CodeMaster

SEISMIC DESIGN
This CodeMaster identifies the 11 steps involved in designing a typical one- to threestory building for seismic loads in accordance with the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), ASCE 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, and the 2003 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures (known as 2003 NEHRP Provisions or FEMA 450-1*). Information will be presented on how these three documents work together. The NEHRP Provisions feed directly into the ASCE 7 development process; ASCE 7 in turn serves as a primary referenced standard in the IBC. The seismic design provisions of the 2006 IBC are based on those of ASCE 7-05 and make extensive reference to that standard. In fact, almost all of the seismic design provisions are adopted through reference to ASCE 7-05. Beginning with Step 4, only references to ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are made. The only seismic provisions included in the text of the 2006 IBC are related to ground motion, soil parameters, and determination of Seismic Design Category (SDC), as well as definitions of terms actually used within those provisions and the four exceptions under the scoping provisions. It is important to note that where this CodeMaster provides section references from the documents, the corresponding requirements often differ from one another. In some cases, these differences are subtle and an explanation of these differences is beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.

S EISMIC D ESIGN

2006 IBC

NEHRP

2003

ASCE

7-05 0

obtaining seismic design parameters using the same data that was used to prepare the ground motion maps published in the 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05, and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions. By inputting the longitude and latitude of the building location, this method provides for a more accurate and reliable determination of Ss and S1. The FEMA 450 CD also contains this calculation tool.

STEP 2

DETERMINE IF STRUCTURE IS EXEMPT FROM SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS

2006 IBC Section 1613.1 allows the following four exceptions from compliance with the 2006 IBC seismic design requirement: Exception Detached one- and two- family dwellings in SDC A, B, or C or No. 1 located where Ss is less than 0.4g.

Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.4 g (Shown in green)
For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC

At this stage, the SDC has not been determined; however, Ss has been determined in Step 1. After Step 3 is completed, this exception may be revisited. 2003 NEHRP Provisions ASCE 7–05 2006 IBC Conventional light-frame wood construction complying with 2006 Exception IBC Section 2308 (see definition for "conventional light-frame wood No. 2 construction" in 2006 IBC Section 2302). Agricultural storage structures intended for incidental human Exception occupancy only (see definition for "agricultural building" in 2006 IBC No. 3 Section 202). Vehicular bridges, electrical transmission towers, hydraulic Exception structures, buried utility lines and their appurtenances, nuclear No. 4 reactors and other similarly described structures in the code. 2006 IBC Section 1613.5.1 Structures located in areas with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g need only comply with SDC A requirements.

* The 2003 NEHRP Provisions (FEMA 450-1) is a resource document funded and published by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). It is intended to capture research results and lessons learned and may contain information beyond that found in ASCE 7-05 or the IBC. The accompanying Commentary (FEMA 450-2) may assist the user in understanding the basis for code requirements. Copies of the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying Commentary may be viewed or downloaded on the Building Seismic Safety Council's (BSSC) website: www.bssconline.org. The 2003 NEHRP Provisions also includes a CD that contains the two documents as well as the seismic design maps and a program to determine the mapped seismic design values. Hard copies or the CD may be obtained free-of-charge by contacting the FEMA Publication Distribution Facility at 1-800-480-2520.

STEP 1

DETERMINE SS AND S1

The first step in seismic design is determining the mapped maximum considered earthquake (MCE) spectral response accelerations at short periods, Ss, and at 1second period, S1. These values can be determined using one of two methods: 1. 2. 2006 IBC Figures 1613.5(1) through 1613.5(14) [ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-1 through 22-20; 2003 NEHRP Provisions Figures 3.3-1 through 3.3-14], or USGS website at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has prepared an Internet calculation tool for
CodeMaster developed by:

Areas of U.S. with Ss < 0.15g and S1 < 0.04g (shown in green)
For areas outside the conterminous United States, visit www.skghoshassociates.com/CMSDC

S C I

Structures & Codes Institute
Tel: (847) 991-2700 Fax: (847) 991-2702 skghosh@aol.com

A subsidiary of S.K. Ghosh Associates Inc. www.skghoshassociates.com ISBN 978-0-9793084-1-3

Similar exceptions are found in ASCE 7-05 Sections 11.1.2 and 11.4.1 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.1.2.1.

