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Ch. 4

Ch. 4

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NOY construction projects, large cranes such as those shown are used.

The sum of the moments of the loads tile counterweights abou1 the base of a crane must be adjusted so that ihe couple of the reaction at the base not cause failure of the tower.

ouu, BR U


Int~Qductjon Free-Body Diagram

Equilibrium in Two Dimensions 4.3 Reactions al Supports and

Connections for a Two-DimensIonal Structure

4.' Equilibrium of a Rigid Body In Two Dtmensrons

4.5 Statically Indeterminate Reactions.

Partial Conslraints

4.6 Equilibrium of a Two-Foroe Body 4.1 Equilibrium of a Three-Force Body

Equilibrium Thre£!!

DimenSlor 5

4.8 EqulJlbriumof a Aig.id Body in three Dimensions

<1 .• 9 Reactions at Supports and Connections for a ThreeDimensional Structure



\Ve saw in the pte cuing chapter tl ta.t the 'xtemal •• oroes acting on ri rid body can he r dueed to a Ioroe-couple s)'sit m at some ~rhil point O. When the force nndrhc couple re both equal to zero,

xteraal forces forma s st~m e .uivalent to zero, aud the rigid is said to be iu eqttlflhnmn.

The 11 cess • .il)f and suCnd nt conditions for theeqllilibrtulI: or ligid I od), therefore. CAll be obtained by !>.ll1ng R and M~eqQa1 zero in 1"h rBla.liom (3 .. 52) 0 ·ec. 3,17:

!'),lo = ~tr X F) = 0

Resolving each force and eueh moment into its recr eomponents, we can express the necessaryuud U lei nr conwli for the cqUilihrium of a rigid bod .. with he following six sra equations:

z.F-.; = (j IM,,= 0

'LFy 0 l.J!I=O

2:F:;". = 0 'LM- 0

The nations obtamed can be used to determine unlmllwn forclls plied to the rigid bod or unknown reaction exerted on it by its ports. V"lf" nol that Eqs. (4.2.) I': ness tho fact that tll(:' l...'tlmpOn{'ll of the ex, mal fur -es in th .. ' x. y. and c directions are balane Eqs .. ( 4.3) express the fad lhal the moment" of thcel!.ternru fo. about-the x, 9. and z axes arc balanced, Therefore, for a rigid body

eel . ibrium, thp s -srern of the ext mal Io . willimpart 110 fran

nonal or rotational motiou to the body consider d.

In order to write the equations of cquililnillm fOT a rigid be it isessential to first identify ail of the forces acting on that body. h n to draw t1. corre pnndingJTf!p..body diagram. In this chli? we fi,r~.,t consider the equilthrium uf/w(Hilmen 10nai stnrd:!u'es jeered 0 forces ontalned in their plianesalld learn how to draw Ih free-body ditt..gl'ams. In 1J(]J ition to the forces applied to 0; SinK'll: the reostions exerted on the structure hy its supports will he sidered. J\ p ~cific reaction will b associated with each type of i port. You will lea rn h nw to deterrnme wI I ether th structure is p erly supported. so that you .an know in ndvanee 'i hether equaUOlrs of equihbdum can be solved for th unknown Forces reactions.

Later ill the ch'lpter. th equ ilihrillln of th re e-dtm en stonal tu.res ... vill he eonsidered, and tile same kind of 8nalysi' wilt be gi to these structures and lhf'ir' supports.


• $1) v· ~ n bl n concerninz 11<: equilibrium f rigid body, it is

~nti to consider all of the ore actin 0 th bod; iL is equally im rtan to elude an for' whic is not dircctl npplipd 0 thR 11f)Il\. Oillilling a ~ r r 'llkling an c tranc us on \V uld d SIT Y tL . ltlliditlC111S of t"quilibJiurn. The!' Iorc, the first step in th 11)'0.01 of thepru I('Tn should be 1'0 dm\c afree-Imrly diaerom fth ri 'd Lod} umLrl'Oll klcralion. Frec-h y dia roms huvp already c n used on many asioas in hap 2. Hower, ill viev of heir i ortance to

lbr solution of equilibrium pI hl . w smnmariz h r the Vi. •

~l~ ~ Wl'i1 -l be f Ilow .d in c a \ 'ng a IT' -b dv di ram.

1. d ar d cision sh uld 1 made l"f'garding he ·11 ie r th

It !e uody to b us d. Thi d r ~ th n d a he fro h

und and is s para ed [rom all other bodies. TIle contour of the body thus isolated is ~kf! tched,

be inc uded among th external forces, sine ; repro ents the

function exerted by the e; rth on the \' lou partlcles formiug the Ire bod" s willI) se sn ill C]lap. 5. tin:, eight should be a plied at til cen er f gravity of th "" bod". \'\ h .n the Ir e bod is made of , N ral ar s, th ~ rc s the v 'OWi parts I' .er 011 each 0111 r sbould n L be include au ong te t'\i n a] force'. hcs forces are internal force" ar I:I.S the nee b (1 is on' ern .

:I. T' ill. gnltudes and dir ction: f the knou.m sternal orces should be el arly marked on the free- ody di gruJTl. When [nor '<lUng tlle dirdctions 0 thes '" forces, it must b r membert' t11:J.t th forces hown a tb 'e -b d diagram must be thost' wi I iel I art' exert ed on, and 11 l by, the free

Kn wn . tArl 31 ~) .' uerull i elude tho tight

fr '(' od I and fore, applied for a giv n pW'p 5e.

I, - IkJl t"/ estemol force' usuall eon s-is 1 of th reactions.

through hi -·1 the gound all oth r b di s oppose a ossible monon of the free rod '. TIl{:~ r ti ns onstrain th Ire hocl· 10 remain in th , ":II n r U 'illon mil]. for Uutl r us n, ar r

mnetimes cal].! xn ,t;trainmgJot'Ces He 'ODS are exerted

lit tile points wh r th fr body is supportf'd hy or con

IIt'cf({d 1(1 other bodtc aud sl ould d arl in icat d. He-

aetlons arc dlscu cd in detail in. ecs, 4.3 and ..

5. Th frfP h ely rli. gr \ I . lin .1] <1.1 inc! tle diuicustcns. sin e

Sf l av be u .d.d ill 11 . mputation of mon ents of

fore s. Any other detail, Ii iW~V .r, should omit] d.


-Body 0 gram 159

Photo 4.' A free-body diagram of he tractor st,own would i elude all of the 9xtemal forces acllng Of"! the Iractor: tha weight 0' the trs.clor, I e weigh n 11'1 lOAd In he bt.cket, and t e forces exerted by the ground on a Ures.

Photo 4.2 In Cap. • we will OI5CUSS how to determine the internal forces in structures made of several connscrec pIeces s c~ as t e orces in Ihe rnarn rs \hal support the bUc.«11 of the tractor of Photo 4.1.

160 EqUi Ibtium 0 Rigill Bodl '!I

Photo 4.3 As Ihe link of e aw ng window opening mechanit;!m Is axle ldecJ, Ine lorce II exer SOil he Iida esults In a normal orca buin 80plied 0 the rod, which oa ses the window 10 open.

Photo 4.4 The abutmen1-mo nted rocker bearing silo n is used to support the roadway at a bndge.

Photo 4.5 Sho n IS the rocke expansion bearing 0 pi te girder bridge. 1 he convex surf 00 01 the rocke allows the support of lhe girder 1 move horizontally,



In the Ilrs p< of this chap er; til q 'liLlitll1l of a l' o-di nensi tl'U 'hue is (.'011 it red; t.h. t is. it i. assum ll~ tb tructure bei i.tlI(llY'l.ed rd the or ' -s IIp lled l it are contained in be same pia Clear! . tl: e reactions nee ed to maintain th ~ tnt 'Illre in t

po:-.iti n \ ~ll als e c ntained in this plane,

'11 •. t iii tious _. 't'rlPd on . n ) iii ensional ·tmc I.e: c. n divided into thr c groups: corresponding to tilt '<.0 r 'PPs of SI(1'},KI r conncrttons:

I. Beactions EquiL'Y11 lit tv rl Force lI;jth KJloum Line of ,1dI upp It: and conn -tio S C<1l1sillg re- diol S 0 this t)'P I elude /"ulh>I:«, rockers. n(;tlolliess 8U1(1 :e,~ •. shor! links {AmJ bles C'.onars ot! jriclicmie" 1r1., and!ricticmJe. spin i ,l

.. ach of thes supports and conn ctions (:'.1.11 PI' flnl mo" in on if! tioll onl . T e . re ,hOVIIl in fi'i. .1. I with 1IJt' 1'1: ... • die 11, the. r produc .. Each or tile re renetions i v lves one 1111kH -j) na tel • th Ill' L ltude nr (h rcaeti tlli ! ngnihld .houl denote ban. ppropriatc let Th lin f action of he artton is kno\ '.0 nd should be' dieated clearl in h e-bod; uia!_,TfIlJn. The', nse of the. action must be as shown ill 'ig, 4.1 for the '.bt'S or a [ ti nles. urfac ~ (t w rd thc f • b) y) or < C<lblt' (awol, fr the free bod '). 1'11· r .1lcUOllt,m bf' di re ted f'ith r \~l v I he '~e r double-track rollers, link .collar 0 rods, ancl' in slots: Singlp-ll'a(·kmller. and rocke r are generully , sm

to be versihlc, au 1111;;; t}-I orresp mdi.l1g react! 115 [

a! 0 be direct d either wax

2. R mcti I~' Eouicnlcn! tn a Fore of Unknoum Direction M (lgnltud . Supports au con n 'I if) n s ca l'j ng r actions thi'i type Inelud frirtiDnle s pins' III fitted lvI,', hillge-'i,

ro f!,h !tU'li(1 -($ Tit) an p" vent transla 'on the free

in all directions, bu the. can 1 t 11'P\, n t th bo<l from rating about the conn ctio ,Rcac' In. 0 this 1fJ'i lip imu iUJU 111IkllOlOm and are 11 ually rcprexeure by th eir I and

COL pon~nt.. t~ e ca .e 0 a rough SIl ce. the comp 11

normal ( the surface must b dtrec J <1W.1 fmm

urface a nd thus i d to rd 11 fre body.

3. Reactions F l"it::ulel l to a Fore l1Iul a Coupl» These

.11 e hy fl:\:' d support, " . cl1 op an' 1110"

0<.1 and thus constrain it ornplet lv, Fiseds port actually pr due iOl'CCS over lhe sntir urfac of

tact; tl e, e forces, however, form a . yst LU which can he duced to [or C' and , couple, ~ ~. 'ti ns of l i tiv. e IUlkno1.cns. c.:ul1$i. ting usually of th th tOT! 'to' d the m mel t of the C uple.


iF K'I:' \\~I h I 11l\\~:1 iii II" uf Hn in

i<'moe .... Jlh known line of nction


upport or Ceenee 1'1

C.ulbII)n rr.ctlolll(~ .,XJ

I'rlctioules:s pin Instol

, f 00' I




Foree with kuO\~u lint' Orll{'Iinll


F'NNNll('\3 pin Dr hinge"


Ag.4.1 Reactions at sl.pporls and connections.

When the sense of anunknown force or ("'llUple is lint wadily np' p.1Te<nt, no attempt slsonld be made to determine it, Instead, tile sense Il tl1c force or t'onpl . hould be arbitrart1y assumed; the sib'll of the IDs\\'cr oUtaineo. will indicate" hother 11lC assumption is com'" or not


1\0 lI,e,h s u rfiu.'C

J or


Fnrpt· nll!llhmwf\ dirE'(1ioJl



Foret> Md couple'


4.3. Reactions alSupports and Conngctiol1s 161 lur a Two·O'menslonal Sirucilira

162 EQul~ brlUfTl 01 Rigid Bod'as

. \~


FI.g .. 4.2


Th c:onclitioil. stated in xec, 4.1 for the equilihrium 0 a rig[d be COl , consid ··rahly simpler for the case ora two-dimensional lure Clru sing tIle x an lyal(f! to he in Ihe plane of thp sLntCI we have

.f'l' --- My = 0

M:. = Me>

for each of the forces apphed to the structure. Thus, the six equ ' ofequilibrtum derived in . oc. 4.1 reduce to

:LF~ = 0

l:F - Ij

and to titre trivial identities, 0 = O. ine LMo = 0 must be fled regardless of the choice of the origin o.,weCt1.O write the cc: nons or E'q,nilihl'ium lor a two dimensional 1Otl"1I ture in hf' gen .ral fon II

F..cf,.. = 0

.... vhere is. any porn in the plane of the structure, The three tions obtained 'un b solved for 110 more than three !mkuOWI18,

We saw in the preceding section that unknown forces include actions and th t the number of unknowns corresponding to it reectlon depends UpOll the type ofsuppurt 0 r CUUlICt:tiOU (.:'Ut1Sillg reaction. llefcr:rill,gto Sec. 4.3. \VC ObSCIVC that the cquilib:tiuJll tions(4.5) can b sed to determine the reactions associated \l~th rollers and one cable, Oil ii, d support, or one roller and one pin a fitted hole, te.

onsider Fig. 4.2a, in which the truss shown is subjected to given forces P, Q. and S. The truss is held in pine by a pin at ,\ a roll r at B. T1H:! phl prev nts point A from moving by .,erliu'" the truss Ii force which CHit be resolved into thecomponents .f

1; the roller k eps the t11lS, from rotating about A by exerting vertieal force 8. Th ~ free-b ly (liagranll the trn .. , is shown Fig, .2h. it illchules the reactioll,,~ .' and B a.nvel as the '. ' fore s P, Q. and the weIght ,\;Y of tte ml . E):pressil1g that sumof the moments about A of ail of the forces S!.UWH in Fig. ~ is zero, we writ til equation 2:M" = 0 which call be used to termmc the mngnitudcH since it does not ecntain A, or A!f' \ expccssillg that the sum of the ~\' compouen!s aud he suia of OtE components of the forces arc zero we writethe equc ttons 'i.E. and 2:Fy = 0, from which we can obtain the components Ax and respectively .

An additionalequation could beobtatned by expressing that sum of the moments of the external, forces about a point other A is ZfO. \v, could write, for instnn e. '£M 8 = O. SU.f'h a howe eT, do 'i m)t contain an new intnrmatioa, since it has , been established tLa:t the- system of the forces Iiown ill 1'ig.:,2h lJllivall;:!l,t tu xer . Th .. ' i.'l.tlditir)llnl e{f,wlion h) !wi indepmuh'111 cannot be used to determine a fo rth llUlolo\vlI. It will be

,ow r or ch eking tile. lution b ained [Tum the rigillal three tij lions of utlfbrlu m .

\ 1u.Ie th l rcc quation. of e uilihrium cannot b all m ~lJt d b· a dirional a . ns, of em can b replaced b all ther ~1l11tion. Therefore, .UI al nu live s stem r qu ti n of equiltbrilllll i

4F~ - a

( 6)

herr the' c n point about \ hich the momen . are unum d (in !hi cas . poi t E) nn t Ii Oil th line pc illcl to the y • ,'is hi I passe thro a pou t ig. 4.2lJ). These equations arc suff !ient rondilions ('or th eq ilibriurn of th uSS. The first two quatk ns illllicalc Umllbe erual ~ Ir '~: must reduce to a sin 1(' v rtieal force ilt.d Since the third cquarto quir ~~ that the omcut o this furt.:e bt'" zem al out ~J point 13 which is not on its lint:' of action. the for . must b. z{'W, and th rigid body Is iu equtltb 'UTI.

A tLird possible set of quanon of quilihrium is


\\h(;'rc the pints A, B, and do not lie in a strai 1 line (Fig. 4.21:1). Tho firs~ cq ltUU11 requir 1> tlH1t II f' l"xlpfI1 1 1'01'0 r educ to' .~. ngle force !lL.1. the 5('(;"On<1 eC]uatiou requires that this fore" pOI. Il~.rollgh B; and til third equati n Teo 11 'reo that i pass ~ roug G. 'in .e the pom . J~ B. C UO iot lit! ill u '(I, i hi lin. th for m 1 t 7.(":TO,

d e rigid body is in 'qui fbrhn n.

