Jesus Christ as Business Statesman: Bruce Barton and the Selling of Corporate Capitalism

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HIST-ORJA'NS R.AREL'Y SY':MPATHJZE- W]TH AD :WEN'" ,ADVOCA,TES OF THE, "gospel of success ,,', or opponents of American entry into World War II~ Bruce Barton 'was ,all three. Yet he typ,ically appears in only one of these disreputable contexts ,at a time '.' Cultural historians remember primarily Barton' s authorship of The Man Nobody Kno WS,~ a best-seller in. :1.925,-2[6, 'which portrayed Jesus Christ as the "founder ,of modem business, ,,' Students of business record 'his leadership of the ad ve rti sing flrm Barton,

B" tten, Durstine and Osborn (:'B~·B.DO»:" A-:~1 po .: ·;~l·':"]c,:··a··'1 historians recall

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t""'c::,' fellow noninterventionists, Renresentatives Joseph 'W'· Martin and

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Hamilton Fish; '~i 'Or-eat Britain wou~d never have received an ounce of heln from us ,;,,. FD'R declared on October '28 1940 "if tile decision had.

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been, left to Martin, Barten, and Fish ~ , ~, JJ

t Standard accounts of Ban,oll.; s career are Richard Stephen Sha:pi-r1{)" "The Big Sen,= A'Uitudes. of ,Ad.v~:rtis~nll Wdten About, Their Craft in tile :l92-Os and ],9308" ~ (Dlss, 'U'A~v., of

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ton,~ " ('Mas!tecs thesis, U niv. ,of' Wis.consi:n ~ 1961}; James A". N e:Ueihter]el'A" i!; ~,Bmce Bruton amid the B'~8hte88, .E!t'h05 of the 192Us,,' t SQuth Adantic Quarterly, 76[ (SumMer' 1977}, 293,-, ,308,;, :Rich~d :M, H uber, The' A,merie,an IJre,am of Succes« (N,ew '{ork:' M,~,\Graw'-"Hi~t, t 9i ~l" ch. :14 ~ Lawrence; Chenoweth, The Am.:e,r,iica,'_--,Dre'am qf.s UCC6S$'; The Seerc h: lot the Set! in ,the TWentie,rh ,Century (North Scituate, Mass.: D~x.bu:ry Press". :1974); 47~,50; and $o.hn :~r Ca'wtelt1.1 AplJ:sdes Qfthe S,el/-,MiuJe.' Man (Chicago·: 'U'n~v" of Chii,eag-D Press, 1[965)." l'~7,-,99" The most astute tre~tme:nts are liiUIl.en'tably brl-ef:':. Do:nald, :Meyer', The Posith},e Thll1k,e,"i5,; A. .stuily oJ tlnr ,AmeTjj[CQI'f Que Jtlo-r H,ealth, 'We,tilt.h and' Persona] Power Iro:m Mary ,B'aleer ,Eddy to Norma« 'Vine,enl' Peale' (Garden City." N.,·Y .: Anchor" '1'966,)" 159-'-2; Otis, Pease, "Barton Bruce, !, I' in John, ,A,. G,anaty~, ,ed", ~ ,En c,ydopte diQ' of A,me-ric~',~ Hi$'to'ty (New' Y·ork,; Harper and Row, 1IM,4)· .. £,_t::.~,~ ·an··- ,'~I w····,QlljI'oIIIIinl 'S-'ilil'~~oGIn· ""P:··'lety. _ Pr .. · ro 'f=i~'e __ 'i'JI'''~, Plav: Th~ 1102,1);;!',H "1"'01 'H'~w'!ll-1,

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Bruce Barton and the S,elUng of Corporate Capitalism 207

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Bartons significanc e as, a combina ti 0 n c apital i st, moralist, and

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ISO ationist, In The M{nl,:o:'O'~Y ;:.;iiOW,S., t e pivot Ooi ms ,I ire, D,man,

~~,~~," "" ,~ "'dl .~. '.', 'i..,"~'''' eated eosoel of .~. I~~ rate caeitalism that he continue d presented a, sopmsneate " sospe\, u. COJJ]lO~d~,e ,c~,p '~c~_ ~. _~ a~, ~. co, __ ~, ~ e~ ,

to preach as, au ad man and then as ,8, congressman, Brought up' under the, str .~ .. ng ~ I~ nflu ence of '11~ beral Protestanti sm. Barton legitimized big business.

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bot "he for him self a md for his ,aJU. d lie en .. :C': .e. bv 'till'~d.···'inD' a p' erecedent in the Chris-

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tian doctrine .of individual responsibility and J esus' "Iife of servi .. ce." In

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an economy o a unoance, !D'm,l!.-on exp amea, corporate teaaers ,I ~I I:~'I

pia'," ce se vice ab rve profits al 'I, ne .rsons mu '!i-",1j'. work and consume ' .• visor ..

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specific goods and services, Since prosperity also depended upon, peace: abroad, Barton advocated American nonintervention in foreign wars ~

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..... dh e "~'I ~: c',dl to a 'C':·: on sistent world , view th :,i.'lIit, ~e~ .~ flrst espoused d ·,ll'·'n, ~;~ng~, the ] 920s .. ~ , , ~ re . W Q . 0 . ;J,liOllo ~"'Ji.I, .. v, ~ t ¥Y "". ll, .. lilil, ~Il,. ~,I , ~(JI~U .. 1!I.!i" ~~, .. __ ,.,. =_ ~ ~ ~ ~

Yet this :~~o ld view increasinelv C31me to embody .. ~.· ,R Dumber of tensions

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and '~'I ~on ies Barton's g"os,:p~: el of ootimistie relisious beliefs failed to as ...

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suage bis, self-doubts or 'to bring him peace of mind. His noninterven-

tionist stand brought him into conflict 'with other members of the eastern coreorate el ~i"te~~"" P ,':',:e,,~"~~'h"'a,,"'p'li:!! most disturbine of 31: '1"]1 Barton came to fear the,

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public" s reflexive ,ap,p~au,se for America' S grandiose ,alobaJl commitments and by' the late: 19408· felt eomeelled to warn 'his fellow' countrvmen

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agai i st '~~p.:~c':~~'d, I"'g': ~;"~. t ed l"d,:c I ea ~ s." 2 Yet few ,":' contem pora n ~·l~:~' :tir .. ..:. done more

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able to adve rt 'l:~,:"n:':g, enfferv a "Ddl 'no, .... ",]I,~,t. ic ... '~ l'\r~,ryp'~: aean '. nda, Bru IC'~, Ba srton 's ~ ~ e~~ a ~ ~ e, JJ.:) I C_'.' ,p~ l.ll,1 ~"" ," ~ .. ,y~ I ~ Lilly" v~, . e- ~. u@ ~ ~, ~ ~ ~ "" .~. _ ~ v· ~

~"~ , ~: 'p'ular nublicati ons hi s bus "ness p~ hilosophy , and 'his po .• ····Htic:s, thus n,ee4

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to be reexamined as related aspects of 3, single: complex, career,

Any" attem ~'p~' it ito" ev ..... lu Q,+i~ Bru 'C~ Barto n m mst ta ,'k· ~ into aecou nt dee ades

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0'1' _,~:U; own mytu"'OlaAJng,,~·.rl,te:rs W~HI,O plctur,e ,JI,m, as ,a\ ,lJfOV:I,nCla_

gladhander ar-e victim.s of his, advertising skiD ~ Barton ]iked 'toO presen.t himsel'f ,as, a '~'~,gau:ky kid. from. th,e co,untry',~ ,,', the son .of ,(I, 'C~ongregat;io:nalist m'ini ~ ,,"ere w'b 0; W8' ,'S 'ID' 'o,t ,~x" ,"a·.~,'t~'~'y"" 'p·~··~.oo,:"~' ~":'r~' 'b': IU~, HJ~U:S"~: ,d' idln" ':i'"t' h';ilVe 'i!liny··· 'm,oc. ne' Y"~ U B:U'

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th~ t'i~le B'ru~ ", ,c:e t',u.lrnc:,,~d, I s·~~vAn~"~, b' .,'.'o:,w"~'Ve,,',~'r·~~ 'hi i~, fa> t.he1f,~ t·;h,e····' 'R,eV'e.,:r~liJ.d Willi,alm

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om his. ministerial salary" pub Us-hIns: royalties." and pe-rquisites (ranging

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from ice, crea.m free z'e r:s, t,o Um,ousi'ne;s) se,n't 'by ,adm'i:rers,~ Chri,S:ti,8lDity ,a,Jnd.

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capitalism always coexisted in the Barton home; young: Bruce 'was obU\I1,ed to 'work in order to build character, not because the famUy ~,~, didn,'t have, any m,oney '.' ~ ') ,3

The decisive influence on his, son's personality and w'Or~d, view' as well as, the virtual coauthor of The Man Nobody Knows, Reverend Barton deserves special attention 4 Bruce Barton ccOuJd. honestly say that he was born :im. a, rural cottage on, August 5, 1886, because his father was then temporarily assigned to Robbins, Tennessee, as, a circuit-riding preacher. wnHam H" Barton, really' 'was, a '~'~:se,lf .. made man" who rose quickly through luck, pluck labor, and patronage, In, l890;, be received a bachelor of di,vinity degree from Oberlin, and. in the next. nine years held pulpits at Shawmut Church in Boston and then at the First Church in, Oak Park, Illinois, serving there until his retirement in, .1924" He lectured widely, taught ar several seminaries, and in 192,1 'was, elected moderator of the ,National Council of Congregational Churches 4' Friendship 'with Boston literati, prompted. a parallel career as a, writer of' fiction exhortations to success, and history, His best work, a, study of Abraham Lincoln, combined meticulous scholarship •• ~ shrewd interviews; and appreciation of his.

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subject's "caurion and conservatism ~ ~ ~ Although Bruce Barton was a pro-

lific journalist by the late 191 Os" until publication of The Man, Nobody Knows he remained in. the shadow of his, father, the ·r'-· .. resid .. entiel ~:~,O(,. ..

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rapher and theologian.' ..

Adapting easily to. liberal theology, Rev. Barton deprecated doctrinal controversies and conflated salvation, 'with self- mastery, Like other. liberal Protestants be stressed 'those aspects of the "many-sided" Savior most congenial to his own concerns. 'W'illia-m, Barton went further than most by' playfully composing ersatz "gospels ~" according to Judas Iscariot and Jesus ~ brother James ~ His more" com ventional explorations of the i· ", iriexhaustible Life" included ,Day bY' Day' with. .J e $,U'.S ~ a guide to holy w,eek", and Jesus of ,N a zareth, a pictorial biography" Rev. B art on, pointedly de .. , nied that, Je sus 'was, ,~~ weak and puny," and instead en visioned a, sturdy Savior usin .. g 6 "sanetifled muscle" to cleanse 'the temple at. Jerusalem ~,5

~ The Myth of the " .. se~f.:".ade/ ~ man, clIDa;rac:terized most of Barton:' s obltU'ari~s" .N ew York' Times, July 6" 1'%1'; .. ,. Advemslin,g:: Wo,rd Man/' N eW$'We',e.kJ 70 (July 1.1" :l 96"'h '11=79; ,. "Ihe

ell I • 0 . . "".,..- - - ,-, 'l '114· tn..t::7'11. 18 S' .... ,~ '8D 0 Z. U' d' r' .• ' (if

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diMa:polis~ :BQ:bbs'"':Mem~I,~ :1.929); '12:~, W1U~am, E" Barton (hereafter WBB), 'The ,A,utvhiog'" ,gra:phy of , ,. '. (Indianapolisi B(lbbs~M,em~~ ~ ],9,32), 267=700;, Fred D·., Barton, '~'I Bruce Bmno a.s ,a, Brother,' :OCt Bo:x 4,;, DB, to Clarke", December 2S~ 1.902, BC; Box 3~

I WEB,,;, Au'l'obi-o,g'raphYj' 83,=84;. 1'20, 1,41-'96", 218-2S~ 268; W.EB,~, Es,t,her r., Barton: A Bio,gr-ap'h'i,cal Sketch: (m. .. p.: Foxboro Press, ~926), :15=27,;, WEB,; The ,Llfe ()I',itb,r~',ham LinC'QJ~ (India!napo:l~s1 Bobbs-Merrill, 1'92'), 1!297.,

,!Ii WEB~ A,ld:Qb,i'O:g'rap'I!:y~ 46,;, 91'; <WE:B~ }"t'SU,$ ~f ,Naza~r,'eth: Ti!;e S,t,o.r;y of' ,Hi~ Life and' S cenes of H,b' ,Minis,try (Bosten: PHsrim Press, ~,9(3).~, :I 55:, '29,S-:34,S~, 315~,i,6, prefaee; 'WEB,;; ,POUt Ht't.hert:o ,Unpu:bUshed Go~pe,ls (.N~w' Y'o:rk: 'George H,. Doran", 1.920), ehs .. 3-4';, 'WIEB,~, DQy ,BY' Day with J esus ,: A SO'Otlc ,fo,t Holy Week (Q,alk, Park, IIll: :Puri,mn, Press

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Bruc e Ba rt ',(J' .,n,: ~ a nd the Se ~llin" ,a '0-·'1/' .C,·:· .omora te .C:· -·a~:p·~.'· italism 2...:,09 .. ":,,,

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ecommg to xev. ;\Q.J, LU'n~, Jesus ure 0. service rene erec an, unso-

cial aosoel" a:' , contra .adiction ln te :1jm, .- .. ~... S:~;~'D'n,'!"fl·.·-~c"(!,'n,.,tlly.·'.:,. If- .. -:,'W',~ :'ue.:···,f,· ~'~'~~C" ·,e· .... , H. ". e' .~

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never reouire . d disciples to snrrender all w.'''~':e",",fo}l:t·t to .• the po or mode rn c t · •. hris-

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tians should not surrender theirs either, Rather, th.e,y should strive for

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genial ~"~pataJble s ,,;. attributed to a fictional sage, Rev, Barton teased slackers, praised ~,~ se]f .. starters t,' ; preserlbed na'rd. work to cure heartbreak and ume d see kers , after '~,ll'I,('Ij:C·'Q~,~, to ":0'1' ·)0· .. · :0······ ut .0>,0" the 'R',AQL,dl an d '00< ".

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An attentive parent, Rev', .. Barton set especially higb standards for his oldest :80:0... Surviving fragments reveal Barton to have been, a bright, witty ene roe' tic' ado 'I'e' scent who no 'De' thele s 8 do '1lJ' b ted his own ajb~'ility'" In

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high school he de bated, managed the glee club ~ edited the student news .. paper, SO-i",11 s yrnp "0' .0' the 'S~ ·:I· .. de and s erved as iffiII 'p;.$Ii(JI'1!: a t a: 'RI,ap:"U' blican

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National Convention .. , Yet be still questioned his [~,~ power to rnake m:y'self 'W' "·o··r·ll" ,,', '7 A' fte .. - ." ~ . - ,'~, .~ ,t B~'" ' .. ~ C'" ~ IT- ~ . (. - <l.. ~ .. ~ t..:'~ fathe ,~~ h .... .JII sent 'h' dm ·0' '.' ..•...... 'I!ii.,~ Arter a year at ",erea:::O_l'c,g:e.w,nere ,UlS 1,IAU,e.f' ,i:tU, ser ,t. ,'I u I,J .....•

, :i. t . 't·· de t fron '. ;t, '., ;;'I'~'__:_')" ·B.'·n, · ,'i 't ansf . 'ed to Amherst A~-

mee,_ s, u en,·8 ,~.rom, poor ,il,aDll les. m. ~O.D. raU,fL err-e· .'. 0 ,~~ I .1 ,."1 ",~ .,

though be debated again, played football, assisted in. history courses, presided over the Christian Association and the honor society, and. grad,nat.ed. as valedictorian. and the " "student DlOSt. likely to succeed, n self-doubt still accompanied his personal stri ving ~ Having hoped to follo-w'

hi £1'" "'h .. "'h ~;;. B···· e. d - ~. ~ ~ . f'" ;(!:~ lth H'" .. "

ms ':at I,e,,:f' into t, te numstry "I ,mon 'now' raeee .. ,(1, 'cnS1S 0.1, rat .r ~ .. e rei-

maiaed loyal to liberal Protestantism, reassured by his father that belief was I. 'more reasonable than unbelief," but decided. against entering the

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'c: ergy.. . .·JOD..sCU)U8" y a" .lea:s " t. Ie '·_,eel,Slon ' .. as, ,I;es,s, 8_1__ H'C! 0 1 J e,. e, .. 1 .a I _ ,I. I.

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,an ae,~.o= 8U .. mISSlon", __ ,;6 ,Be, e..;, ,_a~·on ,reCm e_ lH lI.-,Ji: ,',_ ,e vIgor, pa1.l

enee. an ~ lov r e needed to succeed 'I""R; "my f!ll,i-te" .'r''',(;I, business .. ,,,10,8

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,construction cr-e'w in Montana, dr,eaming- of rep're"slentinD' th,e stale in the

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,Co.V'eI'1.t' ",~, Re'ad.'e,F 9. Pig,e st 60 ,(June 1'9S2~ '12.'1.. 01; ~ a,moo Ba'[1on": E y,eTilthiliilJ! ad men. s.ho~ld

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be· ~ ~e:. ~l' ill' ~ ~,.!, .D''''I'·,i(i·t·,D"·rj' ~ I··~·k· " ';7·· ~, ,("Fc .el!--,- ':lO,~ 11 fi£1) ~ ~'4 ..... .c' c:~ R·,fiJ'4""'rt··· "L B"·;·l'e:b~-n u'IB- ',ru'''''e ~"""'101'li_,

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,PFe:sidell'~iaJ, Stas~ MMag .. er/l Journalism Qliul'rterlYj 4,3 (Spring ~966)t 86:;, BB, to C~ar,k!e~

n.... a:W"""""ir '1.iF. '1 fifi~' . 'lB·' ·.C·- -. ·R.~"". "l. ·R. 'B' ". '" '" M::' v 'Th~,rt.'''''',_'T·cw~':':''''' 'Y"" "e'-'a'J~, '-'i,~, .!Ii:'I·c."h~o •. ~ .. t t . Ai, ·~·r>Ti~,A:·1(I

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,Mag.a:lJne. :87 fApr'" 19l9),~, 34,.,

,8 ~'~'Eve,rutbin'D' ad men should be 'I'"! ~C4 P"::d Ii .... ~,· n HB,r·oth~·-'u., BB '~~'M1J F,at~er'!8, 'Bus",·

.. \1"" ,_~, .. ' " .~, J., ,u. ,~I!iW"JO,~ ~._ .. er " ~ ~ ,.~ .... , .. 1

ne"s"" " 4,nA ofIIl"" W-:-"~E 'D A' ~,;,.. b' - .. '11'" - ~ , . ,,'

'.:0" .:7'''+-';1. :., .. ,,,,D~ "~Jb()t():gr-ap,,.:y'j, ,XV-.xV,I",

~ Bart,on at first hl't,ended to:,tud' .... ' ,~,id the 1- te~-l"ru hist c,t'V'. and so. he ,accepted :a,fellowsb~,~

,-,,,_.. . '. . S., ,.1 an, ".A"at ,O""J'~ ... ,' , I" ,', ..,Iif,'"

h U'· . It ~.,-"' ~ ~ - .. . ~ ~'h C' L.. L f

at t ,e .: DPlerslty O:~~ Wlsc.o:nsjn,~ ,H,e n,ev,er @nrol),ed" ~~ow'ev[er" T _~e reasons 'it:or 'bllS C"I~Mae ,Oi .

