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Eco-friendly Technologies Based on Banana Peel Use for the Decolourization of the Dyeing Process Wastewater
Carolyn Palma • Elsa Contreras • Johana Urra ´ ´ ´ Marıa Jesus Martınez
Received: 12 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010
Abstract This study analyzed some alternatives to the valorization of agricultural residues considering its use in the treatment of colored efﬂuents. The acid–base behavior of the banana peel surface was thus determined in order to establish the feasibility of its use as a bioadsorbent for dyes. The adsorption capacity of Acid Black 1 was evaluated, through the equilibrium isotherm and the kinetics of this uptake process was also analyzed. Additionally, banana peel was used as substrate-support to evaluate the growth of Inonotus sp SP2, Stereum hirsutum RU 104 and Pleurotus eryngii IJFM 169 and their ligninolytic enzymes production. The decolourization ability of strain fungi was moreover screened. The concentration of functional basic groups in the banana peel surface was determined in 5.5 mmol g-1 as six and a half times higher than acid groups, while the lowest value of the maximum adsorption capacity of Acid Black 1 was 250 mg g-1. The adsorption kinetics of this dye was suitably represented by a pseudo second order model, obtaining correlation coefﬁcients greater than 0.98. Additionally, the banana peel was demonstrated to be a source of carbon available for growth of the fungi studied. Reducing sugars supplied for banana peel were abruptly consumed up to the 5th day by S. hirsutum and Inonotus sp, while a slower consumption was observed in the case of P. eryngii. Manganese Peroxidase was produced by the three fungal strains, Inonotus sp. additionally produces Laccase and Aryl-alcohol oxidase.
C. Palma (&) Á E. Contreras Á J. Urra Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Santiago de ´ Chile, Alameda 3363, Estacion Central, Santiago, Chile e-mail: email@example.com ´ M. J. Martınez ´ Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
Screening assays showed that all of the dyes were decolorized, resulting in efﬁciencies between 50 and 99% by the three strains, with the exception of Basic Violet 4. Acid Black 1 was decolorized efﬁciently by Inonotus sp and S. hirsutum. In conclusion, banana peel is a promising material for development of an integral bioremediation strategy for wastewater containing hazardous compounds. Keywords Agricultural waste Á Valorization Á White rot fungi Á Banana peel Á Dye
Introduction A signiﬁcant amount of lignocellulosic biomass is generated every year during cultivation, harvesting, processing and consumption of agricultural products, such as straw, stover, stalks, seeds, bagasse, peels, among others . There are opportunities for adding—value to these lignocellulosic residues using them as raw material to produce biosorbents and low-cost adsorbents , support-substrate for the production of biomass, enzymes and metabolites [3, 4], or feedstock for producing biofuels and biochemicals . Additionally, using these residues to obtain valueadded products can contribute to their removal from the environment, avoiding their handling as solid waste . Fungi, the major recyclers of carbon, are decomposersorganisms capable to hydrolyze complex organic compounds, such as agricultural waste. At present many ﬁlamentous fungi are utilized as producers of enzymes of industrial interest using same lignocellulosic residues as a source of carbon and energy. The use of the agricultural residues as a nutrient source for microorganisms of biotechnological interest is an alternative which continues to be explored. White rot fungi (WRF) have been extensively studied for their ability to produce
5% (wt). The search for alternative sources of nutrients. Stereum hirsutum RU 104 and Plerotus eryngii IJFM 169. has also been reported. whose functional groups may have a signiﬁcant afﬁnity for the adsorption of dyes. 33 kg to fruits and 2 kg to rachis . and glucose is the more usual carbon source when using a deﬁned medium. the wastes from both. The disposal. a good carbon/nitrogen ratio is necessary to make fungi grow. such as starch. The production of bananas and plantains in the world exceeded 94 million tons by 2008. the strain and the culture conditions. Another interesting feature of lignocellulosic residues is the physical–chemical properties of the functional groups available on their surface. banana peel was evaluated as substrate-support for the growing Inonotus sp SP2. The banana fruits were selected according to their ripening classiﬁcation based on the Color Index corresponding to stage 6 or entirely Yellow . sugar cane bagasse and fruit peel like orange and banana . Latin America and the Caribbean being the major exporters . The sample was then separated using different opening of the superior sieve. The release of dyes into industrial wastewater causes serious environmental problems. Materials and Methods Agricultural Waste Banana peel (Mussa ssp) was obtained from fruit (CHIQUITA) purchased at a local market. such as when natural forage is plentiful. 