The equation "",M~ = 0. -hi ,11 r til

moinen or th fore . ub ut pi nit£' pL ical meaning th n either nth r cquauons ( .7). Tilt'.. tw e uations exprc s a irnilar id a of balance, but with rc~p ,t to points about which th rigid body is no email) hinged. ""1'11<': 'In>, ll(l\\,pvpr. as usc Iulas tire fi rs t eq uali( III, andour hoice f rquihhrhull equations shoul not be undulv inf1Uf!1I d h tb ph s-

,111I1Cllnlug f thes fJu lions. Ind c-d it will be d irabl ill prac~ dec to ~100' equations quill riuin cUlltainillg 01 I, 01 e 0- mon, inc rlri elrminates the n cessitv of solvln irnultan nils rqu ion. IJ;qllati( l1S con' ining onl one'[ nknown .. n e ohtaiue ~. s mU1g IOll1~11 ~ .1l>)Ill t" point of Inters eric I lIP lines of .. chon of two unknov for p_ or, if th se fore s e 'P rall '1, b umming romp ncnrs in direction p .rpen icular to their common diruttiDlL For example. ill ig. iI.a in which Ih truss hown i s lIPId bl'roUers lAd H a a short link at D. the r actions at A and B r,1Jl hp plimin led by Slimming x '011lP ner ts, he reacnoi at A

.mtl D will b limlnal d by rununl Ig moments ahout • and the

rt"clt1iOIl~ at B and D b summm 1 aments ab ut D. Th UUI:iOllS ohtiUll d are

ZF" - 0

~ fc-

E:arh of these equations (J( ntain. 0 y one unknown,

4.4. EquJllbl1um 01 a Rigid Bo<Iy 10 T~ 0 163 Dim n$1



FIg, 4.3

164 :!quI! br1um 01 Rigid Bodies



Flg.4,4 SLaUcslIy Ir,Jetsfln nate rt, 1('lIon

,\ R


Flg,4.5 Partial ccnstraints


In III two examples l) n~iderf'tl in the pre ding se tion (Figs 'I. and 4.3), the typ 'S of support used wer such that tTl rigicll ,

ould not pcssbly move under the given 1o. ds or under :.myoth loading conditions. In such cases, the rigid body is s ld to bu t"all I'letelyclJlIst.ralned.We also recall that the reaetioescorrespoada to the e supports involved three unkflO''''1I$ and could be determin b .<iolving the thre quations of qllilibrium. When su b. a situaM(I '11.; sts , the reactions re ssid to h statically (let rmlnaie.

'oflsh.l T Fig. 4,{f. in ""hid die tnlss slrown is held IJY pill at. aud H. Th"" e suppor ' provide TIlOl' eoustrulnt e LImn are nf'f:e~~~ to ke 'p th rms from m ovin under the W.VCll loads or under an otlrer lo.iuill zconditieus. W(:' also note from tlll;;:rep-bodv tlie ran Fig. 4A/] that th corresponding reactions involve fim; U1.Ik1i()!I.' Since, as was pointed out in See. 404, only thr C independent cq . Iihdum qoations me avallable, there are more unk,10wm; than eql lions; thus, nil of the unknowns cannot be del' rmmed, \Vhile t equations ~Mr\ 0 ItIld 'LMIJ 0 yield the vcrtiealeornpoucnls B and A.yo respecti e 1)" the equation IFI = 0 gives only thCSU.n11\~ + Jj of the horizontal componants or the reactions ot A and 13. The com pon us A:.: amI B;r ar sai to he .r;taticolly ltldet~rmiu.(jte, They tc be determmed byeonsidenng the deformations produced in the by th given loading" but dns me tho is beyond the scope of stati ,;111 1 b lor g.o;. to thl"' ,tud ' of nlt> hal lcs of In terials,

The SllPP(ll"tS used to hold the truss shov n in Fig. 4.5aconsist a roll- rs at and B I ~a_rl ,. t] teeOlI:> :<11 Iitsprovided by these SIlpp<J are not suffit'iell t 0 keep lie truss rru III inovi IIg. \Vhile <l11y \Ie rli motion is prevented, the truss i fre to lTIO\'e horizon!' ny. The is said to be partially eonstminrd. ~ Tllrning our attention tn Fig, 4 - we: note ,Umt the reactions ,It A aud B lnvolve 0111y two rmkhlJW Since three equations of equillbrium must .still be satlsfied, there fewer unknowns than eqaation-5, and, in general, one of the eqoili dum quattons will not b snf ned. ·While the quati 11' }';,)t, =

and l:.if.B 0 CUll be satisfied by a prope.r choice of reactions at and B, the equation IF,; = 0 wilt not be satisfl d unless the sum the horizontal components or the flpplied [ore s happens to b 7£ vVe thus obs rv . that th tnlibrim:o[ the truss of Fig. 4.5 C'Jl1II he maintainei] under general lO.Kling condlnons.

It appears from tJIP above tilt i . <1 rigjd hody is to be-complrtr con traine ! and if th '" reactions . t its snpports ar to hstatica:lly terrninate. there must be: as marlY U.nk1l0WIIS as' there are equatiolls eqflilihdmn. \\ hen this con 'tion is not satisned, we can be eerb ~itht:'r Lhat tlll:' rigilI lJOdyis not (,ulllplet~ly COilS ratned or tbot I reactions at ib supports m-e not statically d terrnmate, It is also p siblc th13l th rigid body is not completely constrained aurl dll!t t reactions nrc staUcallVind terminate.

We should note, however, that, while necessary. the above (:und tlon is not s!~fficienl. Inother words, the faet that the number

! i::"".!.J'tiailycnmtm.ined bodies uri!: often referred ~o us unslabl . JJO\\ ever. to amid eooJi bC'hvt '11' lIiL~ .~'I*' of' U1~hiljl). (Ille to in um i 1'\1 con.tI n\il'l", and Ihe I)pe of II'ISf Cl"L~dl:red in Clup 10. which relates. La the behavtor of II rigid bod)' when its eqc' .

. disttJJ'bed.wf ill l'€slricl the use of 'the words stobie and mis/able to the lalter QSe,

UIlknown isequal to the number of equations is no guarantee that the bo~'i eompletel con "trained or that the r aCC.OL1S a.t its supports arc stalitally determinate. Consider Fig. 4.60 ill 'Nhich the truss shown is 1l1'1d hv rollers at A, B. and E. Wbile there are three unknown reacIlDrlS,' ,s, and E (Fig. 4.6b), til lXluatioll ~F.r = 0 will not he satis flfld unless the sum of the horizontal components of thcappll xl fa, . ntlJlPE'11S to be zero. Althcu h there arc a sufficient number of con~lruints, these coastralnts nrc not proper] urranged. amI tluc' t1IS:' i!o, free to n ave horizontally. \ c say that the U1JSS is bllpropedy CQfiflroillcd. Since only twoequilibtillm equations arc len [or detcrrntn!tIg ~I~t-e uukn()\ ,LIle reactions will be statically lad l rmlnate, ThlL\ ilIlpmpt:r mstrainf also produce static Indeterminae .

.:\nother xarnpl of' improper constraints=endof static indeII'rmil1A is provirl 1 b}1 thetruss shm· n in Fig. 'L 7. This truss is bplc1lly H pin at Aand by roll . rs a.. Band C, which alta ether in olve fllur lIDk'11IJWllS. iince only til ree independent equilibrium equlions

avaihil.lle, the reactions at tlre supports 'Ire statical! indetermi nate, On the other hand. w not. that the equation L.U_<\ = 0 cannot be satisfied under gencrat10aUing conditions, .:.1 flCC th - Ii ne . ofacti on of Iw re nons B and ,. pas' through .. \ " xmclude that tJ Ie trus: can rolate about 11 and that it is improperly eonstratncd.f

The examples of Figs. 4.6 and 4.7 lend us to conclude that (I ·rigid oody i,~ 'nrpmpt?:liy oollstmined l heneeer if7e Jpporls, cv n though OW.I may provide a sufficient number of reactions, are an-ongecl in ~lldl 0 way that tile reacuon« must be tithe!' concurrent or paraJlel. t

In Immru)', 1'0 hR Sill'€' that n two-dtmensional rigid l y is corn~~tely LQIIstrliinedanu that the reactions at its supports Me statically d;ter.:rrinllte,. we houldverifY that the reactions involve three=-aad only rllll~e-flukIlm ... ms and the. the suppom are arranged in such a my that tllfY tlo 1101 llKJ.uirt the reactions to b~ eltherc n urren t or pataHeL

Supports involving stati· ally indetenub late reactions shoi lid be lIseU with care in the de.\1grt of structures i 1(1 only with a full knowi-

ge uf tile problems the, III;~, cau e. On the Ith.r hand, lhmuzlysI..\' of snuetu res possessing static a n_ inu 'terminate reactions often can b~ partially carried out b the methods of statics. In the case of the tnss of Fig. 4.4 for example. the vertleal components of the re- c tions at A and B were obtained from the equilibrium equations.

For obvious reasons, supports producing partial or improper conslr.1inls 5hould he avoid d ill l he d S tgn 0 f starionary stmc ttl res. II owL'\Cr, a partinlly or hnprop rly constrained structurewill not ueees- 5:lrily collapse; under particular loading condttlons, equilibrium can he maintaine"cl or ex' mple, the trusses 0' Figs. . and l1.6 will be ill cquilillrinm if tht! applied forces . Q, an .1 ar vertical. Besides, structures wbichare de..;;igned to 010 e should be only partially constt,llne. railroad car, for in, tance,wonldl P. of little IISP if i WE're romplcte~' constrained by having its ural\; '" applied penmm nt1y.

fHr,~JIIIJU of lilt' tm~s awul .'\ rt,'Cjuirc::; Mil Ill: "pIa" in the !>uppurb. at Jj <lull C. III jJf;!C~Ll.' !ll~fl a~ 'tt-,II a11\~~I~'Q!>t In ~tWitilm. ""~ uotl: tI . t if tilt-play i5 kepi SIn ill,l.Ut' disrtwlIIl'AI~ or JJII' rnll!i't5 .8 And C 1111cl, lhlls. Iht' distil s r rom .1 to I ho clilfll."~ of fieri n or lhllll!.lel..ll!lI! JJ ami will also be small. TheeqUllUllll XM,i .. 0 then requires :tbllt and

l,e IH) la.'lll'. a !iIlua:l:lilll wWcL can restdl ill tile ful]J.Ue of e suppl'Irtj <II B and C.

t Bl'>:aUk th.ls .'lit IlIlliml .mst:!i ftum all in :.deq IJ a I.o! atl'allgt'Illl! n l or gcomet,'!/ of !:hE' supi'Jl'ls il to tlflr::IL refened to as g!?'om~1rlli lnnobilfly.

... S. Statlcall Indslermil'lJie ~IICtlOl1~ Panlal Caf16t nts



Flg.4.6 Imp 0 er OOllSlramls



Flg.4.7 ImpMPer consnants

-211l-~·J 111





A 6.l(cc1 crane has a mass of 1000 kgllJJd is used t lift II 24n(J~kg rure, If l~ II Id in plaet' hy 1I piTl at A .<ll1d It n·ktlf al B. The ct'ntel r gm 'Iy of ,the crane is local rl d G. Determine the components of the reae .. 'tiQlIS nt 1\ and 8,


•• ~t'-. B ml) 0 i agralll. A rr~· .body t1iagrmn of t IIf!L~1 ,UlE' is dr.twn. IJ~' TI1l1l'plyiug thrnr '<s .. 0 l]w (,'1"'.:In ~ anti of th crate U)' g = 9'. 1 rws2, lIe ohtam the corresponding weights, tha.t is, 9810 or 9.1 kN. and 23 500 N or 23.5 kN. The reaction at pin A is a ioree of unknown direction; it is repr ente by Us components Jl.. tim] . The reaction ut til· rocker B i:; l111.'.r pcnd.iC'ul.lr tnth nK.·kt!T surf .. l(;'t"; tlms.il is huriznt.1. W{~ ssumc that ~

_Y' • mI n act In the atr C' ions shown.

D~tcnn£nI'lUOIlOf 8. \i e XPI'CSS that the surrr of the moments of all ~ rem!!1 fi r '5 about point A i: '4'(0. The >fJuatitm obl<linu \vill contaia neitIll A.r nor J\y. sin ieo till" mome ts of A,. and !I about A are zero, ~fllJtipl.·. ilig th(~ magnitude of oaeh force by its perpendi mlar distunce fivm • we write

+ XM" = 0:

+B(1 . o rn] (9. 1 kN)(2 Ttl) - (23 l<:. )(6 iii) ;; 0

B"- + 107.1 'kN B - 107.1 k~ -

Sirtn~ the result is po$itivc, the reaction is directed as assume ,

IJt'tt>nllilll1tiulI n. A" The mugrtill1de or is determined bye!pres3- mg that the sum of the hOrilJ.J11t<ll components afaU external forces is zero.


A,+ Hl7.l k'-n At -107'.1 ~N

Since the result is negative, the sense of origjnaUy.

Dden ,iuation of 'Y' Tile sum of the vertical compo '-!qllIlJ zero.

~4y . 9.81 k'J - 23.:5 k 1 = 0 .4.y = +33.3 k\l

Adding vectoriaH), thecomponents and II' we find that the reaction

ul A i)J 1I2.2 kN ~17,3".

'heck. The values obtidusd for the renetion em h(" ell, kf'd h)· re calling thai the suui uf tht:' moments of allof the external foree!'iahout ;my point must be zero. Fur e",omple,C'Onstdcring pol LB. we write

t ·!M8 = -(9. 1 k_ )(2 m) - (23.- iu'l)(6 rn) + (Wi.) ,kN )(1.5 111) = 0


Truce loads are applied to a bear as hewn, T c beam is .. up orted by a T ll r at land bv a in at B. :\iegIe ting 11 \ 'ight of 1 (. lu-am f,: ermine rhe Ten nons ; I A a d 8 when P - 15 kip '.


. re ·.nod, ingrulJ. A rr -110 I: action at A' 'erti~u and i' den t d }' by compollents 13,. and !r Each cornpon tinn shown .

Ingrain of lh beam is drawn. Th The reaction at B is represe ted nt ls assurn d to act in th direc-

. quilihrium !.( lIaLion.. \Ve "~de th f II '.Vtng lhr equillbriu qllation. d lve for the reaetio s iudi 'ut &


B =


u =

+~2M,\ = :

- 15 kips)( rt) + By(9 n) - (6 kips)(11 fL) - (

BIJ = +21 0 kips

kips)( 1'3 It) =

H, 21.n kips ~

+~IM = :

(9 rt) + (1.5 kips)(6 It) - 6 ki (2 ft) - 6 krps)( ) = 0

i\ = + 6. 0 kip • - 6 00 1.; . I ~

Check, The results ~ checked hy ddln the erne-ill L'ompon nrs of all of the cxremal orees.

+tIFy = +6. laps - 15 kis + 21, ps - 6 kip - 6 kips = 0

Bemurk, however, th




. loading car is al I' st on a track fon:ning an angle of 250 with the vertitd.!. 111 gmss W ighl ·of Ih CcJ r and its lOr! IS 550Ulb 11m] it h applied at a puiIJl 30 in .. from [he track, half \Va. ' berwe ... n t lUi' two iLl les. TIl car i~ lid h} a (',I ble altached 24 in. from Ih" track. Det rmine the tensiun il til l.':lble lind the reae 'on al aeh pair of \ . ..,h .('Is.


Free-Body Diagram. free-body diagra. of the car is drawn. 111~

re tion lit each wheel is perpendicular to the track. and the tension for~ T is P'I1IU I to rhe track For convenlenee, we chouse the xaris parnllel to t tnl~.'k !\J1d the y <005 perpendicular to the track The 5500-1h \lJeightis then rf'S Iv d luto .\ll11Uy (lUIllPOllf"I'ltS.

