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The Bronze Age Shipwreck at Ulu Burun, Turkey: 1985 Campaign

Author(s): Cemal Pulak

Source: American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 92, No. 1 (Jan., 1988), pp. 1-37
Published by: Archaeological Institute of America
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American Journal of Archaeology.
The BronzeAge Shipwreckat Ulu Burun, Turkey:
1985 Campaign*

Abstract vated. Based on Mycenaean ceramic evidence, the

Excavationof a Late BronzeAge shipwreck,tentative- shipwreck was dated broadly to the 14th century
ly dated to the 14th century B.C., was continued by the B.C.,2 and comparison of artifacts from the site with
Institute of Nautical Archaeology at Ulu Burun near those found on land sites pointed to a sailing route
Kas, Turkey, in 1985. New finds included more copper, from east to west. That the ship was carrying major
tin, and glass ingots; Mycenaean, Cypriot, and Near
Eastern pottery;bronzetools, includingaxes, adzes, chis- resources of Asia and Cyprus seems certain; the na-
els, drill bits, and tongs; bronze weapons, including tionality of the vessel, however, remains elusive.
swords, a dirk, a dagger, and arrowheads;balance-pan With less than half of the site excavated, Ulu Burun
weights in a varietyof materialsand shapes;gold and sil- has already supplemented our knowledge of trade, es-
verjewelry, some as scrap;a scarab,a stone plaque, and a
pecially in raw materials, gained from the approxi-
fragmentary gold ring inscribed with Egyptian hiero-
glyphs; beads of stone, faience, amber, and bone; frag- mately contemporaneous Amarna tablets, Egyptian
ments of faiencerhyta;shell rings;and a globedpin of the art, and finds of similar materials discovered from
type usually dated to the end of the Mycenaean period sites on land. The cargo of the Ulu Burun ship, by far
and later. The east-west route of the ship postulatedon the largest single deposit of Bronze Age raw materials
the basis of 1984 finds seems certain, but the nationality
of the ship remains elusive. discovered, has yielded the earliest known ingots of tin
and glass. Complete excavation and study of the sever-
During the summer of 1985, the Institute of Nauti- al hundred copper and tin ingots are expected to eluci-
cal Archaeology (INA) continued excavation of a Late date greatly the routes and mechanisms of supply in
Bronze Age shipwreck off Ulu Burun, near Kay, in the Eastern Mediterranean metals trade during the
southern Turkey.' The first campaign, in 1984, had latter half of the second millennium B.C. The impres-
already shown the site's extraordinary richness and sive collection of bronze weapons, tools, and other ob-
diversification of finds. The bulk of the cargo, com- jects aboard is a welcome contribution to our know-
prising primarily raw goods, included copper and tin ledge of a period relatively meager in bronzes from
ingots in the so-called "ox-hide" and "bun" shapes, datable contexts. The association of Cypriot, Canaan-
glass ingots, orpiment, Canaanite amphoras filled ite, Mycenaean, and Egyptian artifacts in a closed de-
with resin, unworked elephant and hippopotamus posit not only provides new insight into problems of
ivory, fruits and probably other foodstuffs. Manufac- chronology, but also facilitates cross-dating, and sup-
tured trade items were limited to Cypriot ceramics plements our understanding of the relations between
and beads of various materials. The portion of bronze the Levant and the Aegean at the onset of a period of
tools and weapons representing commercial commodi- unrest and great changes.
ties, shipboard items, or personal possessions can be The Ulu Burun ship is the earliest seagoing vessel
estimated only after the site has been completely exca- ever found. Only a small section of the ship's hull has

* The excavation was financed the Institute of Nauti-

by gratitude to Prof. George F. Bass, projectdirector,for his
cal Archaeology (INA), the National Geographic Society, advice and constructivecriticism,and to Ann Bass for edit-
and the National Science Foundation.The excavatorswere ing this manuscript.
Cemal Pulak, acting field directorand assistant projectdi- The discoveryof the site in 1982 is describedby C. Pu-
rector;Donald A. Frey, photographer;Robin C.M. Piercy, lak and D.A. Frey, "The Search for a Bronze Age Ship-
chief of operations;Tufan Turanli, captain of the Virazon; wreck,"Archaeology38:4 (1985) 18-24. Artifactsraisedfor
Murat Tilev, engineer;Yancey Mebane and Karl Ruppert, dating and identificationpurposesin INA's 1983 surveyare
physicians. Staff also includedarchaeologistsDouglas Hal- reported in G.F. Bass, D.A. Frey, and C. Pulak, "A Late
dane, Michael Halpern, and Faith Hentschel;Texas A&M Bronze Age Shipwreck at Kay, Turkey," IJNA 13 (1984)
graduatestudentsWilliam Lamb, Ralph Pedersen,and Ste- 271-79. For the 1984 campaign,see G.F. Bass, "A Bronze
phen Vinson; ethnobotanist Cheryl Haldane; illustrator Age Shipwreckat Ulu Burun (Kay):1984 Campaign,"AJA
Netia Piercy; and conservatorsJane Pannell and Robert 90 (1986) 269-96.
2 Bass
Payton.Askin Cambazoglurepresentedthe Turkish Gener- (supra n. 1) 285, 293.
al Directorate of Antiquities. I would like to express my

AmericanJournal of Archaeology92 (1988)

Fig. 1. Upperhalfof wreckseenfromeast

been uncoveredand that only briefly examined under stone weight anchors from Ulu Burun are similar to
water, but our knowledge of ship construction has examples found on land sites and in isolation under
been extended already by nearly a millennium. We water, they are the first to be associatedunequivocally
now know that in the late second millennium B.C. with a BronzeAge ship.
there were ships in the Eastern Mediterraneanwhich
were built by an edge-joinedtechniquesimilar to that The secondexcavationcampaignbegan on 15 June
used in later Greek and Roman hulls. Although the 1985 and continueduntil the end of August. Half the

N 0 P

Fig.2. Upperhalfof wreck.Objectsmentionedin textareindicatedbytheirK(as)W(reck)numbers.KW200,201,and237 are

not shown.

staff again lived in a camp built onto the southeastern lation with meter tapes, we could begin excavatingas
face of the rock promontory,while the other half lived soon as we had installed on the site our telephone
aboard INA's 20-meter research vessel, Virazon, booth (an air-filled plastic dome for diver safety) and
mooredabove the wreck. air lifts (suction pipes for removing overburden).
Since the areas to be excavated in 1985 had been Newly uncovered objects were measured from the
mapped in 1984 by photogrammetryand by triangu- previouslyestablisheddatum points and plottedon the
plan. New datum points were fixed as needed, all carved with hieroglyphs;and a unique copper ingot
carefullytied to the master points. (KW 388).
Diving twice daily, with nearly six hours between A larger deposit nearby in grid squares M-10, M-
dives, six days a week, we compiled 91 dives to be- 11 and N-10 also yielded an abundanceof objects:nu-
tween 50 and 140 ft. (15 and 43 m.), 908 dives to be- merous lead fishing-net weights; terra-cotta lamps
tween 140 and 150 ft. (43 and 46 m.), and 183 divesto (KW 485: fig. 6, KW 502); a stone mace-head (KW
between 150 and 160 ft. (46 and 49 m.), totalling 486: fig. 26); a bronze dirk (KW 296: fig. 23); arrow-
428.4 hours on the wreck in 1985. heads;a pair of tongs (KW 378: fig. 19); chisels (KW
536, 566); an adze blade (KW 576: fig. 12); part of a
gold signet ring with Egyptian hieroglyphson its be-
The sketch plan of the site made during the 1983 zel (KW 603: fig. 33); balance-panweights of uniden-
survey shows wreckagescatteredover an area approx- tified stone, hematite,and bronze or copper;and cop-
imately 10 x 18 m.; the shallowest recorded objects per ingots in both bun and ox-hide forms. A large
are 41 m. deep, and the deepest about 51 m.3 Only numberof tin ingots in quarterox-hide pieces, as well
about a third of this area, mainly its shallower reach- as half a tin ox-hide ingot (KW 644: fig. 5), were also
es, was excavatedin 1984, and only partially in most recovered.Four other ingots, probablytin, appear to
places. A primaryobjectiveof the 1985 campaignwas be cast in the bun shape (KW 401, 409, 519, 642).
to complete excavation of this uppermost region Directly below the depositwas a relativelyflat shelf
(fig. 1). The wealth of finds and heavy encrustation thought in 1984 to be bedrock.Investigationin 1985,
encasing the delicate material there, however, pre- however, revealedthis to be an encrustedlayer of Ca-
vented the realization of our goal. Meticulous dissec- naanite amphoras.The positionsof the amphorasin-
tion of the rock-hardmatrix with chisels and hammers dicate that they were arrangedin neat rows beforethe
was extremelyslow; small, hand-heldpneumaticchis- ship broke up. Their downward slippage was inhib-
els were abandonedbecausethey lackedthe necessary ited by what initially appeared to be a terrace-like
control for extractingfragile items. The problemwas rock ledge. This provedto be a neatly stackedmass of
exacerbatedin 1985 when areas previouslydesignated at least 20 copperox-hide ingots.
as bedrockproved to be tin ingots interspersedwith This ledge area, which yielded nearly all the glass
other artifacts. The situation was especially compli- ingots and many other finds duringthe previouscam-
catedby the corrosionof the tin into amorphousmass- paign, now appearsto be much deeperthan previous-
es indistinguishablefrom calcium carbonatedeposits ly assumed. It producedmore glass ingots, lead fish-
and bedrock. When tin was encounteredby excava- ing-net weights, a stone balance-pan weight, more
tors, its immediatearea was clearedand the bordersof metal ingots and Canaaniteamphoras,a bronzesickle
the ingot definedfor excavationand removal.Work in blade, a bronze arrowhead,and bronze pin KW 570
this upper area by three divers for more than two (fig. 36).
months resulted in expanding the known boundaries Removal of the intrusive Byzantine anchor in area
of the wreck by an additional2 m.2 (fig. 2). N-11 revealedthe ironic cause of its loss; its fluke had
An area about half a meter square (L-M intersec- caught on severalcopperand tin ingots.
tion at 11) was especially rich in finds. Once its crust On either side of the heavily concretedledge area
of corroded tin and encrustation had been lifted, a are sand-filled gullies where work progressed more
small pocketof loose sand yielded artifactsincludinga easily. The northerngully, virtuallydevoidof artifacts
mace-head (KW 278); bronze arrowheads; bronze in its upper reaches, save for a few lead fishing-net
tools, including three sickle blades, two chisels and a weights, a bronze drill bit (KW 381: fig. 18), and a
drill bit (KW 579: fig. 17); lead fishing-netweights;a large disc-shaped stone balance-pan weight (KW
large lead weight, perhaps the ship's sounding lead 382), stretches downward along the sloping sea bed.
(KW 267: fig. 41); bronze balance-pan weights, in- The large rockoutcropin the middle of the site forms
cluding a lead-cored example decorated with shep- the gully's southern flank. Stone anchors and four-
herd and sheep figurines (KW 582: fig. 37); a gold handledox-hide ingots are visible at the gully's middle
flower (KW 361) and roundel (KW 551: fig. 32), both and lower reaches,while scatteredingots and a single
with granulated decoration; faience beads; a gold- stone anchormark its deepestextension.
framed bone or ivory scarab (KW 338: fig. 34) and a The excavationof the southerngully, at whose up-
plaque of greenish stone (KW 481: fig. 35), each per end restedsmall pithos KW 250, had yieldedsev-

3 Seesketch
planin Basset al. (supran. 1) 274 fig.3, and Bass(supran. 1) 271 ill. 2.

eral of the more exciting finds of the 1984 campaign: afterthe animal has withdrawn,seldomsurvivesexpo-
elephant and hippopotamus ivory; gold, silver, fai- sure. In this case, however, they undoubtedlywere
ence, and amber jewelry; bronze weapons; Myce- preservedby copper impregnation.Apparentlythis is
naean, Cypriot, and Syrian pottery; a Mycenaean the first time such opercula have been reportedfrom
seal; and a gold chalice among them. Work in 1985 an archaeologicalcontext.4 At first, it was assumed
was concentratedon expanding and fully excavating that they came from murex snails which had died un-
the upper extension of this gully. The pithos, wedged der the ingots, but the scarcityof shells in the immedi-
between and concretedto bedrock,had to be chiseled ate area, their presence between ingots in spaces too
free before it could be raised;the silt inside was saved narrow to admit living animals, and the apparent
for identificationof possible organic contents, but al- stacking of three and even four opercula suggest that
ready we know that it contained 21 lead fishing-net the depositwas the remainsof a shipmentcarriedin a
weights, a small pilgrim flask (KW 438: fig. 7), and bag. They probablyrepresenta by-productof the pur-
an oil lamp (KW 437) identicalto the lamps found in ple-dye industry,5for it is unlikely that these murex
the pithos (KW 251) raised in 1984. Directly under shells were collectedfor their operculaalone.
pithos KW 250, buried in deep sand, emergeda well- The medicinal uses of murex opercula have been
preservedshort sword (KW 301: fig. 21), apparently noted by Pliny,6 but certain gastropodopercula also
of Aegean origin. A second, equally well-preserved were used in antiquity as incense or as an incense in-
short sword (KW 275: fig. 20), seemingly Near East- gredient;under the name onycha (Greekonyx), oper-
ern in origin, surfaced next to a silver plate deliber- cula even constituted one of the ingredients of the
ately crumpled for scrap and 10 bronze arrowheads Holy Incense.7The purposeof the opercularecovered
about a meter further upslope. The same area pro- from the Ulu Burun shipwreckis unclear, but it may
duced, among other objects,two centrallypiercedlead be that they representa shipmentof incense.
discs (KW 298: fig. 39a, KW 459) and a long bronze The lower mid-region of the gully yielded more
spearhead (KW 261). Downslope of the pithos, a spearheads,a crushedand poorly preservedone-han-
large depositof severalhundredfish bones was uncov- dled tin cup, and several faience, amber, and stone
ered. Completeskeletonsof small fish are represented, beads.
but whether they are the spilled contentsof a contain- Beads were found in far greater numbers in the
er or the accumulatedexcrement of a large predator area which fans out into a sloping field of sand directly
once living in the pithos is still under investigation. below the gully. Here also were balance-panweights
A similar deposit of hundredsof murex shell oper- of the standard sphendonoid and domed shapes, as
cula or "doors,"identified as belonging to the species well as three zoomorphicforms (fig. 37) comprisinga
PhyllonotustrunculusL. by John Taylor of the Gas- duck (KW 350), a bull (KW 335), and a sphinx (KW
tropodSectionin the British Museum of Natural His- 468). Close by, a Mycenaean stirrupjar (KW 308),
tory, was found trapped between several copper ox- ca. 0.20 m. in diameter, was found in fragmentary
hide ingots. The operculum,a horny plate which pro- condition. A smaller stirrup jar (KW 305: fig. 8),
vides protectionby closing off the open end of the shell equally fragmentary,lay about a meter upslope of the

4 Personal communicationswith David S. Reese. and salt water,see A. Raban,"SomeArchaeological Evi-

5 P. trunculuswas one of the species utilized extensively dencefor AncientMaritimeActivitiesat Dor,"Sefunim6
in the shell purple-dye industry of the ancient Mediterra- (1981)20-21; A. Rabanand E. Galili,"RecentMaritime
nean. Mounds of crushedpurple-dye producingshells have Archaeological Researchin Israel-A PreliminaryReport,"
been found at a number of sites. These productioncenters IJNA 14 (1985)341-43. It recentlyhas beenaffirmedthat
used species available locally; see D.S. Reese, "Industrial the blue-tintedvarietyof purple or hyacinthinepurple
Exploitation of Murex Shells: Purple-Dye and Lime Pro- (Latinpurpurahyacinthea; Hebrewtekelet)was prepared
duction at Sidi Khrebish, Benghazi (Berenice)," Libyan exclusivelyfromP. trunculus,andthatthisspecieswaspro-
Studies. 11th Annual Report of the Societyfor Libyan Stud- cessedseparatelyfromotherpurple-producing species;this
ies (1979-1980) 79-86, for a detailed account. A listing of explainstheenormousmoundsof its shellsnearSidon,sep-
purple shells from archaeological deposits in the Eastern aratedfroma secondpile containingshellsof otherspecies
Mediterranean is in D.S. Reese, "PalaikastroShells and (I. Ziderman,"FirstIdentificationof AuthenticTekelet,"
Bronze Age Purple-Dye Production in the Mediterranean BASOR265 [1987]25-33). ThattheoperculafromtheUlu
Basin," BSA (in press). At Sarepta on the Lebanese coast, Burunshipwreckrepresentonlythoseof P. trunculusmay,
crushed shells of P. trunculuswere depositedin a refuse pit therefore,be morethana merecoincidence.
of the 13th centuryB.C. (J.B. Pritchard,RecoveringSarep- 6Pliny,HN 32.120;and Reese1979-1980(supran. 5)
ta, a Phoenician City [Princeton 1978] 126-27 with ills. 85, citingPliny.
121-22). For a possible purple-dye installation comprising 7Exod.30.34;I owe this referenceandthe suggestionof
a series of pools cut in bedrockdesignedto receiveboth fresh incenseto IrvingZiderman.

