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Were the EBA Inhabitants of Karata"-Sema iik S '

~ YU eml-Sede t 1

-An Ethnoarchaeological View- nary,

I,l~ Y,lk,lr

In,IIIIII,' ,,1 ,\fch.I<'rll"gv. 1,,1 Aviv lilliv(,fSi!y

I Jcc!i,;ll"l' this I\ll'l'r ro Professor Dr. H'lkr '.:'lI11kl. Her UJl,h;llkngl'" 1'1;I<'l' ;lIn. ll1g s(/ll>lars of An;l£ulian Ar(I1<\l"lll)~'Y is largely dlll' (" her unn'111pWll\ising d~ !(lrT, ill 'llh-allcing arl'h,lL'lllugicll studies in Turkey to an unpr~(t',ll'nrccl level of w,lrld·wiLk rCCllgnition.

This article examines the pussihility rhar tht' EBA vii. bgc (If K;lram~ in the Elrnnh plain may have been in. habited by the semi-sedenrarv segment of a funning community. 1 This concept stems from the impres. sion I;>ivcn by certain aspects of the village archirecrure at this site which seem to indicate that the inhabitants did not take into consideration the climatic condirions of wid and windy winters on this highland plain. Region"l or loca] rural ,1 rchitecturnl characreristics generally reflecr the nature of the settlement. This is often influenced by geological, topographical, envlronrnental and climatic factors which weigh heavily in economic considerations and determine patterns of settlement by sedentary and non-sedentarv cornrnunines. In other words, the combined factor of environrnenr and economy is reflected in regional village architecture. For instance, In regions where pastoralism is the backbone u( rural economies, village architecture shows some characteristics which are not encountered in fully sedentary and mainly agrarian cornmunities.

The choice of a particular building marerial by rural settlers from the wide variety existing in habitats ideal for human settlement can also emphasize the pattern of settlement_ In the Mediterranean region of Anatelia, especially at high elevations. stone is usually preferred to rnudbrick due to high precipibl1dlln in winrer. In the Taurus mountains, for instance, where both stone and wood are plentiful. village archirecture

is l'hanctcrized hy dry .. J .

, rn.IStinry use III ,xlmhillation

wlrh wooden plunks, h"tizonrally insl:rtcd to support rhe walls, W(lod IS an indispensable structural com. ponenr in rhts n.:gion. It is sometimes used as [he sole bUilJing, material for certain types of structures, but is more often used to consolidate stone foundations stone or mud brick subsrrllctures, upper wall strucrures and for building flar or saddle·type roofs. In areas with rich vegetation cover, where Summers are hot and winters mild, reeds, twigs and shrubs are used. often in combination with mud.plastered wooden wall- frames. In some parts of Pisidia and coastal Lvcia, seasonal sites conslsnng ef a few hU1!6 built of cane or reeds, and known as huv, are sllill occasionally encountered. These are used by the few remaining nomadic Yoruk groups, mestly in their winter camps.

Elevation naturally affects seasenal temperatures and annual precipitation, therefere it is an imperjant tactor influencing the organizalli0n ef subsistence ecenemies, which dictate different patterns of settlement. Ideal altitudes for mixeel-farmlng in Anatlllliia .lifter from region to region, but generally speaking altitudes above 1000 m suffer frem I"whneect winters. Elevation and its related vegetation cever alse tlellermine local/regional architectural characteristics. As a result, different ahitutles in a ,anicular :e.:n,hi_1 regien create variations in architectural cence,. uti patterns III settlement.

Climatic factors too have a direct bearin:.n reli". architecture. These tlic.te censtrun'.nal el:w;aer.etistics such as the type .f material anal ~c:ss .f house walls. the structure .f roofs, the sile an« 1 •• - non of windows and doors, ami the li':Je, merna! tli·


vision ,mel orknf;ltion of the house». In rc!-!i(~Il;; where ;1 Medtr e rraneun clim'lte prevails, and espC'C);ll. Iy in deep and narrow valleys, rhc hOlIS~S ]lrl'fc~cll' [I ally (ace north in order to mnxuuize the (oolln!.! dfc.:t ll( the northern winds In rhe hot summers,

The composition imel economic orr.:-;mization of rural households too may he reflected j n the size and [avour of Village houses. Extended f.lIl1il ies can share 8 larj,(e house or it number of houses in 0 village. In the latter case these arc often enclosed by a tence and share a large courtyard. In mlxcd-farming communities ex, tended families rend to live ami work rogerher, TIley have the advantage of accumulating greater surplus food staples which they trade for cornmodlttes thev lack. Such families naturally need a substandally larger living space which includes storage and activity areas man do average size households.

Evaluation of the nature of the Kararas EBA settlement takes into consideration four interrelated factors, namely geographic location, architectural characteristics, subsistence economy and disposal of the dead.

