Deccan Plateau

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Deccan Plateau
The Deccan Plateau [1] is a large plateau in India, making up the majority of the southern part of the country. It rises a hundred meters high in the north, rising further to more than a kilometre high in the south, forming a raised triangle nested within the familiar downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.[2] It extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of habitats, covering most of central and southern India.[3] It is located between three mountain ranges: the Western Ghats form its western boundary, and the Eastern Ghats its eastern boundary. Each rises from their respective nearby coastal plains and nearly meet at the southern tip of India. It is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges, which form its northern boundary. The name Deccan is an anglicised form of the Prakrit word dakkhin, itself derived from the Sanskrit word dákṣiṇa, meaning "south".[4]
Deccan Plateau

Geography
The Deccan Plateau lies south of the Indo-Gangetic plain. The Western Ghats Mountain Range is tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest monsoon from reaching the Deccan Plateau, so the region receives very little rainfall.[5] [6] The eastern Deccan Plateau is at a lower elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India. Its forests are also relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins and then into the Bay of Bengal.[2] [7] Most Deccan plateau rivers flow from west to east. The Godavari River and its tributaries, including the Indravati River, drain most of the northern portion of Hogenakal Falls, Karnataka the plateau, rising in the Western Ghats and flowing east towards the Bay of Bengal. The Tungabhadra River, Krishna River and its tributaries, including the Bhima River, which also run from west to east, drain the central portion of the plateau. The southernmost portion of the plateau is drained by the Kaveri River,

on the other hand.Deccan Plateau 2 which rises in the Western Ghats of Karnataka and bends south to break through the Nilgiri Hills at Hogenakal Falls into Tamil Nadu. which is an intrusive igneous rock. which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous period between 67 and 65 million years ago. Primary mineral ores found in this region are mica and iron ore in the Chhota Nagpur region. All Deccan plateau rivers depend on the rains and dry up in the summers. This composition is continental in origin (meaning it is the primary composition of the continental crust). and diamonds. we can find granite. it indicates two different environments of formation. Bhil and Gond people live in the hills along the northern and northeastern edges of the plateau. Since both rocks are found in the Deccan Plateau. Some paleontologists speculate that this eruption may have accelerated the extinction of the dinosaurs. that is. both of which are Mg-Fe rich minerals. Basalt. March to June can be very dry and hot with temperatures exceeding 40°C regularly. the predominant languages of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka respectively. The Deccan is rich in minerals. People The Deccan is home to many languages and people. occupy those states' portions of the plateau. the second-biggest waterfall in India and the sixteenth-largest in the world. they left a region of highlands with typically vast stretches of flat areas on top like a table. Speakers of Telugu and Kannada. Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted many thousands of years. The difference between these two rock types is: basalt rock forms on eruption of lava. is mafic in composition—meaning it is rich in pyroxene and. The two main rivers which do not flow into the Bay Of Bengal are the Narmada and Tapti. olivine. in some cases. Geology The volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps eruption. Since it cooled relatively slowly. indicating that it came from the mantle and did not mix with continental rocks. it has large visible crystals. Granite is a felsic rock. They start in the Eastern Ghats and flow into the Arabian sea. on the surface (either out of a volcano. Basalt forms in areas that are spreading. and when the volcanoes became extinct. whereas granite forms mostly in areas that are colliding. is the main language of the north-western portion of the Deccan plateau in the state of Maharashtra. or through massive fissures—as in the Deccan basalts—in the ground). gold and other metals in the Golconda region. and speak various languages that belong to both the Indo-European and Dravidian families of languages.[8] before flowing into the Stanley Reservoir and the Mettur Dam that created the reservoir and finally emptying into the Bay of Bengal. Near Hampi The climate of the region varies from semi-arid climate in the north to tropical in most of the region with distinct wet and dry seasons. meaning it is rich in potassium feldspar and quartz. Tamil is the main language of . Typically the Deccan Plateau is made up of basalt extending up to Bhor Ghat near Karjat. Marathi.The volcanic hotspot that produced the Deccan traps is hypothesized to lie under the present day island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean. Rain falls during the monsoon season from about June to October. while granite forms deep within the Earth. This is an extrusive igneous rock. an Indo-Aryan language. then forming the Sivasamudram Falls at the island town of Shivanasamudra. Basalt is similar in composition to mantle rocks. Also in certain sections of the region.