HI .... = +(.5500 Ib) cos 250 "" +49 Olb W!I:: -(5500 Ih)!tin 25" = -2320Ib

E luilihrium E(lllutiom.. We tat.;:· moments !!hour A to eliminate T and :8.1 [rCHt'! the c()mp rtution.

"1:LJ.(.\ = 0: -(2320 Ib)(2.'5 in.] - (4980 Ib)(6 in.) + U!!:(50 in) :: U

Rz = + 1758 II; R2 = 17S.~ lh), ~

Kow. taJdng moments abo l B to el1l1Jinut~ ." and U,a from the c..'OmpntBtion we write

r'~MB = 0: (2320 Ih){25 in.) - (40RO rL)(G in.l - R1(50 in.) =0

HI := +562 III RI = 51i2 Ib?

The value of T is found b)' writing

"'!F_. = 0: +4000 Ib - T = 0 T= 49801b

T = 49bO Ib ~

The oomput d values of the readiOl1s ar~ shown in the <llij<lttnt!> leh.

Clu::.ck. The compulauons ar verified by writing ?+~F'J == +50210 + 1758 Ib - 2320 II" = 0

TIIt~ solut! n (~1J1rl also avl:' hC'cn chC'C'kcd hy ooTllputing rnomeats a_boul au' point otber than or B.






The Irame .shO\vu !ill pp0l1 s parl ofth roof of II small building. Knovvin('f that the tension inthe cable is 150 k.\i. detennine the reaction t the axed end .


Free-Rod ])ill~n Ill. fre Amd:y diagnu11 ·0'- the frame and of th ,

ca 1 BDP is drawn. 111e reuerion· the Bred End E is r prcscoteu by tlu' ore I.·ulllponellls .. and Ey and the co pie M£. The othcr fOfccsLctinlJ on the free body are tne four 2 '-kt-.: I 1,1 ads and the 150-kl force-l'xt'rted at nd F .of the cable.

EtlUililHiunl' quutiolls. Notina that DF = V (4.5 fit + (6 ml =-.5 1l1. we write

4~F .. =O:

Er + 4':O!)t) k ) = 0 7.;)

E, ;; -90,0 kN

Ey - 4(20 kN) - .!..(l~(} k:\) = 0 7,l'j

Ey = +200 Ie.:' E" = 20U kJ\ .....

I iLM,E = 0: (20 k ,)(1.2 m) + (20 Ie .)(5. m) + (20 kN)(3.6 rn)

+(2.0 k )(L8 .I) - 7,5 {I50 kN)(4 .. :; m) ~ u; = 0

AI f; = 180.0 kI.\: . rn


AOO-Ib weight is att.u::lled at A to the lever shown. The constant of the .spring Be i. s k = 250 lblin."nd Ih spring is IlnstretcLed when 0 = 0. D tannin thr' positioll of equilihrium.


Fre .Bod; Dia~t'llm. Wrclrawa free-body di.a.gram of the lever .md l-yliI uler; Denotln by s til deflection of th Sf nng from its undcfonned position, and noting thats = rO. we have F - k.~ - krfJ.

F.Cjuili1 rium Equation. Summing the moments of W 0, we write

ill ut


Wl~in (} - r(k,.e) =- 0

Sllh.'lUtuHng II. giVPLl data, we obtam

!>;n9 =(250 Ib/in.}{3 111.)ZIJ sin IJ _ 0.7038

(400 Ib)(8 in.]

So :ing numerically; we find

EJ - II (1 - ~O.3" ...



o I saw th, t the xternal for 'e" Hn on rigid hod in. f':q lilil. ium form a :!il m equivalei l l( zero, To 'oh . un equilibrium probl III om fir task i50 raw a. nea r a. nahl lar (~.fo e-bodq diagram. on which 011 will show all ext mal forces and r I , ant dim nsion , B 111 known and unknown fI rc . must e included.

For a tfCo·dimensionctl rigid body, t c reactions at the . uppcrc . n in 'olv '" ne two, r three I1I11<noWli. I pendin on the type of upport (l''"'ig. 4.1). "'or the suocssful solution of a problem. e eorrcc free-body diagram is ess tial, Never PI' -

ceed witI the olunon of a probl 111 unti '011' -e sur that; our frec- y d:ia.gr:un

in tude: 111<· , II reaction nd thp 'ei J 1 of II to lJ _ or, pprupri to).

on .onstruct your frc - od r iagrar 1 , it will hI"' n ',' Ty to sign dir lions

( I unkn \ T a ti ns. YV .lIggesl '.1' alv a)' . rsume t.h s for s act in a p -

itive direction, 0 that sitiv . m1SWe <!hV'd, 'S i ply [ore s acting in a positive elircc ion, while 11 gative answers always imply forces < ding ill a negative direction. ,imi!arl: we r COl mf'nd '011 alw<\) ... anne the unknown orce il a rod or J]~

is ensile. so til H po. itive r .suIt h a' 'lean tensile rc ction. V bile· neg'tiv

or co prch nslve re ction is po, 'ihleor' rod, a negative an ver lor a cable i impossible and th rf;fore, imE Ii th t lhcr is an error in our solo ill.

1. lou can rile II Tee equilibrium qua '07Vl and

knaum .. Th t r quations I 1911 h

I h rn or three 1I11·

I owev r, th rc arc usually se tal. el! r quations tlld.l ou can write. such .\.S

p - 2tM. .. -0 :LMn =0
wher poi I t B i ·11 TI i11 such a v that line AB i. n t parallol 0 I y"xj or
2: (" :;::: "J:,.1B = 0 ~~\1c = 0 \! here the points ,8, and J UO 11 t lie i a straight line,

2, To N;m.plify your solutio;. it Ina. b llC~l ful to us oue of the 1'0 owing solution cchniques if appli ahl .

a. By !tumming m me Its ab ut the pain! of intersect! m of he lines uf a ,-

non of v nknos II force', u will tain an nati n in I-I.·i 1 unknow 11.


b. By I'mmming component· in a dire tion perpemliculur to Iu'o lIukfl wn parallel [orces, 'au will obtain an qnation in , slnz c U 1(11 W11"

I .

In some of til fiJUowing P 1 '01" U \ "Ill . ~ k.d to d rcrrnine the (Ill cable rOllge

afwlll of the apph d load [or (J gi en set of constraints, 1I h < • die maximum rcaeti u at a support ( I rna" rmu G T in one or more cab1 or rods. Ii' 01' problems of this type, rou fir. t assume a maximum loading. iluation (jar x rn l h maximum aIlo ed rOJ'L't' in a rod), all en apply th gum m. uilihrium to determine tIle corr . nding unkrn \ 1 rea . n and appli d load, [f til rea lions satisfy tl I constraints, then the ~pp '00 load is either th rnaxhrunn or minimum valu or he allowablt'" r.mg . Ilowev r, if the solu 'on violates a onstrai t (or xample, t± c force in <I caLl is 'om} ressiv ), initial . s~mlllptiOJl i ~1]"ODg and another loading condition must 1 assumed (ft the p \ "OW" ~xt!mple. y t1 would as anne the force in the ble is zero. m }.!/mOn1 nUm dreacti n). The s Iution proe ., is then r peal d f I" an-

ther I I sihle maximum loadin to xrmplet th determination of th allowable rang of value of 11 appn J I ad

• in hal. 2, we . trQugl recommen you alwav: rite th oquarton of e I . lbrium in tile 'arne form thatwe have used in the pre ding sample problem.or;, That is, both the hOWl1 and HOWO quantides ar placed n he len side of III P(Wl-

lion, an th ir S im js , quai 0 zero.


OAt:; III n Ii In

1.2 TIl ---,1---, -I--_......;.--_.J If! 4

Fig, P4,2



- 4, I Til ' boom 011 a -!300-kg truck is used to Imload 1I pullet of of mass 1600 kg. Determine til rea lion ntp.ild.l. or the rw (0) r ar B. (b) fron wheels C.


4,2 Two dlili1.rllD arc standtn ou II diving board of mass 65 kg. ing th.·t rh masses of th.ccbild.rcn at C lind Dare 28 ~ and 40 kg. lively. dereruun ((I )lllC': F('SCtiOl1 at, (b) tbe reaettonat B.

,3wo crates, each weighing 2.50Ib, ill'e plaeed as shown in the of tl ,'3000-16 pic:k1.Ip truck, D termtne th. rellctiom ut esc of !lIe (II) r>ar wheels A. {b) front wheels 8.

5.9 ft 3JHt 25ft

fig. f'4.3

4.4 Solve PI' b. 4.3 assuming that CHile D is removed ami dial posJtion of crate C is unchallg sd,

- ~.5 A T~shapcd. bracket Sl.lPPO"!$ the four loads shown. Determine I:l relll1il)m atl\ l..Ild B if (0) a = IOO11lm. (b) (J ;:; 70 mm,

4.6 E"or the brackE't and I llrUng of Prob, .5. detennilU'! the smallest di!lallC'e Ii If th bracket is not to move.

47 1\ hand truck is used to 1l10V hv() barrels. each \:vighing 0 lb. ;\t'glecttflg the wejgbt of the h. • d tnwk J (If-t C'rI nln to) tIl!:! vertical force P whit-h !hllllid he rtpplie-d 10 the Iumdl to maintain equilibrium when ~ = 35°. /1 til cnnesponding reae 'UTI at each of the two wheels.

Fig. P4.7

4.8 Soh-e Proh. 4.7 when Ct = 40°.

4.9 Four boxes tU~ plut.:eJ. Oil a lII':1irorm 1 kg .... ·owen plank which resl3 ()fl two sa,'hor:; s, Knowing U,al the masses ofbose 11 and Dare I.i k-g ,[.5 kg, respectiYeJy, detenninc the range of val ues . f th mass of b!J1, A so that lite plank remains in equilihriulll when box C is rI"ll1o'Vt"d.

Fig. P4.9'

1.10 A control mrl is uttuche to a crank al A and cords arE' attached ,ll B IWld G, For the given foree i .. he determine the nUlge of values of IIii' wnS1IJ1l in the cord at C \muwiTlg t it the cords must relunin, LBlll and th~t the ulUimum ailO\ved tension in a cord L~ 180 • '.

Probl'"nts 173


fi(l mnllO mm

Fig, :P4.5




, 60 UIIH-l---I20 Ifill! ----I

Fig. P·4.10

174 Equ brlum o·!=to d Bodle!>

Fig. P4.14


4.11 I'he Il axirnum allowable value nf 'Ilch 'Of tht' reuetions is 3CiI ,j gl cUng the w~ighl of I'lw fWlIfn, dNermim.' the mllgc Ilfvllluus offhlt tance d Ior whtoh the beam is safe.

3011 "

9(1) 111111

Ag. P4 .. H

4.12 Solve Prob. .Ll assummg that the lOO-N load is replaced. hi 1 O-:'\'" lUnd,

4.13 1'01' tilt" ut'Clm (If ~ mnple- Prob, <1.2, deter in!:' the mng(' or of I' or which the beam win be &1 e 101Qwhl)!; that the maximum value of each of the rea 'tiOH!i is -15. kips and that the reaction at d. must dire 'ted -up"I,'lrru.

l,~40mm -j

4.14 For thl:' ~!B and loading :;huwu, det,ennL e the I'l1nbre nC of re dtstanee ,t! or \ hieli tlie rl;!u(:tion at B does no exceed 50 lb ward or 100 lb IIpw.'ttd.

4.15 A follow r "8 '0 is held IIg~n5t a lreular cam by spri g, which c~(>rts a rvrc of 21 'l fO.llh position shU'i'lu. "uow'iug the tension in rod BE is 14 ',d'tt'nuiue ((1) the ~i.m .. 'f'e ~erled on theat ,OJ) the reaction at hearing C.

50 mil!





20 mrr


~ 4.16 A fi-m-tong pole AS is placed ill 11 hole d is guyed b) ehreo ea- 1.1'5, KllOWing that ti1:C tensions in t'abllts 13D .. d BE. are 442· and 322 N, respeeli\cl)'1 determine (Il) the wm .. ion in cable CD, (II) hi" f'NICtiOIl af A

.2..Bm ~ FI'g. P4.16

- 4.1'7 D8krmin~ Lh reactions at A and C when (r/) a = O. (b) 1:.1 = 300.,

--··40hl,· ·1

FIg. P4.11

4.18 Determine tIlt' reactions at t\ 31l.d B when (a) Ii = O. (b) 11 = 8 in.

Fig. P4.18

4,19 The lover BCD is hinged <It C antl is attaehed to a r'ontrol rod at 8' If p - _o0 ,detennin (tl) llre t~11Sioll ill rud AB, (b) he reae 'on at C.

4.20 11 It:! J~\.'t'r l1CD is hinged al C and ts attached to a control rod at ~ Drtermim: the IIIIlXhnlllll.lorce P \vhich can he safely applied at 0 if the Inltimum al}owilble value of th f1 ae ion at C Is -0 X.

4,21 Til requir'ed temion.in cable .. 4.B is 800 )C. Determine ((j) the 1l'Ifu;a1 furt>e P which lIst he applied to the p dal, (b) tll@ c.'OITe.'IpontliHg It ,t:itlil lit "

4.22 Dctcrmio the rDlI.'amUn1 tension whl -II carl be dr· lopC'd in cahl t8 ifthr> marimum allowable vahll;' of tht:! reucliun nt C is 1000 N.

Problems 175



75 111m

f-~- ....


Fig. P4.19 and P4.20

---- -}oo 1 m ---~, I

.-\ Fig. P4.21 and' P4.22

176 Equilibrium of R gd Bodies



UI_ "" ... _~ ._1 ......

I __ --ILD.III

I~~ .PI""



21ft I I


Fig •. P4.25 and P4.26

00 nun




LG mm

Fig. P4.21

4~23 and 4.24 A steel rod is bent Lo form a mounting bracket each of the mounung brackets and loadings shown. dctcrmmr- Ihe r at A and B,

I1='1g. P4.2·3




----12111 ---I


IjO ill -Iu, "


. \


Fig. P4.24

-- 12in. -



3 Iii


4.25 A sign is hung by two chains from m sl All 'the mast is 'It ,4. am] ls su purt .. a y cable Be. Knowing thaI the lell.~ion<: in ehau

Hf1 FH are 50 Ib and 30 lb. respectively; and tha' d = LJ ft, "elf ~ternru {(I the tension in cable BC. (b) the reaction at A..

4.26 sign is JHJng b) lWO cnaJJ1S from mast All The matt i~

at and iS~U!lportL"d by cahll;' 8G. Kovvlng tbat 11(, n.~iOIl" in ,C'hatfll

and Fll are 30 [band 20 lb, respectively, and thal d = 1.5<J ft. de {a) the tension Incable BC • (b) the reaction at A.

4.27 For he fr mo and loading hown, d t rmiae til renc.1ions Ilnrl Po when (0) a - ~O" (b) a - 45".

4,28 A lever AB 15 hinged at C and is attach cl tu Ii • III rol c~hl t A

11th le\'eri. sl1hj cted to' 3 0- v I"ticaJ Iorce t R. d rrni i:! (I) til€:' L 1\-

, HI the l'l.lhlc (b) re en 11 at •.

Fig. P4.28

4.29 • l'!gk'cUng me . an

U'I. ion ill ('obi BCV and the reaction

I1iCUUS f tilt" pull!'),. dct rmine til port \ h -n d - 0 mill.

4.30 _le11le<.ti1!g fri 'on and til radi1l. of (I p II v, de emu the

Ienll()O in cable Bel) Imd I rea 'lioll at upport A w ;, = 1 ~~ rnrn.

4.31 glecth!.i .tion, determine the tension in eahl BD and

It': '!il>ll al .. ipport C.



25 in.