Iileart remai~ obscure,.

210

Americ an. Q"u(J rteri»

. ,~. ~",'~ ... ,,",,~ (;;erJ

York .. Both publications failed. Landing: on. his feet, Barton became as-

~ ';roo11 ~' p J' C~ 'I'I~ d'S' ,. 'N~ Y k ~ - 1912 h

sistant sates manager lor r ." " . '. • •. ·',0'" ter an I. [.':011.'8, 10,1,ew, I ork m ~:'L:-:';, .1S

first famous ad vertisement, 00. behalf of Collier's· Five-Foot Shelf of Harvard Classics, promised the 'i'~ essentials o:f a. liberal education" in 'i only

fl~:&.t··' _:_'- I' '. I i'I" 11i'···,' '00','" ,', lO meen minuses a uay.

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, u,roogl.ilou I ,I, e .:, '~ ,·'m. Lon ,pr-eaC'I.I.eU occaSlonac c ,y ,aJn..~:r'o Je ~:,e,gu-

larly for several Pro .. ··' .. estan 'lit·. m •• !. aeazfn es. 'I.·D·.·· m •• · ·.'I'"d' d le aee he liked to recall this

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work a.··,~ ''Uo·.·.· U, '. tl 'It f'l ~'~ ~, ,~ m~.··, I U' .ck rak ~ n .,:'" ~ t 1f" e: ~,e·. '~', re .. ~·, tro ",",'p'" e" .'. cti v.e····· c.' },lOil ~ mi. "'", 1i',0' ....

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" ~ radicelism" were exaggerated, but in the early [9108 be W'8S the C on-· greg[a:t'io-n,alist and Christian Wo.rlcf·s authority 0-0 the "other haJjf' of societv ~ ,,' He expre ssed sympathy for P .. ·.TO stitute s~ favored temperance

J II '." ,'. " ~ lr

(.·t~.'li..·,·~·' ~.c.'h-- not - ati .~j ~.~111 ". '~. hibiti .~.' _.) .... ,. d .,~' .~, ~d'I" ~,~ .. ~ d bla '.·11 s= ·d,rcC,~c~··--'·I··'h·~·'" ~"--.'" ent tnougr no, nanonar p[TO inmoru, ,3]]." cone emnea ,aCI\;, .. lSI.faD,C·., rsemenr

and the i'~in.'Visible, prison" of race prejudice. Focusing on. the gulfbetween capita] and labor; he pictured i'~ hollow-cheeked" fathers worn down by' struggle, bedraggled mothers tom. from suckling: infants to ton in the mills"

,1Oi1'*"d··., '1!o'~W'·.' 'l'~n';~'nl('['~ ~W'·::'O.· .. · rk 'C rl·j.1!. ~w· vith :'-·[O':.:··U' I.t, lob ,s~" Lo.· ... · .. ·'w.: ".: ~w"::'a" g':' ·'e··· ::S'" stockhc · .. ··'~d· _.- e.:···:FI: g-'- -~e.,Q;~I,. ,~~I.,JI

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'the ~,i, American mania for' haste "'1 were responsible for alternating periods

- , -

of prosperity and. depression ~ 1:1

'T: 'he p·o ..... I' Bart ~'. ~ e:»: ~:..lll ~~, h~ t .' 'm~' brs .'~ , ~lJ-..' surroeate ~"~r' eligion" ..... f·' ,

,lil"v,~ rsarten rearea, mJg'" ernorace I~ .. ne :5, III. "~ j e ,1:,10, ' 'vi

cla ··'s~·s··, ,C'· 0·····.0·· ft· 'I '1~[C:.:>t·, pl'r':'~' ~1:"re.11 b .. : .. :y·:.· the ~ idustri lal .. ·W'",'[o:.:·rlk.·I-' ;I'Ct::' . ~:,f'" the 'W· . .'·.·:·':·[o:.:·r'·~d~1 . In t h ·.··~'~e····~

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turbulent times, therefore, Christians needed strong leaders ~ The 'rural [church was '~'ialr,eadY' dead," he warned, ,and. its urban counterpart was threatened by spiritualist cults, apathy, and lack . of imaginatlon. Barton hailed ministers like the [~'~p:io.nee,:r;"[ Washington. Gladden, who faced the social crisis, by i, 'becoming servants of ,aJt ", Their insti tutional churches, '.:', '«'.' rine m :.' tin halls. ,' .. '>m-I'C 'Ii' C', I i'-'~. and :::: 'mnasiu .~:t;;, sim tultan eouslv al .. ou-e,~,!I, g, ~ ee .!I,~~g ,I,~aUS~, gQ ~ ,e ~,oo.ms,~ ~'!!" gy, ~ __ a:s,~,,",,m,.:) ~ ~ ~ ~. ~1!.Q~~eo, .~.y, '

leviated poverty and made Christianity more attractive '. Barton also praised unco nventional ministers: am. ex-convict aiding his former cohorts, a skipper attending: to sailors at, anchor, and ,am. evangelist ap-

'I..~ d "in th h f 'h ~ busi ''Ii, Pr 'h

proaCul'Qg men. an; 'women Ii lD tl ,'e rusn or tneir I USID,e.ss ~ ~ , _" :eac,J,~ e:(s

'0 ,~~ Eyerything ad, men sboUJld, be ~,~ ~ ,SS; BB" '~"~'Thlrty .. -Two' Years;' t 68,,. '70,;, DB, ,~,,~ When. I =R"u . e; 'r' 'C:, '. "c .• " . t!, 'IIJ", ~~ ... " .. ", " H" ~.- ".'~ C",:, ~~,':. ~ .... s . ... .c~ (N' "'V' 1'9' ["4''l J2': 'jDIB= ii··· j ... L, . fI' '.' te , ,~In .to", ongre.ss", .,,-.oman, S :om,eo-m,p,af'UO'l1, 'Vw [" 0- ~ ..• ~! .. ' _:__,. ,p~' 1,,0 .'Onn ' ,os·,.er

Dulles 'M:a,y· 19 ]'944 Be·'·, 'Box 'IS' Julia~ LeW'I;S W,atk.iiM,~ 'The }'()()' Greate'5t Ad'v.ertis,eme',nts

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'('~N' ~ ;QIW. '¥O'" ,'"'I1~. Dever 11 n~~ii'-) '2<·;j,}'·~

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H 'jD:B., "Thirtv-Tw '0--" Years." ""0.·.·' B'B"~ ' ... 1jl'o; ..... ace as and Sudden R.uin, '!; .. F'eJb1iU~FV' ]5', 1[941

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"W'~':> '~ld: :9'r7' '('1f";--., '1[9"'1""-\ ... ~ B'18'" '~'U1l..··,··. th '. p'. t·~· T~' " __ ' 'ID ~., ,'. ~ t!, 'C'" ." ,,·t~' ',~', --ill".;~ .' "~d'

... ' or, ., .,'. ~C • !l;, ,;:0,."" n~p," ,j '.', ~ tI' '" ue.Fe ., o.e _at~,1 ~ ums ,~own.~, ,-,ongre ga. "o,na,I.t,1 an ....

C~:L •• 'w. Jd" AS (. 't._.iI!..... 111;:; '1° 1113)' liC_;C'n B"'n, '" "'T' "y'~ 'f-' ~Dy'. ~ ., ·L~'iC'.. .,. . '8'''' . 'k S,· ...... ~,.

nr:l !C'.!t.I'.i'iI'1.I: '.·01'i.···. 7-'. • .L".t.i, 'Ii .I!.}' . '7.1! " , ",,;.;ioU" .. .g~. ". en I' ears, ,0, I,· ·lfi,O; I lie 1!i1l a I ·a:,c·· r. eaJiL ...

_ ~ _ '~_IIl-~I'~. _ _ _ ~ _ _ -~ _ ~ I" .: - _. 1J.' ,. ~ , . " '. ~ .. 1- . , , ,.. = ... __ . . ~ ~. .L,--c. . . - .. -.!

C()'n.tin.e,nl~ 4-5' (.A~g" 20;. 19l4J, ~ l"9t1' l ~62;, New' York 1';eltfgtll'm~ ,Augus!t l7~, ~.928,; :BB,~ U'l1te J..JT'@ario···al'flid.'·· t'h'e, 'iN·.''C."..,·tl'·:o~··n' '!i1I ·C'·,o··'M!"',ir""Q'a't'i..;il;~a··lj,to" a···~di: .C···'~~'~t';o(I·.jij' 'W;f~rjd, 98, ,('J!l.I!ne, 2: '191'13,'1 $' 'BB,

,~". ~~.", ~.~ _. ., .. '_ "._ ~~ ,·.:..··· __ "1 ", .. IriJtO,i if. ~ 0" I i1ii-u·II'!·... I'':'" I; I '...... . - ,r, .. ' ~l~. "U~iF.' ~ ~ !UI', .. ' .. 'ill '_ .~. .1 .. ~ __ ~. _'~I! '_ - '_'~' ,,'I, . ,., . .1,..

'~~T~e [ChlU·C~ 'that Saved a City t ; ~ C o'n,greg,a#onal,'fsl' ana Chri~t,i'an 'Wotid~ 99 (N ov., :5 ~ ,[,9l4),.

C"S?' QO B~"~B ~"A c::· ..., '. E~·t_'h'· ~ ,~"~ , ,~,,! C"_- 't" .I'''~t d'· C·· ~h--·"~·~"·" 'w": . ··ii'd:~ 00 '(J~' ~ "1: A,

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'~'1)1'1~ t52·' 'DB '~"!'Th~,~'e Who "C!lIrt"U the Ba.nner~ ijI ~j' C:online,,/. 46 (,'FebL :1,'[, :1~n.s:J] 113=74,~,

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B'B' H'W"~ 'h' .. ' 'b I"WW' ::. '.' .. ···N '~B ' ..4~', d'i j; ~ C'" ., .. , .. ' . t" '. ,.1'" ,t . "'d' ·C~!. ,~"., """'C" . 'W--' 'leA H]--" '(A" n·' ;

~ L~, .: I(~ , t ,e. ' .. ' nl e;w :~U!I.'orr, ',. 'ong,r,ega: lQI\I'~d;5,: a,ftJ,: 'e ·nrl.tuatl! ,.,onu,. .7, '~~ ug,. ,I, ,~.

11i1;11 '2·<).. 114', ·1-4,2~'m 'B"8· .. '~'~"M.'" 'iF'athe::r'!',-' B,usjjiii;;·~ SiS, ,t 496~

Ji,7j..I!, ~ t" ,.y_~,~~~:S ,!I!~e,~~

should be "salesmen, 'jl' Barton claimed, who must learn. to sell religion seven days a week, Furthermore, along with contemporaries committed to strenuous Uves" he favored clergy who were ~ 'men' s' m.en ,,~ with. ,', ,~, hard

ni'le:s:'h~' and '·W' .. 'c,gl:r··m·~·~ blood ,," l2

_ .. ~.' ~.IL_ I "_"" '0. ~ .It"u _ Ii>

St'ill~ Barton' s version of 'Social, Christianity was, wider than it was deep,

L'~'k' . ". 'b:' f ·t' .... .c:·j··· he v :::·~11·,~· omed 'l..~ IV' ,l.c.f ,t .>:.:.,., ,)·,t····: ]ri,'t : inte ,'t···h··· rank ' .... of the le, "I.I.S ra ner, .' e weicomec oene .o.,eo., eapuans .s ,_0·0 ' I, e ranks ot tne

awakened. He offered no alternative beyond voluntary charity to bouse the unemployed and, along with many writers associated with the amorphous progressive awakening, slighted structural reform, to concen .. trate om building Christian character, Jesus with $50 million and a large organization, be surmised, ~ ~ couldn 't have done as much. ,as 1 esus 'who was never to ..• o busy t·:o···· love ''"'t- :~,3,

"_ , •••• I!_-. ~,~""", ~ 1 .c .. _ ' .. ~_Q.I·' ..... I .. ~.

W: :':h -* ~ .... 'l~d'~ J ' . ..J? L"'b~' .. ,,, ... ~ p' . ~··t· . t~ .. ··t-~ 'i' ~ t~'h~' '19'~ ~ '.~. -. ~'L. d - ~ ~" .. ·.·.·.·.Iali. '~'V'OU<,: Jesus no ",lera.. ,~r'O,eSJln..:S ].8 '.' e :'!,I,uS reacnec a near

consensus on.. His robust conviviality" but they divided. on whether He

-W· ~:':'Q"i:j' a" 'D' ~ 'mdustrial C'"o''' m'~" "r'~~ de ~ ,. 0":",[" ~ ~ 'comm .. '0" .n,_,i:j'e·" 'D'c!Q, bu S lnessm Ian·" .,'~. "'~ Bart 'An" I

.. ~,:) . . . ,I, 'U,.' ,,:), "i1I~il .'. '.' .' ,I 'i:UJ'" ' .."~ '. 'IV ' " I ': ,.!l~ ',:),::, ~"" I." I '""';>';>,, :., I ,'I .. ..• , ,[v .

stood betwe .. ······ these twc ':~.'.;t,,','~' ;!. his flrst book A:', 'y'''' ..... , ... M·' .,~"

8,00 ': ,w'een.. lese· . wo posldon.s, Ul lIS JllJfS. 1.00. ' .. ~ . ,'. ,Dun,g an, s

Iesus. published in l ·9.···.·~ 4,. was de •. die '::8'· ted I to his fathe .. · .• r, ,l'lIi .. ;i.'y. :··o",U'ij1i:g·. m "a'o' "s

J '11::=,., JA' .. i!' .' .~.. ,iI... . ,I, .. , .I ~) "" ~ U.. ..1. ... .. . . . . H l. .0 1, •. Il,.U.. ,,, A ....~ .11.1. ",., .. " ;:,

preacher ~ ,~ At, the O'U tset Barton reclai med Jesus 'from ,~, prie sts and ~ ~ ~ w -,~ H 'L' :~'I"",, the ." nh .t_ ·f·' v .... ~~., .1] ~'." J' ." '. 'w···· ..•. u,., ." '" ,. H women. . J,.,.eJ:,lle au, .. ors ravorne C.l0rgy,~eSU8,.<,as a man s man,

uifted with streneth .. heartv lau ehter, and charm enoueh 'to transform amy':

~" ...... ,,' ..... ,~."", .. ',,/:' , ''',f:!' ,,).. ... .. .... .. ''''~=~ .~. -, .. ~ . " ..... , ,':

dinner Into a, !, ,~, social triumph, ~ ,t Like the be st men of the current generatien, H·e 'was also ,3, ,~~ Young Insurgent." 14,

U- '." ~ ~. . k "",1.", .,' ~]I ~ ~ . =B"""' ·· ~ d'~ ~ ~ .. ~be' ed ~ t w . rld dl' i

SIng mUC'(.AA,e:r s language, .;d.",.on. escrsoec an ancien .wor [ r conu-

~ ~.~. ed bv R- ~ ~'.~' ~~d'~' ~,,' ~ rate .~H; , :l .... ~~, iloited ~'h' . ~~. '~".'" "' .. " ... " ··I··t'·· .. ~·'!!'!!' nated oy xoman aegenerates WnO expioue , (, Ie, groanmg pro erair

in, order to finance revelry ~ Jes us, a ~ ~':POOf peasant." ,,', rebelled against the,

,c,. :. t.· ,~" dn .... c.' !ii!ii,. · ..... fter c;~ ~ 'r"· .~. c~· th .. , ~. ~', .~:. '.~ ]1·' i."iII,:t, J'.~ rusalem and d e' '0" ·O·ll'I'Hlc·,:··e· d"

.sys'l<em,~ ~rove, grw,!.'er;s· Iro.m.lne I!.cmp ~e, g,,'I. '. 'e.l uS (" I,,~ ,Qi.,ll. .' I L '!l.,IJL .' ,

sreed "'lil'c' the "r -,,: ... :t·~ of all soc .. ·.·· :,~'~I~ e ,'V{~. 'l"l! T'h, e ~ 'co mmon '~.JlpJ;Q n rca."··.'I'I·i~dJ, 11,0'.:"

~ •. ' U "",:) . II. 00 .. WJJ S lc:u . II.. ,', ,.. ., ... .. ,1,1 1"'- .... ,I.,Ii"" , ... Ll '" .. t .

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un, " u. monopo ues, reac nonanes, am. ve s e I. mrere s ts qurcs ,y

... ~ . b' '~r .. d' ... .. ~ ~ .. '4f,! ~.. 15

m.o .lil.lze~, ~'R 0p;P'08l dOn. ,. "

,. ,1

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1 'Q'~ 4)1. '~O.··' :~14. ',] :0';1 £" 'B,B.,~ !, • I":!cO0"d'l ~ru' :it ."t,r,nimi 'S'I[,o· ··ID··.y· gIOOc,.u' ,n° ·d) ;',. ,C· .. ~'I1I:{;i.~..:;;~t· 44· (Ju1Y'1'4 191.3 ~ ,

,,,"iI .. 'Ii iI. "~''Ii iI.'U~" .. ,' Uv ,Ii:'" ~ .. [l' v !li, ", Y" ~, .l!J~"~.~,"'~!I'~~. ~ ~,. ,ii/i , =. ~~ t!

Hl22-,:2J:; BB, !'!'Ahoy:, Car,p;ta:in Benn, ~,~ ,CQntJnen-i, 45 [(Oct .. 15', 19l4)~ l4"7~:~.8:; B,B~ 1,100 Te,i[

J~'obn· 'n' C····o('ii:~lilitq,~~iJ. ,4,C; (.·.J·.~~ljly.· 16··.·.· ·~9: .. 1.4).· '00,): 'B-:'B" ~,~ F'O.··';Jj1lj 'Who A·'n.'l'w'e~·re.~·~, ."'" ,C·:ol1l:;D'r,e;D'atio\~tJli::'it

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. "d C" :'.it.,,~ ~ ~,t,+, .. ,,~~, 'I:l/'.~.~ 'd< ,~pa.I',.,. ''1;0' ,]9' 114)' 7'2"11 '7',] 11

an· n'''U~ lllLlI'" " o.r~ .. ~ 7:1 '~ ll'lA.y ,;;:;'0" '. ,Ii . 'Ii ~. iI,!I' .' "Ii "

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.~ .: .',_" .~, ,. ~. our :. I!!I!O', ... nswe:re. 'I' : ~ ~,; "":'D~, . ' .. ,~:~.urc.~:~, . ~.~ai~ .•• ~ .'v'flu a, I .. ~l"y, ,,jD .... ~O ,;. __: .', c .• , ,1, ,e

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(Ju:n.e 1~ 191'6)~, 123~ :88" '~,A :Oay with Decker" ,p, ,C(J1J:g.regat'/(,maJist a,ll:a Chr.is,tia.n Wo,rld~, 9'9

("J' 1 5 '~19··I·.ilI"J 8' '"

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,A tlterbufy,.. "':Many,·S;i:dled. Je.'S~&" H 4:5~l; 'wnUam 1". Do~erty~ ·'·'The, lmpac!t of Bu.swn,e:ss ,on '~o,'~·e:oIil.ta·Iii'~~I~m·,,~ 1.'o.n.ni=1~,9· H B>,n ~'.;'~.~'''~.~''.'' .fJliL'!,JjIC~: R·.o'iV:~.o?'I.;j,~· 28 ~'JI~;Jj'Il''''' ]'954\ 144·~,S:O' H,B . A fo·un:g· ·

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Man.ts ,Jlt'SUS (N'ew York:: PHgrim PreS:8", 1'914)'Ii :32---3:3", ,S8'1! 4.5." 1.,,92 .. ~~ YQung M~'," ',~' J:e sus ~ '17,-172.

