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UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations

established on 16 November 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights along with fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.[2] It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 193 Member States and seven Associate Members.[3] [4] Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects; the promotion of cultural diversity; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. MISSION AND PRIORITIES UNESCO¶s mission is to contribute to the "building of peace", reducing the poverty, promoting sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information. The Organization focuses, in particular, on two global priorities: Africa and Gender Equality. Other priorities of the Organization include attaining quality education for all and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication. The broad goals and concrete objectives of the international community ± as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ± underpin all UNESCO¶s strategies and activities. HISTORY UNESCO mandate for international intellectual co-operation can be traced back to the League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study the question. The International Committee on Intellectual Co-operation (CICI) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IICI) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the CICI.[8] On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the work of these predecessor

organizations was largely interrupted by the onset of the Second World War. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April±June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1±16 November 1945. 44 governments were represented. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established. The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946 ± the date when UNESCO¶s Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to the post of Director-General. The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the CICI, in terms of how member states would work together in the Organization¶s fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO¶s mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the Organization¶s operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the Organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO claiming that some of the Organization¶s publications amounted to ³interference´ in the country¶s ³racial problems. South Africa rejoined the Organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO¶s early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947. This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949. In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990 the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.

Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015. UNESCO¶s early activities in the field of culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960. The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Moenjodaro (Pakistan), Fez (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece). The Organization¶s work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978. Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions). At an intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 was held which led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) in 1954. The World Wide Web was born at CERN in 1989. Arid Zone programming, 1948±1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[28] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO¶s Man and the Biosphere Programme. In the field of communication, the free flow of information has been a priority for UNESCO from its beginnings. In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s. In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems, which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride). Following the MacBride report, UNESCO introduced the Information Society for All programme and Toward Knowledge Societies programme in the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis). ACTIVITIES UNESCO offices in Brasília UNESCO implements its activities through the five programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh. in 2007.  Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects  Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity  Memory of the World International Register. through the Information for All Programme (IFAP)  Promoting Pluralism and cultural diversity in the media Promoting events. Iowa became the City of Literature. through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all.  World Heritage Sites ‡ Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:  Promoting freedom of expression.y EDUCATION:UNESCO is providing international leadership in creating learning societies with educational opportunities for all. it supports research in Comparative education. the site of Scotland's first circulating library. through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP). ‡ UNESCO also issues public 'statements' to educate the public: ‡ Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence. In 2008.  Environmental Conservation Organization  Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA [35]) in an interval of 12 years  Publication of the Education for All Global Monitoring Report  UNESCO ASP Net. an international network of 8. an international network of 644 UNESCO Chairs. press freedom and access to information. such as: y . since 1971  City of Literature. involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries. This includes the  Eight specialized Institutes in different topics of the sector  UNESCO Chairs. such as:  International Network of Geoparks  Biosphere reserves. through the International Programme for the Development of Communication and the Communication and Information Programme  Promoting universal access to ICTs.000 schools in 170 countries UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning. ‡ Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance. since 1997  Water resources management. since 1965. Iowa City.

 Free Software Directory: since 1998 UNESCO and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software. the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest. the Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies.  UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors  ASOMPS. Operational relations are reserved for an NGO with an active presence in the field. one of UNESCO's governing bodies.  International Literacy Day  International Year for the Culture of Peace ‡ Founding and funding projects. 3 May each year. decides on requests for admission by . with special expertise and with an ability to channel the concerns of their clients. USA and Israel. democratic and free society. Formal relations are reserved for those NGOs who have a sustained role in cooperating with UNESCO both upstream and downstream. a series of scientific conferences held in Asia  Botany 2000. Formal relations are themselves sub-divided into two types. in partnership with RedeGlobo. and with a genuinely international structure and membership. The Executive Board.  FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health. Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices.  World Press Freedom Day.  CriançaEsperança in Brazil. Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational". depending on the role and structure of the NGO itself. International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World:2001±2010. Romania. a programme supporting taxonomy. "consultative" or "associate". Admission for formal recognition is only granted to international NGOs that are widely representative and expert in their field of activity. and their protection against environmental pollution OFFICIAL UNESCO NGOS UNESCO enjoys official relations with 322 international NGOs. Requests for admission by an NGO to UNESCO for operational relations can be made to the Director-General at any time.  International Council of Science.  UNESCO-CEPES. as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada. proclaimed by the UN in 1998. to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention.  OANA. to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy. and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants. such as:  Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations. a select few are "formal".

‡ UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning promotes lifelong learning policy and practice with a focus on adult learning and education. IBE shares expertise on curriculum development and aims to introduce innovative approaches in curriculum design and implementation.NGOs to one or the other type of formal relation on the basis of recommendations made by the Director-General. International Council for Film. International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE) 10. International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (ICPHS) which publishes Diogenes 7. Paris (France) and Buenos Aires (Argentina) is a centre for training and research to strengthen the capacity of countries to plan and manage their education systems. providing specialized support for cluster and national offices. and the 22 NGOs with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are: 1. International Baccalaureate (IB) 2. Education International (EI) 4. International Council of Museums (ICOM) 9. . Education ‡ UNESCO International Bureau of Education (IBE). International Association of Universities (IAU) 5. especially literacy and non-formal education and alternative learning opportunities for marginalized and disadvantaged groups. methods and structures. International Council for Science (ICSU) 8. Geneva (Switzerland) specializes in educational contents. Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service (CCIVS) 3. Formal relations are established for renewable periods of six years. and facilitate international dialogue on educational policies and practices. International Council on Archives (ICA) UNESCO INSTITUTES AND CENTRES The institutes are specialized departments of the Organization that support UNESCO's programme. The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate". Television and Audiovisual Communication (IFTC) 6. ‡ UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). improve practical skills.

‡ UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean (IESALC). Designed by artists in various countries. Eastern and South-East Europe. freedom. among other purposes. In 1955 the United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) issued its first ones honouring the organization. Postage stamps Various countries have issued postage stamps commemorating UNESCO. targeting both individuals and institutions.in an age of globalization . national and local level educational institutions in Africa. Member states As of October 2009. UNESCO counts 193 Member States and seven Associate Members. solidarity.the human sustainable development based on principles of justice. most of these Cinderella stamps can be purchased at low cost from speciality stamp dealers. they were sold at a desk by the UNPA counter located in the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City. equity. ‡ UNESCO International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (UNEVOC). Caracas (Venezuela) contributes to the development and transformation of the tertiary education through the reinforcement of a work plan that. ‡ UNESCO European Centre for Higher Education (CEPES). ‡ UNESCO International Institute for Capacity-Building in Africa (IICBA).‡ UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE). Bucarest (Romania) promotes cooperation and provides technical support in the field of higher education among UNESCO¶s Member States in Central. While UNESCO has never separately issued stamps valid for postage. No longer available at the UN. such as the utilization of electronic media for networking and for educational purposes. thus providing the opportunity for technological improvements. attempts to be an instrument to support the management of change and the required transformations in order that higher education in the region becomes an effective promoter of a culture of peace that allows to make viable . UNESCO OFFICES . Bonn (Germany) works to strengthen and upgrade countries' Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems. from 1951 to 1966 it issued a series of 41 "gift stamps" to raise money for its activities. Moscow (Russian Federation) serves as a centre of excellence and provider of technical support and expertise in the area of ICT usage in education.[49] Some member states have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories. The organization's seal and its headquarters building have been common themes. Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) works to enhance the capacities of regional. democracy and respect of the human rights.

