Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

faXJ' "" 0 Region 2:

~ "" 0.OOO9m2

za 0::; 0.045 m Ya ;= 0.015 m

2 1

faz =.!.(.03)(.03)3 = 67.5 x 10-9 m" 1 12

lay =.!.(.03K03)3 = 67.5 x 10-9 m" 2 12

la = 0

XJ2

Thus, for the composite region,

A=A, +~ = 0.0021 m2 121

YG = - Ly(J'i~ =--. [(0.04)(0.0012)+(0.015)(0.0009)] = 0.02929 m

A i=' 0.0021

1 2 1

zG = - L Z(J'1 A; = -. -.-[(0.03)(0.0012) + (0.045)(0,0009)] = 0.03643 m

A ;=) 0.0021

IG,= ~r/G'z, + (YG'i - YG)2 ~ ]=4.289XlO-9 rn"

IG~ =~rIOYi +(ZG'I-zatA;]=543.2XlO-9 m4 2

lap. = L[IOYZJ + (YG'I -YGXzG'; -ZG)A;]",,-192.9XI0-9 m"

,:1

Passing a transverse cutting plane through the section c at x = 50 em, isolating the portion of the of the beam between the free end and section c as a free body, and writing the equations of equilibrium, we have (referring to Figure 4.3.1 of the text)

L F = 0 : Pi - 50 kNi = 0 ==> P = 50 leN

LMc = 0: (n + Myj+ Mtk) + (-0.5 mi+ yoj+ ZGk) x (-50 kNi + 25 kNj + 10 kNk) = 0

~ T= -0.6179 kN -m My = ---6.821 kN -m Mz = 13.96 kN-m

From Equation 4.6.8 of the text,

a; = I I 1_1 2 [-(M/Gy + M/GJ<)(Y-YG)+(M,IG, +M/Gy;:XZ-ZG)]+ ~

Gy G, Gq

Substituting all of the computed quantities from abpve yields, after simplification,

(1", =-(45,46xl06)y-(28.70xl06)z+2.400x106 kN/m2

The neutral axis is the locus of points in the CfQSS section for which (1 x = 0, namely

Y = -O.6313z + 0.05281 (m)

The points A and B are farthest from the neutral axis. Substituting the coordinates of A and B into Equation (a),

Exercise 4.1 The cross section is resolved into two rectangles, as shown.

Region 1:

zG\ = 0.03 m Yo, = OJ)4 m

A, = 0.0012 m2

IG'~ =..!..(.06)(.02)3 = 40 X 10-9 m" , 12

lay =.!.(.02)(.06)3 =360xlO-9 m4 , 12

A

3cm 3cm

(a)

51

Cbapter4

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

••• Exercise 4.1 (continued) we get

A: y=0.05m, z=O.06m ~C1;'.)A =-1.594x106 kN/m2 B: y=O, z=0.03m ~C1,r)B =' 1.539xl06 kN/m2

Max. compressive stress. Max. tensile stress.

Exercise 4.2 The section is resolved into two identical rectangles. a semicircle, and a triangle, as sbown at the lower right,

Region 1:

Al = (2 -1.35) ·18 = 11.7 in2

lG', = 11 in.

YG' = 1.675 in.

,

IG'z, = 1~18(2-1.35)3 = 0.4119 in4

IG'y = _!_(2-1.35)(18)3 = 315.9 in" , 12

IG'y<, = 0

Region 2:

A2 =(2-1.35)·18=1l.7in2 zG', = 11 in.

YO', =-1.675 in.

IG' ~, = A 18(2 -1.35l =' 0.4119 in 4 Ic y = _!_ (2 -1.35XI8») ::; 315.9 in4

1 12

IO'YZ2 = 0

R~gjon4:

A4 =.!.. 4 ·10 == 20 in 2 2

ZO' = 18 + 2 + LIO = 23.33 in.

, 3

Ya.=Oin.

IG'z. = 2(1~ 10.23) = 13.33 in" I. =..!_4.103=1l1.1in4

O'y, 36

Icy •• = 0

For the composite section, 4

A = LA; = 49.68 in2

Region 3:

A3 = .!.n(2i = 6.283 in2 . 2

4·2

Za =2--=1.151 in.

, 3n

YG' = 0 in .

. ,

52

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

.•. Exercise 4.2 (continued)

lG, = ~[IO'z; + (YO', - Yo t A;] = 86.09 in" lG, = ~[IO'y; + (ZO'I - Za f A; J =: 3709 in"

4

lOr< = r[/O'yz; + (YO'i -YGXzO'; -za)A;]=O

1=1

There is no axial loading, so P = ° on any section. The resultant applied load in the y direction is

65 x 180 = 11,700 lb, acting at the point with coordinates (90 in., 2 in., 4.5 in.). The resultant of the applied load in the z direction is 25 x 180 = 4500 lb , acting at the point with coordinates (90 in., 0, 30 in.). Isolating the beam as a free body and summing moments about the centroid of the section at the wall, we get

(n + MyJ+ Mzk) + [(90 in. -180 in.)i+ (2 in.- yo)j+ (4.5 in. - Zo )k] x (11, 700 lb)j

+ [(90 in. -180 in.)i +(0 - Yo)j+ (30 in. - ZG)k] x (4500 Ib)k == 0

(n + Myj+ Mzk) + [(119,570 in -lb)i +(405,000 in -lb)j -(1,053.000 in -lb)k] = 0 From this we obtain

