increase their skills and knowledge base as they serve as Technology Contacts for each school in the district. It is vital that the Technology Plan associated with the following documents: District Strategic Plan School Strategic Plan School Policies and Procedures Manual Academic Department Manual Teacher Syllabi School Rules and Regulations be
Technology at Clayton County Public Schools supplements traditional classroom instruction to better serve our visual and kinesthetic learners. In sum, technology is an important aspect of our curriculum in that it facilitates inquiry-based learning, enhances the relevance of learning to students dreams and career aspirations, helps individualize instruction, and encourages the active/constructivist learner-centered teaching that we strive to produce. (7) The Technology Plan will utilize the following
tools to evaluate the success of technology within the educational institution: Annual Technology Inventory Tool Media Specialist Feedback Survey Annual GAP Analysis Technology Observation and Model Tool Teacher Lesson Plans with embedded technology resources Annual Technology Literacy Assessment LoTi Assessment Tool Principal Feedback Software and Hardware Inventory Course Evaluations Digital Classroom Work Order GACE Competency Report for CCPS Teachers Below is a list of the Clayton County Public School Technology District Standards Department. Computer as approved product Each Equipment by has the been Recommendation
reviewed to ensure that we can support it and that it is compatible with our configuration. Standardization support. Standards When Technology staff is is the key is for with efficient the specific equipment standardized,
hardware leading to our ability to diagnose and resolve issues faster. It also allows our staff to work with you and the vendor in a timely manner to solve any issues. Therefore, any products you purchase for your building and/or your department must be part of the recommended product list. (See attachment for product standards) (12) Funding Alternatives See Funding sources within Goals and Objectives Pages 13-20
http://www.clayton.k12.ga.us/departments/technol ogy/new/techplan/TechPlan.pdf There are 2 Pilot Programs which would fit perfectly within the Clayton County System, in accordance with the Technology Plan. The first pilot program would deal with ePortfolios. This pilot program would have a teacher track and a student track. The teacher track will focus on English teachers converting current paper documents into an online format. For the pilot program, two teachers and their respective classes will be chosen. The track would focus on Lesson Plans, Powerpoint Lessons, Worksheets, and Teacher-Made Evaluations becoming a part of each teacher s ePortfolio. The teachers would take an 8 semester course learning about how to develop ePortfolios. Teachers will also be taught how to utilize their ePortfolios with their students and teaching their students how to develop ePortfolios. Students will be School Pilot responsible for posting class work and blogs Projects/Edu about the ePortfolio s effect on their learning cational experience. The goal is to have all English Research classes fully immersed within 2 years. (1) (3) The second project will focus on Online learning as remediation and enrichment. The pilot program would focus on 2 math classes, Algebra II and Pre-Calculus. Students who have failed the course would be presented with this option to retake the class via an online method using Moodle (A free e-learning online module). Students would take the full course within an 8 week summer course. Passing this course would satisfy the requirement for graduation. Uniquely, this course would also be presented to students who have passed the pre-requisite classes in the spring semester. These students would have the opportunity to take the course in the summer and receive full credit for the course upon receiving a grade of B or better in
the class and an 85 or better on the final exam for the class. (2) (4) Technology configuration for each classroom Each classroom should be equipped with a LCD digital projector and a teaching computer (laptop), a Visualizer and a wireless keyboard and mouse. The digital projector should be fixed on the ceiling and cabled to the teaching computer. There should be access to an acceptable white projection surface. These recommendations are premised on the availability of internet access, via the schools broadband network, distributed throughout the schools via the school s local area network (LAN). The network should include network points in each classroom. Items of equipment recommended are: Model Classroom Teaching Computer (Laptop) Configuration The teaching computer (Notebook or Laptop) s should be connectable to the LAN and to the fixed digital projector in order to access and show digital content. LCD Digital Projector Teachers use a digital projector, in conjunction with a laptop or desktop computer, to project the computer screen image on to a designed white surface or wall. Classroom PCs Depending on the size of the classroom, a number of PCs should be available for pupil use in the classroom. The Technology Plan s target pupil to computer ratio is 5:1. Visualiser A visualiser, often referred to as a document
camera, is a tool that enables teachers or pupils to show a diagram from a book or any artifact to the whole class via a digital projector. Wireless mouse /keyboard A wireless keyboard and mouse enables individual or small group of pupils to use the technology and to input their contribution. They allow the classroom teacher to distribute access and opportunities for interactivity among the pupils from their sitting positions. Speakers The use of a teaching laptop will be enhanced if attached to a sound system. Laptop speakers are designed with a single user in mind and usually prove inadequate to project to a large classroom. A robust and quality sound system, with fixed speakers at both the front and the back of the classroom or distributed so as to facilitate quality sound throughout the classroom is recommended. (10)
All schools must have updated facilities to support technology standards associated within the plan. Building Infrastructure must have a minimum of cat-5 wiring to support high speed internet and intranet access, although fiber optics wiring is preferred. Facility must have open access for wireless internet access to be available. Each classroom must have 3 pronged outlets for proper grounding and an auxiliary power switch to disable power in an emergency. Walls must be able to support mounting of Whiteboard and projector technology. ________________________________________________ _______ Concentrate new instructional technologies, which are funded centrally in facilities within
designated technology-intensive buildings. Assure a consistent and predictable level of support: Provide on-site support to technologyintensive buildings/sites. Provide preventative maintenance and a minimal level of off-site support for locations outside the technology-intensive buildings/sites. Post handbooks in rooms on proper equipment use and problem solving. Install phones and activate data and video jacks in multimedia classrooms. Provide training sessions for department support personnel in non-technology intensive buildings to help with emergencies and to maintain functioning of classroom equipment. Fund additional staff time dedicated to handling after hours calls regarding use of multimedia classrooms. Primary funding: Classroom Modernization funds, existing budget commitments, and reallocations as matching resources.