0. It is thus possible that it supports fungal growth . Banana residues are highly fermentable due to the high starch content while still green (about 72% dry basis). which are involved in the degradation of lignin and other recalcitrant aromatic compounds [7. of which 15 kg correspond to leaves. The ﬁbers extracted from banana leaves and stem have been used in the production of particle boards for construction of social housing [16. metals [18. Additionally. has a double advantage: they add value to this waste while lowering the costs of producing enzymes. Additionally. bacterial degradation is affected by the presence of chemicals in the disposal area. the presence of simple sugars (saccharose. The white rot fungi are able to produce various kinds of ligninolytic enzymes such as laccase and peroxidase in liquid or solid-state fermentation cultures [9. 123 .25. the percentage of rejected products due to size. 50 kg to pseudo-stalks. glucose and fructose) facilitates silage . The proportion of the banana which is wasted as peel is 18–20%. its use in the production of pectin [21. At the same time. At harvest. 24]. In addition. and the ligninolytic enzymes secreted by these fungi during the biodecolorizing process were evaluated. where the decomposition process is very slow due to high ﬁbre contents. 25]. These groups are responsible for the adsorption capacity of some speciﬁc solutes through ionic interactions. In all cases. such as agricultural residues. selecting the [-18 ? 60] mesh cut which corresponds to particles larger than 0. 22] and ethanol [23. banana farming and commercial packaging. 17]. it is important to determine which extension belongs to the process involved: bioadsorption and biodecolorization. 19]. contamination. At the time of harvest. such as dyes . 8].5 and 1 mm.25 mm and smaller than 1 mm. Poor disposal and lack of an appropriate treatment for these bio-degradable wastes also causes the proliferation of pathogenic organisms. with Africa. The discharge into natural waterways may have an inhibitory effect on photosynthesis affecting aquatic ecosystem. The immediate use of this waste has been for animal feed but there are periods of restricted use. handling. it is interesting to explore the feasibility of colored wastewater bioremediation by a ligninolytic enzyme system of white rot fungi using banana peel as substrate-support. obtaining three cuts which are denominated 0. around 60% of dry matter. From the environmental standpoint. dye molecules are broken down during the anaerobic processes occurring in the sediment. minimization and valorization of this organic waste have become a major task. Finally the ability of decolorization/degradation of various types of dyes by these fungal strains was investigated. a banana plant is estimated to have a weight of 100 kg. because their chemical structure gives them a persistent and recalcitrant nature. such as corn cobs. coconut shell. the lixiviated liquid causes a negatively impact over soil and groundwater . In Central America for example. Then the solid waste was crushed and screened. but their secretion depends on the type of fungi. According to this background.Waste Biomass Valor extracellular ligninolytic enzymes usually during the secondary metabolism. The banana peel (BP) was dried in an oven for 1 week. The aim of this study was to analyze some alternative valorization of agricultural residues. reaching the equilibrium moisture content of around 10. are normally disposed in large open-air dumps located in the same plantations. Banana peel is a solid waste with high carbohydrate content. 10]. Therefore. considering its use in the treatment of colored efﬂuents. Then during ripening. cellulose and lignin. The physical–chemical properties of the banana peel surface were determined in order to establish the feasibility of its use as dyes bioadsorbent. and phenolic compounds . generating toxic amines that may also pose a serious environmental problem. Naturasorbents have been obtained from agricultural waste. This substrate contains biopolymers. 4. transport and storage is estimated at about 20% . as well as for production of biomass and metabolites of biotechnological interest [3. the banana peel has been used as bioadsorbent of soluble contaminants. Besides.