T == -119,570 in -lb My = --405,000 in -lb Mz = 1,053,000 in -lb

Substituting all of the above results into the flexure stress formula (the torque T is not required)

ax = 1 2 [-(Mio +M/o )(Y-Yo)+(M/o, +M/o 'IIz-Zo)]+ P

1010-10 Y r< ,,}\ A

Y' -'Y

shows that

ax = -12, 230y -109.2z + 1607 psi (a)

The neutral axis of the section is determined by setting a x = 0: Y = -D.008827z + 0.1314. This line is rotated only slightly away from the z axis. The points farthest from the neutral axis are A, with coordinates Z = 20 in. and Y = 2 in., and point B, with coordinates z = 2 in., Y = -2 in. Evaluating Equation (a) at those points yields

a X)A = -25,040 psi aX)B = 25,850 psi

Exercise 4.3 .. The shear flow due to pure bending acts along the mid surface of each thin wall. The resultants of these shear flows intersect at 0, so their net moment about 0 is zero. Therefore, 0 is the shear center.

v

r

'"L Unir onn wall thickness t (t« b)

0L-~

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Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Cbapter4

Exercise 4.4 By symmetry, both the shear center and the centroid of the section lie on the z-axis through the centroid, and lo = 0, To locate el, the z coordinate

y;:

of the shear center, we apply a positive (downward) unit load to the section and calculate the shear flow throughout. To do so, we use Equation 4,7.3 of the text. Since foy;: 0= Vz = 0 and V, = 1, that ex-

pression reduces to

.1q=~ fo

z

After computing the shear flow from a to

d, we calculate the moment of the shear flow about some point (we will use 0) and equate it to the moment of the unit shear force Vy about that same point, which yields fl,

Y

a

a

o"--------z

d

For the semicircular walls, we have 2r

vo =-Ya =r+- AJ=A3=1rrt

1 1 11:

whereas for the straight, vertical wall,

3 (11: 4)

fa =10' =rt---

Z, <, 2 11:

I 323

Ya3 = 0 A2 = 2rt fazl = 12t(2r) = 3"r t

Since Yo = 0, the moment of inertia of the composite section is

10, = [fatl +A1(YG1 -YG)2j+[IG'z2 +A2(YG2 -YG)2]+[fG'tJ + Al (YG'1 _YG)2j= 911:;26r3t

Thus

.1q= 3 ~ 911:+ 26 r3t

Recalling that Qt is the first area moment about the z axis of the section, for the the area of the arc of the circle shown in the figure above we have

9

Q<:l = f (r+ rsin 9)(trd9) = r2t(1+0-cosO) o

Since Liq = ql - qa = qj - 0 = 0, the shear flow as a function of 9 in wall 1 is

3 1+9-cos9

ql = 911:+26 r

This variable shear flow is directed counterclockwise around the semicircle from a to h. By symmetry, the shear flow q3 in the lower semicircle is directed counterclockwise from e to d and is given by the same formula, with 9 measured frome.

II:

The moment of the shear flow ql about 0 is Mq, )ok = J Rx (qJtrd9)t, where t (not to be confused with t, the wall o

thickness) is the unit vector tangent to the circle at O. From the figure above we see that

R = (ri + Ij)+ (rcosOi + rsin OJ) and t = -sinOi + cos9j

Therefore

54

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

••• Exercise4.4 (continued)

Mq. ) k = f1l'. {[r(l + cos8)i+ r(1 + sin8)j] x (-sin8i + COS8j)}( 3 1 + 8 - COS8)(trd8)

10 9n+26 r

o

Expanding the integrand, we find

Mq) "'" 3r (/l+/2+/3-.!../4+15+/6-/7)

! 0 9n+26 . . . 2

where

11' 2

12 = f 8dO = s:

o 2

11'

13 = J sinatO = 2 o

11'

14 = f sm28dO == 0 e

11'

Is = J OsinatB == n o

11'

16 = f B cos 6dB ""-2 o

11'

J 2 n

17 == COS (}dO =-

o 2

Thus

M ) == 3r n(n + 3)

'I, 0 9n+26 2

By symmetry, the moment about 0 of the shear flow in the bottom semicircle is the same, and the moment about 0 of the shear flow in the vertical wall is clearly zero. Therefore, the net moment of the shear flow about 0 is

M) =3n(n+3)r

'10 9n+26

The moment of the downward unit load through the shear center is 1 x e;:. Equating this moment to that of the shear flow yields

e = 3n(1l' + 3) r = l.066r (to the left of 0)

t 9n+26

Exercise 4.5 To solve this problem, we cut one of the webs to create an open section, and use Equation 4.7.3 of the text to find the shear flows equivalent to the 1000 lb shear force acting at the shear center of the cut section. We then shift the force to its actual location at the left wall by applying a pure torque T of appropriate magnitude and direction. which produces a constant shear flow around the section, given by (cf. text, Equation 2.5.11)

t 10001b Y

(a)

f4-- 6"-+-

@

Superimposing the flexural and torsional shear flow distributions yields that Uniform wall thickness = 0.1 " for the closed box.

Let us arbitrarily cut the right web at the lower right hand corner of the section, as shown below. Notice that the shear center, which coincided with the centroid G for the dosed box, shifts to a different location denoted by e in the figure. The new location of the shear center depends on the location of the cut, which can be placed anywhere.