Geographic location

The Elrnah plain is completely ringed by the Lvcian Taurus mountains. The Bey Daglan enclose the plain on me east and me mountains of Akdag, Yumru Dagt, Eren and me Elbistan Daglan form a barrier on the west. Finally, Susuz DaW on the south and the EI. rna Daglan on the north must have made communication with regions outside this enclosed plain, either towards the Mediterranean coast or further inland rather difficult in the past. Contact with the Lake District was in all likelihood via the Korkoteh pl~~n: which was reached through a narrow extension of the Elmah plain. However, narrow mountain passes no

doubt allowed access to winter pastu d bl

I d. res an ara e

an s along the Mediterranean coast. Anclenr paths

probably followed the general direction of the mod. em roads. For instance, the road to the coastal I' of Finiks, at a di5tance of 70 Ian from Ka sP am yUle, ha ratas ema-

must ve crossed the southeastern part of the

EFah plain near the drained lake of Aid

van, an

throuuh rhc relurivclv low p'I.'i>;~~~ reacht:'! rhl.: valley of rhc Y~l~f.!(\Z t.:ilYI. Mountain passes from rlu- plain ~lll"wed communicanon also with the ("(lastal an::as ex. tending frum Ka:;> [tl Fcthive. and [n rh,~ fertile valk'Y of the KliGI C)IY (Xunthus),

Wh~'at, harlcy, oar :111,1 chickpeas arc the rrincipal ~'fl)pS growing in the plain, where a rhi n layer of ero sion soil from rhc surroundirur mounralns Covers its soft limestone bedrock. An armua] precipitation of ca. 520 rnm, spread over 60·75 rai ny days concenrm, red between autumn and spring', permits horticulrure vine and fruit growing. However, cultivators have io rake into consideration (;1. 50 days of frost a year. In winter temperatures can drop to below zero <January -5"/ 0"). Summers in the Elmah plain are hot and dry Quly ca. +20' / +25'), but 5tHI cooler than the Mediterranean coastal area. In fact in the spring and slimmer months this plain provides a better environment fur farmers, nomads and their livestock. In this region nomadic pastoralism and rranshumance by sedentary groups from the coastal areas to upland pia. teaux or valleys is well known.!

The site of Karatas-Semavuk, located in the 1100· 1200·m high Elrnah plain, is die only EBA settlement in Lycia which has been systematically investigated. This village was mainly inhabited during the EBA IbHIa, and the chronological span of its material culture could suggest, according to Warner (1994), an uninterrupted occupation of ca. 500 years. Ufe in this village seems to have ceased towards the final centuries of the third millennium BeE. with no signs of violent destruction or quick abandonment being evident in the archaeolOgical record. There are no indications that the settlement suffered a slow decline. In fact Warner points out that the houses of the last phase ore among the best constructed at me sire (1994:189).

ArchaeolOgical surveys indicate mar the immediate vi cinity of I<arara~ lrself was inhabited on and off for a long period of time, with the center of habitation shifting slighdy from one period to another. Some 2 km distant from this site and situated in the center of the SemayOk Village located in the northern extension


vision and orienr:lti(>n of tnt! houses. In r<:gions

I ., { -sueciul

where ;1 Mediterranean c imare prevat S, am ~~< c ..

lv in deep and nurrow valleys, the hOllses preterentiallv fae\'! north in order to Ill<lximi:.:: the couhng effect of the northern wind, in the hot summers.

The composlnon <Inc! ecollomic org:lIlizark1n of rural households too may be rerlecred in the size and layout of village houses. Extended familk5 can share a brge house or a number of bouse, in a village. In the latter case these are often enclosed by a fence and share a large courtyard. In nuxed-farrning communities extended families tend to live and work together. They have rhe advantage of accumulating greater surplus food staples which they trade for commodities they lack. Such families naturally need a substannallv larger living space which includes storage and activity areas than do average size households.

Evaluation of the nature of the Karatas EBA settlement takes into consideration four interrelated factors, namely geographic location, architectural characteristics, subsistence economy and disposal of the dead.

Geographic Location

The Elmah plain is completely ringed by the Lvcian Taurus mountains. The Bey Daglan enclose the plain on the east and the mountains of Akdag, Yumru Dagt, Eren and the Elblstan Daglan form a barrier on the west. Finally, Susuz Da~ on the south and the Elrna Daglan on the north must have made communi. cation with regions outside this enclosed plain, either towards the Mediterranean coast or further inland, ta~er difficult in the past. Contact with the Lake DIStrict was in aU likelihood via the Korkuteli pIa' which was reached through a narrow extension o/~~~ ~ plain. However, nanow mountain passes no bn!t allowed access to winter pastures and arable

along the Mediterranean coast. Ancient paths probably fOllowed the general direcnon of the mod·e::Froads .. FOt Instance, the toad IX> the coastal plain "' •. In&.e,at a distance of 70 km from Karam S ~. ha ~ erna. . must· ve crossed the southeastern parr of the

~ plain neaT the drained lake of Avian, and

lak Yakar

rhrough the relnrivclv low passes rcached the valley of the Ya~gCJz C,:aYI. M ou mil i n passc~ from the Plai n allowe,1 communicarion also with the coastal areas I!X' tending {fl'm Ka~ to Ferhivc, and ('(1 the tCrtil<;: valley oj' the KOGI t,:<lY (Xnnthus).