Soil Classification. aviation control towers. III. vertical elements of seismic force-resisting system spaced at < 40 ft.5. and whether or not it is regular or irregular – all of which are explained below. and 3) dynamic analysis procedure.3 and 20. appropriate soil properties are permitted to be estimated by the registered design professional preparing the soils report based on known geologic conditions. The following table summarizes the permissible analysis procedures. Areas of U.4.6(1) and 1613. It is optional for these simple buildings.6-2.1. If a building is assigned SDC A. Occupancy Category III is also assigned to: • Nonessential utility facilities.1]. Occupancy Category IV includes hospitals and acute care facilities. Occupancy Category II is assigned to most buildings.5].5 to determine the Occupancy Category [ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1. undrained shear strength. a building's fundamental period needs to be determined.75g. but it should be kept in mind that the design forces will be higher than those calculated using one of the other two methods. Site Class D can be used unless the building official determines that Site Class E or F soil is likely to be present at the site. II or III structures are assigned to SDC E. D. See ASCE 7-05 Section 12. ASCE 7-05 Section 20. All of the design requirements applicable to such a building are found in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.1. Occupancy Category I.4-1.5.1] indicates that the building is to be assigned the more severe SDC in accordance with the two tables. police and emergency response stations.5. or 5 of ASCE 7-05 Table 12. unless the structure is located where S1 > 0. The simplified design procedure is in stand-alone ASCE 7-05 Section 12.5] makes the following allowance for situations where soil properties are not known: When the soil properties are not known in sufficient detail to determine the site class. 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 3. If that is the case.2 [ASCE 7-05 Section 20. or IV.14 (2003 NEHRP Provisions Alternative Simplified Chapter 4).2]. F horizontal irregularities Type 2. • T used to calculate story drift < Ts. and • Jails and detention facilities. SDS is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods and is calculated as follows: SDS = (2/3)(Fa)(Ss).5. and Occupancy Category IV structures are assigned to SDC F. Each subsequent SDC letter assignment (B through F) means an increase in seismic performance requirements. STEP 4 DETERMINE ANALYSIS PROCEDURES Occupancy Category I Three types of analysis procedures can be used in the seismic design of a building according to ASCE 7-05: 1) simplified design procedure. or for diaphragms that are flexible.skghoshassociates.6 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1. restrictions on irregular buildings. fire. P NP P P . 20.4. standard penetration resistance. height limits. the SDC establishes permissible structural systems. The soil needs to be classified as Site Class A.3(1) [ASCE 7-05 Table 11. Occupancy Category. temporary facilities and minor storage facilities that represent a low hazard to human life in the event of failure.5.4-2]. visit www.6-1 (Summarized) SDC B. 4. or F in accordance with 2006 IBC Section 1613. • Upper-bound design base shear is used in design.5]. 20. Although 2006 IBC Section 1613.6(1) to be used to determine Irregular structures with T < 3.1.3-1] and is a function of the site class and Ss.6(2) should be used for the SDC determination [ASCE 7-05 Tables 11. it is assigned to buildings not otherwise classified as Occupancy Category I. the following items first need to be determined: 1. In order to determine the SDC.3-2.8Ts where Ta is the approximate fundamental period of the structure and Ts = SD1/SDS.4-2. C Structural Characteristics All structures Regular structures with T < 3. The Fv value is obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613. there is an exception in this section that allows only Table 1613.1 for 12 limitations that must be met in order for the simplified design procedure to be used [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section Alt. as does Ts.75g (shown in red) For areas outside the conterminous United States. and • Buildings with total occupancy greater than 5000 people. NP indicates not permitted.5 Ts and all structures of light-frame construction Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure P P Dynamic Analysis Procedure P P II III IV Once SDS. structures containing highly toxic materials.2 and Table 1613.5. Furthermore. 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 3. SECRETS OF THE CODEMASTER: 2006 IBC Section 1613. 2) equivalent lateral force procedure. SD1 is the 5-percent-damped design spectral response acceleration at 1second period and is calculated as follows: SD1 = (2/3)(Fv)(S1). Among other code requirements. • Ta < 0. 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 3. 2006 IBC Tables 1613. regular layout.1].5. Occupancy Category III is for buildings with large numbers of persons such as: • Schools with more than 250 students.4-1 and 1. Use 2006 IBC Table 1604. 2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 3. The Fa value is obtained from 2006 IBC Table 1613.com/CMSDC Once the SDC is determined. E.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4. it is important to understand the impact such a classification has on the seismic design of the building. All other structures P indicates permitted. 3.75g at site of structure.1. B. • Diaphragms are rigid. In order to use this table. The conditions that a structure must satisfy for this relaxation to be applicable are: • S1 < 0. Permissible analysis procedures for buildings not qualifying for the simplified design procedure are set forth in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.6 [ASCE 7-05 Section 11. Occupancy Category is a term used to describe the category of structures based on occupancy or use. 2003 NEHRP Provisions uses Seismic Use Group in accordance with Section 1.5. with S1 > 0. and requirements for nonstructural components. C. The procedure is limited in its applicability to simple and redundant Occupancy Category I and II structures not exceeding 3 stories where the seismic force-resisting elements are arranged in a torsion-resistant.7 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 1.14. permitted analysis procedures. E. The following table summarizes Occupancy Category assignments: Nature of Category Occupancy Category I is assigned to agricultural facilities.4. and utilities required for essential facilities.2 [ASCE 7-05 Sections 11. Site class definitions are dependent on soil parameters such as shear wave velocity. SDC if certain conditions are met. and soil profile descriptions. ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2. 2. 2003 NEHRP Provisions Tables 1.6-1 and 11. SDS and SD1. detailing requirements. this means that the building has a minimal seismic vulnerability.S.1 includes the following statement: Where site-specific data are not available to a depth of 100 feet.3-1 or vertical irregularities Type 4 or 5 of ASCE 7-05 Table 12.5Ts and having D. only bearing wall and building frame systems qualify to use the procedure.4.5. • Assembly uses with more than 300 people. 4. It is a conservative method of determining design forces for certain simple buildings. SD1 and the Occupancy Category have been determined. 3.3-2] and is a function of the site class and S1.3(2) [ASCE 7-05 Table 11.STEP 3 DETERMINE SEISMIC DESIGN REQUIREMENTS (SDC) The SDC assigned to a building is a classification based on its occupancy or use and the level of expected soil-modified seismic ground motion at its site.