1 M and distilled water was also included. H and O) was obtained by Ultimate Analysis. These samples were continuously stirred in a thermostated shaker at 20°C for 24 h.5 and 1. In comparison. was determined by the method informed by Navas and Carrasquero . Madrid. Point Zero Charge (pHPZC) Point zero charge (pHPZC) a set of BP suspensions were prepared adding 10. the BP was separated by ﬁltration and the dye concentration of ﬁltrate was determined by absorbance measurements in a UV–Vis spectrophotometer (Spectronic Helios Gamma model) at maximum absorbance wavelength. In this analysis a wet method was used. MSX1).1 M NaOH. The samples were ﬁltrated in a vacuum system and the dye concentration in the solution was determined by the absorbance measures at maximum wavelength in a Helios Gamma model UV–Vis spectrophotometer. 123 . Maria Jesus Martinez from CIB-CSIC. Similarly.1 M NaOH (basicity) . 5. Particle size Distribution Physical–Chemical Characterization of Banana Peel Surface Surface Acidity and Basicity Surface acidity and basicity were determined by potentiometric titration of the sodium hydroxide or chloride acid excess. The ﬂasks were agitated for 1 h and then. Furthermore. which makes the surface charge of BP is equal to zero. Then. Bioadsorption of Dyes In Banana Peel Determination of Contacting Time Particle size Distribution is determined by laser diffraction using the Mastersizer X equipment (MALVERN INSTRUMENTS. 200 and 500 mg L-1 of AB1 dye solution was contacted with 2 g L-1 dose of BP. BP suspensions were prepared with the same volumes of 0. Samples with an initial concentration between 50 and 600 mg L-1 of dye and a dose of 2 g of BP per liter of solution were used. University of La Frontera) and Pleurotus eryngii ´ IJFM 169 (provided by Dr. in all cases 5 mL of KCl 0. 150 rpm) during 2 days. Determination of contacting time 50. (isolated in ´ the Araucanıa region of southern Chile by the group of researchers at the Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology. The fungi were maintained on malt extract agar plates at 4°C.25 mL of 0. Physical Characterization of Banana Peel Density Density is evaluated with the mercury intrusion technique using the Porosimeter 2000 instrumental equipment (CARLO ERBA INSTRUMENTS). maintaining the agitation an extra 1 h.1 M HCl to 1 g of BP. Emmett and Teller (BET) isotherm method.1 M HCl (basicity) until the equilibrium was reached. Methylene Blue (Basic Blue 9) adsorption using the Langmuir isotherm was also obtained. For this. A sample with KCl 0. Speciﬁc Surface Speciﬁc Surface is determined by nitrogen gas adsorption according to Brunauer. the correlation between the contents of BP in the culture medium and the concentration of the available reducing sugars were established.5.Waste Biomass Valor Dry matter. Spain). All of them were of analytical grade and from Sigma–Aldrich Co. The dynamic process was identiﬁed through the evolution of residual concentration of dye in solution for different contact times. An aliquot of 20 mL ﬁltrate obtained from contact assay (24 h) was then analyzed by titration with 0.01 M HCl (acidity) or 0. The pH solution value. ash and nitrogen contents of BP were determined by a Proximate Analysis and the elemental composition (C. 2. Subsequently 5 mL of KCl 1 M were added to each sample.1 M were added and the volume was completed with distilled water until 100 mL.01 M (acidity) or 50 mL of 0. Adsorption Dyes Isotherms 2 g L-1 of BP was contacted with different concentration of AB1 dye solution (50–500 mg L-1) in the thermostatted and agitated system (20 ± 2°C. pH values (pH1) were recorded. Then the ﬁnal pH of each sample (pH2) was measured. Microorganisms Inonotus sp SP2 and Stereum hirsutum RU 104. after contacting 0. Finally the residual dye concentration in the solution was determined by visible spectrophotometry at 665 nm (Helios Gamma UV–vis spectrophotometer). which is not soluble and does not alter its physical and chemical properties. Dyes The dyes used were as shown in Table 1. The sample was dispersed in a support solution. 7.5 g of BP with 50 mL of NaOH 0.
5 Reactive orange 16 (RO16) Azo 493. Decolorization Ability and Ligninolytic Enzyme Production of Fungi Previous studies indicate that strains of Inonotus sp SP2 and Stereum hirsutum RU 104 grow in media with 10 g L-1 glucose.5 Structure Acid red 27 (AR27) Azo 522. the equivalent concentration of BP was added.0 Basic orange 2 (BO2) Azo 454. in contrast Pleutorus eryngii requires twice the concentration of glucose.Waste Biomass Valor Table 1 Characteristics of dyes Dye Acid black 1 (AB1) Chromophore Diazo k (nm) 618. In the assays using BP.0 Growth.5 Basic blue 41 (BB41) Azo 617. the mycelium was homogenized and 123 .5 g L-1 MgSO4 7H2O).0 Basic violet 4 (BV4) Triphenylmethane 595.5 Reactive blue 19 (RB19) Anthraquinone 592. 1 g L-1 KH2PO4. 2 g L-1 Malt Extract. The cultures were incubated at 28°C for 5–8 days. Then.0 Reactive black 5 (RB5) Diazo 597. Experiments were designed based on this information. 0. Carbon Assimilation Carbon assimilation a pre-inoculate was prepared in a Fernsbatch (2 L) which contained 10–12 plugs (5 mm in diameter) as an inoculate with 100 mL of sterilized glucose-peptone medium (5 g L-1 peptone.0 Basic blue 24 (BB24) Thiazine 633.