first, next to the tin cup. Still farther downslope, in THE FINDS
area L-15, were a poorly preserved bronze dagger
(KW 621: fig. 24) and fragments of a faience rhyton in The bulk of survivingcargoon the Ulu Burun ship
the form of a ram's head (KW 565); a unique am- consists of copper ingots of two major types: those in
phora of exceptionally large capacity (KW 588) was the so-called ox-hide shape;8and plano-convex, dis-
found next to the rhyton and may have crushed it. coid or bun ingots. A unique, small rectangularslab
Two pithoi, still in situ, lie almost against the western was also recovered.
side of the rock outcrop.
By far the most numerousingots are in the ox-hide
The upper section of this sandy area (grid squares
shape of Buchholz's Types 2 and 3,9 flat, oblong in-
1-13 and J-13 to J-15), which produced a Mycenaean
gots with protrusions,or handles,at each of their four
stirrup jar and a gold roundel in 1984, now has been corners. One surface of each ingot is always rough,
excavated completely, yielding several more ampho- while the other is much smoother.Seventeensuch in-
ras, two broad-chisels (KW 423, 424), a Mycenaean gots were excavatedand raised in 1984, in additionto
cup (KW 334: fig. 9), several amber beads, and frag- one recoveredin 1982 when the wreck was discov-
ments of a large pithos. ered.10With nine recoveredin 1985, the ox-hide in-
The sandy area also extends to the north and east
gots raised to date total 27. It remains impossible to
around the rock outcrop. The northern extension, estimate their number on the wreck. A preliminary
containing several stone anchors and the pithos raised count of some 84 visible ingots in 1983 suggested no
in 1984 (KW 251), merges with the northern gully. less than 150 in ox-hide form,but in 1985 we realized
To the south, however, the sandy slope drops steeply that what in one case we had assumed to be a single
into deeper water where a partly buried pithos is vis- row of seven ingots was in reality a pile stacked at
ible at a depth of 51 m. least eight ingots deep in places.
Because both campaigns were devoted primarily to None of the ox-hide ingots have yet been cleanedof
the excavation of the shallower part of the wreck, the marine encrustationto reveal possible primaryor sec-
true extent and nature of the scatter in deeper parts ondary marks. That such marks exist, however, is
remain unknown. It would be premature, therefore, to shown by ingot fragmentKW 632, found near a stone
assign stern and bow areas to the site. When the com- anchor in area L-14. The unobscuredmark II, not
pleted excavation allows these determinations, and the representedin the compendiumof ingot marks in the
final site plan reveals artifact distributions, we should Cape Gelidonya publication,1'appears on the ingot's
be able to speculate with greater confidence about rough, upper surface.
which items were cargo and which were the personal The weights of most ingots have not yet been deter-
effects of those on board. Until then, however, it must mined becauseof heavy encrustation,but their dimen-
suffice to note that the west-east orientation of the sions reflectthe same degreeof variabilityseen during
wreck is along the gradient of the sea bed, and that the previouscampaign.Out of nine intact ingots only
three rows of copper ox-hide ingots appear to be posi- five allowed proper measurements.The largest (KW
tioned athwartships with a row of anchors, possibly 404) is 0.82 m. long and 0.44 m. wide, with a maxi-
spares, arranged in groups between them. At each end mum thicknessof 0.06 m.; it weighs ca. 28.8 kg. The
of the ship and beyond the last row of ingots, there smallest (KW 628) is ca. 0.73 m. long and 0.37 to 0.40
appear to be shorter rows of copper and tin ox-hide m. wide, with a maximum thickness of 0.05 m.; it
ingots. weighs 26.4 kg. The only other ingot that has been

8 The belief that these four-handled

copper ingots were raised in 1984 and 1985, on the other hand, approximate
cast to imitate dried ox skins, and that each ingot was equal more closely Buchholz's Type 3. The wide variety of ingot
in value to the price of an ox, has been invalidated (Bass shapes at Ulu Burun now demonstratesgradationsbetween
[supran. 1] 275; J.D. Muhly, "The CopperOx-Hide Ingots the two types, making distinctionsbetween them most sub-
and the Bronze Age Metals Trade,"Iraq 39 [1977] 81 with jective. It seemsthat all threeof Buchholz'stypes are present
n. 52). on the site, but we caution that most of the ingots remain to
9 H.-G. Buchholz, "Keftiubarren und Erzhandel im be raised, conserved,and studied.
zweiten vorchristlichenJahrtausend," PZ 37 (1959) 4-8, 10Bass et al. (supra n. 1) 271, 273 fig. 2; Bass
(supra n. 1)
fig. 2. Based on a poorly preserved,incompleteingot raised 276.
in 1982, the Ulu Burun copper ingots had been initially 11G.F. Bass, A BronzeAgeShipwreck,
identifiedas of Buchholz'sType 2 and perhaps Bass's Type TAPS 57, pt. 8 (1967) 72 fig. 90.
2c (Bass et al. [supra n. 1] 273 fig. 2). Most of the examples

cleaned of concretion,raised in 1984, weighs 17.9 kg. velopedformbeforeits disappearanceat the end of the
(KW 184). Late Bronze Age.l4 Bass demonstrated,however, cit-
Some ingots suffered more from corrosion than ing among others the Type 3 ingots depicted in two
others. In many instancesthey have been reduced,at Egyptiantombpaintings,that ingots cannotalways be
their edges and especiallyon their handle-likeprotru- dated as preciselyas Buchholzwould indicate.15
sions, to a dark brown porous substance, devoid of Three stackedcopperingots of Buchholz'sType lb
metal, that yields at the slightestforce. It is impossible (fig. 3), KW 390 the uppermost,were also recovered
to determinethe original dimensionsof ingots in this from the newly excavated upper part (N-10) of the
condition,and in many cases even to distinguishupper wreck; a tin ingot fragment was found trapped be-
from lower surfaces.12 tween the lowest two. These Type lb ingots are simi-
Until the discoveryof the Ulu Burun ship, known lar in shape and size to the example found nearby in
full-sized ingots of Type 3 were limited to two intact 1984.16 They are asymmetricalin that no two of their
and several fragmentaryexamples from Cyprus. Al- sides are equal (KW 389: 1. 0.32-0.33 m.; w. 0.24-
though none had been dated by stratigraphicexcava- 0.25 m.; max. th. 0.05 m. KW 390: 1. 0.30 m.; w.
tion, some were attributedto about the 12th century 0.24-0.25 m.; max. th. 0.05 m.).
B.C. on the basis of associated artifacts and the re- Ingots of Type lb appear to be more commondur-
examination of their findspots.13Consequently, the ing the 16th and 15th centuriesB.C. and continueinto
type is generally seen as the ox-hide ingot's fully de- the 14th century,but the problemsof dating ingots by
shape have already been mentioned.The Ulu Burun
examples providethe first directevidencefor the syn-
chronoususe of ingot Types 1, 2, and 3. It is possible,
however,that we have at Ulu Burun a separatecate-
gory of smaller, perhaps fractionalingots which did
not require handles for carrying,for the Type lb in-
gots on the wreck appear to be smaller than Type lb
ingots foundelsewhereand depictedin Egyptiantomb
A trapeziform(i.e., no two sides are parallel) cop-
per slab (KW 388: 1. 0.29-0.32; w. 0.20; th. 0.04),
with distinctly beveled edges, surfacedin area M-11
only about a meter from the Type lb ingots.
Together with the 19 bun ingots excavatedin 1984,
and the single example raisedduringthe 1983 survey,
39 bun ingots have been recovered.As with the ox-
hide type, bun ingots excavatedin 1985 exhibit much
diversity in size; the largest (KW 514) measures 30
cm. in diameter and 3.2 cm. in thickness, and the
smallest (KW 106) is 22 x 3.9 cm. If bun ingots
should be divided into two basic categoriesby size, a
reasonable dividing point would be about 27 cm. in
Fig. 3. Ox-hide ingot of Type lb. 1:4 diameter.In accordancewith such a division, 70%of

of the Ulu Burunin-

12 Forthe poorstateof preservation ska,"Studi cipriotie rapportidi scavo 1 [Rome 1971]
gots, see Bass (supra n. 1) 276. 210-11, 213-14, and 203 fig. 1, 209 fig. 7 with English
13 For full-sized intact
ingots of Type 3 and their proposed summaryon216).Thus,all ingotsof Type3 knownpriorto
dates, see Buchholz (supra n. 9) 28-29 nos. 1-2, pl. 3.1-2; the discoveryof the Ulu Burunshipwreckappearto have
Bass (supra n. 11) 57, 61 nos. 3, 5; and H.W. Catling, beenfoundon Cyprus.
Cypriot Bronzework in the Mycenaean World (Oxford 14 Buchholz
(supran. 9) 6, 7 fig. 2; Catling(supran. 13)
1964) 267-68 nos. 1, 3 and pl. 49.a-b, c, with two miniature 271-72.
ingots of Type 3 from Enkomion p. 269. Anotherminiature 15Bass (supra n. 11) 69.
ingot of Type 3, alleged to have been found at Makarskain 16Bass(supran. 1) pl. 17.1lowerright.
Dalmatia (Buchholz [supra n. 9] 37 no. 57, 35 pl. 5.5; Bass of Type lb ingotson Egyptiantomb
[supra n. 11] 61 no. 75) is probably also from Cyprus (L. paintings,see Bass (supran. 11) 62-66 figs. 62-69, 71,
Vagnetti, "Osservazionisul cosiddettoripostigliodi Makar- 74-76, 78 and80.

these ingots would be classifiedas "small,"with an av- wrecks, however, provide ample evidenceof the con-
erage diameterof about 23 cm. currentshipmentof bun and ox-hide ingotsduringthe
One well-preserved bun ingot (KW 397) is in- Late Bronze Age, indicating that the bun shape did
scribed with a mark resembling an open-sided rec- not serve as an intermediaryproductbefore being re-
tangle on its relatively smooth convex bottom. Most cast in the ox-hide shape; the shape of one was not
of the bun ingots have yet to be fully cleanedand con- preferredover the other. The widespreadoccurrence
served, but conservatorRobert Payton reports from of the basic ox-hide ingot shape, from Sardinia to
Bodrum that of the 19 freed of encrustation,four are Mesopotamia and from Egypt (as representations)to
of the "large"size and are unmarked,whereas 10 of the Black Sea,21has suggested to some a central au-
the 14 "small"ingots are incised on their convex sur- thority exercising control over the productionof and
faces with the mark T (mark 37B or 39B of the trade in this important commodity.22The recur-
Gelidonya ingots).18 rence of differingweights for the ox-hide ingots, even
Although metallurgical studies of the Ulu Burun after taking into accountthe change in weight due to
ingots have not been completed,analyses have shown corrosion, probably indicates that these ingots were
that the ox-hide ingots and at least some of the bun not intended for use as currency but rather repre-
ingots on the Cape Gelidonya ship were cast from the sented a quantityof blister coppersubjectto weighing
same, nearly pure, copper. The two majortypes of in- and evaluation during each commercialtransaction.
gots appear to differ only in size and, therefore,in the Their broadlycommonweight standardswould sim-
amount of copper in each ingot; the different shapes plify accountingproceduresby allowing for a rough
have been attributedto the possibilityof differentpro- but quick reckoningof a given quantity of raw metal
ductiontechniquesor areas, or to the need for smaller prior to weighing.23The shape itself probablyevolved
units of copper.19Whether the ox-hide ingots them- merely for its ease of transportationover long dis-
selves resulted directly from primary smelting of cop- tanceson pack animals.That the shape also developed
per-bearingores or from remeltingof raw coppermet- because it was more practical for shipboardstowage
al is uncertain. The discovery on the Ulu Burun than that of discoid ingots,24however, has been ne-
wreck of smaller Type lb ox-hide ingots makes it less gated by the discoveryof the latter on the Cape Geli-
likely that bun ingots were intentionally cast as frac- donya and Ulu Burun ships.25Once all the Ulu Bu-
tional units of the ox-hide form. It has also been sug- run ingots are excavated, cleaned and studied, they
gested that primary bun ingots, that is those which will provide an important source of information for
were not formed from remelted scrap metal, may in our understandingof the mechanismbehind the ox-
fact be the copper left at the bottoms of smelting fur- hide ingot trade.
naces after slag tapping, while ox-hide ingots were More than 40 tin ingots and many ingot fragments
cast outside the furnace, possibly even with remelted reducedto unrecognizablelumps have been found on
bun ingots.20The Cape Gelidonya and Ulu Burun the wreck. Of these, 17 appear to be fragmentsof ox-

(supra n. 11) 72 fig. 90. dinia in Its MediterraneanSetting: Some Recent Advances
J.D. Muhly, T.S. Wheeler and R. Maddin, "The Cape (University of Edinburgh Departmentof ArchaeologyOc-
Gelidonya Shipwreckand the Bronze Age Metals Trade in casional Paper 12, 1985) 3-4, and figs. 2, 3 on 26-27; addi-
the Eastern Mediterranean,"JFA 4 (1977) 357, 358 table 1. tional referencesare in J.D. Muhly, "The Role of Cyprusin
20R.F. Tylecote, "The Late Bronze Age: Copper and the Economyof the Eastern Mediterraneanduring the Sec-
Bronze Metallurgy at Enkomi and Kition,"in J.D. Muhly, ond Millennium B.C.," in V. Karageorghised., Acts of the
R. Maddin and V. Karageorghiseds., Early Metallurgy in InternationalArchaeologicalSymposium "Cyprusbetween
Cyprus, 4000-500 B.C. (Nicosia 1982) 94; see also Muhly the Orientand the Occident"(Nicosia 1986) 55-56.
et al. (supra n. 19) 354. 22 Views differ as to the identityof this centralizedauthor-
21 Buchholz (supra n. 9) 28-39; Bass
(supra n. 11) 52-69; ity. Some favor a base in the Aegean (Catling [supra n. 13]
G.F. Bass, "Cape Gelidonya and Bronze Age Maritime 271), others in Syria (Bass [supra n. 1] 294-95) or Cyprus
Trade," in H.A. Hoffner, Jr., ed., Orient and Occident, (R. Maddin, T.S. Wheeler, and J.D. Muhly, "Tin in the
CyrusH. Gordon(AlterOrientundAltesTesta-
Festschrift Ancient Near East: Old Questions and New Finds,"Expe-
ment 22, Neukirchen 1973) 29-31; and Catling (supra n. dition 19:2 [1977] 46).
13) 267-69. Also E. Galili, N. Shmueli and M. Artzy, 23 N.F. Parise, "I pani di rame del II millennioa.C. Consi-
"Bronze Age Ship's Cargo of Copper and Tin," IJNA 15 derazioni preliminari,"in Atti e memoriedel 1? Congresso
(1986) 32-34 with figs. 7-8; B. Dimitrov, "UnderwaterRe- Internazionale di Micenologia (Roma 1968) 128; C. Zac-
search Along the South Bulgarian Black Sea Coast in 1976 cagnini, "Aspectsof Copper Trade in the Eastern Mediter-
and 1977," IJNA 8 (1979) 70, 73 with fig. 3; and F. Lo ranean During the Late Bronze Age," in Traffici micenei
Schiavo, E. Macnamara, and L. Vagnetti, "Late Cypriot nel Mediterraneo(Taranto 1986) 414-15.
Imports to Italy and Their Influence on Local Bronze- 24 Buchholz (supra n. 9) 2.
work,"BSR 53 (1985) 10-13; F. Lo Schiavo,Nuragic Sar- 25Bass (supra n. 11) 69 n. 78.

hide ingots, four of bun or plano-convex ingots, and

the remainder mostly too corrodedfor attribution to
any specific type. The reversion of tin, especially in
ingots trapped beneath copper ox-hide ingots, to a
grayish powderypulp that dissipateseasily when dis-
turbed under water may partly be due to the tin's gal-
vanic reactionwith copper.26In other cases, however,
the tin has fared better and it is possible to discernan
ingot'sgeneral shape in spite of its rough and blistered
surfaces. When these bubble-like blisters are broken
off, a gray-white,hard crystallinestructurecan usual-
ly be observedbeneath. In these cases, the transforma-
tion of tin from its white state to a gray, granularsub-
stance with few metallic propertiesis due to a totally
different mechanism. This allotropic modificationof
tin into gray tin ("tin pest") is observedwhen tin of
high purity is subjectedto low temperatures(13.2? C)
for substantial periods.27That this reaction may be
responsible for the condition of the Ulu Burun ma-
terial is substantiatedby the purity of the tin; analysis
of a small fragmentrecoveredduring the 1983 survey
revealed 99.5% tin.28 Robert Maddin, who sampled
most of the copper and several of the tin ingots raised
in 1984, reports that he has observedgray tin. This
transformationoccurs with a volume change of about
20 to nearly 25%, resulting in crumbling gray gran-
ules. Given favorableconditionsand time, this trans-
formation continues until all the white tin is con-
sumed. Apparently, this is the first time gray tin has Fig. 4. Quarterox-hideingotof tin (KW200). 1:3
been uncoveredin an archaeologicalcontext.29
Of the 17 tin ingots in ox-hide form, 16 represent with a straightline; this may representa third tin-in-
quarter ingots, each preserving one handle (fig. 4). got type, but its full shape has not been determined.
The seeminglyintactquarter-ingotsrangein size from Ingot KW 644 (fig. 5; 1. 0.36; w. 0.30; max. th.
28 cm. long, 15 cm. wide, and ca. 3.5 cm. thick (KW 0.055), raisedfrom area M-11 as part of an encrusted
641) to 25.8 cm. long, 11.7 cm. wide, and 3.6 cm. thick mass of tin ingots, is the only half ox-hide ingot of tin
(KW 399). Whether the partial ingots representexact recoveredto date. It is not known if it was cut deliber-
quadrantsof the ingots from which they were cut can- ately or brokenduring the wreckingof the ship.
not be ascertained,but it seems reasonableto assume Several tin plano-convex, discoid or bun ingots
that at least some attempt was made to maintain the were also recovered.Of these, KW 401 has a maxi-
uniformityof the pieces. Paytonreportsthat of the few mum diameter of 23.2 cm. and a thickness of 4 cm.
ingots of tin which have been cleaned, one (KW 200: Three incompleteingots appearto have the same gen-
fig. 4), although poorly preserved, appears to be eral shape;two can be reconstructedto approximately
marked with the sign T, the same sign observedon the same dimensions,while the third, if indeed it is a
most of the copperbun ingots.A secondtin ingot (KW bun ingot, has a preserveddiameterof 30.5 cm. and a
201) is pierced and is marked on one of its surfaces thicknessof 7.3 cm.30Whetherthe manufactureof tin