WhCilt, bnrlev, <Jar and chickpeas are the pri nclpal crups gwwin).( in the plain, where a thin layer of erosion soil from the surrounding mountains COvers itS soft limestone bedrock. An annual precipitation of ca. 520 mru, spread over 60·75 rainy days concentra. ted between autumn and spring, permits horticulture vine and fruit growing. However, cultivators have to take into consideration ca. 50 days of frost a year. In winter temperatures can drop to below zero Uanuary -5''j 0''). Summers in the Elrnah plain are hot and dry (July ca. +20',/ +25"), but still cooler than the Mediterranean coastal area. In fact in the spring and summer months this plain provides a better environment for fanners, nomads and their livestock. In this region nomadic pastoralism and rranshurnance by sedentary groups from the coastal areas to upland plateaux or valleys is well known.j

The site of Karatas-Semavuk, located in the 1100- 1200·m high Elmali plain, is the only EBA settlement in Lycia which has been systematically investigated, This Village was mainly inhabited during the EBA IbIlla, and the chronological span of its material culture could suggest, according to Warner (1994), an uninterrupn-d occupation of ca. 500 years. Life in this Village seems to have ceased cowards the final centuries of the third millennium BCE, with no signs of violent destruction or quick abandonment being evident in the archaeological record. There are no in, dtcadons that the settlement suffered a slow decline. In fact Warner points out that the houses of the last phase are among the best constructed at the site (1994: 189).

ArchaeolOgical surveys indicate mat the immediate vicinity of Karata~ itself was inhabited on and off for a long period of time, with the center of habicatfon shifting slighdy from one period to another. Some 2 km distant from this site and situated in the center of the Semayilk village located in the northern ex;n:nslon

W(~r(' IrW EBA rnh"bil'111IS uf Kilfdlil~-Semil (ik " . "

y Scnll.S(d('",~I'Y? -An ltl '.

lr'tOdR h~'~J{)logkaj ViE:!w.

(If dlt' EJI1l,IIJ phlin. h ,I large mound (I 30xl60 111) with !!(lllll EHA lJ material. This du~l' proximity is uf S()I)I~ si~i\itiGIIlCt' from the point of possiblt:: socioCWIl(llllic i nter<1ctioll between rhe two at this time, The enclosed Elmah plain contains additional late ~'r<,hbwric sires, such as the mounds of Gilcvgi, Stig. lc, Akpy, and Hacunusalar (BcyIcr-San[ar). It is sig. nitJe,1l1[ that the number of such EBA settlements induding the Hat sites, roughly corresponJs ro the number of modern villages, many of which are either in rhe same location or close to prehistoric settlemenrs. It seems that the carrying capacity of the region has not changed much in the last five thousand years. Hacunusalar, whose prehistoric levels are covered by thick remains of the late Roman period, is 10' rated in the center of the plain, ca. 13 km southwest orElmah. and is the largest mound in this plain, mea. suring 300x350 m (Warner, 1994:188)_

Architectural Characteristics (Figs. 1-3) The tDrtified Central Complex forms the small but stratified mound of Karatas. This Central Complex consists of a large house-like structure surrounded by concentric courtyards, enclosure walls and embankrnents, plus an outer double palisade. The latter is surrounded by free-standing village houses and an extramural cemetery. Since no other stratified sites with contemporary material have been excavated, it is difficult to say that this type of settlement is characteristic for the entire Elmab plain. Other regional exam. ples of EBA village architecture such as Kurucav, Beycesultan or Kusura do not show similarities to the Karata~ village, either in plan or architecture, The for. tified EBA settlements at Troy I-II, Demtrcthuvuk and the village at Be~ik-Yassltepe in the northern half of wesrem Anatolia are also quite different in settlernenr plan and concept (Yakar, 1985136-71),

The chronolOgical subdivision of this EBA settlement is mainly based on rhe stratigraphy of the Central Complex,l


Period I. The Centr~l C !

,.. ornp ex who I

rl'l'tanl-,'l.tiar strucn > . ,Ie) was a large

.. ~ Irt;; surrOllndt::d l a "

a hl1ttres~cd oval w. II < I . :IV courtyard wltll

, au, <1 rend" OCCll . I tl

porrj f I ,ple( )<: cenrral

. \>11 0 r re settlelllent TIle "fortin.d" •

[hIS srr .n J e nature of

. ". lK Ire an" the superior buildin . '

Including the pseudomudl ick _ g t~chnlqueS,

I . . 'ric 1.:onstnlCtmn of the

louse, IS construed b W > , ' •

the • .. Y arn",r as an IndIcation that

CCl)nOlnIC and perh'lpS social stanis f th !

lived in 1. C. '0 ose W10

r ie cntral Complex differed substantially

frOI1) that of the vlllag!e inhabitants W furth

(, . amer el-

more suggests that the storage pits in the lower lev-

els of rh M' H .

e am OU~e demonstrate me ability and

need to store large quantities of agricultural produce, but should not be necessarily be interpreted as a communal storage facility for the entire community, espeoallv that segment living in the setdement outside the enclosure (I 994:178),

The courtyard of this central Structure was strengthened by several ramparts, and provided with additional courtyards and access ramps on the outer slopes, At the base of the outer courtyard, a concentric double wattle-and-dauh palisade was constructed which surrounded the whole complex. This double pall_e, divided into long compartments, may have been, according to Warner, the living quarters of the reainm

of the central house residents. .

Period 11. The Central Complex underwent s~me repairs.

Period III. The Central Complex was tetnodelle4. Prior to this rebuilding, remaining walls sf the eadi¢r .. period were pulled down and the surface 1~ led off. The central area was now .approached ~ -. ~ . ramp (Warner, 199~:7). .' .

Period IV. The south and southeastern slopes .~. the ramparts of the Central. Complex were ail$.Oii\b.ti··

bired, .',

Period V. The Central Complex of ilits ~~'~ three sub-phases. Hablllluon on the southem skiJe.jf' the complex at a later slllfe and the huiIdi~ ~".~


t rMnrC'senr the main

n the cas ~t •

pebble-p~ved rnmp o •

changes. . .

