This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Atmosphere of Earth
The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation). Atmospheric stratification describes the structure of the atmosphere, dividing it into distinct layers, each with specific characteristics such as temperature or composition. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5×1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi) is where atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), also is often regarded as the boundary between atmosphere and outer space. Air is the name given to atmosphere used in breathing and photosynthesis. Dry air contains roughly (by volume) 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1%. While air content and atmospheric pressure varies at different layers, air suitable for the survival of terrestrial plants and terrestrial animals is currently known only to be found in Earth's troposphere and artificial atmospheres.
Blue light is scattered more than other wavelengths by the gases in the atmosphere, giving the Earth a blue halo when seen from space.
Limb view, of the Earth's atmosphere. Colours roughly denote the layers of the atmosphere.
The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases. Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample. methane. such as chlorine (elementary or in compounds). sea spray. with CO2 and methane from 2009) and do not represent any single source. Mean atmospheric water vapor . carbon dioxide. elemental mercury. and sulfur compounds such as sulfur dioxide [SO2]. The numbers are from a variety of years (mainly 1987. Values normalized for illustration. Composition of Earth's atmosphere. and volcanic ash. and ozone. including dust. Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds. oxygen. nitrous oxide. which together constitute the major gases of the atmosphere. fluorine compounds. among which are the greenhouse gases such as water vapor. The lower pie represents the trace gases which together compose 0.Atmosphere of Earth 2 Composition Air is mainly composed of nitrogen.039% of the atmosphere. Various industrial pollutants also may be present. and argon. pollen and spores.
18 ppmv (0.00001%) 0.946%) 9.000114%) 0.0 to 0.460 ppmv (20.00003%) 0.01 ppmv (1×10−6%) (0.3 ppmv (0. see volume (thermodynamics)) Gas Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Argon (Ar) Carbon dioxide (CO2) Neon (Ne) Helium (He) Methane (CH4) Krypton (Kr) Hydrogen (H2) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Carbon monoxide (CO) Xenon (Xe) Ozone (O3) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Iodine (I2) Ammonia (NH3) Not included in above dry atmosphere: Water vapor (H2O) ~0.084%) 209.340 ppmv (0.000055%) 0.79 ppmv (0.000179%) 1.40% over full atmosphere.24 ppmv (0.039%) 18.840 ppmv (78.000524%) 1.02 ppmv (2×10−6%) (0.000009%) 0.09 ppmv (9×10−6%) (0.1 ppmv (0.55 ppmv (0.07 ppmv (0 to 7×10−6%) 0.Atmosphere of Earth 3 Composition of dry atmosphere. typically 1%-4% at surface Volume 780.001818%) 5.14 ppmv (0.9340%) 390 ppmv (0.000002%) 0.000001%) trace . by volume ppmv: parts per million by volume (note: volume fraction is equal to mole fraction for ideal gas only.
In this way. temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude. Because the general pattern of this profile is constant and recognizable through means such as balloon soundings. – ft). Because of the relative infrequency of Layers of the molecular collisions. forming ice clouds (or Noctilucent clouds). air above the mesopause is poorly mixed compared to air below. air to scale) is poorly mixed and becomes compositionally stratified. these layers are: Exosphere The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward. temperature provides a useful metric to distinguish between atmospheric layers. and the region above is the heterosphere.1 K). The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere. At the mesopause.1 K). Thermosphere Temperature increases with height in the thermosphere from the mesopause up to the thermopause. that an individual molecule (of oxygen. The region below is the homosphere. The mesopause. Due to the cold temperature of the mesosphere. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350–800 km (220–500 mi. form many miles above thunderclouds in the troposphere. then is constant with height. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind. the temperature minimum that marks the top of the mesosphere. The temperature of this layer can rise to 1500 °C (2730 °F). the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid. Unlike in the stratosphere. It is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. – ft). above a certain point. between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi). The point dividing these two regions is known as the turbopause.Atmosphere of Earth 4 Structure of the atmosphere Principal layers In general. The particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometres without colliding with one another. though the gas molecules are so far apart that temperature in the usual sense is not well defined. is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −85 °C (−121 °F. for example) travels an average of 1 kilometer between collisions with other molecules. 188. Mesosphere The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi. water vapor is frozen. Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. where the inversion is caused by absorption of radiation by ozone. . The International Space Station orbits in this layer. air pressure and density decrease in the atmosphere as height increases. in the thermosphere the inversion is a result of the extremely low density of molecules. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. While the atmosphere (not composition from the troposphere to the mesosphere is fairly constant. called the exobase. The air is so rarefied. 173. However. Temperature decreases with height in the mesosphere. Since the particles rarely collide. From highest to lowest. temperatures may drop to −100 °C (−148 °F. A type of lightning referred to as either sprites or ELVES.