." 12'~':

,~ ,"_',

Yet the 'YO.'·lID.iCJ Insurgent was D,'O. ", "workin D' class aaitator. 'u Rath ter

. ~ .. .." c' ~-q. . ~ "." .. ~:.l_ • • ~ ~. ,-,. • - A,_, - C' . - .. (]I . . . e= .!\,,;~', , .. '" ".. ,

h .' in th 1910' .... ..I~. 1 'I'" J'

mucn as progressr ves I'D tne ',," ~' .• s urged umty across C',I,asS ,lo;es,· .. esus

refrained from, "inordinate" attacks on. wealth and recruited followers from, • 'every stratum of society." Indeed, an ,~,~ infinite' ,; 8,'3:1' separated

Him. from modem, reformers, most of 'whom, misconstrued His. greatest 'II eea ~:\1. i§o,~ reve .. rene .. /~' for humae ;QO.·:';WI Is, j;, Altho .Ulg, zh Jesus mieht have le··dl. a . ~c,;r" fi .~f'i. ,I.il e H.JI, ,,~,. UIJi.I, ..;!I . .1 ~ , ~ ,_~., ,.jJ ~. ~ ~ ,i!j.l!,..... ... . ~ .. ~ ...

successful revolt against Rome, He bravely faced crucitixion as a "final protest' ~ against greed. ]0 'the last, chapter, Barton adapted one of his father's areuments to sh ... ~''''''J' that Jes '1H~' W'3"S··· "more thae a man'": H:i:Q,

,11.A J,I,e,r oJ "r~. ,e.u,,:, t. .:J .. ,1I;.j' ¥l' , ,,,,". .. . [YO ,'. , .. I, II!P t __ u,~~. ~ __ ""J.iL . ~ ~_I;JI

:·_,n". n"~ .' thr ~"I . h the a',n'~ proved that the 'y· .. ·o· D'nO" ·M····Q;n;Q 1'~8UQ 1S" too

lrulu,e, .. !lce .' IJ!OU,g: ,C '. ~e~ :', .': .'. , I. Qi.., .... )'Iii' ,>,I .... I.,e,· '~I~JiI, i;;!i' ' .. ''Iii'i ..• i;;!i' ~.;, ........• ,

'the Young Man" s Chri st. ~~ 16

A :Young' ,Man~s Jesus marked the peak of Barton's insurgency, In Everv "W··· teek ~ :3'" Collie r Sund oly." supplement that he be D!!!:II,n to edit i.o:, 19'~ 4

"~''',J' I',' ~.~ ;II' .. " -.U. ,I." _- ._. "".'." ""'~', ,I .. ~,~~ '. t"llf , .. , __ v .. ·· -eU.J ~ = '." ~,. [I -,

Barton. repudiated muckraking ,afld. called bu siness the nation' s ~ "greatest ,c., ",:' .c "r· . 'i:~h: ,t, '["~', ~,'1lJi' sness ,,', Instead of interviewine ;QO··: cial gospel ministers . ,lorce 10 ' rl~, ,eo . ;J,"!leo;:, '" ,ill. a . ii:Il.U v =lliL .,.._., , ~""" .. = ·D ..;!I... UJ, c,. ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ .;!I,

he started I,m the mi,d-1910s to. publish profiles of corporation, presidents, efficiency experts, and deans of business schools ~ The typical man, at the top, he concluded, valued service, more tha-n money. To inspire ~ 'divine discontent' ,~, on 'Society' s lower rungs, Barton insisted that even ~,,~, mediocre ~,~ men. could succeed if they set goals, 'worked" studied saved money, ,and. cultivated the .. ;L conviction ~ ~ of 'triu mph. Nor should a man slacken when these practices produced results ~ Complete ~ ~ selfsatisfaction" signaled inadequate aspirations, (Largely [exempt from these recommendations, women were expected to provide tranquil ho,mes and ,~", soothing chatter.") 1'1

Acknowledging hls forbears among advocates of self-hefp, Barton in 1921 respectfully interviewed Russell Conwell, the, aged author of Acr:es of Diamonds. Reflecting a shift. ln the gospel of success begun durieg Conwells prime, Barton emphasized that the good life required more than, money '. Greed, he warned, might cost a, man' s health" reputation, and family life, Even 'the busiest executive: should. find time to cultivate a garden 'with his sons, [e,O!joy good. books and :m:usic,~ and retreat from the i ~ world of chatter ~ ~; Occasional solitude was the ~"~ :tey' to. contentment, ~, 18

tl!6 '1t..~..A ,£~ £1' ,0] 1 '1114 '21116" .... 1."1'

ul", .. ~ ~,~ ~ =!Ii 7.'. j'_l '_ ,~.' '~ ~- ,I :', ':Ii a..~~ I!.

n' '. oj, E:veryth~n,g ad men should be,' t S'S:;~, .BE." More' Power to' Ye,u,,; pv.ty ,EditO'fials .from .i:"-v, : ,': '[W" '. ,J:, (" N" '. ,'. 'Y"'" '~k'~" ~ 1 '. . l' 0.'17')' <1·' a\ 0"1' '1 t 1~' 4' "7~'· =B ~B' '0" ,": : " :h'~ ,.' U '".1 ,::.J tt, 6'" ;0, ..

. ;1,;.0 ~ e,ry. ,ee~" ew ,', O~J" ~nujJry ~ ,17', .. ' iI' ,J '-VV'iI' :;7"'-' .. ~ : ~ :" ~'..'. iI' '. ·"n ,to ~,e . ~p a,Q~: I;,! p" . .l., 0' '~'

:~, 1.5 t 1'71: ,RB" Betrer ,Da,Ys (N'ew' York: C'el1tmry", 1.[924)~ ,41:~ :BB.,~ ~ ~ Moses, .co~.ld Have Used

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a.me ~ ~. U" .e:r, 'C ~ menCQ,n ,llI6l!aga:z~",e.~ ~..'.. ,us" ~ l"~.:J:." g..= .. ;, ,~,;, j . ue, ".' .08, t'CCiU

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1.'12"

Bruce Barton and the Se'ilin.g' of' C orporate C apitalism 21:3

T'~'lh' '> .. ' '/.' ··ftel··;·· ned :,.: :".::. '.- . el 'If' '. ,'. 1,···· .c"_','. '. ' '.' ':""1' .. V"-< ':"", ed with , .' ieneral cultural trend . IS· SU '. ·ne ~ gospe. O . .success con. e.rge_ .. e-t ,1.1 a gen.e~ w c. ,~~, . ~ .. re~~,.,

bu t ~'~ had more immed late sources in Barton family values .. Barton was

. . .. h... . . .. e . ,. . .. dieL ""'U~ .. '\o,o ~ _lUi. ~ (;W. t.v ... ~~~ !l., gj .... ~ . ~ ~ .. . ..

T ":;"("'-:.11:'-' 'Ii-'I":I tc .. ':"-""1-' tlate 'If ... : hard-w ....• 1~i->::,[~:t·· learned and tolerant urgt ng young men .. 0 emmare ms nar WOfA_DI ye iearnec an ~ tore a ..

f'- ther, C·-' · ... ain ']'\J' Bru ice was :D'1i"11'~ 1i"r"Y"''_IQ: to live up' to that id eal, Like Re :V . .,

a. C.I! ~ _ e .•. lAJ ... J . . .. .. Wu.- . .:Jd It, .. l~l\et ... .it... ~, ... IOU. _ .. w. ~ - . I.. . ~ ..

Barton he read widely and wrote ·p-,pcdifically". made charitable contribu ....

. . .1. W.:II e.re".~ . WI . _'. . .. ...t..~. :t . , - - . . ~ - ~

tions, : ·R,.JI tr ",- ted his child ren with warm :t'1!-- Generous fro'. '; opponents and

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c,l- .. ~i c;r' ': b 1"'- n id .. "tIi,'~ b -: th Bart rton I-D' cultivate ··d·· ·d· lve 'f'~,e' friend ·s:· ·N····I'o1t i@;V~'lry" .

cun.OIllS a Oll. l.eg.S,~ .0 u .. '.' 1 ~ . '.' .. d .. ~1. '. .1.." _".-.' .lL l. , ,v', ._.. """_, .. '

"1· <-:-Y""1I31D adm .~. "-, ble =W·······~h:-;~·~,e' .~;~- fa · .. rher :W···I·1f'O;t~ for the an fi-Sem i't';ic:" D;'D,CCr_

.1. e.gac·. w ~,~ .,r,a,.!l.,... . . ,.II l!lI.S .'. .." ,'. .. . ,Il. ~ . . '. " :... . .l.lJ .~,~ L=. ~'. ,_ ~ a.

b orn In · depen .. d,,' ie ..:II t. 'B::r'-l!,III'c: ··--,·e", '0' 0;'- ted 'B' en F ra nk 1]']' '01 ,. tI'!', S'I'~ peri ori :t'y" eo '~1"~,

. ' ~:. t;;: ~. H',~ , u· . .' , .!Ii.'.. .. ,a.. .. ,JL . a .u. ","". " 'I. ' iI. .. ' ,n;,;:l

emplover a "Jew orinter named Keimer ·,·t and mocked the "little Jew'

.~ .p~.. .~ .. ,. . ~. p. '. . . . . . .~. .., . . .. .. , .. .

who ~,~, shined t t Americans with Pels soap, i1J.9'

'U nfortunatel y Barton lacked one of his father s en viable traits: peace of

.. - ik d' .11.. ..-..~.. - ~ d 1l... -. Id~

mind, Like CUlI,n.; ess men ... on, .. the ... ·:mMe,:II he worried '(J,.3t his worldly ac-

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Bcclesiastes . he wondered ' "Wb at's the eureose of it all?" H~'~ S purpose ..

. .. .. . ,... .....'!I , .. .~. P ,iL r .. ,.. ,~ .. 1. . ,t" !Ii

Barto .. ··.n,l decided 'W'~~:Q,~· to .4'0". "useful .. work ·t, raise a "worthy family," and

. .... .. Cl ." U~ U .~ ~ ll~ ~ ~ . .,. ~ II.- ~_ ~ ... .. ~" _ ~ ~ ~ . ~~~ _, . ~

'I'~>-]~ ~'. -, th - world a i!o "lit ct· Ie .'. 'b.' '. e ·:t· .. t ··~;·r·· 't, y,,:, e et ~I'I":ID, )'0. ·'b, -11'ik'~, q .•... uestion a.' md bland

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answers about life's purpose, printed incongruously among hymns to "go-getters" in. a book called Mo'r:e Power 1'0' You; suggest that Barton -- ·8·' '.~. trying to p'.:' ersu ""]~I.~: himself as well ~l~' hi s re .ad lers of the- value of

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striving. g0

Beneath surface optimism, Barton was, according: to his brother Fred, a .. ;;., terve 'U' ~, .. . . d ·r·.·:I"·V".:'I'··O·, ,Q: SO"')1' ";." who .....• m ]~ o;'lft, have , "end e .d in a sanitarium" (.and.

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'~" en tal 'IV' d {~ fo .• ··.r. Q] :i:j ho rt t· 'I~ m·.· I e . in ~. 9···.··,2"81 Since c ol Ieee he bad suffered from

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the ,i ,i curse" o-f insomnia; sleep became a minor motif in, his writing by' a '920 and he attributed. ~ ,. mallY of the world's ills" to its absence ~ In addi-, tion ,. sarcasm. oft,en. pusbed 'throu.gh Barton;;s· jov-ial persona ~ An.s:w,ering ;]" ,-,ar',--st '~'I \,Ou"'rll about the 'WflV t,o w,eaJth fOir instance" be, q .... uip'~;p'ed: ""'IGo

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down 'tIO' Wnmingt..on a"l~d marl.'y o:ne of. the Du'Pont girls.~,;·;' '2:1

Barton's only n.oV'el,~ The .Making Qf' ,George Gr()to,n:~. reveajls both his ,growing applrova~. of big' business ,aJld his :r,e:serv.ations, about" ,. making ~'1t; ·U 'y.': O. · ... ··I·~ng, G<' '~O' . ···r;gc ',~ O:i-.' rf'i;t';om leave s· 'rora] Mass.ac b usertts to w'Or.k 'for

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. .

I'~ IlB '00 Du:ntes." May 19~ 1'~,~ lie; B,B, .Mo.re PQwe'r, ;88; B,B,; Benet' Dtays,; 50-S1.~ 129" '1' :'l.1I . 1,Al~. =B·1fl·~ J~": "~'I"'"~"I 'I.-·"-fj"''''l··-n·,d;ili]il. M·····~'i\'O'·h· 2 .• · ',8.,· 11~, D,Ij'!~. ·B-··'o·· :v: 3'-" _B'B· t. 0', WiUia:m L~'on :Phe.l~s·

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n........... 'be" 12 .~ 8,";IiIiii '-S"C-" ·-B····· . .~ 4" '3'" 'IB'e- i!; "'-T''-L.''i,''· .. - - ·T· .' "·c ". V' . Ii ... .!." 'l'4 6:0- '7'ti;, ~B' "=8 'T'·i?, SOt .' '. ,;1'

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27.,

:2~1,4

a shady New' York stockbroker whose life he has saved, He soon overcomes a sneering rival (comolere with mustache and. "yellow streak' ') and enriches himself speculating om 'WaU, Street. He 'fears; however" tha t this, ~, "be st game I ever leamed" is nothing more than , 'gambling, ~ ~, To ease, his conscience, George moves tc a stately investment firm, but still operates a profitable consulting company plays the second "~great game "t- of social climbing, and continues to speculate ~ The hero's, lapse from virtue is underlined by' :h,is, absence from church. and 'his estrangement from Betty WUso:m" a childhood sweetheart employed. as ,R New' 'York, social worker.

Redemption comes through liberal Protestantism and. love, On his death bed, Betty ~ s father" the, town, minister, predicts 'that George win, ~ ~ do

great-and ,good-.f;bings~'" Losin~ his fortnne at virtually the same time George sees th.e value of Rev ~ W'ilson.'s permanent "investment" in humanity ~ ,A changed man, he marries Betty and 80Oo:n returns to business", promoting overseas investments to' drain swamps and build railroads. By combining affluence, personal fulfillment, and service j' at the end of 'the novel George has risen to become Barton's ideal businessman,

The ,Maki'n,g of George Q,:'Ot01J." which contained no hint of Barton' s erstwhile muckraking, ultimately endorsed capitalism infused with character ~ Although George dislikes Wall Street machinations, grumbles about the "great new god, '~Efti'ciency;"; and condemns speculation, he derides self .. styled reformers 'who play the stock market, 'Tile, book's most grotesque character, a "new woman, ,,~ feigns sympathy in order to write profitable stories about 'the, poor ~ ,Mate<ri:aJl success; though morally peril .. ous is read:ily' available, .. Unable to understaad the 'working poor; let alone ~'~.~: n-f' de rivatio ~ Berton Q;q:-: uated ~'~.: ente '··e··:'~ oovert 'y. ,,'!t'!!' with eannz "to ush :aD'je"".. . ,e,p I",~ an" ,a!J. lI.U I II;;,;; J .1i.'!i.rU ,g ..... u ,il .Y"'..I, ,. .. Ii.." ~I!.l 'e' ~. ,!!!' __ '

steaks' in order to save for the children' s education. George Groton never even sinks that low .. 22

WhliJe", American 'iI~/I~go",~~,D seriahzed The Ma/du"'::g.·.: of Georg« Groton :in

,,_, i. , ,. '!;.. lCwrJ- ,l'Y,.h,.'J .. Y"""iIo~ _ .. __ ~ . ~u _ ~ ~ ~ ~~, ~ . . .. _ ~.

..... . .-. _. ._

10117 B d' 1i... k 'M' bili d bliei &': h Y' 'MeA'

!.l,,:7:.IJ,',~, Barton pursues ether work, , ~ e mo ~"1 ized :PU' 'i,C,:ity tor tl:,e.f< 1,,,,

and the United W'ar Work campaign, coining ,8. slogan-s-perhaps his most famous=-foe the Salvation A"-",nnl"I''''''''Yc~ ~~A_'···· mIIQI~ m "a"',yc 'b. ···e···, down but he is never

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. .

, ,

out, '!i '!i A.1i"1 int ern aatie nal ist ~11i"1 ~9'19.· '.: h ~', cheer ed 'Pr'!~AD id enr 'W:~'~:'l' ~O·.· '.·0'.: 1'''g,·.1 return

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advance trends that Barton would ride to fame and fortune. 23,

12 'BB . The MakinO' of' Georee Groto« I(Gafden CjJt;v: Doublftla,y· Paee, 191:8) ..... ,

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sa W'9]D· .il!':~,..t.; :0:" .. ~. '::'JiI,':~~ 3·:iI\l,· Fred Barton "Brother" ," N', ve WI' 1t~rk, Times Julv [6· 1'967', HB

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During: the early 1.'9OO.s", many leaders of big: business (repre rented most effective lv b "y the Na 't~""I'O'~ in~ .;-.11 C- ~'-V~';C' ~ Ad" "Ie" T" 'ati on ~,\ hI, ad acce 'P" ~'t'e" d f ': ... ,~ era 1] regula

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tion, experimented 'with paternal employee relations ,and, cooperated with prudent trade unionists ~ Such compromises were rare among middle-level ...... ~ " '. ". ~ " "" ( "~ "" ."- * "d'"1 ~ ~ ~ st ":CC~ - n~"- ~ ~ '~- b ~. 'tho " -N"~' ti .. " ..... '1 A' -, '" "" ,t· ,!, ~:. of Ii}1!JSIDesses trepresenteo most errec r lv,e;,llY' ."' t 'e . ". anonar Associe ion .01.