55

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

•.• Exercise 4.5 (continued)

1000 lb (Shifted to shear center of the open section)

t ':I s2-+---t

T f+- 6"---+ @

s.c.. s3 @ G+TZ <!> s

L ® 3~' 11

e __( ~ S4 "--cut (gap width = 0)

Chapter 4

Shear stress (shear flow) is zero on the surfaces at the cut.

In this problem, ~ "" 0 ,and, by symmetry, In = O. So Equation 4.7.3 of the text becomes QzVy

L!q=--

t,

Vy = -1000 lb and i, "" 2(12x 0.1)(3)2 +2[1~ (O.IX6)3] = 25.2 in". Therefore,

L!q = -39.68Qz

G ..... ---~--:;:z .1 ..

H

L8]

q=O

Wall 1:

Let s, be the distance measured along the wall starting at the free surface of the cut, where q = 0, as shown at the right. To find Qz for the rectangular segment, simply determine the y-coordinate (paying close attention to sign) of its centroid relative to the neutral axis (the z-axis) of the cross section and multiply that number by the area of the segment. Thus, we see that

Qt =: [-(3- i)JO.1 XS1) = -O.05s1(6-s,)

Substituting Qz into Equation (c}-noting that L!q = q since q is zero at the beginning of the wall-yields

q = 1.984s1 (6 - SI) (d)

which shows that the shear flow in wall 1 varies parabolically and is zero at the top (SI =: 6") as well as at the cut (s, = 0).

WaU2:

The shear flow at the beginning of wall 2 (its right end) equals that at the top of wall 1, which is zero, so that, as in wall 1, the change L!q in the shear flow from the beginning of the wall to any interior point is just q at that point. From the figure at the right we see that Q1 for a segment of wall 2 is

Qz = (+3)(0.lx S2)' Substituting this into Equation (c) we get y

q = -11.90s2 (e)

a linear variation of shear flow, which takes a value of -142.8 Ib/in at the left

end(s2 =12").

(b)

(c)

G

Wall 3:

The shear flow at the beginning (top) of wall 3 is -142.8 lb/in since that is the shear flow at the left end of the top wall. L!q is found just as for wall 1; however, in this case the centroid of the wall segment is above the neutral axis,

so Qz will be positive instead of negative. Thus, t1tj = -1.984s3 (6 - S3)' so that

q = -142.8-1.984s3(6 - S3) (f)

56

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

, .. Exercise 4.5 (continued)

Wall 4:

From Equation (1), the shear flow at the bottom of wall 3-and therefore at the beginning of wall4--is -142.8 Ib/in. I1q will be the same as in the top wall except for a difference in sign because wa1l4 lies below the neutral axis (and therefore its Qz is negative). Thus

a= -142.8 + 1 1.9Os4 (g)

We now have the shear flow distribution around the cut cross section (counterclockwise flow positive) due to the 1000 lb shear force. The resultant shear force Rv in each wall is found by integrating the shear flow over its length,

i.e., Ry ""' f qds .

Wall 1:

3

Rv.. ""' f 1.984s, (6 - s, )ds, = 71.42 lb. o

'2

Rv,- = f (-11. 90s2)dr 2 = -856.8 lb. o

3

RY1 = f [-142.8-1.984S3(6- s3)ds3] = -928.2 lb. o

12.

Rv, = f (-142.8 + 11.90s4 )dS4 = -856.8 lb. o

Walt 2:

Wall 3:

Wall 4:

These resultant shear forces are shown at the right. The moment of these forces about A must equal the moment of the 1000 lb shear force about A. Taking positive moments counterclockwise,

~856.8· 6 + 71.42·12 = -1000e

so that e = 4.284", which locates the shear center of the cut section. The 1000 lb force is shifted to the left wall of the section (i.e., its twisting effect about point A is negated) by superimposing a pure 4284 inIb counterclockwise torque on the section. See below .

10001b

!

856.81b

11' 12" If

928.21b ~6"71.'21b

"-----y-----J.A-~B~5~6~.B~1~b ~ __ 1IIIi

e

.,'OOOlb .,10001b .,10001b
I I I
: 4.284" 4.284": I q2
856.8 III I
: r-"'--. r-"'--.: I
I ---
97:.2 Ibo11 U'L42 III + • I I q3~1 I~ q,
I 0qT
I
I
I
I
A t A A ~.....,...'........,....
nS.8lb 1000lb q4 Pure flexure on cut section

Pure torsion on closed section

Resultant shear flows: on closed section

From Equation (a) we get

qr "'" 4284 '" 29.75 Ib/in (clockwise) 2(6x12)

(h)

57

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

.. .Exercise 4.5 (continued)

which is constant around the section. Superimposing this shear flow onto those in Equations (d) through (g) yields

Wall 1:

q = 29.75 + 1.984s1 (6 - $1)

Wall 2:

q = 29.75-11.90s2

Wall 3:

Wall 4:

«= -113.1 + 11.9Os4

-113

4'.6

This shear flow distribution (lb/in) is sketched below.