It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. radio propagation on the Earth. Above the turbopause at about 100 km (62 mi. In this layer ozone concentrations are about 2 to 8 parts per million. The pressure here is 1/1000 sea level. trope. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface. 287 K) or 15 °C (59 °F. • The ionosphere. which restricts turbulence and mixing. with the heavier ones such as oxygen and nitrogen present only near the bottom of the heterosphere.Atmosphere of Earth Stratosphere The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi. the composition varies with altitude.2 K) at the troposphere. while at night it becomes stably stratified with weak or intermittent mixing. The average temperature of the atmosphere at the surface of Earth is 14 °C (57 °F. with some variation due to weather. While the temperature may be −60 °C (−76 °F. The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of the atmosphere. for example. and mesosphere. mainly through turbulent diffusion. 49000– ft). 5 Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word "τροπή". which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere. The homosphere includes the troposphere. depending on the reference. • The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. This is because the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing. the top of the stratosphere is much warmer. so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. ft) (essentially corresponding to the mesopause). Temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of ultraviolet radiation by the ozone layer. 213.3–22 mi. typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi. It is responsible for auroras. During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well-mixed. and may be near freezing. In the homosphere the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9. The stratopause. Troposphere The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 9 km (30000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56000 ft) at the equator. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. the lightest element. to ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere. The depth of the planetary boundary layer ranges from as little as about 100 m on clear. stretches from 50 to 1000 km (31 to 620 mi. meaning turn or overturn). It has practical importance because it influences. • The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is nearest the Earth's surface and is directly affected by it. ft). to ft). The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen. 288 K). though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere. calm nights to 3000 m or more during the afternoon in dry regions. • The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed.   . This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight. stratosphere.
The highest X-15 plane flight in 1963 reached an altitude of 108.718… approximately every 7. because of changes in temperature. and gravity throughout the atmospheric column. • 90% of the atmosphere by mass is below an altitude of 16 km (52000 ft).7 psi (pounds per square inch) = 760 torr = 29. so that pressure decreases by a factor of two approximately every 5. the latter being the average scale height of Earth's atmosphere below 70 km (43 mi. • 99. 729) the atmosphere is 5.200. This can be seen by the effects of atmospheric drag on satellites.0003×1018 kg.50 km (27900 ft). However.1480×1018 kg with an annual range due to water vapor of 1.2 g/L). the equations of pressure by altitude in the above references can be used directly to estimate atmospheric thickness. this defect having been displaced by the Earth's mountainous terrain. The mean mass of water vapor is estimated as 1.5×1015 kg depending on whether surface pressure or water vapor data are used. somewhat smaller than the previous estimate.2 megahectares. If atmospheric density were to remain constant with height the atmosphere would terminate abruptly at 8." .9 inches of mercury (symbol Hg). because the amount of air above the Earth's surface varies. According to the American model (the eight dotted lines in each "decade" are National Center for Atmospheric Research.6 km (18000 ft).Atmosphere of Earth 6 Physical properties Pressure and thickness The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 1 atmosphere (atm) = 101. about 2.6 km (18000 ft).000 the mass of Earth.0 km ( ft).99997% of the atmosphere by mass is below 100 km (62 mi. . density decreases with height.6 km (18000 ft) and by a factor of e = 2. Total atmospheric mass is 5. This variation can be approximately modeled using the barometric formula. although in the rarefied region above this there are auroras and other atmospheric effects.1480×1018 kg (1. As a result the pressure decrease is approximately exponential with height. Atmospheric pressure is the total weight of the air above unit area at the point where the pressure is measured. the following published data are given for reference: • 50% of the atmosphere by mass is below an altitude of 5. 64. the dependence of atmospheric pressure on altitude is modeled by separate equations for each of the layers listed above. "The total mean mass of at the eight cubes 8.1352 ±0. Density and mass The density of air at sea level is about 1. average molecular weight. Even in the exosphere.. Instead.2 or 1. ft).2 kg/m3 (1.. Thus air pressure varies with location and time..3 kPa (kilopascals) = 14. In summary. Density is not measured directly but is calculated from measurements of temperature. ft). dropping by 50% at an altitude of about 5. the atmosphere is still present. Atmospheric density decreases as the altitude increases.5% less than would be inferred naively from the average sea level pressure and the Earth's area of 51007. However.64 km (25100 ft).27×1016 kg and the dry air mass as 5. Temperature and mass density against altitude The average mass of the atmosphere is about 5 quadrillion (5×1015) from the NRLMSISE-00 standard atmosphere tonnes or 1/1. pressure and humidity using the equation of state for air (a form of the ideal gas law). Everest's summit is 8848 m (29029 ft) above sea level. The common altitude of commercial airliners is about 10 km (33000 ft) and Mt. 27. More sophisticated models are used to predict orbital decay of satellites.135×1019 lb).