UNESCO Headquarters in Paris. represent the main supporting structure of UNESCO Secretariat¶s network in the field. France UNESCO has offices in many locations across the globe. around which are organized national offices and regional bureaux. Office types: UNESCO's field offices are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage. National offices: In addition to cluster offices which are the main supporting structure of the Secretariat¶s network in the field. Liaison offices: The decentralized network includes two liaison offices to the United Nations in New York and Geneva and a liaison office to the European Union in Brussels.48°51 00 N 2°18 22 E Through its field offices. The following descriptions identify the primary dividing lines. ELECTIONS Elections for the renewal of the position of Director-General took place in Paris from 7 September to 23 September 2009. Irina Bokova was elected the new Director-General. inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability y The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. its headquarters are located in Paris. Cluster offices: A cluster office covers a group of countries and is the central component in the field. The 27 cluster offices. culture and communication provide specialized support to cluster and national offices in a given region. These exceptions to the cluster system involve either the so-called E-9 countries (nine highly-populated countries) which are either in post-conflict situations or are in transition. UNESCO develops strategies. The Executive Council gathered from 7 September to 23 September. UNESCO field offices by region: The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office. the vote itself beginning on the 17th. Regional bureau: Regional bureau and regional advisers specializing in the fields of education. each serving a single Member State. and 58 countries[57] voted for them. covering 148 Member States. UNIDO UNIDO is the specialized agency of the United Nations that promotes industrial development for poverty reduction. programs and activities in consultation with national authorities and other partners. Eight candidates ran for the position. France. science. . the social sciences. there are 21 national offices.

fostering environmental sustainability in industry. UNIDO has assumed an enhanced role in the global development agenda by focusing its activities on poverty reduction. The IDB meets once in General Conference years. Services are based on two core functions: as a global forum. accessible and sustainable and where the alleviation of poverty is considered a common aim and global responsibility. Our long-term vision is to aspire to a world of opportunity where progress is equitable. Today. the Organization is recognized as a highly relevant. elected for a four-year term on a rotational basis from all Member States.y y y y y Its mandate is to promote and accelerate sustainable industrial development in developing countries and economies in transition. y UNIDO's role is that of an informed institution. The GC also elects the members of the Industrial Development Board (IDB) and of the Programme and Budget y Industrial Development Board (IDB): The IDB comprises 53 members. approves its budget and work programme. the GC appoints the Director-General. promoting the integration of developing countries in global trade through trade capacity building. we provide technical support and implement projects. including the appointment of the Director-General. specialized and efficient provider of key services in support of the interlinked challenges of reducing poverty through productive activities. as a technical cooperation agency. and twice in other years. makes recommendations to the GC on policy matters. y Programme and Budget Committee (PBC): . we generate and disseminate industry-related knowledge. and work towards improving living conditions in the world's poorest countries by drawing on its combined global resources and expertise. inclusive globalization and environmental sustainability. It reviews the implementation of the work programme. and improving access to energy. UNIDO Structure Policymaking Organs The governing bodies of UNIDO are: y General Conference (GC): The GC determines the guiding principles and policies of the Organization. in tuned with the goals of its partners and capable of making an effective contribution to industrial development and sustainable development. In recent years. the regular and operational budgets. Every four years.

and supporting the implementation of major multilateral environmental agreements. Director-General (DG): The UNIDO Constitution stipulates that the Director-General is the chief administrative officer of UNIDO and is accountable to its policymaking organs ± the General Conference. Dimitri Piskounov is the Managing director of PTC. and the Montreal Protocol Branch.The PBC consists of 27 members. the Trade Capacity-building Branch. the Director-General has the overall responsibility and authority to direct the work of the Organization. and provides technical advisory and institutional and human capacity-building services. Subject to the directives of these policymaking organs. the budget and other financial matters. is a subsidiary organ of the IDB and provides assistance in the preparation and examination of the work programme. The Division comprises the Office of the Managing Director and the Agri-Business Development Branch. Strategic Research. cross-sectoral and thematic programmes and projects. the Division develops. In addition. the Industrial Development Board and the Programme and Budget Committee. increase investment and technology flows. the DDG assists the Director-General in ensuring that the operations of UNIDO are fully in line with the directives of the policymaking organs and strategies and policies of the Organization. the Environmental Management Branch. and develop entrepreneurship. the Division hosts the Bureau for Programme Results Monitoring as well as the Bureau for Regional Programmes. the Energy and Climate Change Branch. 4. and assists the Director-General in the effective and efficient functioning of the Secretariat. 3. Investment and Technology Services Branch. which meets once a year. increasing energy efficiency. Quality Assurance and Advocacy Division (SQA): The Division is responsible for providing programmatic guidance and substantive support to the work of the Organization as well as alignment with its quality assurance . while also promoting environmentally sustainable production techniques. In particular. UNIDO comprises 173 Member States UNIDO Secretariat 1. He or she represents and acts on behalf of the Director-General as may be required by the Director-General. the Business. The PBC. participate in international trade flows for manufactured goods. Programme Development and Technical Cooperation Division (PTC): The Division is primarily responsible for providing capacity-development support and technical cooperation services to enhance the capabilities of developing countries and transition economies to: process their agriculture-based raw materials. In doing so. 2. developing renewable and rural energy for productive use. Deputy to the Director-General (DDG): The Deputy to the Director-General (DDG) provides advice and substantive support to the Director-General in the overall management of the UNIDO Secretariat. implements and monitors sectoral. elected by the GC for a two-year term.

operational support (procurement of goods and services. the Information and Communication Management Services. and the Operational Support services branch. we design and implement programmes focused on three thematic priorities. Austria. and provides strategic guidance. in the five broad areas of human resources.878 international and national experts who work on projects worldwide. Location: The UNIDO Headquarters sits alongside the Danube River in Vienna. accountability and oversight. it is responsible for conceptualizing. developing and managing UNIDO's relationships with donor governments and other existing and potential donor organizations. assets management and related IPSAS standards. part of the United Nations Headquarters complex. Annually. Furthermore. These priorities are: y Poverty Reduction through Productive Activities: . we draw on the services of some 2. finance and budgets. the Division provides effective support for the Organization¶s operational and programmatic activities within an appropriate framework of decentralization of authority. travel. The Division comprises the Office of the Managing Director. Through these services. The managing director of SQA is Wilfried Luetkenhorst. including the offices away from Headquarters. which directly respond to global development priorities.framework. it advocates the role of industry as an instrument for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability and provides strategic advice to policy-makers at the national and regional levels. the Division acts as the focal point for security-related issues. UNIDO Staff: UNIDO employs 651 staff members at Headquarters and other established offices around the world. and management of the common services entrusted to UNIDO (buildings management services and catering operations) on behalf of the Vienna-based Organizations (VBOs). 5. y UNIDO´s Thematic Priorities UNIDO focuses its resources and expertise to support developing countries and economies in transition in their efforts to achieve sustainable industrial development. both at headquarters and in the field. Approximately 50 per cent of the international and national experts are from developing countries. As a technical cooperation agency. direction and support to all entities of the Secretariat. Finally. information and communication management. On this basis. transportation. Programme Support and General Management Division (PSM): The Division formulates policies and procedures. etc.). It provides Member States as well as other Divisions with state-of-the art analyses of the main determinants and trends of industrial development. shipments. the Advocacy and Communications Group. the Development Policy and Strategic Research Branch and the Donor Relations and Quality Assurance Branch. the Financial Services Branch. The Division comprises the Office of the Managing Director and four subsidiary entities: The Human Resource Management Branch.

the Organization's analytical work provides for the necessary empiric evidence to optimally unfold our technical cooperation activities. Especially after their accession to the WTO. y Trade Capacity-Building Developing countries are benefiting from increasingly participating in the global trading system. in cooperation with our partners. civil society organizations and the policy-making community to establish dialogue and develop partnerships. thus to find a path out of poverty. on the other hand. testing methods and metrology. we act as a forum for various actors in the public and private sectors. which directly respond to the needs and requirements of its Member States: y Poverty Reduction through Productive Activities y Trade Capacity Building y Energy and Environment . offering customerfocused advice and integrated technical assistance in the areas of competitiveness. The Organization provides a comprehensive range of services customized for developing countries and transition economies. industrial modernization and upgrading. y UNIDO bases its work on three thematic priorities. UNIDO is one of the largest providers of trade-related development services. Still. sustainable industrial development efforts. Thus. compliance with trade standards. UNIDO assists developing countries and transition economies in implementing multilateral environmental agreements and in simultaneously reaching their economic and environmental goals. UNIDO therefore promotes sustainable patterns of industrial consumption and production. In addition. ranging from industrial policy advice to entrepreneurship and SME development.UNIDO seeks to enable the poor to earn a living through productive activities. strengthening their capacity to participate in global trade is critical for their future economic growth. trade policies. Technology Cooperation Agency ± We design and implement programmes to support. their technical ability to enter into global production and value chains is key for their successful participation in international trade. and from technology diffusion to sustainable production and the provision of rural energy for productive uses. UNIDO Functions and Services UNIDO delivers value via two core functions: Global Forum Facilitator ± We produce and disseminate knowledge relating to industrial development. the experience gained in technical cooperation activities can be shared with policy-makers. As a leading provider of services for improved industrial energy efficiency and sustainability. y These functions are both complementary and mutually supportive: on one hand. y Environment and Energy Energy is a prerequisite for poverty reduction. fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.