+1

~ ~ ~_~29.8

_'13~O

-131

---- ---- "'"'-

1 .... ---- ....... ~

1 t

1 .... -~~----lllllllIII ~

-- - -

29.8

+

-113

-+ 29.8

_113~

-41. ,

o

Exercise 4.6 Since this is an open section, we fast place the load P at the shear center, which, by symmetry, lies on the z axis (ez will have to be determined later on). Then we can use Equation 4.7.3 of the text to compute the purely flexural shear flows. By symmetry, and since Vz = 0, Equation 4.7.3 reduces to

ttq = Qz Vy = _ QzP

t, I z

where t, = 2C~ tb3 )+2[(bt)(%rl=~b3t. Thus

An = Qz Yy = _ 3P Q """1 I 2b3t z z

y

PI r

s.c. + 17

L,f--+-' ~b""___--ilg

c
[iW ., 11
~
17/2
.0 a
~ G h
5
~ 11
J4).
-' Unifonn wall thickness I (1« b)

Wall 1:

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Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapi

••• Exercise 4.6 (continued) S 1

Q. = (Sjt)..;.!..=-Sj2t

• 2 2

3P 1 2 . 3P 2

.1q = ql - qll ==> ql - 0 = - 2b3t 2' SI t ==> ql = - 4b3 SI

From this we obtain the shear flow at c: q, = - :~ . The resultant shear force on the wall is

btl P

Rv, = J qjds, =--

'0 32

The minus sign means Rv, acts in the direction opposite 10 increasing SI' i.e., downward.

WaU2:

b I

Qz = (S2t) 2 = 2bs2t

3P 3P I 3P

ilq = ql - qc ==> q2 + - = --3--bs2t => q2 = - 16-b2 (452 + b)

" . - . 16b 2b t 2

From this, the shear flow at dis qd = - ~!~ . The resultant shear force is

b 9P .

Rv = Jq2ds2 = ---- (Acts to the nght)

1 0 16

Wall 3:

Q, = (S3t)(% - i) = ~s3(b - 53)

I5P 3P [/ ] 3P ( . 2. 2)

.1q = q3 - qd => q3 + - = --.-3 '. -S3(b- 53) => q3 = ---3 ---453' + 4bS3 + 5b

16b 2b t 2 16b

Therefore, atfthe shear flow is q/ = - I5P . The resultant shear force is 16b

b 17P

Rv. = J q3d53 = - - (Acts upwards)

J 0 16

Wall 4:

Qt = (S4t( -%) = -~bS4t

15P 3P [1] 3P

ilq=q4-qf~q4+-"'--· -,3- --bs4t ~ q4=---2(---4s4+5b)

16b 2b t 2 16b'

3P -

It follows that at g, qg = - -, '-. The res ultant shear force is 16b

b. 9P

Rv == J q 4ds4 = - - (Acts tothe left)

• 0 16

Wall 5:

3P (2 . 2)

~ q5= - 16b3 4S5 - 4b55 + b

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Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

•.• Exercise 4.6 (continued) The resultant shear force is

bf2 P

Rv, = f qsdss = - 32 (Acts downward) o

The maximum shear flow is :: (upward) at the midpoint of wall 3. Therefore, keeping in mind that the stress distribution is due to pure flexure with the load P applied at the shear center, we have

9P

1'max ) pure flexure = 8bt

To locate the shear center, we require moment equivalence of the flexural shear flows and the applied load P about, say, point!

-Pe = Rv.b+Rv b+Rv. b=b(--P __ 9P P)

z I 2 ~ 32 16 32

5

ez = gb To the left of O.

In order to shift the load P from the shear center to its true line of action through O. we must superimpose a CDIHlterclockwise torque equal to Pe., as illustrated below.

Pt

~======::::;-]

o

s.c, + ·0

I-ei-'

+

The maximum shear stress in the open section due to pure torsion is given by Equation 4.4.20 of the text. The torsion constant J of the section is

5 1 1 (b b) 4

J= L-~t? =_t3 -+b+b+b+- =-bt3

i=13 3 2 2 3

Then

(5Pb}

t =Tt= 8 =~P

max ) torsion J 4 3 32 f

-bt

3

At point 0, this shear stress is in the same direction as f ~ •• ) fI at the inner surface. Thus

,,- pure exure

9P 15 P

'l' ='l') +1') =-+--

max max pure flexure max torsion 8bt 32 t2

9P( 5b) .

r., .. ) ,= - 1 + -- (At the inner surface at 0)

,,- open seenon 8b t 12 t

If there is slit in the right wall, then the counterclockwise torque required to shift the load P from the shear center produces a uniform counterclockwise shear flow around the closed section:

(5Pb)

T 8 5 P

qr=2A= 2(b2) =16b

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Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

•• .Exerctse 4.6 (continued)

This shear flow must be superimposed on the flexural shear flows computed above for each of the five walls. Thus

3P 2 5 P P (. 2 2)

ql "=' ~-. -3 Sl +-- = --3 ~12s1 + 5b .

