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1
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
WCDMA Fundamentals
Dr. Hatem MOKHTARI
Cirta Consulting LLC
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© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Spread Spectrum Modulation
S
n
ε( )
S
W
Radio Propagation
Channel
ε
−1
( ) S’
n
Transmitter
Receiver
NarrowBand
Signal
Narrowband
Signal
n(t)
i(t)
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM
S
n
: Narrowband Modulated Binary Sequence (information : Speech or Data)
ε( ) : Spreading function using high chiprate modulation
ε
1
( ) : Despreading function using the same sequence as ε( )
n(t) : Gaussian WhiteNoise ; i(t) : Interference
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Digital Modulation in WCDMA :
QPSK for DL and BPSK in UL
PSK or Phase Shift Keying is advantageous compared to
other modulations :
Constant Amplitude
Data information is “hidden” in the Phase component
Robustness to Noise and Interference because Noise in
general affects the Amplitude and not the Phase
Component
QPSK is a 4state Modulation scheme :
Used in DL because of High Data Rate demand
Same Properties as the PSK : Constant Amplitude and
Data in the Phase component
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BPSK Modulation
Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulation is a twostate Modulation scheme
In BPSK the signal can take two states :
A binary digit is mapped to high frequency carrier sinusoidal waveform
of a given phase as given below :
For a 1 Transmitted symbol :
for a 0 Transmitted symbol :
Where the Amplitude, ,
E
b
is the transmitted Energy per bit
The duration of this sinusoidal waveform is T
b
( ) ( ) t f
T
E
t f A t s
c
b
b
c
π π 2 cos
2
2 cos ) (
1
= =
( ) ( ) t f
T
E
t f A t s
c
b
b
c
π π π 2 cos
2
2 cos ) (
2
− = + =
b
b
T
E
A
2
=
b
T t ≤ ≤ 0
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To ensure that each transmitted binary digit contains an integer number of cycles, the
carrier frequency fc has to fulfill the condition : where n
c
is a fixed
integer number. For the above example n
c
= 2
1
0 0 1
T
carrier
= 1/f
c
T
b
= n
c
*T
carrier
b
c
c
T
n
f =
BPSK Modulation Example
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Modulation Example : BPSK
BPSK Modulation shifts the PHASE of the DATA modulated carrier by 180 degrees.
Mathematically this can be represented as a multiplication of the carrier by a function
c(t) which takes the values +1 and 1
Assume data modulated carrier of power P and frequency ω
0
and phase modulated θ
d
(t)
Phase
Modulator
Binary Data
( ) t P
0
cos 2 ω
( ) ) ( cos 2
0
t t P
d
θ ω +
) (t c
( ) ) ( cos ) ( 2
0
t t t c P
d
θ ω +
BPSK DS SS Transmitter
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Modulation Example : BPSK
The Wideband Signal is transmitted througha channel having a delay td
The received signal is mixed with interference and Gaussian Noise
Despreading is done by remodulating the wideband signal with adhoc delayed spreading
code as shown bellow
Bandpass
Filter
  ) ( ) ( cos ) ( 2
0
t n t t t c P
d d d
+ + − + − φ τ θ ω τ
) (
'
d
t c τ −
BPSK DS Receiver
Data Phase
Demodulator
Estimated Data
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Modulation Example : BPSK
The remodulation or correlation of the received signal with the delayed spreading code
is a critical function in all SS Systems
The signal component of the Output of the despreading Mixer is given by :
  φ τ θ ω τ τ + − + − − = ) ( cos ) ' ( ) ( 2 ) (
0
'
d d d d n
t t t c t c P t S
τ’
d
is the receiver’s best estimate of the Transmission delay
Since c(t) equals +1 or 1 the product will be +1 if the delays
τ
d
= τ’
d
that is, if the spreading code and the despreading code are SYNCHRONIZED.
) ' ( ) (
d d
t c t c τ τ − −
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BPSK Spectral Density
Before Spreading and for T
b
as a bit duration the twosided power spectral
Density is given by :
After the Spreading we use the Chip duration Tc instead of Tb because of
the involvement of the Chip (code) :
Where sinc function (Also known as the Cardinal Sinus) is given by :
( )   ( )   { }
b b b n
T f f c T f f c PT f S
0
2
0
2
sin sin
2
1
) ( + + − =
( )   ( )   { }
c c c
T f f c T f f c PT f S
n
0
2
0
2 '
sin sin
2
1
) ( + + − =
x
x
x c
) sin(
) ( sin =
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BPSK Power Spectral Density
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1

9
0
0

8
0
0

7
0
0

6
0
0

5
0
0

4
0
0

3
0
0

2
0
0

1
0
0 0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
x (DEGREES)
S
I
N
(
x
)
/
x
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1

9
0
0

8
0
0

7
0
0

6
0
0

5
0
0

4
0
0

3
0
0

2
0
0

1
0
0 0
1
0
0
2
0
0
3
0
0
4
0
0
5
0
0
6
0
0
7
0
0
8
0
0
9
0
0
x (DEGREES)
(
s
i
n
x
/
x
)
^
2
x
x
x c
) sin(
) ( sin =
2
2
) sin(
) ( sin

.

\

=
x
x
x c
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QPSK Modulation
* QPSK is very similar to BPSK, except that now one of four possible waveforms is
transmitted through the channel.
* Each Waveform can represent two binary digits
* E
s
is the Transmitted Signal Energy per Symbol
* T
s
is the Symbol Duration. Note that each symbol can represent 2 binary digits unlike
BPSK in which each symbol was just a sungle binary digit
* f
c
is the carrier frequency equal to n
c
/T
c
as in BPSK description
( ) 4 , 3 , 2 , 1
4
1 2 2 cos
2
) ( =
− + = i where i t f
T
E
t s
c
s
s
i
π
π
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BASIS Functions
In this case we use ORTHONORMAL basis functions as follows :
The Coordinates on the signal Constellation (or Space) diagram are given
by :
r(t) = s
i
(t) + n(t) is the received signal : Either signal s
1
or s
2
+ Random
Noise
QPSK Modulation
( ) t f
T
t
c
s
π φ 2 cos
2
) (
1
= ( ) t f
T
t
c
s
π φ 2 sin
2
) (
2
=
∫
=
s
T
dt t t r x
0
1 1
) ( ) ( φ
∫
=
s
T
dt t t r x
0
2 2
) ( ) ( φ
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The signal Constellation
diagram for QPSK is shown
bellow.
The signal points are mapped
to a pair of binary digits as
shown
The Decision boundaries are
shown as solid Horizontal
Vertical lines
Notice how this mapping has
been chosen so that
neighboring signal points differ
in only a SINGLE BINARY
DIGIT
QPSK Modulation : Constellation
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QPSK Modulation
For example, signal B(11) and D(10) differ in only binary digit position
If for example, the signal point A is transmitted and a Symbol Error occurs,
it is very likely that the received symbol will be either C or D.
This Type of Mapping is called GRAY ENCODING
The gray encoding scheme used will mean that on average, we can expect
the probability of an error in a binary digit to half of the probability of an
error in a symbol
Example
Under the conditions of no noise, the coordinates of a signal point are given
by :
and
( )
− =
4
1 2 cos
1
π
i E x
s
( )
− − =
4
1 2 sin
2
π
i E x
s
Test : Verify the above formulas for i=1
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QPSK Modulation :
Answer
dt t f t f t f
T
E
dt t t r x
c c
T T
c
s
s
s s
− = =
∫ ∫
)
4
sin( ) 2 sin( )
4
cos( ) 2 cos( ) 2 cos(
2
) ( ) (
0 0
1 1
π
π
π
π π φ
( )dt t f t f t f
T
E
dt t t r x
s s
T T
c c c
s
s
∫ ∫
− × = =
0 0
2
1 1
) 2 cos( ) 2 sin( ) 2 ( cos
2
2
2
) ( ) ( π π π φ
( ) ) 2 cos( 1
2
1
cos
2
θ θ + = ) 2 sin(
2
1
cos sin θ θ θ =
2
1
s
E
x =
2
2
s
E
x − =
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QPSK Coherent Receiver
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CDMA Multiple Access : Principal of Spread Spectrum (SS)
Each User encodes its signal
Code Signal Bandwidth (W) > Information Bandwidth
The Receiver knows the code sequence
Transmission
Spread Spectrum
f f
f
P
f
Reception
Despreading
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CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Multiple Access Features
1. All Users’ Signals overlap in TIME and FREQUENCY
2. Correlating the Received Signal despreads ONLY the WANTED SIGNAL
p
f f
S1
p
S1xC1
p
f f
S2
p
S2xC2
f
p
S2 X C2 X C1
f
p
S1 = S1 X C1 X C1
RECEIVER of USER 1
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CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Interference Rejection
p
f
f
S1
p
S1xC1
p
f
I
f
p
f
p
IxC1 I
S1
Correlation Narrowband Interference Spread the power
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CDMA Principles : Multiplexing
Radio Propagation
Channel
D/A
A
A
B1
B2
m
1
(t)
m
2
(t)
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
c
1
(t)
c
2
(t)
c
1
(t) and c
2
(t) are Orthogonal Codes : 0 ) ( ) (
0
2 1
=
∫
T
dt t c t c
∫
∫
m’
1
(t)
D/A
m’
2
(t)
Transmitter
Receiver
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Walsh Codes (1/6)
Since all the WCDMA users use the same RF Band in the DL, to
avoid mutual interference Walsh codes are used.
Hadamard Matrix is a recursive Matrix :
Where
Example : N=2
=
N
N
N N
N
H H
H H
H
2
=
1 0
0 0
2
H
=
=
=
3
2
1
0
2 2
2 2
4
0 1
1 1
1 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
1 0
0 0
W
W
W
W
H H
H H
H
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Walsh Codes (2/6)
Walsh codes are thus given by :
Afterwards, replacing 0 by 1 we obtain the real Walsh codes used in
WCDMA
Note : Except W
0
all the codes satisfy orthogonality and dot product
conditions to be used in WCDMA.
 
