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3. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

3. Digital Transmission Fundamentals

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Published by Prajwal R Prasad

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Published by: Prajwal R Prasad on Apr 26, 2011
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11/20/2012

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Nyquist pulses achieve the maximum signalling rate with zero ISI,
2Wc pulses per second or
2Wc pulses / Wc Hz = 2 pulses / Hz

With two signal levels, each pulse carries one bit of information
Bit rate = 2Wc bits/second

With M = 2m

signal levels, each pulse carries m bits
Bit rate = 2Wc pulses/sec. * m bits/pulse = 2Wc m bps

Bit rate can be increased by increasing number of levels
r(t) includes additive noise, that limits number of levels that can be
used reliably.

Example of Multilevel Signaling

Four levels {-1, -1/3, 1/3, +1} for {00,01,10,11}
Waveform for 11,10,01 sends +1, +1/3, -1/3
Zero ISI at sampling instants

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

-1

0

1

2

3

Composite waveform

Four signal levels

Eight signal levels

Typical noise

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