45 g L-1. e469 = 27. Mn– oxidizing peroxidase activity (named as MnP) was estimated by the development of Mn?3-tartrate complex (e238 = 6. Stereum hirsutum RU 104 and Pleutorus eryngii.500 M-1 cm-1) during the oxidation of 0.16 and 60. accordingly. Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO) was determined by the development of veratraldehyde from 5 mM veratryl alcohol 0. hirsutum. The cultures (in triplicate) were incubated at 28°C in a shaker. The biotic controls were realized with mycelium and culture medium.50 and 50. Enzyme Activities Laccase activity was measured using 5 mM 2. Other authors have reported values of speciﬁc surface for BP between 13–23.500 M-1 cm-1.5 mL of glucose-peptone medium supplemented with 50 and 100 mg L-1 of dyes. Lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity was determined with 2 mM veratryl alcohol in 0. On the other hand.5 mL homogenized mycelium and 13.6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP) in 100 mM sodium citrate buffer (pH 5. The particle size distribution of cut-off so-called 0.1 M sodium phosphate. the remaining 60% corresponds to macropores. 1 SEM analysis of banana peel. Decolorization Screening tartrate buffer (pH 5) in the presence of 0. a inside surface b outside surface The pore size distribution of BP shows that the 40% of void volume has pore radius lower than 1 l.5 m2 g-1 using the same method [18. 1).49 lm. estimation of the same property by the methylene blue adsorption method yielded 123 . probably due to de operational complexity for degassing samples lignocellulosic . which leads to denominate this biomaterial as mesoporous. The electron micrographs revealed that the particles are of irregular shape and its surface exhibits a micro-rough texture. which can promote the adherence of the mycelium in a similar way to that found in natural habitats (Fig. In this medium the glucose was replaced by 36. at 150 rpm. referred to DMP concentration) . respectively. Consequently its density is 1. All cultures (in triplicate) were incubated for 15 days at 28°C in an air atmosphere with 100% relative humidity.56 g L-1 BP. These results agree with the mean particle size corresponding to 57. for Inonotus sp SP2.Waste Biomass Valor inoculated in a 10% (v/v) proportion in Erlenmeyer ﬂasks (250 mL) which contained 81 mL of BP-peptone medium. The assay was conducted in an Erlenmeyer (100 mL) ﬂask covered with cotton and gauze stoppers. and abiotic controls consisted of water and culture medium supplemented with dye. 35]. The medium was autoclaved. Results and Disscusion Characterization of Banana Peel This test was carried out in order to establish the degrading capacity of the recently isolated strains Inonotus sp and S. with 1.1 M sodium tartrate at pH 3 and 0. Reducing sugars were determined by the dinitrosalicylic acid method.1 mM H2O2 . using D-glucose as a standard . pH 6 . The surface structure of these particles was observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).0.1 mM H2O2 . The speciﬁc surface determined by the BET method has a very low value of 5 m2 g-1.1 mM MnSO4 in 100 mM sodium Fig. Biotic and abiotic controls were carried out in parallel.25 mm shows that the mode and median of the frequency distribution curve are 72.36 lm.