 
 
  1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3
2
1
0
− − =
− − =
− − =
− − − − =
W
W
W
W
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Walsh Codes : Example (3/6)
Assume three different users with three different data sequences :
Assume we have a Spreading factor of 4 then :
The Spread Spectrum Signal would be for user1 :
 
 
  1 1 1 ) (
1 1 1 ) (
1 1 1 ) (
3
2
1
+ + − =
− + + =
+ − + =
t m
t m
t m
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
m
1
(t)
W
1
(t)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 S
1
(t)
×
=
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Walsh Codes : Example (4/6)
The Resulting SS Signal for the three users can be written as follows :
And the bit sequence would be :
If no error is encountered each user decodes its signal using the despreading function,
for user j for example :
m
1
(t) = w
1
(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m
1
(t) is fully recovered which
yields the original signal : [+1 1 +1]
m
2
(t) = w
2
(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m
2
(t) is fully recovered which
yields the original signal : [+1 +1 1]
m
3
(t) = w
3
(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m
3
(t) is fully recovered which
yields the original signal : [1 +1 +1]
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3 3 2 2 1 1
t m t w t m t w t m t w t C + + =
  1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 ) ( − − − − − − − − − = t C
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C(t)
W
1
(t)
C(t) W
1
(t)
∫
b
T
dt t W t C
0
1
) ( ) (
1 or 1
  1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 ) ( ) (
1
− − − − − = t W t C
Walsh Codes : Example (4/6)
) (
'
1
t m
) (
'
1
t m
is computed over the information period T
b
using a summation
] 4 4 4 [ ) (
'
1
− = t m
4 4 4
The forward link of the CDMA system modeled uses orthogonal Walsh codes to
separate the users. Each user is randomly allocated a Walsh code to spread the data
to be transmitted.
The transmitted signals from all the users are combined together, then passed
through a radio channel model. This allows for clipping of the signal, adding multipath
interference, and adding Guassian noise to the signal.
The receiver uses the same Walsh code that was used by the transmitter to
demodulate the signal and recover the data. After the received signal has been
despread using the Walsh code, it is subsampled back down to the original data rate.
This is done by using an integrate and dump filter, followed by a comparator to decide
whether the data was a 1 or a 0.
The received data is then compared with the original data transmitted to calculate the
bit error rate (BER).
The RMS amplitude error is also worked out. The signal level after it has been
demodulated and filtered, is compared with the expected amplitude of the signal
based on the transmitted data. The RMS amplitude error directly relates to the bit
error rate, so is a useful measurement to make.
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Walsh Codes : SelfTest
Compute the Hadamard Matrix for N=4
What are the Possible Orthogonal Walsh Codes ?
Given a signal m
1
(t) and m
2
(t) as follows :
m
1
(t) = [1 1]; m
2
(t) = [1 1]; m
3
(t) = [1 1];
Compute the composite spread spectrum signal
Verify that m
1
(t), m
2
(t) and m
3
(t) are fully recovered
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Walsh Codes SelfTest : Answer
=
=
1 0 0 1
0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
4 4
4 4
8
H H
H H
H
First row is not considered as an orthogonal code, all the remaining rows are Walsh
codes by replacing each 0 by 1. Basically 7 Walsh codes are thus generated.
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Walsh Codes SelfTest : Answer
m1=[1 1]
m2 = [1 1]
m3 = [1 1]
m1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
W1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S1 = W1*m1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
m2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
W2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S2 = W2*m2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
m3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
W3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
S3 = W3*m3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
C=W1*m1+W2*m2+W3*m3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1
W1*C 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1
After Integrator 8 8
After Threshold Decision 1 1
W2*C 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1
After Integrator 8 8
After Threshold Decision 1 1
W3*C 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1
After Integrator 8 8
After Threshold Decision 1 1
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CDMA Principles
CrossCorrelation R
xy
(τ) :
Crosscorrelation if τ=0 :
If x and y are discrete sequence (binary signals):
Example of orthogonal codes :
∫
− =
T
xy
dt t y t x R
0
) ( ) ( ) ( τ τ
∫
=
T
xy
dt t y t x R
0
) ( ) ( ) 0 (
i
I i
i
T
y x Y X Rxy
∑
≤ ≤
= =
1
. ) 0 (
−
−
=
1
1
1
1
X
−
−
=
1
1
1
1
Y   0 1 1 1 1
1
1
1
1
. 1 1 1 1 ) 0 ( = − + − =
−
−
− − =
xy
R
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CDMA Principles
To be used in DSSS CDMA Codes must satisfy the
following conditions :
Zero Crosscorrelation
Number of +1s and 1s must be the same
Dot Product must be equal to 1
Example :
Dot product of the previous example is :
1 4 / ) 1 1 1 1 ( 4 / . = + + + = X X
T
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CDMA Principles
T
c
: Chip Rate of the PN Code
T
b
: Information rate (voice/data)
m
1
(t)
T
b
2T
b
1 1 1
3T
b
f
M
1
(f)
1/T
b
T
c 4T
c
f
C
1
(f)
1/T
b
c
1
(t)
1/T
c
f
C
1
(f)* M
1
(f)
1/T
b
1/T
c
m
1
(t).c
1
(t)
32
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CDMA Fundamentals
W/R : Defined as the system processing gain
In CDMA, the Reverse Link Capacity is often the
limiting link in terms of capacity
In CDMA : Uplink Receive Power is equal from all
MSs.
Per user : S/N = 1/(M1)
M : Total Number of users in the cell
S = S (The wanted signal)
N = (M1)S => S/N = 1/(M1)
Example : If M=7 then S/N = 1/6
if M>>1 then
M : The Number of simultaneous users a CDMA
cell can support
o
b
N
E
R
W
M ≈
S
S
S
S
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Eb = Signal Power / Bit Rate = S/Rb
No = Noise Power / Bandwidth = N/W
b o
b
R
W
N
S
N
E
× =
Signal to Noise Ratio
Processing Gain
Example :
Given a Demodulator Performance
Bit rate Rb = 8 kpbs
Bandwidth W = 1.2 Mcps => G = W/Rb = 150 = 21 dB
dB
N
E
o
b
6 >
dB dB dB
R
W
N
E
N
S
dB
b
dB
o
b
dB
15 21 6 − = − >


.

\

−


.

\

=

.

\

CDMA Multiple Access : Principal of Spread Spectrum (SS)
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© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
η + −
=
1
1
. .
1
1
R
W
M N
E
o
b
CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity
If other users from other cells are considered, the actual cell becomes
loaded and :
where η is the loading factor (0 < η < 1)
We define F as the Frequency reuse :
η +
=
1
1
F
Where η is given by :
ce Interferen cell Own
ce Interferen Cell Other
I
I
_ _
_ _
= η
35
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CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity
Cell B
Cell A
Cell C
B1
B2
C1
C2
Interference Introduced by Users in the Neighboring Cells
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CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity
Cell B
Cell A
Cell C
Sectorization Reduces Interference and adds
a Gain to the system : Sectorization Gain
Unwanted interferers
rejected by antenna
pattern of Cell A
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Sectorization Gain :
TriSectors : λ = 3 (2.5 in practice)
6Sectors : λ= 6 (5 in practice)
Sectorization Gain = λ = Total Interfering Power from all Directions/ Perceived
Interference Power by the sector antenna. G is the antenna pattern in given
direction
CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity
∫
∫
=
π
π
θ θ
θ
θ θ
λ
2
0
2
0
) (
) 0 (
) (
) (
d I
G
G
d I
38
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Voice Activity Factor : Interference is reduced when the
user is not transmitting
The final value for M :
CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity
v R
W
M N
E
o
b
1
. .
1
1
. .
1
1
λ
η + −
=
v
N
E
R
W
M
o
b
λ
η
.
1
1
.
+


.

\


.

\

≈
39
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
ShannonHartley Theorem
Generic Model
Radio Propagation Channel
+
Bandlimited White Noise
Received Signal
Noise+Signal
1. In Theory, without presence of Noise the channel capacity is infinite
2. For a given Signal Level the capacity tends to a constant value as the
bandwidth increases.
40
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CDMA Multiple Access Principle
Shannon Theorem

.

\

+ × =
N
S
W C 1 log
2
Channel Capacity C (Bit/s) given by Shannon Theorem :
W : System Bandwidth (Hz)
S/N : Signal to Noise Ratio (numerical value)
C : System Capacity (bit/s)
Same Capacity
Wide W and Low S/N (such as in WCDMA)
Narrow W and Large S/N (such as in GSM)
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C can also be written as :
where
assuming W to be infinite :
Thus for any degrading S/N we can transfer data with low BER if we increase
the bandwidth used to transfer the data.
Numerical Example :
For a data rate of 10kbps, and SNR of 20 dB then W = 694.4 kHz
ShannonHartley Theorem

.

\

+ ×


.

\

× =


.

\

+
× =
x
x
N
S
W N
S
W C
o
o
1
1 ln 44 . 1
2 ln
1 ln
S
WN
x
o
=

.

\

× × =
+ + −


.

\

× =
+


.

\

× =
→ → ∞ →
N
S
W
t
t t
t
N
S
t
t
N
S
C
t t x
44 . 1
...
! 3 ! 2
lim 44 . 1
) 1 ln(
lim 44 . 1 lim
3 2
0
0
0
0
42
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Bandwidth Efficiency
Bandwidth Efficiency is a measure of how well a particular modulation and
errorcontrol coding scheme is making use of the available bandwidth
Example :
If a system requires 4 kHz of bandwidth to continuously send 8000
binary digits/sec, the bandwidth efficiency = 8000/4000 = 2 bits/s/Hz
Notice that to double the rate at which binary digits are sent over the
given communication channel, we would require a bandwidth efficiency
= 16000/4000 = 4 bits/s/Hz
In this case of an ideal system, r
b
= 1/T
b
= C, where C is given by the
ShannonHartley theorem :
Or equivalently :


.

\

+ × =

.

\

+ × =
W
C
N
E
W
N
S
W C
b
. 1 log 1 log
0
2 2




.

\

−
=


.

\

⇒
−
=
W
C
N
E
W
C
N
E
W
C
dB
b
W
C
b
1 2
log 10
1 2
10
0 0
43
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Bandwidth Efficiency Versus Eb/No
0.1
1
10