Ahmednagar. By 1760. The Marathas kept the British at bay during the 18th century. The Marathas had conquered some part of central and western India by Shivaji Maharaj's death in 1680. Ahmadnagar was partially incorporated in the Empire in 1598 and again in 1616. at the Battle of Talikota (1565) by a league of the Muslim powers. In the power struggles which ensued. Kakatiya (1083 CE to 1323 CE) and Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646). After the death of Chhatrapati Shahu.D. stormed Devagiri. Bijapur in 1686. references is made to the reign of an Abhira prince named Ishwarsena. 3 History Little is known of history in this area before the 13th century. the state of Chhattisgarh is found in the northeast corner of the plateau. to Warangal in 1421. .) and the invasion (A. but this.son od Shivadatta. Pahlavas and Yavanas.[11] The power of the Delhi sultanate evaporated south of the Narmada River. its dominions were distributed into the five Muslim states of Golkonda. The chief crop is cotton. invaded the Deccan. Bijapur. giving rise to the Deccan sultanates. in the state of Kerala. resulting in the final ruin of the Yadava power. Sambhaji defended the Maratha empire from the Mughal onslaught led by Aurangzeb. Other major cities include Pune.Deccan Plateau Tamil Nadu to the south of the plateau. In a cave inscription at Nasik.). rice. and other crops are also common. with the defeat of the Nizam in the Deccan.[9] [10] In 1294. Nagpur and Aurangabad (in Maharashtra). Bidar and Berar. and to the Bay of Bengal in 1472. dissension between the Peshwa and their sardars (army commanders) saw a gradual downfall of the Empire leading to its eventual annexation by the British East India Company in 1818 after the three Anglo-Maratha wars. then proceeding southward to conquer the Telangana and Carnatic. and Golkonda in 1688.). The city of Hyderabad is an important centre of Urdu language in the Deccan. the Peshwas became the de facto leaders of the Empire from 1749 to 1761. In 1307. The imperial hegemony was brief. too. Of the early history the main facts established are the growth of the Mauryan empire (250 B. Mughal interest in the Deccan also rose at this time. Maratha power had reached its zenith. Peshwas began commanding Maratha armies. emperor of Delhi. Ahir Kings once ruled over the deccan. 100) of the Scythic tribes known as the Sakas. who advanced their frontier to Golkonda in 1373. and reduced the Yadava rajas of Maharashtra to the position of tributary princes (see Daulatabad). After 1707. However. the Hindu kingdom of Telingana fell bit by bit to the Bahamani dynasty. AD). In 1674. Once the Bijapur Sultanate stopped being a threat to the Maratha Empire. The two large cities in the Deccan are Hyderabad the capital of Andhra Pradesh and Bangalore the capital of Karnataka. Shivaji laid the foundation of the Maratha Empire which within 75 years of his death covered territory of over 250 million acres (1 million km²) or one-third of the Indian sub-continent. Thereafter. as soon Telingana and Karnataka reverted to their former masters. and Bidar was absorbed by Bijapur in 1609. Chalukyas (6th to 12th c. Apart from the states already mentioned. however. which led to the establishment of the power of the Kshaharata satraps in western India. Marathas under Shivaji directly challenged the foreign rule of the Bijapur Sultanate and ultimately the mighty Mughal empire.[11] To the south of these the Hindu state of Carnatic or Vijayanagar still survived. while Shivaji's successors continued as nominal rulers from their base in Satara. the Marathas acquired the right to levy tribute in southern India. Berar had already been annexed by Ahmednagar in 1572. sugarcane. a fresh series of Muslim incursions led by Malik Kafur began in response to unpaid tributes.C. Marathas became much more aggressive and began to frequently raid Mughal territory. These defections by the Hindu states was soon followed by a general revolt of the Muslim governors. On the dissolution of the Bahmani empire in 1482. Ala-ud-Din Khilji. Sambhaji didn't let Aurangzeb gain a single major victory before he was deceitfully captured and executed. and Malayalam that of the hills and coast to the south-west. Hoysalas (10th to 14th c. resulting in the establishment in 1347 of the independent Muslim dynasty of Bahmani. and in 1338 the conquest of the Deccan was completed by Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq. Prominent dynasties of this time include the Cholas (3rd c. Rashtrakutas (753–982). was destroyed. The Urdu dialect spoken in this region is also known as Dakhni or Deccani. After Shivaji. BC to 12th c. its surrounding areas also host a notable population of Urdu speakers.