it must be designed using a dynamic analysis procedure. Horizontal Irregularity Type 4: OUT-OF-PLANE OFFSETS Horizontal Irregularity Type 5: NONPARALLEL SYSTEMS Out-of-plane offset irregularity exists when there are discontinuities in the vertical elements of the lateral forceresisting system.to 20-story height range that T may be greater than 3. Once the design using base shear computed from T=Ta has progressed to a certain stage.8-2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 5. and • Not of light-frame construction. if a building meets all of the following conditions.3-3]. However. of a building may be taken equal to Ta. the rationally computed T is still limited (except in drift computations) to no more than CuTa.c.26 second to 0. 2 or 3.8-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 5.5 second. T.2-2]. as given in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.2 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ Δ +Δ 1 2 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ • Torsional irregularity is to be considered only when diaphragms are not flexible.15.2.5 Ts. and • Contains one of the following irregularities: horizontal irregularity type 1a or 1b or vertical irregularity type 1a.4 ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ Δ +Δ 1 2 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ • Extreme torsional irregularity is to be considered only when diaphragms are not flexible. depending on the structural system. Also. the approximate period can vary from 0. the value of the fundamental period may be refined through rational analysis. For any building one to three stories in height. of a Building The fundamental period. Ts is shown in ASCE 7-05 Figure 11. Note: For a three-story building with hn equal to 30 feet.1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5.3-15] and is illustrated as follows: Horizontal Irregularity Type 2: REENTRANT CORNER Horizontal Irregularity Type 3: DIAPHRAGM DISCONTINUITY a b re-entrant corner d c Re-entrant corner irregularity exists when both projection b > 0.43 second.1]: Ta = Cthxn where hn is the height in feet above the base to the highest level of the structure and the parameters Ct and x are determined from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.15a and projection d > 0.8.4-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Figure 3. How to Determine Ts Ts is the period at which the flat-top portion of the response spectrum transitions to the descending (period-dependent) branch. T.2.2. HORIZONTAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES Horizontal Irregularity Type 1a: TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY Δ2 Δ1 • Torsional irregularity exists when Δ 2 ⎛ > 1. It is not until a building is in the 17.How to Determine the Fundamental Period. where Cu is a coefficient given in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. Nonparallel systems irregularity exists where the vertical lateral force-resisting elements are not parallel to or symmetric about the major orthogonal axes of the seismic force-resisting system.5(a)(b) or effective diaphragm stiffness changes more than 50% from one story to the next. b opening a Diaphragm discontinuity exists when area of opening > 0.3-2 define the different horizontal and vertical structural irregularities [2003 NEHRP Provisions Tables 4. E or F and has a T > 3.3-2 and 4. What is important to note is that if a building is SDC D. E or F. 1b. T will always be less than 3. .2-1]. A typical value of Ts is 0.3-1 and 12.5 Ts. Horizontal Irregularity Type 1b: EXTREME TORSIONAL IRREGULARITY Δ2 Δ1 • Extreme torsional irregularity exists when Δ 2 ⎛ > 1. it must be designed using a dynamic analysis procedure: • SDC D. ASCE 7-05 Tables 12.5 Ts. VERTICAL STRUCTURAL IRREGULARITIES Vertical Irregularity Type 1a: SOFT STORY Stiff resisting elements How to Determine if Building is Irregular? soft story Soft story irregularity exists when soft story stiffness < 70% story stiffness above or < 80% of the average stiffness of 3 stories above.