4b· 16 b 16b

3P . 5 P P

q2 = ~--d4s2 +b)+-- = _. -2 (~S2 +b)

16b 16 b 8b

3P ( .2 . 2) 5 P

q3 = ---3 -4s3 +4bs3 + 5b +--

16b 16 b

3P 5 P

q4 = ---2 (-4S4 +5b)+--

16b 16 b

3P ( 2 b 2) 5 P P ( .2 b2)

qs =---3 4ss -4 S5 +h +-- = --r ~ss +6bss +

16b 16 b 8b

The variation of these shear flows (assuming positive counterclockwise) is sketched below. It is seen that the maxi-

mum shear flow occurs at the middle of the left wall, at point 0, and has the value qrrru ;= Q P, directed upwards. 16 b

Therefore, the maximum shear stress in the closed section is

~ DUX )C]Osed section ;= *fr ;= * (* fr )

Clearly, the maximum shear stress in the open section is significantly greater than that in the closed section. In fact,

~max)open _ 18(~E.+ 1)

~ max ) closed section - 13 12 t

For example, if b=lOt, then ~max) =7.15rmax)] ell .•

open c os section

Example 4.7

T q=tr: .. 2A

A=(0.2~0.25).0.8+~( 1r.0.4. 0~5)= 0.2585 m2

T 10

q=-= .. .. . =19.34kN/m

2A 2·0.2585

t----80 cmr----"I

I'

20 em

=-- __ ..___ ......... _-=- _l

Exercise 4.8 The origin of the coordinates is chosen to be at flange 1,

Al = 0.0015 m2 YI = 0

A2 = o.cm m 2 A3 = 0.002 m2 A4 = 0.0025 m 2

Y2 =0

Y3 = 0.002 m Y4 = 0.3 m

z, =0

Z2 = 0.75 m Z3 = 0.75 m

15emR

SkNi

I

I

:Wem23

q.,4)

.oIL cf3) 1

er q.,2)

~-=~~_~~=I)==~_~.~

_-., --z

1115cm1 locm212

. 75cm---

The centroid G of the section is located using the above data: 141

Ya = -4-·L.A;Yi =--·-·0.00135= 0.1929 m

LA; ;",1 0.007

;",1

1 4 1

ZG =-4- L ~Zi = _. -.-·0.00225 = 0.3214 m

LA; ;"'1 0.007

;=1

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Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Cbapter4

••• Exercise 4.8 (continued)

The centroidal moments of inertia are 4

lay = I.(z; - za)2 A, = 964.6 X 10-6 m"

i=1 4

laz = L,(Yi - Ya)2 A, = 144.6 x 10-6 m"

;=1 4

10 = L,(Yi - Ya)(Zj -ZG)A, = 16.07 X 10-6 m"

,. ;=1

We use Equation 4.8.2,

p;(i) = 1 2 [(IG Vy-IG Vz\iY;-YG)+(IGz~-la Yy)(Zi-Za))it;

IG J a - TG y ,. f\ )'t

y;: )'t

together with Vy = -5000 N and ~ = 0 and the results of the above calculations to get the flange load gradients at

each stringer:

p,(1) = 9740 NIm F.,(2l = 6926 N/m p,(3) = -6926 N/m p,(4) = -9740 N/m

x . x x x

Then using Equation 4.8.3 ("shear flow out equals shear flow in plus flange load gradient") at flanges 2, 3 and 4, we obtain

q(2) = q(l) + p;(2) = q(l) + 6926

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(l) + 6926) _ 6926 = q(l) q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = q(1) -9740

For moment equivalence about flange 1,

(q(2) _'0.3). 0.75 + (q(3). 0.75).0.3 + '~1r' 0.152 )q(4) = 5000· 0.75

0.225( q(l) + 6926) + 0.225q(1) + 0.02251r(q(I) - 9740) = 3750 0.5207q(l) + 869.9 = 3750 => q(l) = 5531 N/m

Thus

q(l) = 5531 N/m q(2l = 12,458 N/m q(3) = 5531 N/m q(4) = --4209 N/m

A minus sign means the shear flow is opposite to the direction shown on the above sketch.

Exercise 4.9 It is clear from symmetry that the centroid lies at the center of the rectangle, which is the chosen origin of the coordinate system. Lumping each wall area equally to its ends yields the following concentrated areas:

A, = A2 = A3 = A4 = .!.(6. 0.1 + 12·01) = 0.9 in2 2

Since I yz = 0 and "i = 0, Equation 4.8.2 for the flange load gradient reduces

to

+ 1000 Ib

I Y
1-6" G"-----j
3 :2
T
~ qO' q(2) q(1) 3"
G ..... t
"'l1lI j"
q(4)
- t Clearly,

y,=-3in. Y2 = 3 in. Y3 = 3 in. Y4 = -3 in.

Z, =6 in. Z2 = 6 in. Z3 = -6 in. Z4 = -6 in.

4

1

Uniform wall thickness = 0.1"

62

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

•• .Exercise 4.9 (continued) 4

Therefore Iz = LYi2 A; = 32.40 in", and since v,. = -1000 lb, we fmd

;=1

p;(l) = p;(4) = 83.33 Ib/in. p;(2} = p;(3) = -83.331b/in.

Equation 4.8.3 ("sbear flow out equals shear flow in plus flange load gradient"), applied at flanges 2, 3 and 4, shows that

q(2) = q{l) + p;(2) = q(J) - 83.33

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(1) _ 83.33) _ 83.33 = q<1) -166.7

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = (q<1) -166.7) + 83.33 = q{l) - 83.33

Moment equivalence around flange 4 requires

(q(1) .6).12 + (qC2) .12)·6 = 0 => 144q(1) -6000 = 0 => q(l) = 41.67 Ib/in.

Thus

q(l) =:= 41.67 Ib/in. l2) = -41.67 lb/in. q(3) = -125 lb/in. q( 4) == -41.67 lb/in.

As usual, a minus sign means the shear flow direction is opposite to that shown in the above figure.