000 nm. Indirect radiation is light that has been scattered in the atmosphere. so its radiation peaks near 10. the radio window runs from about one centimeter to about eleven-meter waves. the Sun is approximately 6000 K (5730 °C. Absorption Different molecules absorb different wavelengths of radiation. with shorter wavelengths. but do not interact with sunlight in the visible spectrum. Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric transmittance (or opacity) to various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. but the gases block the infrared radiation from exiting back to space. The Earth is approximately 290 K (17 °C. and is much too long to be visible to humans. on an overcast day when you cannot see your shadow there is no direct radiation reaching you. The combined absorption spectra of the gases in the atmosphere leave "windows" of low opacity. Objects tend to emit amounts and wavelengths of radiation depending on their "black body" emission curves. The greenhouse effect is directly related to this absorption and emission (or "blanket") effect. There are also infrared and radio windows that transmit some infrared and radio waves at longer wavelengths. If the light does not interact with the atmosphere. at roughly 400–700 nm and continues to the infrared to around 1100 nm. it is called direct radiation and is what you see if you were to look directly at the Sun. If there are too much of these greenhouse gases. Much of the blue light has been scattered out. For example. on clear nights the Earth's surface cools down faster than on cloudy nights. Colder objects emit less radiation. We can think of this as heating the atmosphere. Emission Emission is the opposite of absorption. When a molecule absorbs a photon. For example. but the atmosphere also cools by emitting radiation. shorter (blue) wavelengths scatter more easily than longer (red) wavelengths. This imbalance causes the Earth . Because the Sun is close to the horizon. The optical window runs from around 300 nm (ultraviolet-C) up into the range humans can see. its radiation peaks near 500 nm. For example. you are seeing scattered blue light. Scattering When light passes through our atmosphere. The atmosphere acts as a "blanket" to limit the amount of radiation the Earth loses into space. This is why the sky looks blue. 62 °F). This is also why sunsets are red. the visible spectrum (commonly called light). 10340 °F). Because of its temperature. For example. O2 and O3 absorb almost all wavelengths shorter than 300 nanometers. Part of the incoming and emitted radiation is absorbed or reflected by the atmosphere. with longer wavelengths. but at longer wavelengths that we cannot see. This is also why it becomes colder at night at higher elevations. as discussed below. For example. it is when an object emits radiation. the atmosphere emits infrared radiation. it has all been scattered. allowing the transmission of only certain bands of light. sunlight heats the Earth's surface.Atmosphere of Earth 7 Optical properties Solar radiation (or sunlight) is the energy the Earth receives from the Sun. it increases the energy of the molecule. photons interact with it through scattering. Water (H2O) absorbs many wavelengths above 700 nm. This is because clouds (H2O) are strong absorbers and emitters of infrared radiation. due to a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering. and is visible to the human eye. the Sun's rays pass through more atmosphere than normal to reach your eye. leaving the red light in a sunset. including visible light. Common examples of these chemicals are CO2 and H2O. Some chemicals in the atmosphere absorb and emit infrared radiation. therefore hotter objects tend to emit more radiation. The Earth also emits radiation back into space. As another example.
4 billion years ago. The refractive index of air depends on temperature. and smaller amounts of nitrogen. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year. An example of such effects is the mirage. . free hydrogen. giving rise to refraction effects when the temperature gradient is large. The outgassings of the Earth was stripped away by solar winds early in the history of the planet until a steady state was established. A major rainfall led to the buildup of a vast ocean. and thus climate change.compared to today 30% lower .solar radiance of the early Sun has been described as the "Faint young Sun paradox". suggesting that the fundamental features of the carbon cycle were established as early as 4 billion years ago. 20% oxygen (mostly in the form of water vapor). 10% carbon dioxide. About 3. 8 Refractive index The refractive index of air is close to.Atmosphere of Earth to warm. and the means (with ocean circulation) by which heat is distributed around the Earth. The early basic carbon isotopy (isotope ratio proportions) is very much in line with what is found today. nitrogen was the major part of the then stable "second atmosphere". Circulation Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air through the troposphere. observers onboard ships can see other vessels just over the horizon because light is refracted in the same direction as the curvature of the Earth's surface. under some circumstances. Based on today's volcanic evidence. since hints of early life forms are to be found as early as 3. Evolution of Earth's atmosphere Earliest atmosphere An idealised view of three large circulation cells. The geological record however shows a continually relatively warm surface during the complete early temperature record of the Earth with the exception of one cold glacial phase about 2. 5 to 7% hydrogen sulfide. One example is that. the first atmosphere. apparently from photosynthesizing algae which have been found as stromatolite fossils from 2. A major part of carbon dioxide exhalations were soon dissolved in water and built up carbonate sediments.5 billion years ago. methane and inert gases. The fact that this is not perfectly in line with the .7 billion years ago. Systematic variations in refractive index can lead to the bending of light rays over long optical paths. carbon monoxide. Second atmosphere Water-related sediments have been found dating from as early as 3.4 billion years ago. this atmosphere would have contained 60% hydrogen.8 billion years ago. but just greater than 1. enriching the other agents. In the late Archaean eon an oxygen-containing atmosphere began to develop. An influence of life has to be taken into account rather soon in the history of the atmosphere. but the basic structure remains fairly constant as it is determined by the Earth's rotation rate and the difference in solar radiation between the equator and poles. first carbon dioxide and later nitrogen and inert gases.