I = 1. It is also the reduction in seismic force demand in proportion to the perceived ductility of a given structural system (ductility is the ability of a structure to continue to carry gravity loads as it deforms laterally beyond the stage of elastic response). The following table illustrates the different types of seismic force-resisting systems addressed in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. The seismic importance factor represents an attempt to control the seismic performance capabilities of buildings in different occupancy categories. (See ASCE 7-05 Table 11.3. and an Occupancy Category IV structure is assigned I = 1.2. An Occupancy Category I or II structure is assigned I = 1.3. Further discussion of the simplified design procedure and discussion of the dynamic analysis procedures are beyond the scope of this CodeMaster.3.2 Vertical Irregularity Type 5a: WEAK STORY Stiff resisting elements Weak story Weak story irregularity exists when the story lateral strength < 80% lateral strength of story above. I Extreme weak story irregularity exists when the story lateral strength < 65% lateral strength of story above.2 Section 12.1 Section 4.1.5-1 and 2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 1.2.2. Gravity Loads Stiff Resisting Elements (Shear Walls) Ordinary Moment Frame Lateral Forces Lateral Forces Shear Wall-Frame Interactive System Cantilevered Column System A system in which lateral forces are resisted entirely by columns acting as cantilevers from the base The following table provides sections indicating how to determine R-values for different combinations. Stiff Resisting Elements (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Building Wall System Gravity Loads (supported by frames) Vertical Irregularity Type 3: VERTICAL GEOMETRIC IRREGULARITY b > 1.50 results in increasing the design seismic force by 50 percent. The seismic importance factor is related to the Occupancy Category. As will be seen in Step 7. Gravity Loads Gravity Loads Lateral Forces Vertical Irregularity Type 2: WEIGHT (MASS) IRREGULARITY Lateral Forces Heavy mass Stiff Resisting Elements (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Bearing Wall System Gravity Loads Lateral Forces Lateral Forces Weight irregularity exists when story mass > 150% adjacent story mass (a roof that is lighter than the floor below need not be considered).1.3.1 Section 4. a Vertical geometric irregularity exists when horizontal dimension of lateral-force-resisting system in story > 130% of that in adjacent story.2.1 Section 4. which sets forth the R-values [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4. The importance factor modifies the minimum base shear forces and reflects the relative importance assigned to the occupancy during and following an earthquake.3-1 for importance factor assignments).2. offset is greater Length of than the lengths of lateralthose elements or forcethere exists a resisting reduction in element = a stiffness of resisting elements in the story below.1 Section 12. .2 2003 NEHRP Section 4.2-1.3a b Moment-Resisting Frame System Stiff Resisting Elements (Shear Walls or Braced Frames) Dual Systems with Moment Frames (Moment frames resist at least 25% of the design seismic forces) Gravity Loads Vertical Irregularity Type 4: VERTICAL DISCONTINUITY IN VERTICAL LATERALFORCE RESISTING ELEMENTS a a a In-plane discontinuity in Stiff resisting vertical lateralforce-resisting elements elements exists In plane when the in-plane offset = 2a.2. Horizontal Combinations of Framing Systems Vertical Irregularity Type 5b: EXTREME WEAK STORY Stiff resisting elements Weak story STEP 6 DETERMINE SEISMIC IMPORTANCE FACTOR.0.3. Combination Description Framing Systems in Different Directions Framing Systems in Same Horizontal Direction Vertical Combinations of Framing Systems ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3 Section 12.2.25 results in increasing the design seismic force by 25 percent and I = 1.3.25. The R-value represents a relative rating of the ability of a structural system to resist severe earthquake ground motion without collapse.3-1]. The equivalent lateral force procedure is discussed in the following steps.Vertical Irregularity Type 1b: EXTREME SOFT STORY STEP 5 DETERMINE R.5. RESPONSE MODIFICATION COEFFICIENT Stiff resisting elements Extreme soft story Extreme soft story irregularity exists when soft story stiffness < 60% story stiffness above or < 70% of the average stiffness of 3 stories above. an Occupancy Category III structure is assigned I = 1.1.1.2.