> cntwl Complex may h<lw been rn-

Period VI. The C . . J or absolutely con-

habited, but irs eroded remains 0 n

firm rhis."

D to the rather horizontll nflnlre of its strarigra~)h::

tIl~eplan of the village oorslde the Central Compkx IS . [0 why two con-

II Understood. TIle question as .

not we . hH~S

b r srructuntJ(y different straograp temporary U' :I Tl > ,exist at Karnta~ can he tentatively answeret . ~e v~;

tical stratigraphy of the mound suggests 11 certatn pc . manencv in the occupation of the mudbrick Central Complex which required periodic renovations and altenttions. The rather horizontal stratigraphy of the surrounding village may have been the result of a seasonally interrupted occupation of most of its lightly-built houses. In other words the two different stratigraphies may indicate two types of occupation in the two different parts of the village. Despite the facr that the exact lim irs of the settlement at its largest expansion could not be determined, it was clear to the excavators that the entire area within these limits was not used during all phases of occupation (Warner, 1994:174).

Correlation between the stratigraphy of the Central Complex-and the structures of the surrounding Village, including the cemetery, suggest three main PM-se-s of EBA occupation for the latter.

. ~.1:IIt ... lEBA L Circular pit-houses, ca. 2 m in :~l'and simated close to the Central Com le ~,~·~Hl. In the later part of Perio: II~ ;~~'.;~~.appear (Watner 1994·156) Th .. ~~... •.... ., .. e

'. ...'. . :~of the EBA I village is difficult

.:; -: ).,: Ii,Qccording to Warner, some

. .·inhabited the village durlng

Kararas IV·V = EBA ll. Me~llml1'l),pl' hl1ildin,'s .

.. ,",' ,lppear

I· 11 Klrat;t~ I V hur there I~ no evidence rhar W'ltt' 1

' I • ~ le·iJ.n(.,

daub rechnique was nlready .belng used for bllildillg

rher». This rechnlque of hUlldIng walls appeared i~ Karara~ V. Some 128 households with a total of ca. 640 inhabitants has been l'srimatcd hy W[lrner for Kuratns V.('

Karatas VI '" EBA III, The main tnntnialuscd for wall construction was mud-slnhs.

The fact [hat most of the disused Village houses were emptied of their contents and new houses were bUilt on the same locations or nearby, suggests a settlement pattern similar to that observed in semi-seden. wry or semi·nomadic communities.

Most of the building remains encircling the Central Complex consisted mainly of stone foundations, 0.20·0.30 m below the surface.i However, these stone courses did not always form a base for a superstructure. According to Warner, it is not always certain that any of the foundations were placed below floor level,8 Different types of wall construction seen in houses and storage sheds could be considered local variations of Mediterranean-type architecture. At Karatas, wattle-and-daub wall construction was preferred to other types of walls. In this technique densely spaced upright saplings implanted into the ground formed a wall-core which was packed on both sides with chaff-tempered mud. Pise walls too were used by the inhabitants of Karatas. In this system chaff. tempered mud constituted the wall material without the necessity of a supporting wooden framework or core. Wall types at Karatas other than those built of pise, wattle-and-daub or a combination of the twO, included walls built of rnudbrtck or mud-slabs. A few of the houses may have been bulit of wood. In aU types of wooden wall construction the wall faces wert usually coated with mud plaster, while the interior

· . ·<'in'.! all Ol,"!iti,'nallill)('-pl:lstcr ,,,,,rin,, (\V'I

J.H·l'~ n... ..... < r-

, 1')9+ 144-1 49).


Th,' width (,f .,ingle lint' t;llln<!:lrhl])S l"<lI1srrUC(cd ,,( icn,!!rIH\'i,,' I'lan:d srorn-s avcntJ,:cd 0.\0 111, "ug~"sting rh:l! rhl' thickm's~ 01 pise (lr watTk·and·dnuh walls wlnlld mil haw been more rhan thnt, and probably b". M,lsr of rhe double and triple-line stune r(}und". nons :It Karnms wert' ubour 40 to '50 ell) in Width, in 'Ither w<l[lls rhe wans wert' slightly thicker rhan those rc;<ring 0)1 single-line toundarions. These stone foun,bri(1I1S bdnnged to long and fn:e-scmding rnegarontype houses with une or two rooms (some haVing an :lpsidal (,'rm). Although these structures Were very unitl)fll1 in plan, their dimensions range from 4.00· 6.00 x 7.00-10.00 Ill. They show, according to Warner, little diffcrentiation in activities (t 994: 179).

The main mom in the Karatas megatons varied in area from 16 to .3 7 ru' and served as the living space of the occupants, being also used for certain indoor domestic acnviries. Several were divided by a partition wall ro create an additional back room whose entrance was usually centrally placed in the rear wall of the main room. In cases where no doorways were observed by the excavators, these storerooms have been interpreted as later additions to existing houses," A porch created by roofing the space between the exten sions of the two long walls provided an additional area for domestic activities and srorage.i"

Ald10ugh excavations revealed some evidence for internal partition walls, platforms. benches and bins in some of these houses, built-in furniture was certainly not very common in most of them, Ovens are not numerous at Karatas (Warner, 1994:187). Most ovens of Period Y seem to have been belonged to a large bread-making operation, perhaps associated with the Central Mound Complex.