ac. and Edward J. 1175/ JCLI-3299. . Retrieved 2010-10-16. F. . llnl. com/ articles/ e/ a/ Earth's_atmosphere. 1983  Celestial climate driver: a perspective from 4 billion years of the carbon cycle Geoscience Canada. Essentials of Meteorology. Tarbuck (1995) The Atmosphere. To normalize. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Gardner. constantly rearranging the continents and also shaping long-term climate evolution by allowing the transfer of carbon dioxide to large land-based carbonate storages. 1976  Christopher R. Princeton.  http:/ / www. allenpress. uwyo. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Air pollution Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals. Methane. 1175/ 1520-0469(2000)057<0066:TSOTMR>2. or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to organisms into the atmosphere.gov. Robert J. ISBN 0-13-350612-6  B. Oxygen content of the atmosphere over the last billion years Currently. This signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidising atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone depletion is believed to be caused by air pollution (chiefly from chlorofluorocarbons). gov/ gmd/ ccgg/ trends/ #mlo). Amsglossary.. 2005.allenpress. Ams. edu/ ~geerts/ cwx/ notes/ chap01/ tropo. 1970-01-01. Windley: The Evolving Continents. . C. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  "NASA . ace. N. uk/ eae/ Atmosphere/ Older/ Mesosphere.7 billion years ago and this can be seen with the development of the red beds and the end of the banded iron formations. gsfc. esrl.  States. CO. Retrieved 2010-10-16.  Ahrens.. mmu. .mmu. . html).2). Wiley Press.  "Global Surface Temperature Anomalies" (http:/ / www. com/ perlserv/ ?request=get-abstract& doi=10. March. noaa. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. bambooweb. html  "''homosphere''—AMS Glossary" (http:/ / amsglossary. html). htm). (updated 2010. uk/ eae/ Atmosphere/ Older/ Trace_Gases.uk. Chester S. Princeton University Press.  "Earth's Radiation Balance and Oceanic Heat Fluxes" (http:/ / oceanworld.nasa. ipcc. 2005 by Jan Veizer  Veizer in B. . London. pp14-17. IPCC TAR table 6. anthropogenic greenhouse gases are increasing in the atmosphere. N2 should be reduced by about 25 ppmv and O2 by about 7 ppmv. Frederick K. .Earth Fact Sheet" (http:/ / nssdc. mmu. nasa. com/ precamb_chart.  "The Mass of the Atmosphere: A Constraint on Global Analyses" (http:/ / ams. no/ climate/ ipcc_tar/ wg1/ 221. pdf) (PDF). The following time span was the Phanerozoic eon.J.5 billion years ago added plate tectonics.. com/ glossary/ search?id=homosphere1). (January 2000). 6th ed.com. tamu.gsfc.). The Early History of the Earth. Prentice Hall. (updated to 1998). Nssdc. 1). Schopf: Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution. . ac. Scotese. Free oxygen did not exist until about 1. gov/ oa/ climate/ research/ anomalies/ index. edu/ resources/ oceanography-book/ radiationbalance.  Source for figures: Carbon dioxide.  Lutgens. html  http:/ / www-das.allenpress. Back to Earth History : Summary Chart for the Precambrian (http:/ / www. NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (http:/ / www. ncdc. htm#tab61). The NASA total was 17 ppmv over 100%. scotese. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 2000 57: 66–77.Atmosphere of Earth 9 Third atmosphere The accretion of continents about 3. O2 showed major ups and downs until reaching a steady state of more than 15%. during which oxygen-breathing metazoan life forms began to appear.06). gov/ projects/ cmip/ overview_ms/ control_tseries. Retrieved 2010-10-16. php). allenpress. 5 February 2007. Ace.com. ace. and CO2 was increased here by 15 ppmv. ch/ pdf/ assessment-report/ ar4/ wg1/ ar4-wg1-spm. html).  "Earth's Atmosphere" (http:/ / www. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. .  "Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Control Run" (http:/ / www-pcmdi. John Wiley and Sons. "Thermal Structure of the Mesopause Region (80–105 km) at 40°N Latitude. 0. 569. this increase is the main cause of global warming. . Paleomar Project  "Summary for Policymakers" (http:/ / www. particulate matter.ac.1 (http:/ / www. gov/ planetary/ factsheet/ earthfact. htm). ametsoc. Donald. Part I: Seasonal Variations" (http:/ / journals. noaa. References  "Trace Gases" (http:/ / www. org/ doi/ full/ 10. New York 1984  J. p. pdf). Windley (ed. grida. Published by Thomson Brooks/Cole..