Rg. P4.3'

4.32 RotiABC i hl'nl j the 'hupe of a cir ular arc of T:ulitL~ R owIna. II t! 3;)0, de arrnl e the reaction ((I) at B. (b) at C.

4.33 .Rod nBC is be t' the Shi p r u 'ir · u lar arc r n 'IJ R. Knowfn( Iltll 0 == 50°, LIt' -rmine th - r I c.:lion (a) < B, (b • t C.

Problems. 177


Fig. P4.29 and P4.30


Fig. P4,32 and P4.33

178 Equilibrium 01 RiSjl{l 60cMII

Flg.P4.35 andP4.36



FI.g. P4.38 and P4.39

... 4.34 K -glet."ting friction and the IlIditl~ ·of the pn11cy, determine 1r.1 tension in cable ADD. (b) the reaction .. It C.



810 FIg, P4.34

4.35 gl ·ting fric'Lion, d termine tll(" tension In cable ABD ILIId

reaction at C when 8 - 60"'.

4,36 feg!ectillg frictiou, determine the tension in cable ABD lind • reaction at C when 6 = 30" ..

4.37 Oetormioc. the tens! m in each cable and the reaction ilt D.


4,38 Rue! ABeD ls bent in the shupe of a circular arc of rdc.iill ' 1 311d rests .\ OOntit frictionlcs.. s surfaces nt.A urul D. Knowing that the t'IJllir B can move freely on the rod and !.hat e =- 45°, detetmic (0.) the tensioll cord 08, (b) the reactions at A and D.

4.39 Ruu ABeD i.~ heal in the :olH1peof;} circular arc of radtus 80 and rests against frictionless surfaces ilt flnd D. Knowing t:b.1 e L'lJj~f 13 can m ·ve freel . on tht'! rod. d termine (0) the value 0[,0 Ior whteh thel sion in cord DB' as srn U s po.ssible, (b) the t'orn'spnnding value .or tcn.s.ion,(c) the reactions t A and D.

4.40 Bar ArC :iUpports m'O 100·lb loads as shown, Rollers A and C relit .g.anst fnctionl s strrf ees 8: d a cable ED is atu ehed at B. Dt.·tennim' ~ dK! ttlflsiol1 ill eebl BD, (h) the rca fion <:Il A, (c) til", readiol1 ,11 C.

1 __ 1i.liL_J _j

~I!nln - ....

Fig. P4.40

4.41 A pnrabollc 51 1 has een cutin plate AD .• mtl the plat hilS l .f'n p .1Ot"d IX} lila! the slot fils two fired. frictionless pins B and C. . 'he ettll,tti n lithe ~ktll~ Y = :1."~/lOO, where x and y are expressed in lUI. KUlJW;11g that ~I~ Illput fort'{'P = 4 i I determim (oJ Ill!:' force Ilcl) pin xerts on the late, ILl ~. onlpnl force Q.


_I,) ~hl





L~,o,,:'---_' _- -"i- GO nl11l- 40 mID I~ .. ~-t

F!~ PUI and P4A2:

4.42 Aparabohe slot bus been c tin plate AV, and the plate bas been p1'lt't.'d S(I, that the slot fits two fixed, frlrtlonl iss pim 13 '<IUd C. Th et[mtlion oI'tll6' slut is y =.r /10 " where x an y are espressed in mm .. Knowing that the tmttitnulll allowable force over d on th roller .it D is .5.· " detennine ~ the OOJTe1,POOUlJlg IiIftKflitud of the input force P, (b ) the Ioree eaeh pin emrt!i on IDt! plate.

4.43 A movable hraeke is held at ff'SI. by a cable attached at E and by rlXtiQlll~ rollers. Kn \;llg that he ",ridth of post Fe is slight! less than l~~ tlD:tnnl't! bet.: v een the rollers. determine the Iorceex rtedcn the post u t1!.h. fIlIL::.r wJre a = 200•

4.44 olve Prob. -I. 3 when == 30".

Probl rna 179

:-'5_:-: l'

.40----_::::::.,I E

........ ---4- ....

Fig. P4.43

l' 80 iEqu hb.uurtl of RIgId BcdnQ


60 1'11111


45 ['UII



Ag,P4.4Ei andP4.47


Fig •. f4·.49 and P4.50

4.45 2()c.! \\ll,:light can be supported in the three ·dllTel·ent wavs

Knowing that the pulle 'S have a 4.-. adius. determine the reaction at A ench case.


2 Ib


(Il) Fig. P4.A5


4.46 A bt:ll p.c;scs OVC'1' two 50 -rrun-diametcr pulley which m

on u bnll:ke( as sh ""11. Keowin r tlull M - 0 and I. - 1'" - 24 X. II tenl' the reaction at C.

4.47 A belt passes over t\vo 50-mOl -dtameter pulleys wh.icll are on u bm 'hI' shown, 1C:i10\\ing I h:lt M - OAO 1\ ' In and (h,d T. ~llH3 T" equal (032 K and 16 ~, respdh:elj; df't. rmlne Ihe ra 'linn al C.

4.48 A 350-lb utility pole is used to support at C the end of an " .. iI·e. Th tension: in the wire is 120 lb. and the wire Iorms an angle of \\ith til hQn7.olll·",1 at C. DI:'h.·rll1il1~ the largest and smallest .tllo\\";lh!e stous in (ha gtJ} cable BD ir the lnlLguitudt' of HIt: couple at A Ill<!) IlIi1 ceed 200 lb· ft.

F.ig. P4.AS

4.49 In a lnboratoryexperiment. tH nt's hang he masses ShO,*11 it beam of negligibl- n1<lSS. (cd Deten'nim." the reaction at the fhed knowing that61ld D of the beam does not touch support E. (h) th . reaction lit the fi 00 .support ,\. knowing thutthe udjusbtble S\lppcu1

~erts .3.0 upward forcE' f '6 tIle beam.

4.50 In a laborntnr)" experimf'nt, students hang the masses ShOWll a b all') of 11 gligibl mass. Detemiiu€ the mnge of values of the fu~ rted on til beam by the lltiju'sttlbi support E for which the magnirudr the coup] at.A do s no: exc ,1 2.5 _ . m.

_ 4.5t ? lo\\;ng thnt Ih

. iun I rL'(ed pport C f r

nston in wire BD is 300 lb, d Irani she wn,

01110 the re-

IIv> In niluOe

Fig. P4.51 and P4.52

4.5 Uniform rod AB of len' , and weight n li in a vertical plane allil 3(tf'd upon by a couple i£, The e ds 0 the t ar c nil cte to'1 mil 1(11 N5 II Iii 'h rr·st again.~t r ricli nl . '\1 r~hc:~. «(1) E· pres the an e 0 cerre~p1h!Lng \0 rqllilihrium ln terms of M. \\f, und I, (IJ) Determine the value of e oorresponding to e nrili nun I when [=].5 lh . ft, W = 4 lb. and I = 2 ft.

54 .\ slender roo AB. of \ ei h \ I, i nttnched \0 h10 ks , mlu B,

11 IllllO\'{' frf> I In Ih(" gUill . :hU\VlI, Th~ I ,k, r conn cted h.' an elasr ~ 'nl ~ hich passes ver a E lle at C. «I) xP " e ension in the cord III m of W and . (b) De e in the \l'ItlnL'! f 9 for, i h the tension 1f! tbt t'llrd 15 equal to 3W.

lo55 A thi n, uniform ling of I J IiI.Sb III all radi lIS R i attached by a IrrcliHdf. pill 103. collar 3.l."l and res <I, !ll!llst small roll r aD, The ring lies III I IUca plan . and the collar can !nOV fre I, II a horizontal rod d is

ieilllj10n bah nzontal Ioree . (a ) •• ;pr the angle 0 eorresponding to

eqllilihrinm in terms of tTl and P. (b) ,t J11i,111 1 all of (] :orr~' n ~

Inuln 1l1ilihril m wl, n?ll - 0 g uIII P = 5 N.

Fig. P4 .. 5S

Problems 181




Fig. P4.S3

Fig. P4.54

182 E_quillbrflJm 01 Rigid Bodies

Rg. P4.fi9

4.56 0 1 11 L<; acted pon b I COl rpl f and two forces, ell! 1\ nf u

nJtu Ie P. (nl Derlv an equation ill ,P, M. and l which must be ati$ when the rod i. in equlllbrium. {b) Determine tb value: Dr 8 (:OrTellpouu' to equilibrium wh sn M = 150 Ib . in., P - 2( Ih. and 1 = Gill.


Fig. P4.!36

FIg. P4.57

4.57 v rti "<1] 10- cl Pi' a ll d < t end 8 of ro Be. The on stant

lh spring is k, and the spring is nstretched when 0 = 90°. ((I) -; ec the wei ht of he ro . express t e U11 I e corresponding to equil1briu'll terms of, k, and 1. (b) Determine he value nf 0 t'()rr~pollding tn qu num 'Nil n P :::0 ! "f.

4.58 Solve Sample Prob .. 4.5 a.C;SIUlUn: that the sp 'TI • Ullstrctch whe f) = 90°.

4.59 A cellar R F w~i h Wen rn ve Ireely l~c)l1g t.h verti al

. ho v . TI 'orl 1 tJ spring is k, a cl h .spring l.! uastretche

e = O. (a) D rive <lTI equation in ,\-lr, k .. and l whie II. he satisfied

the collar is ill equilibrtnr . (b) Koowing at Hl = a 1 • I = 6 in., and

tI ft, determine tilt! 'ill] uf (1 oorrc:~p!) 'ng t quilib,iuITI..

4.60 Asle: le A.B, f mass m.js attuched hi • AandB

mov .G. 1· in re guides shown. The s nnt of the . pring is k, and

spring is unstretched when = . (0) ·gl e 'ng tl 1"11 a~., 0 III h1ocoks,

rive. an f!qution ill 1/1, g, k. I. ~ nrl 0 whicb I st . alisned when the-.ro i quilibri III, (b) De rrrn no e val eo 0" 6 \ he m = 2 kg. 1 = 750 . ltd k - 30 'hll.

Fig. P4.60

· 4.61 TII~ bra 'k~t A Be f"l't" hI." . IJpport d in tht' ('igh! eli err nl \\.)"i ,il Aill. All oolmet'fiQns ("OIl .-.t ofsrnooth pins. rollers, or sbort hnks In each (,~If, dr:terrnmt: whether (it) tile plan is cornplerelj; partially, or improperly CIl1Slnrined, (b) the reactions are sta 'call), d temlinQt€' Or in determi J1iUC , c lhe l,<pri';!Jrium of th ~ plat!' is Tllllil1tllinpn in th po,o;ition ShO\!011 Als • ~,I It"Io<r pu~~ihll:!'('OInpl1l th f'Pll .lIonSJSslllnJng Ill"'l1 til. :lgnitudc of 'II~ riJr(.~ p ~ UJO N.

4.62 Eight iden ti<:'I. I 20 X ~30~in. re<.'bmgular plate ,eadi \\'('ighing 50 lb. ue IIt~ld in It vertical pi lie us shown, l\ 11 corm' t' : OTIS :ansi t of frictionl ~ 1'1\'1, mlll'ls" 01 shnrt links. For each euse, afl'iWN tho C]11C!'ilJOIlS list dill Prob. * 01, IUld, wherev r possihl ,c III pul f' the ron nons,


3 FIg. P4.62


1 partiruhr case of equilibrium whlch is of considerable interest is dlatofa ri~d bod)' sllhjected to two force. Such a body is commonly l.lll!'!1 IIIJ'O fn.~ ',or/yo It will he shov .. tn that if a itoo{orce body L~ til CiJlliflbrillm~t'l e two forces must have the sam. magll itude, the so me ~III' oJ lJdtcm. and opposite sen~e

Cml.l.id!"r a corner pJatp. !illoject d to two forces FI and F2 octmg;u: . \ and n, r :'qx"'cHv,ly (Fig, 4.&1). I f the pJ:itt~ is to he i.nequi~bnum, the sum of the moments of, and ~2 aU<)1It any PIli:llt 1IIll> ~I.' zero Flrst, we su III Illume n ts nbou t .' i nct> t lip III ome-n t of I i.i obliously zero, tho mom 'nt of '""'2 mustalso II zero amI tllC" line of action ofF! mu pass thrQugh A (Fig. 4.Rb).\lJmnjng momen aooul B', WC' pro,\'c si ilaTly that the lin f action oFFI lUust pass ~JrougL.B (Fig. 4.Bc). Therefore, holl! forces have the same line of ~clion (twem, • romoithcr of the equattons IFX' = :0 and SFrl = 0 r IS ~en that they must elso have the same magnHud but opposit • !l!JlSe



I-" - I

Fig. ~;s

.6. EqlJilfbrltJm of II. l\vo-Forcl,o, Body 183



Fig •. P4.6t

(0) FIg. 4.8 (repeated)



Ifseveral forces act al two pOints and B. he forces actrng at can be replaced b their resultant 'land those acting ut B ca 111e llaoecl by their resnltant~2' Thus a two-force hod can be IDOl'C!f rally dmcd as (I nlttn body subjected to jorcesactillg at olllrJ potnf:·, The resultants F 1 uad F" 11111U must have tb same line action, the some rna itm1e. and opposite ens (Fig. 4. ,.

In th study of structures, rramf'l.~, nd machines, YOll .. ",ill see the recognition oftwo-Iorce bodi S sirnpl.ifl stile ·olution of cr . problerrl.';.


Another ease uf trquilihriuni that is of gr t interest is that of a th force body, that is, a rigid body subj~ctt;(l to thre [o'I"C s or, mote, erally, a rigid botly sllb) cted 10 fOfC(~,~·actiJ1g at Dnly tl re lJaill~t. f. sidcr a. Ii ld Lolly 5uhjE"Ch?d I 0 a system of forces which can be red to three forces h 2, and F3 ildUlg at A, B, and C. respectively( 4,9n). It will bc shown that if the body is in quilibriulll. tlttllill lIcn,},! of thethr jorcf'.8 mu.st be euhe« concurrent or parallel.

Sine: the rigitl liody is in . quilibrium,. tIlt' sum of the momens

'10 . z. and Fa about any point must be z· 'roo A ss -unung that tIRo " of action or F 1 nnd F 2 in rersectand deno 'l1g til - ir point of inters . by V, w sum moments about 00 (Fig. 4~9bJ.'illce the moments of and F2. about V are zero, th mom at ofF,JabOllt D must also be and thc;' line of action of Fa must pa.' through D (Fig. 4Jk:). T ,. the three liues of etian are L'tllu . .:urrenL Th olliycxt.'eptioTl ocearsi none of the lines intersect; t1 c lin . ofa.c.1ion ar tllen 1'<1 rallel,

Althougb problems concerning tbree-ioree bodi S esn he sol by the gan 'ral methorls of (:5...3 to 4.5, the property just Ij hed can be usc 1 to soh them either graphIcally or mathem ' from simpl trigontll netricor geometric rela tlons ..


Fig. 4.9



man rarses 0 10-kg jist, of len~h 4 In, by pulling on 1lJ1(1pe, Flnd th t nsian T in the rope and he reaceto at i\ _

H Free-Bod Diac;ram. The jOist is .(1: thr~~foTC·e bod)~ sinc"e it is acted

upon h, three foroC$: Hs weight W. tho fnrce T e 'l'{l'I:L'.!:d b, the [10P '. and th.

rRC'linn It of the gT()unrllll - . 'I/I/r note that _.