Except for hard-packed clay floors in houses of Period IV, no traces of smooth solid floors were found in

Subsistence Economy

In spe(:ubting on the ~ocio·econ[)mic Structure of the EBA coml11unity in the Kararas village, we must first consider the effect of topographic, climatic and environmental factors on the rural serdement pattern in Lycia. The natural environment in Lycia provides TUral commullities with a choice of subsistence straregies which include a broad-based economy combining agriculture, horticulrure and pastoralism which could be supplemented by hunting, fishing and gathering. However, this type of economy requires some degree of mobility in the pattern of settlement due ~ multi-resource exploitation.

The subsistence economy at Karatas was a mixetl system of agriculture and animal husbandry, perhaps with more emphasis on the former. A l"reliminary study of the faunal remains indicates that cattle, sheep, goat a nd pig were domesticated.13 A'1'larendy no shelter, either attached to the dwellings er in separate buildings, was provided for the animals. There was some hunting, especially 19f red E1ecr, but there is no evidence that it contributed significantly to the meat supply. Few botanical remains were recovered. but the grinding/pounding reels, provisions for storage, and ovens indicate that cultivation of cereal cre,~ was an important econGmic acllivity. The soil and elimare with long, hot summers and damp winters , .... vide good conditions fu>r the cultivation of wheat and barley. Pits found in the early phases of l<arata~ may


" little t:vidence

14 Ther~ I~ ,

I. en l(SeJ f'Jr ~tl>rajfe~ , I' ,,,I \V0rksllllPs in

1 ave oe .' f 'r~'1<1 IZ~.' ,

t~ support the existenCe () \ cornlllul1111 an:~lS tor

cl v • .., .. ,. village. ,llcl1oug l't' rhe neigh bor-

1C "-'''o'''v e., f in slJmc r "

e .. ·<ks may have eXI,S{Cl d -poce of feantres som UN 'I b re pres~ I Loods This is indlcate( y larlorms sc~j({cret

n' ch as stone p

olltside me hlfUSes, SLI " S of a large [wcn or

rhe lte or the rcrn,\l n.

duoughout e 51

kiln,lS the

• art of the paved ramp on.

In Period V a large p, i was devoted to grtnd-

soumeast slope of dl~ ~~ountA ' ding to Warner

db ki actlvmes, (cor

lng an a ng "_.J. 'vi area may have

(1994; 180). rhis spe(lah~w act! rv I C I,

cd for the benefit of me Centra otnp eX been res~::" ' tllage Spindle whorls were found and not me enure VI, - A II)

throughout me village in Periods IV and V d~B 'lla ~ almough only a single example came from re VI, hg habitation areas of Period l-lll. No loom werg rs were found in me village in Periods I·lII. A Single example was found in Period IV. but numerous examples came to light, especially in the northeast and southwest village areas, from Periods V·VI. 16 These flndings may hint at a change in the relationship of the, village to me Central Complex, During the EBA 1 period weaving activity may have been concentrated in the latter area, where a large number of loom weights and spindle whorls came to light. Later, however, a change in the distribution pattern of loom weights indicates that weaving activity may have been undertaken by individual households (Warner, 1994; 180, n. 18). A small number of srrucnrres used by the villagers for storage (e.g. units 71/72-b; 1 aO-b) revealed large storage jars, pot supports, spindle whorls, 100m weights, ground stone tools, etc.1?

, Numerous pits and silos with straight vertical walls locatEd in the southwest part of the village suggest

" ,,(,11' furlll,Hi<111 of tilt: scrrlvmcnr nt Karatas

rJl:lt, Sllllt t , .,

~I I '-hold had 1'1)<.' c\pnuty to sture provi-

e:K 1 11>110( ..