26 For behaviorof
galvaniccouplesin sea water,see N. 28 Bass et al. (supra n. 1) 277.
North,"TheRoleof GalvanicCouplesin the Corrosionof According James Muhly,quotedby RobertMad-
to D.
Shipwreck Metals," IJNA 13 (1984) 133-36, with dinin a letterof 9 November1984to GeorgeF. Bass.
30 Five tin
ingots,threemarkedapparentlywith syllabic
27 J.A. Charles,"TheDevelopment of the Usageof Tin signs,havebeenreportedfroman undatedcontext,possibly
andTin-Bronze:SomeProblems," in A.D. Franklinet al. froma LBAshipwreck,off the coastof Israel(Galiliet al.
eds., The Searchfor Ancient Tin (Washington, D.C. 1977) [supran. 21] 25-32). They wereprobablycastin shallow
26; Maddinet al. (supran. 22) 41. pits,somestillretainingthedebrisof thepits.The ingotsare

and two examplesfromthe sea off the coastof Israel;34

Raban, on the basis of chemical analyses of the am-
phoras from the sea, proposes that amphorasof this
type originatedalong the Syro-Palestiniancoast from
Akko to Ugarit.35The undated amphoras excavated
by Tsountas in Tombs 58 and 59 at Mycenae remain
the best parallels.36
A unique amphoraof large proportions(KW 588),
but incomplete from the neck up, resembles a large
amphora from the Akko tombs.37No dimensionsare
given for the Akkojar, but fromthe scale providedthe
Akko jar seems somewhat taller than the Ulu Bu-
run example, although with about the same shoulder
It is now possible to divide the Ulu Burun am-
phoras tentatively into three basic sizes. Amphora
KW 588 has a maximumpreservedheight of 49.5 cm.
(ca. 4 cm. missing from the neck and rim), and maxi-
mum diameterof 39.5 cm. Only a few leaf fragments
and several fig seeds were recoveredby sieving the
contents of this capaciousjar. The second size com-
Fig. 5. Half ox-hide ingot of tin (KW 644). 1:4 prises amphoras averaging 58-59 cm. in height and
ca. 29 cm. in diameter,while yet a third size appears
ingots in ox-hide and bun shapes-the same forms to average 50 cm. in height and 24 cm. in diameter;
used in copper ingots-suggests a similar production these last two sizes are not clearly distinct,and inter-
techniqueratherthan the controlof metals production mediateformsdo exist. A seeminglyunique amphora,
by a centralauthorityremainsto be investigated. mistakenly describedin 1984 preliminaryreports as
being 50 cm. tall and 33 cm. in diameter,due to a cata-
Pottery loging error,was in fact 24 cm. in diameter.
The 67 Canaaniteamphorasraisedso far represent Sieving of contents yielded a yellow resin from at
only about half of the total number estimatedon the least 45 amphoras,or 67%of the total number exca-
wreck. The Ulu Burun amphoras are still being vated. Several of the amphoras produced a few fig
cleaned and conservedand have not yet been studied seeds,but it is possiblethat these are intrusivesince fig
in detail. Only one has been drawn, and comparisons seeds were previously found in amphorascontaining
with other amphoras are tentative. Similarities be- large amountsof resin.
tween the Ulu Burun amphoras and Canaanite am- Eight amphorascontainedone potsherdeach, while
phoras from Mycenae, Menidi, Tell Abu Hawam, two others had several small, apparently joining
and the tombs near the Persian Garden at Akko have sherds. Bass suggested, as one possibility, that these
been noted,31but mention may also be made of some- sherdswere intentionallyplacedin amphoras,because
what similar amphorasfrom Megiddo32and Byblos,33 they appeared too large to have fit through the jars'

flat on top and convex on the bottom,are extremelyirregu- 1980) 119 pl. XVII.4.
lar, and remotelyresemblethe Ulu Burun bun ingots in sec- 34 A. Raban, The CommercialJar in the Ancient Near
tion; parts of them had been cut off in antiquity. Two rec- East:ItsEvidence amongsttheBiblical
for Interconnections
tangulartin ingots, foundoffshorenear Haifa, were datedto Lands (Diss. Hebrew University 1980, in Hebrew) pl. 15-
the LBA on the basis of engravedsigns resemblingthose of G.3 and 7.
the Cypro-Minoan syllabary (Maddin et al. [supra n. 22] 35Raban (supra n. 34) 6; see also R.E. Jones, Greekand
45-47), but two 5th-centuryB.C. ingots, probablyfrom the CypriotPottery,A Reviewof ScientificStudies(British
same offshoresource,suggest a 5th-centurydate for all (M. School at Athens OccasionalPaper 1, 1986) 572-73.
Artzy, "Arethusaof the Tin Ingot," BASOR 250 [1983] 36For good illustrationsof jars no. 2924 and 4569, see A.
51-55). Xkerstrom,"MoreCanaaniteJars fromGreece,"OpAth11
31 Bass (supra n. 1) 277. (1975) 190 figs. 11 and 13.
32G. Loud, Megiddo II (Chicago 1948) pl. 59.11, from 37 S. Ben-Arieh and G. Edelstein, Akko. TombsNear the
stratumVIII. Persian Garden ('Atiqot [English Series] 12, Jerusalem
33 J.-F. Salles, La Necropole "K" de Byblos (Boulogne 1977) pl. XII.2.

necks without guidance.38It is more probable, how- as well as shells of land snails. It is possible,therefore,
ever, that these sherds supported wet sealing clay that some of the organic detritus may be remnantsof
while it was shaped over the mouthsof the jars; sherds previouscontents,in which case these amphoraswere
placed deep inside resin-filled amphoraswould more reused when filled with their final cargoof resin.
likely have survivedintact. Jar and amphora sealings Preliminaryresearchby Curt Beck, of Vassar Col-
recovered from 18th-Dynasty Malkata clearly indi- lege's AmberResearchLaboratory,had indicatedthat
cate that beforesealing, a stopperof reed, mud, or pot- samples of resin taken from the amphoras in 1984
tery was placed over the container'smouth;39reed or probably representedthe family Burseracaea,which
grass stoppers continued in use nearly 2,000 years includes frankincense (Boswellia spp.) and myrrh
later.40Several stoppers, a potsherd over a reed plug (Commiphoraspp.).43A few samplesrecentlysubmit-
for example, could be employed in combination.41In ted to John S. Mills of the National Gallery of Lon-
rare instances leaves and bungs of chopped chaff don, however,have been reportedto be a Pistacia res-
mixed with an adhesiveor mud were substituted.The in, most likely that of P. atlantica (also known as P.
stopper'smain purpose apparentlywas to preventthe terebinthus var. atlantica),44 which yields the so-
wet mud of the sealing from contaminatingthe am- called Chian turpentineor terebinthresin. This iden-
phora's contents.That a similar sealing practicemay tification certainly explains, in part, the presence in
have been employed on the Ulu Burun amphoras is amphorasof the Pistacia remainsmentionedabove.
strengthenedby the presenceof copious organicdetri- The sticky, semifluid nature of terebinth resin
tus in the bottoms of some jars. This organic layer, would necessitate its storage in containersimperme-
sometimes found directly under a potsherd and com- able to the resin such as amphoras.On the otherhand,
prising primarilygrass blades, leaves, seeds, and resin mastic (obtainedfrom P. lentiscus)and frankincense,
chips, may representthe remains of a stopperor bung both harvested in the form of dry tears,45would be
formed from plant material. When the ship sank, the more efficientlytransportedin lighter containerssuch
unbaked clay sealing dissolved and water pressure as baskets,as they are carriedtoday.The possiblepre-
may have forcedthe stopper,and in some instancesthe sence of terebinth resin in Egyptian tombs may indi-
potsherd,into thejar. That an implosiveforcewas felt cate the resin'sritual significancein antiquity,46but in
by somejars, almost certainly after being structurally moderntimes it is substitutedfor chewinggum, and in
weakened by impact, is demonstratedby the rim and the eastern Egyptian desert, it is used in the prepara-
neck fragmentsfound inside them. It must be remem- tion of perfumes.47
bered,however,that not a single amphoraraised from A few flecks of orpiment or yellow arsenic recov-
the wreck gives any positive indication of the tech- ered from two amphorasin 1985 are probablyintru-
nique by which it was sealed, and that possible recon- sive. The quantity of loose and scatteredorpimentin
structionsremain speculative. the area, as well as these traces, must have spilled
Cheryl Haldane, who is studying the contents of from the amphora filled with the substance in the
these amphoras, reports that nearly all the organic same location (M-12).48
deposits recoveredin substantial amounts contained Pithos KW 251, the largest of six storagejars vis-
many leaves and, especially, the fruits of a Pistacia ible on the wreck, was raised in 1984. As previously
tree (Pistacia cf. terebinthus).42A few amphorasalso reported,it contained 18 pieces of seemingly Cypriot
containedovine or caprine digital bones (phalanges), pottery,some still stackedinsideone another,and thus

38 Bass (supra n. 1) 278. tions,andp. 41 pl. IV illustratessealingswithpotsherds

39 C. Hope, Excavationsat Malkata and the Birket Habu grassstoppers.
1971-1974,V. JarSealingsandAmphorae ofthe 18thDyn- 42C. Haldane,"Archaeobotanical Remainsfrom Four
asty:A Technological Study(Warminster1978) 6, 14, 31 Shipwrecksoff Turkey'sSouthernShore,"presentedin
fig. 8, pls. I-II. A similarmethodforsealingjarsappearsto Istanbulon 12 September1986 at the Fifth OPTIMA
havebeenusedin MycenaeanGreece(C.G.Koehler,"Han- Conference.
dlingof GreekTransportAmphoras," in J.-Y. Empereur 43Bass (supra n. 1) 277-78.
and Y. Garlaneds.,Recherches sur les amphores grecques 44
JohnS. Mills,letterof 16 December1986to E.T. Hall.
[BCH Suppl. 13, 1986]53),-althoughpublicationof these 45A. Lucas,AncientEgyptianMaterialsand Industries4
sealingsdoes not specifythe types of jars sealed (R.M. (London1962)91, 321;Mills (supran. 44).
Dawkins,"Laconia.1-Excavations at Sparta,1910.2-The 46Lucas
(supra n. 45) 324.
MycenaeanCityneartheMenelaion," BSA16 [1909-1910] 47 M.E. Kislev,"Reference
to the PistachioTreein Near
9-10, pl. III). EastGeographical Names,"PEQ 117 (1985) 133. I thank
40 D. Colt ed., Excavations at NessanaI (London1962) JohnS. Millsforbringingthisarticleto myattention.
309, pl. XXV.18-19. 48Bass (supra n. 1) 278.
41 Hope (supran. 39) 43 table 2 lists

dark-brownfabric and grayish-brown slip they also

contrast sharply with the typical Syro-Palestinian
lamps on the wreckthat have coarsered-orangefabric
with reddish-brownsurfaces. The latter differ from
the lamps recoveredfrom the pithoi not only in color,
but also in shape and fabric;their nozzles are straight-
sided and deeply pinched, while their fabric is more
crumbly.One of the lamps belongingto the lattercate-
gory has a fire-blackenednozzle, perhaps indicating
its use aboardthe ship, while those from the pithoi are
Before the pithoi are cleaned of encrustation and
drawn, their profilescannotbe studied.One of the lar-
ger jars (KW 252) is decoratedwith a fine, raised
ridge at the juncture of its neck and body, and three
wider horizontalparallel ridgescircumscribethe body
aroundthe shoulder.The smallerpithos (KW 250: h.
ca. 0.80; diam. ca. 0.62) appears to be plain. Except
for its shorter neck and squatter profile, it has the
same general form as its larger counterpart.These
large storagejars are similar to the ovoid pithoi with
widened shoulders from Pyla-Kokkinokremos,51 Athi-
enou52 and Minet-el-Beida.53 The general type is

Fig. 6. LampKW485. 1:2

it served as a protectivecontainerfor the material in-

side.49 Whether the pithoi on the ship constituted
cargo as well as containers for cargo, however, re-
mains unknown.
Concretedto the sides of the upper end of the south-
ern gully, smaller pithos KW 250 containedlittle sedi-
ment and no visible artifacts. While transferringthe /a: : : :
sedimentinto plastic bags for later examination,how-
ever, we found 21 lead fishing-net weights, a perfectly
preservedceramic lamp (KW 437) and pilgrim flask
KW 438 (fig. 7). The lamp resembles those found in
1984 in the pithos KW 251, but the pilgrim flask is a
new additionto the ceramicrepertoryfrom these con-
tainers. The pithos was chiseled free from the bedrock
and raised to the surface.
The saucer-shaped lamps from the pithoi do not
appear to be common on Cyprus,50but with their Fig. 7. Pilgrim flask KW 438. 1:2

49Bass(supran. 1) 279. (Nicosia1984)34 no. 18A,pls.XXI.18A,XLI.18A.

50 Theselampsaretreatedin greaterdetailby Bass(supra 52T. Dothan and A. Ben-Tor, Excavationsat Athienou,
n. 1) 279, 281, 282 ill. 14. Cyprus, 1971-1972 (Qedem 16, Jerusalem 1983) 113, 114
51V. Karageorghis andM. Demas,Pyla-Kokkinokremos. fig.52.2.
A Late 13th-CenturyB.C. Fortified Settlement in Cyprus 53 C.F.A.Schaeffer,
UgariticaII (Paris1949)208 no. 27,

found in Late Cypriot II-III contexts,54but compar-

able material appears to date to the 13th-12th cen-
turies B.C.55
The only fairly certain Cypriot pottery discovered
in 1985 is an incompleteBase-ring II bowl (KW 277)
excavatedin grid square L-12. It is very similar to the
examples found in pithos KW 251 the previous sum-
mer. A trail of sherds from other Cypriot vessels be-
tween this Base-ring II bowl and pithos KW 251 may
point to the storagejar's original upslope position be- Fig. 9. One-handled
cupKW334. 1:2
fore it rolled downslope.
An intact wall-bracket (KW 304: 1. ca. 0.40; h. of later types which, accordingto Amiran, made their
bowl 0.17), of the plain type found during the 1983 first appearancein the Near East in LB IIB.59
survey and the 1984 excavation, was uncoverednext Four Syrianpilgrim flasksin two distinctsizes were
to a stone anchorin area M-14.56Wall-bracketsof the raisedin 1985. A small flask (KW 438: fig. 7; h. 0.175;
same basic design are well known from both Cyprus max. diam. 0.133) was in pithos KW 250, while an
and the Syro-Palestiniancoast.57 even smaller example (KW 604: h. 0.153; max. diam.
Two Syrian lamps, KW 485 (fig. 6) and KW 262, 0.123) lay under a stone anchor in grid square L-14.
found side by side, are of red-orangefabric with red- Lying partly beneath and damagedby the same stone
dish-brown surface. As mentioned above, they differ anchor was one of the larger flasks (KW 600: h. ca.
both in shape and color from the examples found in 0.30; max. diam. ca. 0.24); the southerngully yielded
the pithoi;both lamps appearto be of the same type as the fourthflask (KW 434: h. 0.312; max. diam. 0.254),
lamp KW 59 found in 1984.58A unique concavebot- also damagedand partiallyencrusted.All four pilgrim
tom on lamp KW 485 (fig. 6), enabling it to sit flat on flasks are of the same general type as those recovered
its base, is unlike the usual thickened,flat bottomsof previously from the wreck.60One of each size (KW
438: fig. 7, and KW 604), however,displays a slightly
different rim. Unlike those with a triangular-sec-
tioned, heavy lip, these flasks have a funnel-shaped
mouth with a much smaller rim, appearingto sprout
fromthe plasticV-like decorationformedby thejoin of
the circularhandlesto the short neck.
Two of the pilgrim flasks containedfig seeds. Bass
has cautioned,however,that ratherthan representing
. .-
w -
contents, the seeds may be the remains of dried-fig
........ . .
Ii stoppers.61Good parallels for the flasks have already
been noted from Tell Abu Hawam and Hazor.62
Others are from the Akko tombs,63although some of
the smaller Akko vessels appear more roundedat the
juncture of the separatelyformed halves of the body,
and Lachish, where the funnel-shapedmouth is rep-
resentedfairly closely by a flask from Level VI.64The
Ulu Burun pilgrim flasks appear to be undecorated,
Fig. 8. Stirrupjar KW305. 1:2 but further cleaning may reveal painted decoration,

209 fig. 86.27. 59 R. Amiran, Ancient Pottery of the Holy Land (New
54Dothanand Ben-Tor(supran. 52) 113; P. Astr6m, Brunswick,N.J. 1970)190.
IV. Pt.1C,261 Type 1Ea. 60 Basset al.
SwCyprusExp (supran. 1) 276,277 fig.7; Bass(supran. 1)
55 Fora briefdiscussion of similarjarsandtheirdates,see 284-85, 286 ill. 21.
DothanandBen-Tor(supran. 52) 113. 61 Bass
(supra n. 1) 285.
56 Bass(supran. 1) 275, 292;illustrated 62 Bass
examplein Bass (supra n. 1) 285.
et al. (supran. 1) 273, 276 fig. 6. 63 Ben-Ariehand Edelstein
(supran. 37) 23 fig. 11.1-4,
57 Basset al. (supran. 1) 273, 276; Bass(supran. 1) 292 pls. III.4,IX.3-4, XII.3.
n. 139. 64 0. Tufnell et al., Lachish IV. The Bronze Age (London
58 Bass
(supran. 1) 285, 287 ill. 22. 1958) 217, pl. 84.954.

as on other seemingly undecoratedvessels from the maximum diameter of 0.149 m., and a thickness of
wreck. 0.035 m.
Mycenaean finds in 1985 include the two fragmen- The deepblue coloringof glass ingotsraisedin 1984
tary stirrup-jarsand the one-handledcup mentioned could be observedin almost every case in spite of the
above. Globular stirrup-jar KW 305 (fig. 8; h. ca. extensiveencrustationand patinationcoatingmost ex-
0.12; max. diam. ca. 0.12), recently restored,appears amples. The situationdifferedgreatly in 1985. Of the
to be closest in profile to Furumark's FS 171, and is six intact ingots found, only three are definitelyblue.
decoratedon its body with groups of fine lines flanked The others are either green with black and white var-
by single wide bands, and on its shoulder zone with iegation, or, as in certain large ingot fragments,light
the multiple stem motif (FM 19:25).65 The larger brown or amber. It is almost impossible to ascertain
stirrup-jar (KW 308) is also decorated with bands. the original color of these last pieces since they have
Designs on its upper body will become clear after been completelyhydrolizedand no true glass remains.
cleaning, but the jar appears to be globular and has a Analyses of the Ulu Burun glass by RobertH. Brill
false neck with concaveprofile similar to that of KW of the Corning Museum of Glass have identified co-
305. The disc of the false neck is flat on KW 308 and balt as the coloring agent. The extensively "weath-
slightly convex on KW 305. The fabrics of both are ered" green, black, and amber glass, on the other
cream buff and well refined. Their surfaces, covered hand, is more difficultto interpret.Accordingto Brill,
with a slip of the same color, are decoratedwith red- at least the green coloring appears to result mainly
brown paint. from copper, perhaps as part of the original colorant
The deep semi-globular cup (KW 334: fig. 9; h. or perhaps as contaminationfrom nearby copper in-
0.055; max. diam. 0.085) is well roundedbelow and gots;the latter explanationis plausiblesince the green
the fusing of its slightly closing sides with its lip in a ingots were found directly below copper ox-hide in-
continuouscurve forms a bell-shaped profile;the base gots. The core of at least one green ingot, on more re-
is hollowed out, and the single handle rises a little cent testing, proved to be blue. Because the amber
above the rim. The linear decoration of the usual glass containsneither cobalt nor other metals such as
heavy red-brownbands on the cup's outer surfaceoc- nickel, zinc, and manganesethat accompanycobalt in
curs around the rim, the lower body at the handle at- the blue ingots, its original color was probablyamber
tachment, and the base. The intermediate zone be- or anothercolor.
tween the two upper broad bands is undecorated
while the region between the middle and base is filled Tools
with seven more or less equally spacedthin lines. The A large assemblageof tools, found mainly in areas
shape of the cup conformsto FS 214.66 L-11, M-11, and K-14, includes sickles, axes, adzes,
chisels, drill bits and/or awls, and a pair of tongs.
Glass The sickles,varyingin length from 11-18 cm., have
Six more discoid ("truncatedcone") glass ingots yet to be cleaned of encrustationto reveal the exact
were recoveredfrom M-12, the area which yielded all shapes of their blades and the manner in which the
but two of the 15 intact ingots and other fragmentary handles are attached.Of four blades found, none have
pieces found in 1984.67 The ingots' lower (smaller) long tangs or socketsfor hafting, but it is possible that
faces are rounded and smooth while their upper sockets have broken off; the apparently square-butt
(larger) faces, with sharp and irregular edges, are ends on two of the blades,when cleaned,may proveto
rougher. In some examples the two faces are not be short tangs with rivet holes. A fifth blade (KW 344:
parallel. The largest ingot of 1985 (KW 333) has a fig. 10), curved like a sickle but with its cutting edge
maximum diameterof 0.155 m., a minimumdiameter on the outer edge, is probablya razor.
of 0.125 m., and a thickness of 0.055 m.; and the The wreck has yielded so far four flat ax and adze
smallest (KW 383) a maximum diameterof 0.138 m., blades of two distinct types, all now cleaned and con-
minimum diameter of 0.122 m., and a thickness of served.68KW 587 (fig. 11; 1.0.195; w. 0.062; max. th.
0.06 m. An unusually irregularingot (KW 385) has a 0.009) from area L-15 and KW 218 (1. 0.195; w.