Exercise 4.10 Lumping the wall areas according to Figure 4.6.14 of the text yields

A1 == A2 = As = At, = !(6.0.1) = 0.3 in2 2

A3 = A4 = A1 == As = !(12.0.1) = 0.6 in2 2

The centroid remains at the center of the rectangle, and the coordinates of the concentrated areas, relative to G, are

YI == -~ J:x = -1.732 in. ZI =6 in.

ilOOOlb

I ~6"----+O---h"---1

: 4 3

Y

6

Y2 =! ~ = 1.732 in. 2 -v3

7 8

Uniform thickness = 0.1"

Y3 = 3 in.,) = ~ ~ = 3.464 in.

Y4 = 3 in. '4 = -~% = -3.464 in.

Ys = ~ Js = 1.732 in. '5 = --6 in.

Y6 = -~ Js == -1.732 in. ~ = --6 in.

Y1 = -3 in. '1 = -~ ~ = -3.464 in.

Ys == -3 in. Z8 = ~ ~ = 3.464 in.

Since lyZ = 0 by symmetry and V;:: == O. Equation 4.8.2 for the flange load gradient reduces to p,(i) = VyYi ..t.

;r I"

z

63

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Cbapter4

.•. Exercise 4.10 (continued)

8

Since V, = -1(0) Ib and lz = ~)/ Aj = 25.20 in", the flange load gradients are

;=!

p;(1) = 20.62 lb/in, p;(2) = -20.62 Iblin.

p;(3} = p;(4) = -71.43Ib/in.

p;(5} = -20.62 Iblin. p;(6) = 20.62 Iblin.

p;(7} = p;(8) = 71.43 Iblin.

Using Equation 4.8.3 ("shear flow out equals shear flow in plus flange load gradient") at flanges 2 through 8 yields q(2) = q(l) + p;(2) = q(1) _ 20.62

,!(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(l) _ 20.62) _ 71.43 = q(I} - 92.05

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = (q(l) _ 92.05) -71.43 = q(l) -163.5 q(S) = q(4) + p;(5) = (qO) -163.5) - 20.62 = qO) -184.1 q(6) = q(S) + p;(6) = (il) -184.1) + 20.62 = qO) - 163.5 q(7) = q(6) + p;(7} = (qO) -163.5)+ 71.43 = il) -92.05 q(S) = q(7) + p;(8) = (q(l) _ 92.05) + 71.43= q(l) - 20.62

Moment equivalence about the lower left comer of the section yields

[q(8). k(6- ~)}12 + (q(!) . ~)- 12+[ q(2) ·i( 6- ~ )}12+

+[ q<2) .i(12- $ )}6+( q<3). ~}6+[q(4) ·i(12- ~ )}6 = 0

or

41.57q(1) + 30.43q(2) + 41.57q(3) + 15.22q(4) + 15.22q(8) = 0 Substituting for all of the shear flows in terms of q(l), we get 144q(l) - 7255 = 0 => qO) = 50.38 Ib/in.

Thus

q(l) = 50.38 Ib/in. qC2) = 29.76 Ib/in. q'3) = --41.67 lb/in. q(4) = -113.11b/in.

q(5) = -133.71b/in. q(6) = -1l3.1Ib/in. q<7) = --41.67 Jb/in. q(8) = 29.76 Ib/in.

Minus signs mean the shear flow is opposite in direction to that shown in the figure above.

Exercise 4.11 In Figure 4.8.13(a) of the text, for the concentrated areas we have

A, = 0.8 in2 A2 = 0.85 in2 A3 = 1.1 in2 A4 = 1.05 in2

Yl =0

Y2 =4 in. Y3 = 9 in. Y4 =0

2:1 = 12 in. 2:2 =12 in. 2:3 =0

2:2 =0

so that

64

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Cbapter4

... Exercise 4.11 (continued) 1 4

YG = -4-Ly;A; = 3.500 in.

LA; ;=1

;=1

1 4

<'.G =-4-L<'.;1\; = 5.210 in.

LA; ;=1

1000 Ib!

I I

1.1 inZ F

.r-«,

9 iD.qO)1 ~ 0"85 ic2

L· ~... G+ 2~T

l 41) r 4 in.

4 1 ~j_z

1.05 in2 -- -- ~4)-- -- 0.80 in2 f+----12 in.---'*I~I

;=1 4

fGy := L(Z; - <'.G)2 A; = 134.4 in"

;=1

4 2 • . 4

1Gz = L(Y; - YG) A; = 56.15 to

;=1 4

1Gyz == L(Yi - YGXZj - za)A; = -28.5 in4

;=1

Using p;(j) =. . 1 .. 2 [(I Gy Vy -IG Vz)(y; - ya) + (fGz Vz - 1G v;.)(z; - za)]A;. with v" = -1000 Ib and

IG/Gz - Ia.,. Y< l'

Yz =0, we get

p;(1) = 32.90 lb/in, p;(2) = -32.90 Ib/in. p;(3) = -96.491blin. p;(4) = 96.49 ib/in.

Setting the net shear flow out of concentrated areas 2,3 and 4 equal to the flange load gradient at those points, we get

q(2) = q(l) + p;(2) = q(l) _ 32.90

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q{i) _ 32.90) _ 96.49 = il) -129.4

q{ 4) = q<3) + p;( 4) == (q(i) -129.4) + 96.49 = il) - 32.90

For moment equivalence about 3, the upper lett-hand comer,

(q(4) .12).9 + (q(i). 4).12 = 0 => 10~q(i) - 32.90)+ 48q(l) = 0 => q(l) = 22.781b/in.