,Manufacturers) and far from universal among large enterprise s, N,eve,rtbeless, th ere had bee fl"jli W··' ,9 rra "ot"" for ~,QJ11""'nn''''S'' pre -war assertion that "men at

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the top' ~ affirmed "service.' ~ After the war ~ executives increasingly

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claimed to be business statesmen, An enthusiastic 'po artietpant m tms

, , ,

~ 'great new era, ,1' Barton celebrated go- gette rs, chastized malcontents,

and hailed a corporate elite free, from sloth and dissipation. .. He especially prais .• ;~,1 Owen '0:,":., Y "0' ,.1Ilin:Cf 0·.' of G.··~·· eneral Bl .. ec :trI·. ~'~C':'" Th ..... , eod '0".,' 'ii'":", NI:'j·. 'V'~ 'I·'~ of Am erl-

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ca . T, .J' enho j, .'. and Tc--'I .• ·., ~I "·'[I.lb, .:_I.··.d·.I, 'H',.II~I~" F-" .. , a rd T'hk-O~:.ILi, icorder w '1,', can ~ e epu.one an. ~ , Et ,egrnp __ , all.. _ enry c or. _, ,1 e e oono,m1C ore,r was

still, "far fr-om, perfect," " but defects were transitional and largely confined to "'li~tJe, business ~ , , 2;4

To further the trend. toward perfection, Barton went into business him, .. , seff, ]In JI'!lID1l1: arv '1'~119"', 'h~ :A joined with A·. ,·'·.I,~x-~ Osborn '"!JI'*""d· Rov Durstine "'0:

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form an advertising agency (a merger nine years later with the George Batten Company provided the famous shorthand :i,dentifi,cation." BB DC) ~ ""'T .. 'h e wo rld 'W",': ill h .,.., wh !Zlj+, business makes I"t~' 'H ·B;, ..... rto •. ··.:nl exolained '~.-:'n .. ,it'r2:0'

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' ..... 'd'i ' idve rti .. · " .. - " $". ,€"OOII ,"111]'i ," d str ' "". I 1I"d:~ 'iIi:i.,. '·1'" b '"I~ ~. 'i" "".~,: " .. ,&,. 'c "".

an ao vemsmg, a ',,)... mnnon moustry, WOU_, " ' neip r usmess to rormu-

late its ideals .. '" Advertising was, essential, Barton believed because society had ,~,~ pretty nearly' ~ solved. 'the problem of production ~ In an economy of abundance employers 'who skimped on wages undermined mass purche sln 0' p'" o ,C~'I",~"r~" th e "foi m id atio n 0".01 ·W·' ~ hie , .. h 'W~~ ,~,l]], hi, 'a: . ve to build ~ " Untortu .. ,

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nately, even. affluent citizens 'might ignore the goods rolling o,ff assembly

1" mes Advertising, tberetore p ..... emoted "new obiects of desire !Ii!ll W·,'·:'hl "a't":

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critics consid ered a .. ··· vice the ml· .. ···a'~ul facture ... ··.': 0.'"If:' wants, 11;,0 ... '0· .. ·',0"1 rezarded 3·····1:). a"

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virtue ,', The prospect of aeq u iring something new spurred indi vid ual ambition. :Mass consumption also facilitated. ,i ~ big production which in tarn makes possible lower prices 'which in tum makes possible. a broader' market and sti]]. greater demands, t '!II Society, like the men who directed it;, would thus keep o:n striviq .. ,2S,

2:l.6

American Qu.arterly

Barton ~ s conception of 'the good society paralleled his definition of the good Hfe ... Witb wined optimism, he insisted that modern society was the; "b e s .. t; ,. '!I' e "V" er a' [11'- de I oati.~n,a be>' tter O'A'e' [11'- c 'O'~' nfu sing "p' '00' ·ur··e· ,;tI,;tI "W' zith b 1;'00- e ss

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technical innovation ~ and utility, be noted, for example, Ulat vacuum cleaners and electric refrigerators subiectsof adverteine campai zns, had

- ~ ~ - ~~. - - ~~ ~ . ~. . .. ~ ~ . ~ . =_. ~ .. ~ .. . '!I -- .. ;..11 ... . .... ~. •. ,lLiIC . . , ,g ,S, " .. .

been adopted more quickly than the 'first sewing machines. These "Iabor savine" device s W'~:~ es .. peeially va .. aluable b ·····e;,-;.:'9iiul:s·e·, ·'C:r..c: ie·.·.:tO"y.- .. ~ .. l' ike th j'~ 'i I-Id" i"-,

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VI,u,U .. , neeaee ume 0 CD. .-L ase an. appreciauon 0. oeaury, . nen rsar

ton' s social optimism faltered he fell. bact on a version, of the, ,,,,~, Law' of

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nitioo that ,. good times follow bad," " 00

Throughout the 19'208;, Barten recommended further ethlcaladvances in, : '-"0"; v' ···rt~ >i ijl< H'. b ,1]." ···V·, ed that ~llt·· :,""'1 :aI····1 . reaulatio I' b ;_',.- ,'" before World w: ,,,-~ a. e, -~.s~ng,., _._,e .e,de. e.-.nit- In.e,m . r-eg~."la,.~.on '. egun ,e,~.ore .. O,I,I.~ . ~ ar

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, , ~~a .. remove~, ~=lS ,pOOleSS,lOn.. .1I,.rom pro.~. anon, " U.ve, _ISIng mus", nuc ge

t-.' ... ·~, United States toward "better days ~, an 'd--I thus must e xclade "charta-

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tans U Furtherm 0'- re imbu .... ~ with the spirit of business states m ianship

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ad. men should avoid • 'pitched battles' ~ among rival, brands" settle for

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promoting defective, goods .. In sum" any advertising campaign should be

. - ,,;jj,. t·· f ;t:. ··",11l... ,~,,) 27 an. ,aCI ~- 0 ~ ,lf3,lt,U,~ ..

]~ was 8' ilso 'fii_ifIi iQIC,·:.'t' O":' .. f .' d.' eception A.~··· cc 'fl'lj'\d' I~n.:a to 8.1: .':"il~O·'i? ?~' W';i;IIo]'( Q'~, m .. 1 '0'.' st 0·' .·f~-

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his c.···:~·~1-@9IaUI es w:··· .. ~o·.···.· t· ',00···. ok .. pn id e in their hish stan •. d ards eth ical adve ... misine

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allowed psychological msnipulatloa. Because modern society 'produced

_ _ ~ - =

an ~,~, avalanche' t of s - nse impression s, he" exolained. repe titiveo ads 'must

. . . .. - .. . ... , . .. . ., ,e, . . :I. ~.' .. . .) "... f"'" .... , "',~' ... ~ . , . . . ..

lodge brand names in a customer's "subconseious mind, ", At BB:DO" he offered prizes for brevity and decorated his office, with a, bugle photograph of Coney Island" a reminder that his audience hardly appreciated subtlety ..

_ ._ II II ,~

'1 d .,:j " .. ~ '. '11- ,..~ d.'· B' . . ,. d- f"

rn demandtng positive as wen as simple a,_ s, ~~. arton sanctioned tar-

fetched claims .. For example, h .. e invoked 'the Danl;e of Lincoln to under .. , score Marshall Field's "fine service' to .p' ublic and employees . This ,~rr: -I~)~

- ..... ,~~" .... ,,,~. ~. , .~-= ~. . .... ~-,., .. '. ,' .. ~..', s .. '_ .1S (U.lI..lD.

ity for ~'~:puffe;:ry"-c--:Madiso,n Avenue jargon for exaggeratlon-c-Iargely

saved Barton from the popular tactic of friahtenin 0; Americans into con-

- _' - - " - .-~ -,"-, ,.-~. '"= ~~,D~- . l - e ~I"~=--=r~ .~l"""! -_t,]_ , .. ,

sumption. Rather, much. of his advertising copy w'as indistinguishable

Br- . '.- :.' B'---:"-'" ton '.-" '·d··'_, t -.1;. '" S~'· ·1:_'1·:~' ,'.-. _"'1' 'C"-"'- -'. "',:'-'.'-- ',: .. ' 'C-'-" ,'~t, tlis» , .. uce·,arOH, an,',I,e~el,ng OJ [,orpora._ e ["a:pt_tJ_"Is.m

:21"7

from his optimistic articles and speeches. Whethee Barton, recognized it or

t h ~ 111~ it d ~ d d - .. ".- ~

:0,0 _-;, sue;, I slm:p.llcl 'Y un, ~ ermmea 8;;: .. _ vernsers '-' c,~auns to ,~tCC1!Jrn.cy ..

Barton blended his faith :in advertising with his liberal Protestantism :in his 1925' best- .. seller, The ,Man Nobody .Knout s ~ As early as June :1,921" Barton had m,en.'ti,o-:ned the project to his father, 'who responded with a "hasty outline ~" bibliography - copies, of his own Jesus ,-·f Nazar -th and.

, _ , ~ _ ~_ ~ ~.'.. ,; =.. . ~ ~~~ . _ _, .. 8~ ~ is OJ ' ~ aza_ e _, .. ,_

ad vice 'to, portray a ~ ~ manly" Savior. Rev ~ Barton cited Jesus' ability to II; II; p "i,c~:k. uo" '01. --, ien and b .'I·~,·'lld.· I, ,QjR.1 0'·' ,'r'nan···· -I· i'~'7:~,t· Io 11"1 noted .. -', C< ~~r, .," stian . ,"t'y·'t ~ tr -i"fl m-I'I" -- : 'It:

. . __ _. l"" ,. , .. ,lliL ~.u... . y IJ!,. .." .. , 'b" ILotU. 1 JUi" ,Iil . ~ . _ . .1.1 1». 1. 1 . ,-a. . ~!Y., ,P.I,I

throu g~'h' a Ii. 'world lwide advertisina camnaisn." and rec .... llI11 .... ~~ "th ree sets . .--~ of

~~., .~, r " . . - v".... I . . ... _.!l IU, 1 ,t;, C .. 'paI,~., ""-I!JI",.. mJ!,cu ,..""'" """'" .

ad ve .. rtlsers" proclaiming the new evaneel: sheoherds. wise men and

_ .. ~o. ,il'" , . U!l!l,.::, .. ~. ,llil~~'" _ ~~ _' ~,U _ rll, _,11.[,;;),,. IS '~' ",ilil .

oj!, tiUJ\~ 11~ _ 2,9

I~~~~~[~I!!'

Barton borrowed much from his father's outline and after publication described The Man Nobody ,Knows ,as "~Ol!lr:~; book". The biblical quotation

0- n the: tlY"'le-af- ifj""W'IS·.-t-: ye no .. t( that I must be about mv fath I er's busia ., .. ? H

~~ .~ ~=,.'~~.~'" . ~ '~' . _ n.·' '",'- ,iL, ,~" . "'" ~" ,.7 ,1.iR· I,,~, '." usrness~

had been used elsewhere to stress 1 esus' commercial side, Yet to Barton

., '.... ld d bl "'H· '1'( b " "";h 'a.. ," f -- 'a.. l

It ner ..•. , a "OUi' e~ meamng, ne was cor aboratmg witn ms rattier on a, voi-

'0' 'me- p" urpo' - .. rt "n' - ·t· - - h - --- th - t·- d- rt ~ - '. to, fi-::- al--'l-- f f--' h. ~

I I" -" :' ,., 1 I ':1 I . I" '. :' , 1-' , .... ,' ' "',' ........ ".-, ... ,' 1- 1- I . I' "" .... '.-' -'" ' ..... I ' .. " -" -- ,... -.:' .. ' .. ·'1 -- . -- .... , . _- c.'

,., .'. ,I " ~ '.~' I g 0 S ,.ow a" D. ver .I SlOg, was .no~,,~ a~,~er .'~~~~ so ,ar rrom .. IS

"farher's busi ---J~'-'_;;':3OI

,iLial. . .', IS ' .. ' u~nne;:,s '"

'T.L, , M·····,· N·-···· b« d ,,' K""""-- ra - .. b-- -'.-'.' r witb 'B .. ·· rt -.-. '~., .---,. uh - .. et .. ~:- .~' "-'" - - :. '--.'-~ of ,J;. ne ..... um ,:O',:O'c_Y . .:c,noHts [egan wu l~1 rsartcn s syntnene memory 0-,

Sund ay school wh - -- h - h-- .... ..i b - - b - -.,..,A b ~ - ·t- -~ f': ~~ -- - '11 - 'i!!II ""O·,···.-Lb··'V' "~ , I: I", .,.' ,,!l, :1 ,e;:re ' :1 ,e, ~~. ~,ee:n [Qfw [.'Y SI ~Of,l,es 0- a paue;, - ~ ~ ... ~I ',1' .

"sissified" J-,Sl[S~ Sunnose dly h· .• had imaai ed S·······, .. rmso . fju'h.tin,o Jim Jef ..

_ _ _ ~ e _ . __ ~., ,ppo _e _ ~, e ~~a_ ~~~~agJne_ ~ a~~~~o.n ~~. _"~., ~ e

fri - ." b ut th . .-._r.~ ,- bt J" - -r. -, ~ ~ .. .- - - -·t-'i..'· -" ~' .. - .' -1- ;," A·.t'~ , . .-. -te;· '-',.,".,-, bu .. ~'"'' '-',--,," h -. mes U: _. oug il_,~e,sus sometmng ror glf S,~ ·'.li.l;.-e"r en iermg eusmess ne

suddenly realized 'that the founder of Christianity, the "greatest o rganiz ation of aJU ~ !II ~ must have been made of sturdier stuff ~u

,.

The anecdote undoubtedly appealed 'to readers rejecting "feminized"

28 ~B' '-'B" ,,~, ~ -I' S·' . b th p--' -, -" -, 'I! 1'1' DC '.' t 'B' I~ ( ... ,1" .. " ' 11 ;Oii"l!4') lOL• ~L"i - h ,.-~ ti'O and B .... rton

. ,:L,!, ~ ~'.~. ee y ~-~__:e ' ,:ape,rs:~, ·il. ,a ,QO\l\, [.l¥liay .1,:7,,," .'" = ~71J! " IC, lI.'IW!I!I .. u ' .. "~ .". ,~!R.I!, ","' .. ' '.~

.- d' ". C- • -"-3'n, n· '''d-' '",' a: " 1 'In D' B--' "'A,' M" - ''liltj"L- 'W" '. - ~;io . ...:1

,A,_ :v'e,rt~~llf8" ~a:mpa~gn's" ,,;) 'W;,:Ii'-(l'we.r jo nve't'-US'fn, "e"U'us-',e.s:, ' ,!/.I'; .[ ''!J' " .MTY ,uO! '.. ,ml .. e ...... ,

- M- -.' 'L·r:·· 'III -, d 'R' .-.~,., c-w-: "'~h - s·· - .. ~ - . ...:1 'W'::'" - k "y", -- _,.,i .,' ,." 'DC· '[B'-· -.- ·n···_" B' B' ~""" 'iD'd·· on .·!I'S., .[rlAOO,I.D-an. a ~oy .,~~;Q ~~ lat1eu,~Ot'1 _' ,e;suhuay,! .D '! ,ox .• ,,' .. [1rV ,!G.. _'

[Stree~er]!, January ,S, 1'928; BC~ Box 7.5; 'Patter',! People' of P'I't!tuYi' ,ch" 8~ Stuart Ew'en", C~p,t,at:'~8 _,of:o~s~:iQ#[~,",,~,~'~,;~,d'v'erti[filJ,~'. a:~d t~~" ~:~,i~a!_:R'Q~X~ .. ~I[~Qn~um,et' cU~'~'~'t~ ;(}~[ew Y Q,tk,; .M,eQra,w .. HJ1l; 1976)" 69 .... 76" 53-54.~, 9,8-99 I' MartUI! Ma.y[e-r" Mud,s,on A y,e,u~e:~ U, S "A"

(N . 'V,.;i_.. =H~ - - - - A B--- - .l.. ... ~., '1-'9C"Ul- '0" - .. ",,' Fe······ T-l.. R"-' - - ... ' "b- ~'J,"rf'"" ·-.,r A··· 'I'~' -- .

. . , .~ ew ,1 Oil, ,; = ~arper' .any ~rob~ea,! ~ ·.·'.j\u\~;, ' .. ' .llS . ..He!l' .i floe ",' ~eJ[)'()nJl '. '~;I!,b,l,e.s OJ ,n,me~·Jca:n

Ad'-- - ... ,"--~' - n,- ".- --, - C,-" -.[. '-', . -J .. ".J' .D .. Lt" -. /' .,(1 .. ,,-. {[N""I'-" -, u .. V'- , .• Y--'· ·t-·· ~U'-' "IV 'D.;";.,, 110-C:8)

,no ,-v-e.rtlSln,g:' cr--lV,tU,€, [.'o:nt,rQ_ ,a:n(l ,:t.~UCJIC ,:R.,Ji,Ue"1fICe' II.; ." CW .fla_,e"n, ." a e .nL., .('11."",;55" ,I: .... .J~'.,',

chs, ~.-4~

19' BB '1h- kt: - - N ~ood'U' lr: - ow $. -" It Dis, ~ o-v,el'"U ot' the Re-'Q'J' ,Ie's u.s i)~ndian~noUs: Hobbs,.,

" "!,,,.e ,an . 0 " .. J "n - - [ ,,~. , . ~ c" , ~. ,'j - . . ~ ." ~ - .". ~ -.. ';. - ~ - ""'\1:"

MezrriU" 1925)., 1 ha-.v[e ~sed a, fepri:nt with Ute same pagjnati.o.n (,N'ew Y'ork; [Tdangje Books,

lRAff1i; 'W" n'B --. "B'B"- J. ..,"" 'Ilirii/il'~ Be" B '14'-'3 W": 'C'/=B '~·'·A- d' ,..._.'--" -- - t--·· 'F'-~~~ . -e-lil.. -- ..... 'H " .

'7f-tu'~;~, .. "" . r"" : '[0 ,'ji ~'llIn,e -"'oji ,',7~',iII, '! ' ',,' .' . ti' ,lOX :I,' " :; __ ,I;J=--" ,:,~ v[eUlS;[n,g ~:O ,-11111, a. [_ .J ... Urc:IjIl,!, 1:n

'W', B~ Ashley ~ Church Advertising;"lt:s' Why a,Rd ,How (PhUadelphia,;' I. B~ :Lippjnoott~ 19~7)1,

1- ,c'·_':'~~L3·· ,

,~ "0".1

00 '[B:B, ~,o. ' niE"B', 'S··· .~.~~jFIi.~ ~Iy" . n·· :d'-. HiC-" '?'o· -:x-: '1-- 4' .-3" '. ·W":'''~B.··· '~'~ '10'· B'. J' :u' :n;a '''8> ',J M: 1, :B.r~" 1fl~:x. :1,4.:'1'

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Luke, 2:,49 (K:ing Jam~s}t :i:taJi~s ,added by Banun"

3:1 lL;f'·,,·, AI. L",.I ... , K' :,-- ., ,- nrA'iIf'b.,..~ ',,, p

. ,~ua,~ JT'O'uv.--u.y., ,noWS,!I t",I,""'.IJ"""' .... '" ,u'. '.'~

2'18,

American [Quarterly

:PrO.~. testantism n, VI' et like mil any advertisem ",:C":IRI't,c;" ~'t. was m islea : .. ~~,nll:D" , In deed I,

~ ..... a ... I.. .. [ l l J~ __ IW- _ I. I _ r. l l [I _. UU _ .. laW. ~ ~.. LA),. ll"- _ .. !ill, __ I . ll.~ .. Ull -0" . _ .~...... ,.

there was :00 more, likelihood. that Bruce had imbibed flabby Christianity in his father" s Sunday schoo] than, that owners of the Harvard Classics

'~':'C ':'~, ir-I'i' " . id';~ .~. basic ~ -d.'~' I,' '~It':' i :", i fiftee . ii'l il 1tq; .... d .... ;",1]:. N<'I[' ':.' Tl., M"· ,: ::::-:,~, acq,u~.re", a " asic e nicanon ,10 ,!I.L ~en mUlU~S., al,IJ,y,. ~ or was "f~e ~" ,tUl,

Nobody K',"··n,::o::j;~,:t,~ written to share a sudd en in,,~:i,!frhit'~, Not o.····.n}ly·.:·, had Barton

, v, IV' .. " ' .. r¥ S ,~~ .;;11= ,""= ~ ... .. __ "~ ~, ii;!' ,,e.= ~ =, . . Ji, ~= ., ,U , _ ,

contemplated the 'po "rO~1Ie: C'":~ £O'tr ~lit '~,~G~C',it £0'" UI'f vea rs but several themes were

',-- '" ,I ' il~ ,~" .. -'~:J ~ '", '~' ,Ii: ~'", .1,!I;.ooUOI '", '~'", J,,'~' '. __ .:" ..... . ","", , ru n.'\.i'il.:L.Ii, ...... ;;J __ "".Ii, ""

r~lp" ~'a' "t .... ,-4 ·t!l -(10'" ml '," A,', '17~, : .. '. ". M:,,'.' '(J'~:: ',~, J:=. ',~ : '.'. Once :a'" ,[fa ~ 1j'1I hie', min .'1\011'" ize .' ' . ..4 the ",,10' .' 101_, ~ '"',I..... ··eu, ~ ., . , , , . ,. 1 oung , .. ',. H, [S .' ,e[su s ~ ~ . .'~"'\;,o' . eriQ.J.JlJ,·, .....' .......I! ':U U,yo, " ~'

cal controversies, sli ah ted miracles ,and stressed Jesus' So humanity (even

. .. ,.,. . . , .., .. , .I.e ' ,. . .". . .. ., " ,. ... ... ... . . . , . . . _... ..... . . .,

dec li ning to capitalize pronoun references )4,&2

Bvervone had the np:bt to seize tbe side of Jesus 'most ap.·"I"lP'alHnQ' to.