Establish Resource and Technology Centers as is affordable. Establish a consistent funding source for equipment service and maintenance.
Primary funding: Classroom Modernization and seek alternative funding sources.
Consider the need for update of facilities, which have received central instructional technology funding when establishing annual priorities.
Primary funding: Classroom Modernization and Instructional Technology Improvement programs. (11) The Department of Technology will develop an online ticketing system for providing hardware/software maintenance and technical support for the school system. Those requiring maintenance will submit a online request. A response will be generated confirming receipt of the request and an estimated timeframe for the service technician to address the issue. Upon completion, an e-mail will be generated Maintenance confirming completion of the service repair and /Support a survey denoting satisfaction. For those requiring technical support, an online system will be developed denoting what support items and personnel are needed for an event. An electronic response will be generated confirming the request. Finally, 24 hours prior to the event, another electronic response will be generated re-confirming the request and providing staffing information and contact numbers. Duplication of copyrighted software is prohibited except for a single archival copy, which may not be used concurrently with the original. Duplication of documentation is similarly prohibited. The written permission of the publisher must be obtained to use the original and back-up copies simultaneously. Software Agreements New York City Public School computers may not be used to illegally duplicate copyrighted software. You must contact the software publisher to obtain written permission and procedures for making back-up and multiple copies, other than the single archival back-up (see above). A license from the publisher is required to
download or microcomputers.
The use of illegally duplicated software, however obtained, is expressly prohibited in all New York City Public School facilities. All licensing agreements required by the publisher and agreed upon, as a condition for use, must be adhered to, especially those concerning multiple users; i.e., a classpack vs. an individual-use program. The Principal of each school or the Director of each ROC is responsible for establishing procedures and practices to enforce the DOE Software Policy. The Software Policy should be posted conspicuously in every computer room and next to computers available to students and staff. (5) Copyright/Ac ceptable Use Copyright & Acceptable-Use Policies Policy Gifts See Gift Policy: Also, All gifted technology related items must meet minimum technology standards and be approved by the Technology Director and Assistant Superintendent. Disposal Gifts and Disposal Computer related equipment that is no longer suited to the work being done in the classroom and/or falls below our minimum equipment standards will be evaluated by the technology director. A decision will be made to: (1) upgrade the equipment; (2) use as parts for repairs; (3) sell at the district auction; (4) dispose of, recycle, or trade in on new computer related equipment. Items sold at auction,
disposed of, recycled, or traded in should be at least four years old and be determined by the technology director in need of removal from use and be approved by the Assistant Superintendent. Technology staff will remove or erase all hard drives to ensure confidentiality of information and to conserve software licenses. Computer related equipment will be disposed of in an appropriate manner; such as an authorized recycle company or a landfill authorized for disposal of computer related equipment. A list of disposed items will be maintained for inventory purposes. (6) Pages 23-29 Staff http://www.clayton.k12.ga.us/departments/technol Development ogy/new/techplan/TechPlan.pdf
(1) Bolliger, D., & Shepherd, C. (2010). Student perceptions of ePortfolio integration in online and traditional courses. Distance Education, 31(3), 295-314. doi:10.1080/01587919.2010.513955.
(2) Issroff, K. and Eisenstadt, M. (1997), Evaluating a virtual summer school. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 13: 245 252. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2729.1997.00027.x (3) Kirkham, T., Winfield, S., Smallwood, A., Coolin, K., Wood, S., & Searchwell, L. (2009). Introducing Live
ePortfolios to Support Self Organised Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(3), 107-114. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. (4) Thomson, D. (2010). Beyond the Classroom Walls: Teachers' and Students' Perspectives on How Online Learning Can Meet the Needs of Gifted Students. Journal of Advanced Academics, 21(4), 662-712. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
Website - New York City Department of Education, Software Use Policy, Retrieved 11/29/2010 from: http://schools.nyc.gov/Offices/DCP/Publications/nysslanswe rs2.htm Website - Unified School District 506- Labette County, Technology Plan, Retrieved 11/28/2010 from: http://www.506.k12.ks.us/vnews/display.v/ART/4391d4b6589af Website ± Raleigh Charter Public High School, Raleigh Charter Public High School Technology Plan 2009-2013, Retrieved 11/29/2010 from: http://www.raleighcharterhs.org/aboutus/technologyplan2009-2013.pdf
Website - Georgia Department of Education, Retrieved from: http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/ReportingFW.aspx?PageReq=103&CountyId=631&T=1& FY=2010 (9) Website - Harlington CISD, 2007-2010 Long range technology plan: Harlington CISD, Retrieved 11/27/2010 from: http://www.harlingen.isd.tenet.edu/forms/techplan2007_2010.pdf (10) Website - National Centre for Technology in Education, NCTE recommendations for ICT in primary schools, Retrieved 11/27/2010 from: http://www.ncte.ie/ICTAdviceSupport/NCTErecommendationsforICTinPrimaryschoo ls/ (11) Website - University of Wisconsin-Madison, A plan for the application of technology in UW- Madison instructional facilities, Retrieved 11/29/2010 from: http://www2.fpm.wisc.edu/support/AboutUs/ITPlan.htm (12) Website ± West Chester Area School District Retrieved from: http://www.wcasd.net/admin/tech_equip.asp
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