Focusing on least developed countries and Africa Sectors . including nongovernmental organizations.Focusing on agro-based industries Target areas . as well as with actors from the private sector. and UNDP and UNIDO have developed a number of joint programmes aimed at strengthening private sector enterprises and institutions in support of national development goals. The operational focus of the agreement lies on two components: expanding UNIDO field coverage in a cost-effective manner through the establishment of UNIDO Desks in UNDP Country Offices. have been prepared on agro-industrial development. As a result. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO): The partnership between FAO and UNIDO focuses on the need to meet mounting global challenges related to agri-business and agro-industry development. economic recovery in post-crisis countries and the organization of global forums. bio-energy. and comprehensive technical assessments have been undertaken to gauge the challenges faced by countries in need of assistance. 1) PARTNERSHIPS FOR POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITIES United Nations Development Programme (UNDP): UNDP and UNIDO further strengthened their cooperation through an inter-agency agreement that combines the core competencies and specialized expertise of UNIDO with the broad country-level representation and delivery capacity of UNDP.Focusing on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) Partnerships To increase the impact of its technical cooperation as well as to promote major issues related to industrial development. including toolkits. and the Academia. UNIDO delivers on its thematic priorities through the following services: y Industrial Governance and Statistics y Investment and Technology Promotion y Industrial Competitiveness and Trade y Private Sector Development y Agro-Industries y Sustainable Energy and Climate Change y Montreal Protocol y Environmental Management In addition. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD): y y y .More specifically. UNIDO's activities are divided by: Geography . The joint FAO-UNIDO activities have had a distinct qualitative impact: a number of technical manuals. and developing joint activities in private sector development. UNIDO Desks have been set up in 16 countries. UNIDO has joined forces with other organizations and counterparts from the international community.

The cluster¶s primary aim is to mainstream trade into poverty reduction. The cluster also provides assistance in the . Rwanda. Lesotho. ensuring the inclusion of trade and productive capacity in poverty reduction strategy papers and United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs). 2) PARTNERSHIPS FOR TRADE CAPACITY-BUILDING World Trade Organization (WTO):WTO and UNIDO are truly complementary: while the core mandate of WTO is to foster the opening-up of trade in a manner that supports the developmental priorities of developing countries. Sierra Leone and India. in Eritrea. UNDP and the five UN regional commissions as part of the CEB inter-agency cluster on trade and productive capacity. which are telling examples of the dangerous link between high youth unemployment and insecurity. Thus. International Labour Organization (ILO): The collaboration between ILO and UNIDO focuses on issues concerning youth and women. UNIDO is a key contributor to the "Aid for Trade" initiative: the Organization has identified multi-agency supply-side development projects in eight pilot countries (Benin. WTO. Government support and funding has been secured for three major programmes carried out under this partnership in Nigeria. Kenya. Mozambique. the mandate of UNIDO is to support developing countries as they build up the industrial and productive capacities they need to exploit the benefits to be derived from more open trade. and to support businesswomen and young entrepreneurs in the establishment of competitive micro. IFAD and UNIDO have agreed to intensify their strategic partnership and increase the developmental impact of their complementary assistance. and food production and bio-energy in Africa. As such. Lao PDR. Senegal and Yemen) that will draw on the initial analyses contained in the EIF diagnostic trade integration studies. Asia and the Pacific. Cambodia. which is an inter-agency coordination mechanism that analyzes trade-related challenges. agroindustry and agro-processing.and small-scale agri-businesses. Under a recent initiative. WTO and UNIDO focus their joint activities on trade capacity-building and on developing technical cooperation programmes towards developing manufacturing and export capacities in selected industrial sectors. Malawi. and Latin America and the Caribbean. two particularly vulnerable groups in developing countries. Guinea.IFAD and UNIDO cooperate in the areas of value chain development and market linkages. ILO and UNIDO are key players in the multi-stakeholder programme for productive and decent work for youth in the Mano River Union countries (Côte d¶Ivoire. United Republic of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. ILO and UNIDO have jointly formulated entrepreneurship development training programmes designed to strengthen capacities in private sector agencies and NGOs. Liberia and Sierra Leone). United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) inter-agency cluster on trade and productive capacity: UNIDO works alongside the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Likewise. UNIDO also actively contributes to the WTO-led Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF) on Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) issues. the International Trade Centre (ITC).

UNIDO has implemented more than 600 projects and executed more than 500 non-investment activities. UNIDO is formulating programmes for the upgrading and modernization of the industrial sector with the objectives of strengthening the productive and trade capacities and export competitiveness of SMEs. 3) PARTNERSHIPS FOR ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY united nations environment programme (UNEP): The flagship of the partnership between UNEP and UNIDO is the National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPC) Programme. At the request of the ACP EPA regional groupings. implementation. International Organization for Standardization (ISO): UNIDO¶s cooperation with ISO is centred on support in the formulation of industrial standards. Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) regions. Southern Africa. East and Southern Africa. the programme operates in 37 countries. UNIDO again achieved the top ranking for having the best performance of all implementing agencies according to the annual performance evaluation conducted by the Multilateral Fund (MLF) Secretariat. and upgrading technical support institutions providing services for industrial sectors with a high potential for generating exports and employment. which are WTO-compatible trade and development arrangements between the European Union and six African. enhancing industrial productivity through cleaner production and the application of environmentally sound technologies. the Organization has assisted 85 developing countries and economies in transition to comply with their obligations. and on their dissemination through training and capacity-building activities. persistent organic pollutants and climate change. which aims at achieving cost-effective reduction of environmental pollutants. Today. namely: Central Africa. For the year 2008. and through its Corporate Social Responsibility Programme will play a substantial role in preparing smaller enterprises operating in developing countries for its implementation. European Commission (EC): The European Commission and UNIDO are cooperating on the implementation of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs). improving efficiency of resource use and. As a GEF implementation agency. In the field of trade capacity-building. the Caribbean and the Pacific. In all. Multilateral Fund (for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol): Since UNIDO first assumed its role as implementing agency of the MLF of the Montreal Protocol in 1992. to the extent possible. West Africa. . Global Environment Facility (GEF): UNIDO is an implementing partner of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for projects related to ozone depletion. enhancing the quality infrastructure.development of policies designed to improve the trade performance and productive capacities of developing countries. UNIDO plays a key role in managing GEF projects on the ground by assisting eligible governments and NGOs in the development. and management of GEF projects. UNIDO provided input to the development of the ISO 26000 standard on Social Responsibility to Small and Medium Enterprises.