with a high degree of probability.1] requires that the following loads be included in the effective seismic weight. A k exponent larger than 1 places a greater proportion of the base shear in the upper stories. The building site needs to be located on the applicable map to determine TL. An example of this distribution is shown in the figure below.3. or (2) create an extreme torsional irregularity.STEP 7 DETERMINE SEISMIC BASE SHEAR. the period is less than 0. V Hi V= .5 sec < T < 2. ASCE 705 Section 12.1[2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5. structures with redundant seismic force-resisting systems have performed better than those with little or no redundancy. n stories high Distribution of Seismic Forces V = 0. (For areas outside the conterminous United States. and C. k=1 For structures with T > 2.3] describes how the seismic base shear is distributed over the height of the structure.2. the seismic base shear is determined by the following equation: SDS W R/I SDS is determined in Steps 1 and 3. V= For structures assigned to SDC D.to three-story building addressed in this CodeMaster will qualify as a short-period building and.4 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4. the distribution of seismic forces will be linear. compared with a linear distribution produced by a k value of 1. therefore.3-16 through 3.5 sec. V STEP 8 DISTRIBUTE V OVER THE HEIGHT OF THE BUILDING The following seismic base shear equation is given in ASCE 7-05 Section 12. The redundancy coefficient is applied as necessary to increase the effect of the horizontal earthquake ground motion to compensate for the lack of structural redundancy in the seismic force-resisting system. The story forces are computed as follows: Fx = Cvx V Where: C vx = w x hk x n ∑ w ihki i=1 Areas of storage (other than 25 percent of floor live load public garages and open parking garages) Building with partitions Buildings with roofs designed for snow 10 psf or actual weight. The following map is the TL map for the conterminous United States: The redundancy coefficient reflects the multiple load path concept – that of providing more than one alternate path for every load to travel from its point of application to the ultimate point of resistance.3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5. 100 percent of operating weight For structures with T < 0.5 seconds.2 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5. and W is the seismic weight of the building as described in this step.6g V= SD1TLW (R/I)T 2 V Building.3. I is determined in Step 6. T TL STEP 9 DETERMINE REDUNDANCY COEFFICIENT. k can be 2 or can be determined by linear interpolation between 1 and 2. 20 percent of the design snow load needs to be included. the value of the redundancy coefficient equals 1. where S1 > 0.to three-story building.8. The first condition involves showing that the removal of an individual seismic force-resisting element will not cause: (1) the remaining structure to suffer a reduction in story strength of more than 33 percent. .5S1W R/I Level i Wi Design Base Shear. therefore.2. In addition to the obvious dead load of the structure.7. depending upon the location. ρ The period TL is given in ASCE 7-05 Figures 22-15 through 22-20 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Figures 3. R is determined in Step 5. E or F. The second condition applies only to a structure that is regular in plan at all levels and requires that the seismic force-resisting system consists of at least two bays of seismic forceresisting perimeter framing on each side of the structure in each orthogonal direction at each story resisting more than 35 percent of the base shear. Fn Permanent equipment Cs is calculated according to one of three equations depending on the period of the structure as illustrated in the following figure (there are also minimum base shear requirements for long-period structures): V= SDSW R/I Fi Hn V= SD1W (R/I)T 0. For a one. whichever is greater Where flat roof snow loads are greater than 30 psf. regardless of actual roof slope. The redundancy coefficient does not apply (meaning that it may be taken equal to 1) in SDCs A.2.5 sec. be attached to the structure at the time of the earthquake. W: Description Include in Seismic Weight ASCE 7-05 Section 12. which ranges between 4 and 16 seconds. unless it can be shown that one of two described conditions is met.3-21]. visit www. ρ. Just as regular structures have proven themselves to outperform irregular structures in earthquakes.skghoshassociates.3.5 second. B. to account for higher modes of vibration in structures having fundamental periods exceeding 0. ASCE 7-05 Section 12.3] describes how to determine the redundancy coefficient. k = 2 For structures with 0.1]: V = CsW where Cs is the seismic response coefficient W is the weight of the building plus that of any contents that could.5 sec. seismic design forces for structures assigned to these seismic design categories are therefore unaffected by the redundancy of the seismic force-resisting system.com/CMSDC) The typical one.8.01W T1 = SD1/SDS Period.