allenpress.gov/srh/jetstream/atmos/layers.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/earthfact.html) . merriam-webster.org/) Stuff in the Air (http://www.stuffintheair.noaa. Layers of the Atmosphere (http://www.html#atmo) NASA's Earth Fact Sheet (http://nssdc.uk/video/programme/111) Free video of Paul Crutzen Nobel Laureate for his work on decomposition of ozone talking to Harry Kroto Nobel Laureate by the Vega Science Trust.scribd.com/glossary) • Paul Crutzen Interview (http://www.gsfc.com/doc/ 22854/Air-Atmosphere-and-Airplanes/) • The AMS Glossary of Meteorology (http://amsglossary.memphis.Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary 10 External links • • • • • • NASA atmosphere models (http://modelweb.com/) Find out what the atmosphere contains.gov/spdf_models_home. • Slides describing the Earth's modern atmosphere (http://des.gsfc.srh.nasa.edu/lurbano/Geog1010/Fall05/ chapter_03/chapter_03.Atmosphere of Earth  Starting from (http:/ / www.org.htm) Answers to several questions of curious kids related to Air and Atmosphere (http://www.agu.vega.html) American Geophysical Union: Atmospheric Sciences (http://atmospheres. com/ dictionary/ pollution) Pollution .
org/w/index. Smenjas.napper. Science enthusiast343. Adashiel. DarylNickerson. Mobz. Lairor. Cst17. Aniten21.php?title=File:AtmosphCirc2. Shadowjams. Zundark. Chzz. Sbharris. Denni. Antwerp42. Amber48. Mirandarockstar. 1exec1. Gaius Cornelius. QuadrivialMind. Shoessss. Tommy2010. Spanishclassinmediacenter. Pit. Keta. Nick Wilson. Supermaner. clown will eat me.2005. Nachosos. 0/ . Fudoreaper. Srpnor. Bubblesf11. Gustavocarra. Debresser. Kristinc82. Billinghurst. Aeconley. Hillbrand. SlimVirgin. Fæ. Bowlhover. Chodorkovskiy. WAS 4. Georgewilliamherbert. Merope. CrookedAsterisk. Cntras. Leafyplant. Damorbel. Sonarpulse. The chels. Wiki editor 6. William Allen Simpson. Corvus cornix. Tonyboy. Esoltas.. Gu1dry. Besitos4bffs. Saperaud. Nwbeeson. Mpradeep.wikipedia. Pat Payne.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jdorje. HalfShadow. Stefan Alb. SirGrant. Pschemp. John. Gogo Dodo. Sln3412. Skylerdray. XJamRastafire. Sopholatre. EdGl. 2D. Thegreatdr. Hoo man. Bsadowski1. ThunderBird. Xosema. Kraftlos. Fosnez. Tea maven. Liamdaly620. Kiore. Mountainhawk. Ann Stouter. DVD R W. Rory096. Midgrid. Casliber. Fmeggers. Kazvorpal. Hiddekel.030. Omegatron. Ixfd64. Deglr6328. Hard Raspy Sci. Utswert909. THEN WHO WAS PHONE?. Inblakey. ClockworkSoul. Courcelles. AdjustShift. Bkell. Marek69.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Acroterion. DubaiTerminator. Jeff G. Mboverload. Maek123. Sjakkalle. Iggykin. Shirulashem. Stephenchou0722. Packa. Gohglendon. Giftlite. Onexdata. Maya. Bryce111111. Pizza Puzzle. Poborak. Jojhutton. Gesiwuj. Shaun123.. Pachang. Btilm. Xiahou. James472.delanoy. Ocatecir. Closedmouth. Caffelice. Yuckfoo. Bobo192. Velella. Eplack. Clansmugglar. Ozalid. ChrisPZK5. Mrzaius. Ovis23.Article Sources and Contributors 11 Article Sources and Contributors Atmosphere of Earth Source: http://en.030. 5 albert square. KnowledgeOfSelf. SEWilco.man. Brockert. Sampo Torgo. Wimox.php?title=File:Atmosphere_layers-en. Sean William. DSachan. Glane23. Permacultura. NeonNero. Aknorals. 08004KAREN. Triwbe. K-UNIT. Poindexter Propellerhead. Latitude0116. Tom harrison. Levineps.