, ,I ~ 11 riru; Peric'ci V wooden ~[(Jr"g'\: sheds WtTt

~~~, U h c' , " ,

__ I b~l:VIlt'en the h(l\ises III the \.kllsdy Inh'A)-

construllc\. c " , ~

~ I' I "I stern area ot K"mt:l~ (Wnrn<,-r, 1991: 183-

Itel sout ll" ,

184), By tin' L'n,l of h:riod V there W,IS Increased use

( 1 'r )r-l"'" vcs~ds, and the rear of h()u~es were

o arue ~ L I......... " - ,

l tnro sront"C areas. In Pl'f1Dd VI rear rooms

convt'rtel ' " _.

, , '~tur'lgc vessds bccnmc more trequenr in

(Ol1talllln;..., ,

indiVidual hOUSl~S,1 <)

Disposal of the Dead

The cemetery orig-innlly established on the outskirt;; of the settlement was set apart from the domestic area but had no fixed boundary,20 The location of both houses and tombs shifted from time to rime. One gets the impression that the burial ground expanded and occupied previously inhabited parts of the settlement. As a result new constructions mav have been diverted to previously uninhabited areas of the vtllage.

The large number of skeletons uncovered at Karatas revealed that in the 15-19 year-old group samples, females outnumber males by a ratio of nearly five to one (Angel, 1968:260). This may indicate that childbearing at a young age caused a high percentage of mortality among young girls and infants. Perhaps there were other reasons too for this striking imbalance between the number of male and female burials for this age group. Assuming that the number of males and females in each household was equal, it may be postulated that some of the males died while they were away from their village at Karatas, This may have happened during their hypothetical stay in the

1 r ,I winrer villngc on rhl' Ul;l"!'. ilnd/or ill

It'~'i!l.1 :, u . ,

I 1 "Irf"m:, hunruu; :lco,lL'nr". err. rrib" ", '

. I" . 1'lJlll 11I11/;Jri,1, which was l'lldt:lllk ;1 III 01 1 " 1)1'''. hldi',1 . . .. ,__ _

'. '-PII1l111JJ1JtlL'S 11Vll1g ncur l1Iar~h~,s did not ,,,.

hj,..:n,nl .... , . _ . I • ..._

. ,1, 'I!teer the mhl1hu:lllrs ot Karata.) (An",", 19'1"-

jl(1W' > • . " ,_, I ~IU.

1M), The ,uwphdt.'s JJ1()squlro-lnh.:sred lIJars/ws on

rJ1<' lll:r:'.t:tI pl<lins around Fl.'rhiyc, Kas and Alltaly,] w<lu/,' 1111\'(' p<,sed a serious health haz:lrd fllr hUlllan bdni!''; lind ('VCIl iivcsrock in dw slImrner 1ll(lmhs. Thercf\lrt.'. ir is Ill~iG11 to assume that rh~· inhabitants d rhcse low-alnnule areas would have preferred to mllW in the summer to highland plains and valleys, slIl'h as rhe plnin of Elm~llt, where cold springs and rich pastures oftered a better lind he,11thier environ. mcnr f()r t~rrners and pastoralrsrs.


The type of regional architecture exposed at Karatas would have been more at home in a mild Mediterra: nean environment than it' the highland plain of Elmal, where winters are cold, windy and rainy. Singlecourse fiddstone f()undations could not protect the base of the pise or wattle-and-dllub walls against rapid erosion during heavy winter rains nor prevent fre. quent inundation of house floors. Furthennore, if the houses had been inhabited in winter, the house floors would have been covered with a layer of hard-packed day against excessive humidity,21 On the other hand, OCCupation of the houses during the milder months of spring and the hot and dry summers would not have been problematic. The Central Complex with its thick mud brick or mud-slab walls. far more resistant than the much thinner pise and wattle-and-daub constructions of the rnegarons, provides convincing evidence that the inhabitants of Karatas knew how to build Village houses resistant to the winter conditions in the highland_ Therefore, their choice of a lighter


arcilirl',rur' '., 1

' Ill,IY ret en the I

1'Il'!Ill'nt nr Karar:l~,~, e Se~SIlIlO nmure of the set.

With d'l' C'X(eption f' I

. . , 0 d "karth, sOlnetim' .

,I 'U1fr,11 position few b .,' f, es occupYing

rh"'l' hOllSl:s- '18fT' , Uh' t-In eatures characterize

., c • ,Inge p enornenon 'f tl

Illc-nnr to hi: o,eU"i' I tl h ,I 'f:Y were

. ,. ex, lWllg out tile ear Th fa

that the: Kari\tas henrths w I y . e ct

II, I' " ere sUpp em en ted by porta.

) e m)Z(~rs could perhaps tUnh . di th

., .,. er In reate e season-

a C 1<1 racter of th e scttiem enr,

~he s,ignificam number of disused houses devotd of ~'nds Implies that these were not abandoned in haste, tor there Was enough time to empty them of their con. tents. ~thnographic studies suggest rhat this phenom. enon IS characteristic of settlements or campsites abandoned regularly according to a particular annual cycle. The facr that Karata~ was permanently abandoned during the later part of the EBA Ill, without archaeolOgical indications pointing to violence or another form of disaster, may be interpreted as a dis. continuity in this hypothetical cycle of settlement.

Had the inhabitants of the Karatas settlement dedQem to keep their livestock in the Village through the winter, they would have constructed animal shelters. The absence of such structures, either free-seanding er attached to the houses, can only indicate that the animals spent the winter in the low-altitude pastures near the Mediterranean coast.