7
.
1

5
.
9

4
.
5

2
.
7

0
.
7
1
.
7
6
4
.
4
9
7
.
4
8
1
0
.
7
1
4
1
7
.
5
Eb/No (dB)
B
a
n
d
w
i
d
t
h
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
,
R
/
W
Bandwidth Efficiency
44
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Bandwidth Efficiency
SelfTest
* A Digital Cellular Phone System is required to work at a bandwidth efficiency of
4 bits/s/Hz to ensure sufficient users to make it profitable.
** What is the minimum Eb/No in dB required to ensure that users on the
edge of the coverage area receive errorfree communication ?
** To Double the number of users on the existing communication system,
by what amount should the basestation and handsets transmitted powers be
increased to maintain coverage and errorfree communication ?
45
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles
λ/2
Mobile
distance
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
The MS crosses 2 fades in :
v
2
λ
Example : @ 900 MHz and v = 90 km/h (25 m/s)
MS crosses fades every 6.67 ms
@ 1800 MHz MS crosses fades every 3.335 ms
46
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
T
b
τ
BTS
Propagation Time T1
Propagation Time T2
Delay Spread = τ = T2  T1
Here τ < T
b
implies Interference
Example :
D1 = 150 m and D2 = 200 m => T1 = 150/3*10
8
= 0.5 us
and T2 = 0.66 us => τ = 0.16 us
Assume we have a UMTS Service R = 3.84 Mchps =>
T
b
= 0.26 us
τ < Tb => INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE PRESENT
Multipath Immunity
WCDMA is inherently tolerant to multipath delay spread signals as any signal which is
delayed by more than one chip time becomes uncorrelated to the PN code used to
decode the signal. This results in the multipath simply appearing as noise. This noise
leads to an increase in the amount of interference seen by each user subjected to the
multipath and thus increases the received BER.
47
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
t
Received Power
Time (us)
τ1= 3us
τ2= 4us
τ3
Inter Symbol Interference can occur if the delay spread τ
n
is greater than
one symbol period : The higher the bit rate, the more ISI occur
48
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Example 1:
Let us consider a Mobile Communications System that uses R
b
= 270.83 kbps
The bit period is thus T
b
= 1/270830 = 3.69 us
Conclusion : bit period almost equal to 4 us as shown on the delay spread power
profile => ISI would normally exist ! Without use of Viterbibased EQUALIZER such
as in GSM
Example 2:
Let us consider a Mobile Communications System that uses R
b
= 1.2288 Mbps =
1228800 bps
The bit period is thus T
b
= 1/ 1228800 = 1 us
Conclusion : bit period is much LESS than 4 us as shown on the delay spread power
profile => ISI would not normally exist !
Important note : CDMA Rake Receive uses a special form of Time Diversity to
recover the signal. CDMA Rake receiver combines multipath components and
suppresses phase differences provided that delays are not very small
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
49
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
The Principal of Maximum Ratio Combining in CDMA Rake Receiver
Transmitted Symbol
 Amplitude
 Phase
Received Signal
at each time delay
Modified Signal
Using Channel Estimator
Combined
Symbol
θ
Figure #1
Figure #2
Figure #3
θ
θ
θ
θ
50
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Block Diagram of CDMA Rake Receiver
Correlator
Phase
Rotator
Delay
Equalizer
Code
Generator
Channel
Estimator
Finger # 1
Matched Filter
∑
I
∑
Q
I
Q
Correlator
Phase
Rotator
Delay
Equalizer
Code
Generator
Channel
Estimator
Finger # 2
Correlator
Phase
Rotator
Delay
Equalizer
Code
Generator
Channel
Estimator
Finger # 3
Combiner
Timing (finger allocation)
Input RF Signal
Q
I
51
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Digitized input samples are received from RF Frontend in the form of I and Q components
Code Generator and Correlator : Perform despreading and integration to user data symbol
Channel estimator : Uses the Pilot symbols to estimate the channel state
Phase Rotator : aligns the symbols to the initial phase (phase cancellation)
Delay Equalizer : Compensates the Delay in the arrival times of the symbols in each finger
Rake Combiner : Sums up the channelcompensated symbols, thereby providing
MULTIPATH DIVERSITY against Fading.
Matched Filter : Determines and Updates the Current Multipath Delay Spread. This is used
to assign the Rake fingers to the largest Peaks (Maximum Combining)
CDMA Rake Receiver : Components
52
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles: Delay Spread
In Multipath Environment :
Received power can be written as :
Fourier Transfer Function :
∑ ∑
= =
− = → − =
N
n
N
n
n n n n
f j a f S f R t s a t r
1 1
) . 2 exp( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( τ π τ
∑
=
−
= =
N
n
f j
n
n
e a
f S
f R
f H
1
. 2
) (
) (
) (
τ π
53
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
f
H
(
f
)
Example with twoequal amplitude paths : a
1
=a
2
=A
2A
τ 2
1
τ
1
τ 2
3
τ
2
) cos( 2 ) ( τ πf f H =
1. FrequencySelective Fading is evident in the nulls of the Magnitude Spectrum
2. WCDMA is more advantageous than CDMA when the delays are small such
as 0.4 ms (Dense Urban and Urban Environments)
3. WCDMA using 5 Mbps (bit period of 0.2 ms) better than IS95 CDMA using only
1.2288 Mbsp (bit period 1 ms) when ISI are to be considered in Dense Urban areas
54
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
MS2
Pr,2
Pr,2
MS1
P = 21 dBm
P = 21 dBm
NearFar Problem
PL1 = 100 dB
PL2 = 90 dB
Pr,1 = EIRP(MS1)  PL1 = 21  100 = 79 dBm
Pr,2 = EIRP(MS2)  PL2 = 21  90 = 69 dBm
(S/N)1 = Pr,1  Pr,2 = 10 dB
(S/N)2 = Pr,2  Pr,1 = +10 dB
MS2 must be Power Controlled by 10 dB to have
the same S/N for both users MS1 and MS2
55
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
What is the initial MS power to be used ?
Maximum MS Power :
) Advantage : High likelihood to reach the BTS
) Drawback : Uplink interference
Minimum MS Power :
) Advantage : Low Uplink interference
) Drawback : Low probability to reach the BTS
Solution (IS95 used in WCDMA also) :
Use of Access Probes : MS Power Rise portions done gradually
Advantage : Avoid Uplink interference and Reach the BTS with
sufficient Transmit power
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
56
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
OPENLOOP Power Control:
MS Transmits its first access probes at relatively low power
MS waits for a response back from the BTS
If after a Random time the MS has no acknowledgment from the BTS, a
second Access Probe is performed (at a slightly higher power)
Process is repeated until the MS receives a response from the BTS
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
MS
Transmit Power
Initial Transmit Power
First
Acces
Probe
Correction
Second
Acces
Probe
Correction
Random Time
Intervals
57
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
OPENLOOP Power Control: Purely MobileControlled Operation
Step Size for a Single Access Probe is Specified by the System Parameter PWR_STEP
(equivalent to BSS RF Parameters in GSM)
The Standard Specifies that the MS uses initially the Received power from the BTS :
If the MS receives strong DL level => MS assumes BTS close and then transmit at
low level
Alternatively MS transmits at high level if the initial DL Level is low
Initial MS Transmit Power (dBm) :
NOM_PWR and INIT_PWR : Broadcast by the BS in the “access parameters message”
These can be set by the Operators for further fine tuning
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
PWR INIT PWR NOM p p
r initial t
_ _ 73
,
+ + − − =
58
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
During a call :
MS continues to calculate Pr
Path Loss changes as the MS moves and Pr also
OpenLoop PC adjusts the MS Transmit power using :
VERY IMPORTANT NOTES :
UL and DL frequencies are different
Fast Rayleigh Fading is FrequencySelective
OpenLoop PC too slow to compensate Rayleigh Fading
However, OpenLoop PC suitable for LogNormal (slow) Fading
Correlation between UL and DL concerning SlowFading but not Fast
Rayleigh Fading
ClosedLoop PC compensates Fast Rayleigh Fading
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
∑
+ + + − − = . . Pr . _ _ 73 Correct Acc PWR INIT PWR NOM p p
r t
59
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CLOSEDLOOP Power Control : Involves BOTH the MS and the BS
During the call :
BS monitors the UL and measures the link Quality
If the UL quality becomes bad : BS commands MS to powerup
If the If the UL quality becomes too good : BS commands MS to power
down
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
BS Monitors
UL E
b
/N
o
E
b
/N
o
> Threshold
BS Commands MS
to
PowerDown
BS Commands MS
to
PowerUp
Yes
No
60
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CLOSEDLOOP PC
BS Sends PC commands to the MS using the DL
PC Commands are in the form of PowerControl Bits (PCBs)
Each Powerup or Powerdown amount is +1 dB or 1 dB
MS response must be fast (Fast Rayleigh Fading)
PCBs are sent through the Traffic channel
Bits are robbed (stolen) from the Traffic Channel in order to send the PCBs
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
Conv.
Encoder
R=1/2
MUX Spreading
Vocoder
12.2 kbps
24.4 kbps 24.4 kbps
3.84 Mchip/s
PCB @ 1500 bps (1500 Hz)
61
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control
o
b
N
E
Threshold
INNER LOOP
1. Measure Eb/No
2. Compare Eb/No
to Threshold
3. Decide which PCB
to send
OUTER LOOP
Adjusting Eb/No
Threshold
62
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
SOFTHANDOVER
During the communication, the MS simultaneously maintains connection with
two or three Base Stations,
A Traffic Channel is maintained with both cells,
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover
BS1 (Home Cell)
BS2 (Target Cell)
RNC
MS Combines the two signals
using the Rake Receiver
DOWNLINK
63
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
SOFTHANDOVER
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover
BS1 (Home Cell)
BS2 (Target Cell)
UPLINK
Demodulated Frame 1
Demodulated Frame 2
SELECTOR
RNC
Selects the Best Frame with
the best FER value !
64
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover
SOFTERHANDOVER
Softer Handover is considered when two cells (or sectors) of the same site are
involved
on the DL the same process happens at the MS : demodulation and Maximum
Combining using the Rake Receiver features
on the UL, two sectors of the same site simultaneously receive two signals from
the mobile
The signals are demodulated and combined inside the Site, but only ONE
frame is sent back to the RNC
65
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover
SOFTER HANDOVER ILLUSTRATION
RNC
Only 1 Frame sent
back to the RNC
BTS
Home Cell
Target Cell
66
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover
HARDHANDOVER
HardHandover occurs from CDMA carrier to another CDMA Carrier or CDMA
to Analog Carrier. CDMA to CDMA HO is sometimes called DtoD Handover.
HardHandover in UMTS may concern WCDMA to GSM or WCDMA to
GSM1800
f1
f2
f2
f1
BS1
BS2
MS
67
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
Each Sector is distinguished from one another by its PILOT channel : 4 Logical
Channels on the DL are Defined : Pilot, Paging, Synch., and Traffic Channels
P
o
w
e
r
Frequency
PILOT CHANNEL
PAGING CHANNEL
SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL
TRAFFIC CHANNEL 1 : USER 1
TRAFFIC CHANNEL 2 : USER 2
TRAFFIC CHANNEL K : USER K
68
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
6Sector Site
3Sector Site
Each Sector uses a different PILOT and is assigned a different PN
Code with an offset to distinguish it from other Sectors
69
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
For Traffic(Voice and Data) we use Eb/No, but for PILOT a special term to
describe the SNR is the Ec/Io
Ec/Io : Energy per chip per interference density
Ec : related to the spreading code, hence the term “chip”
Since no Baseband data is transmitted through the Pilot, there is no
Despread and bits are not recovered, unlike for Traffic channels
(baseband)
Ec/Io : defines the signal strength of a PILOT channel
The PILOT is not Despread : No despreading gain !
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
70
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
MS is an intimate in the SHO in WCDMA :
MS Measures the Ec/Io and report it the the BTS
BTS transmits a PN Sequence using different offsets for each sector
Ec/Io gives a good indication on whether or not a sector should the serving
cell
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
PN1
PN2
PN3
Example with 3 PILOTS
Highway or Road
71
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
During HO Management Process :
MS maintains in its Memory four exclusive lists of
Sectors
Sectors stored in the form of PN offsets
Four Exclusive List of sectors called : SETS
Active Set
Candidate Set
Neighbor Set
Remaining Set
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
72
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Active Set (A) :
Contains all Sectors communicating with the MS on traffic channels
If the Active Set contains only one Pilot : NO SHO
If the Active Set contains more than one Pilot : the MS is maintaining
communication with all the Active Set Sectors with Different Traffic
Channels
Active can contain 6 Pilots : UL Diversity maximized
A Pilot enters the (A) only if the RNC decides and then sends a “handover
Direction Message” to the message to add that pilot into (A)
Candidate Set (C) :
Contains Pilots whose Ec/Io are sufficient to make them HO Candidates
If Ec/Io > Threshold (Pilot Detection Threshold or T_ADD in Database),
the Pilot will be added to the (C)
A Pilot is deleted from the (C) and moved to the Neighbor Set (N) if Ec/Eo
< Threshold (“Pilot Drop Threshold” or T_DROP in Database)
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
73
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
A Pilot is removed from (C) if its Ec/Io drops below T_DROP threshold for more
than duration specified by T_TDROP : „Handover Drop Timer Expiration
Value“ and put in (N) set
The (C) Set can contain at least 6 Pilots
T_DROP
Counter = 0
Counter = T_DROP
Ec/Io
time
Pilot put in (N) set
Pilot still in (C) set
74
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
The Neighbor Set (N) : contains those Pilots that are in the Neighbor List of
the MS´s Serving Cell
Initially :
(N) contains Pilots sent to the MS in the ´Neighbor List Message´ by the
Serving Cell
To keep current Pilots in the (N), MS keeps an aging counter for each Pilot in
(N) : NGHBR_MAX_AGE
Counter is reset (counter = 0) when Pilot is moved from (A)/(C) to (N)
Counter incremented for each Pilot in (N) whenever a Neighbor List update
message is received
The (N) Set can contain up to 20 Pilots
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
75
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
The Remaing Set (R) : Contains all possible Pilots in the System for this UMTS
carrier Frequency, except pilots in (A), (C) or (N)
In (R) Pilot PN offsets are defined by the Parameter PILOT_INC
Example :
) If PILOT_INC = 4 ; each sector in the Network can only transmit 0, 4, 8 , 12, etc.
PILOT_INC is sent to the MS inthe „Neighbor List Message“ and
„Neighbor List Update Message“
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
76
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA
Ec/Io
Distance
T_ADD
T_DROP
Source
Cell A
Target
Cell B
1 Pilot (A) in Active Set
1 Pilot (B) in Active Set
2 Pilots (A&B)
In Active Set : MS is in SHO
77
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HARD HANDOVER in WCDMA
Hard HO includes interfrequency HO :
) Cells with multiple Carriers with high load
) WCDMA GSM
f1, f2
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
GSM
WCDMA
78
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
HARD HANDOVER in UMTS
A
B
C
H
O
Q
u
a
l
i
t
y
M
e
a
s
u
r
e
(
d
B
)
Time Replace A
by C
Replace C
by A
Replace A
by B
79
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Cell Breathing Concept in UMTS
LOAD
The Cell Size Shrinks due to Loading
1. UL NoiseRise due to owncell or othercell UL interference translated into Lower
UL MAPL : MAPL2 = MAPL1  NoiseRise (dB)
2. NoiseRise computed Using : 10log
10
(1η) ; η being the Loading due to interference
80
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Cell Breathing : RF Propagation Environment
Basic Concept for Loading and Propagation Environment :
Dense Urban : L
p
= 127 + 45*log
10
(r)
MAPL = 126.7 dB using η = 0.5 (50 % loading)
η = 0.5 => owncell interference is twice the othercell interference
r = 0.984 km but reduces to 0.501 km using η = 0.75 loading
49 % Range Loss in DENSE URBAN
50 %
Loading
75 %
Loading
HIGHER LOADING
81
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Suburban : L
p
= 123 + 33*log
10
(r)
MAPL = 133.7 dB using η = 0.5 (50 % loading)
r = 2.1 km and reduces to r = 1.7 km @ η = 0.75
19 % Range Loss in SUBURBAN
Cell Breathing : RF Propagation Environment
MAPL (η = 0) Ideal Case
MAPL (η = 50%) or Noise Rise = 3 dB
MAPL (η = 75 %) or Noise Rise = 6 dB
Log(d)
Dense Urban
Suburban
P
a
t
h
L
o
s
s
(
d
B
)
3 dB
6 dB
82
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Soft Capacity
WCDMA System is limited by interference sharing between neighbor cells
Capacity is dynamically changing due to different traffic variation
Hard Capacity is limited by Hardware Limitation : TRX namely
Equally Loaded Cells
Less Interference in the Neighboring Cells
=> Higher Capacity in the Middle Cell
Soft Capacity = (Erlang Capacity with Soft Blocking / Erlang Capacity with Hard Blocking)  1
Number of Channels N Number of Channel Pool = N*(1+i)
83
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
i is defined by :
i = Other Cell Interference / Own Cell Interference
) i = 0.55 for Omni Cell
) i = 0.55 for 2sector cell
) i = 0.65 for 3sector cell
) i = 0.75 for 4sector cell
) i = 0.85 for 6sector cell
Soft Capacity Calculation Procedure :
1. Compute the Number of Channels N in equally loaded case based on Uplink
Load Factor :
2. Npool = N*(1+i)
3. Use Erlang B table to compute the Offered Capacity
) Offered Capacity (Erlang) = ErlangB(Npool, 2%)
4. Soft Capacity (Erlang) = Offered Capacity(Erlang) / (1+i)
5. Soft Capacity (%) = (Soft Capacity (Erlang)/Offered Capacity (Erlang)) 1
Soft Capacity