65A. Furumark, The Mycenaean

Pottery I. Analysis and 67 Bass
(supran. 1) 274, 281-82 with ills. 15-16. Photo-
Classification(Stockholm 1972, repr. of 1941 ed.) 31 fig. graphsof two glassingotshavebeenpublishedin JGS 28
6.171, 299 fig. 47.25. See also P.A. Mountjoy, Mycenaean (1986)118fig.2 (theglassbeadswiththeingotsarefroma
Decorated Pottery: A Guide to Identification (SIMA 73, Mycenaeantombat Miisgebi,nearBodrum,Turkey).
Goteborg 1986) 77, 79. 68 The distinctionbetweenan ax andan adzeblade,espe-
66 Furumark
(supran. 65) 49-50, 48 fig. 13.214. cially in earlierperiods,is rathervague.W.M.F. Petrie,




I. :?II;?

''':i ':;




., ..

r? -i:
:?i ??i-:

Fig. 10. Bronze razor KW 344. 1:2 Fig. 11. Bronze lugged ax KW 587. 1:2

0.052; max. th. 0.010) fromthe previouscampaignare well-Hyslop's Type II with flat blade and small
lugged or trunnion axes of the same approximatedi- shoulder protrusions for lugs.71 This is the most com-
mensions and shape,69save for the slightly more slen- mon type in Palestine, although it is also found in
der proportions and somewhat rounded butt of the Syria, Egypt, Anatolia and Cyprus.72Sites in Pales-
former.The latter blade, although chamferedon both tine and Cyprus have producedblades somewhat re-
faces, appears to have an asymmetricalcutting edge semblingours,73but the closest parallels for KW 218
and may, in fact, be an adze blade. The face with the are from Hazor, datedby its excavatorto the 14th cen-
least chamfer is incised with what is probably a sty- tury B.C.;74and for KW 587, fromthe treasuryof the
lized fish.70 Great Priest at Ras Shamra-Ugarit,datedto the same
Lugged axes were widespread during the Bronze century by its excavator,75but lowered to the second
Age, but axes from the Ulu Burun site are of Max- half of the 12th century by Catling.76The length of

Toolsand Weapons(Warminster1974, repr. of 1917 ed.) 5, Blades from Asia,"Iraq 15 (1953) 72.
lists six distinguishingfeatures for the separationof the two 72Maxwell-Hyslop (supra n. 71) 81-82; for additional
tools. The situation is complicated,however, by blades that references,see J. Deshayes, Les outils de bronze,de l'Indus
are identical in form, differingonly by the mannerin which au Danube (Paris 1960) Vol. 1, 116-17; Vol. 2, 55-56 his
their cutting edges are sharpened. Here we adopt the com- Type B; Catling (supra n. 13) 87.
73 For a similar blade from
monly acceptedview, without passing judgement on its va- Palestine, see for example,
lidity, that if a non-socketedblade, regardlessof its thickness Maxwell-Hyslop (supra n. 71) 81 and 85 fig. 5.5, and for
and length, has bevelingor chamferingon both of its faces, it Cyprus, see Catling (supra n. 13) 87 no. 1, fig. 8.11, pl. 6g.
is called an ax; and, if this beveling is confinedto only one 74Y. Yadin et al., Hazor II (Jerusalem 1960) 159,
face, it is identifiedas an adze. pl. CXCVI.8-9.
(supra n. 1) 292 ill. 32. 75 C.F.A. Schaeffer, Ugaritica III (Paris 1956) 270 fig.
70 Inscribeddecorationon
tools, especially on ax and adze 234.8, 272 fig. 236, lower right.
blades, is not uncommonin the LBA. For a fish on a differ- 76 Catling (supra n. 13) 286, but for a discussion of the
ent ax-blade type, see Petrie (supra n. 68) pl. IV.127. dating to the 13th centuryof these bronze hoards,including
71 R. Maxwell-Hyslop, "Bronze Lugged Axe- or Adze that of the Great Priest at Ugarit, see J.D. Muhly, Copper
which may have been used to lash the blade more se-

:? I?:

curely to its handle. The type appears to be confined
mainly to Egypt, its evolution traced by Petrie from
the Third Dynasty to the 19th Dynasty.78The blade,
.-.-? distinctly splayed and widest at the cutting edge, be-
: ? comes narrower toward the butt and forms angular
??..; ?.
shouldersjust below the rounded,semicircularhead.
: ?;?. The head is separatedfrom the rest of the blade by a
'? ?j
pronounced undercutting (neck). No good parallels
?: .'!Z for this adze have been found, but there is some simi-
larity between our blade and one from Gurob in
; 1?
:??:??! Egypt, dated by Petrie to the 18th or 19th Dynasty.79
"? ''
', Although both blades splay out toward their cutting
.? '
edges, the Ulu Burun piece is more slender and its
head more rounded.A blade fromthe South Rooms at
i?' ?,r
? ?,.r
r, ;:I
Amarna is of similar shape and proportions,with the
exceptionof its flattenedbutt.80
s- . '. r'.
?:?? ?:
C ??.:

: '?c??
..r .??-?,
1 :r;i

:; ?!
Fig. 12. BronzeneckedadzeKW 576. 1:2 '"?,-:
.? ?
.1 :I

the Ras Shamrablade, the shape and relativeposition
of its lugs and the blade's semi-roundedbutt-end are
features which approximatethe Ulu Burun material
most closely. The Ras Shamra blade, however, is a
typical adze by our definition. Among the bronzes ??'
found on the Cape Gelidonyawreck of approximately
1200 B.C. were at least four lugged blades.77Al- :-.??
though smaller in size, blades B107 and especially
B108 from the Gelidonyawreck are good parallels for v.
the Ulu Burun examples. It is too early to ascertain ?-?-?

whether the Ulu Burun lugged axes constitutedpart r

of the ship's cargo, or were for shipboard use only. ?r?..:
Together with the Gelidonya wreck, the Ulu Burun I?:

ship may provideclues to the westward spreadof this ?I I


predominantlyNear Eastern blade type.
Blade KW 576 (fig. 12; 1. 0.205; w. 0.063; th.
0.009) is of the type designatedby Petrie as a "necked
adze." This tool has a unique, well-formed butt-end Fig. 13. BronzeneckedadzeKW 141. 1:2

and Tin (Transactionsof the ConnecticutAcademyof Arts 79Petrie(supran. 68) 17,pl. XVII.91.
and Sciences 43, Hamden, Connecticut1973) 375 n. 202. 80 J.D.S.
77Bass Pendlebury, The City of Akhenaten,Pt. 3: The
(supra n. 11) 95, 97 fig. 109.B107-B110, 98 Central City and the OfficialQuarters(London 1951) Vol.
fig. 110.B107-B110. 1, 75; Vol. 2, pl. LXXII.10:25.
78 Petrie
(supra n. 68) 16-17, pl. XVII.
Blade KW 141 (fig. 13; 1. 0.215; w. 0.052; th.
0.008), found in 1984, provedafter conservationto be
a neckedblade. It differs from KW 576 by its straight
sides and narrower blade. The cutting edge, sharp-
ened on both faces, suggests that this is, accordingto r:
our classification, an ax. The head, although some-
what rounded,is smallerand is not undercutdistinctly ????.

as is that of KW 576. If the necks of these blades were '-?:?

intendedto facilitate lashing to hafts, then the handle
type best suited for the purpose would probably be
that of an adze mount. Hence, the blade may be classi-
fied more appropriatelyas an adze despite the profile rC
of its cutting edge. r.-??1
Some affinity,without specificparallels, may be ob- :?"
served between KW 141 and copper models of i?'?:i
necked-adze blades from the foundation deposits of a
?'r .?e

Tuthmosis III.81 All four models have straight sides ?:!

and shallow neck indentations,but their heads have [:. ?-
flat butts, unlike the slightly rounded head of our -??
blade. Perhapsthe best parallel for its head is found in 'I t:
an incompletestone mold from the turquoisemines of
i. 5
Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai, where a number of ':i
stone molds for tools were recovered,includinga frag- ???
ment containing the butt for another necked-adze
blade. The site has been dated by its excavatorto the
New Kingdom,probablythe 18th Dynasty.82
The next group of tools comprises a series of six Fig. 14. Bronzebroadchisel KW 376. 1:2
broad-chiselblades,five recoveredin 1985. In theiren-
crusted state these tools were assumed to be flat adze Deshayes suggests that his chisel Subtype C3, which
blades, but when cleaned,all provedto have relatively the Ulu Burun examples resemble most closely, ap-
pointedbutts. Some of the blades have minor splaying proachesa true adze blade becauseof its broadcutting
neartheir cuttingedgeswhile othersare straight-sided. edge. Based on the shape of the tapering tang that
Two blades, fused togetherby encrustation,were un- forms the chisel's narrow butt, this subtype is divided
covered in the southern gully. In the gully's lower further into two groups. With the exception of chisel
reaches,a secondpair was discoveredundera Canaan- KW 264, which best fits Deshayes'scategoryC3a, all
ite amphora and next to a Syrian pilgrim flask. The of the Ulu Burun finds have shoulderedtangs and be-
lengths of these tools vary, KW 376 being the longest long to his SubtypeC3b.
(fig. 14;1.0.201;w. 0.043; th. 0.0065), and KW 423 the The few dated examples of Deshayes's Type C3
shortest (1. 0.169; w. 0.036; th. 0.004), although most chisels are from the 14th to 12th centuriesB.C.85Al-
are closerto 20 cm. in length. though the numberand close associationof the chisels
This blade type apparentlyis rare or nonexistentin on the Ulu Burun wreck might suggestthat they were
the Near East, but there are many examples from the cargo, the discoveryof large tool kits on wrecks is not
Aegean.83The tool is treated by Petrie as an adze, unknown.86
whereas Catling and Deshayes classify it as a chisel.84 Three deep-bar chisels of varying lengths form the

81 W.M.F.
Petrie,AbydosI (London1902)30, pl. LXI.5. 84 Petrie
(supran. 68) 16;Catling(supran. 13) 106heavy
821. Beit-Arieh,"Serabitel-Khadim:New Metallurgical chisels;andDeshayes(supran. 72) Vol. 1, 88-89.
andChronological Aspects,"Levant17 (1985) 102 fig. 9.3, 85Deshayes(supran. 72) Vol.2, 38-39.
and95 pl. VII.12;the detailsof the poorlypreservedmolds 86The seventh-century A.C. Byzantinewreckat Yassi
aredifficultto discernfromthe smallillustrations.
Fordat- Ada,Turkey,containedamongmanyothertoolsfivenearly
ingof site,see p. 115. identicaladzes:G.F. Bass and F.H. van Doorninck,Jr.,
83 Deshayes(supran. 72) Vol. 2, 38-39, YasszAdaI (CollegeStation,Texas1982)240-42 withills.
pl. IX; Catling
(supran. 13) 106.

Accordingto Petrie, this lance-shapedand peculi-

I???.?: arly Egyptian tool was used from the First to the 19th
. ? Dynasty to cut and lever out wood chips from narrow
I' r?-s
mortises, a task for which its rectangular-sectioned
-? ??
shank was especiallywell suited.88That deep-barchi-
t?:???' sels were also used outside Egypt, albeit rarely, is il-
lustrated by two 12th-Dynasty examples, closely re-
sembling KW 276 and KW 307, found in Byblos.89

' Two earlier chisels from the beginning of the Middle
;i? '? ?:?
Kingdom, also from Byblos, are of the same general
shape.90A small deep-bar chisel with a partly pre-
servedwooden handle still adheringto its butt was re-
r ;
covered from the Cape Gelidonya wreck.91Another
r,_R ??? chisel, from the Tresor de Bronzesat Enkomi,has the
5??1'-?- same general form as the Ulu Burun pieces but differs
from them by its angular shoulder taper;92the hoard
''0' has been dated to the final stages of Cypriot Iron I
(1200-1050 B.C.) by its excavatorand to the second
.c- ?;.

?,-i .?,

--? ?"
''`' '````

I?-? r

.t ..?
,.?I .
- cL'tlt
i ?"-??-??'


Fig. 15. Bronzedeep-barchiselKW 276. 1:2

secondchisel series. The largest is KW 276 (fig. 15; 1.

0.255; w. 0.027; th. 0.010), while KW 307 is slightly
shorterbut of heavier construction(1. 0.205; max. w.
0.023; th. 0.009); KW 536 is the smallest (1. 0.12;
max. w. 0.015; th. 0.006). With their uniform thick-
ness and wide bladesthat rapidly convergeto form the
tools' cutting edges, which are perpendicular to the
plane of the wider faces of the blade, the Ulu Burun
deep-bar chisels belong to Deshayes's category Alb,
the Egyptian type. Chisel KW 536 with its tapering
butt, on the other hand, may be of Deshayes's Sub-
type B1.87 Fig. 16. BronzechiselKW 566. 1:2

87 Deshayes
(supra n. 72) Vol. 1, 102-103. l'Egypte (Paris 1929) 104, pl. LVIII.340.
88Petrie (supra n. 68) 20. 91 Bass
89M. Dunand, Fouilles de (supra n. 11) 100 no. B131, fig. 112.B131; 101 fig.
Byblos I, 7926-1932 (Paris 113.B131.
1939) 151, pl. LXIX.2190-2191. 92 referredto as a cold-chisel(C.F.A.Schaeffer,
90M. Dunand, Fouilles de Invariably
Byblos II, 1933-1938 (Paris Enkomi-AlasiaI [Paris 1952] 43-44, 42 fig. 3.25) or a
1950, 1954) 22, pl. CLXXVIII.6900; P. Montet, Byblos et tangedchisel(Catling[supran. 13]95).

half of the 12th century by Catling.93 Unlike true

::t ??:3
deep-bar chisels, chisel KW 536 lacks their flaring ?.:
cutting edges designedspecificallyto preventthe chis- .:?C:.
fi! ?t
el's blade from being seized by the wood during the ib:-?;r
:s z.l
cutting of deep mortices.KW 536 appearsto be some- ,;r
iv? ?I?,
what similar in shape to chisels attributedto metal- i..
\ :?

working, but its lightweight constructionreveals its ''?'
'' '"
probable function as a wood-cutting tool.94Another ..r.? "'
?. ?-.?\-?,?

type of bronze chisel, KW 566 (fig. 16; 1.0.203), has a ?.c???