Thus, from Equations (a),

q(l) = 22.781blin. i2) = -10.121b/in. q<3) = -106 .. 61b/in. q(4) = -10.12 ib/in.

In Figure 4.8.13(b) of the text we have

AI = 0.267 in2 y, = 0 z, = 12 in.

A:! = 0.133 in 2 Y2 = 1.333 in. Z2 = 12 in.

A3 == 0.133 in 2 Y3= 2.667 in. Z3 = 12 in.

~ = 0.283 in2 Y4 == 4 in. Z4 = 12 in.

A:; = 0.433 in2 Ys == 5.667 in. 2S = 8 in.

~ = 0.483 in2 Yo = 7.333 in. Zo = 4 in.

A7 = 0.367 in2 Y7 = 9 in. Z7 = 0

As::; 0.300 in2 Ys = 6 in. Z8 = 0

~=0.300in2 Y'J=3in. <'.9=0

AIO = 0.350 in2 YIO = 0 ZIO ;;;; 0

All == 0.400 in2 Yll = 0 Zll = 4 in.

A12 = 0.400 in2 Y12 = 0 Z12 = 8 in.

(a)

I I

IY

0.367 in2 ~ q(6)

7 ~

q(7) ~ 6 ~ cfS)

0.300 iJt 8 0.433 iw ~ S q(4)

'--?~

0.433nr ~

0.283 in2

q(S) ~

0.3OOir 9

4 ~ q(3) 0.133 ic2 ~

r_ q(2)

q(9) ~ 0.133 iJt ~1 (1)

10 MOO iif 0.400 ill- 1 r q

0.350 in2 0--"--<1)-1-· -"--{12 --- -. -. -2- Z

q(10) q(ll) _. q(12) 0.267111

65

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

.•. Exercise 4.11 (continued) so that

1 12 •

YG = -12-Ly;A; = 3.500 m.

LA; ;=1

;=1

1 12 .

ZG = -12-LZ;A; = 5.209 in,

LA; ;=1

;=1

12 2

IGy = L(Z; ~ZG) A; = 81.07 in"

;=1

12 2

IGz. = L(Yi ~ YG) A; = 39.59 in"

i=1 12

IGn == L(Yi - YGXz; - zc)A; = -16.96 in4

;=1

Using p;(i) = 1 2 [(IGy Vy - IG v.)(Y; ~ YG) + (IGt Vz - IG Vy)(Z; - ZG)]'" together with Vy = -1000 Ib

IG IG -IG Y< Y<

y Z Y'

and Vz = 0, we obtain the flange load gradients:

p;(I) = 15.40 lb/in, p;(2) = 2.753 lb/in.

p;(5) = -33.04 Ib/in. p;(6) = --43.01Iblin.

p;(3) = -2.167 Ib/in.

p;(4) == -15.08Ib/in. p;(8) = -11. 74 lb/in.

p;(7) = --44.91Ib/in.

p;(9) = 13.23 lb/in. p;(IO) = 44.56 lb/in, p;(ll) = 41.64 Iblin. p;(12) = 32.36 lb/in,

Requiring the net shear flow out of concentrated areas 2 through 12 to equal the flange load gradient yields q(2) = q(1) + p;(2) = q(l) + 2.753

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(l) + 2.753) _ 2.167 = q(l) + 0.5864

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = (q(l) + 0.5864)-15.08 = q(l) -14.49 q(S) = q(4) + p;(5) :::; (il) ~ 14.49) - 33.04 = q(!) - 47.53 q(6) = q(5) + p;(6) = (q(!) -47.53)-43.01= q(l) -90.54 q(7) = q(6) + p;(7) = (q(l) _ 90.54) - 44.91 = q(!) -135.4 q(8) = q(7) + p;(8) = (q(l) -135.4) -11.74 = q(l) -147.2 q(9) = q(S) + p;(9) = (q(l) -147.2) + 13.23 = q(l) -134.0 q(IO) = q(9) + p;(IO) = (q(l) -134.0) + 44.56 = q(t) - 89.40 q(ll) = q(lO) +p;(ll) = (q(l) _ 89.40)+41.64 = q{l) -47.76 q(12) = ill) + p;(12) = (il) _ 47.76) + 32.35 = q{l) - 15.40

Moment equivalence around point 7 (the upper left-hand comer) requires

(q(IO) .4).9 + (ill) .4).9 + (q(12) .4).9 + (q(l) .1.333) ·12 + (q{2) .1.333) ·12 + (q(3) .1.333) ·12 = 0

(a)

or

16q(1) + 16q(2) + 16q(3) + 36q(IO) + 36q(ll) + 36q(12) = 0 Substituting for the shear flows in terms of q{l). this becomes

66

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

•• .Exercise 4.11 (continued)

16q(1) + 16(q(l) + 2.753) + l~q(l) + 0.5864)+ 36(q(i) - 89.40)+ 36(i') - 47.76)+ 36{q(i) -15.40) = 0

from which 156q(i) - 5439 == 0 ~ q(J) = 34.87Ibfin. Thus, from Equations (a),

q(l) == 34.87 Ihlin. i2l = 34.62 Ib/in. q(3) = 34.45 Ib/in. q(4) == 20.371b/in.

q(S) "" -12.67Ib/in. q<6) = -55.681b/in. q<7) =: -100.61b/in.

q(S) = -112.3 Iblin.

q(9) "" -99.10 Iblin. q(IOl == -54.54 Ib/in. q(!1) = -12.90 Ib1in. q(J2) = 19.46 lb/in.