Retrieved 2007-01-05. . From Autocracy to Integration: Political Developments in Hyderabad State (1938—1948). the States Reorganisation Act reorganized states along linguistic lines. Volume 1 By Syed Siraj ul Hassan-page-12 [11] Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2008). [7] "Eastern Deccan Plateau Moist Forests" (http:/ / www. the plateau was largely divided between the presidencies of Bombay and Madras. including Kolhapur. Atar Singh (Published September 2001). com/ resources/ biogeozones/ decpen. Travancore. p. html). [8] "Shivasamudram Falls" (http:/ / www. many smaller states existed at the time. ibiblio. . Sawantwari. Military Geography of South-East Asia (http:/ / books. Jadoan. Lucien D. [3] "The Deccan Plateau" (http:/ / www. html). and was annexed by the Indian Army in Operation Polo in 1948. .Deccan Plateau A few years later the Aurangzeb's viceroy in Ahmednagar. com/ ). rainwaterharvesting. html) (scanned image at SriPedia Initiative): Sanskrit dakṣiṇa meaning 'right'. Retrieved 2007-01-05. sanctuaryasia. After a brief course of triumph. [5] "South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests d(IM0209)" (http:/ / www. The two largest native states at that time were Hyderabad State and Mysore State. ISBN 8126110082. World Wildlife Fund. . google. . p. the interests of France declined. 4 Deccan style Calligraphic emblem of sculpted sandstone – 16th century Nimmatnama-i Nasiruddin-Shahi (the Book of Recipes) Notes [1] Page 46. Ltd. worldwildlife. Retrieved 2007-01-05. org/ eco/ dp. and a new empire in India was established by the British. sanctuaryasia. Dr. htm). nationalgeographic. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation.E. [12] Benichou. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 'southern'. p. Retrieved 2007-01-05. cfm).org. uk/ books?id=4M_bG9rpXRwC). in/ books?id=lYSd-3yL9h0C& pg=PA12& dq=deccan+ ahir& hl=en& ei=0zOITYHFBYSIrAeL-JzVDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CFAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage& q=deccan%20ahir& f=false [10] The castes and tribes of H. During the contests for power which ensued from about the middle of the 18th century between the powers on the plateau. 232. php). [9] http:/ / books. nationalgeographic.H. cauvery. org/ about_wwf/ where_we_work/ ecoregions/ edeccan_plateau_moist_forests.[12] In 1956. Chennai: Orient Longman Limited. org/ sripedia/ ebooks/ mw/ 0400/ mw__0498. Nizam-ul-Mulk. followed by the Peshwa territories in 1818. panda. Retrieved 2008-06-08. (2000). India: Anmol Publications Pvt. leading to the states currently found on the plateau. worldwildlife. Tarreytown. Mysore formed one of their earliest conquests in the Deccan. In British India. After independence in 1947. . pp. established the seat of an independent government at Hyderabad in 1724.. 498 (http:/ / www. rainwaterharvesting. [6] "South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (IM0209)" (http:/ / www. google. com/ wildworld/ profiles/ terrestrial/ im/ im0209. almost all native states were incorporated into the Republic of India.com atul atul atul. Mysore was ruled by Hyder Ali. Part 1. org/ wildworld/ profiles/ terrestrial/ im/ im0209_full. co.org. [4] Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary. . . 270 pages. 335. Retrieved 2006-11-11. co. [2] "The Deccan Peninsula" (http:/ / www. Hyderabad refused to join. the French and British took opposite sides. and Cochin. the Nizam's dominions. India and Its Neighbors. Tanjore and the Carnatic were shortly after annexed to their dominions.

). Cambridge University Press. This file is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of no more than the life of the author plus 100 years.com/resources/biogeozones/decpen. External links • • • • • Destruction along the Deccan plateau (http://kalyanvarma.html) • Geology of Deccan Plateau (http://web.worldwildlife.deccannetwork.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/ im/im0201_full. ed (1911).com/decca.com/) .com/kalranga/deccan/deckings.kamat.mit. Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.php) Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (http://www.html) • Deccan South Indian Online (http://www.htm) The Deccan Peninsula (http://www.cyclingscholar.edu/nchat/www/research2a.html) Dynasties of Deccan (http://www.net/essays/scars) Photos of Deccan Plateau (http://www.Deccan Plateau 5 References •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm.sanctuaryasia. Hugh.