9) . 2006 IBC Eq.2 + 0.007hsx 0. which is to limit damage to drift-sensitive nonstructural elements.2)(1. shear forces.020hsx 0. For structures assigned to SDC C and higher.2-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.(1)(150) = -10 ft-kips The shear wall needs to be reinforced to carry these bending moments at the cross-section in question. 16-5 – Additive) (2006 IBC Eq. This accounts for torsional effects.1 contains drift control requirements [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 4. If.8. etc.2SDS)D .2.2-1 (2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4.2SDS)D + f1L + f2S + ρQE (0.6 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Section 5. If the bending moments in a shear wall cross-section due to dead loads. The first step is to determine δxe. Some reasons for limiting drift are: 1) to control member inelastic strain. STEP 11 CHECK DRIFT CONTROL REQUIREMENTS The interstory drift expected to be caused by the design earthquake is limited by the code. The drift limit for a hospital is half that for an office building on the same site. These other code requirements cover: direction of loading.2 in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Section12. except that the factored snow load effect. The allowable stresses may be increased by a factor of 1.c.9D + 1. What is Em? Em is the maximum seismic load effect and is required for the design of certain elements critical to the stability of the structure. it is checked against the allowable story drift set forth in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. the deflections.6].6H (2006 IBC Eq. This maximum load effect generated in a building can be much greater than those due to the designlevel force.12-1 for footnotes.STEP 10 DETERMINE SEISMIC LOAD EFFECTS. the elastically computed lateral deflection at floor level x under code-prescribed seismic forces (the design base shear. 16-7 – Counteractive) In other words. The design story drift.12.2) + (0. This is consistent with the intent of the drift limit. Δ. deformation compatibility.6H (2006 IBC Eq.5.0E + 1. CLOSING COMMENTS This CodeMaster has presented the step-by-step process required to complete seismic design as it relates to the seismic design demands.0. the design story drift. 16-5 – Additive) (2006 IBC Eq.010hsx 0.(0.4. Em= Ω0QE ± 0.2 and 12. with horizontal irregularities 1a or 1b. Many other code requirements need to be addressed when completing the entire seismic design of a building.3.0 with a bearing wall system consisting of shear walls used for the seismic forceresisting system and f1 =1. snow loads and horizontal earthquake forces are 200 ft-kips. must be combined with the effects of gravity (bending moments. 4 stories or less with interior walls. the design moments (required flexural strengths) by the strength design load combinations (IBC Equations 16-5 and 16-7) are: Mu = [(1. a. respectively. Em is used in the additive and the counteractive load combinations the same way as E. ASCE 7-05 TABLE 12.0) located where SDS = 1. the two load combinations applicable in seismic design are: 1. are multiplied by the deflection amplification factor. Next. nonstructural components. the consideration of vertical earthquake ground motion increases the dead load factor in the additive load combination and decreases it in the counteractive load combination.010hsx See ASCE 7-05 Table 12. snow loads. (because the actual lateral deflections will be greater under the design earthquake excitation) and divided by I in accordance with the following equation: δx = Cd δxe/ I Cd is set forth in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. f2S. If such buildings are more than four stories tall.4. Em is determined using the same procedure as for determining E.0)](200) .5-1]. however. b Occupancy Category I or II III IV c 0. partitions. adjustments need to be made if allowable stress design is used. For