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: ISS Expedition 23 crew File:Atmosphere gas proportions.org/w/index. Spencer.jpg Source: http://en. Dar-Ape. Pinethicket. Arctic. Zairatool. Lithgon. Barts1a. Frozen banana. Octane. Kipster. Allsaints23. Kehrbykid. Jaraalbe. Zoicon5. Donarreiskoffer. Malcolm Farmer. L Kensington. Dbachmann. Trainspotter. GZUS96.wikipedia. Tiptoety. Andrewjlockley. Jhsounds. Dreish. Greatwalk. Flyguy649. Loren36. Snigbrook. Bomac. Jpgordon. Salmar. Eggietheman. Darth Panda.png License: unknown Contributors: User:Hastings File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2. Scientific29. Hairy Dude. Staffwaterboy. LeaveSleaves. Dinny McGee. Sega381. Bronger. Pentajism. Avenue. RoySmith. Dan. Eeekster. Andymease. PHR34K50. Cirt. Sdsds. Rich Farmbrough. the truth. Dragons flight. Anastasios. Crazycool12. Thek4k1ng. Sander123. Blanchardb. Chamdarae. 0112 . Neelix. Opelio. Stevage. Kingpin13.php?title=File:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj2. Dspradau. Tbhotch. LonelyMarble. File:AtmosphCirc2. Woodsstock. Fuzheado. Yamamoto Ichiro.png Source: http://en. Lights. Mysid. Dbfirs. SineWave.php?title=File:Sunset_from_the_ISS. Npa213. Mbimmler. Loren. JForget. UnitedStatesian. Daarznieks. ABF. MariusStrom. Loonymonkey. BendersGame. Alexius08. All Is One. Wilson44691. Ebellii. LOL. Belovedfreak. Bart133. Njardarlogar. Everyking. NormStephens. Archimerged.org/w/index. Alan Liefting. Af648. Qxz. Calor. Brian0918. DerHexer. Vaughan Pratt. WolfmanSF. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. Mushroom. JorisvS. Ged UK. Lova Falk. Netalarm. Borovy3488. OllieFury.lockwood. Dhollm. MisfitToys. Mifter. Jdr900nf. Phredward. Portalian. Natural Cut. Pilotguy. Joffeloff. George The Dragon. Nintendoggys. Matthurricane.Seidel. Caltas. Msgarrett. TheDarkArchon.wikipedia. Heinovh. The way. Victor Engel. DocWatson42. Bissinger. Emc2. Worldtraveller. Appanouki. 216Kleopatra. JonHarder.png Source: http://en.org/w/index. Joseph Solis in Australia. Hu. Vicarious. Jake cadenhead. Seraphimblade. Sio6627. Robert Stevens. Miranda. Ninjaman548. Atmoz. Tumblrfannn. Narayanese. Faradayplank. Thumperward. Sango123. Little Mountain 5. SimonP. Alansohn. Lenin and McCarthy. Taroaldo. Blue bear sd. Jeandré du Toit. Rigmahroll. Pokrajac.wikipedia. EvenGreenerFish. Tcncv. Lesqual. Alphablast. CJLippert.jpg Source: http://en. Galoubet. J. Korg. Epbr123.wikipedia. Peter S. Geopersona. Colonies Chris. Pmetzger. 10metreh. Kooljeena. Cashewbrick. Delswick. Coinboybrian.. Oxymoron83. Ranveig. Shanes. Bavetta. Curps. Stephan Schulz. Eliza bangbang. Caknuck. Doniago. Masterben555. Uncle Dick. MONGO. Pepper. Pepperosa. GalenD. Xxfriendsfan4lyfxx. Mihail Vasiliev. Ingolfson. Gwernol. Sidious1701. Zealotii. Suez Canal. Bdodo1992. Montgomery '39. Husond. TheJiggySaw.250. MarylandArtLover. Andy M. Chesnok. Jonnie Kid. Menwith. 