, ., ,.. ,; .,. , ., .. , iI!!i' " ... ..1.. . .,. =... . .. .. ,. , - - ... . c .t"'..,..o~ ,I!i" .

himself Bart I" said, :··.'V''c'·I'1 ,"fl" it: ·"1'" ,t, ;i.1I;, eadina b tw the li i"~"~'f , , lmSeJi ~,,' ' a on, sal"," e en, I. ',' mean .rea ~ng e .. een ~,e " nes o.~,

Scrlpture, E:x,e;:rcising this. right a second time, Barton now presented Jesus' Ufe as the, 'i~,grand,e:St achievement story of alll ,', He no longer portrayed a rise from peasantry to. insurgency or speculated as be h ad in

, ',;' " . " ", ' ., .. " J ., . , . . ., ,et' -, " . . . .. , , ... ,.," "I., 1

A· '17, ~ '" M·. ""~" ~. J'~ ,', .' "h" c.' " .'" .. '" " hful ~',~ . '.' .,~, ',' . , I' "'h" 'd' b '" nov .

, ,f oung ::, ;tln: s sesus, tnat a YOIl,t ,1U" romance was crusne I'Y ,po, erty j

'I'D The Man Nobodv K"'H'''''W''·~(!,· Jesus comes from ~l II; ~'~C·: heerful and easy-

, I. [. '_ _ It:l-1W .. ' 'J,. 1.'_.. ..J' ~,.rl~· _". U'ji .. ~g! ~_ g ~., 11 .. g IIJ_, .. 1 ~ .. ~_~"_ ,I,ll~ __ ~ ~ U .. ~ _-_".:

going' ; middle-class home, Countering '~. the "feminine ,,~ emehasis on

, . ~ I -iI!) . - - ~ -_ _. ,. .. . = .. ,- . I! . . . - I . =, .., -= ~ - - .~- - -- I - 1 . . - .Ii:""' ~ _. ~ .. __ . . I _ 1

Mary, Barton envisioned 3· boy molded also bY' Joseph' s friendliness and viaor,ati

._,e·· _.

Although the Son, of 'Man,~':s, [class origins 'had, changed" his muscles

rema ~ :' ':1" ned 1 u h ard as .'1"-: ", I'I,~ ~'~ I., . Qr.UI . wa 'Q,:I, u~ utdoor m( . 'a'" o" W'" ho 'S~ .e.···, ste ·~a, .. '· d 'Y"~

.l,~" __ e, ,~~., as "ron... . .e[~ S . Q;i;I an 0,., IV'IJ, , . ~~' .. n", , ;;J" ....

nerves :s,:ignaUed. strength. Whether or not his healings were miraculous, 'they showed energy pouring from, his body as from a dynamo, Finally; ,J esus appealed to women, even worldly women. Paraphrasing from his earlier book, Barton postulated that a true woman, though sometimes wil1i'ng: 'to mother "thin-lipped, so .. called spiritual" Iads, was most at .. tracted to i'~ manline 50S ~ " " ,34

Similarly, Jesus remained a ~~, sociable man," 'whose friendships transcended "social boundari :,8- .'~ Fond of parties he ureed slauehter of a

... , .. . .. 1, , .. , ,., . .., e .. ~ "0,. 0 =' . . e .. , ' ,. . ,. ~. . ., .. ,~.". ., .,. , .

fatted calf +'0'.:" celebrate t1f~· erodieal son's return ;Qlft~ turned water ~n·II"t.'O·".1

,((up "-'. . ",it, I.!. . !I;.ooJi, . . .. ,..... J!.I.","" ,it--- v .. ~.. ., 00 vL.Y" "g"u.U ... , .. ;V, " .. ""', ii, t.i.

'wine at the Calla wedding feast, Unlike [Old Testament "thunderers,' " he 'was less prophet 'than companion, the messenger of' ,8, "happy God" who wented humanitv j;, j, to be happ •. v. .' " It. was h ardly surerisin Q that Jesus

-- •••• J •• __ ,,]. I -_ l.~ . • ,,_ ·~-'·I'. . -. , _ .. _ ,t'" I --'--~ _. -_ ......••• -

became, as Barton had, also said in 19:14~, the ~ 'most popular dinner guest in, J erusalem, ."." 8~

In The M:,,';"::'a:'n,", N·.··.·,<a,·,.b.:,o··:·,d,:,y',.": Knows. however '~l1:~i~'j,~~rln'·,':e's":s, no .. longer furthered

,iI., , ,J: i ·~ , ", , , ' , .. """" . "" I,il. "v ",", ~, ilH ,'\wi'.llit.UIl.. .. , ' ' __ ,. ilv.", .. ' '.'" ',,'

insurgency. Rather, Jesus "':pic:ked up twelve men from, the bottom ranks,

","'i(:' br .,,~ ' .... '." .[~ £."', , 'g.c,4 them into 'R"'1f1Ii orsanization that conquered the {l1,US1D,e,ss anU. IOfbCU,.u",,,,,, ,I. I !I... .lIiL U '~~ .. '. ,c,_,--,.,' ,,:.I~, ,U~_,

world, ,'" Unlike Mose s or John. the Baptist, godly me.n lacking managerial talen t he l;'I1"8"S" a natural "executive ''Ii'li He" overloo oked petty annovan ..... e .. :~

... ~l ~ 1".;1 d'_;.:. "!.:~. _':_ __._ .~. ,[~I . ·~.A,[!Iw-' - .:~ ,".[~!II ~ ~ ...... :.' '. IIIIp?J _;:. - ::. _, ..... :_ .. :.:_ , ,:.' .... _' ~' .. " . .. '."_ 'J 'Ul.l,III.i.f.·. "."'a-"

chose capable subordinates ~ and trained them 'with ~ 'unending p atience 'I' ~", 'Witbout apology Barton presented Christ as an advertlsing executive, Indeed" Jesus. faced, a version of the, modern coovwriter' s problem that

. .. .:!'... .. ... ... .. , ... . , - _ '.. '_'_'_.','..' . Jt!'''.... ,_.., .. ..;"" .. - . ..

~ ~ su PP~:Y' a),W'3:Ys precedes demand ~ ;,;, 11];$, product, a j;, 'great spiritual con-

cep ti on , ,t ,t would help humanity to transcend ritual and. thus. directly appreach God, Yet reUgi,o:ms abounded, Men and women; "even more :impenetrable' ~ than their twentieth-century descendants 'who flocked 'to Coney Island, saw :00 need for a new one. Therefore, using techniques worthy of emulation by "any sales manager," Jesus, created .in,t,ere,st~,S6,

His attack on the money-changers made ~ ~ front page news, " Nonethe-

. '

'I 'iI,.. ·'dl d " 11" !II . .'.. d 'b" '" '. d" d

. ess, he avorceo "over-se __ ing," anticipate I objecnons Ul a; vance ~ an, I,

shunned ~ ~ futile" disputes. For instance, willing to render unto Caesar the

" b . 'L'· '["1... J ~ d h Ph ~ d "d d

com nearing nts nkeness, Jesus outwiuec the Pnansees an, provide

,~,~ another goodlaugh for 'the crowd ~ t,~ The parables also illustrated ~ ~ . .a'U, the

" '. 'I ~~, .. ' ,,,;,1" d' ..... al b' ... . 'I"·' f~

pnnctp 'e:s . contamed In, advemsmg manua s: brevny l' sunp lClty or ex-

pression, repetition and r, ~ deep sincerity ." ,n'

Jesus was not only a superb ad man, but the, "founder of modern business, ,t l' Sensing that, 'this. phrase wou~d draw criticism, Barton 'fo,I,()'wed. his

di d fl biect '.' '.' ad b '1 ~ ,. J' 10 .'

own, uetum to det ate, ()i~ectl0n;s In. ~', vance ny exp ammg ,I'e.s:US' precise

meaning, As the founder of modern business" Jesus, 'was rut industrial statesman comparable to those whom, Bartoo had praised fer more 'than. a decade, He rejected Satan,' s temptation to mere ",' material success" and. affirmed. that anyone seeking greatness ,r, ~ shall be the servant of aU,", ~", For

h , dred .of 'I",,"· d '~d' edth . ,. 'O'k·'" !ii"" b'··· , .. , d·1 id , 1"·

JlJD;w ~;S, O~ years mansme C-ODS1. ere, tnese remar <8' a ·,sut" ,I' ~ 'I, means-

tic. talk," believiag 'Instead that each man m,lllst ~ ~ look after himself' :in

, ;I t" ,;j;, .. 'to ·h'·· d·1 ,; '8' .'.' th .' ,.~ th ,.' ~. B~ ,n, ' '" ....•. . .

o.[iu'er ~.o ... i,el ru~,ea', ~ ,_:'IJ:t In t_~,e twentieth ce.:ntury',,'a..u .. on wrn~e", ,corpo .. '

., f-.' 111' A .. I'~k-' '~F:' A' '·V·" "1 . d'· i"'l ...... ' .. , 'W"" ~p'" ·tl'~ ,- ........ ..-1.. th ,i." .. ... .. ,

rare ieaaers ixe ,. o:n~;l,. au, ,all,) oc:or_g'e... ~er 'Ins ,mmJ,e . he .. great

. .

disco "v' ery" that Cii!Qo""'_I'I"C"~ ·W·:' Q,Q mo .... ,Q lmoorta .. · mt tha 'n divid en d S' as

,~, '. _ .... '''''J, 1_.,I!.Iy, ~iI!P.'.I!," ,'liP.' ·.·.M~' .))_ ...... "',~ ,iI,~ __ ,~v,~~J_I_,' .U,. Iii. .~ ,.,iI:.!Ii;,' ...• ~

Conversely; Judas Isearlot prefigured. "'i small bore" businessmen who, st 'i 11]", rio' 'Io oked out '"0''1:''' NI D' "ml 'b. ier O ••• · •• · .• ne :j;" Juda •.. (1. 'was, not ,0:];, ~ 'bad '&'e11Io,···.: :'W.".': at

Q.._ll_ .1]0, at ... ~_ .. ~ .. !Il II ~.~I._l •... l~l tIl" . ~ .. _ ._.~ __ ~_. 'v·· .. ~ ~ .... ,11 .IJ .. u.

heart, " ~ 'The disciples ~ treasuret he 'worried about their extravagance, and

lacked the foresight to appreciate Jesus' call for a social order based

0;0" service Rathe .. r Barto .: n wrote he "co uld read o!'!:Iil bal lance sheet and he

_ 1i]i¥'~''''''~iII .. c_LI.I .... '1 _.ul.L' ... ",t.· '1i#'I=~ ~ ... ="._ ... _.~ ~ .~_ca..J. •. O ... V ... _II. . .1.11..

knew that the Jig was up, So be made his, private little, deal with the priests. ~ ~ ." Readers could easily imagine Jesus joining George 'W,. Per-

00 :ILl··, N'" . L ..... A" K'" ., .... ,(T.' ,] 2i\; ·3·;l'!'iil '7,' · .... ·3' "'7~' ,~,,,,o Q ,iI"V'i; 1"~" 'W"'m"O:' ~"'" 8','8 J" ,. ..,'s·· ]Oi;'jI

, ',~t"j!:a,n ,: ,O'uvuY ,~"nQw.s~, [~~.Y I ~ :;''='IlJ~, . ; ,lio' j! ~. ~ ,iII,,-'O', ,;,'" ;7~'-=~", ., n. '. [LV' .",. u:ne ~"" .. :7,"",1,,,"

3-7 ·-I'L" A '~."''''' cion, l' '1'" 1 '117: 18' ]4''li 11 C'ji,

.•• ~!UJ,u." ~ ~~':tO ;i'~" _ ,~!, .Ii,~""~ ,. ,,;;!',,, ,I ~,;O~

3:8, M'··,- ... , N'·:"lo. ',J' K' .,' " '~en '163: 116'" '~7'--3" 'I£A '7tili1

.... an, . ()f!Ou.y ",ROWS", ,!l ,.} 7 ; " ,. ,I,; ,I, ',' , "~ '111,.

220

~ . . ~ '"ik' d ,. ., 'l~ hi ,",~ J= d h' ~ d~

kins and Samuel Gompers on a strike medianon panei w I~llt,e mdas nre

scabs for the 'NA'M,,39

Judas' s figurati ve descendants ianored. heal th,; family, and culture in

rder t ,-,..+. 'ii. ffi"_- t' ~ ~ d "11 '!i!!l W' " tl ' ,0 111 s"u'c"c"~'ss above

,0 er to operate an '0,1 ~I .lee ,rea, .m~ ,,.<an . .1og perso 'm, ,I ',:~~ ~) ..

.... '1111 th '.: "'. r '· .. fieed s ~ ~,: ,- ;~> 'N' ····~I··' i I'~: f '; ~,,' etting themselves thev

i:1!lJJ" I ,lJ.Ie,y 0; ". ". s,aer] I,ce.· succe sa... . ever once ,!l,orge. '-. ~ . 1.1."" . . ~. " ..... Q, '."

'have forgotten everything else",' ~ According to Barton" s revi sed folklore

.. • ~ ~ ,"" . ",,' ~ ' • ..:l: I . "l.. n" d ~

of the invislble hand, individua s must. promote the couecnve goo a m

.":'.' rd , 'I " to ,':', :-; :·~,'r've·· '.~ 'to h ····Ie~'r s': insn rlar interests .. 40

OFt e.r ~_ se. ......,1" . I'-~e-~,,~ "...." .

Although busine ss in general and advertising in particular :iUu.stmted

this ~. 'Ia W' of service ,,'" Barton denied 'that 'these activities were uniquely 'b' lessed Jesus afflrm e d that

""!"!l~" •. ~:Q.~.~'~l [~ .... ·.I··~:-U,.'"· a.IIJ1' .... I, ... :.~ . '[l.'.~;;]

a:n woik ~8 wership; all useful service prayer ~ And whoever works wholeheartedly at any 'worthy c~aJling, is a co .. worker 'with the Almighty in the great enter .. "p', rise, 'w'h'ic.'h_ He has ini'liated 'but 'w'h'ic'h He [can never finis b w,·thout't:be bel,' of

,. "",' . ,. . ,.... , ,.. ....,' " , , , ,. OI.S, I,., ", ' " ',.P 0

man.,;l1l

]m The Ma« Nobodv Knows Barton both ]e;g.~itimated. advertisine .. to

__ ' ~.~ ~.·l ~"". _,"Vl_ ~? .~ ,' . 1. ~ _ ...•.• =.~~~~,.:,01 ..

h~' ~ ~, ~ 'If'' ~ .. ,~ ~ '11 ~ - t, h '!.. .. ... d . ~'. . d tri d' '.', 'C': '. ' ' .r ti i t b S' i .... 1 rd r

Im:s,e,[l as weu as 10 us rea iers, an" me .. 0' ,··nn,SI~an~z,e,~~le_:'OC~m. oruer ~

The language of corporate responsibility now replaced 'the rhetoric of

'i' ., "I' ", '. ~. ':" .. ,t",''-I~' i d ~.'~' A"', ''11: .... , -. ,. :'.: M-'~'··: j; e }: ..... :, ·.'ob 'B=' arton '~o' longer ·p··1j'\e .. ··~~'inl ted ].osu.rg:en.cy ,lOU"', In ~, .l. o,u.ng . ,'", ,an s ,eSU;3'" ',_: '", . .v .. iI~.'. JL." , , .I .... ',~.....~

Jesu ;:,' elea .. an .. ising 0·.·· .·fiC the ... · templ g at Je .'rus··,a:···'le·.:,:m as a protes .. t azainst

~ ,S S C,' 1. c .., . .. = '" ..,,~ , ~" " , " .. , ""'0' ~~" ...

capitali sm, but stre ssed instead his refusal to lead a revolt, despite: pressure from His followers. Temporal power would have plunged Him

". "._ "Iifeti '~'.' '··f' b 1 ' 'd"l hed .~, rd .. , ~·t~~"', '" , vh ~J ". lI.. ,.. . r mained

ID.w a ure ~ tme O'iLOQ snec anc lnn,g:ue" W ,).e ,IdS, messagie ~,e~u ~, ~ ~ " , ,

unspoken." ·N··· ,0. one C"· "O·.:.I1lJI"~,d, ques ,t .. io "·In·. Je <~,1lJ'.~'!!! righ •. it, ... ·0·: ca ·.'l'(·. s ome mauers

__ l_ll3_U.~_l!ll . III.' .IJl~ _Jl _ ,IJ !3.a- " . I.J. ~ _ .. v ,,.... ~l~~W.~.,....=a!

, , .

~ 'more vital" 'than, money Barton said" because he, had been "handed the wealt .. k o '.,: :fi ~C ,R··· n at ~.O,· ,01' a .. · nd hi, an id ',e,d, I :~t·, ba ..... k H ~2

.. iWltU .. , . , . iUoJ. II ,. J.l!l. . .. '". l .. ~ ..

~I" both b .. , k'~" bov ,-~,. ' J' ~, ' " ,-- mif d a '.~., .. ' '~'~"t, of . -,·,-·~·· .. ·'l~··~",~

:no :"" ,I" 00 ~~:s., 'Qwe ver jl ~~ esus ,pe .. r:SODl ,I,e~ a· :m-ew sp~n,. -0 generosity

inste .. ad of institutional reform; Barton, still adhered to the underlying pre .. mise that bene valence by regenerate individuals could. transform seciety.

The: transforma .. stion, he kne ... ·:'-wc.,: .: would not b b e e ,a·'."S','V' . In ""r,~; M,',''''''; Nobod» . .!l UJ!J.oJ,(J . , . 1. "" All . .,. .. . .JJ, , ,!l!l .. IL ", "." .. 1. ,1. lIe ' .an . 0 . 0 .,T

Knows; as in the- author's life, doubt fl.o'w,ed beneath surface optimism, Jesus like B' ": .a· .. art '0·.·· .. ··011 f aced the >!i"~ oerils and en lses of su iccess." D[ I'·· '1ll1"r~'ji"llg"_' c .. .rises

~"'-!I"'" .I! .. . .. , .,. (ltv"', . . p, . .il. UJ.I,...... . oJ. . ".,.~ .. ,' l,iL.I\,' ., """",, ."

'the normally gregarious Jesus sought a" quiet place to, meditate ~"~in, com-

munion 'with his Father ~ " He died almost alone, reiected by ld s disciples brothers. and neishbors."

.. ~ . ~ _'1 .~. 1.. l. ~ [ ..... ~ .. ~

The' ,Man Nobody .Knows :passed over Je:Sllls,'t fl.'RaJ, day's, ~.~ in reverent

it , '~' 'N··· ·······ra 'b'r , .'. f' 't:b" -'.' · ····1,·· ·w········ .'. d' .- ,··,··t'_.·, ';j;'E,·v ". ' ,.:' ',,'.' ,,_,"h' .

s~~,en,ce~ .~' ,0 pa'-,~,p,,,I-,-~ase oJ,_~,e ,gospe s,<,a-s a~equa e.. . "ery man W"IO

,39' lib" 'd' 11'7\0 1'77·' ,go'~ ·s····""

, ,.11 r..~ .IJ '.'0.,1 ,': ~ "1 '0.,111- :.\IIII!!!.