and thus it is fundamental to postulate the mechanisms involved. The zero-charge point of BP corresponds to solution pH value of 2. According to the Fig. BP could be a low-cost bioadsorbent to uptake acid dyes from industrial wastewater. During the adsorption of the dyes. i. The concentrations of adsorption sites of acidic type and basic type corroborate this result. At this pH value.35 -0.1.3% (wt) 1.3 -0. The carbon and nitrogen contents in BP were 41.Waste Biomass Valor Table 2 Chemical composition of banana peel Method Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Total solid Nitrogen Ash Chloride Sulfur Phosphorus Ultimate analysis Ultimate analysis Ultimate analysis AOAC 17 AOAC 992. the ﬁrst zone could correspond to carboxylic groups and the second. i. EPA 2007 41. If the pH of a solution is higher than the value of pHpzc. BP also presents significant oxygen contents (33. peanut shells.) 0. it was established that the equilibrium between AB1 and BP is reached at 30 h.25 mm 0. the surface of the biosorbent has a negative net charge since the acid groups are de-protonated and could preferably interact with cationic species. The higher the available number of sites capable of polarization and the stronger the interaction with the dye molecules. ionic exchange and electrostatic interactions. and could do with those negatively charged.4 (wt) %) from carbohydrates and ﬁber.50 and 0. peat moss (350–550 m2 g-1) [36.1% (Dry wt.4% (Dry wt.1 0. 2) and therefore 123 . 5.32% (Dry wt.08C.. to hydroxyl groups . Adsorption of Acid Black 1 dye According to the contact times studied.15 -0. 2 Point zero charge of banana peel literature.1 and 1. the concentration of basic functional groups is six and a half times higher than acids. respectively. suggest that BP could be a promising bioadsorbent of synthetic organic contaminants. among others. which are in the range of those report in the literature are 59 and 32 (wt) %. Indeed.25 mm and 500 mg L-1 of dye. respectively (Table 2). Moreover. The knowledge of pHpzc allows us to hypothesize on the ionization of functional groups and their interaction with ionic species in solution. For example.) 15.4 pH Suspension 510.749 mg kg-1 -0. the greater the adsorption capacity of the biosorbent .5). value which has the same order of magnitude that obtained for other bioadsorbent of low-cost such as bamboo cane.2 m2 g-1. might play a crucial role in ionic interactions occurring during the process.e. 2).25 -0. the charge of the BP surface is slightly negative (Fig. such as dyes . olive stones.pH1 33.08C. the selective uptake of basic dyes on starch–based polymer was achieved by ionic exchange mechanism involving the acid carboxylic groups . This high content of polymers. such as cellulose and hemi-cellulose. The system was operating unbuffered. EPA 2007 AOAC 990. This result is of the same order of magnitude as that reported value for peat moss which is 3.23 MOD combust AOAC 18 AOAC 16 AOAC 990.2 -0. The physicochemical characterization of the bioadsorbent surface. the basicity is ﬁve times higher than the values informed for peat moss and activated carbon (F-400). The mechanism governing the adsorption of the synthetic organic compounds into lignocellulosic waste is difﬁcult to predict.84 mmol g-1. 37].e.7% (wt) 1.05 0 0 -0.05 2 4 6 8 10 12 0. The deprotonation of these functional groups contributed to the adsorption occurring by electrostatic interactions between the COO.1 -0. In solutions with a lower pH than pHpzc. All bioadsorbents are characterized by having two main regions with a buffering capacity in the pH region between 3–5 and 8–10.27 (wt)%. in particular the acid—base behavior of functional groups. such as complexation reactions. 37]. According to these results. period in which removal was achieved up to 80% for operating conditions corresponding to particle size identiﬁed as 0.41 (Fig.5 mm 1 mm pH2. respectively [3. there were interactions between the ionic groups of the dye and the opposite polarity of the adsorbent sites. so that the process was conducted at the pH given by the dye solution (6.and cationic groups of basic dyes .47% (wt) 855 mg kg-1 1.) 5. since their diverse origin prevents us from knowing the chemical structure and the functional groups existing in the particle surface. they are proton acceptors. These results make BP an alternative substrate well-suited for carrying out the enzyme production processes . while the acidity is in the same order of magnitude. so it indicates that the concentration of basic sites is greater than that of acid sites and therefore BP can be classiﬁed as a bioadsorbent with a basic character.27% (wt) 17. the net charge of solid surface is positive since the basic groups have the ability to share electrons.