At the request of the Government. After this first demonstration phase. Abd-El RahmanKhane (Algeria) takes office. the METRO Group and UNIDO have jointly developed competencies of SMEs in Egypt to enhance the suppliers¶ compliance of food safety standards.000 persons in Africa and in the Arab region were trained. To ensure cooperation and coherence among UN agencies with substantial energy portfolios. Its mission is to promote and accelerate the industrialization of developing countries. An example of the joint UNIDOMICROSOFT activities is the computer refurbishment programme. in resolution 3362 (S-VII). In support of this. endorses the recommendation of the Conference that UNIDO be converted into a specialized agency. over 12. 4) PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE PRIVATE SECTOR HEWLETT PACKARD(HP) The UNIDO-HP partnership focused on training activities for the unemployed youth. UNIDO has set about bolstering the work of UN-Energy to ensure a prompt and coherent system-wide response to the energy challenge in an increasingly compex and ever-changing global environment. economic growth and global security. A BRIEF HISTORY 1966 On 17 November. The METRO Group Within the framework of the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI). which draws its membership from twenty UN system organizations. the CEB nominated the Director-General of UNIDO to serve as chairman of this group. In 2007. it was decided to create a coordination mechanism. . MICROSOFT CORPORATION The joint UNIDO/Microsoft partnership focuses on several areas that seek to enhance both the transfer of skills and the competitiveness of SMEs. others are planned for selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. it is expected that the programme¶s successful approach will be replicated in other countries. 1966.UN Energy: Energy is a major cross-cutting challenge affecting all aspects of development. the United Nations General Assembly passes resolution 2152 (XXI) establishing the United Nations Industrial Organization (UNIDO) as an autonomous body within the United Nations. To date. The new Executive Director. as well as climate change. under the joint Graduate Entrepreneurship Training through Information Technology (GET-IT) programme. which was launched in Uganda to provide affordable computers to SMEs. The United Nations Secretary-General nominates Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman (Egypt) as UNIDO's first Executive Director. 1975 The General Assembly. a similar programme has been started in Trinidad and Tobago. UN-Energy.

driven by improved skills. 2009 Kandeh K. Yumkella is recommended for a second term in office as the Director-General of UNIDO. plays a crucial role in promoting faster growth. with an emphasis on services geared to private sector development.  NCPCs The Joint UNIDO-UNEP Programme on Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production . 2005 The General Conference. increased knowledge and upgraded technology. The seventh session of the General Conference appoints Carlos Magariños (Argentina) as UNIDO's Director-General. 1997 Member States adopt a Business Plan for the Future Role and Functions of UNIDO that paves the way for its thorough overhaul. Siazon Jr. Austria. The purpose of the Business Plan is to enable UNIDO to better respond to the changing global economic environment. elects Kandeh K. adopts the new Constitution. 1993 This year sees further restructuring of UNIDO. The first session of the General Conference of UNIDO as a specialized agency meets in August and elects Domingo L. at its eleventh session. (Philippines) as its Director-General. Mauricio de Maria y Campos (Mexico) is elected Director-General. accepted or approved the Constitution of UNIDO. UNIDO NETWORKS  ITCs The UNIDO International Technology Centres (ITCs) were created to promote industrial development through technology transfer programmes. 1985 Following a series of consultations between Member States that have ratified. 2000 UNIDO's reform is hailed as a resounding success by Member States attending the Millennium Conference at the UN headquarters in New York.1979 The UN conference on the "Establishment of UNIDO as a specialized agency.  ITPOs The UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office (ITPOs) Network provides a unique combination of value-added services to entrepreneurs and institutions seeking international alliances in industrial investment and technology commercialization in and from developing countries and economies in transition." at its second session in Vienna. 2003 UNIDO adopts a new corporate strategy based on the premise that productivity enhancement. the Constitution enters into force on 21 June. 2001 UNIDO adjusts its programmes in the light of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. UNIDO's efforts to increase the industrial competitiveness of its client countries are also applauded. Yumkella (Sierra Leone) as UNIDO's Director-General.

(RECP) in developing and transition economies aims at improving resource productivity and environmental performance of enterprises. Production Sectors and Developing Planning). The report responded to a request from DFID¶s Accounting Officer to re-visit the topic periodically. y In 2009/10 DFID¶s Gross Public Expenditure on Development was £6. Environment Protection. Although the Department for International Development¶s foreign aid budget was not affected by the cuts outlined by the Chancellor of the Exchequer¶s 2010 spending review. It operates through a network of National Cleaner Production Centres that deliver training. however noted that there was still clear scope for further improvement. HISTORY: .  The current Secretary of State for International Development is Andrew Mitchell. Economic Sector (including Infrastructure. Health.65bn.  It was separated from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1997. technical assistance and policy advice and foster investments for transfer of environmentally sound technologies. which the Comptroller and Auditor General agreed would be valuable. This would mean a reduction in back-office costs to account for only 2 percent of their total spend by 2015. World Bank. Research. A 2010 report by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) identified DFID as 'an international development leader in times of global crisis. Government and Civil Society. The study found that DFID had improved in its general scrutiny of progress in reducing poverty and of progress towards divisional goals.  The goal of the department is "to promote sustainable development and eliminate world poverty". Of this £3. DFID's main programme areas of work are Education. and Humanitarian Assistance.96bn was spent on Bilateral Aid (including debt relief.  The y The National Audit Office (NAO) 2009 Performance Management review looks at how DFID has restructured its performance management arrangements over the last 6 years. DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Department For International Development (DFID) is a United Kingdomgovernment department with a Cabinet Minister in charge. UN and other related agencies). outsourcing and supply chain opportunities.  SPXs UNIDO has established Subcontracting and Partnership Exchanges (SPXs) with the objective of helping local enterprises to successfully meet the challenges of globalization and to take advantage of the emerging opportunities that evolve from industrial subcontracting. humanitarian assistance and project funding) and £2. Water Supply and Sanitation. Social Services.46bn was spent on Multilateral Aid (including support to the EU. DFID will see their administration budgets slashed by approximately 19 percent over the next four years.

procedures. After the election of the Conservatives under Margaret Thatcher in 1979. the ODA was relatively self-contained with its own minister. They also reduced the amount of aid tied to purchasing British goods and services which often led to aid being spent ineffectually. as a functional wing again named the Overseas Development Administration. the government introduced the Aid and Trade Provision. businesses and the Department of Trade and Industry arose in part because of the introduction of French mixed credit programs. After the election of a Conservative government in October 1970. the Labour government announced that there would once again be a separate Ministry of Overseas Development with its own minister. This enabled aid to be linked to nonconcessionary export credits. with a view to creating jobs in an area subject to long-term industrial decline. with both aid and export credits tied to procurement of British goods and services. . The ODA was overseen by a minister of state in the Foreign Office who was accountable to the Foreign Secretary. In the 1980s part of the agency's operations were relocated to East Kilbride.To achieve this DfID currently distributes most of its money to governments and other international organisation that have already developed suitable programmes and lets them distribute the money as efficiently as possible. including for projects in countries to which France had not previously given substantial aid. business. In 1977. partly to shore up its difficult relations with U. held the rank of minister of state within the Foreign Office. Though it became a section of the Foreign Office. and Colonial Offices and of other government departments. the Ministry of Overseas Development was incorporated into the Foreign Office and renamed the Overseas Development Administration (ODA). Commonwealth Relations.In 1997 Labour separated the Department for International Development from the Foreign Office. which combined the functions of the Department of Technical Cooperation and the overseas aid policy functions of the Foreign. which had begun to offer French government support from aid funds for exports.K. When it was returned to office in 1974. who had day-to-day responsibility for development matters. and the policies. From June 1975 the powers of the minister for overseas development were formally transferred to the foreign secretary. and staff remained largely intact. Along with the Nordic countriesDfID has generally avoided setting up its own programs as that can create unnecessary bureaucracy.The Department has its origins in the Ministry of Overseas Development (ODM) created during the Labour government of 1964±70. ROLE: Over its history the department for international development and its predecessors has been independent departments or part of the foreign office. The ODA continued to be represented in the cabinet by the foreign secretary while the minister for overseas development.K. Pressure for this provision from U. the ministry was transferred back to the Foreign Office.

mainly thanks to high growth in India and China who had 62% of the world's poor in 1990 there has been significant global progress towards meeting the millennium goals. all with a 2015 deadline. but global research investments are insufficient to match needs and do not focus on the priorities of the poor. Although by 2010. DFID was a major donor to the International LUBILOSA Programme: which developed a biological pesticide for locust control in support of small-holder farmers in the Sahel. The Act makes poverty reduction the focus of DFID's work. replacing the Overseas Development and Co-operation Act (1980). [16] As well as responding to disasters and emergencies. New science. Many technological and policy innovations require an international scale of research effort. which came into force on 17 June 2002. For example. They also seek to influence the international and UK research agendas. we will not achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015. and effectively outlaws tied aid. Former Secretary of State Hilary Benn has indicated that on current trends. namely to: y y y y y y y y halve the number of people living in extreme poverty and hunger ensure that all children receive primary education promote sexual equality and give women a stronger voice reduce child death rates improve the health of mothers combat HIV & AIDS. The reality may well be that none of these goals will be achieved so long as the trade gap between Africa and richer countries continues to widen. DFID Research commissions research to help fill this gap. malaria and other diseases make sure the environment is protected build a global partnership for those working in development. . putting poverty reduction and the needs of the poor at the forefront of global research efforts. technologies and ideas are crucial for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. aiming to ensure tangible outcomes on the livelihoods of the poor worldwide.RESEARCH: The main piece of legislation governing DFID's work is the International Development Act. In 2010 the incoming coaliation government promised to reduce back-office costs to only 2% of the budget and to improve transparency by publishing more on their website RESEARCH: DFID is the largest bilateral donor of development-focused research. DFID works to support the United Nations' eight "Millennium Development Goals".