.?., ?. :

circularshaft and a tapering square butt for hafting. .? ??e

'' ' II:
No less than a dozen long and slender bronze tools "'
of square and circular sectionshave been found, most " ?'
still coveredby encrustation.One cleaned piece, KW " ??'i\? ...
579 (fig. 17; 1. 0.13; 0.01 x 0.01), is probablya large tlj
drill bit. Its tip has been forged into a lozenge-shaped ic ???
:?\1.? ;!
???:: g.;. ??
i ?
point placed diagonally to the shank, and its butt end
c, .,??.
???? ?r:?r?:s
tapers slightly for the fitting of a socket. Catling sug- i-i::nCI
gests that similar pointedobjectswere bone or wooden f?li???
hafted hand tools, and not machinetools.95
These tools are found in the Near East,96the Ae-
gean, and Cyprus.97The best parallel for the Ulu Bu- Fig. 18. Bronze drill bit KW 381. 1:2

run example is perhaps a drill bit from Enkomi hav-

ing the same approximate dimensions and dated to
Late Cypriot III (1220-1075 B.C.).98 KW 381
- - i (fig. 18; 1. 0.149), similar to KW 579, but with a
* 1 :, :.-
straight, untwisted point, resemblesan example from
Enkomithat has been datedto aboutthe sameperiod.99
Uncovered among copper and tin ingots, arrow-
heads, lamps, and a daggerat the western, uppermost
part of the site was a pair of bronze tongs (KW 378:
fig. 19; 1. 0.525; th. 0.006). Cast as one long, narrow
piece, the tool was then bent into its present shape,
with a central loop, broad shoulders, and parallel
:. blades. Its purpose aboardthe ship is not understood,
but it is shaped differentlythan, for example, smaller
tongs with divergingbladeswhich spreadout immedi-
ately below the top loop. The latter tools can be mani-
pulated convenientlywith one hand, and are well rep-
resentedin the Aegean, on Kos and Crete, and in the
Fig. 17. Bronzedrillbit KW 579. 1:2 eastern Mediterranean in Cyprus.100They are also

93Schaeffer (supra n. 92) 38. Cypriot Iron I corresponds 97Catling (supra n. 13) 96; Deshayes (supra n. 72) Vol. 2,
to LC III (C.F.A. Schaeffer, "Enkomi,"AJA 52 [1948] 10.
176-177). Catling (supra n. 13) 286, however, prefers to 98J.-C. Courtois, Alasia III (Paris 1984) 21 no. 166, 22,
date this material to the secondhalf of the 12th century.See, 174 fig. 4.48, with additionalCypriotreferences.
however, Muhly (supra n. 76) for a 13th-centurydating of 99J. Lagarce, "La cachette de Fondeur aux Epees (En-
these hoards. komi 1967) et l'ateliervoisin,"in C.F.A. Schaeffered., Ala-
94For a metalworking chisel from Ras
Shamra, see sia I (Paris 1971) 408-409, with fig. 17.6; for dating of the
Schaeffer(supra n. 75) 261-62, 268 fig, 213.22; and for the hoard,425.
Aegean, see S. lakovidis, Excavations of the Necropolis at 100For Kos, see Catling (supra n. 13) 99. Examples from
Perati (Institute of Archaeology Occasional Papers 8, Los Crete and Cyprusare convenientlylisted in Lo Schiavoet al.
Angeles 1980) 90 with fig. 106.M36. (supra n. 21) 23, referringto L. Vagnetti, "Testimonianze
95Catling (supra n. 13) 97 n. 5. di metallurgiaminoicadalla zona di Nerokourou(Kydo-
96 Schaeffer(supra n. 75) 262, 268 fig. 233.11 and 13; 273
nias),"SMEA 25 (1985) 155-73.
fig. 237.

their excavator to the 14th century B.C. and, with

their more gentle shoulder bend, resemble the Ulu
Burun pair most closely. The Ulu Burun tongs show
no evidenceof a collar.

The 1985 campaignproduceda wealth of weapons
includingshort swords, a dirk and dagger,spears, ar-
rowheads,and stone maceheads.

Fig. 19. Bronze tongs KW 378. 1:5

commonly representedin Egypt, both in tomb paint-
ingsl01and as archaeologicalfinds.'02
The broad shouldersof the Ulu Burun tongs prob-
ably required both hands for use. Similar tongs from
the Late Bronze Age have been found in Cyprus,103
Syria,'04and Palestine.105Six tongs are known from -I
Sardinia, all with broad, marked shoulders.106De-
shayes lists several from Iran.'07 Each of these has a
collar between the open loop at the top and the broad
shouldersbelow, with the exception of two Sardinian
tongs and the Akko find. The Akko tongs are datedby Fig. 20. Bronze sword KW 275. 1:4

E.g., the Tomb of Hepu at Thebes, in H.H. Coghlan, d'Ugarit (Campagne 1951),"Annalesarcheologiquesde Sy-
Notes on the PrehistoricMetallurgy of Copperand Bronze rie 2 (1952) pl. III.1.
in the Old World(Pitt Rivers Museum, OccasionalPapers 105 For
Megiddo, see P.L.O. Guy and R.M. Engberg,Me-
on Technology 4, Oxford 1951) 68-69, with fig. 10, also in giddo Tombs(Chicago 1938) pl. 125.10; for Akko, see Ben-
Bass (supra n. 11) 65 fig. 76; and the Tomb of Rekh-mi-Re', Arieh and Edelstein (supra n. 37) 31, 37 fig. 15.3, pl. XI.12.
in N. de G. Davies, The Tomb of Rekh-mi-Re' at Thebes 106Lo Schiavo et al. (supra n. 21) 23-25 with
fig. 9; Lo
(New York 1973, repr. of 1944 ed.) 52, pls. III, LII and LV. Schiavo (supra n. 21) 8, 30, fig. 6; L. Vagnetti, "Cypriot
102Pendlebury (supra n. 80) Vol. 1, 141; Vol. 2, pl. Elements Beyondthe Aegean in the BronzeAge,"in Acts of
LXXIX.3:162. the International ArchaeologicalSymposium "CyprusBe-
103 Catling
(supra n. 13) 99, fig. 11.4-5, pl. 10.a-b; V. tween the Orient and the Occident"(Nicosia 1986) 206. I
Karageorghis, "A Late Cypriote Hoard of Bronzes from thank one of the anonymousreviewersof this paper for the
Sinda,"RDAC (1973) 75-76 with fig. 2.5, pl. VIII no. 5. last reference.
104 C.F.A. 107
Schaeffer, "Nouvelles fouilles et decouvertesde Deshayes (supra n. 72) Vol. 2, 163.
la mission archeologique de Ras-Shamra dans le palais

of the hilt are raisedor flangedfor the framingof hilt-

plates. These plate inlays, fully preservedby a protec-
tive layer of encrustationon one side of the sword and
partiallyon the other,are a compositeof wood, shaped
to fit the contoursof the hand guard and pommel,and
a long bar of ivory for the grip. A short third piece of
wood and anothersmall piece of ivory placedbetween
the grip and pommel inlays probably wedged the
whole assemblybetweenthe flanges. In additionto the
wedging, a black substance around the inlay edges
may have been used for affixing the pieces to the hilt.
There are no rivets on the sword.
Daggers or swords usually cast in one piece and
having simple flangedtangs are of Maxwell-Hyslop's
Type 31.109That flanges as a hafting device origi-
nated in the Near East rather than in the Aegean, as
initially thought, is demonstratedby Sandars.10 The
type is fairly commonon the Late Bronze Age Syro-

Fig. 21. BronzeswordKW301. 1:4

Bronze short swords KW 301 and KW 275 are of

unrelated types; their close proximity may point to
their having been stored together. Nearly identical in
length, both weapons are shorter than conventional
swords of the period, and, although they should per-
haps be classified as dirks, we will refer to them as
short swords becauseof their borderlinelengths.'08
Sword KW 275 (fig. 20; 1. 0.454) is cast in one
piece. The excellently preserved pointed blade be-
comeswidest at about mid-lengthafter which it tapers
inward slightly toward the hilt. At the base of the
double-convex sectioned blade are two decorative
bands running across the blade, each comprised of
three finely incised longitudinal grooves. The widen-
ing of the blade at its juncture with the hilt forms two
protuberanceswhich serveas a hand guard.The edges Fig. 22. BronzeswordKW 155. 1:4

108 samegeneraldivisions,but altersthe classification

Swords, dirks and daggers are separated arbitrarilyby some-
length.D.H. Gordonclassifiesweaponsbetween14 and20 whatbyreferringto themid-rangeweaponsas shortswords.
in. longas dirks;daggersareshorter;swords,calledshortor 109 R.
Maxwell-Hyslop,"DaggersandSwordsin Western
long on the basis of their lengths,are longerthan dirks: Asia,"Iraq8 (1946)33-35.
D.H. Gordon,"Swords,RapiersandHorse-riders," 10N.K. Sandars,"The First
Antiq- AegeanSwordsand Their
uity 27 (1953) 67. V.R.d'A. Desborough, The Last Myce- Ancestry,"AJA65 (1961)22-24.
naeans and Their Successors(Oxford 1964) 67, retains the
Palestinian coast as reportedfrom a number of sites,
including Ras Shamra, Megiddo, Beth-Shan, She-
chem, Gezer, Bahan, Tel Mor, Tell Fara, and Tell el-
Ajjul.11 Daggers from Cyprus with similar flanged
grips and crescenticpommelsare attributedto the Le-
vant.12 A good parallel, although shorter,comesfrom
the 14th-centurytombs near the Persian Garden,just
north of the ancient tell of Akko.113
The secondsword (KW 301: fig. 21; pres. 1.0.455,
max. blade th. 0.006) is a typical Aegean product.
With its single-piece construction-tang and blade
cast together-and ribbedblade, flangedgrip and cru-
ciformshoulderswith roundedlobes, the sword seems
to fit Sandars'sClass Di of later Aegean types.114Un-
fortunately,the sword's pommel is missing, but close
examination of the badly deterioratedend has shown
the pommel-tangto be most probablyof the unflanged
type, typical of Di swords. The sword's hilt-plates
have not survived, but one rivet hole in the grip and
two others low in the blade affixed the plates to the Fig. 24. Bronze dagger KW 621. 1:4
hilt. Since the ivory inlays of "Levantine"sword KW
275 have survived, and those made of semiprecious
materials would be virtually indestructible,the hilt-
plates of KW 301 probablywere fashionedfrom a less
durable material such as wood. The sword is shorter
than average for its class and its blade has a broad
flattish midrib with three very fine ribs outlined by
fine grooves instead of the characteristic well-marked
high midrib. Other short weapons of this class without
midribs or with only a broad flattish midrib, each with
or without centralribs and grooves,do exist.,i5
A third, poorly preservedsword (KW 155: fig. 22),
possibly of a third type, was discoveredduring the
1984 campaign. Now cleaned and conserved, the
blade's preserved length is 0.37 m. and its maximum
thickness 0.009 m., but its tip and most of its tang are
missing. The position of the hilt is revealed by three
rivets of the large size found on some typologically
earlier swords of its class. 1 Cylindrical in shape, but
slightly constricted at the middle where they pierce the
blade, the rivets are forged into conical caps at their
ends. Two of the rivets are placed at shoulder level
and the third is centrally located above the other two,
an invariable arrangement for Sandars's Class Ci
Fig. 23. BronzedirkKW296. 1:4 swords.ll7 Unfortunately, almost nothing remains of

"l Maxwell-Hyslop(supran. 109)35-36; Ben-Ariehand are in J. Driessen and C. Macdonald, "SomeMilitary As-
Edelstein (supra n. 37) 33 n. 43. pects of the Aegean in the Late Fifteenth and Early Four-
Catling (supra n. 13) 128, pi. 15.i-1. teenth Centuries B.C.,"BSA 79 (1984) 70-71.
113 Ben-Arieh and Edelstein
(supra n. 37) 33, 40 fig. 18.1, 115Driessen and Macdonald(supran. 114) 73 nos. 6, 9, 10,
pl. VII.1, datedon p. 36; also B.M. Gittlen, "The Murder of 20, 22, 25, 35, 36, and (incomplete)32, 33, 38, none origi-
the Merchants near Akko," Biblical and Related Studies
nally exceeding0.5 m. in length.
Presentedto Samuel Iwry (Winona Lake, Ind. 1985) 64. 116 Sandars
114 N.K. (supra n. 114) 120.
Sandars, "LaterAegean Bronze Swords,"AJA 67 117 Sandars
(supra n. 114) 119.
(1963) 123-25, 146-48; additionalreferencesto Di swords

our hilt, let alone the pommel, for positive identifica- tary tin ox-hide ingots in areas M-10 and N-10. A few
tion. Furthermore, the blade is far too poorly pre- arrowheadswere also reclaimedfromamongthese ob-
served to reveal its original section, although a well- jects. The dirk's hilt and blade are cast in one piece;
defined midrib is still in evidence.The total length of the grip side flanges near the hilt and blade juncture
the sword may have been over 0.60 m., about the min- have been extended and folded over the hilt-plates in
imum size for Class Ci. the shape of wings. The wooden hilt-inlays are par-
Both Sandars and Catling believe that the finest tially preserved,but the pommelis missing. This dag-
specimens of Ci and contemporaneous Di swords ger type, Maxwell-Hyslop's Type 32, appears to be
were made at LM II Knossos, and that the swords confined mainly to Syria and Persia.122In its devel-
continuedto be produceduntil the fall of Knossos. 18 oped form it is found in Syria during the 15th to 13th
Macdonald suggests the possibility of other mainland centuries B.C. and later in Iran. In addition to good
centers"9 which may have continued to produce the but late parallels from Iran, a nearly identical dirk,
same type of swords. Whatever the case, elaborately also incomplete,comes from a 14th-centuryhoard at
decorated examples were replaced by more efficient Ras Shamra.123
and utilitarian types during the 14th century.120Al- Dagger or knife KW 621 (fig. 24) has a preserved
though the variant of Di swords without high midribs length of 0.284 m. Incised with a five-pointed star
is confined mainly to dirk-sized weapons not exceed- near thejunctureof the hilt and blade,this poorlypre-
ing 50 cm. in length, the loss of the midrib is recog- servedpiece appears to be of the same general type as
nized as a development leading to the moderately blades KW 1 and the slightly larger KW 189 discov-
thickeneddouble-convexblades without true midribs. ered in 1984.124 Similar daggers are found in
Typologically, therefore, the variants of the Di class Egypt,'25but the closest parallels from Palestine are
which stand at the end of the ornamentalsword-mak- found at Tell el-Ajjul where they are describedas a
ing of the 15th and early 14th centuries,to which we Canaanitetype based on Egyptian prototypes.'26
may add the Ulu Burun example, form the transition Thirty-two arrowheadshave been recovered,main-
to later swords. 21 ly in two concentrations.Their poor preservationand
An incomplete but well-preserveddirk (KW 296: extensive encrustationmake their identificationdiffi-
fig. 23; pres. 1.0.335) was recoveredwith bronzetongs cult, and the actual number of arrowheads may be
KW 378, terra-cotta lamps KW 262 and KW 485, slightly higher. The larger group, with 17 pieces, was
and a number of small Type lb copper and fragmen- in and aroundgrid square M-10; the smaller concen-


-e B-?

Fig. 25a. Bronze arrowheadKW 572. 1:2;b. Bronzejavelin(?) point KW 286. 1:2;c. Bronze blunt arrowheadKW 429. 1:2

Sandars (supra n. 114) 126-27; E.A. Catling and H.W. 130-32.
Catlingin M.R. Popham,E.A. CatlingandH.W. Catling, 122Maxwell-Hyslop (supra n. 109) 36-38, pl. IV.32-32a.
"SellopouloTombs 3 and 4, Two Late Minoan Gravesnear 123 Schaeffer
(supra n. 75) 258-60 with figs. 223-224.17.
Knossos,"BSA 69 (1974) 243, 252. 124
Bass (supra n. 1) 282, 283 ill. 17.
119Driessen and Macdonald
(supra n. 114) 64-65. 125 Pendlebury
(supra n. 80) Vol. 1, 135; Vol. 2, pl.
120 H. Matthaus, "Two Mycenaean Bronzes," BSA 74 LXXVI.10.
(1979) 168. 126
Bass (supra n. 1) 282 with ns. 57-58.
121 Matthaus (supra n. 120) 169; Sandars
(supra n. 114)
tration of about 11 arrowheadsis mainly from J-10. socketedand all have a central ridge or midribs.One
Most of the few better preservedpieces appear to be spearhead,relativelyclean of encrustationon its lower
narrow and long, with long tangs of square or rhom- half, appearsto have a closedor undividedsocket.
boid section. The only seemingly completearrowhead Fragmentarystone mace-head KW 278 was found
devoidof encrustation(KW 572: fig. 25a) is approxi- near the ovoid mace-head excavatedin 1984 in area
mately 0.096 m. long and 0.01 m. wide at the blade. L-11, and smaller mace-headKW 486 (fig. 26; max.
The general blade type is well known in Egypt, Syria- diam. 0.067) was recoveredonly about a meter distant
Palestine, and Cyprus,127where Catling ascribes his in grid square M-10. Both are of the same slightly
sub-elliptical barbless category to the Near East.128 flattened spherical form with a raised collar around
That these arrowheads were also manufacturedon one end of the haft socket.KW 278 appearsto be mar-
Cyprus, however, is demonstrated by a limestone ble, while KW 486 is of a polishedblackishstone, per-
mold found at Hala Sultan Tekke.'29 haps diabase.
Several of the longer and more slender points may A collared mace-headwas also found on the Cape
be for javelins instead of arrows.'30One such blade, Gelidonyashipwreck;other specimensare noted from
KW 286 (fig. 25b), has a preservedlength of 0.107 m., Anatolia, Palestine, and Cyprus.138
but was originally at least 0.12 m. long.
Blunt-tipped arrowhead KW 429 (fig. 25c) is ba- Jewelry
sically a cone with a square-sectionedtang attachedto Amber, faience, and stone beads were found in
the cone's apex. The blunt head, designed to strike quantity. The 14 amber beads found in 1985 vary
rather than to penetrate,was probablyused for fowl- greatly in shape and size. Many appear to be in the
ing.131Blunt arrowheads are known from a number form of pierced, naturally occurring "pebbles"with
of sites in the Near East, including Tell el-Ajjul,132 minimally worked surfaces.139Such pebbles, when
Gezer,133 Megiddo,'34 Beth-Pelet,135Akko,136and found and collected,often have a flat side and a dome,
Lachish.137 or an irregular, lopsided shape with flattened sur-
The southern sand gully yielded four more spear- faces. A thoroughlyworked piece with an artificially
heads, in areas K-12, K-13 and J-12, with a fifth far- carinatededge can be describedas a flattenedbiconi-
ther downslope in 1-14. Almost all are heavily en- cal disc.
crustedand fragile, especially aroundtheir sockets.At Nine of the amber beads were found in the lower
least three types of spearheadsare represented.All are part of the southerngully (grid square K-13), the up-
per reaches of which yielded the majorityof exotica
recoveredin 1984. Three beads are from area K-14,
directly below the gully, and two others, probably
strays from the main cluster, are from adjacentareas.
A small bead fragment was found inside Canaanite
amphora KW 428 in area L-12. A rock ridge sep-
arates the southern gully from this jar and other rich
artifactsto the jar's north in L-11, M-11, and N-1.
This fragmentarybead is one of the strongest clues
Fig. 26. Stonemace-headKW486. 2:5 associatingthe objectsfrom these two regions as hav-