25 and 0.99). The mechanism which controls the process is under these conditions. Carbon Assimilation by WRF Several lignocellulosic wastes. The experimental equilibrium data can be ﬁt adequately by both models (correlation coefﬁcients [0. 2: t = 0 =[ qt = 0 and t = t =[ qt = qt t qt ¼ 1 : ð2Þ t k2 q2 þ qe e qm: maximum adsorption capacity (complete monolayer) (mg g-1) which correspond to the ratio between parameters kL and aL. in other bioadsorbents such as magellanic moss peat  and cells fodder yeast (Kluyveromyces fragilis) magnetically modiﬁed . while the effect is not signiﬁcant for kL constant.58 14.77 1.99 0.5 mm) the maximum capacity of adsorption increased when increasing the initial concentration of dye.06 r2 0. aL: parameter associated with the energy of adsorption (L mg-1) qe ¼ kF Ce 1 n k2 is the kinetic rate constant (g mg-1 min-1) qe is the maximum capacity of adsorption (mg g-1) and.53 3.69 22.68 37. The kinetic of the dye removal process under the studied conditions was accurately interpreted by a pseudo second order model  shown in the following Eq.50 3. for the particles of smaller size (0.27 62. The maximum adsorption capacity increases 20% when the particle diameter decreases by half. The highest value of kinetic rate constant was obtained for the lower concentration. respectively. The effect of particle size was observed for initial dye concentrations above 200 mg L-1.63 5.47 62.13 3. tripling its value. 3 and 4.27 h (mg g-1 min-1)*103 2.50 63. Moreover.5 50 200 500 1 50 200 500 ð4Þ kF: equilibrium constant (mg g-1 (L mg-1)1/n. is presented in Eq. the intraparticle diffusion through of the mesopores.04 13.25 C (mg L-1) 50 200 500 0. n: parameter associated with the afﬁnity between sorbate and adsorbent) Figure 3 presents the equilibrium concentration of adsorption of AB1 dye on BP and ﬁtted curves for Langmuir and Freundlich models at different particle sizes. No signiﬁcant effect was observed from these variables in the initial rate of dye uptake process with the exception of smaller particle size. is in the range of 25.08 3. which are shown in Eqs.05 2.46 6. The result indicated that this concentration is insufﬁcient to saturate the outer surface of the particle and therefore the adsorption process is governed by the diffusion of the dye from the bulk solution to the solid–liquid interface. 1. The isotherms parameters are given in Table 4. k2 q2 = h e represents the initial rate of adsorption (mg g-1 min-1) Table 3 provides information on model parameters obtained for each particle size.17 37. whereas.98 0.28 3.99 0.36 5. Table 3 Effect of the operations conditions in the kinetics parameters of AB1 adsorption onto BP dp (mm) 0.8 mg g-1. have been used for enzyme production.47 57.99 0. An effect of initial dye concentration in the kinetic rate constant was observed for all particle size studied.Waste Biomass Valor there will be medium-scale repulsive forces with AB1 dye.97 0. the most used are the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. If the system is operating with the higher concentrations. dqt ¼ k2 ðqe À qÞ2 dt ð1Þ Although there are many models proposed in the literature to describe the equilibrium biosorption. the driving force is greater and therefore the sites of the outer surface are saturated. The main reason is the carbohydrate content as well as the presence of sources of N and other inducers on k2 (g mg-1 min-1)*105 9.0 and 29.73 8. qe ¼ kL qm Ce 1 þ kL Ce ð3Þ where the integrated form. The values of maximum adsorption capacity of AB1 onto banana peel.96 2.98 0. kL: afﬁnity between sorbate and adsorbent (L g-1). for example.99 0. which depends on the particle size.29 3. such as agricultural wastes and by-products of this sector.11 22. considering the following boundary conditions. The combined effect of both phenomena causes the lower value of the kinetic rate constant to be obtained at 250 mg L-1 of dye. the maximum adsorption capacity of AB1 reported. the maximum capacity of adsorption decreased approximately 40% for the largest particle size (1 mm).98 0.17 0. are in the range 250–620 mg g-1.07 123 .99 qe (mg g-1) 22.