.

\



.

\

+

.

\

=
o
b
N
E
v i
R
W
N
) 1 (
η
84
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Example
Assumptions
Computation of Number of Channels :
W/R = 3.84*1000/12.2 = 314.75
Eb/No = 4 dB = 2.51
v = 0.67 (67 % Voice Activity Factor)
N = 60.4 channels
N
pool
= 60.4*(1+0.55) = 93.6 Channels
Offered Capacity = ErlangB (94 channels, 2% GoS) = 82.17 Erlang
Soft Capacity = 82.17/(1+0.55) = 53 Erlang
Hard Capacity = ErlangB (61 channels, 2% GoS) = 50.6 Erlang
Soft Capacity (%) = 53.6/50.6 1 = 4.74 approximately 5%
Soft Capacity
PARAMETER VA LUE
Bit Rate Speech @ 12. 2 kbps
Voice Activit y Fact or 67 %
Eb/ No Sppech : 4 dB
i 0.55 assuming an Omni Cell
Noise Ri se 3 dB (50 % Lo ad Factor )
GoS 2 %
85
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity
 Sensitivity is affected by interference (Loading)
Maximum Capacity is related to the amount of UL interference a system can tolerate
Mmax : Maximum number of simultaneous users supported by a single cellcarrier @ 100%
Loading assuming that all users are using the same service (e.g. speech or Data). Also
called the Pole Capacity.
For a Multiservice system :
Mn : The Number of simultaneous users for the n th service
( )
UL UL
I η − × − = 1 log 10
max
10
10 1
M
M
UL
I
UL
= − =
−
η
... 10 1
max , 3
3
max , 2
2
max , 1
1
10
+ + + = − =
−
M
M
M
M
M
M
UL
I
UL
η
86
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Maximum UL Capacity figures
F Values are :
0.67 for Omni,
) 0.93 for 3sector,
) 0.4 for Microcells (without the presence of Fast Fading)
numerical
I
C
F
M

.

\

× +
+ =
) 1 (
1
1
max
10
10
dB
dB
o
b
R
W
N
E
I
C

.

\

−


.