Research is funded through a range of mechanisms. DFID launched its first Research Strategy in April 2008. UNAIDS seeks to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from becoming a severe pandemic. Leadership and advocacy for effective action on the epidemic. This emphasises DFID's commitment to funding high quality research that aims to find solutions and ways of reducing global poverty. comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. providing care and support to those already living with the virus. with UK Research Councils and with multilateral agencies (such as the World Bank. jointly with other funders of development research. The new strategy identifies six priorities: y y y y y y Growth Health Sustainable Agriculture Climate Change Governance in Challenging Environments Future Challenges and Opportunities The strategy also highlights three important cross-cutting areas. Information on both DFID current research programmes and completed research can be found on the Research4Development (R4D) portal. strengthen and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV. and only funds activities if there are clear opportunities and mechanisms for the research to have a significant impact on poverty. UNAIDS has five goals: 1. including Research Programme Consortia (RPCs).DFID Research manages long-term research initiatives that cut across individual countries or regions. reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic. Food and Agriculture Organisation. or UNAIDS. where DFID will invest more funding: y y y Capacity Building Research Communication and Uptake Stimulating Demand for Research DFID has recently reviewed progress on its Research Strategy UNAIDS The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS. is the main advocate for accelerated. The mission of UNAIDS is to lead. . World Health Organisation).

y Leadership On the 1st of January 2009. UNAIDS is guided by a Programme Coordinating Board with representatives of 22 governments from all geographic regions. 4. it calls for complementation of government efforts by the full and active participation of civil society. Mobilization of resources to support an effective response. Established in 1994 by a resolution of the UN Economic and Social Council and launched in January 1996. Switzerland. Promoting partnerships among various stakeholders is reflected within the leadership section of the Declaration of Commitment. Strategic information and technical support to guide efforts against AIDS worldwide . Tracking. and five representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).2. He took over from Peter Piot. the UNAIDS Cosponsors. where it shares some site facilities with the World Health Organization. Michel Sidibé became the new executive director of UNAIDS. In particular. Its first executive director was Peter Piot. Civil society engagement and the development of strategic partnerships. the business community and the private sector through: y . including associations of people living with HIV/AIDS. which meets annually. UNAIDS Cosponsors y y y y y y y y y y The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) World Food Programme (WFP) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) International Labour Organization (ILO) United Nations Educational. one that engages the efforts of many sectors and partners from government and civil society. 3. Role The aim of UNAIDS is to help mount and support an expanded response to HIV/AIDS. Partnerships The United Nations Declaration Commitment on HIV/AIDS provides the guiding framework for UNAIDS action. UNAIDS is headquartered in Geneva. monitoring and evaluation of the epidemic and of responses to it . Michel Sidibé currently leads UNAIDS. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Health Organization (WHO) World Bank The Cosponsors and the UNAIDS Secretariat comprise the Committee of Cosponsoring Organizations. 5.

media. UNAIDS has collaborated with the Roman Catholic Church. coalitions and networks Full participation of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). especially Caritas Internationalis. those in vulnerable groups and people mostly at risk. students. private sector. regional and country level partnerships which include linkages between and among civil society. the main challenges are to: y Sustain and deepen involvement of those contributing and critical to the response such as PLWHA organizations y Move beyond the organizations already involved and reach out to optimally engage a broad range of sectors/actors. something which materialized in a December 2005 message by Pope Benedict XVI. universities. philanthropy. This calls for increases in both the number of new actors. and alleviating the impact of the epidemic. the UNAIDS Secretariat: y y Fosters and supports global. reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV/AIDS. foundations. etc. private groups (for example. sporting clubs.) and individuals. particularly young people Addressing issue of stigma and discrimination. to facilitate increased capacity of non-state entities to respond effectively to the epidemic at all levels. Donors As the main advocate for global action on HIV/AIDS. To fulfil this mandate. strengthens and supports an expanded response aimed at preventing the transmission of HIV. improve connectedness of efforts and strengthen the various participants' capacity for action. UNAIDS is supported by voluntary contributions from governments. UNAIDS works to promote partnerships among and between this diverse and broad range of non-state entities. providing care and support. UNAIDS leads.[1] However. the private sector. and with particular attention to organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS Supports governments and UN agencies in developing partnerships with non-state entities.y y y y Establishing and strengthening mechanisms that involve civil society including faithbased organizations (FBOs). . corporations. in the fight against AIDS. as well as in innovative ways of working. This includes support for approaches intended to increase participation. With the momentum generated by the UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS. it indicated in a 2009 communiqué that it did not agree that condoms were unhelpful in AIDS prevention. From policy to action In engaging non-state entities in an expanded response to the epidemic. and people living with HIV/AIDS at all levels Encouraging and supporting local and national organizations to expand and strengthen regional partnerships.

[2] . training. UNDP operates in 166 countries. the UNDP works internationally to help countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). the UNDP is funded entirely by voluntary contributions from member nations. philanthropic organizations.  UNDP links and coordinates global and national efforts to achieve the goals and national development priorities laid out by host countries. Headquartered in New York City. energy and environment. and facilitating consensus on national governance programs. Sweden. working with nations on their own solutions to global and national development challenges. UNDP provides expert advice. UNDP is an executive board within the United Nations General Assembly.In 2003. where it works with local governments to meet development challenges and develop local capacity. and sharing successful experiences from other countries and locations. 35 governments contributed to UNAIDS.  UNDP also supports existing democratic institutions by increasing dialogue. with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries. working with governments and local communities to help them find solutions to global and national development challenges. In 2004. the United Kingdom and Japan. UNDP also encourages the protection of human rights and the empowerment of women in all of its programs. experience and resources to help people build a better life. Additionally. As they develop local capacity. UNDP focuses on poverty reduction. The UNDP Administrator is the third highest ranking official of the United Nations after the United Nations Secretary-General and Deputy Secretary-General. they draw on the people of UNDP and its wide range of partners.  FUNCTIONS  UNDP¶s offices and staff are on the ground in 166 countries. The largest donors were the Netherlands followed by Norway. To accomplish the MDGs and encourage global development. improving institutional and individual capacity within countries. enhancing national debate. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge. educating populations about and advocating for democratic reforms. individuals from around the world and others. social development. UNDP focuses primarily on five developmental challenges:  Democratic governance UNDP supports national democratic transitions by providing policy advice and technical support. democratic governance. promoting negotiation and dialogue. HIV/AIDS. more than US$118. the United States. This field of activity included UNDP's support of the Elections Reform Support Group which supports the election activities of the Palestinian National Authority. and crisis prevention and recovery. and grant support to developing countries. The organization has country offices in 166 countries.5 million was received from 30 governments. UNDP  The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global    development network.