Ii!).! .\


Thre -Fore Had '. Sine Ill" jnL~t i.o;: tl I r('('-fnrc(' bod)'. he forces acting on H must be concurrent. The reaction R, 'lhcrefore. will pass lhrough the point of iatersee 'OD C of the lines of action of the weight W and the tension force ' This facl \.vill be used [0 delel mine the augl 0: that R form s \vith e horizontal,

Drae _. gthe vertical BF th ugh B and til nnri..zoot.u we note that

Ai";:;;; 817 = (AE) cos 45° == (4 ill) eos 4,50 ::; 2 .. B2~ III CD ~ El" == AE - -i<AF) - J.414 III

8V = ((.1)1 cot (.15° + _5°) = (1.411 111)1,111 2()O =:. 0.515 III

CE == DF<;:;;; BF - BD;;; 2.82R - 0.51- In = 2.313 In

We write

tan 0: - .C::~. _ 2.313 In - 1.6.36

AE 1.414 ID

tr - ~sN .... \ e no ;II knowthe direction of all be forces acting on the joist.

Furce . riangll!'. A force trillflule is W-clwn as shown, ami its interior mglt:s are computed from the known. directions of the forces, Using the haw of sines. we "Titt"

T 898.1 N

!lin 3140 sin LJOo sin 38.60

I - SI.!J."\ ....

R 1·17.S:-': .::c:,5Fl,fi ...





- -

The prececUng sections covered two P<1rtiClJict cases of equihbrturn f a rigid botl}'.

1. A noo-jorce body is a body subjected to forces at onlytu .. -o points. The re nltants of Ihe rorccs a ting at each of the; e points must h ve the some mf1enitude, the same. line Df action. arid vpposit' .'11 'rrse.. Thi$ propert <will allow you to simplify lie sollitions of some problems by replae; g the two lill' own components ofs reaenon b· a ~ i nglp forcp of \1 nknown magnitude bu· of k Hown di rect fall.

2. At1!ree-force body .i. subjected to forces at only three points. The resultants of the forces acting t each of these points must b - concurrent or parallel. To solve • problem i:nvohring II hre ,. oro body \vith concurrent fnrees, draw your free-body diagram showing that the lines of action of these three fOTC 'S pass through the Sal . e point. The lISC of ge'onetry will then allow you to complete rh solution using a force triang)e [Sample Pmh. il . .61.

Although the principle noted above for the elution of probl ms involving threefilrt:f! 1 odies ise sil)1 understood. H call be lilTiclIhlo determine he n eded geometric constructions. If YOl.l encounter diflk'u1ty, Arst drawa reasool1bl. lar-ge rn~e hooy iagram and thea seek a relation between l'10wn or easllycaleulatcd len ths amI a di.III~m;ionlhat Involves an unkn wn. This was done in Sample Prob . .j.6, where th - -a:.<rily calculated dimensions A. aud ,g were used to detennine the;' angle 01.



4.63 Horiz ntal and -erti link ar hinged to a .. heel and forces

Ji't' ~It{l·t"d In 1(' ltnk .!i ·llcm I. Knu\\ 'ng tbtl a = 3. In, dot r In the " dll~ uf P lIutl • hp n:>llc'l inn t ,,\.

4.64 Horizon at and 'ertical licks are hi goo to . wheel, and [or s an lIpplil to th links as shown. De rmin the ran of vHlu 'of the dis!I/l Q rllr which til 1I11lgt itud (If III r a 'on a do ~ or xes d 42 lb.

4.65 Using the method of, c. 4.7, s I e Prob. .2:1

4.66 Using til moth d of Sec. 4.7


4.67 To remove U Mil, a maU hlocK of wood i phlt:1;t(.1 under ~l crow hu .. 11 ,I horizonta] [orce 1:' is applied as <;1 own. KllQwinghal I - 3.5 III

IIl£I P = .JO lb, determine the vertical force rte on he nail and th re-


Fig. P4.67 and P4.B8

4.68 To remove flail. !.'Tu,t11 block or wood is placed under crowllll. ,111~ hmiwn ~ for P is n pH I us shown, Knowing thai the r xi-

I 11m ~ffliC'a1 or nN"rlr.rl 10 oxtract th~ Hail is: GO Ib and lbal III ban-

10 lui rurr.'e P L~ no d 65 Ib, de en tne the III e. a C[ t"ble- nh I • of di5tlmce l.

4.69 FUl th rrnm lind In(ldi g.1 Cl\VT1 d tennille the r ctlons at . 1!IdD

.70 For the fr e and 0 ding un~ G.

nine th rea" ons t A


Fig. P4.63 and P4.64

50 -

F1Q. P4.69

Fig. P4.70


188 EqUilitlriufl' Ql Rigid Bodies



F.ig. P4.75 andP4 . .76

Fig. p4.n

4.71 To rerueve th lid from 5-gallou pHil. the tool shown i5 used apply anpwanl and I1ldla.lly outward force to the bott rn injiidc rim D. lid. Assumin~ d jut tIle run rests ag~t the tool at A and that a lOO-:-.l fi is applied itS indicated to the handle, d terrnine the fore acting nn ," ri

4.72 To rcmovo the lid from II 5-g1ll1ol1 poill. th to l shewn is U)1'Ii apply an upward and radially outward force to the hotto inside rim til liel i\s.slIJl1ing tha1 he top a d til rbn ofthe lid rest against the tool d ml B. respectively, an that a GO-N turee:is applied as indicated to the ~ dIe. d termillc the force acting on th rim,

Fig, P4.12


4.73 2OCl-lb erateIs attached to thetrollcy-heam S)'SL In 5Iu)\\'11. II

mg that (J - 1.:;: ft, rl term lne Co) th~ ten 'ioll iu ble GD. (h) the re.attiOO

4.74 Sol'll Prob, 47J, tlSSllOllng that (1 = 3 fL 4. 75 A 20-kg roller, of diam t r 200 1 nm, whic11 is lo he used n a floor, L~ resting dirsctlv on the SllhOooring as shown. Knvwing tbnt.the. n -ss or each tile is 811m., d . niec the roree required to move tile onto-the tiles if the roller is pushed to the left .

. . 76 A ~O-kg roll . r, of dinmcle. r -,00 rnm, wh~i ·J'I to be used on 1 Aonr, is re.!;ting direcll all tlre sllhflooring as shown. Knowiuft that the . ness of each tile is 8 I! m, de mIme the force reqUir(l to move the onto the tile!! iF the roller i'l pull d to the right.

"" 4.77 t\ small hoist i. mount on the bn 'k fa pickup truck an

Ilsp<J t II lin ,1 120-kg orale. Determine (n) the fOJt)~ exerted 011 the bni£t the hydraulic wlinder Be, (b) the reactionat .

4.78 1b 3JUp 511 iWn is II!. d I,) 1 old III r ugh v rkpirl '!f' C, f(Tlo\ - , til t th manrnu m a.I10Wl ble 'UI npn~s dve forte on 1 he \ rkpi('l't' is ~) ~ andneglc ling the effect of friC" n Ilt A. determine the corresponding

~ rt',trtian at B. ) r C 'on a • (c tension in the bolt.

9 A II oclifltl p t .. is used to 1" 1 a O.2-11Hl1mn t T log f ass

161.]; Kno ~:lng that 8 = l,sg aud th· t the [M P x~rtNIIH y th work r

Ii p:rpendicular to th . Iluudl 0 he peave " determine (0) ih lure t' tert

t C. (b) the actlon a; \.

Fig. P4.79 and P4.80

'4.80 i\ m di.fi d .a, b . tI to un a 0.2 III dit III .~. Kno' 'ng that 0 = 600 .Uld that the force ex rted al ~pl'rpendiC'ulat1O the I Helle of he peavey. determine ((I) It. C, (II tlu" relicti 11 ill .

ter log 0 111

hr th worker

e fore rted

.81 upport c hy: pin and I r . t' t B md b

at and G < d passing I r a fri ionl pulley

!ltD 'l'hr- tension may he sumed to be the same in portion i\D and CD of ~lll' ~o,J. For 11(' 11"l.'1rlillg shown and n glectin.g lh si of the pull, ' d - frminE'1. F I nsron ill tl e :<111.1 und the reo elion t IJ.

U2 ~Iemher ABeD is support d by a in d hru ·k t til C Illltl Y IIll inelcnsiblc cord tt-<l(:h d at A and D and passing 0,", r iii .·tk1l11 ' pulk\! ;a B and E eglN"'ing til ;jz f the pulley'S. delermlue til . t n >ion iTI ~.rrorrl and 111(' r a h 11 t C.

4.83 sing the method f eo. 4.7,. lv _ Proh, .1 .

. 84 Using the rn tbod 0 Sec, 4.7. solve Prnh. 4.28.

.85 -10\ II t mt ;: -0. (letn lil1 1 he reae '01\ (a} t B, (b at C.

Pro lams 189

Rg. P4.78

2.'5 in


Fig. P4.81

375 lIlIll




Fig. P4.82


4.86 'owing that 9 = 50°, cie1:enrrin the reo lion ((i'J l B, (h at C. Fig. P4.86 and P4.86

190 Equllhrillr1'l 0' Rigid Bodlss



Ag .. P4.87 and P4.S8

Fig. P4,.89 andP4.90

Fig .. P4.92

Ag •. P4 .. 94

4.87 A slender rou of Irngth l, Jlld weight l i h~ld ill eCjw~bnu shown. "11th om!' Itlld IIguim It frict(onle,>s wHlI ami tIll:' ether end l1lldll;;Ll~'I.l_ cordof 1~1I.~lh s. Derivenn c.~res5jon for the di~ht 1.:6 h in terms of L S. Show that this po:.inon or eqlJ..i.l.ibrium. does not emt if > 2L..

4.88 $1 nd r ro t of It'ngtll I. ~ 200 mill is held ill eql:illibnun:

'111')\"'1. \~~tl, 011 ~ end ,'gaJl\:~L 3 rrictionless wall :mJ h· othC'r nd att:achW

u c:un] of length .' = 300 mrn Knuwln~ th<lt tIlt' mass of the rod is 1..5 kg. tenrune ((I) the distaace h. (b) the tension ill til cord (c) the reactioa I

4.89 A lilt!ndt:r TO' of Ingth L and weight' is .attm:heJ to \ hi(·h can. slide freet· alon • the Klild S shown, Knowing thatthe rut! equilibrium, derlve an exp:re~ioll for tllC angle 0 in terms of the an

4.90 1\ lIl-kg .. Ir'mirf rod ofl' ngth I, i It tnched 0 collars which ~lide rreel ! alung th guides shown, Knowin~ that the rod. is in and tb<lt J3 =. 2;5°, detprmine (0) the anale 6 th«lttlle n.ld Iorms tical. (b) the rea 'tiC)I1S .ai.L\ and B.

4.91 A. Ilniforrn slender r I of muss 5 ga.ndlength 25 mm is on a glass of inner diameter 70 mm.·eglecting friction, determine ~le 6co~spondLng~o equilibrium.


4.92 Rod AB is b 1\1 mto the sh,tpt! of a dn;.'ulararc and is tweent\),I"(l pe cr. TJ .• md E. I supports a load P ut end B. . 'cglccling and the ",vetght of tlu'! TOll determine the db't~mce c e rrcspono.ing to librann when t1 "" 1 1I'l. and K = 5 in.

4.93 A uniform l'ud B of, ig l \ V and Jength2 R re rts imide a

sphl?ri bowl of rndi s R <I!! :..iluwn .• cglC'oUng me·oll. detennine II,

gle (} corresponding to equilibri In.

Fig. P4.93

4.94 uniform slander rod of ass m and length r rc

t~IC.-e hown M.c1 ic;: held in tile give 'fluilihrllnll position b lilt' orce l' gletti ng tl U' effect of flic:lioJI Itt lind C. (a) delerrnine til angle a, 'b 1;\' . an . pression Icr P in terms of m.

4.95 .\ llohl)nll sl lid r ro 1 of length _T. and mass I'll res . r t D nd is I .Id in h quiliLu; 1 po~i 'on shown b I' ad 'length

j ~'I ,wing J,ll J. = 2()O 1l1t11, de ·nnin· (a) the le 9. (b) th 1 ngth 4.

Fig. P4.96



Wl' StiV in c. 4.1 that six. war qrtations are r quir d to express 'lecolldi 'ODS for the quilibrn TIl fa rigid bod ~ in the e eral threedi w sio 1I 5:

'iF!! = 0 LMy=O

'bP;:; =0 '£:\11_ = o

(4.2) (4.3)

111(' e equations can be solv d or no more than .,4 rlflkfl IVns, which ..\'fi rally will. represent reactions a . upp rts or C mnection .

In mQ. problems Lhp scalar eqll lions ( 1.2)' 1] (4 .3) will be iuore ~ l~ 'W uti, obtain J if w ~ fhs x ress in v ctor form the co dtdor s !.Ir th qullibrilllll r tile ri rid lJo', C) stder ~ . \Vc writ

( .1)

_.F = 0

.md opress the forces I and position ectors r in te ns f calar (;0111- oollfml~ mel II ll 'eclors Next, we ompnts all \ ,t r produ 'toS, euher

if. dirtd calculation or hy me . f det rminan t (sec CC, .'). \ c

rJ.ie that s 11 all a.,<; tlrr e unknuwn reaction c rnponen mrt)' b oomlnaled (rom these mputatl :m. thlOUgl, a jutli iious choice of t.h

nolO B,' cq ating z sro th ffi .j n uf the unit v ctors in C' ch

of~lt' '\\'O relations {4.1), \ ain t 1 J 'sired seal r cquati ns.]


Thr l1'olrtions on n thr -rlimensiru 1 stru ture n ug from th 'iJlgle uct('ol'knmVll clir ction exert db} <'I fri :tiolll ,5S surface to th forcer lIpt • em xert~ by a xed 'upp rt. cnscqucntly, in problems

II nl\~11 111 pquilih 11m r a e-diurenslonal struetur ,there

,1M:, v en (me and six unknox ms a' soclat d with th reaction at each

Ih1f1)lQt' problemS'. It ",ill be fo nd convenl l 10 ellrnl e tJ I Ill1JC JOIlS III \\1) pnillb H frill I lb.' Sl hu!)!! bj wrtUlI1!, e qulllbdum eq _ 'on l:_tl.1lJ - O. wli" It 11lwll't1's ~.·dNtflirnlati(11I nf tlu' mornr-nts or he rorces IlbOUI he It'd:; 1\.8 Joi ng 110ints and B ~nlrl Prr~l 4. 10)

4.9. ReacllC)ns at Supports. and ConI Ion 191

or Throo-DimrlnsionaJ Structure,

192 EqulhbflUJII 01 Rigid Bodl

Photo 4.6 Unlverssljomls, easily seen on the drive shafts 0 rear·wheet-dr1ve cars a d trucks, allow rola1ional motion 10 be Iransferred between two. 0 -collinear sha t9.

Photo 4.7 Tne pillow block bring sown ppor s the shaft of a tan used 0 venllla1B a foundry.

Force w1l11 knmvn lin It' of action (om.- unknown)

lIo1lt!I DO roo :'surU<lE'

VUft'~" 'vitll knCl"11 lin,. (If 11 ion {(Ill(> unknown)

.., F

.. /

Ball Ami 'illl-kr-t

---hi \1,


FIxed support

Uuh~ jOiul

Thrr-r- -fUH'1' (1)1 npmu -nrs 'lfIlIl mil" f1)11plr'

Pill ,1ILU 111 Iil . .:k,t:l

Hmge I1l1d tearln,tt 5u]JiX'rllll~ u:xml thnl5t und t'nd1(t1I!)<td

r~I~.o Rea~tio(1s at supports and connections.


Tv.'O fOR'e ccmponents


1'- I

Thret: ioree comptmt'1I1S and i:J.J.ree C\JtI;plt'5

(M~ <D

t'l. ;r---

I_I ~- 1'_

'.1\\'0 farce components (and two c(Juples)

Thnx- Fort'!, nlU:lpm,t'Jlh {ru.cih'ltl CClupllo',> 1




A 20~kt1 hlddcr used to ret!. ·11 high <;;1. l ... es ill ~.L storeroom is supported by~\1l Hanged w}l('C'I<: HllJ B mounted on it ail ,lOd hy an unllanged wheel C rest. ing agn.insl a rail Bxe to the wall. An 80~ 'g man stands on the I.ldrl&r ld leans t th fight Tbe line of • C 'on of the eemhieed weigbt '" 0 tlw IllUTI and huldt"r ifltf'!"S cts the floorat point D, Detennin Llw resetions at /1,8 andC.


l~rcc-8od) Uillgiffilll. A [ree-body d1agrnm of ti.e Indrler is ma"1: hi" forcr"!o: Involved ar the combined weit:!;ht of the man snd laddei'.