,4'~, ldan Nobody ,,K'n Q"K' $" :(9'l .. , ,~1. ~·iL-l·d.' I,,~ 'i18.ofiil,

}.lU .• , .IJ ... U. _ ~ __ .. .

<12 V'"""''''n. '0 .1I'''.'~H' _~' J:::.D ~,~.~ ~'~ 1'~ 1-114~ 22~:,' Ma,,. Nobo(b~' ,K.n:oW's,. ;84~ ~2.., 181-2.l0,~, :37" 8S" ,56.,

~ ~~ -b.' ,ltI~J"-" [.:.:II • II;,I;liU[~1 ".1. I p. ~.~". ~... ;./' ".. ~ • ~

"';3, Man: ,Nobody KnoW'~ I Sl. t 84, 12 r

loves courageous manhood, ,,', Barton advised, "ought to read these chapters, at least once 3! 'year 4' ~~ At the end, the man nobody knew was more

'than an ex,ecu live ~ H'e, 'W,;lS ~ ~ Tbe Master, ,,', ,44 ~

The Man: Nobody Knows sold 250.,000 copies in, eighteen months remaim,ed on the: best-seller list for two years, and led nonfi,ctio,m titles in 1'926,~ In, the estimation of James Rorty, an, apostate ad mall, and harsh critic, Barton became a !O'~ matiomaJj, fieure conaparable in. influence to Henry

I Iii:' 11 _'

W'a·'· rd Beeehe '~, ,,'_ 4!5i

" .. .'" ,"" . "[,"

Re snonse ",S':, to 'It"- 'i..1e· ", b eok we ·.'r" ~p, m " ixe ·'.d',~ :C.· ~I~rj stian ·C"9,~t,UP"'O cred lit.;Qd.' Barton

I.\J ... ~117"' .. __ 0. .. ~V ~~,~. ..·V· .. ·l __ ... ' '¥. '_0_0 . _ 1.1 .. It l'~ _ I ,~ .. C;;#ill .W",- J ...... ,I.'~ - ~ .~. _- - .-~ ... --

wi.th a sincere effort to bring: Christ to the corperatiens but chid.ed him for confusing muscles with morality, Most cosmopolitan reviewers rendered harsher judgments ~ They accused Barton of portraying Jesus as, a Babbitt, Rotarian, and i' suitcase-carrying drummer ~ t,t The corporate conversion to

~ G·~·,,;'tb· "'S~ id"1 dd d '.' "h~ N' '.' R" b' l .' 1!... d b ii,'~ xlu ~ t

servicev Gubert ,"",eil es 3;", ec 111 t 'e:e'w Repunttc, .1l.I8-, eeen va proouct

of .I~·.~ .. mll "~: titio "I~' "I~' ot Y:" 'M,··.·· [C.····, ·~A···"·, mer ·81" :!,t,y" !II !II Presen tine the most perceptive

co. pe.llo., 0.0. '" '. , .. u .I.," Q","",.,I,iL&:el ~~~~ ~~~v'" ,I. ~ ""= ~

criti me fr om th t, , 11 "ft·,·~· R-: ~ rtv '~"". d :T!L. M' .... ' N" b dy K=:- " 'in a tradition

,...'1,1, I:CJjI ~' '., ,110:: ,I '~ I,e, JJ,e,:~ ,o:~y place I, ~. fit' ,;'~:an:o. .·0>' '" noW's =,,', !ol~ ,~,Ui·~· ~'v'~~

of religious, "salesmanship" reaching back to Beniamin Franklin, and recognized that 'the author 'W3$ attempting both to. "redeem" Jesus in materialistic time s and to exorcise, hi s own, doubts about the virtues of advertising, Nevertheless, Rorty savaged Barton for creating a ~ 'grotesque ad, .. man Christ in his own image, ,,', Theological ,and political hberals

m'ight have overlooked Jesus" popularity at din'D:er parties if' be bad remained the Young Insurgent, 'To theoloalcal conservatives, Hke, Rev. Amo C" Gabelein, Barton' s failure to stress Christ.' s divinity' stabbed ,,~, at the veory' heart of Christianity ~ ~ ~' 46

'On the other hand, Rev, John Haynes Holmes, New RepubUc editor Bruce Bliven, and former presidential candidate John W·~ Davis praised The ,Man Nobody Knows; Newspapers in. Boston, Chicago, and

222

,. - ,. -

Am'd',;;#,,!j"ij:i1j Q'" 'I~n.,,,,,;,,::;, lv J,,~'~: ~!I..-"M"", ~«:u;,' ,I:,'cry

Plttsburgh pr.inted. favorable review'S, or serialized the book, Some Princeton undergraduates admiringly envisioned Barton' s Jesus as captain of their footjball team, The author received h.undred.s of letters from grateful readers" including one from a self .. described failure who bad drawn "cour .. , age" fr-om, his, words /JJ'7

Alth.o1ugh unsurprising in a postwar decade marked both by' doubting and defense of Victorian values, the favorable public response 'was nor altogether spontaneous, Businesses distnbuted thousands of copies of The Man ,Nobody KnJQ'w's", Appropriately, Alex 'Osborn, promoted his partner' s book; u~ng merchants nationally to make profits and "serve

Our commonit ies ,,'!!, One aimmiek d isplayed two It''g. ht ed candle ~ a Bib le

:"L . "~ _I__II 111,_,) I__' i.,I '. '.I__ I e-' ,II. '.~~." 'I,~ ¥',~",,_,~,"".. ii, ~U,'", ~~.I!,~,~~:Q',,:." , '_,'_, "

:8,'lnd.lhe Man Nobody Knows", This campaign belied the later claim, typical of Barton myth-making, that he, had expected to sell only one thousand

., F'" h h iO d k " B" " ~ 19!'l6' bli h d

copies. _ rurtnermore, navmg crease a" market, Barton m ',',,". pUI, isneo

The M'-.·····'nj;j'fi~()',~ m Galilee, which m ixed sparse text with c 'O"':P··. io U'Q inlrl~,t"r-otio"'-'·ns',

I~"f.. " .. ~Mlr,J-.:.,rL .... ~~ .... -.W,.'Ii~!I;I~, _'_'l""!=_" .~~ .::1 .I"'~'_' a;II,_.~[g~ ~~lal" _ .... ~~" .... ',;~ .. _ ~ ~~~p.~, .. &~_.~. '=i •..

of a m useular Jesus an- ',d'" i'J'!L.~, B'··· .":J .. N':':: ,',:, .... b o -d ""y',: K '~.r'i;W,~, a S·· 11 rve "y,',' :0'·. f b, :ibli,cw

v· ~~. ' .. " ,_~"=~ ~~' .. ' .." Q., ~ ~_ '" J: rt~, 00,1t ... v. "', .' ',IV' ~ ~', ~" . "'~ " .. = ' .. '_' ~'~ ._~_'

~ 'high spots. "~' Wha t Can a Man. Believe? followed in, 19"27,. Bartoo. also wrote titles 'for the silent film, version of The Man Nobody Knows and, 'with. his, father, advised Cecil B'O DeMiUe on The' King ofKings . ,,', Bruce; ~'~'

De ','M,,":,' I! 11, ~ said "they will k "'DI"'O,',::"\,(,' :': H," Jm W,.",,::, 'hi en you an d,1 I are throua .... , '!!"t,ilS,

'" ["'" ou,I,~, ',~ lIit ",l . . ,,, ..... , ". U . u' . u, "'" .'" DU",

In the 'thr-ee" books fo~lowi:n:g The Man Nobody Knows ~ B',fU1.0D dis .. cerned more blblical businessmen, defended scriptural higher criticism, and defined .~ "minimum cree ed" for mod ern times R.,~I,~O';~o','::,'n.1 he ad m •• :I,tit"i~,~d,",

U-I.!l ,J! . U ,. I I.. . .. . .II.!, .. .I!.Ii.l. II. . !JII~ , Iet ," ,II':'",

had caused inroleran "' .. ee isnorance and b •. ,1100",_:-'::d'l shed . Y":",',e,-',t, Christianity the

Q.! . . "'" ~. .U .I"!ll"u r ." ,le ., ,!l!l...,..... . J!. . . .~ " .. 0;, ... ,J;;:) I,.. h"., ,

"most optimistic and. achieving" faith" had. simultaneously 'brought com£:O:M civil ~ zation and c' p' :~ofIi;Qire"1 ' sss, BI; < lie ef rema "":0' ,e""d, I, nlauslble d ' e . snlte ': r eeent ,ilJ . II. to.,. ...... ,11 ~ III iU.' I. ,!l!l" "". , .. ,i1. Ue' .';);130" . e I., !l '"",,, . I. . . r""';' ., !Jr . .. ""' ..... "",nl ..

sclentifle discoveries, A, spontaneously generated universe 'was "more inconceivable" than the existence of God, and thinking: 'beings must have been. created, by "Intelligence beyond the universe. ,t,~ Furthermore "at least as good';' as, humans, God probably provided. an a£terl:ife where earthly i:l\iu,st-ices were • 'evened up ~ ,t' Perhaps. uneon vinced himself by this, compound of Emersonian compensation and argument from design,

,fl' John, 'W. Davis, 'to :B. L,. Cha'm'ben,,, ,April, ~j." l'92St ,Be;., Bruce Bliven to B.B~ M'ay 2,

1.'~ s, S' -:,~C'~' '" ~]~']"I"1"tt S- :," Norton ·"0·. -M··· Talil"D~-,t ,C''lIiIIljll~1j .A..II~;Q'n I:!lt -S,11 '] M,e, ~BIC-:" ~UI"IlII:!'IjQ!n"""'4,]~ A!1[~',Qoir' 'to, 'IB" "B~.·

7~.J ,I ... , c. _ ~ tV _ . r. " !U"J. t.u _ ~.. ~. ~ ~~.Il ~1. 6}~lI.~~1 ~ n~II!lI~~" .j) [I tt. I 7~J. 'I . .. 1- .. . ~_~. ~U l t~~~IW!I _ '!r." l . l . ~

M'ay 25", 1'9"2::5j1 BC~ "Comments on The' Man ,N~Qbod.y ,'f~Q:w~ by Bruce Barton,,'" ,Be" Bo:x 101~"Pit.tsh;U'.rgh: Press, July 3" 1.926;~ Beston: He,ra.:ld" J'a'l'Uuiry'2., :1.926:; See ,8~n:erni1lY' "Reviews Md, :Best .. Sell,ei' Lists ~ t, .Be", :Bo.x, 107~ and D,C, Boxes ~'08= 1, :1.0, letters to Barton, down throue .... the '1'~C:'~.'~ ,S>'L,QIIIii~ro"," . ~~,Bj(r Sen" 266, .

. - .. C!J,l JJ,I~~ 7~~'I! _. lIIIIMI\If~[ , .. f. D - -,. -

4~ :SB't Wha:t C.'an, A MQ'i1: ,B'f!'liev'e',? (lnd:ianapOUs,;, Bobbs--MlemUj :1,9'2"7); 2.10;, :R.ortY'~ Our MasteriJ $ 'Voice 1 323 ~ A'lex, Osborn, ~ ~'Will ][)ealers, Fo:llow 'the: Lead'? j,,~ ,/l,dl'l!rti,S'ing lXlfd

Se'IU:tjg Po,rn1ightly. S (Marr~ :1.0; :l.926).~ 4.0; 70~ :OB, (0 'W:iUitrun S" Akin, Ju'~y 18" 1960", BC" ~Bo.x

1 ']O··~ : •. 'iJ) ..... an I C,-, 0: 'fn""'Ul'e'lll and B,Jf"· T·····i.,.d,i\~~·'tI ~;I" ,~.'n,lile,e,::' Tw~l'rl,e' ,S~1";D!,lllt'S ",cram the' Lite ,of:·'- C'hrfst

, ,. l' ~ . ~ " ' -.~ I illJRlI JiJI" r'~ l:r:I gn 'VJ u~~"" ~ ~"~ '"' " ~ .. '!..-""' "" ,J i !iP '..

(N rei,¥' York; Cosmopolitan Book Corporation, 1928),; BB" The Book ,N.'obodji K'nows (In-

di ll n, bb 'M ']111 U12~ t:.) '~W" :'E~B ·"·'C'."I... ~ ~ 'I,,...'" -, ", '0'-' ,......:I"', , ,- ,~ "F-' ·'1" 'j ii v·· rL.r Id

~ 'l.8inapo, ~S,~; ,DO, ·• .. 8 ... , ",em I,~, ,iI ... ~(-:U'f .. : . ,_, - - .• "l~ap,l.di~n-~n-.,l'!l.l,n1iary U) a. ,; II m" .·e'a~ pQ,. n ,:~ ', e~

pf'nden.l'j April, '9~ :1.92:7"

Bruce' Barton and the Selling of Corpora te Cal? ita l,is.m: 223,

Barton added a" plea remmiscent of 'W:illiam James and W'iUiaJm :E", Barton:

"Since faith will do so' much, and 'the lack of ].1 is so destroying, why not believe? ~ ~,4$

After establishing the i 'intelligent m . .an 's rig-n t to believe ~ ,t , Barton lamented that Prutestantism, the more-than-minimum creed with which he id en rifled . s~·,t·'ill suffered from confusion. declining membership, and

," .. _ "~'" ... =.I~ ... ,. .... _ = .. ~ . -_ .. '.~ 1" , .. .. _ .... 1. I l, .. _ . ~- _', .. -..:._.. , :r.

inept clergy, Renovated Protestantism required honesty, confidence", and elimination of "absurd" creeds", An ecumenical :fwth using 'these, '~~busi'"' ' •... ,u . nethc .. d·I:' m,-,~""'~.,hJt. 's·'o··,.m\ .. eday mak 'e" ~~i,ai,o··,·.:m a "perfectly normal mart of

.ness m,enO ~ S l:g. Ii, ., .. G. , .. iA ... il"""~-e· _ . ~. . I:-"

life ~'OO

,l_ll,~ ." ~

Determination of "what can a man believe" 'was. no abstract experiment to Barton, who 'was increasingly perplexed about the ,'" i purpose of it. aU ~ ", H:e wondered if affluence 'would destroy 'i'~ old-fashioned virtues ,t without bringing' ,,~, inner peace ~ ", Personal d ifficu it ies catalyzed these lapses from optimism. Barton' s work ethic faltered in. the late 192'o8, when be failed to complete a history of business, Bored 'by administration he left daily management of B,BOO to Roy Durstine, Plagued by Durstine's incompetence as W'C:U a'S, the Depression, firm billing's, declined for ten years after 1929,. By 192:8:, worsening insomnia took "all the jny'"'' from life, driving Barton to seek relief at a, sanatoriu c~ At rou ... hly the same

, .ce.' ~ ~~ - ~.. ... ,'., 1. " ..... s . .. . .flu.m.. , ,.. .&1JJ.. . .. . .

time, despite his hymns to hearth and horne, he began a, love affair with it

. ' '.. . 'it cR' 'B"'D"'O~':' 'R""~'" R': 'A,ft"· ,'. ' s ; "best .Co" '.' 'd'~ ":Ii A;' "d" ", '11°3"'0"'" .. " 'd,' I his

woman at. I I I. . ~.. ,_,~,ev '. I 'w, .. om ~ ms vnest ,!l,(leIL;, lule. In ,JL;,",:< ,'" .an" I'lS

daughter Betsey becalm e Pi aralvzed 1ID,' 1,9···.,3.:·:5.. 51

~ - - - 0-=" . = _. _. _'.' .. - - - ,. . . ~ - ~ ~ ~~,J' lll.ir1lilf.' .. III ~ 1 ... " .... ~

Partly to escape personal problems Barton, 'turned to pubfic matters, ~,i No man ever reached the WDite House without the help of advertislng 1'~

he concluded after helping 'two men get there, As early as 19,20" Barton had pushed Calvin Coolidge for Vice President and seconded his nomina .. , ti,on, ,at the Republican na .. tional convention, During the 1921]5, he drew close to Secretary of 'Commerce Herbert Hoover ~ the foremost business statesman in politics. Advising Hoover on, his, presidential race Barton stressed his rise from "orphan farm 'boy, ~'~ recommended ~~ gracious" references to Alfred E,~ Smitb, and urged brief but ~'~ri'Rging 'phrases about the; obligations of 'big: business .. ,," Neither brevity nor graciousness 'was

224

America'," Quarterly

Hoover' S forte, but he incorporated some sugge-stions, into campaign speeches and 'the inaugural address, ~

After the Crash Barton belatedly repudiated ~ 'new era' extravagance, ur,g\cd. businessmen to practice the service so often preached, and 'Soliclted charity 'for the unemployed, Interpreting the Depression as 3'Q economic and spiritual crisis, in, 19312 he produced rut inspirational biog .. , raphy ofSt, Paul, ,8, "failure at forty." This emphasis on v oluntary relief, corporate responsibility, and spiritual renewal initially coincided with tb.e Hoover administration 'program .. ; but although Barton and Hoover remained ideological kim" their respective temperaments ultimately produced different responses to the, slump, Unlike tile President, 'W ho became defensive and insular ~ Barton fought against hi'S, selt-admitted j, 'natural conservatism" and. ad vised others, to keep their "', ~ minds open, and " 'I' 'I' souls, alert." In, late 193,1 he urged Hoover to form a i 'national government" by adding Democrats 'to the cabinet and edged r-eluctantly toward endorsement of direct government relief. It was, be wrote, as I. "'siU.y"" to ex .. pect everyone to prosper as to expect everyone to, play championship ".0,1£.'1, Throughout the world, therefore, government VI'3S becoming a kind. of ~ 'handicap committee,' ,t using pensions, taxe s, and. une '.' In\IP. nlo :::'y.:····m\,e:n.~ t aid I to ~ chie we HFa'" i rer d l'!¢""t~I-:b'l ~ tlo .. : n 0,': ':f"~ w' ':,' ea 11"1 1f- ~"t ,s;a

. .1.1, ,. ." J,. ,. .. _ . a..L. ",~, __ , . . .ll~ . ., J ~ u., ,. U ~il ,= " .. " ." .. i.1JJ U1 .•.