coordinated planning. conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. restoration of basic services. increase human development and reduce poverty. having worked with more than 7. UNDP works with countries to strengthen their capacity to address global environmental issues by providing innovative policy advice and linking partners through environmentally sensitive development projects that help poor people build sustainable livelihoods. In this way. Environment and Energy As the poor are disproportionately affected by environmental degradation and lack of access to clean. strategies to reduce the impact of natural disasters. UNDP also works at the macro level to reform trade. and programs to encourage use of diplomacy and prevent violence. capacity development. demobilization and reintegration of excombatants. UNDP works through its country offices to support local government in needs assessment. UNDP works with local leaders and governments to provide opportunities for impoverished people to create businesses and improve their economic condition. NGOs. linking poverty programs with countries¶ larger goals and policies. Recovery programs include disarmament. and ensuring a greater voice for the poor. and policies to control emissions of harmful pollutants and ozonedepleting substances. Poverty reduction UNDP helps countries develop strategies to combat poverty by expanding access to economic opportunities and resources. HIV/AIDS is a big issue in today's society and UNDP works to help countries prevent further spreading and reduce its impact. UNDP seeks to address environmental issues in order to improve developing countries¶ abilities to develop sustainably. Brasil expands the capacities of developing countries to design.         UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT GROUP  The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) was created by the Secretary General in 1997. and promote early recovery after crises have occurred. and transitional justice systems for countries recovering from warfare. IPC-IG is a global forum for South-South policy dialogue and learning. demining efforts. and coordinates efforts between governments. and ensure the poorest of the poor benefit from globalisation. Sustainable land management to combat desertification and land degradation. promotes the role of women in development. Examples of UNDP risk reduction programs include efforts to control small arms proliferation. The .000 officials from more than 50 countries. UNDP sponsors developmental pilot projects. sanitation and energy services. encourage debt relief and foreign investment. and policy and standard setting. access to sustainable energy services. On the ground. Crisis prevention and recovery UNDP works to reduce the risk of armed conflicts or disasters. affordable water. programs to reintegrate displaced persons. implement and evaluate socially inclusive development projects. The UNDP International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG)[2] in Brasilia. to improve the effectiveness of UN development at the country level. UNDP¶s environmental strategy focuses on effective water governance including access to water supply and sanitation. and outside donors.

The Executive Committee consists of the four "founding members": UNICEF. It is often used synonymously with such concepts as responsibility. explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. appointed and managed by UNDP. answerability. Resident Coordinators. decisions. History And Etymology "Accountability" stems from late Latin accomptare (to account). It is frequently described as an account-giving relationship between individuals. it has been central to discussions related to problems in the public sector.UNDG brings together the operational agencies working on development. plan support strategies. products.  Over 25 UN agencies are members of the UNDG. WFP and UNDP. and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report. Resident Coordinators and country teams advocate the interests and mandates of the UN drawing on the support and guidance of the entire UN family. liability.  The UNDG develops policies and procedures that allow member agencies to work together and analyze country issues. e. governance. "A is accountable to B when A is obliged to inform B about A¶s (past or future) actions and decisions. In leadership roles. in other words absence of accounting means absence of accountability. nonprofit and private (corporate) worlds. While the word itself does not appear in English until its use in 13th century Norman England. to justify them. The RC system aims to bring together the different UN agencies to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of operational activities at the country level. and to suffer punishment in the case of eventual misconduct". These initiatives increase UN impact in helping countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights is an ex-officio member of the Executive Committee. blameworthiness. Accountability cannot exist without proper accounting practices. lead UN country teams in more than 130 countries and are the designated representatives of the Secretary-General for development operations. As an aspect of governance. which in turn derived from putare (to reckon). UNFPA. implement support programmes. The Group is chaired by the Administrator of UNDP. who are funded. the concept of account-giving . accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions. Accountability It is a concept in ethics and governance with several meanings. including poverty reduction. accountability has been difficult to define. Working closely with national governments. UNDP also provides the Secretariat to the Group. As a term related to governance. and policies including the administration.g. RESIDENT COORDINATOR SYSTEM  The Resident Coordinator system co-ordinates all organizations of the United Nations system dealing with operational activities for development in the field. monitor results and advocate for change. and other terms associated with the expectation of account-giving. a prefixed form of computare (to calculate).

as well as small and large businesses. and later. can empower a legislative body to hold their own members. namely: moral. voters do not have any direct way of holding elected representatives to account during the term for which they have been elected. market. and by advocating an effective enabling environment for people and organizations to embrace a culture of sustainable development. firstly. but not merely governmental departments. such as district courtjudges. The accused person might also decide to resign before trial. and professional. secondly. and government bodies to account. some officials and legislators may be appointed rather than elected. political. Egypt. which gives parliament power to hold the government to account. O. the government relies on the support or parliament. some ³watchdog´ units accept complaints from citizens. research institutions and academics. Types Of Accountability Bruce Stone. some parliaments can pass a vote of no confidence in the government. One scholarly paper has posited that "it is unethical to plan an action for social change without excavating the knowledge and wisdom of the people who are responsible for implementing the plans of action and the people whose lives will be affected. Dwivedi. legitimacy of these commissions is built upon their independence. Greece. or suspend them from office for a period of time. Additionally. bridging government and society to hold civil servants accountable to citizens. recall elections can be used to revoke the office of an elected official.P.Leadership accountability cross cuts many of these distinctions. Political accountability Political accountability is the accountability of the government. administrative. Inquiries are usually held in response to an allegation of misconduct or corruption. In a few cases. Apart from internal checks. This can be through holding an internal or independent inquiry." Administrative accountability Internal rules and norms as well as some independent commission are mechanisms to hold civil servant within the administration of government accountable. civil servants are subordinates in a hierarchy and accountable to superiors. services provided are nowadays more ³customer-driven´ and should aim to provide convenience and various choices . Within department or ministry. Generally. Babylon.has ancient roots in record keeping activities related to governance and money-lending systems that first developed in Ancient Israel. and government. legal/judicial. In parliamentary systems. The powers. civil servants and politicians to the public and to legislative bodies such as a congress or a parliament. Constitution. however. there are independent ³watchdog´ units to scrutinize and hold departments accountable. and Joseph G. procedures and sanctions vary from country to country. managerial. The legislature may have the power to impeach the individual. Rome. Jabbra list 8 types of accountability. constituency relation. Market accountability Under voices for decentralization and privatization of the government. remove them. as it avoids any conflicts of interest. not-for-profit organizations. Nonetheless. or statute. For example. behavior is bounded by rules and regulations. Impeachment in the United States has been used both for elected representatives and other civil offices. the government. Ethical accountability may include the individual. Ethical accountability Ethical accountability is the practice of improving overall personal and organizational performance by developing and promoting responsible tools and professional expertise.

Austin's 1956 essay "A Plea for Excuses. L. Constituency relations Within this perspective. rationalizations. Government can choose among a shortlist of companies for outsourced service. improves quality of service. With respect to the public/private overlap in the United States. first proposed that cross-sector principles of accountability be researched and . argues that the line between public institutions and private entities like corporations is becoming blurred in certain areas of public service provision in the United Kingdom and that this can compromise political accountability in those areas. groups or institutions. although it can be traced as well to J. accountability has become an important topic in the discussion about the legitimacy of international institutions. especially in Britain and the United States. apologies and other forms of account giving behavior by individuals and corporations. public concern over the contracting out of government (including military) services and the resulting accountability gap has been highlighted recently following the shooting incident involving the Blackwater security firm in Iraq. Communications scholars have extended this work through the examination of strategic uses of excuses. there are comparisons and competition between public and private services and this. Public/private overlap: With the increase over the last several decades in public service provision by private entities. with this perspective. Contemporary evolution: Accountability involves either the expectation or assumption of account-giving behavior. some have called for increased political accountability mechanisms to be applied to otherwise non-political entities. The Charter 99 for Global Democracy. Moreover. are heard. As mentioned by Bruce Stone. government can hold the company by rewriting contracts or by choosing another company. which is outside the public sector and representing citizens¶ interests in a particular constituency or field. The study of account giving as a sociological act was recently articulated in a 1968 article on "Accounts" by Marvin Scott and Stanford Lyman and Stephen Soroka. ideally. appoint them into the public sector as a way to hold the government representative and ensure voices from all constituencies are included in policy-making process. Outsourcing service is one means to adopt market accountability. the government is obliged to empower members of agencies with political rights to run for elections and be elected.to citizens. the standard of assessment for accountability is therefore ³responsiveness of service providers to a body of µsovereign¶ customers and produce quality service. global organizations from all sectors bodies are often criticized as having large accountability gaps. and Philip Tetlock and his colleagues have applied experimental design techniques to explore how individuals behave under various scenarios and situations that demand accountability." in which he used excuse-making as an example of speech acts. spearheaded by the One World Trust. a particular agency or the government is accountable if voices from agencies. Legal scholar Anne Davies. Recently. for instance. Because there is no global democratically elected body to which organizations must account. She and others argue that some administrative law reforms are necessary to address this accountability gap. or. justifications. within the contracting period.