W = -mgj = -(80 kg I 20 kg)(9.811I1/s2)j :::: -(981 ,.

and five unknown reaction COmpl)nents, two at ueh Hrmg el whet'llImlull at the UnfllU1gcd wheel, The Indd r 1'l thus only pl,rtiall)'coos....uned; it j,s fret to roll along th rails It is, 111)\~11'''(!r in t'qullihrhun under the gi':en load silllt th equation 'If'''.., = 0 ls snUs!lp L

Eq uilibri (1m Eq nations. \Ve express that III ron: s ad j IIg ollilit' 1Mder fonn a system equivalent to zero:

:iF ~ 0: Auj + A;k + Byj + B:k - (g J N)J + Ck =

(!I + R.'1 - 9 '1' + (A:: + B; e)k = 0 111

l:M.'l = i:(r X ) == 0; ] .21 x (B!lj + B::k) + (n.m - a.6k) x (-~ Ijl

+ (OBi. + !1j - 1.2k) x Ck =0

Computing; the vsctor product, we llllvr I

1.2Bqk - L2Bj - 882. k - .-r-; '.6i - o.Gej + 3Ci = 0 (3(.' - 588.)1 - (1,28;::..1. O.6C)j + (1.2B!( - 882.9)1< == 0

etting tIl£' c'oeffi"ieu(s tlf i, j. k equal to zero in Eq, (2J. we obtain ~ foUm'ilig three scalar equatiolls. whichexpressthat til. sumof tl1l:~ 111fJHl~1I ;l, Jul each coordlna e ~OO!i must be zero:

c = + 196.2 .t\

3C S8S.G = 0 1.28 + O.6e " 0 1.2By - Rn2 .. 9 -

The reae ions atO and C Iitt' ll'lt">rC'rnre K ~ +ri3fi T)J - (m) 1 \ lk

B", = -98.1 N D" = +73G ~

, .'tting III t,.'t)(,!ffid nt of j and k equal to zero in Eg. (1). we obtain two se e Illations expressing that the sums of tile colnpoDen~ in till' Ij and :. IIi are zero. Sub::;titutillg for B'I' B" tlDJ C th \nltlt".'> uIlili. If' 1 . .,hC'f'e, \It'!:

Ay + 1J!I -981 = 0 .t'1!/ + 736 - ~ml! = 0" "" +245

A~ + B + C = I) .4" - 9.1 + 196,2 = 0 A~ = -98,1 K

\;Vc eouclnd th.l~ the r actiUJl at 1\ is A = t G-t-5 _ j {9.s .... " k

ITln; moments 111 thl1l 'iiullpll" problem Ul.dill S.mlpll' Probs. 4. pressoo ln the (orm (lr Ilt't ennlnants (see Stlmpl~ ]>rub. 3.10).



. ____



5 X -ft sign of uniform dCil1\ity weighs 2;0 Ib and is supported by a ballAnd-socket joinl .11 A Il11.d 1 )' twn blos, net >nnine the. ten~ion in each cablE' and the reaction at A.


'.rt! I:!. Bod. Diawrun. A fro -bodv diagram of th sign s drnWll. The forces acting Oil th!" tree body are the weight W -= (2.10 Jhljand the reactions al A, fl, and 1.::. The RM 'n01l at 1\ is a force of unknowndlrccdrm und is. -represeured b\' tlll'ee unknown components. inc HI dkedion of tIIC fo '- ('Netted b t:he Cllhles arr known, lit ~ rUle; • III lilt' oy 01'1(' unkn \ ('Hell, namely, the lnagniludD'ii TIJp ILJld TEe. Since there are only five unknowns, tilt:· sl(!11 is partia.lJy con .. fuained .. Itcan rotnte freel "about the .r axis; it is, howe," T, ill E:!(luilihriumllnr1N II. t' gh'C .ioatiing, since the equation LlH ~ = 0 is :~rtistlerJ ..

. The componeats of th . Ihl'c _~ iD",1t 1 TEe c • b -xprC! sl"din tr'nliS nfth un kllV\V1 I m<tgmludes l'twand T IX: hl' WrlHllg_

13" - -(8 It' . (4 ft)j - (fl)k "BD = 12 It

F.C - -(6 fi)i + (3 A)j +(2 ft)1c ED -= 7 It

(1Ji3), .! _ J. . i)

no = T BDBD. = TBD( 31 '3k

'I" T (EC), 1·' ( l10i 3, ~'kJ

.. ,;(" - . £t·, EC . =: . ~:(; --:;. + "7J + "f •

E(IUilihliurn ••• quotioru. w" tp 'SS that tbe forces actiugon the sign rnrm n .. 'stem equivalent to ze1'O:


LM,A. = :£(1' x F) :::. 0:

(S ft· x TsfJ( ti 4 ±j . !.k) + (6 A)i x T.Ed-~i + ~J + *k)

+ (4 ft)i x {-270 Iblj = 0

{2..667T FJD + 2.571 illX: - 1(8) Ib)k + (5.333TurJ - 1.714T ... :c '. = 0 (2)

etting the ccellleients of j and kequal to zero In Eq. (2), weobtain two scalar dqUOOOllS whleh can he solved for T SD and T EC:

Tr.c =31.51b ....

ett:i.ng the coefficients of i., j, and k~qunl to zero in Eq (1), w(' ohtruin rhr e IUtIll:!t:!tlwdlomi, which yi('ld thoo mpommts of ,We have

A == ,.. 33b I")i + (I n! .:2 Ih ~ - ~!2 .. ij 11, k ...



A uniform pip~ cover .of radius r = 240 mrn and ass 30 kg is held in a hor· .izo tul pnsillon b· tJ ea le CD. Assuming Ihat the bearing at B doe51101 exert anv a.'dA-1i thrust, determin Ihe 1t'r1sio.n in he eable and the reacUJO! at alld H,


Fl"I"r'.Sod. Diagram. A ·free-burly diagram is drawn with the t'OOJdi mcre axes shown, The forces m.:ting 011 th free body are the weight ofthe C()\1lJ.

W = -mgj - -(30 kg)(9,Blnv!>2)j = -{294 ')j

and I'el:1ctiDns involving six unknowns .. name ly. th e magnitude of the Ioree T exerted h I the cable. three fcrrcerompun -nts 01'1 llinge .4, and two at hin~ B. Thecon1ponenl:s of are '. xpressed i, terms or the unknown l1I1.1gniludl! r by resolving the v ector C into rectangular cor POUt' ts and wrilln,

DC = -( 0 mm)j + (240 mm)j (16() Illm)k DC = 560 mm

T r DC'''n + a '1" 2 Tk

. =. DC = -:;., 7'J -; ~

Equilibdwll Equutioll ,W f'\-pt·ss that tl·p Iore pipe cover form II system Clilliv<lleflt to zero;

2F = 0: Ari + Ayj + A~k + B .. t + Byj +T - (294lj =. 0

( "£ + B'f - ~T)j. T (9 EIJ + %r - 29·1 1}j + (A.; - 4r)k =0

I' 'In = :£(r x) = 0:

2rk X (Ari I A!li + ILk)

+ (2ri + ,..k)x ( %1'i + fLJ - fTk)

+ (ri + rk) X (-294 N)j "'" 0.

(-9 !I - fT + 294 , )ri + (M.- - fn ' + (~T - 294 )rk == 0 {2!

S fting the (,;1 effijent~ of t1u:! uni vee: rs equ.;tllO zero in E.q (21. Vill " nle thre scalar equations, w . leh yield

A", = +49.0 )J A" = J.7 •. 5 N T = J...-1:-' ..

S"tting the coeffici nts of th . unit \·c!orsqual to zero In F:q. (1), wech tain thre more scalar equations, Aller mb!>titu 'ng the v alues of T, At, Jnd

q into se ~qUll:ti01'l5. we nhlaln

::; = +9'.0 '\j

By = +73.5 N



The reactions aL A and B are therefor

\ - +\ 190' )i + (73:5 \')j.L (9fU) :\:Ik -4 B = + 2-15 N ii "T" 1";-;],5 ;'\ lj •


FI"I:~ -Betti) Diugrum. The rree-: udyiugrall!loftlie pip Includes tile load W = (-450Ib)j,'t'! rea ... '008 at A and D,. and tile fo1'Ce T exerted by :the ·lIble. To elnninBtf! I:he raac 'OM Ill: 1\ and D from tht'l ('ompulaons, \\'C' "-rrcss that Ilt' slim of he moment .. nf the forces .uhout AD is 7.: re, D ~ no 'ng b~ .l )1(.' mlit Vi;'C or lilong AIJ, we wri '

& n_" ~ I 0 ~ 0, .... CiJ x ,) + A . 1 C X W} - 0 (1)

'= --r 11>, second lem> in Eq. 11) can I compuled as follow"

BCD . .

·,,_~~~ ....... ;;;;;;;;r· AC ~ = (l2i + 12j) X (-450j) = -5400)(

o l'J' + 12j - 6k.!'.. s , I

12 ft: .l = A7J =. 15 . = ~ + aJ - 3k

;.:,oj .A . (AC X \) = (%1 + ~j - tk). (-54 Ok) = +1800

ubstituHng tll value obtain 'd into Eq, (1), W' wrttr-


~'(l"!I' OJ

T 'h

S~--. .. _


A 450-lb load hangs from the corner C of a rizid piece of pip ABeD which has been bent as sbQ\VD.. The pipe is supported by f hn ball-aad-socket joints A imd D,whi 11· mY' r: s tell. > r • -pectiv 'Iy, ·0 fl.1 I1nor and to n vr-rticnl wnlI, anr1 by a cabl ,inched at the midpolnt E of the portion Be of the pipe and at a point G collie wall. Determine (0) 'were G _ hould be loeated if the tension in the cable is to b minim u III (11) llll! Nlrr ,~ponrl i ng minimu T11 value I1f the tensio .


A .. ( ... \E xT) == -1800 lb· ft

,tinlmum Value of Tension, Rcc.aJling the commutative property for mixed triple produc s, we rev :rite Eq. (2) in the form

T . (A X AS) = -1 00 lb· ft

which shows that: the pmj etion ofT on the vector A x AI!. is a constant It fnllo\vs that· is minimum when parallel to the vector

A x At = (z. + r!]. - !k) x (6i + 12i) ;: 4i. - 2i + 4k

.} .1 3 ;J ;J.

Since the oorref:ponding unit vector is %i - 1.. .... ~Ic, we write

~. . I 2

Tmm Tej - _. + ik) (4)

Snh~1ituti g f('lt Ild'\' x Ali: in •. (3) and complJl.ing 1.11 - dol p lucts, \ e obtain 6f =: -1800 and. thus, T;; -300. Canying this value .into (4), we obtllm

r fIlln .,. -2OOi + 100j - 200k T",,, , ::;: JO[) lb ...

Loca lion of G. Sf . CO tho vee or EG and the force "''''' have the same lditectloD,their components must be proportional. Denoting the coordinates of hy :1:, 9. 0, we write

.t - 6 ;;; II - 12 ... 0 - 6 .:::; 0 'J = 15 rt <til

-200 + 100 -200







The quilibrium f a tlir. e-diui II i 1U1l1.J( d[ ' ..... is on, ider in tI e 'eerie ~ f U jus complete. t is again nost import It that) 11 rl; 1\ II COil plctc free-b~ul!l diagram as the lrs step of )111' solution.

1. you dra: . tli free-body dia.~ram pay parli ular act 1 tiOIl to the r 'octlons (It tlu: iiup}Jnrl.H. he numb r )f unknowns at a support 'an 1~ nge m one to six (Fig. .10). To d tide wheth r an unknown reaction or reactluu eompl1

enl xis, at a snppo ,ask urself wh r rh supp rt preven s morton of til

d I in a . rt< ill dire i n r haul a certain xis,

(I. if motion t,., pr • IIled il. (J iertuin dir diem. ill 'lud in Dill' fr - bod dia r'J,11l an unknown reaction or rea ion component that acts in the arne dire tion.

h. If (I tmpporl precent rotation about a certain axis. ill lud in Y ur Ir c-

hod diagram. coup! F 1I11knm magnitude that Be s al cut the ame axis,

r') II e 'Iemal force!; act'"., on a t IT -dimen ionul body fO"m a !J tem eouiun]. fit to zero. "\ 1 itir g 2F = an ~ 1 = about an appropri te point A. and se :ting th co fficients of I, j, k i nth equutio . pqlla) to zero will provid you with six scalar eqmrtiOIls. In genernl, the C oqutili)l1S will. contain six uuknox TIS at cl c b sol ed ror lh P, unknowns,

:1. 11cI" comp! tin~ yrwr free-body diasram you may [('m f to seel: f'quutlon~ involdnrl U ' feu; Illlkl ()ll'1I (! pOR. ible. The Iollowtns strategies may help you,

(I. y summing moments ) 11 b· -and-s k t uPl0rt Or a hillge. )OU will

obtain eqllati ns from \ hich 'Ire unknown reaction componen ha e been elim-

iTlat [. ample r s. 4.8 a ,d 4.9]'

btl n )f H ·i. will 'el n equation in

4, ft r dmwing y 11 [ree-b ely din rtuu, fL' uC'()III'age you 10 c ",JClr? I ~ nrnnber of tmknlJll"1lS tv tlIt' numb r of nont icial scalar eq aLioJl of JCfuil'hriu n fOl' the gi 'ell probl'ln. oing '0' 'II II J OU' the bod is pr 11- erly or pam y constrain d and Ii h th r th probl II i s < HC4111 dE'l rrninare or ir d terminate. ~ u .ther, as WI:: consider mor complc prohl 5 i 10 cr chapt

e piug track 0 the num] er. 0 unknown and 'tlua Om wi help ou to velop orre ·t sol tions.



4.96 G an ll_ and 11 8..l'C- attach d to a sli~ft SIIPPOrb'c1 h, hr-arings III C ~nd V. TIll' cuamelel"S of geal's A alit! B nn> 1,'5 111111 and 7- mill, respecb\f~ Jllnlhc tangentiaJnnd mdialtol1:e:; acting on th gears are as shown. ~nOl"lIlg tllllt the s~tcm rotates at II constant rute. determine the rcae· 'OI'l:S

C211l1D. A:!,SurllC that the i earing at C does not exert any'I.'\inl force, and

u' ~ret the w igb1.5 of the gears d the slnrft.

y"> y """ n "''''


FIg. P4.9Ei

4.97 Solve Prob, 4.00 ILSl>mnilig tlnlt fi r gf'ar tll langential ,md Hi lid r()~ ,Ire aotillg ,11 E.:-;o tl[at F~I = (1325 N)j; + (482 N)k

4.98 Two, tn_m::'11Ii~i()1I' belts tlaS:.'> over sheaves welded to an axle sup· pm.."C! br bearing/> nt Band D. The sheave at has d radius of 50 nnn, lind rbt> jhP.nl' lite has II radius r1f 40 Ill ., Knowing tImt !lIe l.ystern rututes \\: I WMI!t, 11 mte. determine (a) the tenstou T, (b) the reacttonsat B and D_ \~'IDl' rhut 1'1.110' beluing at D doc.'; no exert any axial thrust utld lltlgle t the v,{'igbts of the ~hei.(\~. mid tll-f' ax!