Astynax. Argo Navis. Fconaway. Pancho Fierro. Zariane. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3.wikipedia. HenkvD. David Eppstein.php?title=File:Hogenakkal_falls. Idleguy.wikipedia. Hadal.org/w/index. User:Rfl Image:PD-icon. Kesangh.delanoy.wikipedia. BeeTea. Joseph Solis in Australia. Jojit fb. Sumitkachroo. Ms2ger.svg  Source: http://en. D6. Lightmouse. A3RO. Ghousebarq. Skipjack Image:Calligraphic emblem MET 24-01.php?title=File:Indischer_Maler_um_1660_002.wikipedia. Bzuk.org/w/index. Garzo. Hugo999. Epbr123. Joshua Issac. Roland zh File:PD-icon. Rajaramraok. Roland zh. 244 anonymous edits Image Sources. RedWolf. Darth Panda. Mishac. Maximus Rex. AnotherPoint.Article Sources and Contributors 6 Article Sources and Contributors Deccan Plateau  Source: http://en.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Duesentrieb. Stwalkerster. B.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Mdd. Wbfergus. Tmyn. AxelBoldt. Ulalena.wikipedia.jpg  Source: http://en. Michael Devore.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.php?title=File:Indiahills. Tiddly Tom. Nick Number. Jeroen. Podzemnik. Tyler. Pnayak73. Ganeshk. Richard Keatinge.org/w/index. Philip Taron.org/w/index. Apokryltaros. ArgentTurquoise.caput. Deville. Aitias. Marcelo-Silva. Wikipelli. RainbowOfLight. Imz.php?title=File:PD-icon. Millahnna. Mica. Ukstranger.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AndreasPraefcke. J04n.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Duesentrieb. Ppntori. Imc. YellowMonkey. Gaurav. Hmains. El C.wikipedia.org/w/index. R'n'B. Nataraja. Rama's Arrow. Sripathyrao.wikipedia Image:Hampi Fluss Haupttempel. Iridescent.wikipedia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Jastrow Image:Nimmatnama-i Nasiruddin-Shahi 283.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Crux. Hamtechperson. Mana Excalibur. Ivan Štambuk.php?oldid=425683335  Contributors: A More Perfect Onion.jpg  Source: http://en.php?title=File:PD-icon.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Vanniar at en. Nichalp. Sardanaphalus. Sahodaran.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Nichalp Image:Hogenakkal falls. Mattbr. Plastikspork. Chezhiyan. Infrogmation.php?title=File:Calligraphic_emblem_MET_24-01. PhilKnight. Bkkbrad. Tom Radulovich.org/w/index. Piiscool123. Waerth. Onef9day. Owlindaylight. Chaosdruid.php?title=File:Nimmatnama-i_Nasiruddin-Shahi_283. LeaveSleaves. Fabartus. Vmjaishankar. Anupam. Mild Bill Hiccup. Gurubrahma. Alansohn. Kintetsubuffalo. New Rock Star. Atelerix. CanadianLinuxUser. 0/ . Bobo192. Kotjze. GeoWriter. Zaslav. Stercus. J.wikipedia. Cometstyles. Sanket ar. Matilda.jpg  Source: http://en. Gene Nygaard. Darked. Mimihitam. Instinct.org/w/index. Tuncrypt. Upstatepolyglot. John of Reading. Snowolf. Dineshkannambadi. Grafen. Kaal. Kalyanvarma. Jonoikobangali. HenryLi. Shivap. Ainlina. Alren. Mattisse. Ranveig. Deb.svg  Source: http://en. Tide rolls. Srikeit. Kumargsa. Licenses and Contributors Image:Indiahills. Ratiocinate. Tabletop. MarvelMarble. Mausy5043. Der Eberswalder.jpg  Source: http://en. User:Rfl License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.php?title=File:Hampi_Fluss_Haupttempel. Lost tourist. Islander(Scandinavia).org/w/index. Pamri. Badagnani. Roland zh. Ahoerstemeier. Woohookitty.org/w/index. Fundamental metric tensor. Balster neb. Ranveig. Roland zh Image:Indischer Maler um 1660 002. Vsmith. Mac Davis. Mike4ty4. Dewan357. CALR.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. Billposer.png  Source: http://en. Fratrep. Hellohottie123. Rjwilmsi. Arminius.