\

=
CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity
87
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity
Site
Configuration
Pedestrian A
3 km/h without
Fast Fading
Pedestrian B
3 km/h with
Fast Fading
Vehicular A 120
km/h with Fast
Fading
Omni 0.84 / 0.67 0.67 0.67
3Sector 1.16 / 0.93 0.93 0.93
Microcell 0.5 / 0.4 0.4 0.4
F Values on the UL
Service Pedestrian A
Mmax
without Fast
Fading
Pedestrian B
Mmax
with Fast
Fading
Vehicular A
Mmax
With Fast
Fading
Speech 12.2 kbps 94.6 / 105.9 84.4 56.3
Circuit 128 kbps 8.5 / 9.3 7.9 6.8
Circuit 384 kbps 4.2 / 4.6 3.7 3.2
Packet 128 kbps 11.1 / 12.3 9.9 8.1
Packet 384 kbps 4.3 / 4.8 4.0 3.4
Typical Uplink Mmax Values for a 3 Sector Site
88
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Example of Computation of Mmax
1. Assume we use Packet Data @ 384 kbps and a tri
sectorial Site Configuration; What is the Mmax ?
Answer : W/R = 3840/384 = 10 = 10 dB; Eb/No = 1.5 dB
F = 0.93 and C/I = 0.14125 => Mmax = 4.66 users
2. Assume we use Packet Data @ 144 kbps and a 3
sector site configuration; What is the Mmax?
CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity
89
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
In the DL, each user is subjected to different interference levels
Therefore, no single interference level is valid in the DL
For dimensioning purposes, the current solution is to use simulation. Mostly, researchers do use
Monte Carlo Random Number Generation Algorithms
CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity
Urban Environment  Pedestrian A 3 km/h
Assumptions : 18 dBi Antennas, PL = 134.7 + 35.2 log(R),
Antenna Height 30 m, No Body Loss Considered
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Cell Range (km)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
L
o
a
d
i
n
g
(
%
)
0 dB
5 dB
10 dB
15 dB
20 dB
25 dB
90
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity
Service Dense Urban &
Suburban
Rural
Speech 12.2 kbps 86.4 64.1
Circuit 128 kbps 7.3 4.1
Circuit 384 kbps 2.7 1.6
Packet 128 kbps 8.4 5.2
Packet 384 kbps 2.8 1.7
Recommended Mmax Values for 3sector site Configuration
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CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity
Open Area  Vehicular A 120 km/h
Assumptions : 18 dBi Antennas, PL = 105 + 33.8 log(R), Antenna Height 50
m, 3 dB Body Loss
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Cell Range (km)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
L
o
a
d
i
n
g
(
%
)
0 dB
5dB
10dB
15dB
20dB
25dB
92
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity
Example
Estimate the Number of Speech Users supported in an Urban Environment :
Cell Range : 1 km
18 dB Building Penetration Loss
4 dB Feeder Loss
18 dBi Antenna Gain
Answer
1. Take the Mmax value for Speech 12.2 kbps
) It would be 86.4 users
Find at which relative load the 25 dB curve crosses the 1 km range
) It would be 40%
Calculate the supported relative Load :
) It would be 86.4 X 0.4 = 34 simultaneous users
93
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Total Loading :
Loading = M1/M1max + M2/M2max + M3/M3max + …
Within a Cell, one service may have higher loading than another
which leads to :
1 >= M1/(L1*M1max) + M2/(L2*M2max) + M3/(L3*M3max) +…
L
i
: is the Maximum Load of Service i that a cell is able to support
at a given range
Example of Mixed Services
Assume we are interested in Speech @ 7.95 kbps mixed with
Data @ 32 kbps in an Open Area (Vehicular A) at a range of 20
km. A 6 dB incar Penetration loss and 2 dB Feeder Loss are
assumed :
M1max = 64.1 users for Speech @ 7.95 kbps
M2max = 16.4 users for Packet Data @ 32 kbps
CAPACITY in UMTS : Mixed Services (1/2)
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A) For Speech, find the Relative Load the 8 dB (BL + BPL + L
f+j
) Curve
Crosses the 20 km Cell Range
Ans. 65%
B) For Packet Data, find at which Relative Load the 5 dB (BPL + L
f+j
) Curve
Crosses the 20 km Cell Range :
Ans. 75%
Note 1: This examples confirms that some Services may have higher relative
load than others
Note 2 : The above Loads are the Maximum Allowed Loads for Each Service,
when offered as a Single Service
C) Determine M1 and M2 that fulfill the following Equations :
1 >= M1/(0.65*64.1) + M2/(0.75*16.4) (Cell Range Limitation)
0.65 >= M1/64.1 + M2/16.4 (Total Load Limitation)
At this stage it is necessary to determine the capacity distribution between
Service Types : We assume Speech Traffic approximately 10 times
Packet Data Traffic, hence : M1 = 10*M2
This Leads to M1 = 29 and M2 = 3 ; we verify that Loading = 63 % < 65%
CAPACITY in UMTS : Mixed Services (1/2)
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Concluding Remarks : CDMA System Capacity
Capacity, or number of simultaneous users M, is directly
proportional to the Processing Gain of the System
Capacity is inversely proportional to the required E
b
/N
o
of the
system. The lower the required threshold E
b
/N
o
, the higher the
capacity
Capacity can be increased if one can decrease the amount of
loading from users in adjacent cells
Spatial filtering, such as sectorization, increases system
capacity. For example, a 6sector cell would have a higher
capacity than a 3sector cell.
Spread Spectrum Modulation
n(t) NarrowBand Signal Sn ε( ) SW Radio Propagation Channel ε−1( ) Narrowband Signal S’n
Transmitter
i(t)
Receiver
SPREAD SPECTRUM SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM Sn : Narrowband Modulated Binary Sequence (information : Speech or Data) ε( ) : Spreading function using high chiprate modulation ε1( ) : Despreading function using the same sequence as ε( ) n(t) : Gaussian WhiteNoise ; i(t) : Interference
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Digital Modulation in WCDMA : QPSK for DL and BPSK in UL
PSK or Phase Shift Keying is advantageous compared to other modulations : Constant Amplitude Data information is “hidden” in the Phase component Robustness to Noise and Interference because Noise in general affects the Amplitude and not the Phase Component
QPSK is a 4state Modulation scheme :
Used in DL because of High Data Rate demand Same Properties as the PSK : Constant Amplitude and Data in the Phase component
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
0 ≤ t ≤ Tb .BPSK Modulation Binary Phase Shift Keying Modulation is a twostate Modulation scheme In BPSK the signal can take two states : A binary digit is mapped to high frequency carrier sinusoidal waveform of a given phase as given below : For a 1 Transmitted symbol : s1 (t ) = A cos(2πf c t ) = 2 Eb cos(2πf c t ) Tb for a 0 Transmitted symbol : s2 (t ) = A cos(2πf c t + π ) = − A= 2 Eb Tb 2 Eb cos(2πf c t ) Tb Where the Amplitude. Eb is the transmitted Energy per bit The duration of this sinusoidal waveform is Tb © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
the n c carrier frequency fc has to fulfill the condition : f c = where nc is a fixed T b integer number. For the above example nc = 2 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .BPSK Modulation Example Tb = nc*Tcarrier 1 Tcarrier = 1/fc 0 0 1 To ensure that each transmitted binary digit contains an integer number of cycles.
Mathematically this can be represented as a multiplication of the carrier by a function c(t) which takes the values +1 and 1 Assume data modulated carrier of power P and frequency ω0 and phase modulated θd(t) Binary Data Phase Modulator 2 P cos(ω 0t + θ d (t ) ) 2 P c(t ) cos(ω 0t + θ d (t 2 P cos(ω 0t ) c(t ) BPSK DS SS Transmitter © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .Modulation Example : BPSK BPSK Modulation shifts the PHASE of the DATA modulated carrier by 180 degrees.
Modulation Example : BPSK The Wideband Signal is transmitted througha channel having a delay td The received signal is mixed with interference and Gaussian Noise Despreading is done by remodulating the wideband signal with adhoc delayed spread code as shown bellow 2Pc(t −τ d ) cos[ω0t +θd (t −τ d ) + φ ] + n(t) ' c(t − τ d ) Bandpass Filter Data Phase Demodulator Estimated D BPSK DS Receiver © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Modulation Example : BPSK The remodulation or correlation of the received signal with the delayed spreading code is a critical function in all SS Systems The signal component of the Output of the despreading Mixer is given by : ' Sn (t) = 2Pc(t −τ d )c(t −τ 'd ) cos[ω0t +θd (t −τ d ) + φ ] τ’d is the receiver’s best estimate of the Transmission delay Since c(t) equals +1 or 1 the product c(t −τ d )c(t −τ 'd ) will be +1 if the delays τd = τ’d that is. © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . if the spreading code and the despreading code are SYNCHRONIZED.
BPSK Spectral Density Before Spreading and for Tb as a bit duration the twosided power spectral Density is given by : Sn ( f ) = 1 PTb sin c 2 [( f − f 0 )Tb ] + sin c 2 [( f + f 0 )Tb ] 2 { } After the Spreading we use the Chip duration Tc instead of Tb because of the involvement of the Chip (code) : S n' ( f ) = 1 PTc sin c 2 [( f − f 0 )Tc ] + sin c 2 [( f + f 0 )Tc ] 2 { } Where sinc function (Also known as the Cardinal Sinus) is given by : sin c( x) = sin( x) x © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
7 (sinx/x)^2 0.4 x (DEGREES) 900 sin c( x) = sin( x) x 1 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.2 0 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0.6 SIN(x)/x 0.5 0.3 0.1 0 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 sin( x) sin c 2 ( x) = x 2 x (DEGREES) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .8 0.BPSK Power Spectral Density 1 0.4 0.
QPSK Modulation * QPSK is very similar to BPSK. * Each Waveform can represent two binary digits si (t ) = 2 Es π cos 2πf c t + (2i − 1) 4 Ts where i = 1.4 * Es is the Transmitted Signal Energy per Symbol * Ts is the Symbol Duration. except that now one of four possible waveforms is transmitted through the channel.3.2. Note that each symbol can represent 2 binary digits unlike BPSK in which each symbol was just a sungle binary digit * fc is the carrier frequency equal to nc/Tc as in BPSK description © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
QPSK Modulation BASIS Functions In this case we use ORTHONORMAL basis functions as follows : φ1 (t ) = 2 cos(2πf c t ) Ts φ2 (t ) = 2 sin (2πf c t ) Ts The Coordinates on the signal Constellation (or Space) diagram are given by : x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt 0 Ts x2 = ∫ r (t )φ 2 (t )dt 0 Ts r(t) = si(t) + n(t) is the received signal : Either signal s1 or s2 + Random Noise © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
QPSK Modulation : Constellation The signal Constellation diagram for QPSK is shown bellow. The signal points are mapped to a pair of binary digits as shown The Decision boundaries are shown as solid Horizontal Vertical lines Notice how this mapping has been chosen so that neighboring signal points differ in only a SINGLE BINARY DIGIT © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
signal B(11) and D(10) differ in only binary digit position If for example. we can expect the probability of an error in a binary digit to half of the probability of an error in a symbol Example Under the conditions of no noise. This Type of Mapping is called GRAY ENCODING The gray encoding scheme used will mean that on average. the signal point A is transmitted and a Symbol Error occurs. it is very likely that the received symbol will be either C or D.QPSK Modulation For example. the coordinates of a signal point are given by : and π x1 = Es cos (2i − 1) 4 π x2 = − Es sin (2i − 1) 4 Test : Verify the above formulas for i=1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
QPSK Modulation : Answer 2 Es x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = Ts 0 Ts Ts Ts π π cos(2πf c t ) cos( 2πf c t ) cos( ) − sin( 2πf c t ) sin( ) dt ∫ 4 4 0 T 2 Es 2 s 2 x1 = ∫ r (t )φ1 (t )dt = × ∫ cos (2πf ct ) − sin(2πf ct ) cos(2πf ct ) dt Ts 2 0 0 ( ) cos 2 θ = 1 (1 + cos(2θ ) ) 2 sin θ cos θ = 1 sin( 2θ ) 2 x1 = Es 2 Es x2 = − 2 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