4 anonymous edits File:Atmosphere layers-en. ADNghiem501. Lancevortex. Cimex. Licenses and Contributors Image:Top of Atmosphere. Fredrik. Jyuichi. Wayne Slam.wikipedia. No Bars In No Places. NHSavage. Ryk. A3RO. ARC Gritt. Regibox. Lordsatri. SavijN. Teles. Aarchiba. Nicklink483. Anotherstani. Levipetersisgay. GeneralJ. Bryan Derksen. AndrooUK. Materialscientist. Charleca. Nivix. The wub. 69Legend. Mailseth. Darkemagik.svg Source: http://en. Triops. Syed Tirmizi. O RLY?. Waltpohl. Arjun01. Marcos. Sigmundg. Lightmouse. Jcc1. ESkog. Markaci. Jayden54. Reaper45693. Ponder. Amoreno65. Bobo The Ninja. Paul August. Dante Alighieri. and the light. Aboutmovies. IRP. Anclation. Sanfranman59. Reaper Eternal. Cmichael. Golgofrinchian. Stizz. Oli Filth. CheesyBiscuit. Bhadani. Pflatau. IceUnshattered. Flubeca.png License: Public Domain Contributors: User:WolfmanSF License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Etacar11. MER-C. Wowrogue. Gene Nygaard. Nsteinme.php?oldid=425895929 Contributors: (jarbarf). NameIsRon. The High Fin Sperm Whale. Michael H 34. Asw138. Master of Puppets. Capricorn42. Gzap4me.php?title=File:Atmospheric_electromagnetic_opacity. Evababygirl. EncMstr.php?title=File:Atmospheric_Water_Vapor_Mean. Haemo. NewEnglandYankee. Phantomsteve. KarlJorgensen. Katalaveno. CharlesC.jon.. Q Science. Noetica. JaGa. Sma0002. Titus. Mjmorris. Vy7. Robert the dee dee dee. Christian List.gnome. Imhatap. Slakr. SpaceFlight89. Anakata.org/w/index. Chrism. Ronhjones. The Rambling Man. MFago. Delldot. Dlohcierekim. December21st2012Freak. LarryMorseDCOhio. Mygerardromance. Rd232. Shawn in Montreal. Martarius. Lefty. Anthony717. Bhawani Gautam Rhk.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: NASA (original).svg Source: http://en. Alsadius. Michael Devore. Borameer. Jufglanville. Zimmermanstein. LAX. Killiondude.Z-man. Phoenix521. ImperatorExercitus. I80and. Vanished User 4517. Blehfu. Kesac. RJHall. Hotcrocodile. Adambro. Nihiltres. Kristen Eriksen. MrChupon.weird. Knowledge Seeker. Originalwana. Sbeyda72. Sampi. Amrad. Can't sleep. Lowellian. Art LaPella. Youssefsan. BillFlis. SVG by w:User:MysidMysid. Minimac. Tytrain. SOS48. Nyi. Geldart. Saros136. Crazysane.کشرزanonymous edits Image Sources. Daven200520. Carbuncle. SkyBoxx. Jc-S0CO. Eric-Wester. Maskedskulker. Discospinster. WikHead. David Laing. Honi. Ramisses. Igoldste. My Cat inn. DanielDeibler. Morn. Miss Madeline. Maddie!. McSly. Gtg204y. Wj32. Hornlitz. Mister weatherly. Yumlick.wikipedia. Eyrian. Kablammo. Alphachimp. Xhaoz. Republican42069. Triona. Nicorojas. T-dot. Jogar2. HumphreyW. Soumyasch. Papadopolis. JFreeman. Bsneaky123. Ulric1313. Physchim62. DESiegel. Gilliam.co. Tony Sidaway. Mark. Tide rolls. Cyktsui. VegaDark. Sveinb. Bongwarrior. AnnaJGrant. Rjwilmsi. Icairns. JohnOwens. Flewis. JTN. Wasell. Mikenorton. Cireshoe. Maxerhard. Dgies. Murtasa. Doradus. Beland. Wang.png Source: http://en. Mxn. Excirial. BlueEarth. NawlinWiki. CanisRufus. Addshore. Kkmurray. Squids and Chips. Nowayok. Lacrymachristi. Home Row Keysplurge. Mangojuice.png License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Angeloleithold.V. Lou. Fastily. Sscomp2004. Hoifon. Alegoo92. John3mac. Thejadefalcon. Asdfdsa. Avraham. Sleigh. Sedathut. Nakon. Plantsurfer. SchfiftyThree. Brian. Tidus the BlitzStar. Omicronpersei8. Leonard^Bloom. Dlary.ملاع بوبحم . Wimt. Semperf. Northfox. GregBenson. Melchoir. Yintan. Dzubint.JPG Source: http://en. Shaddack. Beigeotter. Cremepuff222. Gaturman2. Teeteetee. Kaiwen1. Microcell. Allaboutbball. JetLover. Hydrogen Iodide. 