127 Ben-Ariehand Edelstein

(supra n. 37) 35 with ns. 133R.A.S.Macalister,The Excavationof Gezer(London
58-62, andCatling(supran. 13) 130-31 withn. 5, include 1912)pl. LXXV.19-20.
referencesto a numberof NearEasternsites. 134Loud (supran. 32) pl. 175.30-34;Guy and Engberg
Catling (supra n. 13) 130-31. (supran. 105)pl. 126.5-9.
129K. Nicolaou, "Archaeological News from Cyprus, 135E. Macdonald,J.L. Starkeyand L. Harding,Beth-
1975,"AJA 81 (1977) 525 with fig. 4; P. Xstrom"The PeletII (BSAE52, London1932)pl. LV.266-267.
Bronzesof Hala SultanTekke,"in Muhly, Maddin,and 136Ben-Arieh andEdelstein(supran. 37) 35, 44 fig.22.17.
(supran. 20) 178,pl. XVIII.1.
Karageorghis 137Tufnell(supran. 64) 79, pl. 25 nos.27, 32, 47.
130 Ben-Arieh and Edelstein (supra n. 37) 34-35. 138 Bass (supra n. 11) 126-28 with figs. 134.ST2 and
131F. Petrie,AncientGaza II. Tell el Ajjil (BSAE 54, 136.ST2.A piriformmace-headwith raisedcollaron the
London1932)8. lowerendof the haftsocketwas foundat Tarsus:H. Gold-
132 F. Petrie,AncientGazaI. Tellel
Ajjul(BSAE53, Lon- man,"Excavations at GozluKule,Tarsus,1937,"AJA42
don 1931)pl. XXI.106;AncientGazaII (supran. 131) 8, (1938)35 withfig. 13.
pl. XVII.161-168;AncientGazaIII. Tell el Ajjiul(BSAE 139 A. Harding and H. Hughes-Brock, "Amber in the
55, London1933)6, withpl. IX.34. MycenaeanWorld,"BSA69 (1974)154.

ing been originally stored in a common area on the

ship before it broke apart. It is possible that all the
amber beads were part of the same necklace, but
whether the other bead types found nearby belonged
to the same necklace is not known. Curt W. Beck has
identified the amber bead from amphora KW 428 as
Baltic amber.140
Fourteen pale, gray-blue faience beads are of two
types. The more common type, examples of which
were also found in 1984, is lentoid or biconical with
impressed spokes radiating from the centers of both Fig. 28. Quartz bead KW 379. 2:1
faces. In some examples one face is more worn than
the other, and in others only one face appears to be shaped with incised longitudinal grooves. Similar ex-
decorated. In better preserved specimens, however, amples are again from Cyprus,'44 Syria-Palestine,145
the impressed fluting is deep and well defined on both and Greece.146 Many of the faience beads have been
surfaces, and forms pronounced crenations around the found on the wreck with delicate objects such as gold
bead edges. Biconical faience beads of the same gen- jewelry fragments, the bone scarab, and the stone
eral form, but usually with more closely spaced flutes, plaque, as well as with small balance-pan weights.
are found commonly in LBA contexts in Cyprus,'14 Area K-13 also yielded nearly half of the 11 stone
the Syro-Palestinian coast,142and the Aegean. 43 The cylindrical beads, with the remaining stone beads col-
second type, of the same bluish color, is ovoid or olive- lected from adjacent grid squares. This limited disper-
sal suggests a single source, perhaps a bag or necklace
string. The beads are cut from a white or cream-col-
ored stone, perhaps agate, with each piece having its
own pattern of white, brown, or black patches and
striations (fig. 27). Most are irregular in section, vary-
ing from 6-11 mm. in diameter and 3-6 mm. in thick-
ness. Others include a cylinder of rock crystal (quartz)
(KW 379: fig. 28; 1. 0.023; diam. 0.012), a bead of
unidentified white stone, perhaps meerschaum, and a
cylindrical bead of bone.
Three silver bracelets or armlets of the types found
during the previous campaign were excavated in the
lower reaches of the same gully. Open-ended bracelet
KW 284 (fig. 29), decorated with a series of chevrons
below incised threads at each end, resembles KW 92
found in 1984.147 This design is paralleled in gold at
Fig. 27. Stone beads. 2:1 Tell el-Ajjul,'48 and in bronze at Byblos,'49 but simi-

140 Bass
(supra n. 1) 286. For a brief accountof amberana- W. Rudolph, "Die Nekropole am Prophitis Elias bei
lysis and the validity of infra-red spectroscopy,see A.F. Tiryns," Tiryns VI (Mainz 1973) 118, pl. 25.33; S. Hood,
Harding, The Mycenaeans and Europe (London 1984) G. Huxley, and N. Sandars, "A Minoan Cemetery on
59-60. Upper Gypsades," BSA 53-54 (1958-1959) 245, 257
141 L. Astr6m,SwCyprusExpIV. Pt. 1D, 521, category2b; fig. 34.112.
Dothan and Ben-Tor (supra n. 52) 128, 129 fig. 59.10; 144Xstrom (supra n. 141) 521 category3.
Courtois (supra n. 98) 147 no. 1226, 215 fig. 45.3; M. Yon, 145C.F.A. Schaeffer, Ugaritica IV (Paris 1962) 119, 98
Salamine de Chypre II. La tombe T.I du XIe s. av. J.-C. fig. 81; Tufnell, Inge, and Harding (supra n. 142) 74,
(Paris 1971) 21 no. 42, pls. 16.42 and 17.42. pl. XXXV.63.
142Ben-Ariehand Edelstein (supra n. 37) 26, 28 fig. 14.14; 146Rudolph (supra n. 143) 59 pl. 32.14 and 19.
Tufnell et al. (supra n. 64) 88, pl. 29.41; O. Tufnell, C.H. 147Bass (supra n. 1) 288, 290 ill. 27.
Inge, and L. Harding, Lachish II. The Fosse Temple (Lon- 148 Petrie (supra n. 131) 6, pls. I-II; F. Petrie, Ancient
don 1940) 74, pl. XXXV.55; Y. Yadin, Hazor III-IV (Je- Gaza IV. Tell el Ajjil (BSAE 56, London 1934) 7, pls. XV,
rusalem 1961) pl. 294.2. Bass (supra n. 1) 287 cites a bead XVI.68.
from Alalakh becauseof the similarityof its spokes. 149Dunand (supra n. 89) 174, pi. LXXII.2540 and 2542.
143C.W. Blegen, Prosymna (Cambridge 1937) 308-309;
in and aroundarea L-1 1. A badlydeformedgold flow-
er (KW 361), perhapsthe finial for a pin, is decorated
with granulationon the inner surfaceof its petals. The
unopenedpetals clusteredinside also are granulated.
Scrap gold from a disc pendant (KW 551: fig. 32
diam. ca. 0.036) was found in the same general area.
Its central design, comprising horizontal petals or
leaves with two verticallines throughtheir centers,all
worked in repousse and delineated with a single ir-
regular row of gold granules, probably represents a
highly stylized and crudelyexecutedlotus palmetteof
McGovern'sType IV.F.4.155The medial line on the
left center petal or leaf was undoubtedly destroyed
during cutting;two other lines, inserted between the
petals, radiate outwards. A single rolled-overribbon
loop for suspension, worked with banded edges, is
Fig. 29. SilverbraceletKW284. 2:3 affixed to the top. The lotus palmetteon the Ulu Bu-
run pendantis similar to palmetteson eight pendants,
lar bracelets and armlets without chevrons are also probablyworked in repousse, found togetherat Beth
found in gold and silver at Tell el-Ajjul;'50and in sil- Shemesh in LB IIB context.156Pendant KW 551 had
ver at Megiddo and Gezer.'15 Silver braceletKW 273 been deliberately cut in two in antiquity, with each
half then foldedover and beaten flat, in one case with
(fig. 30), paralleled on Cyprus,152is decoratedwith
bits of gold foil and wire inside;the sphericalgranules
crosshatchingbetween a pair of incised lines, the in-
nermostpair of which has a series of chevronsbelow. had been reducedto irregular discs during this beat-
Fragmentarybracelets,fragmentsof silver bars, and a ing. The pendantwas originally formedof two sheet-
crumpled silver plate recovered from the wreck are gold discs with the edges of the slightly larger, undec-
orated back plate folded aroundand crimpedover the
clearlyscrap silver intendedfor recycling,but whether
the intact braceletsare part of this scrap hoard cannot front plate, as were the edges of gold pectoralKW 94,
be ascertainedat present.53 found in 1984.157This technique was commonin the
LB IA hoardjewelry at Tell el-Ajjul, which includes
Nearby were two rings, most likely fashionedfrom
top shells (fig. 31). A central groove inscribed com-
pletely around each ring preservesa black, bitumen-
like substance probably intended for affixing pre-cut
inlay parts to the ring. On at least one ring (KW 414:
fig. 31b; diam. 0.02; th. 0.003), an impressed zigzag
pattern in this black material may correspondto the
triangular shapes of missing inlay pieces. Top-shell
rings are found in LBA contexts in the Aegean, Cyp-
rus, and Syria.'54
Excavatorsdiscovereda few small gold items mainly Fig. 30. SilverbraceletKW273. 2:3

'50Petrie, Ancient Gaza IV (supra n. 148) 5, 8, pls. XII, nah 1930-1,"JEA 17 (1931) 236, pl. LXXIII; C.F.A.
XIX, XX.155-158; O. Negbi, The Hoards of Goldwork Schaeffer,"Lesfouillesde Minet-el-Beida
et de Ras-Sham-
from Tell el-'Ajjul (SIMA 25, Goteborg 1970) 49. ra, troisieme campagne,"Syria 13 (1932) 22, pl. XVI.1;
Loud (supra n. 32) pl. 226.3; Macalister (supra n. 133)
151 andDemas(supran. 51) 60-62, pl. XXVIII.
99-100 with fig. 286. 154 D.S. Reese, "Topshell
Rings in the Aegean Bronze
152F.H. Marshall, Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Age,"BSA 79 (1984) 237-38, and personalcommunications
Etruscan, and Roman in the Department of Antiquities, with David S. Reese.
British Museum (Oxford 1911) 39 no. 607, pl. V.607. 155 P.E. McGovern, Late Bronze Palestinian Pendants
153 Other hoards of
precious metals include intact pieces (JSOT/ASOR MonographSeries Sheffield 1985) 47.
alongsidefragmentsof foldedandcut material:e.g., Petrie, 156McGovern (supra n. 155) 47 with fig. 41.139.
Ancient Gaza IV (supra n. 148) 5, pl. XII; J.D.S. Pendle- 157Bass (supra n. 1) 287, pl. 17 fig. 3.
Reportof Excavations
bury,"Preliminary at Tell el-'Amar-

cular star pendant KW 138 (diam. ca. 0.075) recov-

ered from the wreck in 1984.165Circular pendantsat
the necks of Syrians in the merchantfleet depictedin
the Tomb of Kenamonat Thebes probablyare similar
The upper half of an inscribedgold signetring (KW
603: fig. 33; h. of bezel 0.014), purposelycut from an
aM intactring, was uncoveredless than a meteraway from
the pendant. Its color, palest of any gold objectrecov-
Fig. 31. Shell rings. a = KW 357, b = KW 414. 4:3
ered from the wreck, may derivefrom the ring's alloy.
That the ring sufferedthe same fate as pendant KW
more than one folded plaque-pendant "forming a 551 is obviousfrom chisel scarsalong the cut; the ring
mere dump for the melting pot."'58A falcon or wry-
clearly was part of a hoard of scrap gold aboard the
neck earring from Hoard 277 at Tell el-Ajjulappears
ship. The ring may have been cut in half to preventits
from a photographto be joined in a similar manner, unauthorizeduse, but it is not yet known if the other
the crimped edges around the periphery of the deco- half was also on the ship, as were the two halvesof the
ratedfrontplates being clearlyvisible.159The similar- circularpendant. Three engravedfigures on the oval
ity of manufacturingtechnique between the Tell el- bezel have been damagedby the cutting. From photo-
Ajjul falcon earrings and the Ulu Burun pectoralhas graphsand a cast,James Weinsteinhas suggestedthat
been noted.160Two other earrings of unknown pro-
althoughthe compositionand generalshapeof the ring
venience in Leiden, also suspected to be products of reflectan 18th-Dynastydate, the crudelyincisedsigns
Tell el-Ajjulworkshops,161are even closerparallelsto are not indicative of the high-quality workmanship
pectoral KW 94. It is unlikely that the Ulu Burun generallyexpectedof New Kingdomartisans.A defin-
piece is contemporaneouswith these earlierexamples; itive interpretationof the signs cannot be made with-
the formerwas probablymanufacturedat a later date out the missing half.167
and at a different center, perhaps Ugarit, where it is
suggested that the tradition of gold jewelry working
eclipsed at Tell el-Ajjul may have prosperedfrom the
early 15th centuryuntil the end of the 14th century.162
The similarity in workmanship of pectoral KW 94
and pendant KW 551 may suggest a commonschool
for both.
Similar circular pendants with single ribbon loops
for suspension, but made from a single sheet of gold,
are common to many western Asiatic sites.163Their
commontheme is a star with varyingnumberof points
or rays, all in repousse.These roundelshave been re-
garded as amulets representingdivine symbols, per-
haps combiningthe apotropaicqualities of the deities
they represented.'64
Such may also have been the function of large cir- Fig. 32. Gold roundel KW 551. 1:1

158 164
Petrie, Ancient Gaza IV (supra n. 148) 5. Maxwell-Hyslop (supra n. 161) 149.
59 0.
Tufnell, "Some Gold Bird Ornaments: Falcon or 165 Bass (supra n.1) 289-90, pl. 17 fig. 4.
Wryneck?"AnatSt 33 (1983) 62-63 no. 4, pl. XXI.4a.
N. de G. Davies and R.O. Faulkner,"A SyrianTrading
160 Pectoral KW 94 is discussed in detail Venture to Egypt,"JEA 33 (1947) 40-46; N. de G. Davies,
by Bass (supra
n. 1) 287-88. Private Tombs at Thebes IV. Scenes from Some Theban
161 K.R.
Maxwell-Hyslop, WesternAsiaticJewelleryc. 3000- Tombs(Oxford 1963) pl. XV.
612 B.C. (London 1971) 117-18. 167 1 thank James Weinsteinfor his commentson the Egyp-
162 tian finds. Weinstein notes that the incised signs include a
Negbi (supra n. 150) 37.
163Negbi (supra n. 150) 34-35; T.L. McClellan, "ASyrian maat-feather(orientedin the wrong direction)on the left of
Fortressof the Bronze Age: el-Qitar,"National Geographic the ring, a standingba-birdin the center,and on the right a
Research2 (1986) 435 with fig. 15.B-C. badly cut seated figure, probably of a female as suggested

Rectangularplaque KW 481 (fig. 35; 1. 0.016; w.

0.01; th. 0.006) was cut carefully from a soft gray-
green stone, probablysteatite. It is pierced longitudi-
nally for suspension,and neatly executedhieroglyphs
on both of its wider faces refer to the god Ptah with
accompanyingstandardphrases:Lord of Truth, and
Perfect in Favors. Accordingto Weinstein, most of
the small New Kingdom plaques are inscribed for
Amun or Amun-Re and the naming of Ptah makes
this piece unusual. It probablydoes not belong to the
very beginning of the 18th Dynasty, when hiero-
glyphs were more sharply cut, thinner, and some-
what crudely executed; it is likely of 15th- or 14th-
century manufacture.170
Fig. 33. GoldsignetringKW603. 3:1 Weinstein notes that the 18th-19th Dynasty scarab
and plaque from Lachish have the same general
Nearby, a scarabframedin gold (KW 338: fig. 34), inscriptions.17To these we may add the rectangular
an empty frame for another scarab (KW 479), and a plaque, again with the name Ptah but accompaniedby
rectangular stone plaque carved with hieroglyphs a differentseries of signs, from Tomb 982 of the late
were uncovered(KW 481: fig. 35). The scarab,carved 19th Dynasty at Beth-Pelet,172and a specimen also
of bone or ivory, is perforated longitudinally. The reading "Ptah,Lord of Truth," dated by Petrie to the
piece is set in an oval frame formed of sheet gold; at mid-18th Dynasty.173
each end, surroundingthe perforation,is a rolled cy-
lindrical sleeve of gold. On the scarab'sbase is an or-
namental assemblage of hieroglyphs, but the promi-
nent gold frame aroundthe scarabprobablyrendered
it unsuitable for use as a seal. It was more likely an
amulet. Weinstein informs me that the placement of
hieroglyphsin three columnsis commonto the second
half of the SecondIntermediatePeriod.Also typical of
scarabs from this period are the apparently unread-
able combinationof signs, the smooth back, the small
notchescut along the sides to indicatethe divisionbe-
tween the prothoraxand elytra, and the schematically
renderedtrapezoidalhead and clypeus.168
In Syria-Palestine,however, the scarabsof LB IA
continue Middle Bronze Age traditions down to the
early 15th century when 18th-Dynasty scarab types
become common. Hence, if the scarab is a Levantine
rather than an Egyptian product, it could have been
made at any time during this period or even slightly
later. The Ulu Burun scarabis similar to an example
fromPalestinewith a differentcombinationof signs.169
The emptygold frame(KW 479), for a smallerscar-
ab, is similar to the frame of KW 338. Slightly dis-
torted,it possiblywas part of the scrapgold on board. Fig.34. ScarabKW338. 3:1

by the long headdress.The missinglowerhalf of the ring reference.