QPSK Coherent Receiver © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Multiple Access : Principal of Spread Spectrum (SS) Each User encodes its signal Code Signal Bandwidth (W) > Information Bandwidth Transmission Spread Spectrum f f The Receiver knows the code sequence Reception Despreading P f f © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Correlating the Received Signal despreads ONLY the WANTED SIGNAL p S1 p S1xC1 f p RECEIVER of USER 1 f p S1 = S1 X C1 X C1 S2 X C2 X C1 p S2 p f S2xC2 f f © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . All Users’ Signals overlap in TIME and FREQUENCY 2.CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Multiple Access Features 1.
CDMA Multiple Access Advantages : Interference Rejection S1 p p S1xC1 f p f S1 IxC1 f I p I f f Correlation Narrowband Interference Spread the power © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Principles : Multiplexing A m1(t) c1(t) Radio Propagation Channel B1 m’1(t) ∫ D/A c1(t) B2 m’2(t) ∫ D/A m2(t) A c2(t) c2(t) Transmitter c1(t) and c2(t) are Orthogonal Codes Receiver : T ∫ c (t )c (t )dt = 0 1 2 0 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Walsh Codes (1/6) Since all the WCDMA users use the same RF Band in the DL. Hadamard Matrix is a recursive Matrix : H H 2N = N H N Where HN HN 0 0 H2 = 0 1 H H4 = 2 H 2 0 H 2 0 = 0 H2 0 Example : N=2 0 0 0 W0 1 0 1 W1 = 0 1 1 W2 1 1 0 W3 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . to avoid mutual interference Walsh codes are used.
Walsh Codes (2/6) Walsh codes are thus given by : W0 = [− 1 − 1 − 1 − 1] W1 = [− 1 1 − 1 1] W2 = [− 1 − 1 1 1] W3 = [− 1 1 1 − 1] Afterwards. © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . replacing 0 by 1 we obtain the real Walsh codes used in WCDMA Note : Except W0 all the codes satisfy orthogonality and dot product conditions to be used in WCDMA.
Walsh Codes : Example (3/6) Assume three different users with three different data sequences : m1 (t ) = [+ 1 − 1 + 1] m2 (t ) = [+ 1 + 1 − 1] m3 (t ) = [− 1 + 1 + 1] Assume we have a Spreading factor of 4 then : The Spread Spectrum Signal would be for user1 : W1(t) m1(t) S1(t) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 × 1 1 1 1 1 1 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
for user j for example : m1(t) = w1(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m1(t) is fully recovered which yields the original signal : [+1 1 +1] m2(t) = w2(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m2(t) is fully recovered which yields the original signal : [+1 +1 1] m3(t) = w3(t)C(t) = [4 4 4] and using an integrator m3(t) is fully recovered which yields the original signal : [1 +1 +1] © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .Walsh Codes : Example (4/6) The Resulting SS Signal for the three users can be written as follows : C (t ) = w1 (t ) m1 (t ) + w2 (t ) m 2 (t ) + w3 (t ) m 3 (t ) And the bit sequence would be : C (t ) = [− 1 − 1 − 1 3 −1 −1 3 −1 −1 3 − 1 − 1] If no error is encountered each user decodes its signal using the despreading function.
it is subsampled back down to the original data rate. The transmitted signals from all the users are combined together. adding multipath interference. The RMS amplitude error directly relates to the bit error rate. This allows for clipping of the signal. is compared with the expected amplitude of the signal based on the transmitted data. After the received signal has been despread using the Walsh code. © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . The RMS amplitude error is also worked out. The receiver uses the same Walsh code that was used by the transmitter to demodulate the signal and recover the data. and adding Guassian noise to the signal. Each user is randomly allocated a Walsh code to spread the data to be transmitted. The received data is then compared with the original data transmitted to calculate the bit error rate (BER). This is done by using an integrate and dump filter. The signal level after it has been demodulated and filtered. then passed through a radio channel model.Walsh Codes : Example (4/6) C(t) C(t) W1(t) m1' (t ) Tb ∫ C (t )W1 (t )dt 0 1 or 1 W1(t) C (t )W1 (t ) = [1 − 1 1 3 1 − 1 − 3 − 1 1 3 1 − 1] 4 4 m1' (t ) = [4 − 4 4] 4 m1' (t ) is computed over the information period Tb using a summation The forward link of the CDMA system modeled uses orthogonal Walsh codes to separate the users. so is a useful measurement to make. followed by a comparator to decide whether the data was a 1 or a 0.
Walsh Codes : SelfTest
Compute the Hadamard Matrix for N=4 What are the Possible Orthogonal Walsh Codes ? Given a signal m1(t) and m2(t) as follows :
m1(t) = [1 1]; m2(t) = [1 1]; m3(t) = [1 1]; Compute the composite spread spectrum signal Verify that m1(t), m2(t) and m3(t) are fully recovered
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Walsh Codes SelfTest : Answer
0 0 0 H 4 0 = 0 H4 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
H H8 = 4 H 4
First row is not considered as an orthogonal code, all the remaining rows are Walsh codes by replacing each 0 by 1. Basically 7 Walsh codes are thus generated.
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Walsh Codes SelfTest : Answer
m1=[1 1] m2 = [1 1] m3 = [1 1] m1 W1 S1 = W1*m1 m2 W2 S2 = W2*m2 m3 W3 S3 = W3*m3 C=W1*m1+W2*m2+W3*m3 W1*C After Integrator After Threshold Decision W2*C After Integrator After Threshold Decision W3*C After Integrator After Threshold Decision 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 8 1 1 8 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 3
3 1 3 1
1 1 3 1
3 1 8 1 3 1 8 1 3 1 8 1
1
1
3 1
1
1
1 3
1 1
1 3 1
1 1
3
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3 1
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Y = 1≤ i ≤ I ∑x y i i Example of orthogonal codes : − 1 − 1 − 1 1 1 − 1 Rxy (0) = [− 1 − 1 1 1]. = 1 − 1 + 1 − 1 = 0 Y = X = 1 1 1 − 1 1 − 1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Principles CrossCorrelation Rxy(τ) : Crosscorrelation if τ=0 : R xy (τ ) = ∫ x (t ) y (t − τ ) dt 0 T Rxy (0) = ∫ x(t ) y (t )dt 0 T If x and y are discrete sequence (binary signals): Rxy ( 0 ) = X T .
CDMA Principles To be used in DSSS CDMA Codes must satisfy the following conditions : Zero Crosscorrelation Number of +1s and 1s must be the same Dot Product must be equal to 1 Example : Dot product of the previous example is : X T . X / 4 = (1 + 1 + 1 + 1) / 4 = 1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
c1(t) 4Tc 1/Tb C1(f)* M1(f) 1/Tc f 1/Tb 1/Tc © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Principles m1(t) 1 1 1 M1(f) Tc : Chip Rate of the PN Code Tb : Information rate (voice/data) Tb c1(t) 2Tb 3Tb 1/Tb C1(f) f f Tc m1(t).
the Reverse Link Capacity is often the limiting link in terms of capacity In CDMA : Uplink Receive Power is equal from all MSs.CDMA Fundamentals W/R : Defined as the system processing gain In CDMA. Per user : S/N = 1/(M1) M : Total Number of users in the cell S = S (The wanted signal) N = (M1)S => S/N = 1/(M1) Example : If M=7 then S/N = 1/6 S S S S W M ≈ R Eb No M : The Number of simultaneous users a CDMA cell can support if M>>1 then © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
2 Mcps => G = W/Rb = 150 = 21 dB No E S = b N dB N o W − dB Rb > 6 dB − 21dB = − 15 dB dB © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Multiple Access : Principal of Spread Spectrum (SS) Eb = Signal Power / Bit Rate = S/Rb No = Noise Power / Bandwidth = N/W Eb S W = × N o N Rb Signal to Noise Ratio Processing Gain Example : Given a Demodulator Performance Eb > 6dB Bit rate Rb = 8 kpbs Bandwidth W = 1.
No M −1 R 1+η where η is the loading factor (0 < η < 1) We define F as the Frequency reuse : 1 F= 1+η Where η is given by : η = I Other _ Cell _ Interference I Own _ cell _ Interference © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . .CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity If other users from other cells are considered. the actual cell becomes loaded and : Eb 1 1 W = .
CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity B1 Cell A Cell B B2 C1 C2 Cell C Interference Introduced by Users in the Neighboring Cells © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity Cell A Cell B Cell C Unwanted interferers rejected by antenna pattern of Cell A Sectorization Reduces Interference and adds a Gain to the system : Sectorization Gain © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
5 in practice) 6Sectors : λ= 6 (5 in practice) Sectorization Gain = λ = Total Interfering Power from all Directions/ Perceived Interference Power by the sector antenna.CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity Sectorization Gain : TriSectors : λ = 3 (2. G is the antenna pattern in given direction 2π λ= ∫ I (θ )dθ 0 2π G (θ ) ∫ G(0) I (θ )dθ 0 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
λ. .CDMA Fundamentals : Capacity Voice Activity Factor : Interference is reduced when the user is not transmitting Eb 1 W 1 1 . . . M ≈ Eb η + 1 v N o © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . = No M −1 R 1 + η v The final value for M : W λ 1 R .
without presence of Noise the channel capacity is infinite 2. For a given Signal Level the capacity tends to a constant value as the bandwidth increases. © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .ShannonHartley Theorem Generic Model Bandlimited White Noise Radio Propagation Channel + Received Signal Noise+Signa 1. In Theory.
CDMA Multiple Access Principle Shannon Theorem Channel Capacity C (Bit/s) given by Shannon Theorem : S C = W × log 2 1 + N W : System Bandwidth (Hz) S/N : Signal to Noise Ratio (numerical value) C : System Capacity (bit/s) Wide W and Low S/N (such as in WCDMA) Same Capacity Narrow W and Large S/N (such as in GSM) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
ShannonHartley Theorem C can also be written as : S ln1 + N oW = 1. 44 × N lim x→ ∞ t 0 t→0 t2 t3 t− + + .4 kHz © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . Numerical Example : For a data rate of 10kbps... and SNR of 20 dB then W = 694.44 × S × x ln1 + 1 C =W × N ln 2 x o where x= WN o S assuming W to be infinite : S ln( 1 + t ) lim C = 1 . 44 × = 1 . 44 × W × t→0 N0 t N Thus for any degrading S/N we can transfer data with low BER if we increase the bandwidth used to transfer the data. S S 2! 3! lim = 1 .
N W N 0 Or equivalently : E Eb 2 −1 = ⇒ b N C N0 0 W C W = 10 log dB 10 C 2W −1 C W © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .Bandwidth Efficiency Bandwidth Efficiency is a measure of how well a particular modulation and errorcontrol coding scheme is making use of the available bandwidth Example : If a system requires 4 kHz of bandwidth to continuously send 8000 binary digits/sec. where C is given by the ShannonHartley theorem : E C S C = W × log 2 1 + = W × log 2 1 + b . we would require a bandwidth efficiency = 16000/4000 = 4 bits/s/Hz In this case of an ideal system. rb = 1/Tb = C. the bandwidth efficiency = 8000/4000 = 2 bits/s/Hz Notice that to double the rate at which binary digits are sent over the given communication channel.
7 0.5 2.49 7.76 4.48 7.5 0. R/W 1 1.1 5.9 4.7 14 17.7 10.Bandwidth Efficiency Bandwidth Efficiency Versus Eb/No 10 Bandwidth Efficiency.1 Eb/No (dB) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
by what amount should the basestation and handsets transmitted powers be increased to maintain coverage and errorfree communication ? © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . ** What is the minimum Eb/No in dB required to ensure that users on the edge of the coverage area receive errorfree communication ? ** To Double the number of users on the existing communication system.Bandwidth Efficiency SelfTest * A Digital Cellular Phone System is required to work at a bandwidth efficiency of 4 bits/s/Hz to ensure sufficient users to make it profitable.
CDMA Principles
Amplitude
λ/2
distance
Mobile The MS crosses 2 fades in :
λ
2 v