Disappointed by Republican partisanship and mflexi bility, Barton nonetheless supported Hoover against Franklin D,. Roosevelt, whom he; eonsidered "just a name and a crutch. ,t,~ By December 193,3" however, be, wars applaudmg :FD,R, for reviving national ~ 'vitality ~ , ~ The administraaion bad. wisely begun direct relief, started public works sought, fair wage levels, and, especially through tbe National Recovery Administration, prompted constructive ., 'group thinking" among businessmen ~ Unfortunately, the New Deal also ,i" shackled' OJ' bu siness and promised. more than it could deliver .. Hence Barton in 19-34 helped to promote The Challenge to

Bruce Banon and' t.ho€ S elUng of C orporate C ap! talis 111 225

Liberty, Hoover's comprehensive critique of the New Deal; and two years later campaigned for Alfred :).~[. Landon j ~4,

By the late 1~30s Barton co nsidereo the New 'Deal part of It worldwide ,~ ~ revolution' , in, attitudes ,.' His mi~.d. disdain for the Coney ] sland rnultirudes whom be manipulated 'was reinforced by Jose Ortega Y Gassett's ',!'1:",- R'-"'·:, --:~'-:o .. lt of I' he M""'-.·· ,'n,,~,,~,.Q'i:'i,_ W-· '·h' ich Ba rton co '-',D' sid ered th 1iQi; m·'.' ost im ·'Pi'··-O· ··:rtl' rant

,.l..ne "ev" OJ _~ ,,,,MiJ'iJ'~,"',tI'_~ ~_ ,11.1 ,_, ,, __ ~iL. '_ ,O.l! __ ~,""", ,_~""", ,.'1;,11',., ""-, c ,,,".u,

book published during: his lifetime. People now c~aimed, ,,' rights" 'with,out fulfilling 'i'~ duties, ,.,' Barton concluded in, 19.3 8 ~ Because advertising :had, unde .... rm ined inner restraint a nd outward defe ~ji"')e· .nee 'to '0,,': .' 'to h -'e····: na 'to '1~_;1 arist '0,. oc-

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racy of go-getters, he felt ironic complicity in this ~ ~ revolution, "" Nevertheless, :t.1ghti,ng: against his own elitism, Barton responded 'with, a

+ . fe, ~ ~ d " h "., . 'i" + .-..'1 .... 1 '. d ..... ~ d '.

mixture 0, "good sportsmans "I.P;. , polincal reansm, ana COJU.lI~ ence I'll a

beni on universe ~ A.-s beneficiaries o,f the i ~ :new era t ,t ,t basinessmen should

~ ,

look on with ~ ~ serenity" as New Dealers took their turn, at bat, remain

"sutficiently progressive" to merit future leadership and "good naturedlv" ,(';·:'0····-: un ter critic ism j .. ~~,

.ILIA _.l'~ . '," _.~_"~ ~l 1 .~ .. l,QI.I" ~

In, 19j7,~ ftndly- fu~fiI[i,n,g his boyhood ambitioe to' serve in Congress

Barton W'3S elected to the House of Representatives as a Repu blican from Manhattan.' 'S, ~,~ silk stocking' ~ di strict, A, good. natured critic 'himself" be be-mended Ne'~'~" Dealers a'lnd, 'was widely reearded as a, liberal Republican ..

. _ ..... _ ." w -e., .. __ "" --, -_ ... _,' ". ,e:.--"-- - - ---- ----,,~- -- ... = ---- - - --

Yet three years in 'W,ashing,to:n, reinforced his "natural conservatism. t ,A 1'939 poll of newspap .. ·eT correseondents listed Barton as one, of the ten

" " ~,o,'" c= ,-'" . .t"'. ....." ~~. ~ ~." .- . - -

most cap "able rep •. resentatives. Certainly he was one of the most pub-

'" . =

'11~ cized '. attracti j': ,";tlt· ention for e-:,:,,"a,···m·' .. 1,,11~,. 'Ifoo,y ... r introdncins ~I. weekly bill to

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repeal ,~~ silly" :N ew Deal legislation, Not only 'was Bartoo at professional maker of "news - "", but- as Georae Seldes complained, the press catered to.

, '---.~' '" =--' .. '" - -'" ---- --.----.~C'-- ---'. '- -"- . - ,,' ,., .... ,-" --.- ------- - ~ -- --- .-

an ad man whose accounts ranged from ,~~ cheese 'to steel .' B'Y' [1940 be

was mentioned a.'S, a dark horse- presidential contender, but he worked enthusiastically for the nomination of 'WendeU Winki,e,~ a far .. sighted businessman, At WUlki,e'ts insistence, Barton accepted tb.e- Republican nomlnation for United States Senator -{r,,,,m New York. 56,

,~~ BB to Lany '[RicibeY].j' JanUMY 22'1 193-2" BC~ Box 29; B,B" ~~'H~S'OO(y' ami 'the N,e-w' DeaI",'!~'

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~~Bruce Barton of Nlew 'York, is a SaJesrna;n o,f ft, Liber,ail, GO'P~~'~ Li!e~ 9, (OcL 2l~ 1940l;, '~OOI' ;_~']. ,~", A'-·· 0".' ". Mu Plattfl- rm"" 3Jnd" UWihat' I 'Inl'i::o' '(I.:! ·to·-, 'f'1'" If 'Ele"-:Ii "tt .! '; ·C"- - I ,,- <·ssi- ill ... '·

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ba;M: Univ,. of illinOIS Press" :I. 96())',;, 3.6~ 79',,90 ..

226

A voidance of war ~ the signal issue o:f 1940 ,. bad, long concerned Barton, Distressed by Amerlcan reiection of 'the League of N ations, he contmued during the :[9208 to admire Wilsonian ~ "idealism " but retrospectively c~n.demned 'the mtervention 0'" 19-[ 7., Indeed, praising Bugene Debs, for 'his

- ~ d' 'h ~.. d ith N" Th d- -'h +' .... 1"

annwar stand, I ie jome wit: II orman I ' ; omas au i_ otner socieusts to

'. th 0" , 'Y'" 1'"'1", .- ~ ho i d d

warn against anor ier coni! Jet. 'I,-et unuse contemporanes wno ~rl .. icted

i, ~ merchants ,o-f death t " Barton insisted that j; "business bates war" '; and outlined a special role; for his O'WD profession. Advertisements must make

all _. - 0 -lie' . ,,:,~, - e-a' r.a C'o' nscious ,." '0' "D'e f'b' d ticioat d th ~ .. d--

_" pe;PJJ~S, . 'p:'.~~"'.I' s~r'.1 ~I: .,', . . .-' r 0: ,,1,8 ar .. s a-ndC:I,paLe ... 'I.,,_,~,e ,joyou.S ". ay-

when war; not buried soldiers ,. would be "," unknown, ."" ~7

During 'the 19'30s,~ Barton anticipated the demise of the Britisb Empire as wen as the "white man's" forced departure from. the 'Far East In 19:34;, perhaps blinded, bv his aenteel anti-Semitism he underestirsated Nazi

= ~ 7" e

"'I "·'h· !io!i;'" '."!II."'~' = '. k J B-

eVI~:; W]J_t1 out '···]J'n any way" endorsing NaZI attacks on. .• ews, ·C.I,u1on, was

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immense y impresser . .. ' -y , ,,1 uer S - - courage: aD;.. res .. omdon 0" .;.'.,;. r-

man ii'~ho-pe,~ ,~" When. the European war began in 193[9';, Barton held views

.' ., .' ~ ~ 'H' , di d. .' k O' '. "-" 'L..04 c·

common among: nontnterventiomsts. .',: I'e pre metec a quic ,,': .._.··n'tJS,I~. deteat,

criticlzed Roosevelt's decepti veness, fa vored strong national defense, expected 'war against fascism abroad, 'to- bring comparable dictato:rs'hip at home and. urged American neutrality" I-n October 19:39~ he voted against lifting the embargo on arms sales to belligerents, The Unhed States, be decided after prayer and "spiritual struggle," should, try to stop the war before it ~,~ Q'ot thorou O!'hl'y'.· started, ,,', Resoectfnl of Britaia's ~,i, maeniflcent

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resistance ~ "'I' he fa vored limited. aid. in 1940,., Still" his vote on 'the embargo, combine .. ·,d,l, with F~D<'R'ts', 3:- ttac kl on "Marti i 'B arton , and Fish." ind elibly

. U' . liliL. 11..". • _ ~. .. . iW _., IV' . ~ __ ,Jm~ ,. ,. ., u.u,. ,II g,n. , ,II, ,,,",__ _'.

marke d'i him a'" an' lntransise n- t -.:-,(100'1 at ., "t- ~BI " . rt- 0 - be 1! '" . 'v' .C d'l nroba b·1Iy' 1"0 u...:."', . I~ :,'"'' 1111":..11:", 0 Ie;,,,,· :.;g., ;t4JJOD.lS' ~ ,a.,·en -Cd,e· -'e' ~, y'. 'I.,~ _..i,,-

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correcuy tnat Roosevert s eU,pjJOlUS .pnrase 'CO:8t r im a Senate seat, ,~ .. ,

"- L - - - . -t, .. _. ~ .• t; ., . 'l'~ , ' ,..... - . ,., . _. . - - ". _. he '1' - - "t" b I 8' ,An 000······· , .;. *

spite a cnaraetertsnca IY vigorous campaign, ne .r 0,8 !'Y .:w'" vo es to

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t .. ~,e i J' mocra _"I'C JnClJmle·D, ,I. a:mes ,_'.~, ~.i,eiW,,~ .

Barton returned to private life with a feeling of relief, Chairman of :8 B,DO' until his r:etire"m[ent in 1.'%,1" he; tried. to practice business statesmanship, Bruce as the 2",000 employees were encouraged to call him, 'was

disorganized" demanding, occasionally lazy, and persistently paternalistic ~ He req uired courtesy to office boys ~ the nex t generation' s corporate: leaders, took pride in recruiting youth. and promoting "early middle age to 'the top,' and encouraged the; staff' to buy' B,:8'DO stock, The inves tment program helped the company through bard times, encoaraged loyally~, and fostered mobility ~ By 'the early 19.50s~ 250 members of the firm owned shares "If any orsanization can count on a continuine future in, the adver-

s, ares. ,,- - ~ O'--~- - - -- -- ,- - -- - - ~ - - ,- _ - ~ --, ~i!;O' -, _ _

tisina business ." Barto n boasted in 19',:.:531-, "jt should be BBDO,,~~590

1,;:,1, ~, _, __ ;:'11. ,_ 0 , _ _ _ ~ _ .. _~ _ _ JI!.-!I..o _ _ _~ _. , _ _ ~~V _ _ _ _ _ _

Until the mid ... ,l9:50s, Barton commented regularly on, public affairs in speeches, articles, and syndicated newspaper columns. His political ad. ... , vice ~ though sometimes unsolicited, 'wa-s, often astute. He urged Senator

R'b' '11 A" T ·~t- ,t" ,-, "l 'to, .. '~"O--' Id' ~ ... t- ,,-- ,t .. ' .. mh ,t"" "" st ~ ad' ." .. e - ~ -'1*'· ~ at

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.i:llg false convivialiry, recommended new eyeglasses to improve Senator Barry M ~ Goldwater ~ s image" and in 1961 predieted a comeback by Richard :M~ 'Nixon if advisors did not "make [him] talk too often. ~", 60,

= .~ • c' 111 " -~ ~

Passionate concern regarding roreign :PO.dCy overcame Barton's 'wry'

detachment BI ;'Y,"- I-n,A·' .... : he concl ud ed that t"~'e',',: Truman adm ainlstration was

...... . . . ,!l!l. ~. ,::71 e.,. U .. . . a. 1.1.. rlJl, . aul,!l!l , ... I,. . . '" .

making: an, effort" doomed by ~~, history" and ~ ~ human nature," to ~ ~ 'p:iay God, around the world" ~,t Like many pre.-.,1,94], isolatlonista who later criticized the Cold War" Barton combined ethnocentrism and acuity," Om, the, one hand, be, could not 'take, seriously ,(1, threat from Russia, a "half .. , fed, half ... clothed; ignorant horde of savages." 0:0 the other hand, 'while Truman exaggerated Communist dangers at home and, abroad, Barton. opposed universal military training and derided the ~'outragious notion" that voters were ,~, too dumb to know the truth ." Perhaps i,nn,'ue;oced, by his, friend, Charles ,A, ~ Beard, he wanted renevation of' American cities to take, precedence over foreign aid, U nfortnnately, such. ,~,~ realistic" proposals were smothered by' internationafists ,~,~ ten time s' ~ less tolerant than pro-

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Mairy·. Beard De . eeember 26. ~ 944,. B B 'to Charles, Beam - June 24 - 1946 - Chades Oea'ro to B,B .

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Oesober .",,, __ 1]~:U,""_ j'D·C' ~_ Box 4"·' B-'-',B:.· HA>r:'6, W·.··.·.··.·e' B. ""t)n,j)' O· r ··.~ ~ ... 0I'Ii~:a, Than 'W·.··"',a, (""1i(iijOllo Chew?"

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Reader:» Dige'st. 5,3 (Dec. :1.948)" 45-48,; BB~, "Behind Our Own, Iron Curtain/' 1.3; Justus D" n.,. .... -" ""I\p;~ N-'.' t -. -L S- ~,,f,- 'F'L 0-1'...11'" J -, '" t ' '-h" C'~,' ~,-I 'W~'~' (if ... -' ''';!;ibr. -~- 'fi.... p.,,~~ -11 sa - ·~l~l ~n.ec,~e, ,:0' to IRe' , _:~)!lj. t: i ne . ~il" ,:,so':a'tlQJJll$' ,$ l~ t .. e . ~. O~(.I .. ' .. Q'T ...• ,!t....c:,W,I,~ ··I.U--g" r,Hi .. ; ,Ol1C!'ii.:Oen

=U-nl"~., 'n-~,!;!'Cl' 10-'9-' .),-,

':' ,~~ '''"!II ~'ll,~~~,~ ~~"-:".'!!

22Q'

,_··.0

A:: ,'" , " .Q ,., ,; te 'l"y"

,merl€;an ' .. · .• ua.r",er .. ···

'U~'-" aite ed States interve .. ntion in 'K",Q.··:'re",QI left Barton '~"'s.i.c:k at heart, ", It

" ilL " "' , "a. ~ ,JI.I,Ii,.!.. . ,IL ,liL ~~,Ii "" .. y '". Y", _ " "" , '"'

" "'dl' "' " "' d' the ~ ~'c:n , .. " 'f' '."" h "b"t" f" oklo "' boles ro,]' i,., " " mitme "t"s

unc erscore .tne rouy 0, our " a 1,1. o~ masmg wnosesase coau uu aents

,and. guarantees t 'without any idea as to how', or to what extent" we can

"" ... 11_ 0' ".4 :II, 1M" iaht hI e" p"''O' tess B'; '""""""'"O"'n jok 'ed· sadly '+n Norman "Y"h" '0' mas

m~e: ~OOu.," : ,','. ,I~U., ',I' :: I,;:",,:,,,t - '.at ;L,I,II, :,' .. '"i;JI"_,,~. I .. ~' ~." .. ',_ .. ,lliwi,l, ; ~ I", __ ~"~"

by ru nning 'for Congress "on the Sociali st ticket l' ~~, [Two years of incon .. elusive combat reinforced his, opinion that the ,j, police action" 'was, unconstitutional, unwinnable, and humdiating, $2,

In 1952 BB,DO arranged radio and television advertising for the Repab .. , lican presidential ticket, Bruton's belief that political accounts hurt the flrm was superseded by his "great affection' ~ for General Dwight D'~ Blsenhower, his, o ccasional bridge partner," By' mid .. summer he 'was offeri:ng advice and composing campaign slogans, When Richard :M", Nixon answered Charges of corruption, Barton wanted Eisenhower' So public response to be: "expertly stage ma.nag,ed" ~~ Accordingly, after watching the telev ised speech in the abse [!J .. ce of advi sors, Eisenhower should wait fif:. teen. minutes and then ~ ,~ ~ with deep feeling, ~ ~ read a hand- written e:n-' dersement of N:ix.o:n (composed in advance by :B art on}" Whether or 'ROt. he received Barton s memorandum, th .. e General, a, master of nublic relations

~ . t'

in his, own right, offered no Iastant endorsement of his running mate ~

D~ urinz Eise .. mhower's nreside .. ··n.··c;y""·' Barton d~'i'1",e····:d,l, ar the White Ho " u se but u ,I,n~ ,I , "w r ,;:, pJI,est, ... " " ,"-'lI, 'Lv .1lt!l . ... ..,. " " ,I ~ ~ ~ .." >JI.. . """

bad, scant Impact on. policy, Indeed, he lamented the admini strati on 's refusal to, 'withdraw from Asia and d u:ring, 19541 became ,~~ so worked. lII:P by our threatened intervention in, Indochina that I C3'm hardly think of an,y .. , thing else." [63,

International crise s and personal tragedies tested Barton j s streaaous effort to believe in a benign universe, During: Wo:rld War ]1 he, absented himself from church because the clergy bad snapped to attention when the "bugles began. to blow ." More importantly, his 'wife Esther died o,f cancer in 19,5:1. after three years of suffering", Barton coped. by writing a kind of ,a·· .. d vert is. ement. a··'D.·· a .. ····~rt··· ;11~'~e.·: ursine regular physical examiner .. o.>ns'.· .. 'G4,

.. .. ~" __ . , "~ UIL, . _. .. ,1 ..... .11... 'U- e;.1 .. ~_ U ""-Ii, P"" 101. .,.. A.. . I. A.. I . !l!l. ~

A],thou,g'h Barton's church attendance lapsed again after Esther' 'S death,

he not only soon returned to services himself, but also encouraged the national religious revival, He praised Norman Vmcent p. ale (who ' ......

" ,C'""'"'. _. - ... ,_ , , '.' .. .. , ., . . . . . l . e . '" ' ea e t W ,.0 re

sponded in kind), contributed money and public relations advice 'to' Billy

62: BB to Norman Thomas, Ju~y 13" ]()f :1.950" BC1 Box ,6-7:; :BB,~ '~~U,gly 'Facts, About K" ~c"'~' I'Ki ."1'. 'F, ~:tU'F;"'", :',c-; i4ica:t;...) B;C.··: Box ,6,

,,_o~"'Ya \,--~ng '_ ea, ""~'eS SYOu,. ,le", ~.) ~,x '"

08 B-'B to Stuart Al80"" " lulv' 9'" 195:8" Be" Box 1"" un. ,,', M'~m..o re: General :Ei senbower.' jI

,. '_ ... -,"_ . ~ . Y', . -4', .;, _.~. ,. ~,. . _ J , , I, . I, 'I~ .. ,... .... ,.. -, ~ ~. ~

JliI~y' '~4 1'°5·· '" D'IB· to D 'C' Du #V' See .. ' ..... -I~a}r "Ii''::!! ~ 0..C:'2··' B' "C"" B- nv '~O" S·:ta· '01' ~u j,';!!' ell ~U' Ji'['

~I.,_:.· ,I. ~~J • 7,"1~~ u., ,: I g, • .' ,'II' . ,'._J,l_j·; :_ 1~~I.IIU.,.... ~lt. .I",,·J· .,~ j! •. ;UA, ,IL7; .:"_ .. __ .I,~~: ~~~t~~:tII . I"!!i"

.n "c' .:1'.' ", "" \ .' ,.1' p ..••. J,.1'.';', R' ".' "l'~+' "., ....1' D " ["'t" .,.' ,J' D "'," "", (B, .... lll~,~im·1 0-'" Johns U"""n'llr;ill!IIID U' In~'oyr u..aQ'~'

.r,rQJe,~iYIQnlh ,. U:UIJ£, ' .. ea~l:iQ,n.~ anu: ,.r=,Q;/; .leat ,.r=,Qw,e'r .' .. allli.l! ,'J,~" . '0',. U;'" flu,t'""ri.l!l:iI'" ..... ' .1" ~ CI ,..~o,',

1"969) 'ISO ] 63 '79'" B' 'It"'·· "Preside "fa! St" M"" '. f~' 8:5'" DB t" B' ""~, Go'ld'" :'ft" , A" "

,> ... >~, ,. '.' j! ."-', ':~ ,IS '0 P!Io ' ,.',s~e.n: II I age :" anage,f' ~ ..... ~ "',0' . arry " __ lwa.,leJ,,.:,pr,

27', 1.9,'4; BC~ Box 23 ~

iIJ;4, '8'8<, ~j"'j; Ha-y·.· ~m@'riO!'O.!I" :FAA:'l:~ic":k' .. S"'~'ft+.QJm" 'b'~l' 24, 19'5~" Be"'", Box 21;: U:B to Beaed , October

.. llV ==- .;_.ll._, .w1 __ N~~ '[1::11 _ y~U~ ._1:1' ~'~If~ .. ~_ ~ ~J • ~ 'Y',l _ .• y~_, _. ~ ,~ _

'''!Ii,. '~oA'3 "B'C'" "B'IB' ~';!.A···,t'o;, '" .... T ",""' ..... n~ .' .. " t. I' D , .. " . ..J ~'D' '.':"" " ,", .en C" A' , ... '~o,c"'li') '~ '3:' ,.:::. .. , ,1,:P!t ... ; , .... ' C"!' , .: , ..• .".-. uer ,il LUng ,!I,illneSS,; neau;er ,s, .' .,I,ges/:!, OU".'.,. p:r.. ,Ii :7,J~'~ ,iI.'-'"_'.