The lack of specialized werksheps in the Kara ... ~ village is also significant, In fanning cernmuniaes the pressure on subsistence-related activities eases censi.erablv in winter and this is usually me .me that mest indoor industrial activil!ies intenSifY. Fer instance, during EBA I no loern wei,hllS were foun« in ehe vii· lage, and only a sine-Ie example was foun. in PeriH IV. The picture one gets at Karabl~ is that most ac:avlties were outdoor in nature an. generally relatee .. food processing

21 Excepr fo, some hou>e$ wid, ha" .. W doy floOT! of Perlod IV, m, rrnees of smooth soltd floors wert fuunal in th ... mefilll'O{\"

22 Dry 'ummer-. In the Elmall r!~I n .1I"w.d the prop" ~ltJ,," of sun-dried mud bricks, a rrodld"n.1 bUild!n. m.lMalln AII&I'-,lI. sin« th: ~=.

Ir ,. ItlJilOly ufe<! In ohc ("IWTufcton (,f • .,Ild l)(Iuo" and .nlm.! .h.llef! wf"ch l.ot. If mllnllined ",.,pe:rly, up .. ~ ro ",-"", lIt·n Mill . .__

not much e"~fti ... I. ne ... -JeJ In d,eir prepa ... non, nor <'Very type of soil i. rot m.onufaClUrlllI .""drled m"'brlcb, Soils con ~'. perCZ["l~ of '"nJ r~.ult in I'"or quallry brld,. which do not I"", long, For In.nnce'. !lot NOh oonlr;ruM wi'" ... ndy oolI "'lid 10 I. In :. """"dll\i [he ''''<up-AnD< .,( tho h .. UK with very little pn>re<:tion, Therefo re , In .[fta wh..., mUlllbrl.clt oonlWUClion 1I«IlI. realOn"!:nr ........:. ,,( d>e lQill'Ilr( rcsulr ill a dl Ifcrcnl ",pc of ",chlr.eoru re, putting more ""'phall. on elth er s 1One at woo.! The .... t 1VI'l' of .. tl fOr ... aM ..

~fto • wdl·haLo,,,,eJ <<lmhinatiun of day. lim. and pliller compcnen ... In 111. 0011. ~M day In !he .. ~ c .. cu m die d. .'.:.:~

fbt ... nh ",,,ti in h. ~ .nd dry '''!Pon,.

W",,", thO' EllA Inh"bilan" of"t.;l~-S':'''''I)'(ik Scrni,s<·d.mliHyl -An Ethnoarchaeological View-


\ I'", SI'll"C e:lrl" in the last century. The perimeter

f nut ... ll....· 1

,if a t<,IlI' i~ IIsu,dty linl:d with kerb-stones which can

t . I"" ro secure <I wickerwork screen. Stone walls

a S1.) St· n.. ~"--.__

.,,,J J'J, winter camps or hi.dNI[titude summer

:lrc 1I~..:. . ..,_ t·

,. '" screen our cold winds. In fact black tents

GHIl!,.' ", .

pit(hed over 1,20 m·high sto!~e walls are known in

s"tH" high a[titUde rcgious of Anatolh,.15 Tents are "ften 'l<'c(lInpaincd by substantial fixtures (0 meet the ,lcll1and~ of mobility ;\nd flexibility on the one hand. ,lid the llet,,1 for a degree of security and comfort on the other, l~or instance, stone-built corrals are also a common feamre of pasroralist nomad sites. Some of these may be acn,al[y roofed over with a large black tent of [he same kind L!SOO for dwellings. The portable and perishahlc superstructure of the tents is either carried from one campsite ro another or left hidden at the campsite. On the other hand the entire wooden framework of aiacrk structures may be left intact at SUl1HlH,'r and winter caropsites.r"

Not only do rents of different types display similar floorplans and fixtures, there is sometimes almost no difference between the organization of space (e.g. floor plan and fixtures) between permanent village houses and nomads' tents.27 In large rectangular or elliptical tents, the internal arrangement of household possessions and activities is fairly standard. Large and small leather and textile sacks containing household items ate stored on the platform along the tear wall. A tent may carry an additional storage platform at the other end. One side of the tent is generally reserved for more formal social activity such as meals and entertainment, while the other side -the kitchen end- is given over to food preparation. It is possible to infer the internal division of a tenrsite into storage, cooking, food- processing and social areas from fixtures such as stone platforms. hearths and other surface traces of human activity. In other words, activity areas in an abandoned campsite leave traces that are not different from those found on excavated house floors. In fact the floor plans and internal fixtures

found in the lightly·built seasonal dwellings (e.g, (tlltClks) in the high-elevation areas of the Mediterrancan arc reminiscent of the Karatas houses.

The houses (,f Karatas, like the tents or a!aclks of pasroral nomads or semi-nomads. could not have been self-contained spatial units. ln a manner observed at summer tentsites, at Kararas too daily household activities do not seem to have been confined to endosed spaces, but spilled outside the dwellings. It is possible to conceive the division of space in and around such seasonally inabited dwellings not so much in terms of fixed activity areas, but rather as frequently re-adjusted and overlapping domains.

