y A conjunction is a word that "joins". y A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence. y Coordinating Conjunctions:

and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so y Subordinating Conjunctions: although, because, since, unless

y Conjunctions have three basic forms: y Single Word

for example: and, but, because, although y Compound (often ending with as or that) for example: provided that, as long as, in order that y Correlative (surrounding an adverb or adjective) for example: so...that

y Conjunctions have two basic functions or "jobs": y Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two

parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. y The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example: - Jack and Jill went up the hill. - The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.

y Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a

subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example: - I went swimming although it was cold.

y Coordinating conjunctions always come

between the words or clauses that they join. y Subordinating conjunctions usually come at the beginning of the subordinate clause.

Coordinating Conjunctions
y The short, simple conjunctions are called

"coordinating conjunctions": and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so y A coordinating conjunction joins parts of a sentence (for example words or independent clauses) that are grammatically equal or similar. y A coordinating conjunction shows that the elements it joins are similar in importance and structure:

y I like [tea] and [coffee]. y [Ram likes tea], but [Anthony likes coffee]. y Coordinating conjunctions always

come between the words or clauses that they join.

y When a coordinating conjunction joins independent

clauses, it is always correct to place a comma before the conjunction: y I want to work as an interpreter in the future, so I am studying Russian at university. y However, if the independent clauses are short and well-balanced, a comma is not really essential: y She is kind so she helps people.

y When "and" is used with the last word of a list, a

comma is optional: y He drinks beer, whisky, wine, and rum. y He drinks beer, whisky, wine and rum.

Subordinating Conjunctions
y The majority of conjunctions are "subordinating

conjunctions". y Common subordinating conjunctions are: y after, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, while

y A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate

(dependent) clause to a main (independent) clause:
main or independent clause subordinate or dependent clause

Ram went swimming


it was raining.

subordinating conjunction

y A subordinating conjunction always comes at the

beginning of a subordinate clause. y It "introduces" a subordinate clause. y However, a subordinate clause can sometimes come after and sometimes before a main clause. y Thus, two structures are possible:

y Ram went swimming although it was raining. y Although it was raining, Ram went swimming.


y Interjection is a big name for a little word. y Interjections

are short exclamations like Oh!, Um or Ah! y They have no real grammatical value but we use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. y When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical connection to the sentence. y An interjection is sometimes followed by an exclamation mark (!) when written.

y expressing pleasure : "Ah, that feels good.³ y expressing realization: ³Ah, now I understand.³ y expressing resignation: "Ah well, it can't be helped.³ y expressing surprise: "Ah! I've won!"

y expressing grief or pity: "Alas, she's dead now."

y expressing pity: "Oh dear! Does it hurt?³ y expressing surprise: "Dear me! That's a surprise!"

y asking for repetition: "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said

it's hot today.´ y expressing enquiry: "What do you think of that, eh?´ y expressing surprise: "Eh! Really?´ y inviting agreement: "Let's go, eh?"

y expressing hesitation: "Lima is the capital"

hello, hullo.
y expressing greeting: "Hello John. How are you

today?´ y expressing surprise: "Hello! My car's gone!"

y calling attention: "Hey! look at that!´ y expressing surprise, joy etc: "Hey! What a good


y expressing greeting: "Hi! What's new?"

y expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement:

"Hmm. I'm not so sure."

oh, o
y expressing surprise: "Oh! You're here!´ y expressing pain: "Oh! I've got a toothache.´ y expressing pleading: "Oh, please say 'yes'!"

y expressing pain: "Ouch! That hurts!"

um, umm
y expressing hesitation: "85 divided by 5"

y expressing surprise: "Well I never!´ y introducing a remark: ³Well, what did he say?"