4.99 For the ortion c)fu IMcblllC shown, the 4-ill.-lIia.lH(> er llU t-1 and wh ellJ are Ilxed toa ~h' ft supported b bel\rin~!lf (',lIIll D. TIlt' of Wn.. s tAJ11. 21hlin. is ~tTctdl('fl \. hen 8 - 0, mId tll.p Pcflring at C exert ~my 1'L-;ial force. Knowing that 9 = 180" and that tIle machine is at a d iueuilihrimu. deeermine ((J) thc tcasion T. (b) the reuctiOlt~ ar G D. Ne,le.et the weights of e shutt, [lull!')". and wh >et

200 EquiliblilJm gf A~ld Bod:os

l:! in.


~1. - 01· yA.g,P4.99



4,100 ulvl' P ob, 4.99 for 0 = go,

Fig .. P4.101

4.101 A 1.2 2.4-11'1 sheetof plywoud hil.villg ~l mass of I'"kg 1J<lS

temporarily plac d nmnng til ree pipe , pports, The lowered, 't' of thp rests all small eollurs A ;tnt] lJ nnd its upper edge leans agdinst: pip!' r... gll'!clilLg Irictlou at all surfaces, determine tile rC'.acttous at A B. und C


4 .. 102 Tit 2.00 X .200-Jll.I]) SqUUl'e plt1tcdwwn has ,I IlIUSS uf 25 is support d by Tbroe" vprUl".ll wire. n· terrmne th tensien In each ,\\:

4.1 03 Tile 200 X 200- nun square plutt' ~1.0W'11 as a mass of 2-5 is supported bv thfl vertical wires. Deterrnrne the mass and IncatilJ1T ligl1test blockwhieh should he placed on th pint!· if thl' ten!>ium.· inthe cables are to b ('[}llllt

Flg.P.4J02 and P4 .. 10a

4.1Q4 1\ smera of mass 240 1-'.' mountr-d 011 a small tripod or mass Ntl~. !t'illlllhig til"t he muss of the camera is Illliforn Iy d' tribut d and l!tl.lh line of Ol,tillTl of t1l w ighlof l11 , tripod p: SN: throllgh I), dete - lC'lf (o)th v rti <ll eo ponents of th r eli ns a /\, B, nn ellen e - 0,

bl the: Ilia; 'mum value of 8 if e tripod is ot tip over

Fig. P4.104

4.105 Twu 'teel pipes AB ;lnd 8 . r-aeh J 1I\~ng 1\ wight pl:!nmi length or.:; lhlft an' wddd together l 8 and an"! lillPl orted h three wires, 10

~ ilia a "" U.S ft, etermlne elusion in .a h " ire.

Fig. P4.105 4. 06 11'01 the pipe ass .mbl), of Pro . ·!.lOS, dete . e (a) the largest ~ mi sa,ip Vltlu or rl if lh . . mhlv i 11 t to tip. (b) tl c rrespouding l u~n ru E" ·h wire.

4.Q7 . uni n aluminum mn of HC'igh \ i. h lit into u l'i culi ring ri. rodiUS R (lml is upported b three wires as. hov II. Deteriuin til len Mll ill ('ut.: wire.

Problems 201

4.108 Awlifonn aluminum rod ofwei ht n is bent Into a Circular ring 1'1\ 1"1 ,It !lilt! '5 \-upponl'fl by three wi .\, 115 'b ... vn, A s all collar of weigh \\" shell [I1:10f"c1 on I ring ,me.! PIJ.· toned '0 that the cnsi ns in h hr e

nires are equal Determl n ((I) (11 'itlml tlr ,llar, (b) h .1111(, [ f' \ "

r) the tension the vires. Fig. P4.107 and P4.108


Fig. P4.111

.Flg. P4 .. 11'2

4.109 An opening in . floor Is co'> '.red by a 3 X ·1 fl sh~l of ph'" w !ghing 12 TIl. 'l11 sheet is hi goo at A and B and Is mulnt: 'ned in II tion sligh 1 r ab ve the floor by a small block C. Determine the vertical ponenl ofthe reaction (a) at A, (b) at S, (c) at C.


Fig. P4.109

4.110 Solve Prob. 4.109 IlSslITIling tlult til sma r IJI pia d under 'f'dg DEal a poi I 0.5 n from tom .f E.

4.111 Tho lO-kgsqlJare pl:rtf' shown is support .d hythree \It''rticm Determine (0) the tension in each wire wh .n a =]( rnm, (h) the I'lllUI! (I ror \Vh 1(,11 11'1l!iionsin tl,,1" th I'CC wi res ere crt lin!.

4.112 The 3-lIl~rpolt' AG +(.mll~ an Uligle of' 30" with till':; a.'ds.1t held. by;'l, ball-and-socket joint at C • nd by two thin bra .s BD and BE. ing that th distance BC L~ 0.9 ill . .dctctmi:nc the tcn.~jol1 lncacb hraee th rt:"(lctiOI1 at G.

4.113 A 3·m 000111 i ' ttc'teO upon by the 4.k . force S!lOWIJ. Pete th a. tension ill ea ·il (:;1Lle Illld the r~l 'UII at the bull-Ill/d- ocket j111 I

Fig. P4.1! 13

4.118 Twu wei pipes ABeD and E1JF are welded together at B to fum 11m !Joom shown h boom is hrld by It ban·and sock - L [oi nt at D lUI ~ t'!\(1 l'llbles FG oll1d rc.p.lf; (':,hl" 1(' HI rjls.~(>s <1 mil nr] frictiun]!;!s' puBe) s

de and F For lh loarling ~hown. d lermine the tension in each l'able Wl

Iitt 1m11o'1 at D.Flg.P4.114

4.1 4 An B· '-long hoom 1!1 held bya ball-and-socket joint at C and b .

IlI"u tl1bles AD <l1ild RR Determine c tension in each cable and the reac-


4.115 Solve Prob. 4.114 assn iJing:tllld the wwm 198-lb load tsr placed

~lh t'IVD Q9..tb loads applied at A and B. .

4.116 The 16-ft pole liBC is acted upon bya 210-1b force .IS shown, 1ft> fOIl" is hc.ld by a. ball-and-socket Joint at .tl and b • two cable BD and W~. IfOTil - ~ ft. dr:hmlljll ~ 1 he ten ... ion in !;Mel! Cilhlt- <llId 111 l"I:!ilcliulI at t\.

4.117 Solve Proh .. 4.11o, forn ~ 4.5 ft.



4.119 Solve Proh, 4.11 as .. lIl"ing lh~tth -60 luad is ~p liE't.l11t B_

4.120 The le\.-erAB is welded to tht' bllt rod .I1GD .... hich ts SllPPOltcd ~. hCJlIllgS at E and P and bvcable DC. KnO'lving tlmt tIL ! llring at E does tdl'l rl ~Il}'axj:ll hrust. dfollennille (lJ) til tel sion In cabI DC, (b) the reodions alE and f.

PrnblelTl5 2.03.



."-...... :r

204 EqUlllbrJurr or RgiCI Bodies


F.lg. P4.122

4 .. 1.21 A 3D-kg eocer for a roof opening li. . ·ing d t corners A an Th roof forms an angle of 30° with the borizontnJ, lind the cover i.q n t"Hirlcd in n horizontal position by the brae CEo D lermln . (It) the III ; Kl , of the force exerted by the brace. (b) the reactions at the hiTlI!e5, surne that th hinge at A does Dot exert any axial thrust,


.Flg. P4.121

4.122 The rectangular late shown has 11 mass of ]5 kg and ls • the position shown by hinges A and B and cable E Ass nTIng that til at B does not ex rtanv axialthrust, del rnuue (tI) the tension in tile (h) the reactions at A and B.

4.123 Solve Prob. 4.122;~smnillg tIlilt. cebl EF is replaced h}'J C , ttached at points and H.

4.124 A small door weighin , 16 I, is 'Ithlched by hillge.~ A atld B \vall and is held in the horizontal position SI.VlI by rope EFH. The passes around a small. f'rictianles!t pulley at F a I is: ti c( to a 'fixed de:

H. ~S\Hnjl1g t al tilt' hing at does not ,('n iln) • xml thrust, dell1tr (,,) the lensiun ill Ih rope. (b) the r actions at A and 8.

3 In.


Y r- "";i>~~

I,J\ . L .....

~ C

F. ,<\lin.

2o."l1ll. : • /-


Fig. 'P4.124

4.125 oh'"" PruJJ. I. J 24 assumi n dlllilhe rap IS aU chcd to the

at 1.

4. 26 A 285 Ih tutiform rectangular pia: c is supported in th~ position ;bov,llll) h:iDges and B ~m] bv 1i<1bl DeE, which passes over a fri ·ti.onl6s hook aI: C. Assumin.g that the tension is the sam in both parts of til enbIt, d:etemlillC (o) the tension in th (·ttble, (h) the reaction s Itt A and B.

UlIBI' til, f tim hing at B dces nol eXl~rl any axial thrust

Problem!' .205

Fig. P4.126

4.121 'olvc Prob 4.126sssu illg thnt cilhl(' veE L~ replm:l'd b 3 cabJll Oftllchoo to point E arid h k C.

4.128 The tensioning mechanism of 1I belt dm consists of Irietionle s PIIUl')' A llIollfdmg plate 8'. and 5pling C. Attached h low th mountin' plat,t? IS ~Ijct:r bJ(ld~ D which is fr ~ to In \'.' in tht" fric-lion less ~I at of In ack - E. tllU\lvg thai lh pulley and lhe heh liE' In a horizontal plane, with portion r (If ~Ie hell parallel to the x axis and portion G fOrming an angle of30!;> \\<ith t~~\ il'aS, det rmine (a) the force tn til spring, (b) the reaction at JJ.




30 mm ./ .


206 Equilibrium Of R gtCI Bodias


D 180 mm


~ U uun

FIg., :P4,129


4.129 11(', ,~S ",bly ~111J\VJ1 is welded Lo collar ,\ whiel I nt<; on the ~1

'00 pin sb WI1. The pin 1.1UI exert L'uuples: .. onlll ... 1: ami ;; ax~ but d¢ Dol prevent motion about or ~,Jong ~he Ij axis. For the loadiilg ~bO\\I, tl~11 minethe tension in each cu.ble and the reaction alA

4.130' Thl \11:'1 AB b wekl il tu the bent rod 1~( ',I) which I:' suppa by hearing E and b I cubl DG. Assumi g il1a. till" ht'.uilW· can t'xert un a.i thrust and couples au out axes parallel to the :r and;:: axes, detennlne ltd t lenston in cabL DC, (b) the reaction at E.

Fig. P4.130

4.131 Solve Frob. 4.12 a'il'illlning (but tlll;' hinge 111 A is remol>rfl that the ltinge a B can exert eoupl 'S about the y and ;:; axes.

4.132 Tbe frcune shown is supported h) thre cables and a lntlJ· socket joillt at A. For P - 0, Jeterl in('I'hr tn '011 in each cable Dlld the action at A.


Fig. P'1.132 and P4.133

4.133 The fram shown i, supported !Jy three cable and a ball.l socket joiut cit A For f = 50. . del rmina the tension ineach t.~.ahle .. nrl reaction at ,.4.

4.134 Th ri~d L- "aped roe ber BF is supporte b ,I U<lII-HlIdlOOl'trl joint at A and b: thr ~ cables. Fur th loading: shown, d rennin the 1,1L\Jun in etlc.:h cab le and It' (l ill:ti n a.t A


Problems 207

FIg. P4. r34

4.135 . olvl" mh. 1.1' l:t. su in 11, t the lO~l,{l ; I : l\l'l. h C'1l rem ved.

4.136 Til order to ·Jean h dtlgg draillpi A' •• 1 plu 1 e has di:. (Ollllt'Cted both ends of the pi e and' erted a power nake through e OJX'IUn at A. The cuttin head of the snake' connected by H be 1\ r cable :OllllelrctriC otor which rotates at : constant ~ipe d HS the plumber forces Ih. ~ bl Into the pip Thl! forces l':el d b} tilt' plumber "TIl..! the n tor

Ilhr end r lil l hi L'lII' e p rented ,til \ r II 'h F = - } •

\I = -11 S ~ . m)k Det Imine the addi 0 al reactions <Lt B. C, and D ~~usfd 11)' the cleanin opt!" ItiUTI. ss e thu tbe reaction lit each support CDll51sl:!i or twu . ree t'(,llnptm euts pe'll I dicular to til pipe.

YL t: 3m

Fig. P4.136

4.137 Solve Proh, ·U36 a_o;slIlning that tho pl rnher exerts a force r - -(6(1 11k anrl l hal tit I otor Lo; turn d oIT (\1 = ( ).

208 Equilibrium ofRlgid Bodies

Fig. P4.141

4.138 Thrre r ds arc \OJ Jdrd togethor La form a "corner" "which 1!5 ported by thre €)'t"boh. • glectillg friclion. determine the re ctions lII. 13, lmelG \ lu-n P - 2,.10 ,lI = 19 mill, h - 0 mm, ~ut1 c - 100 mill




Ag. P4.1'3a

4. 139 Solve Frob. J.lag assuu Ii ng tbat the force

repla :ed h. tt eouplr- \.r - +(6 . In)j aing ,II 8.

4.140 The lIuifllnl1 10-1h rod An i. .. supporte - by a oa.ul~aJlU~lll joint m: A .• md I'eans agaiost bOtJl the tOO CD and the vertical wall, :-.;

ing the effee . of frietl QTI , dP.termi (01 the force which rod CD excrll

J\B, (bl tIL reneriuns at A and 13, (Wilt: The fore(- exerted h CD OJI AS be!?,'!'1_) ndiclIl reo hOlh n d. s. )

• I

Fl.'9. P4.140

4.141 A :H~.b.l.-long unilonn rod ,.R 'veiJ;th::; 6.4 Ib Mel is attaclloo .3 ball-and-socket' int !ItA. The rod resttlgainst dl1 inclio d fncrionlct, face aad Is held In tile position SllO~'D by cord Be Kuowi g thut tile 21 i . long, clelel~1 ,in (a) the teasion ill tllf~ curd. {b) the renctiolls ilt

4.142 " Ii It' being i.llS1.a1Jcd, the 56-1, •. tlllltt' A1:H: lJ is at hId I -d to it wl~ll db b1l'l.cktt!. E <Llld F and is braced with prop!; Glf :lnc11j. A.,>sull:llllg tim tlw \\~i"h' ur tiu' ehute is unifonnly dbtril1Utecl del rrnine the llIugnibldc I/lh .. ~'U'rce e.~!i'rtcd I1 the chute L • prop GIl if prop IJ is removed.

U43 \'\'hile bcmgiJlllt<lU d. the 5<i-!b ch te ABeD is lIttach('dLn 3 .. n \lill. hrackets E aad F and is braced witJ1 props GH and I]. i\.'k~UJuilg Ibnt ill!' wl"ight of the chute is urufon Ill. distrL utcd, de enllinc rl:I' magni rolf 'the rol'(!c exerted on the chuh' by pmr 1J i Prol' eN is removed.

Pl"Ilblems 209



FIg. D4J42 and P4.143


4. 44 To wllter ,t'('rilil1gQ :l gard II I. join tin (' lengths of pipe, B, il( .lIlel CD. l'illeJlh spray nozzles and .su!>lJeTld~thc assembly US;;llIt ~"l:'Il supports 1ft ;\ ,.mel D and cable Ell Kno'\oing tllat the pipe weighs U,1>j ~rt, deterrnlne tilt' tension in the cable.

4.145 ulVf' Prnh, -1.144. assummg thn cable ElF is l"epiH(''<:!d' by 11 ('nilll"'

OODllIrting F:. aml C. !I

210 EqulUbrhrM of AllJld 1'10011;1

A.g. P4.148



4.146 The bent rod ABDE is s IIPI rted by blLn~lmo-socke· jOinB lind g nml by the cable VI': !f 3. 600-1\ load is applied <It C a~ shown. mine the tf:!11S!QH ill the cahle.

4.147 . 01\ e Pr b. 4.146 u~"Sumiug dlUL cahle l :F i. s replueed by 1I ,conn€.' ting.B ami F.