is not the last word. neurologist and psychiatrist. is one attempt to measure the capability of global organizations to be accountable to their stakeholders. published in a first full cycle 2006 to 2008. Sudbury schools claim that "Ethics" is a course taught by life experience. In fact. freedom to bear the results of action² these are the three great freedoms that constitute personal responsibility." His thought was that "Freedom. On the other hand. freedom is in danger of degenerating into mere arbitrariness unless it is lived in terms of responsibleness. in opposition to virtually all schools today that deny it. Learning and Planning System of ActionAid) Accountability in education Sudbury schools choose to recognize that students are personally responsible for their acts. and they do not permit students to suffer the consequences of the course. founder of logotherapy and one of the key figures in existential therapy. The One World Trust Global Accountability Report. Several NGOs signed the "accountability charter" in 2005.observed by institutions that affect people. once taken. initiatives such as the HAPI (Humanitarian Accountability Partnership International) appeared. freedom of action. once chosen. they do not permit students to embark on the course. Accountability is becoming an increasingly important issue for the non-profit world. those in the Nationalism and Society of States traditions deny the tenets of moral universalism and argue that beneficiaries of global development initiatives have no substantive entitlement to call international institutions to account. however. independent of their legal status. Symbolism Scholar Viktor Frankl. In the Humanitarian field. The denial is threefold: schools do not permit students to choose their course of action fully. Students are given complete responsibility for their own education and the school is run by a direct democracy in which students and staff are equals. that schools will become involved in the teaching of morals when they become communities of people who fully respect each other¶s' right to make choices." . to developing nations. They adduce that the absolutely essential ingredient for acquiring values²and for moral action is personal responsibility. the ALPS. Freedom is only part of the story and half of the truth. One paradigmatic problem arising in the global context is that of institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund who are founded and supported by wealthy nations and provide aid. in his book Man's Search for Meaning recommended "that the Statue of Liberty on the East Coast (that has become a symbol of Liberty and Freedom) should be supplemented by a Statue of Responsibility on the West Coast. Freedom of choice. Should those institutions be accountable to their founders and investors or to the persons and nations they help? In the debate over global justice and its distributional consequences. in the form of grants and loans. Freedom is but the negative aspect of the whole phenomenon whose positive aspect is responsibleness. Accountability. and that the only way the schools can become meaningful purveyors of ethical values is if they provide students and adults with real-life experiences that are bearers of moral import. Cosmopolitans tend to advocate greater accountability to the disregarded interests of traditionally marginalized populations and developing nations. Individual NGOs have set their own accountability systems (for example.

EFTA has signed free trade agreements with 30 other countries. The revised Convention has strengthened the cohesion in economic relations among the EFTA Member States and provides an enhanced common platform for developing their relations with trade partners around the world. In 1999. Switzerland and the United Kingdom began exploring the idea of a free trade agreement amongst themselves in early 1959. Using EFTA. duties on virtually all trade in industrial products between EFTA and the EC were eliminated.Norway . EFTA-EC Relations A series of bilateral free trade agreements were negotiated between the other EFTA States and the EC in the early 1970s. the Member States have created one of the world's largest networks of free trade partners.Iceland. listed in chronological order: . Denmark. To date. The agreement amending the EFTA Convention. The Stockholm Convention established a framework with certain guiding principles and a set of minimum rules and procedures focused on provisions for tariff reductions and the elimination of quantitative restrictions. foreign direct investment and intellectual property rights. Norway and Switzerland use EFTA as their common vehicle for free trade negotiations is that. Denmark and the United Kingdom left EFTA to become members of the European Communities (EC) in 1973. as well as on rules of origin. was adopted in 2001. Liechtenstein and . Norway. The seven founding members ± Austria. the EFTA Ministers decided to initiate an updating of the Stockholm Convention to reflect the increasing importance in the global economy of trade in services. Since the late 1990s the EFTA States have µgone global¶ to maintain their competitive position in the world.The current members of EFTA are Switzerland . These ensured that by mid1977. In EFTA¶s view the multilateral and bilateral approaches are mutually supportive. as a trade grouping.EFTA¶s trade strategy has progressively evolved beyond the confines of the European continent. Portugal. Tariffs on industrial goods traded between the EFTA countries with few exceptions were abolished from 1967. The resulting EFTA Convention was agreed in Stockholm in November 1959. the EFTA countries carry more weight as economic players and are thus more interesting for potential trade partners .All the EFTA States are members of the WTO and attach the highest priority to a well-functioning global trade system. Finland became an associate member in 1961 and a full member in 1986.It entered into force on 3 May 1960. The main reason why Iceland. Iceland joined in 1970 and Liechtenstein in 1991. Liechtenstein.European Free Trade Association :The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) was founded on the basis of free trade as a means of achieving growth and prosperity amongst its Member States as well as promoting closer economic cooperation between the Western European countries. the Vaduz Convention. Sweden. most of which came into force in 1973. EFTA has seen several changes in membership. Quantitative restrictions were removed in 1965.

Lesotho. Thailand and Ukraine. To reach these goals. disease and environmental degradation (UN. United Arab Emirates. Botswana. 2004). This paper examines the structure of international aid flowsand the relationship between news coverage and aid allocationsthere are many perspectives on international aid. The globalnews media play an important role as an agenda-setting agent in this process. illiteracy. lack of education. emphasizing the importance of communication among members in a socialsystem and the process of decision-making on national policy to help other countries. Canada. gender inequality. Jordan. Malaysia and Vietnam. Israel. In September2000. The results of a network analysis found:  international aid flows follow a core-periphery structure. Exploratory talks are being conducted with several other countries. South Africa. India. notably Russia. Albania Serbia and Peru. INTERNATIONAL AID FLOWS This study examines the structure of international aid flows and the relationship betweennews coverage and international aid allocations.15% (Sachs. Mexico. limiting explanations of aid flows in the global system. Bahrain. Egypt. 2005). Morocco. Tunisia. Traditional perspectives on international aidhave focused on the nation-state.  the relationships between donorsand recipients reflect the structural characteristics of international interaction described byGaltung (1971). 2003). 2002). The results of aregression analysis reveal that global news media coverage is a significant determinant of thestructure of international aid flows Introduction: With development of communication technology. Hong Kong China. Kuwait. The developed countries pledged to give 0. Singapore. advanced international relations seem to aggravate the unequal growth in the globalsystem. international relations among countrieshave become more interrelated and extended.25% of their GNP in official development assistance(ODA). the developed countries have avoided their commitments. Croatia. Chile.However. the mechanism ofinternational aid must be understood. the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration that bound its members to joinforces in the fight against poverty. Colombia. the combined income of the world¶s richest 500 individuals is greater than the poorest 416 million.the Monterrey Consensus (March 2002) identified the means for ensuring the availability ofsufficient financial resources (UNESCAP. In 2003. Palestinian Authority. Negotiations are ongoing with 5 partners (Algeria. Namibia. Macedonia. Worldsystems theory is employed to explain this phenomenon. Indonesia. hunger. Saudi Arabia. Swaziland. The determinants of international aid have been explained from . According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP. Oman. The United States provided a mere 0.Turkey. Qatar. the richestcountries provided an average of only 0.  The bystander intervention model provides a causal mechanism that encouragesinternational aid. childand maternal mortality. Lebanon. Why do the rich countries acthalf-heartedly in helping poor countries that are suffering in severe poverty? What can be doneto encourage international aid? To find the answer to these questions. 2005).The United Nations is continuously trying to solve this global disparity.7%of their GNP to international aid (UN. Although they may facilitate cooperation amongcountries. Republic of Korea.