170Weinstein (supra n. 168).
epithet. 171Tufnell(supran. 64) pls. 39-40.376-377.
JamesWeinstein,letterof 31 October1986. 172Macdonald et al. (supran. 135)26, pl. LVII.357.
169A. 173F. Petrie, Buttonsand Design Scarabs(BSAE 38, Lon-
Rowe, A Catalogue ofEgyptianScarabs,Scaraboids,
SealsandAmuletsin thePalestineArchaeological Museum don1925)19,pl. XI.624.
(Cairo1936) pl. 11.59;I thankJames Weinsteinfor this

An unexpectedfind is bronzepin KW 570 (fig. 36),

accidentally broken during excavation. Two frag-
mentsjoin cleanly, while the third, globedsectiondoes
not. Either the breakhas sufferedsubsequentdamage,
or a smaller fourth piece, now lost, is responsiblefor
this discrepancy.The shank and its slightly prolate
globe were cast as one piece;the pin's head and lower
shank were lost in antiquity. The original length of r

the pin cannot be reconstructed,but the existing ?

pieces, when joined end-to-end, are about 10.7 cm.
long, the maximum shaft diameterbeing 2 mm.
Long pins seem to have been popular in Central
Europe during the 14th and 13th centuries B.C.,174
but appearedin Greeceonly at the end of the LH IIIC
period and beginning of Submycenaean,175 becoming
more common during the Dark Ages. Most scholars Fig. 36. Bronzepin KW 570. 1:2
now agree in derivingthe general shapes of the Greek
head and a globe toward the top of its shank,178 to
pins from some region to the north of Greece,
which the Ulu Burun example conformsmost closely,
althoughpins of these two regionsare not identical.176
Whether the appearanceof long pins (and fibulae) in appears to be confined to central Greece during the
Greece heralds, as has been suggested, a change in early Submycenaeanperiod. The Greek pins differ
fromsimilar pins fromAnatolia,Cyprus,the Balkans,
clothing fashion-possibly due to a change in climate
and/or a change of population-remains specula- Italy, and Central and Eastern Europe by the place-
tive.177Of long pins, the type with a small nail-like ment of their globes farther down their plain
shanks.179Thus, Greek pins appear to be indepen-
dently produced even though their general form is
probably of foreign inspiration.180Some authors,
however, suggest a connectionbetween this form and
the much earlier composite pins from Shaft-Grave
Circle B at Mycenae.181The earliest examples in
Greeceof this globedtype, apparentlyprecedingother
types of long pins, come from several LH IIIC con-
texts.182One earlier exceptionmay be a pair of large
bronze pins from Chamber Tomb 61 at Mycenae.
Akerstr6m,however, rejectsthe general LH II-IIIA
dating for this seriesof tombs.He assignsthe pins and
associated fibulae to later, secondaryburials within
Fig. 35. Stone plaque KW 481. 3:1 the same tomb, partly on the basis of the Submyce-

174 J.
Bouzek, The Aegean, Anatoliaand Europe:Cultural ductionof pins, burial customs,and clothingfashionduring
Interrelationsin the Second Millennium B.C. (SIMA 29, the transition from Mycenaean to Submycenaeantimes,
Goteborg1985) 166. ratherthan a suddenchange. I owe the last referenceto one
175 Bouzek (supra n. 174) 167. of the anonymousreviewersof this paper.
176P. 178This pin belongs to Jacobsthal's classical Submyce-
Jacobsthal, Greek Pins and Their Connexionswith
Europe and Asia (Oxford 1956) 181; Desborough(supra n. naean Type ([supra n. 176] 1-2); Desborough'sType A
108) 54; V.R.d'A. Desborough, The Greek Dark Ages ([supra n. 176] 296 fig. 33.E, 297), and A.M. Snodgrass's
(London 1972) 298-99; Bouzek (supra n. 174) 165-67. Type I (The Dark Age of Greece[Edinburgh1971] 226,227
177 V.
Milojcic, "Die dorische Wanderung im Lichte der fig. 81.1).
vorgeschichtlichenFunde,"AA 63/64 (1948/1949) 12-36; 179Bouzek (supra n. 174) 166, 164 fig. 84; Harding (supra
Desborough (supra n. 108) 56; Bouzek (supra n. 174) 167; n. 140) 136; Catling (supra n. 13) 239, pl. 41j.
M.S.F. Hood, "ANote on Long BronzePins,"in J.N. Cold- 180 Harding (supra n. 140) 136-37; Bouzek (supra n. 174)
stream and M.S.F. Hood, "A Late Minoan Tomb at Ayios 167.
Ioannis near Knossos,"BSA 63 (1968) 214-216, 218. I. Ki- 181 J. Deshayes, Argos, Les fouilles de la Deiras (Etudes
lian-Dirlmeier ("Der dorische Peplos: ein archaologisches peloponnesiennes4, Paris 1966) 204-207; Snodgrass(supra
Zeugnis der dorischenWanderung?"ArchKorrBl14 [1984] n. 178)226.
288-89), however, observesa gradual evolution in the pro- Bouzek (supra n. 174) 167.
naean character of the long pins.'83 Bouzek, on the 237, fig. 38, weighs 6.6 gr.; lead-filled and badly cor-
other hand, emphasizes the reversed globe-to-head roded KW 220 has a survivingweight of 19.5 gr.). A
proportionsof these pins and sets them apart fromthe fourthbronzeweight (KW 582: fig. 37), foundfurther
typical globedtype. Basedon the associatedfibulae,he upslope, was adornedwith human and animal figu-
dates the materialto ca. 1200 B.C.184 rines on its upper surface.
The fragmentary dress pin from Ulu Burun, if The bovine, most probablya bull-calf, lies with its
found elsewhere, would have been dated to the 12th head positionedon the same axis as its body. The ani-
centuryat the earliest. mal has the typical humped shoulderand heavy build
of a bull, yet its hornsare not fully developed.The legs
Miscellaneous Finds are drawn up under the body and the tail appears in
The 22 balance-pan weights of hematite, uniden- relief, curled over the hindquarters.Despite its small
tified stone, and bronze were found mostly in grid size (1. 0.032), the form is executed with naturalism.
squares K-14 and M- 11.Most are of commonsphen- With a preservedweight of 16.1 gr., it may correspond
donoid and domedtypes, but "sugar-loaf"and discoid to two shekelsof the Babylonianstandard.
examples are also represented.Three solid-cast zoo- The less detailedand smallerbronzeduck(1.0.022),
morphic bronze weights (fig. 37), comprising a re- weighing 8.3 gr., is perhaps a Babylonianshekel. Its
cumbent bovine (KW 335), a duck (KW 350), and a head facesforwardand its bill is pressedtightly against
couchant sphinx (KW 468), were found close to- its neckin a simple but gracefulcomposition.
gether. These complement a pair of bronze frog The sphinx, recoveredwith a hematite sphendo-
weights excavated some distance away in 1984, but noid weight concretedto its head, has a typicallyfeline
not recognized before laboratory conservation(KW postureand tuftedtail. Measuring 6.8 cm. in length, it

i: fE:


k, 11



weights(leftto right:KW468, KW350 andKW335,withKW 582above).Approx.1:1

Fig. 37. Balance-pan

183X. Akerstrom, 184 Bouzek

"Mycenaean Problems," OpAth 12 (supra n. 174) 161.
(1978) 77-79.

pears to be a lioness;a duck;a negroidhead;and three

cylindricalbronze weights, two of which have crossed
animal figuresin relief on their upper surfaces.'87Bo-
vine weights, however, are extant all along the Syro-
Palestiniancoastand in Egypt.188Most of those found
in stratifiedcontexts appear to date mainly from the
14th century,but some may be slightly later.
Duck-shaped weights are commonly found in the
Near East, although few are of bronze.189A small
Fig. 38. Bronze balance-panweight KW 237. 2:1
bronze duck-weight attributed to the Babylonian
weight system and composed with the bird's head
weighs about 80.6 gr., perhaps correspondingto 10 turned backward in the sleeping position, typical of
The remarkablebronze weight with figurines,best this system, was found at Enkomi.190A secondbronze
described as a reversed truncated cone with domed duck-weight,much heavierand with a forward-facing
head on an extended neck, was in the Kalavassos
top, is hollow cast and filled with lead. Expansion of
the corrodinglead has extensively damagedthe piece, cache.'91Frog-shapedweights appear to have a simi-
which now weighs 410 gr. On the upper surfaceof the lar distribution,having been found in Alalakh, Larsa,
domedtop are skillfully renderedbronzefigurinesof a Enkomi, and Egypt.'92
man, probablya shepherddressedin a cloak and cap, Sphinx figurines, mainly pendants, small beads,
and two sheep (a lacuna next to the sheep probably and seals are found commonlyin Egypt, on the Syro-
held a third animal). The shepherdsits on his left leg Palestinian coast, and to a lesser extent on Cyprus.193
with the left hand resting on his knee. The rather To the best of my knowledge,however,no bronze fig-
short right leg is tucked up against his chest and the urine in the form of a sphinx has been previously
right hand is spread, palm down, on the ground. Al- identifiedas a weight; some weight-like bronzeexam-
though the nose has suffered some damage, other de- ples appear to have been used as votive figurines.194
tailed facial features are still clear. The facing heads Although the cylindricalbody of the weight with a
of the recumbentsheep are turned almost at right an- shepherd bears some resemblance to the lead-filled
gles to the axes of their bodies. bronze weights with crossed animal figures on their
Zoomorphic weights in use are recorded in tomb upper surfaces from Kalavassos,195the Ulu Burun
paintings and representations of New Kingdom weight remains unparalleled.
Egypt.185That recumbentbovinesare the most wide- Three of the Ulu Burun zoomorphicweights were
spread of the zoomorphicshapes is attested by many used frequentlyenough to warrant their storagewith
finds from the eastern Mediterranean.In Ras Shamra the more common types; even the smallest of these
(Ugarit) alone, more than a half dozen pieces, some forms, we may now be sure, were used for weighing
filled with lead, have been found.'86Cyprus has pro- and were not amulets or the like as has been sug-
duced similar weights. A remarkablecollectionof 14 gested.'96 Because the weights have not been fully
weights recently discoveredin Kalavassos comprises conserved,and becausewe expect to find many others
three hematite sphendonoids;a cast-bronze calf and on the site, they have not yet been studiedin detail.
two bull heads; a reclining bull, a boar, and what ap- Pierced lead discs KW 298 and KW 459, not yet

andEdelstein(supran. 37) 57 n. 33 forsome

185 Ben-Arieh 189Courtois n. 123withn. 49.
190Courtois(supra n.186) 123; Schaeffer
references;F. Petrie, Ancient Weightsand Measures (War- (supra 186) (supran. 92)
minster1974;repr.of BSAE39, 1926ed.) 6. 441, pl. A facingp. 128.
J.-C. Courtois,"Letrisorde poidsde Kalavassos-Ayios 191Courtois(supran. 186) 123,pl. XVII.5.
Dhimitrios1982,"RDAC(1983) 120-21. 192Courtois(supran. 98) 43-44, 185fig. 15.35;Petrie(su-
187 Courtois
(supran. 186) 117-30, pl. XVII, with other pran. 185)pl. IX.
bovineCypriotweightslistedon 120-21;A.K. Southand 193Courtois(supran. 98) 148 no. 1239, 215 fig. 45.25,
I.A.Todd,"InQuestof CyprioteCopperTraders:Excava- pl. XVI.9.
tionsat AyiosDhimitrios," Archaeology38:5(1985)42. 194E.g., Dunand(supran. 90) pi. CXVI.14499.
188J.B. Pritchard,Sarepta. A Preliminary Report on the 195Courtois(supran. 186)123-25,pi. XVII.6-7.A weight
IronAge (Philadelphia1975)69, fig. 62.6;Ben-Ariehand fromEnkomi,similarin shapeto thatfromUlu Burun,but
Edelstein(supran. 37) 57-58 withn. 34, 59 fig. 25.24,62, witha loophandle,bearsa seriesof animalsin lowreliefon
and pl. XX.38; Pendlebury(supra n. 80) 109, 125, its sides(Schaeffer[supran. 99] 411, 413, 418 fig. 22c-d,
pl. LXXVII.1-2.280;Petrie(supran. 185)pl. XVI;Cour- 420 fig.23a-b,422 fig.24.2.
tois (supran. 186) 121n. 36. 196Ben-AriehandEdelstein(supran. 37) 58.
with crimping impressions still visible on some, they
r?r must have been assembled on nets and were not spares
or trade items. Whether as cargo or for shipboard use,
one net seems to have been inside the pithos. Whatever
ciD the case, if all 21 weights are from a single net, we
may be able to reconstruct its length. Similar net
weights have been found on Cyprus at Enkomi and
Athienou.200 The Governor's Tomb at Tell el-Ajjul
also yielded a large quantity of net weights in groups
mostly based on multiples of 17, leading Petrie to con-
clude that 17 or 18 lead weights were normal for a
Fig. 39a. Lead disc KW 298. 1:2; b. Pierced hematite disc
KW 325. 1:2

cleaned of concretion, are similar to weights of Aegean

origin;197the former (fig. 39a) has a crudely scratched
spiraling spoke design on its surface. Another possible
weight is hematite disc KW 325 (fig. 39b). Pierced
longitudinally, it is reminiscent of lentoid seals, but its
thickness, weight, and unmarked surfaces make it also
suitable for use as a balance-pan weight.
Other finds from 1985 include fragments of faience
vessels, mainly from the sandy area below the south-
ern gully, where similar fragments ,rere recovered in
1984.198 The precise shapes of the vessels will not be
known until more pieces are found, but a series of
fragments comes from a rhyton in the form of a ram's
head (KW 565). That a second rhyton was aboard the
ship, suspected in 1984, is now confirmed by the dis-
covery of a second muzzle and a large section of the
rhyton itself. The two rhyta appear to be similar in
shape and probably in size. Other fragments, now
being assembled in the Bodrum Museum of Under-
water Archaeology by Jane Pannell, represent a fe-
male head (fig. 40). Both forms are closely paralleled
in faience at Enkomi and Tell Abu Hawam.199
One hundred seven folded lead strip fishing-net
weights or sinkers were recovered from the site in
three clusters: 35 from area L-11, 21 from M-10, and
21 inside pithos KW 250; the remaining pieces were
Fig. 40. Faience goblet. The left eye of a woman's face is
found mostly downslope of the first two concentra- visible in the lower center;her hair shows under the cylin-
tions. Since all the lead strips are folded and crimped, drical headdress.1:1

K.M. Petruso, Systems of Weight in the Bronze Age Ae- out H. Frankfort'sunverifiedreferenceto a female-headed
gean (Diss. Indiana University 1978) 204 no. 274 from faience goblet from Rhodes in The Art and Architecture of
Kommosis similar but smaller. the Ancient Orient4(Harmondsworth1977) 274; I have not
198 Bass (supra n. 1) 290-91 pl. 17.5-6. yet seen Peltenberg'sdiscussionof ram's head rhyta in Ki-
199A.S. Murray, A.H. Smith, and H.B. Walters, Excava- tion V.
tions in Cyprus (London 1900) 33, pl. III; R.W. Hamilton, 200 Courtois (supra n. 98) 47, 185 figs. 15.15A-15B, 236
"Excavationsat Tell Abu Hawam," QDAP4 (1935) 65, pls. pl. XXI.19; Dothan and Ben-Tor (supra n. 52) 135,
XXVIII, XXX. I do not know of Aegean examples of these pl. 47.4, 126 fig. 57.18-19, and esp. 20 with crimp-marks
types, but E.J. Peltenberg,in a letter to G.F. Bass, pointed still evident.

light net.201A collection of 18 net weights concreted slightly upslope of this area, in square P-14, we ex-
together,presumablyfrom a single net, was recovered posed a large, curved timber. Because of a stone an-
from the Cape Gelidonyashipwreck.202 chor lying partly above it, we could not determineif
A large, pyramidallead weight (KW 267: fig. 41; h. the piece was a large frame,the endpost,or the curved
0.10), pierced at its narrow upper end by a hole for end of the ship's keel.
suspension,was found with the net weights in area L- After this report was written, another campaign
11. Although rectangularin section, its basal corners was conductedat Ulu Burun. Among the finds being
have been deformedand rounded by heavy use. The studiedfor the 1986 reportare a gold scarabof Queen
weight may have served either as the heavy foremost Nefertiti, two Near Eastern cylinderseals, intact and
sinker of a fishing net or perhaps as the ship's sound- scrap Canaanitejewelry of gold and silver, three more
ing lead. hippopotamusteeth, an ostricheggshell, logs of "Afri-
Apart from the single stone weight-anchorraisedin can ebony" (Dalbergia melanoxylon), Minoan and/or
1984, no anchorshave been moved.Seven of the eight Mycenaean stirrup-jarsand pitcher,more zoomorph-
anchors uncoveredto date are grouped between the ic weights, beads, a ram's head rhyton of faience, an
two uppermostrows of copper ingots. Although some ivory-hinged wooden writing tablet (diptych), and
of the anchors are still partly buried, they seem to many more objectssimilar to those found previously;
come in three sizes: three large, two intermediate,and the stone anchorsnow total 12.203
one very small. The last, probablyof marble or other
light-coloredlimestone, is too small to be an effective
ship's anchor,and perhaps servedas a hawser weight The wealth of artifacts recoveredin 1985, mostly
or as a spare for the ship's boat. The eighth anchor,of chiseledout of rock-hardconcretion,revealsthe years
the largest size, lies amidst copper ox-hide ingots at of excavationahead. Thus, it remainsearly to attempt
the deeperend of the wreck. an accurate dating of the ship or a resolution of its
Removal of anchor KW 145 in 1984 exposed bal- course. A 14th-century B.C. date for the wreck has
last stones lying directly over parts of the ship's hull. been suggestedpreviouslyon the basis of ceramicevi-
No further work was done in this area in 1985, but dence. The most preciselydated object,kylix KW 57,
after removing several ox-hide ingots and amphoras has been ascribedto the early phase of LH IIIA:2, but
it could have been in use for years beforeits loss. Stir-
rup-jar KW 137 had been broadly dated to LH
IIIA:2;the shape, however,becomespopular early in
the latter part of LH IIIA:2,204and the floral design
on the jar's handle zone is a late feature,205which, in a
slightly more stylized shape, becomes the common
form of the unvolutedflower in LH IIIB.
Dating of other painted stirrupjars is less precise,
for small globularjars KW 171 and KW 305 (bothFS
171) fall into the general LH IIIA:2 period. Large
globularstirrupjar KW 308, on the otherhand, prob-
ably representsa shape which may have already be-
come rare by the latter phase of LH IIIA:2.206
The bell-shaped profile of semi-globularcup KW
334 is characteristicof LH IIIA:21-IIIB, and a frag-
mentarylarge coarse-warestirrupjar, not yet studied
in detail, appearsto be broadlydatedto the LH IIIA-
Fig. 41. LargeleadweightKW267. 1:2 IIIB periods.

205 The final drawingof KW 137, Bass (supran. 1) 291

Petrie, Ancient Gaza III (supra n. 132) 6, pl. IX.35.
202 Bass(supran. 11) 131, 132fig. 139.L1.Forsimilarnet ill. 29, theentiredecorationcleaned,wasaddedto thatarti-
weightsin theAegean,see Iakovidis(supran. 94) 96;I owe cle as it went to pressand thus was not consideredin the
thisreferenceto MarkRose. published of
discussion thejar.
203 G.F. Bass and C. Pulak, "The Late Bronze Age Ship- 206
Stirrupjar KW 308 is incompleteand unrestored, but
wreckat Ulu Burun:1986,"AJA91 (1987)321. its shapeappearsto be closestto FS 170 (Mountjoy[supra
Mountjoy (supra n. 65) 77. n. 65]77).