Example : @ 900 MHz and v = 90 km/h (25 m/s) MS crosses fades every 6.67 ms @ 1800 MHz MS crosses fades every 3.335 ms
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
Tb Propagation Time T1
Delay Spread = τ = T2  T1 Propagation Time T2 τ Here τ < Tb implies Interference
Example : D1 = 150 m and D2 = 200 m => T1 = 150/3*108 = 0.5 µs and T2 = 0.66 µs => τ = 0.16 µs Assume we have a UMTS Service R = 3.84 Mchps => Tb = 0.26 µs τ < Tb => INTERSYMBOL INTERFERENCE PRESENT
BTS
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
Multipath Immunity WCDMA is inherently tolerant to multipath delay spread signals as any signal which is delayed by more than one chip time becomes uncorrelated to the PN code used to decode the signal. This results in the multipath simply appearing as noise. This noise leads to an increase in the amount of interference seen by each user subjected to the multipath and thus increases the received BER.
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread
Received Power
τ1= 3µs
τ2= 4µs τ3
Time (µs)
Inter Symbol Interference can occur if the delay spread τn is greater than one symbol period
t
: The higher the bit rate, the more ISI occur
© Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004
CDMA Principles : Delay Spread Example 1: Let us consider a Mobile Communications System that uses Rb = 270.2288 Mbps = 1228800 bps The bit period is thus Tb = 1/ 1228800 = 1 µs Conclusion : bit period is much LESS than 4 µs as shown on the delay spread powe profile => ISI would not normally exist ! Important note : CDMA Rake Receive uses a special form of Time Diversity to recover the signal. CDMA Rake receiver combines multipath components and suppresses phase differences provided that delays are not very small © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .83 kbps The bit period is thus Tb = 1/270830 = 3.69 µs Conclusion : bit period almost equal to 4 µs as shown on the delay spread power profile => ISI would normally exist ! Without use of Viterbibased EQUALIZER such as in GSM Example 2: Let us consider a Mobile Communications System that uses Rb = 1.
Amplitude .The Principal of Maximum Ratio Combining in CDMA Rake Receiver Transmitted Symbol .Phase Received Signal at each time delay Modified Signal Using Channel Estimator Combined Symbol θ θ Figure #1 Figure #2 Figure #3 θ θ θ © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Block Diagram of CDMA Rake Receiver I Q Channel Estimator Phase Rotator Channel Estimator Phase Rotator Delay Equalizer Correlator Input RF Signal Code Generator Finger # 1 Delay Equalizer Correlator Code Generator ∑I I Finger # 2 Phase Rotator Delay Equalizer ∑Q Combiner Correlator Code Generator Channel Estimator Q Finger # 3 Timing (finger allocation) Matched Filter © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Rake Receiver : Components Digitized input samples are received from RF Frontend in the form of I and Q components Code Generator and Correlator : Perform despreading and integration to user data symbol Channel estimator : Uses the Pilot symbols to estimate the channel state Phase Rotator : aligns the symbols to the initial phase (phase cancellation) Delay Equalizer : Compensates the Delay in the arrival times of the symbols in each finger Rake Combiner : Sums up the channelcompensated symbols. This is used to assign the Rake fingers to the largest Peaks (Maximum Combining) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . Matched Filter : Determines and Updates the Current Multipath Delay Spread. thereby providing MULTIPATH DIVERSITY against Fading.
τ n S ( f ) n =1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Principles: Delay Spread In Multipath Environment : Received power can be written as : r (t ) = ∑ a n s (t − τ n ) → R ( f ) = S ( f ) ∑ a n exp( − j 2π f .τ n ) n =1 n =1 N N Fourier Transfer Function : N R( f ) H(f ) = = ∑ a n e − j 2πf .
FrequencySelective Fading is evident in the nulls of the Magnitude Spectrum 2.2288 Mbsp (bit period 1 ms) when ISI are to be considered in Dense Urban areas © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Principles : Delay Spread Example with twoequal amplitude paths : a1=a2=A H(f) 2A H ( f ) = 2 cos( π fτ ) 1 2τ 1 τ 3 2τ 2 τ f 1. WCDMA using 5 Mbps (bit period of 0.2 ms) better than IS95 CDMA using only 1. WCDMA is more advantageous than CDMA when the delays are small such as 0.4 ms (Dense Urban and Urban Environments) 3.
Pr.2 = 10 dB (S/N)2 = Pr.90 = 69 dBm Pr.2 .Pr.2 P = 21 dBm MS1 (S/N)1 = Pr.PL2 = 21 .PL1 = 21 .1 = +10 dB MS2 MS2 must be Power Controlled by 10 dB to have the same S/N for both users MS1 and MS2 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control NearFar Problem Pr.100 = 79 dBm Pr.1 = EIRP(MS1) .2 = EIRP(MS2) .2 P = 21 dBm PL1 = 100 dB PL2 = 90 dB Pr.1 .
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control What is the initial MS power to be used ? Maximum MS Power : Advantage : High likelihood to reach the BTS Drawback : Uplink interference Minimum MS Power : Advantage : Low Uplink interference Drawback : Low probability to reach the BTS Solution (IS95 used in WCDMA also) : Use of Access Probes : MS Power Rise portions done gradually Advantage : Avoid Uplink interference and Reach the BTS with sufficient Transmit power © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
a second Access Probe is performed (at a slightly higher power) Process is repeated until the MS receives a response from the BTS MS Transmit Power Second Acces Probe Correction Random Time Intervals First Acces Probe Correction Initial Transmit Power © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control OPENLOOP Power Control: MS Transmits its first access probes at relatively low power MS waits for a response back from the BTS If after a Random time the MS has no acknowledgment from the BTS.
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control OPENLOOP Power Control: Purely MobileControlled Operation Step Size for a Single Access Probe is Specified by the System Parameter PWR_STEP (equivalent to BSS RF Parameters in GSM) The Standard Specifies that the MS uses initially the Received power from the BTS : If the MS receives strong DL level => MS assumes BTS close and then transmit at low level Alternatively MS transmits at high level if the initial DL Level is low Initial MS Transmit Power (dBm) : p t .initial = − p r − 73 + NOM _ PWR + INIT _ PWR NOM_PWR and INIT_PWR : Broadcast by the BS in the “access parameters message” These can be set by the Operators for further fine tuning © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Pr .CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control During a call : MS continues to calculate Pr Path Loss changes as the MS moves and Pr also OpenLoop PC adjusts the MS Transmit power using : p t = − p r − 73 + NOM _ PWR + INIT _ PWR + ∑ Acc .Correct VERY IMPORTANT NOTES : UL and DL frequencies are different Fast Rayleigh Fading is FrequencySelective OpenLoop PC too slow to compensate Rayleigh Fading However. OpenLoop PC suitable for LogNormal (slow) Fading Correlation between UL and DL concerning SlowFading but not Fast Rayleigh Fading ClosedLoop PC compensates Fast Rayleigh Fading © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control CLOSEDLOOP Power Control : Involves BOTH the MS and the BS During the call : BS monitors the UL and measures the link Quality If the UL quality becomes bad : BS commands MS to powerup If the If the UL quality becomes too good : BS commands MS to powerdown BS Commands MS Yes to PowerDown BS Monitors UL Eb/No Eb/No > Threshold BS Commands MS to PowerUp No © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
2 kbps 24. Encoder R=1/2 24.4 kbps 3.84 Mchip MUX Spreading © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control CLOSEDLOOP PC BS Sends PC commands to the MS using the DL PC Commands are in the form of PowerControl Bits (PCBs) Each Powerup or Powerdown amount is +1 dB or 1 dB MS response must be fast (Fast Rayleigh Fading) PCBs are sent through the Traffic channel Bits are robbed (stolen) from the Traffic Channel in order to send the PCBs PCB @ 1500 bps (1500 Hz) Vocoder 12.4 kbps Conv.
Decide which PCB to send © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . Measure Eb/No 2. Compare Eb/No to Threshold 3.CDMA Fundamentals : Power Control OUTER LOOP Adjusting Eb/No Threshold Eb No Threshold INNER LOOP 1.
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover SOFTHANDOVER During the communication. A Traffic Channel is maintained with both cells. BS2 (Target Cell) RNC BS1 (Home Cell) DOWNLINK MS Combines the two signals using the Rake Receiver © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . the MS simultaneously maintains connection with two or three Base Stations.
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover SOFTHANDOVER RNC Demodulated Frame 1 SELECTOR Selects the Best Frame with the best FER value ! Demodulated Frame 2 UPLINK BS2 (Target Cell) BS1 (Home Cell) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover SOFTERHANDOVER Softer Handover is considered when two cells (or sectors) of the same site are involved on the DL the same process happens at the MS : demodulation and Maximum Combining using the Rake Receiver features on the UL. but only ONE frame is sent back to the RNC © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . two sectors of the same site simultaneously receive two signals from the mobile The signals are demodulated and combined inside the Site.
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover Home Cell Target Cell Only 1 Frame sent back to the RNC RNC BTS SOFTER HANDOVER ILLUSTRATION © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
CDMA Fundamentals : Handover HARDHANDOVER HardHandover occurs from CDMA carrier to another CDMA Carrier or CDMA to Analog Carrier. HardHandover in UMTS may concern WCDMA to GSM or WCDMA to GSM1800 BS1 f1 f2 BS2 f1 MS f2 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . CDMA to CDMA HO is sometimes called DtoD Handover.
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA Each Sector is distinguished from one another by its PILOT channel : 4 Logical Channels on the DL are Defined : Pilot.. and Traffic Channels Power TRAFFIC CHANNEL K : USER K TRAFFIC CHANNEL 2 : USER 2 TRAFFIC CHANNEL 1 : USER 1 SYNCHRONIZATION CHANNEL PAGING CHANNEL PILOT CHANNEL Frequency © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . Paging. Synch.
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA Each Sector uses a different PILOT and is assigned a different PN Code with an offset to distinguish it from other Sectors 3Sector Site 6Sector Site © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
hence the term “chip” Since no Baseband data is transmitted through the Pilot. but for PILOT a special term to describe the SNR is the Ec/Io Ec/Io : Energy per chip per interference density Ec : related to the spreading code. there is no Despread and bits are not recovered. unlike for Traffic channels (baseband) Ec/Io : defines the signal strength of a PILOT channel The PILOT is not Despread : No despreading gain ! © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA For Traffic(Voice and Data) we use Eb/No.
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA MS is an intimate in the SHO in WCDMA : MS Measures the Ec/Io and report it the the BTS BTS transmits a PN Sequence using different offsets for each sector Ec/Io gives a good indication on whether or not a sector should the serving cell Highway or Road PN2 PN1 PN3 Example with 3 PILOTS © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA During HO Management Process : MS maintains in its Memory four exclusive lists of Sectors Sectors stored in the form of PN offsets Four Exclusive List of sectors called : SETS Active Set Candidate Set Neighbor Set Remaining Set © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