For the EBA fanners of the Lydan coast the summer aridity which affected cultivation and grazing, cembined with the need to escape the anopheles-infested marshy plains (e.g, Fethiye, Kas and Antalya) wouhl. have made it imperative to move to higher elevaaen habitats by springtime. The upland pastures in this region start at an elevation above 1000 m. However, the main economic purpose of this mobility may net have been only herding but also agriculture. It is known that in Lvcia, as in other parts of the M~rranean zone, cultivation is carried out mainly in the fertile mountain depressions. EmnGgraphic ~s show that here the transhumant groups plant wheat and barley before their descent to the winter villages in October. Once they reach rhe winter z~e in the Mediterranean lowlands in @ct&ber. .hey pl0uih their fields_ In the meantime their spend the winter in the meadows near the ceanal villages- Iy mid-April half of the village c&mrnunity pes up- • the yay!as with the livesteck while 1he ether halfstay' back to plant cereals in April er May amI harvest them in July. Up in the y.y!. villages animals are W in the pastures lind dairy preiucw prMuced. At the end of July, after the cr&p is huvesreQ in !he wfn1t-r Villages, the rest of the viUa,ers join their funtu. in the yaylas. In mid-July harvest starts in the ~ an. lasts until Septemser. Sep1:tmllkr is the month Wlat

2S Set- Cribb 199J.95-96.

26 s.. Cribb 1991 ,Fig. 9.2; 6.!wn 197&30.

27 Although moor f'Cnnancnt OweU1nll8 "~n constat of mull.pI. room •. Ih~ majority .~ rn.1II'!ti'I ii:>r .... q4 tt""MIICk .. tb.t_., ...... aaMty.u.. .. pisco: wimin a ,ing!. room, For 1It..lou. e:xplanadon. C()n<cmlnllhl •• Imilartty _ 1_1'7),19.3; WI"" t9'11! ~ 1979..· :::


. ) yay/as of

. . • 1[ •• 'J J dried In rhe m<lunr.w

liun IS co C([~ an . the (as Sill"

the Taurus. Dorlng rhe nrne spent III Ie Jay J • i

dr', ·ratlons to he pantel

lings <In: prepare ror .vlnta wgc . " '.

Tl· l J 'pectru rn Sli 'Slsfc 11((

in the winter zone us )roal S

_ .. J _I' risks IiKcJ by fimllers Juring

strategy reduces me '

crop fujlurcs due to ul1pr~.Jit:mble natural C:JlIS.L!S.

Transhumanre also allows less preocCllp<lnOn with feeding and main mining the livestock <It the expense of cultivation. The tOmler is ofTen the case when live· stock is kept within enclosed compounds during the winter.

The seasonal nature of most of the Karatas houses may explain the rather shallow horizontal strati[,lTaphy around the Central Complex. The £act that the extramural cemetery overlapped wid, the periphery of the habitation could be construed as additional proof that the house-sites in question had ])0[ been used for


ANom., J. L, "HullWl R.m.81ns at Karatas," AJA 72, 3, 260-264. 1968

BATES, D. 0., N01tIlUb and Pa1'nU!f11 A Study of tile Voruk of 1973 S~~ Tutke,. 1Jnlv~lty of MIchIgan, And\ro,

po~ l'aper& No. 52, Michigan.

ClU1I8, }t 1." Nomad.! In An:haeo!o,:y. Cambt1dge. 1991

'fSlicg. C" "lfutlar III Kal'ollaf' SocfaJ OrganUatjon In South.

1m. W.....,_ Atuu:oUa.. MA 1:3646.

~:. B. i.nd' PmooNs, .0. JR., ~Fau.w ,,---,-, L... V ~

1-919 Sea!ay.ok In SoUlbwe.t """1IUIIJ rrom ""ram,-

,., JPA.l;1if9.160.· AnalDlJ.a: An lOJrrtm Report..

:' _'.':'~ ... ' ... A.·M..!t0lluldi of di& 011"'" W-" WI

.. ' . ~z>"'O . .. ....... KOIII!n.

\~t ..• ·w..~-~--f~


. . . ._'-. : , "

'Ollie rime. Dbllse oj" houses is to SOllie extent: remj . ;li~(ent ,,{ a slnl<1rl<,n cxisti nu in ~eaS()l)ar (,lI)lp~Ire~, When n tent is di~manrlcd at rh .. · end (.>f the ~umlncr . "\SOil Irs site is not reoccupied thl! next SlIIHIW"r

!'Ill, '. .... I

despite the f~lCr some of it~ stone walls ilnd fixtures

an: parrlv preserved. Rnrher , the stllnt' walls xtil] st;lIltiing on the renrsitc are Jismnnded. rattly or en. tirely, and the srone used ttlr the construction of the new a nd its lixtll res.

In summing- up, I would propose that the advantages of a sllbsisrence economy which exploikJ more than a single environmental niclu: could not have been unknown to the EBA (armers of Lycia. Such an economic strategy would have required me establish. menr of ar least two seasonal settlements in different exploitation zones and a certain mohility on d1C part of the settlers and thei r livestock.

OzKAN, S., "Sense Notes on Mobile or Vernacular Ar(.hittaUre.·

1978 1" Khan, Led., Shelte,- 11. London. 30-32.

D£ PLANHOl, X., De la Pkaine Panlph)llienm! ow: Lacs fuidiens;

1958 Nornadlsnlf er vie Pa),sanne. Parts.

WAI!N£lI, J. L, "The Megaron end Apsldal HOllS(' in Early Bcome

1979 Age Westl:m Anato}la, New Evldena from Karalaf.·

AJA; 132·147.

WAllNER, J, L. Elmah.Kal'Qta~ II: TM Earl, BI'III'Itt .Age Village 0(

1994 Kamklf. Bryn Mawr.

WATSON, 1'. J .• ·A.rchltI!(QJra) DJffereniiation In Some Neat' ~ 1978 CommunJtlet. Prehistoric and Contempon..ry." In

Redman., C. et Ill. eda., SociQI AI'C~ I.aruion, 131·158.

YAW.,}" 1985

Fi~III\' I fJ/,11I of lilt' 0'01(.11 A'follnd ( '01111'11-'., ;)/ Kol(,II"~ I/."l-el~ I,W. J\ller ,\.1. /. ;\.k.flillk. AI,\ ,-IJ. -I O'F4}: .151, ill. 1.

'i_~_r JlARATA~



1._- ...

f iKUrf! 2 Overlapping HOIJ5e Rl'milin~ end Burials ill the /(drdla. VilldgE- !Trench J7). After M. t. Mc'JUnk. AlA 72. J (1968): 250, ill.2,

fU I

\ \


, \

/", \






. ._._~_. __ ~ _J

.. - .. -_. _._-_._----------------.,





-. __ .,

;=:- ""=. '.



. ~.-.------.=-..:...


' .

. :0



.. " .



822 ~l
.. ~~~
r~~" « 00
r &
f ~ •
8 ~
~ A
(J 0
r 17
\ 0 ....
, "
* •
, .,
80 F
~ •
.Ii> D
C 3 filM of Me,aron 3~ Remnants

figure Sf!6 3A-C In ..

Under/yin, MOUM"lllnk, AI'" 72, 3 O-F. IoitIK M. I.

(t968): 251, iII.3.