strength design.2.0. axial forces caused by the dead. What is E? E is the combined effect of horizontal and vertical earthquake-induced forces and is quantified by the following equation: ρ: Determined in Step 9 SDS: Determined in Steps 1 and 3 D: Design Dead Load The special seismic load combinations set forth in IBC Section 1605.2. is computed as the largest difference of the deflections along any of the edges of the diaphragms at the top and the bottom of the story under consideration. It is important and necessary to do this because the drift limits of ASCE 7-05 and the 2003 NEHRP Provisions are a function of the occupancy of a structure.) using the design load combinations set forth in 2006 IBC Section 1605 [ASCE 7-05 Section 2.015hsx d 0. P-Δ effects. is typically not included in the additive combination. such buildings are four stories or less in height. columns or other elements supporting reactions from discontinuous shear walls or frames. and material specific requirements.3-1]. ASCE 7-05 Section 12.12-1 ALLOWABLE STORY DRIFT. is computed as the difference of the deflections δx at the centers of mass of the diaphragms at the top and the bottom of the story under consideration. For example.2SDSD Ωo is the overstrength factor and increases the design-level internal forces to represent the actual forces that may be experienced by an element as a result of the design-level ground motion.2.12-1 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Table 4. 2) to minimize differential movement demand on the seismic safety elements. With incorporation of the expression for E. and batter piles and their connections.1]. Δ. V.010hsx 0. Drift determination is addressed in ASCE 7-05 Section 12.b. Because Em is a strength-level force effect.2)(1. δxe. other than masonry shear wall structures. 16-5 is the additive load combination in which gravity effects add to earthquake effects.2] address the determination of E and Em. live loads.d E = ρQE ± 0. the designer has a choice between two drift limits: (1) where nonstructural elements have been designed to accommodate the story drift (less stringent) and (2) all other structures (more stringent). 16-7 is the counteractive load combination in which gravity effects counteract earthquake effects (the plus sign includes the minus and the minus sign governs).020hsx 0.0E + f1L + f2S 0.015hsx 0. Δa Structure Structures.9 . 0 ft-kips and 150 ft-kips.007hsx 0. distributed along the height of the structure in the manner prescribed by the code).3 [2003 NEHRP Provisions Sections 4. 60 ft-kips.1 and 4. and 3) to limit damage to nonstructural elements. consider a fully redundant structure (ρ = 1. structural component load effects. the last row applies.2 S DS D { 1 24 4 3 Effect of horizontal earthquake ground motion Effect of vertical earthquake ground motion The structural effects of the earthquake forces.2D + 1.3. 16-7 – Counteractive) 2006 IBC Eq. Ωo is obtained from ASCE 7-05 Table 12.ρQE + 1.4 are required for such elements as collectors. the above load combinations become: (1. E AND EM ASCE 7-05 Sections 12. inspections.007hsx 0.010hsx 0. ceilings and exterior wall systems that have been designed to accommodate the story drifts. Masonry cantilever shear wall structures Other masonry shear wall structures All other structures a. foundations. live.025hsx 0. no corresponding section in the 2003 NEHRP Provisions]. .0)]( 200) + 60 + (1)(150) = 490 ft-kips Mu = [(0. The first and the last rows of the table apply to buildings other than masonry shear wall buildings.3-1). I is in the denominator of the equation to eliminate I from the drift computation (remember that the code-prescribed seismic forces that produced δxe were originally augmented by I).0. shear forces and axial forces caused by them. meaning the bending moments. Cd. Once the drift is computed. detailing.2.4.

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