the Pilot will be added to the (C) A Pilot is deleted from the (C) and moved to the Neighbor Set (N) if Ec/Eo < Threshold (“Pilot Drop Threshold” or T_DROP in Database) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA Active Set (A) : Contains all Sectors communicating with the MS on traffic channels If the Active Set contains only one Pilot : NO SHO If the Active Set contains more than one Pilot : the MS is maintaining communication with all the Active Set Sectors with Different Traffic Channels Active can contain 6 Pilots : UL Diversity maximized A Pilot enters the (A) only if the RNC decides and then sends a “handover Direction Message” to the message to add that pilot into (A) Candidate Set (C) : Contains Pilots whose Ec/Io are sufficient to make them HO Candidates If Ec/Io > Threshold (Pilot Detection Threshold or T_ADD in Database).
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA A Pilot is removed from (C) if its Ec/Io drops below T_DROP threshold for more than duration specified by T_TDROP : „Handover Drop Timer Expiration Value“ and put in (N) set The (C) Set can contain at least 6 Pilots Ec/Io Pilot still in (C) set Pilot put in (N) set T_DROP Counter = 0 Counter = T_DROP time © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
MS keeps an aging counter for each Pilot in (N) : NGHBR_MAX_AGE Counter is reset (counter = 0) when Pilot is moved from (A)/(C) to (N) Counter incremented for each Pilot in (N) whenever a Neighbor List update message is received The (N) Set can contain up to 20 Pilots © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA The Neighbor Set (N) : contains those Pilots that are in the Neighbor List of the MS´s Serving Cell Initially : (N) contains Pilots sent to the MS in the ´Neighbor List Message´ by the Serving Cell To keep current Pilots in the (N).
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA The Remaing Set (R) : Contains all possible Pilots in the System for this UMTS carrier Frequency. (C) or (N) In (R) Pilot PN offsets are defined by the Parameter PILOT_INC Example : If PILOT_INC = 4 . etc. each sector in the Network can only transmit 0. PILOT_INC is sent to the MS inthe „Neighbor List Message“ and „Neighbor List Update Message“ © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . except pilots in (A). 4. 8 . 12.
HANDOVER PROCESS in WCDMA Ec/Io Source Cell A Target Cell B 2 Pilots (A&B) In Active Set : MS is in SHO 1 Pilot (B) in Active Set T_ADD T_DROP 1 Pilot (A) in Active Set Distance © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
HARD HANDOVER in WCDMA Hard HO includes interfrequency HO : Cells with multiple Carriers with high load WCDMA GSM f1 f1 f1 f1. f2 f1 f1 f1 GSM WCDMA © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
HARD HANDOVER in UMTS HO Quality Measure (dB) A B C Replace A by C Replace C by A Replace A by B Time © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
NoiseRise (dB) 2.Cell Breathing Concept in UMTS The Cell Size Shrinks due to Loading LOAD 1. η being the Loading due to interference © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . NoiseRise computed Using : 10log10(1η) . UL NoiseRise due to owncell or othercell UL interference translated into Lower UL MAPL : MAPL2 = MAPL1 .
5 (50 % loading) η = 0.Cell Breathing : RF Propagation Environment Basic Concept for Loading and Propagation Environment : Dense Urban : Lp = 127 + 45*log10(r) MAPL = 126.501 km using η = 0.7 dB using η = 0.984 km but reduces to 0.75 loading 49 % Range Loss in DENSE URBAN HIGHER LOADING 50 % Loading 75 % Loading © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .5 => owncell interference is twice the othercell interference r = 0.
1 km and reduces to r = 1.7 dB using η = 0.5 (50 % loading) r = 2.7 km @ η = 0.75 19 % Range Loss in SUBURBAN Path Loss (dB) Dense Urban Suburban 3 dB 6 dB MAPL (η = 0) Ideal Case MAPL (η = 50%) or Noise Rise = 3 dB MAPL (η = 75 %) or Noise Rise = 6 dB Log(d) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .Cell Breathing : RF Propagation Environment Suburban : Lp = 123 + 33*log10(r) MAPL = 133.
Soft Capacity WCDMA System is limited by interference sharing between neighbor cells Capacity is dynamically changing due to different traffic variation Hard Capacity is limited by Hardware Limitation : TRX namely Number of Channels N Number of Channel Pool = N*(1+i) Equally Loaded Cells Less Interference in the Neighboring Cells => Higher Capacity in the Middle Cell Soft Capacity = (Erlang Capacity with Soft Blocking / Erlang Capacity with Hard Blocking) .1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Soft Capacity i is defined by : i = Other Cell Interference / Own Cell Interference i = 0. Soft Capacity (Erlang) = Offered Capacity(Erlang) / (1+i) 5.65 for 3sector cell i = 0.85 for 6sector cell Soft Capacity Calculation Procedure : 1. 2%) 4. Soft Capacity (%) = (Soft Capacity (Erlang)/Offered Capacity (Erlang)) 1 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . Npool = N*(1+i) 3. Use Erlang B table to compute the Offered Capacity Offered Capacity (Erlang) = ErlangB(Npool. Compute the Number of Channels N in equally loaded case based on Uplink Load Factor : W R N =η (1 + i )v Eb N o 2.55 for Omni Cell i = 0.55 for 2sector cell i = 0.75 for 4sector cell i = 0.
6/50.67 (67 % Voice Activity Factor) N = 60.2 = 314.Soft Capacity Example Assumptions PARAM ETER B it R a te V o ic e A c tiv it y F a c to r E b /N o i N o is e R is e G oS VA LU E S p e e c h @ 1 2 .17/(1+0.55) = 53 Erlang Hard Capacity = ErlangB (61 channels.5 5 a s s u m in g a n O m n i C e ll 3 d B (5 0 % L o a d F a c to r ) 2 % Computation of Number of Channels : W/R = 3.17 Erlang Soft Capacity = 82. 2% GoS) = 82. 2% GoS) = 50.2 k b p s 67 % S ppech : 4 dB 0 .84*1000/12.6 Erlang Soft Capacity (%) = 53.74 approximately 5% © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .6 Channels Offered Capacity = ErlangB (94 channels.6 1 = 4.4 channels Npool = 60.55) = 93.75 Eb/No = 4 dB = 2.51 v = 0.4*(1+0.
M 1.Sensitivity is affected by interference (Loading) IUL = −10 × log(1 − ηUL ) Maximum Capacity is related to the amount of UL interference a system can tolerate I − UL 10 UL max η = 1 − 10 = M M Mmax : Maximum number of simultaneous users supported by a single cellcarrier @ 100% Loading assuming that all users are using the same service (e.g.CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity ..max Mn : The Number of simultaneous users for the n th service © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . speech or Data). For a Multiservice system : ηUL = 1 − 10 − IUL 10 = M3 M1 M2 + + + .. Also called the Pole Capacity.max M 2.max M 3.
0.93 for 3sector.CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity Maximum UL Capacity figures M max = 1 + 1 C (1 + F ) × I numerical W − R dB dB 10 C = 10 I Eb N o F Values are : 0. 0.4 for Microcells (without the presence of Fast Fading) © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .67 for Omni.
5 / 0 .CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity F Values on the UL S ite C o n fig u ra tio n O m ni 3 S ecto r M icro cell P ed estrian A 3 k m /h w ith o u t F a st F a d in g 0 .9 3 0 .1 6 / 0 .6 7 0 .4 P ed estrian B 3 k m /h w ith F a st F a d in g 0 .3 / 4.9 8.2 kbps C ircuit 128 kbps C ircuit 384 kbps P acket 128 kbps P acket 384 kbps © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .9 3.2 8.3 6.4 S peech 12.6 7 1 .3 4.Sector Site Service Pedestrian A M m ax w ithout Fast F ad ing 94.6 / 105.1 3.1 / 12.9 4.9 3 0 .8 4 / 0 .4 7.0 V ehicular A M m ax W ith F ast F ad ing 56.4 Typical Uplink Mmax Values for a 3.2 / 4.6 7 0 .4 V eh icu la r A 120 k m /h w ith F ast F a d in g 0 .8 3.6 11.9 3 0 .7 9.5 / 9.3 4.8 P edestrian B M m ax w ith Fast Fading 84.
14125 => Mmax = 4.CAPACITY in UMTS : Uplink Capacity Example of Computation of Mmax 1.5 dB F = 0. What is the Mmax ? Answer : W/R = 3840/384 = 10 = 10 dB.93 and C/I = 0. Assume we use Packet Data @ 384 kbps and a trisectorial Site Configuration.66 users 2. Eb/No = 1. Assume we use Packet Data @ 144 kbps and a 3sector site configuration. What is the Mmax? © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Pedestrian A 3 km/h Assumptions : 18 dBi Antennas. Mostly. the current solution is to use simulation.5 1 1. No Body Loss Considered 90 Relative Loading (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 2 2.CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity In the DL. researchers do use Monte Carlo Random Number Generation Algorithms Urban Environment .5 3 3.7 + 35.5 4 Cell Range (km) 0 dB 5 dB 10 dB 15 dB 20 dB 25 dB © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . each user is subjected to different interference levels Therefore. Antenna Height 30 m.2 log(R). no single interference level is valid in the DL For dimensioning purposes. PL = 134.
3 2.1 1.2 1.7 © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .1 4.4 2.8 Rural 64.2 kbps Circuit 128 kbps Circuit 384 kbps Packet 128 kbps Packet 384 kbps Dense Urban & Suburban 86.6 5.7 8.CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity Recommended Mmax Values for 3sector site Configuration Service Speech 12.4 7.
8 log(R). PL = 105 + 33. Antenna Height 50 m.Vehicular A 120 km/h Assumptions : 18 dBi Antennas.CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity Open Area . 3 dB Body Loss 100 Relative Loading (%) 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cell Range (km) 0 dB 5dB 10dB 15dB 20dB 25dB © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
4 = 34 simultaneous users © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .4 users Find at which relative load the 25 dB curve crosses the 1 km range It would be 40% Calculate the supported relative Load : It would be 86.4 X 0. Take the Mmax value for Speech 12.CAPACITY in UMTS : Downlink Capacity Example Estimate the Number of Speech Users supported in an Urban Environment : Cell Range : 1 km 18 dB Building Penetration Loss 4 dB Feeder Loss 18 dBi Antenna Gain Answer 1.2 kbps It would be 86.
4 users for Packet Data @ 32 kbps © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . A 6 dB incar Penetration loss and 2 dB Feeder Loss are assumed : M1max = 64.95 kbps M2max = 16.1 users for Speech @ 7.95 kbps mixed with Data @ 32 kbps in an Open Area (Vehicular A) at a range of 20 km.CAPACITY in UMTS : Mixed Services (1/2) Total Loading : Loading = M1/M1max + M2/M2max + M3/M3max + … Within a Cell. one service may have higher loading than another which leads to : 1 >= M1/(L1*M1max) + M2/(L2*M2max) + M3/(L3*M3max) +… Li : is the Maximum Load of Service i that a cell is able to support at a given range Example of Mixed Services Assume we are interested in Speech @ 7.
75% Note 1: This examples confirms that some Services may have higher relative load than others Note 2 : The above Loads are the Maximum Allowed Loads for Each Service.CAPACITY in UMTS : Mixed Services (1/2) A) For Speech. find the Relative Load the 8 dB (BL + BPL + Lf+j) Curve Crosses the 20 km Cell Range Ans.4 (Total Load Limitation) At this stage it is necessary to determine the capacity distribution between Service Types : We assume Speech Traffic approximately 10 times Packet Data Traffic.1) + M2/(0. 65% B) For Packet Data.75*16.65*64.1 + M2/16. find at which Relative Load the 5 dB (BPL + Lf+j ) Curve Crosses the 20 km Cell Range : Ans. hence : M1 = 10*M2 This Leads to M1 = 29 and M2 = 3 .65 >= M1/64. when offered as a Single Service C) Determine M1 and M2 that fulfill the following Equations : 1 >= M1/(0.4) (Cell Range Limitation) 0. we verify that Loading = 63 % < 65% © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 .
Concluding Remarks : CDMA System Capacity Capacity. increases system capacity. a 6sector cell would have a higher capacity than a 3sector cell. is directly proportional to the Processing Gain of the System Capacity is inversely proportional to the required Eb/No of the system. The lower the required threshold Eb/No . or number of simultaneous users M. © Cirta Consulting LLC 19992004 . For example. such as sectorization. the higher the capacity Capacity can be increased if one can decrease the amount of loading from users in adjacent cells Spatial filtering.