16pfrady. AGToth. Shirifan. Wavelength. Xezbeth. CovenantD. Zaheen. Achaemenes. Wouterhagens. LtNOWIS. Ansdldks95. Bmicomp. Mksdiiw. C0nanPayne. Yurik. SD5. Minesweeper. Ezhiukas 7. Ricnun. Eroica. Buneezfolife. Wikiwikiwee. Crazy Boris with a red beard.php?title=File:Top_of_Atmosphere. Dunk402. Cdhdude. ZOMG.svg License: unknown Contributors: NOAA & w:User:MysidUser:Mysid File:Atmosphere model. CT Cooper. Michal Nebyla. Willking1979. Loodog. Whiskey in the Jar. Concordia. Celestianpower. Hello4680. Nightstryk3r. Nikai. Laurenraeflieskites. Aid85. DMS. Shrute. Magister Mathematicae. ZooFari.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: NASA Earth Observatory Image:Sunset from the ISS. HexaChord. Falcon8765. Yahyayahya. 49ersfanforlife. Wackyvorlon. Sferrier. Imaglang. Ettrig. Conscious File:Atmospheric electromagnetic opacity. Aude. T. Caster23. Pb30. Naruto82494. Dayana Hashim. Tpbradbury. DMacks. Radon210. Ophion. Seth Ilys. Mbeychok. Александър. Sahmeditor. JoanneB. West Brom 4ever.murphy. The-G-Unit-Boss. Petri Krohn. CanOfWorms. Jusjih. Gdarin. Janeanne. Andre Engels. Amaurea. Skomorokh. TheSuave. JRR Trollkien. E2eamon. Brian Everlasting. WaysToEscape. Knucmo2. Juliancolton. Cactus. SpLoT.wikipedia. Sheogorath. Iridescent. Gurch. Doulos Christos. Uruiamme. Seaphoto. Tetraedycal. Barneca. Brumpz. NReitzel. Hallenrm.php?title=File:Atmosphere_gas_proportions. Ageekgal. Lord of the Pit. Roberta F. Techman224. Slightsmile. Blake-. Marinefooch. Reyk.org/w/index. Andrea105.J. Cos111. LeQuantum. Alison. Guanaco. SchuminWeb. Peruvianllama. Robsteadman.wikipedia.2005. Jayron32. Theon. SK soccer. Anthony Appleyard. IVAN3MAN.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:User:MysidMysid File:Atmospheric Water Vapor Mean. WhaleyTim. William M. Aruton. Dr Thermo. Deipnosophista.wikipedia. FlyingToaster. Wongo237. Zygomorph. Jay Litman. DARTH SIDIOUS 2. Duk. The Thing That Should Not Be. Tomtheebomb. Max Naylor. Hut 8. Seospamer. LovesMacs. Connolley. Sole Soul. Natsmith9.org/w/index. Tpk5010. CMD Beaker. Hdt83. Jason Patton. Vsmith. Sneltrekker. Jemebius. Aog2000a. RexNL. Guy0307. Snailwalker. Mrsadmin. Tigers1rgby.org/w/index.svg Source: http://en. Patrick. JustToHelp. Cynical. Mmeijeri. Joanjoc. Angelo De La Paz. Jolivio. Sergay. Max Randor. Rncox. Prari. Poppafuze. Agüeybaná. Thelb4. Oleksii0. MichaelExe. Sarkozila. Glenn. Vipinhari. Zeosurfer. Apparition11. Syvanen. V111P. JohnCD. Puchiko. GreenReaper. Savant13. 25abs25. Clemwang. Rocket71048576. Michael93555. TheresaWilson. Short Brigade Harvester Boris. Thrapper. Gillyweed.org/w/index. Marquez. Shirik. Makeemlighter. W!B:. Jaganath. Civil Engineer III. UBeR. Calltech. Jerryseinfeld. PrestonH. CanadianLinuxUser. Egmontaz. Rdsmith4.php?title=File:Atmosphere_model. Kamell305. Fishback. LittleOldMe. David Wahler. El C. Friedo. Zephyrus67. Ahoerstemeier. Ngorongoro. Keegan. Mr. Onco p53. RJBurkhart3. Hamtechperson. Scohoust. Onceonthisisland. Ptdecker. Ram-Man. NGYlions. Pharaoh of the Wizards. Thingg. EdBever. Rlcantwell. AuburnPilot. Rob 301. Trigger820. Katieh5584. ShadowZ5ightZ. Antandrus. Srleffler. Charlesreid1. Aitias. Philip Trueman. Tohd8BohaithuGh1. Esanchez7587.org/w/index. Aquarat. Roastytoast. Demmy. Wbrameld. Ratpole. N2e. Wtmitchell. Erik9. Mr.5. Mike Rosoft. Tosan. Nbv123. Haros. AdamButtery. Tizio.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?