17 ± 5.83 ± 0.38 the soluble fractions of these residues. LiP was not detected in any culture.25 0.83 8. identiﬁes the ligninolitic enzymes produced by each fungal strain studied.99 MnP Lacasse AAO Pleurotus eryngii IJFM 169 4 Inonotus sp.68 ± 2. This type of dyes.52 86.78 r2 0.06 ± 29. Figure 4 shows that the fungal strains assayed consumed the carbon source provided by BP.25 mm Langmuir Freundlich 1.78 17. paper printing and manufacture of foods and pharmaceutical drugs.73 ND 93.80 45.96 ± 0. the starch contents will be lower.88 ± 0.13 ± 0.8 0. extracellular ligninolytic enzymatic system. these biomaterials have become an excellent substitute for synthetic sources of C and N. 3 Adsorption isotherms of AB1 in banana peel Table 4 Parameters of the adsorption equilibrium isotherms models of acid black 1 Langmuir model dp (mm) 0.94 Table 6 Dyes screening Pleurotus eryngii IJFM 169 Decolorization (%) AB1 AR27 BB24 BB41 BO2 BV4 RB19 RB5 RO16 81.11 70.56 99.2 Pleurotus 1 0.04 r 2 Enzyme Freundlich model kF (mg g-1) (mg L-1)-n 16. keeping from day 5 a residual concentration of about 40%. eryngii. Slower consumption was observed in cultures of P. corresponds to the most marketed dyestuff.32 ± 0.75 ± 3.90 ± 1.48 ND 63. 14 256. N or S) is the limiting factor of growth. The origin and composition of these residues is critical for the type and amount of enzymes that could produce white fungus putrefaction.64 ± 5.73 ± 1.41 97.55 96.Waste Biomass Valor Concentration Relative (C/Co) 1 mm 250 200 0.05 ± 1.52 ± 0.46 ± 5. usually in media in which one of the sources (C. As a result.69 ± 2.05 ± 5. increases the contents of soluble sugar in the peel and consequently. However. While a banana ripens. In order to evaluate the degrading capacity of the phenoloxidase enzyme produced by WRF.57 7. They represent 70% 123 . Numerous studies report the application of degradation processes on a large variety of efﬂuents and recalcitrant compounds through the action of white-rot fungi by means of a highly oxidative.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Stereum Inonotus qe (mg g -1) 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Time (d) Fig.61 0. this phenomenon does not seem to be general for all fungi . Laccase and AAO were detected only in the Inonotus sp culture.4 0. SP2 4 4 4 Stereum hirsutum RU 104 4 0.01 86.73 ND 97. dyes with an azoic structure were preferably selected (Table 6).58 47.3 ± 1.99 0.3 ± 5. In order to induce the growth of WRF using BP as a source of nutrients.59 Dye Inonotus sp.56 kL (L g-1) 8. cultures.79 ± 2.74 ± 0. Reducing sugar was abruptly consumed up to the 5th day for S.99 0.99 0.33 ± 9. SP2 96.24 13.71 70.18 n 0. Table 5. among others.68 78.33 ± 4. which is characterized by the presence of at least one azo bond besides having aromatic rings. nonspeciﬁc.45 96.44 623.33 98. Ligninolitic enzyme activities were analyzed in the supernatants obtained after biomass separations with the sole purpose of detecting enzyme expression.5 1 qm (mg g-1) 322. hirsutum and Inonotus sp. Azo dyes are synthetic organic compounds most used in textile processing dyeing. high maturity fruits were selected (Color Index = 6) .42 9. 4 Banana peel’s carbon assimilation by WRF Table 5 Phenoloxidases enzymes production by WRF Ce (mg L-1) Fig. MnP activity was detected in all fungal strains.99 0.5 mm 0.98 Stereum hirsutum RU 104 – 95.95 96.54 0.13 98. The production of extracellular oxidative enzymes occurs during secondary metabolism.6 0.63 63.42 56.
Gutierrez.T.S. S. H. Biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes has been studied by bacteria.F. Allen. Tecnol.E.: Banana starch: Production.. sus ´ ´ caracterısticas y alternativas de utilizacion... S. G. (ed. and fungi. Schmidt. J. E. degradation by laccases has only been reported . I. Memon. Soil Biol.I..C. 37–68 (2004) 18. W.7%). Memon.: Banana skin: A novel waste for laccase production by trametes pubescens under solid-state conditions.. 22. London (1991) ´ ´ ´ ´ 8. On the contrary.: Banana peel: a green and economical sorbent for the selective removal of Cr(VI) from industrial wastewater.: Determinacion de las propiedades de resistencia de los tableros aglomerados de ´ ´ ´ partıculas.J.. A. F. Mat. Yang. Zhang...: Review: Recent advances in pretreatment of lignocellulosic waste and production of value added products. M. E. Tuor. J. F. processing and properties of vegetable ﬁbres. thus being a major environmental concern . J. Ceoffory. such as AB1. 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