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College of Engineering

Writing Assignment

AbdulahIbraheem Al Hamadi

@29371

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flux (J) due to molecular diffusion and the concentration gradient (which is the driving force

of mass transfer) of certain species in a mixture. The diffusion coefficient depends upon

temperature, pressure, and concentration (composition) of the system [1]. In this paper, the

effects of temperature and concentration on the diffusion coefficient will be discussed.

First of all, as one might expect from the consideration of the mobility of the molecules,

the diffusion coefficients are generally higher for gases than for liquids which are higher than

the values reported for solids. For example, Carbon dioxide in air has a diffusion coefficient

of (16×10-6 m²/s), and in water its coefficient is (16×10-10 m²/s)[2].Based on this the effect of

temperature on the diffusion coefficient is not the same for the three phases. In general, as the

temperature increases the diffusion coefficient increases. The dependence of the diffusion

coefficient on temperature for gases can be expressed using the following equation [3]:

*

dependent collision integral (dimensionless), DAB: diffusion coefficient (cm2/s),

and which is the average collision diameter (Å).

So it can be seen that for gases the relation between diffusion coefficient and temperature is

given by:

*

be found using Stokes-Einstein equation, which predicts that:

(cm²/s), T is the absolute temperature (K), and ȝ is the dynamic viscosity of the solvent (Pa·s)

So it can be seen that for liquid the relation between diffusion coefficient and temperature is

given by:

*

by the following equation:

Where: D is the diffusion coefficient, Dois the maximum diffusion coefficient (at infinite

temperature), EAis the activation energy for diffusion in dimensions of (energy per amount of

substance), T is the temperature (K or oR), and R is the gas constant in dimensions of (energy

per temperature per amount of substance).

The effect of concentration on the diffusion coefficient can be seen from the equation:

*

From this equation it can be seen that as the concentration gradient increases the diffusion

coefficient increases. Also, the values of liquid diffusion coefficients reveals that they depend

on concentration due to the changes in viscosity with concentration and the changes in the

degree of ideality of the solution.

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[1]Welty, J. R., Wicks, C.E. (1969). Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass

Transfer.USA: Wiley.

[2] http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~brokawc/Bi145/Diffusion.html

[3] E.L. Cussler, "Diffusion. Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems", 2nd edition, Cambridge

University Press, 1997

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