The Mycenaean ceramic assemblage so far recov- coveryof globed pin KW 570 was unexpected,as pins
ered, therefore,would not be out of place in the latter of this type do not otherwiseappear until well into the
half of the LH IIIA:2 period. Kylix KW 57, on the 12th century. Present evidenceis too scanty, the finds
other hand, is most likely of an earlier style-presum- being only partially studied,to date accuratelythe de-
ably a treasuredpossession-and not of contemporary mise of the ship, but based on evidence available so
manufacture. far, a date at the end of LH IIIA:2, or probablyjust
Hankey and Warren, in their study of Aegean after the Amarnaperiodbut still within the 18th Dyn-
chronologybased on Mycenaean pottery, have deter- asty, would not be unrealistic.
mined that the latter phase of the LH IIIA:2 period Even if a post-Amarnadate is preferredfor the Ulu
correspondsto the reign of Akhenaten, and that pot- Burun ship, it is still close enough in time to this well-
tery of this period may not be dated any later than the documentedsegmentof historyto assumethat the gen-
time of Tutankhamun.207Thus, it would appear that eral economicstructureof the Levanthad not changed
the Ulu Burun ship sank sometime during, and most appreciably,211and that inferencesfrom the Amarna
likely at the end of, the Amarna period, or slightly letters as well as the evidence from tomb paintings
later, and there really is no substantial evidencefor a could aid us in understandingthe context of the Ulu
refinementof this date. Burun ship.
If our typological attributions are correct,the Ae- The only extant depictionof a Mediterraneanmer-
gean swords, however, appear to corroboratethe dat- chant venture from the 14th century B.C. is the scene
ing suggested by the kylix. Although not all are se- from the tomb of Kenamunat Thebes illustratingthe
curely dated, the contexts in which similar swords arrival of a Syrian merchant fleet at an Egyptian
have been found are chronologically confined to port.212Porters unload cargo including Canaanite
LM/LH II-IIIA:2; but the smaller flat-bladedweap- amphoras and a pilgrim flask similar to those found
ons, perhaps precursorsto later swords of Sandars's on the Ulu Burun wreck.The roundelson the necksof
Type Dii of LH IIIA:2 and IIIB periods,208may have some of the crew may representstar-discpendantsof
been manufacturedfor a longer time than previously the type already recoveredduring excavation. Pithos
believed. Furthermore, more valuable and durable KW 251, recoveredwith its contentsof mostly intact
than pottery, bronzes, especially swords, would have Cypriot pottery, allows us to speculate about the pi-
been treasured heirlooms. The Near Eastern sword thoi shown on ships' decks, perhaps also filled with
also fits comfortablyin the LH IIIA:2 range. pottery as well as other goods. Other tomb paintings
Most of the tools are of types with long histories, depict tribute bearers carrying not only elephant
but a few, namely the deep-bar chisels, heavy chisels, tusks, Canaanite amphoras, and other vessels of the
and necked adzes, become relatively scarce after the types found on the wreck, but also copper ox-hide
14th and 13th centuries B.C., although later, rare ex- ingots.213
amples do exist. A useful chronologyfor dating tools, The exact amount of copperon the ship will not be
however, has not yet been developed, and doubts are known until all is excavated,but a total of 200 ox-hide
even raised about using typology to establish ethnic ingots is not an unreasonableestimate. If we assume
origins of tools.209 that each ingot has an average weight of 25 kg., this
The Mycenaean lentoid sealstone KW 134 appears would correspond to approximately 183 talents of
to date to the second half of the 14th century, but the copperin the shape of ox-hide ingots alone, reminding
excessive wear on the sealstone from extended use us of the Amarnaletters mentioningshipmentsof 100
suggests a later date for the sinking of the ship.210 (EA 34) and 200 (EA 33) talents of copper from
With some finds tentatively dated to LH IIIA:2, and Alasia to Egypt.214If the 500 talents of copper men-
more likely to the late phase of this period, the dis- tioned in one Amarna letter (EA 35), ironically ac-

Hankeyand P. Warren,"TheAbsoluteChronology Fourteenth Centuries B.C.," in A.B. Knapp and T. Stech
of the Aegean Late Bronze Age," London UniversityInsti- eds.,Prehistoric
andExchange(Instituteof Ar-
tute of ClassicalStudiesBulletin 21 (November1974) chaeologyMonograph25, Los Angeles 1985) 65.
142-52. 212 See
supra n. 166; Bass (supra n. 1) 293-94.
208 Sandars (supra n. 114) 130. 213 Bass (supra n. 1) 294.
J.D. Muhly,"TheNatureof Tradein theLBAEastern 214 Bass
(supra n. 1) 293. Zaccagnini ([supra n. 23] 414)
Mediterranean," in Muhly, Maddin, and Karageorghis noting the variationsin phraseologyof referencesto copper
(supran. 20) 256. in the Amarna letters, translates the passages accordingto
210Bass (supra n. 1) 284. their formulationas "numberof copperingots"or "talentsof
PortugaliandA.B.Knapp,"CyprusandtheAegean: copper."
A Spatial Analysis of the Interactionin the Seventeenthto

companiedwith an apology for the small quantity of at Ugarit where large quantities of Cypriot pottery
copper sent, represents instead, as Zaccagnini be- and Canaanite amphoras have been found in stor-
lieves, only 500 shekels of copper,215then the Ulu Bu- age,217perhaps for export. If the lamps are Cypriot,
run ship consignmentcorrespondsto the largestquan- on the other hand, then it is more likely that the pithoi
tity of copper shipment ever recordedin ancient texts! were taken on at Cyprus.
The Amarnalettersalso mentionpossibleglass ingots, The pilgrim flasks are probably of Syrian origin,
elephant tusks, gold jewelry and silver, and weapons but a pilgrim flask found with a lamp in another pi-
among other royal gifts, all of which are again thos complicatesthe matteragain. Glass ingots almost
matched on our vessel. Could this cargo, then, repre- certainlyoriginatedin Syria-Palestine,as did the gold
sent a royal shipment of the type exchanged between and silverjewelry, and probablymost of the tools and
the Syro-Palestinian coast, Egypt, and a land called weapons. Near Eastern and Cypriot bronze tools of
Alashia, all of which is vividly described in the this general period are similar. The majority of the
Amarna letters? This certainly seems plausible when Ulu Burun tools, and to some extent the weapons,
we consider that the single largest hoard of ox-hide may thereforejust as likely have originatedin Cyprus.
ingots prior to the discovery of the Ulu Burun ship Ivory must have come from Syria, although Amarna
came from the Gelidonya wreck, which yielded only tablets also mention its shipment from Alashia to
34 ingots. The artifact assemblage from Cape Geli- Egypt, most probablyin transshipmentfrom Syria in
donya led Bass to assign that wreck to itinerantentre- this case.
preneur-smiths sailing westward along the coast in The copper ingots probably originatedon Cyprus
search of goods and markets wherever available.216 as the island's abundant copper supplies have been
The nature of trade in the Bronze Age, and of ancient recognized as a major source throughout antiquity.
economy in general, is not fully understood,but the The tin may have been taken on at Syrian ports, most
Ulu Burun ship, carryingsome of the majorresources likely at Ugarit, which had at an earlier date received
and luxury items of Asia and Cyprus, contraryto the tin from Mari, some for Caphtorite merchants per-
Gelidonya venture, may represent a single shipment haps to be later shipped to the Aegean.218
destined primarily for a specific port, and may in fact Newly excavatedhalf ox-hide and bun ingots verify
be our first direct evidence for state-administered that tin was cast and tradedin the same forms as cop-
trade based on gift exchange. per ingots. Most tin ingots on the Ulu Burun ship
The bulk of the cargo, comprising copper and tin were cast originallyin the ox-hide shape, and most are
ingots, glass ingots, Cypriot pottery, ivory and Can- fragmentary.These are the earliest tin ingots known,
aanite amphoras filled with resin, all certainly taken and their shapes strengthen Bass's identificationsof
on at a Syro-Palestinianor Cypriot port, points to the variousgray and white ingots in Egyptiantombpaint-
ship's east to west sailing route. The Canaanite am- ings as tin.219They probably represent the form in
phoras containingterebinthresin couldhave been tak- which tin was shipped from primary smelting areas
en on at a port such as that at Ugarit. near mines or from other processing centers reason-
The large pithos containingCypriot export pottery ably close to tin sources. Since the descriptionof tin
could be of Cypriot origin. The saucer-shapedlamps trade in ancient texts from western Asia hints at a
storedin this pithos, however,appear to be of the type source of tin located somewhere to the east, in Iran
commonly found on Syro-Palestinian sites, although and even beyond in Afghanistan or Central Asia,220
they are different still from the fire-blackenedexam- these ox-hide ingots presumably represent the pre-
ples also recovered from the ship; the latter lamps, ferred form in which tin was transportedoverlandby
again of Syro-Palestinian type, were obviously for donkeycaravans,221lending weight to the supposition
shipboarduse and not cargo. If the unused lamps in- that the type was designed for ease of handling and
side the pithos were Syro-Palestinian,then the pithos transportation by animals.222Hence, it is unlikely
may have been packed at an Asiatic port such as that that tin ingots were brokendown into smallersizes for

Zaccagnini (supra n. 23) 414. the Beginningsof BronzeMetallurgy," AJA89 (1985)281.
Bass (supra n. 11) 163-64. 221 For a studyof the caravantradebasedon the relative
217 Bass (supra n. 1) 295 n. 163.
pricesof donkeysat variousNearEasterncentersduringthe
218 G. Dossin, "La route de l'etain en M6sopotamie au BronzeAge,see M. Heltzer,"TheMetalTradeof Ugarit
tempsde Zimri-Lim,"RAssyr64 (1970)101-103;Bass(su- andthe Problemof Transportation of CommercialGoods,"
pran. 1) 294;Muhly(supran. 21) 60. Iraq39 (1977)206-208.
(supra n. 11) 64. 222The latertransport acrossGaulof knucklebone-shaped
Bass(supran. 1) 294;J.D. Muhly,"Sources
of Tin and tin ingotson packanimalsis relatedby DiodorusSiculus
convenience of handling. It also seems unlikely that Almost all of the items on board the ship, cargo or
the Ulu Burun tin ingots had been cut into pieces dur- otherwise,could have been taken on either at a Cypri-
ing the voyage, as trade goods at ports along the way, ot or Syro-Palestinian port, with some of the goods
for that would not explain the absence of intact tin probably in transshipment,making it impossible to
ingots among the dozens of cut fragments on the determinethe ship's point of departure.It is possible
wreck. It has been suggestedthat fragmentarycopper that port calls in both areaswere made beforethe ship
ox-hide ingots, such as those at Gournia and on the sailed westward along the Anatoliancoast.
Cape Gelidonyawreck, were brokeninto pieces at the The Ulu Burun ship was undoubtedlysailing to a
atelierswhere they were forgedor cast into copperand region west of Cyprus, but her ultimate destination
bronze implements.223Similarly, tin ingots may have can be surmised only from the distributionof objects
been brokendown at their point of receiptnot only for matching the types carriedon board. It has been sug-
being melted down, but also perhaps for use in com- gested that the Dodecanese played an important role
mercial transactions.224If this is indeed the case, then as a commercialentrepot for Aegean and Levantine
we may assume that the Ulu Burun tin ingots do not goods,226and it may not be mere coincidencethat sev-
representingots of a shipment procureddirectlyfrom eral swords similar to KW 301 come from this region,
a single source, but are rather a collectiongatheredby and that the Mycenaean pottery assemblagefrom the
barter,levies or gifts. wreck finds some of its closestparallelson Rhodes,the
One of the quarterox-hide ingots of tin is apparent- largest island in the group.
ly incised with the same mark that is seen on most of Ancient texts as well as archaeologicalevidencere-
the copper bun ingots. Copper and tin are usually veal that Mycenaeansettlementsimportedgoodsfrom
mined in different geographical regions, so the pres- the Near East in quantity, but it is noteworthy that
ence of the same mark on ingots of these different Cypriot pottery is relatively scarce at Mycenaean
metals suggests that these marks were incised at the sites.227Since the Ulu Burun ship demonstratesthat
point of receipt and/or export to the west rather than Cypriot wares of various forms did reach the Aegean,
at the productionend of the metals. That the marks the simplest explanationof their near absenceat these
were more or less centered on the tin ox-hide ingot sites is that the cargoof potterywas not originallydes-
fragments may also indicate that they were incised tined for the mainland. Could it be that after unload-
after the ingots were broken up. Whether the tin in- ing its primarycargoof copper,tin, resin, and glass on
gots were loaded on the Syro-Palestinian coast or on the islands, or the mainland, or even at one of the set-
Cyprus has yet to be determined. What is known, tlements on the Anatolian coast, the voyage was to
however, is that the tin was destined for a port some- continue? The recent discovery of Cypriot and Ca-
where to the west of Cyprus. It has been suggested naanite pottery at Kommos nominates Crete as an-
that from the Middle Helladic period onward the Ae- other possible port of call.228The ship's primary car-
gean world was using tin from northwest European goes could have been destined originally for Crete as
sources, especially those in southwest England and well. We already know that at about this time Ugari-
Brittany.225The presence of blue glass ingots chemi- tic ships visited Crete, for we are remindedof one such
cally identical to glass amulets from Mycenae aboard venture returning home with a cargo of grain, a fer-
a ship laden with tin and copper ingots may indicate mented beverage,and oil.229After delivering most of
that the Aegean tin market was at least shared, in her raw materialin the Aegean,would the Ulu Burun
part, by imports from the east. ship then have sailed south to Egypt, perhaps to the

(V.22), as pointedout by Buchholz(supran. 9) 2, and 226Sandars(supran. 114) 128;Portugaliand Knapp(su-

Muhly (supran. 76) 262; Muhly (supran. 220) 288, 289 pran. 211) 52-53.
ill. 5. 227Bass (supra n. 1) 295.
223 J.D.
Muhly, "CyprioteCopper:SomeGeologicaland 228J.W. Shaw, "Excavationsat Kommos(Crete)during
MetallurgicalProblems,"in Actsof the InternationalAr- 1980,"Hesperia50 (1981)246-47,pl. 60a,d;"Excavations
chaeologicalSymposium,"TheRelationsbetweenCyprus at Kommos(Crete)during1981,"Hesperia51 (1982)170,
and Crete,ca.2000-500B.C."(Nicosia1979)95; Bass(su- pl. 50d; "Excavationsat Kommos(Crete)during 1982-
pran. 11) 71-72. 1983,"Hesperia53 (1984) pl. 50d;"Excavations at Kom-
Althoughof an earlierperiod,i.e., mid-secondmillen- mos (Crete)during1984-1985,"Hesperia55 (1986)239,
nium B.C., MiddleAssyriantextsshowthatthe priceof a pl. 58a-b.
fieldwas frequentlyquotedin termsof minasandshekelsof Lepalaisroyald'UgaritIII (Paris1955)
229 G. Nougayrol,
tin (Muhly[supran. 209]257). 107-108;alsocitedby PortugaliandKnapp(supran. 211)
225Muhly (supra n. 220) 287. 66.

natural harbor at Mersa Matruh, where excavations uncertain, but the Mycenaean merchant's seal sug-
on a small island east of the town have uncovered gested to Bass the presence of a Mycenaean on
quantities of Cypriot, Minoan, and Mycenaean board.231The recently discoveredglobed pin (KW
wares?230The investigatorsof that site believe the is- 570), so far unparalleledin the Near East, is of the type
land served as a victualizing station for ships sailing worn by Mycenaeansas part of their clothing.232Cast
from Cretetowardthe Nile Delta and the coastof Pal- of bronze,henceof negligiblescrapvalue,the pin prob-
estine. Could the Cypriot pottery have been intended ably belongedto a Mycenaean,perhapseven the per-
as trade goods for final provisioningof the ship before son who owned the seal. Was this personan officialon
sailing home, or for a later ventureto these regionsby a royal mission, a wealthy merchantreturningfrom a
way of the desolate North African coast? The limited successfultradingventure,or was he only a passenger
quantity of pottery so far uncovered, comprising 18 merchant of moderate means, perhaps with a small
assorted vessels from the pithos, and perhaps a little share of the cargo?The Ulu Burun excavationraises
more than a dozen other pieces scattered about the many questionswhich we may neverbe able to answer.
site, certainlydoes not representa cargoof any signifi- Whetheror not the presenceof a Mycenaeanon the
cant commercialvalue, but may have been sufficient Ulu Burun ship suggests a like origin for the vessel
for the acquisitionof the necessarysupplies. itself remains unknown, but for the time being, avail-
The nationalityof the vessel remainsuncertain.We able evidence may slightly favor a Mycenaean home
have yet to uncover and identify the pottery used port for the Ulu Burun ship.
aboardthe ship, but sevenpiecesof Mycenaeanpottery It will take severalyears to excavatecompletelythe
raised to date, all different with the exception of two site. Results of new laboratoryanalyses and informa-
stirrup jars, suggest shipboard items. Furthermore, tion uncovereddaily during each campaign have al-
kylix KW 57 and cup KW 334, unlike the Cypriot readyreshapedsomeof our interpretationsof the finds.
open containerscomprisingpart of the ship's ceramic The materialpresentedaboveshouldbe reviewedwith
cargo, must have been personal drinkingcups, for the caution,and the conclusions,for the most part, should
forms are hardly suitable for use as containers.Along be regardedonly as an enthusiasticexercise.
with a few othercoarse-warebowls not yet studied,it is
almost certain that these Mycenaean ceramicsconsti- INSTITUTE OF NAUTICAL ARCHAEOLOGY
tuted shipboard items; were they being reused by a AT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
Near Easterncrew or did they belong to a Mycenaean DRAWER AU
crew aboard the ship? The purpose of this pottery is COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS 77840

230 D. White,"Excavations
at BatesIsland,A LateBronze oftenbeenfoundin pairs,but singleexamplesas well as
AgeEgyptianTradingStation,"AJA90 (1986)205-206. thoseassociatedwith maleburialsalso exist (Desborough
231Bass (supra n. 1) 296. 1972[supran. 176]295).
Mostly associatedwith women,these long pins have

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