three perspectives: realism. World systems theory and international aid Fundamentally. The social system exists beyond the boundaries of individual nation-states. 2003. It argues that international aid is an extension ofthe exploitative relationships based on the economic disparity between rich and poor countries. 2003). 2001). World systems theory focuses on the unequal distribution . At this point. 2005. idealism. 2005. Waltz. Thus. 1996. 1998. most is based on individual nation-states rather than the global system. Gates &Hoeffler. Jacobson. Barnett. All countries are interconnected and integrated through economic interdependence. the differing approaches may be such that ³one cannot see the wood for the trees. Dudley &Montmarquette. Rioux& Van Belle. Hjertholm& White. 2003. 2005. 1998. Van Belle. 2005. Each perspective provides specific determinants of international aid allocations. On the contrary. The realist paradigm focuses on the political and strategic interests of the donor country. the idealist paradigm concentrates on humanitarian motives. Its importance has decreased since the end of the Cold War (Degnbol-Martinussen&EngbergPedersen. 1990. world systems theory has been generalized to accommodate the flows of information among nations (Barnett. Rioux& Van Belle. Krueger. Also. Oneal&Russett. 1997. Generally. & Poe. international aid is usually related to the trade flows between recipients and donors (Meernik. 2001. 1996. Round &Odedokun. environmentalism has been suggested as a new perspective (DegnbolMartinussen&Engberg-Pedersen. 1998. 2000. 2000. Hopkins. Kim. Recently. and suggested that it is a significant predictor of foreign assistance. and economic or political positions (Walt. Hook. rules of legitimation. 1959). 1998. it tends to be regarded as part of the broader concept of national security. The idealist perspective is based on the humanitarian or neo-liberal paradigm and is more optimistic about cooperative relations between nations (Lumsdaine. Schraeder. & Taylor. The main variables in the idealist perspective are related to the need of poor countries usually indicated by their per-capita GDP (Alesina& Dollar. a more integrative and communicative perspective should be considered. He asserted that all aspects of globalization are influenced by the development of communication technologies. Schraeder. This does not suggest that the realist perspective is useless for the analysis of international aid. 2002. & Langhorne. Van Belle. Oneal&Russett. 2001. 1999) and the flow of capital between the wealthy nations of the core and the economically deprived nations of the periphery (Salisbury & Barnett. 2005. when global issues such as international aid are examined. Historically. 2005. Van Belle. Recent studies of international aid allocations tend to use all three perspectives (Alesina& Dollar. Van Belle and his colleague (Rioux& Van Belle. 1976). 2003). and coherence. The system has the characteristics of an organism (Wallerstein. Schraeder. That is. the core nations in the global economic system use international aid to maintain the economic dependency of poor countries (ChaseDunn & Grimes. or that the globalist perspective provides the best explanation. Thus. Meernik. & Taylor. 2000. Hjertholm& White. Mansfield &Pollins. The realist paradigm regards aid as an extension of national security policy. Rioux& Van Belle. international aid is based on the economic relationships among rich and poor countries. international aid flows may follow the structural characteristics of world systems theory. Hsu (2005) examined the effect of religion on international aid allocations. Recent research has suggested new determinants to predict international aid. 1999). 64). 1999). Communication networks spreading all over the globe integrate all world horizons in one communication system (Barnett. 1998. most research does not consider both bilateral aid and multilateral aid. 2004). 2000. Hook. and globalism (Rioux& Van Belle. Therefore. Choi. 2003). 2000. According to Luhmann (1982). 1995). Krueger. the considerations of economic motives have increased even though these interests are not apparent because they generally hide behind the humanitarian motives. These perspectives are closely related to a donor country¶s motives and foreign policy interests. the globalization. Hook. Barnett. World systems theory provides a systematic and integrative perspective. as concern for the global environment has increased. Van Belle. 2004. modern society is a world society. 1998. However. & Sun. 2000). 1990. 1993). Zhang. Wallerstein. Schraeder. Van Belle. This study examines the structure of international aid flows in the global system and the causal mechanisms of international aid allocations from a communication perspective. Wallerstein (1976) defined the world system as a social system that has boundaries. 2003). which are less developed countries. The later is more interconnected and includes extended international relations. p. which may be defined as ³the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa´ (Giddens. and the globalist or world system paradigm is based on economic interests (Degnbol-Martinussen&Engberg-Pedersen. structures. 2003).´ Giddens (1990) described the global system by using the term. both should be examined. the donor nations are economically developed and provide financial aid to promote the economic development of recipients. The strategic motives of the donor country are important in determining international aid. & Taylor. & Taylor. national security was a critical determinant of international aid. The globalist or world systems perspective is closely connected to the neo-Marxist approach (Shannon. It emphasizes the potential of international aid to promote the economic development of poor countries and the benefits of improved international trade (Mansfield &Pevehouse. Dalgaard. & Poe. 1976). suggesting that the world is an integrated system of nation-states. Although many studies provide evidence for the determinants of international aid. member groups. For this reason. Network analysis is used to examine the pattern of international assistance among nation-states and international governmental organizations (IGOs). 1976. Hook. They provide evidence that news coverage is significantly correlated with foreignassistance. However. military ties. These motives include the recipient¶s alliances. 2003) have investigated the influence of news media coverage on foreign aid policy. Salisbury.

1995. Mende (1973) has examined the role of international aid as an instrument of neo-colonialism. These studies reflect the perspective of the world systems theory that peripheral countries are ³structurally constrained to experience developmental processes that reproduces their subordinate status´ (Chase-Dunn & Grimes. high-technology goods that are exported to the periphery and semi. Wallerstein (1976) described the world system as the capitalist world economy. 1973. There are four rules for defining the structure of international interaction: 1) interaction between the core and periphery is vertical. 2) interaction between peripheral countries is missing. These structural constraints may be found by examining the international relations between the core and the periphery. 3) multilateral interaction involving all three is missing. p. The semi-periphery engages in both core-like and periphery-like activities (Shannon. Wallerstein. Petras&Veltmeyer. 97). Similarly. economic relationships exist among these components. 2005). they assert that foreign aid supports the dominant structure of the wealthy core rather than the development needs of the poor periphery.of power and goods in a capitalist world economy. 1982. services and information leads to a hierarchical grouping of nations: the core. the core produces capital-intensive. and peripheral (Smith & White. Petras and Veltmeyer (2002) argue that international assistance is a catalyst of regression rather than development. the semi-periphery. Veltmeyer. 1971. Galtung named this the feudal interaction structure: ³there is interaction along the spokes. a country's membership in one of these categories tends to be stable.semi-peripheral. Peripheral countries specialize in the production and export of labor-intensive. In modern world history. In return. low. Hayter (1971) has stressed that international aid is a peaceful face of imperialism. high-wage. 4) interaction with the outside world is monopolized by the core. Between the core and periphery are the semi-peripheral nations. The developed countries are at the core and the less developed countries are in the periphery. 1996). 1971. Mende. Specifically. but not along the rim. from one periphery nation to another´ (Galtung. some studies on international assistance have paid attention to the unequal and hierarchical economic relations among nations (Hayter. 389). This study examines the pattern of international aid flows in the global system. low-wage. Although there is some dispute regarding the classification of specific nations as core. and the periphery (Chase-Dunn & Grimes. 1976).periphery. from the periphery to the center hub. Economic division of labor in the production and exchange of goods. 1995.technology goods desired by the core and the semi-periphery. 1992). Recently. Galtung (1971) describes the structure of the core-periphery relationship in the structural theory of imperialism. 2002. Chirot& Hall. If these flows follow the core-periphery structure of world systems theory. p. and facilitates Euro-American economic power. the relationship between .

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