Graham and" b1.1 'the mid- I '9508, W,W; promoting faith 8)nd work in Ianeuaee

. .. "., "'~J" , .1 .. ,,' "'~" ,"~" - , _ '" ,~ , • .a,eI! ~

''''''''''''''''''·~'":>, .. ",,,,·,'''t :""'f"M'·":':' "'.,',' Po ,,' " " v' '," 'I' ')·'9':5" '2,," B'B:"D'''O '11· dled "dv' rtisina for

re,ml.nlscen.,o . .ore, ower to ,I. OtL n ,'~ c--b,' ",~~',". ,',,' ~J:lJ]:l~~eo~, iL ve ~~\,' g, '

the; Revi sed. Standard Bible [(,: ~ "The Bible, Jesus Would Have Loved":

.... ~ I. ., ,.",.,' ~ 1. " = ",_ = ,~, " .. ,. ...,' . . , ,

,~,~ Biggest Bible News in 346 Years" )., ~

Abov ~1i1)' Barton 'C .vis "d,1 ""'1:..,~, ~,~'''' Nobodv K:':: ",',,","C":," and T'::'h'C, ,,',: Book

eve mJ,; ,""""iLO_~ re isee .L ne n:.zan iVOUO,Y ,·."ROWS all. ~ ne '~ vvK

N"""'b'·J~· K':" c • .' ." f" ,. ,:'. i "lit·, 'I blicr ti [ , , "1 I' "10':6- 'M"'," I',~,,,, he had e '," 'liet

" .0.:.0«)' , .. :=ltOWS .!lor ]Ol.n~, re,plL,dC3JOn. 1m ,~~JJ~., ., .. Den a~s e,~, ear, lei'"

transfc " "d" t·"h"· Y u "'I . 'II - nt ~nt ." bu is' stat .,.' .. ", , 'iIo.. ,'"" ..

~,~. nsrormeu t ne ".0'. ng msr .. rgen uno a I!J) S,DC':S sta .. esman, ne l1I:OW re-

crafted the ahistorical Jesus to tit an era marked by increasingly subtle salesman ish ip and self-help 'C- .. hapter One W,,'f:II(:' calle d >Ii'·~TC·~e· Leader" 'lin I' .. ,

. ii:ll1, ," .. ;;II, 11,[. ~. " .n. ,.Ie.. "n~,."" _", '. ~ II;;;;~ .. , . u, " U""" ,L,

stead of "The Execu tive' '(·"~~Ir:o'·::'.uli()!'b·,· the latte :r' te rm survived in the text)

'_ '~"~'~ J "__ "' •• _' ~ •••• _ -.ill, _,' .:~tl,I,_. _ '~_'_ ~\I,I, ,I.~~ _~,,_,_, "-1 ~~, ' _, . ~ ' __ ,,_=_, ~,l~, _¥ ~,.

Ab h d1]" ,. J' " ,.., ..

_ bsent ~, too; were newspaper neadnnes announcing ,[ e SUS' acnvmes .'

Instead . ,o.:4f th ",e" b IUQ"~n',e, s s .m ::9i.'ID 'tI' (;I ;Ii,;Ii, s ilen t ]i1,r.; ..... n er n· =H[ Ie was with pronoun

~ ~iLlI;o.oU. vt '1,.==.. . _. [Qi ~~"... _ _YJ!" ~. ..I! "_. ,ra.i, l '_ "''' ".. ..:;;11, ,I II. ,~.I,! , .. !tV U ,

capitalization re stored; 'the io[ew "companion guide. and master' 't. for both

sexes. These revis ions, Barton said; were intended to male the "essential ,message .. ~ ~ mote· immediate .. ,,', His central theme, virtually unchanged since the '1!'9,~','1·O: •• s wa s that ,G.·· . ..;.oc".,d require d service gl~JE!; well ,'?S" strivina. "Wist

at, .. .. ,J, .. ~ .. I,I! __ .~ ._ .. ~, .IJ,I ... ,]U, ~ _ li;I! ..•. I,.~.~"'~ .~" ~-._ '_' ,T,L"=~r ,I.

ye not (hat ~~: must be about my Father' s busi ness? " :00 longer graced the flyleat; and, 'while quoting Luke in the 'text, Barton acknowledged the Revised Standard alternative, "did you not know that :1 must be in my Father's house'? ,; In. both renditions ~ however. 'the ,~,~ e ssential remains the same'": Jesus ~,~ offered hi s life to men. ~ ~ [&6

In the [",nd Barton's nositive thi:mkin'" could not prevent personal pain,

, _,.,.e e ' , .' . ,.. p ...., .,._., - . e ....., = .. ~~.. . .. . . _. ",," .f'

'H~ -i" [~.-;..'"( ,tiI'hitl .. : I' B- ···t··· :~~' dro rowned in '196.··.···: ..... ~ Bruce Jr., d." ied a vear later, Barton

, " IS uaU5iJJ, er ell.sey , . ., . ,I" . . ~. , . ~ - '~ ... ~" .. ~ - ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ,J ~ ..

h.i:mse~f paid 'the cruelest compensation. One of this greatest feats was 'lo;;'t1!..."·'t'-I"·,,,,,~, ,'," ne dai b 'ld"1 ;''tI, A····' , ",'~, ,"'c' "'-"", .. ~ ",,",,". 1;.., had defined

.1.1,3 . ,may som[c '.~ ,ay "e 0,', "0 • ~'S .8" vigorous young man, .!lIe 'la.!, .. ,el.1ne"

old. age as a '~'~c~nditi,om of 'the soul" and hoped to remain lite his father, perpetual lv young in ·~:I·'.'~ 'it Ba .... '" "I'~" ',. 1'1 '::'~"~'~'~i"n;r:-' but his body failed, ¥ .. I,'-" . Y ,111, , I ,splrL,.a.u"On. s, sou, was, Wlu.l, g. Jj,':' . U <_. ' .. ~', ..

Never fully recovering from a stroke suffered i'n, 1957, he became a garrulous parody of his former self. By 'the time of his death on July S, 1967" arteriosclerosis 'had v~rtl!l" U\I ers .sed his. memorv ,6,7

. .... .. ., , . I , ... I ,.a .;,.ra.e., . " " ..

Students, of the gospel of success rightly regard Bruce Barton, whose acuuainta "DC···~·S" ranged "\ ..... ~m': .. ' R··""~·~··· :1"(' C" ..., .~]' to 'N': ".',":-" ',':, V,""''''''''·'''' " ,t, 'p ... " ;-1]" . """"'1> I ~.'_'. .'.. ,..,-".. ,.: ... '. e..:U H. 'u .. , , ,1lI·S se", ·.·~on.wel=.O.. or.miaD ... 1,D:Cen, ... [ethe,. ,as

an important traasirional 'fianre 'Wafie:'n Susman observes . for example

- -r···~ .~-... . .. , .. 1 , .. " ,~"'" iii .. __ "' =r ~ •••. _~ .••• I •••. ,~ - • ,It. "', ,"".', i:____.' _.~

that he bridaed the oapl between a. ;Ii"ip,'roducer ethic" stressing work ~ nde-

, , . - ~ . ., .c . ,~., .....,,' _ • :...' .... • '. ...• _' ..... _", _ . • ~ • .• . ..• .1. fli' ... . ,In c

23"',·0,

· __ l._.·· ...

pendence, ,and acqulsition, and a; ~ ~ consumer ethic: spe nd , enjoY', use up. "" More worldly than most positive thinkers ~ .B arton deliberately adapted his version of the ~ .. ~ gospel" to meet the changing needs of

C3"".'''p' itafism M······I,-O,· re sensitiv 'e- t"·:h"· '9" ·n·1 m :'10', st P""O""';8"'I~t""I~'V~'~,e'" think .e rs hi I'" e was a -,".Ib· ,.""v"·'1I31,e:n" .. ·ti

. ,l ~".. ...--' _" I -I. '. - . " , . . ," I - " . .--' '. ,1,ll.llll .' I· . yy! - ~'I l.llJJ. . . _1 .

", .". ',' .,'.1. ..,,'." !II ',_ ' ." _. '_.' l £ l .. ,'. _ . . ._ ~ ...•• , _ ,_ ...• _ .. ,_, •... , __ '_' _ .. t •.. _' _ ~ , •. '. _ _ _ __ ._._ ' ,~ _ .~ •. _ ~

about the changes, Not only did. consumption serve in his scheme to' sustain the economy, but 'fresh "obiects of desire" compensated for lost autonomy ~ Because economic consolidarion prevented the typical young m Q"r'1 from . sta rrt '1~lg~ h .. is o ow "~I flrm, Ba ··rt"I'O· '!"II advised H_' 'erbe rt Hoover in I 928

.. , ,(jUJi. I 11.". ... ... .:,... iII"liJi, """~ . ". 1O.li. lit.. .', =. =. .. ~,Ii. iQ... . .. '.;;1'\0" -. . ... ~ . .... ." . ...... .. .... ." .. ,.

corporations must provide careers "as 'satisfyi'Q, to e very side of his nature as be would have had in. the days when the field was open, ". 'Certainly his acceptance of corporate organization did not extend to doc "-I" le .~ ~ 0'- rsan " izati '0' :"0 O}. r- en 't·t Ra th er in h Ii e c h" oice OC:"f" friends a s '~I"''-Il h ~'If!o

0': .. '"" ". e··IJ!.',u. .. ".Ji.l. 1.,.1 .. c, '.' ,'J!.~ ,L' ...•. L' '. ·U.l::' •. · ."'1 =~.: •. , ~'U""'j< : .,' .,,1..;,

depiction of Jesus" pleasans personality counted for less than character."

Much as Barton redefined success, be modified the cult of true .man .. '

h ." .... 'd'i T"I:·'h .. ··· ''''''' ...... ..... .. . , .. , .. t·· .' " .. c+.A B'-'''' ...... " . .- ...... di "~ th ··t , ..... .- .. ".fio c .. ·· .. , c'· .- ..... a., .. ·~d·1 .....

.. oo'~ ~ · .. C 1 ... WO Issues .I.n"ersec"eu~ ,-Y com'ce'~ lng"a mosl.. m,e.n COUI", no

longer own, farms or businesses-s-even as he wanted them somehow to rema-in independenc-e-Barton loosened the tie between manliness and economic self .. sufficiency, Moreover, in place of 'the stem patriarch 'who escaped 'w,ife and offspring at a male club, be elevated the family man ...

J...... ." ~..""" jd .. · .. d t· "" ad · .. ··1 -~~ .. :~ " ch ildre ·w·1.\.. ,t,'fl" ck d·· I'" tc h'~

.. esus agam provi .. 'C ..... ne mo . e ,. we.il:coml.rtg. c;. m 're·.m ·>~JJ .•. O ... 00 .··'.e.: .00 .,,1:8

side and wome n who cherished his companv Eq'uaUy' important, Barton

. t e an. ,W .e. w. . .. II. .. , .1.. ..y-'," . . .. , .: .. " .., _ ~ .

was immune to the convention that 'war enobled men ... He never portrayed Jesus leading Christian soldiers on. 'to San Juan .. HUl or Belleau Wood. .. , In

th f all" ... ,. 'l'h" M'" N"' = b' d K'" • It '1 t ted'

o •• -. • -'.- • • - _. -. -, - - - - _ •• _ ".' '.' •• ••••• • • _ l' . , . , . l ~ ., ".' - -:.. . l, l l' _", _. . ... ". , .. ". ,I . ", .. "., l" ..... . .. "

l'ie .. I.n~ ~ .. , ana .. ysIs'tIi .:. e .~' ,.an ~:.o~ o .... :y.now'S slm.u .an.eousv Y :f)fOI,eS I .: .

against the ~ 'feminization' t o-f religion. and. contributed to the softening-eor i i feminization' ",-0(' the masculine mystique. 69

F" rth ' . nore B> rton ,.~. I,j£e·· '~l'I1i'lim'" ina tes the oerennial .... emplex of ones ..

. Il' . J!J.e..rm,Q . .' ~ . ,a,1 '.. ~ .1i1".I. ~I I,L . .. -,,", .. '= .. ' .it--- ___I ~,,~I u· il!P'V !~.~ .. :-= . .. ." ." ' ..,

."' , " , abo .", wh ·, .. ·t' ha " " d to : ---. ·,···· .. iivis " diu "i I"" the ln20s: nd""1 1°·308

tlons a .. ,ut w I,a.· .appen,e·, 10· .progr--es81:,ls,m '~,.:.r~ng"~~e ~ . .7~ .. .'~-·,aJ ..... ' ~7,-.'~,~

t9.40:."jmd 1950~ As. he mav have recoenized while embeflishins the tale ....

" ." is " a .. " ... s" . . .. .;} . - . .. - e~"" - ... .... =....~ ~.. . .. c·"· . .. -- ..,

his abandonment of "radicalism' ~ was, eommenplace among fellow muck ... ·r·~".": J. ndeed his reclassitieatio '0',.0.'· ifJ ;i;Ii;:~:U"'S from a "'Y·9UDa IDnSU1D:e··m.11'" in .il UJAers~ n" ... :~./e, 1 .1,' .. .11.. ;:),1" ... ""'~I., - .. ,. ~1;.1 ... =,Ii .. -- -.. - """. -'0' - - 0 -.. -

] 9.14 to the ~. 'founder of modern business ~ '; in 1.9"25 paralleled the en-

thusiastic discovery of industrial statesmen by Ida. Tarbell and Burton J~ Hendrick, Similarly, Representative Barton.' S opposition to the New Deal characterized many, if not most, former progressives, some of whom. also questioned internationalist foreign policy during 'W-orld 'W:ar II and the Cold War.. Legitimaters of a lin,eat liberal tradition from. 'the Square. Deal

68 Susma iI(!Ii ", .. Piet .. y .... P ·"'O~I·t·~ :o':iI1-i'd" pt. "~.y:, .. H 1" 11'2 ..•... B:'p to W·~111·,;z;,m' " C ". Donova n .. 0" "'*'!"'bP,-T 10. ~9.'28,.

\3. la, ,.ILl~, "'/~'''_'''I ",Ill .tIJl.~:t.~I~lt-~_, _ ~. I, ,_,'~, t, lD _M IJU, .. iI ,UlIJtl~IJ .... _:Ii .'I¥i.I:!Iir.'~~J_ ~ -, f.

!BC~

dB ... "· N' L..J' K' '. JIOiIc" n .. ·" ~ .. 'L.. "C· '1 F"I ... H: -', ..... 'j'H" . c " .. '/~; S' . '.' R··J· ~ i Mod rn ... M,an "ou-Q,y_-Y, ,ri\OiWS .. Q.~; reter QaUne .:~ ene." ':·Jm.·~er;s,ey;· .. e:x_:OJt ... : ~n ~ :__· .. ·~~e: .".

,;Ii .. ''- .'''_'~:''-'., ,('·N. "."~.:. ·=Y:'· 'M": ··ent"'''i''L'i'' 1];fi:'?C') '~-,1[~:\

t1i,meifu;·a: ._' = .. e-w "OT..... '. ..' AJl'J. ~ .I!:7 f .J _.. ~ ~ . uu.

Bruce Ba rton a 11 d the' Sell in.a .1.'(,' C····· .omora te Cap italis m.1

_.:. [- ., - :" .. ' '[ '""' ~'[." _- - [-"'[-'6 v..J- :. v· y' _.' '"_ .. "_' -._ - .~; '".' ' 'I t.

23·:1'

- '-

h G- S-· f "'i.,. ,- h '. I ,. ..

to t e r .:re,atoc~et\l 0 lten attribute such : : erestes to personal eccentncuv ~

J t= I;

But progressivism spawned many latter-day conservatives because it was

largely conservative from the outset.J"

Although Barton settled. to. the :rigbt, of center on our 'marrow polieical spectrum, he was neither naive nor unreflective, Thus scholars using him, as, a symbol for an age; must. at long last grapple with the complexity of the

119""'2·' '.-Ilk '1- ··,It· d' . --f-'" . - ... . - 'to . . . . ... 'Ij.. .. "'"b-''' -~ . - .- - ethc - ":I' '-B"\· - rt _ ..

,il.,V(S~ ~'DSll.-ea .. .0,:. :re,pre:sen.lng aiD amorlluOU8, I.USU1.ess 'el ., .• OS~. . ,8,: on.

signaled divisions between "small bore" entrepreneurs .and the, corporate,

.. - ilite . - d .. , . '111"'.rI the 111"' .. '" -Or - ., f'" bu - .. " .. - ., ,t fio, - ... . - .. hi _.. A'--' t 't1J..·· ...

e ue, 3'lL" reveaiea tne unuts or ousmess statesmansnip. At rne same

time, be: stood. for millions of Amerieans who proclaimed the imminent arrival of the good. life :in order to. ease doubts about. the • 'purpose of ,'ifr 1"lil' ,,,OJ; A .... -. -'d'" :C·-;·.- ndescendinz historians m'I!i);Y" 'lfi"1in' ·'a'~I'I"·y··· il ~,~", -II r-': I I Bart -- ..... ,-,\ - that h, U..L~ ~ ,_n,··,·: O,FL ,e·'ven, lu~ . L:JIi.J .. u, .,.:'1 •• 1iW._ . ,I" .. ,,_ . earn .lram _ . ,a~ JJD. ,at

thev cannot 'reform or reolaee 'C01!'T'W'lmt.e capitalism simply by:'- mocking the

- " .. -J '_"--' -" ~ , ~., ,.~. , " ,~"",,~... . .1I,~-!IiwI!!· _. ," " l ..... l.l· .. ·_ '_ .,' ~.-'-' ~ ~.J' .~.:_. '~' .. ' 0 e- .~.

shrewde st capitalists ~ $

10 Louis FUller.,., The M uckraker» (U'niversity ,':arrk.: :Pennsylvania State U niv ~ Press, l'976)~ 375 ..... 78; Otis L~ [Graham", Jr. , .An Ei;'Core-/o.r ,Reform ... The O~d' P'rog.re ssives tl1t'd the' N:ew D'e'al

(~:IT, :::" York: Oxford U niv, Pres'S 1967-); 24~'91 - 1:56-

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*' I gratefUUy ttlan'k;. S.ydney A'filistrom" Jo.Ann. A-rter.$inger-,~, 'Noralee Fmftk,.~J., ,Otis Pease, SarabJ Stqe,~ Robert Schul.zinse"r~ and :Ric,hMd Tedto'w for th.eir he~p.ful S:uggeS:dOll;S"

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