Fig. P4.146

4.148 Two rectangular plAt s are welded to Tether to form tbe bl showa, The a s semhl is supported b, ball~<md-soclt< t joinLstil H and and by .\ ball on a horizontal s rfsce at C. For rhe Loadinjr shown, Ihr <1(; 'on a 1 C.

4.149 TWlJ J X 2 III pi)'l;'mml panf!ls, r';:l(~h OrmBS.'> 1.5 kg. are n. gctht'r as hO\"~I .• Tire panels nJ.-e supportN1 hy haJI.(lnrl-~ ·kel Joinb at A and hy til ...me RH. Determine (0) the locsbon of II In lhe XI} pitUlt' ,f ! sion in th wire is to be minimum. (b) theeorrespondmg minimum

4.150 Solve Proh. 4.149 subject to the restric '011 thallI ffiu!il'1it> tht: y .cis.

4.151 A unjform20 x 30-m. steel plate ABeT) weigh.!! S51b and taehed to lJuJl·llIl.ll 'liod~et jolnls at A and B. K no\\~ ng thar d re plat!' against a tril:tiowess vertical wall at D, determ i ne ((1) the locaJi!lll uf D lha reaction IUt D.





this chapter was devoted t the l dIes. that IS, to ' e situation \ hell tl Ie 11: mal orees : cting 0 a ri~d body Jonn a sy tem ~ u i valent o zera [, (,c.4.1 = .

2:F = 0 ~~r 2:(r x F) 0 ( . t )

Rl'SOhmg Clach fore and . eh moment int eomponents, , e can x1?re the nee s' ry and : uffici nt coudilions for Ihf' enullibriu of a tigid body witll tll fj'JUowio 1'Ollatim ~

Equilibrium equauons

If, = 0 ~ y = 0 X,F: - 0 (4.2)

"';'M:. = 0 };My = Ii z = (4.3)

Ihes- rqn tion C 11 b us to de nnin unkno

10 the rigid y or unknov n re ctions PX rted by its

\'tflcn sokillg a prubl In involving the equilibrium of a n'd Free-body diagram

b:)(h II ,s e ':K'IILi.d to xm kler flit nr the forC's.." acting an the bod .

The fOT{), the first t pin th solution of the probl in should li to

dimv .. j ret-body diagram, howin the bod under consideration and

al1 of h mknown as wei as known forces acting on it ec, .2],

In the Ilrst part of h ·h pt r, we com idered til equilibrium Equilibrium of a two-dimensional

nf 1/ '1 'o·dfmen.rionnl structur. : that is, we as ume that the struc- structure

lure t'Ousid ·u and the force' applted I it VI' rf' C ntained in the

snne plane, \ \re saw that ch of the rea dons 'X rted Q the struc-

hire bv ibi supports could im olvc cnetwo, or three unkno vns, de-

pendin lpOD th typ 0 support J ec, .3'1.

In the case of a two-dimensional structu c. .qs, (4.0, or Eq . 14.2) and (4.3), reduc€ 0 three equilib1ium qllotim s, namel

LF;r = LFy = 1.A = 0 .-)

"brre Ai' an arl)itrary point in th plane f rh true ir [, . e . H These equa inns c n he s d olvc ~ r thr e unknown . IVltilc th three aquililmrnn eg ations (4.5) LilW1Ut be (w,gn lued lIitlllldLlitiol1al equations, any of them call be repla sd by aneth r fI!11atiD'l. Therefore, we can write rut rnadve sets of equili ri III e LIn '0 , ueh

'i-F_T - M 0 LMn - 0 ( .H)

"bert: pu' It R i . ell nit. II h a wa ' that the lin B is not p' Tall

10 the y " or

XM,\ = 0 kM,H = 2:,M(, = (4.7)

I\here the points A B. and C do n t Il in a s mght line,


21,2 Equilibrium of Rigid Bodl!)$,

Stalical indelerm nacy

Partial constraints

Improper constraints

Twa-force body

Thrae-foree body

Eql..lllbrium of a three-dimensional body

Since any set of quilibriwn equattons can be solved far three unknowns, the reactions at th supports of a rigid dimsnstonal structn cannot b - ompletely del rmined iftney vo] 71Il1~" than thne unknoums; til }' sr said to b ,o;tatlr-llrly tleterminate [ ee. 4.5].01'1 the other hand, if the reactions jell)lc!r tlmn three IJ,'TIkuvtUIIS, (1 uiliLriul1I will not IJ Illflinl.uilled dey .. , 'ncrdJ loading conditions: the structure is 'aid to be t){1 amstrained. The fact that the reactions involve exactlv three knowns is no guara.nte that the equilihrt:um equ<tionscM solved for all three unknowns. If the supports arc arranged h, a way that the reactions are euh r coneurrent or pnrallel, the actions are :st, ticalJy indel r ina!", and the structure is snid tn improperly constrained.

Two particular eases of ~qllilihrlmn of'.a rigid hody were special attention. In S c. 4.6, a tu..;o{rm;e hody was d rigid body ~ubjected to forces at onI I two poin .and it v vas tha.tthe resultants J;:1 and F.!? of these forces must have the /lwgll'itude. t7uJ.'mull> lilft:j of (Jet/mi. (It.d OplJo!')ite sen « e (Fig. I. a property whicll win shnplif)' til solution ofcertain pm 1 'IllS lamer ell':p rs. I noec, 4.7,. a til r(!.e{urce body was defined as II botly suujecteJ tu rorues <I.[ulily three point::;, and it W'd5 sllO\ .. n the resultants F • }ii'2, and }':l of these forces must bcetther current (Fig. 4.12) or p(ll"(111el. This properly provides us with alternative approach to' tile solution of problems im:olvin,g a force body [Sample rob. 4.6~.

f, Fig.4.11

"'" ,

Fig. 4.12

In the second part of the chapter. we considered the nUllle of a OJroo-dtm ,tlsiollallJudy and' W llJaL each of the ex rted on the body by its SUppOl could involve beh een one six nnknuvnls, d pnding upun til type of support [ ec,4.8].

In the general cas of Ilu~ ffl1uilibriulll nf a tln'p.p dbne body, all of th six scalar qllliiblinni quati()llS (4.2) and (4,3) at the beginning of this review shoulr] he 'USed and 'iolved fw wlhl.uWflS ts c,4.9]. ill most problems, howcvcr,Wcs(' . will be more conveniently obtained Hwe first ','rite


= I(r x F) = 0

and express the fore s F and position vectors to in terms of componen and unit ectors. The vector products can then

eomput d either dir ctl or l> neans U letermiuun s, ~U1d th i d -

ir d calar equatio bt 'ned b eqll tin to zero the co f ii nts

of unit veeto [ample rob, ,- through 4, J,

'V noted ih La. rnai < thr ,e unknown Tea tion components

Olay b 11111inat d [ron: th c input tion 0 'LMn in th nd 0

be relations (4.1) through a judi ious ohoio of point 0, AI 0, the reactions at two oints and B can he eltrnmat d from the solution of orne problems b wIiting the cqul1tiolll.M,\JI - 0, which lnvo cs the computation 0 th II aments f th for s about an axis \B joining poi ts and D ample Prob. 4.1 ).

If the reactions in olve mol" ] an ix unknowns, 01 of ie rea 'on 'staltcolly ind erminate; if the involve Iev er than six II known ,th ligi bod ion] pn 'ally nstramed. E en with six or ill P uakno us, the:: ligid L dy will t'l im""ql rly 011- strained if the reactions asso tared with th ~ given SUppOlt either are parallel or inters r:t the sam line.

Review Problems

4152 B <mAD 'arril;',tll two40-lbloadsshown.T e heam is eldbv a fued support at D and by th • cahl BE hich attached ttl the t:O\lllteT~weight ,Deterotine th reaction a D when la) \ = lIb, (b) \\ = 9 lb.

Hlllo ·m n,

I-- <I> fl--1-'1 n Rg. P4.152 and P4.153

4.153 For e h am and 10 sown, determi the range 0 alues

of ~ f r \ hi· the magni de f e coupl Y.t D doe rl()t .xceccl 4 I -Tt,

4,154 Dete rmine the reactions at and D \ hen f3 - 3na.

4.155 Det rmin the reaction at A and D wrlen{3 = 600•

Relrl .v Prohlem 21 3


IRO 111111




Fig .. P4.154 and P4.155

214 equilibrium 0' RIg d Bodli1S

20ifl 40m,

.50 in.

FIg .. P4.1,56

50 rnrr


n n- ::!(J Ih ,15 Jh :]0 III 15 Jb

~~~..._;:' L


4.156 2100·Jb t L(;tor is used to lift 000 b 0 grnveJ, Determine

reaction Bleach o( the ''1:\0 (u) rear wheeh (b) front wheels B,

sJL Fig. P4.1S7

4.157 A tpnsiUTl uf 5 lb is mainlainecl hi u t\lpe as it passes the' system show"l Knowing thut the radius of each pulle . is 0.4 In., the reaction III '

4.1' 58 Solve Proh, .1 51ul:>sUJ Iling thul n.n-ill .-radi!I..U:. pullevs are 4.159 The nt rod AlJEF l5:mpp rt~d b) b~uiogs al C. nd D:J wire All. Knowing that portion AB of the rod is 2. 0 mm long. ,t.

(.0) the' tenSi 11 in wirt: AH. (b) the reaeti()TIS at C and D. Assume lll<lt hearing at D does not exert any axialthrust,

4. 160 For the b am and loadlng shown, determ ine (a) the A •. fLo) the tpli~on in cuble Be.

4 .. 161 Fnune ABeD i s SIlPP rted by 11 ball-and-scckee joint ff. A b)' three cables. for a = 13 111m, delenuiu the lensicn in each f..wJ tho rew::tion at A



FI.g. P4.161 ,and P4.162

4.1,62 Frame ABeD is snppor(pd hy II 'bnfl.mld-soc;ket joint at 1 by three cables, Knowing tl1(lt t e 3.50- load is applied It.t D (0. - 3 <let rmine thetension in eachcable and the .reaction at A.

4.163 In the prohlcms listed be low. the rigid bodies eonsid red . llete~' (''Olntnlined and the r .CtiOIlS were~taticall)' dot rrninate, For ~1.ese rigid bodies it it pn~ 'ble to er ute an improper set Of'COllstnUnts! illg a dimension of the body. In each of the follnwing prnb!·ms d ...... ·,""lJf". wlue f a which results ill improper co itnlints .. (a) Prnh. 4, I, (h) Pn:l~

Computer Problems

4.C1 slender rod AB of weight \II is attached to blocks II j\ l1111l B

~Ijiclj ean film rreel in tbe!Uicl~s shown, Tilt' constant of !1!t! ~1'rillg ibk,

, Ihl' spring i, lIIislI'ekhed when the rod Is 110111.0 tal. Nl:'gll:!ei ing th .ught of the blocks, derive an equation in terms of f), W, 1.' d k which mt15t be satisfied when the rod is in equilibrtum. Knowing that \ll = 10 lb .ma.l =- 4,0 in., (0) calculate and plot the valce 0 f thij spring COI1~ta , t k us u Inn! [km of Iht:! llnl!lf:' B for J;so ~ 8,:5; let'. (b) d -- ten Ililit' III - two \:iI ues of le 'Ingl .. B ~'()rrf'5(KIIIJil1 to equiliuriUl when k = 0.7 1 lin.


4.C2 11w po.~itiml of tlre L-sha d rod shown is controlled )' a cable .il:tiJehed atpllint R. KIlj)\-vmg that the forl SllpPO~ a load of magnitud P = :00 1\., lU:e eomputarional software to ernl.'ulatc and plot thl' tr-nsion l' ill the

]~ it' a fllllt'tlun of fJ r I values CJ' e from 0 to 12(f. D termine max-

rnum t",n)l f'I TLDiL't and the Otl'p~'ponding valn of 8

J.C3 l1H~ pn~ition of the 20-lh rod AB is controll d by the block shown . .. 11!h is ~lmdr Inm'cn o tilt" left 11y t h" fore P. . gl{~ .. ng the effect of frie

I ,liSt' t&lupllt<Uional so tware to calculate and fllollhc ll'iigni tude P of the XlTte ssa t'om.:tioll 0 x for values 0 x de reasing from 30 in. to O. DeterV1ire the maxi IIIUIil vllllll" of P and the con sponding value of r.

Fig. :P4,C3

Fig. P4.C2


216 Ecil.lillbrium of Rigid Bodie


L .. -t-

Fig .. P~.C5

·4 .. C4 Memher ABC is supported by a pin und brnc::lret lit C .md hJ tnext nsihl eahlr- of I Ilgt.b 3.5 m that is attached at j\ IlIld R and plt~l" It mctionl·ss plliley ilt D. &le 'ling Ih rnsss uf ABC wId the radlus of [June)" (II) pi - lh tension in the cable as a f ction of a FOT a ::So s 2J (b) detenTlln til largest value of tl for which equilibli mean be 11 mnh!iJl .

4.C5 and 4.C6 Till' ceastantof 51)l'Ulg ;1B is k, and the .spring I! str-etcheu wh II - n. KIHJwing th.!1 8 = 200 mrn, " - 00 111111, imJ I kJ fltl, liSP corupulatioual s ftWHC La calculate an plot the mass In C pouding to eefJ'Lilihrimn, Il_<; a [unetion of 0 for values of (J from '0 to (}(r.

t nllRlc."thc \':11n(' of 8 ootrespondiug to e ulllbnum when m = 2. kg

fig. P4.Cti

4 .. C7 An X IO-ln. panel of '!I~ig,bt 111 = 40 lb i-supported by lull 0..Iong edgo AB. ~abl eDE. is attached to the panelat point C. pas~ t\ smull pnllc·y at V,and SlipportS ilt-,)Ilin ier of v.ceigllt w. r:~gle-dillg t.lu; it-ct or f Iicuon,l[sC' computatlonal software [0 cll.k1.dut~ an plot the I\. • o the cylinder corresponding to equilibrium ·LS 11 fun tiOIl of e for Vall ,(} from 0 (0 900. Determine . e value of8l0n~p()lI(!Jng to IXjUiJlbrillDl V =- 20 lb.

Fig. P4.C7

4.C8 A unillmn circular plate of r.ul.ius .300 unu und IUI1!1o:i 26 kg is sup~ rmed~, lI' 't' V·rtil'.H] wires hal are t!'£lua]]' ,sp:J('ed m-Olll,IJ its dg, A ~ml1ll 'J..lg b;(lC~ E i~ placed on the plate at D and is then slowly moved aJo~lg diJlhrler CD until it reaches C. (0) Plot the tension in Vl-ire~ I) and C as mnc~ll~!If [j_ wile a is the distance of the block from D. (b) D t rmine fhl" r.lIucofn for wI uC'h 111(' Ir.m,ion in wires A and C is minimum,




4.C9 The derrick shO'WTlS'~lPpOl1' n 4m 11l·II,t'nlh'. 11 Is held ll) <I ball Im!i M Wi Jain' :It poillt A IIml by Lwu cllble!lo anach d at. points D and E. M(II,I.'lDg that the derrick lies in a .... erot:<u plane fonning :\11 angle q, with the ~ plMO l1S6 computational software to cak.."lilate aru I plot the tension in eaeh to.b!. as a fllllction of tP for values of 1> frmn ) to ..f(t". 1 rotrn ir •. th V'.ulle do lor IVhitb Ih~ [enstun I,lL ('llIJlc ij 1':. is 11HlXillhl!li,

4.C10 Tile 140-lb unifonn steel plate ABeD is welded to shaft EF and ~ maintained in the position sltown by tile couple M. J(no'Wing thal eolian plrlliI.l1Ie shaft from sliding in the bcming<; .111 1 thul tI,(':\hnfl lit's in Iht!' !P ~I!i! ldol llut luJgnihn:Je Ai 01 til· couple 3.<; a luucuon of 0 [or 0 s 8s goo,

Fig. P4.C10

Computer Pmblems217

Fig. P4.C9

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