8

loy = L(Z; _ZO)2 A; = 37.52 in" i=1

8

loyz = L(Yi - Yo XZi - zo)A; = -15.49 in"

/,,,,1

Using the above information, together with v,. = -1000 Ib and Vz = 0, the formula for flange load gradients,

p;(;) = . 1 2 [. (loy Vy -10 v, \t Yi - Yo) + (I az Vt =lc; v,. )(z; - Zo )1.A;, yields

la la -10. ,.. f\ ,

y z )<

p;(l) = 7.2411b/in. p;(2) = --6.230 lbfin. p;(3) = -46.291b/in. p;(4) == -73.651b/in.

p;(5) = -33.00 Ib/in. p;(6) = 35.221btin. p;(1) = 70.97Ib/in. p;(8) = 45.741blin.

Requiring the net shear flow out of concentrated areas 2 through 8 to equal the flange load gradient yields q(2) = q(l) + p;(2) == q(l) - 6.230

q(3) = i2l + p;(3) = (q(l) _ 6.230) _ 46.29 = q(l)_ 52.5

q( 4) == q(3) + p;( 4) = (q(l) _ 52.52) _ 73.65 = q(l) -126.2 q(5) == q(4) + p;(S) = (q(l) -126.2) _ 33.00 = q(l) -159.2

Exercise 4.12 From Figure 4.8.15 of the text, for the concentrated areas we have

Al = 0.2 in2 YI = 0.845 in. z, = 12 in.

A2 = 0.2 in2 Y2 = 3.155 in. Z2 = 12 in.

A3 = 0.650 in2 Y3= 5.056 in. Z3 = 9.462 in.

A4 = 0.650 in2 ~ == 0.450 in2 At; == 0.450 in2

Y4 = 7.942 in. Z4 = 2.539 in. Ys == 7.100 in. Zs = 0

Y6 = 1.900 in. ~ = 0

A7 = 0.600 in2 Y7 = 0 Z7 = 2.535 in.

Ag = 0.600 in2 Ys = 0 Z8 == 9.465 in.

From this information, we find

1 8

YG = ,....- LYi~ = 5.210 in.

LA; ;",1

;",1

1 8

Zo = -8-- - L ziA; = 3.500 in.

LA; ;",1

i=1

lOOOlbt02.7 .

ISla

q(4) Y rlL. .

r---- J ~ 4 ;>.50 IQ.

1.9in. ~ cf3) Ll2.7S.'

f-o.4S irf S 0.65 in2 ~ la.

I ~ :_"'t....... 3 . 0.845 in.

5.20 in. ¢S> 0.65 in2 ~q(2). t

I ~ G ~ 0.20 iw l f

~.45jJ 6 q(1) ~ 2.31 in.

I.~ l..!::::;,60 iuI .... 0.60 jnl 0.20 iw ~1 ______i_ z

q(6) I . 71. --- q(7). .--- 81. I- q(8) O.J5 in.

.( ).( 693m ).( m"'.

2.535 in. _. 2535 ill.

8. 2 . 4

lo~ = L(Y; - Yo) -\ = 74.42 In

i",1

67

••• Exercise 4.12 (continued)

q(6) = q(5) + p;(6) = (q(l) -159.2)+ 35.22 = q(l) -124.0

q(7) = q(6) + p;(7) = (q(l) -124.0) + 70.97 = q(l) - 53.00 q(8) = q(7) +p;(8) = (q(l) _ 53.(0)+45.74 = q(l) -7.241

Moment equivalence about the upper left-hand corner of the section requires

(q(6) .2.535).9 + (q(7) .6.93).9 + (q(8) .2.535).9 + (q(8) .0.845) .12 + (il) .2.31) ·12 + (q(2) .0.845) ·12 = 0

27.72q(i) + 1O.14q(2) + 22.82q(6) + 62.37q(7) + 32.96q(8) = 0 Substituting for the shear flows in terms of q(I), this becomes

27.72q(l) + 10. 14(q(1) -6.230)+ 22.82(i1) -124.0)+62.37(Q(I) - 53.(0) + 32.9«il) -7.241) = 0

which yields 156i1) - 6434 = 0 ~ q(1) = 41.24 lb/in. Thus, from Equations (a),

q(l) = 41.24 lb/in. q(2) = 35.011b/in. q(3) = -11.28 lb/in. 4(4) = -84.93 lb/in.

q(5) = -118.0 lb/in. q(6) = -82.71Ib/in. q(7) = -11.731b/in. q(8) = 34.00 lb/in.

Exercise 4.13 From the figure we see that

AI =1.2 in2

Yl = 0 Zl = -30 in. ~=0.7in2

Y2 =0 Z2 =-15 in.

A3 = 0.5 in2

Y3 = 0 Z3 = 0 A4 = 0.5 in2

Y4 = 8 in. Z4 = 0 As = 0.7 in2

Ys = 9 in. z, = -15 in. ~ = 1.2 in2

Y6 = 10 in. Z6 = -30 in.

(a) From this data we obtain the centroid coordinates:

1 6 • 1 6 . .

Yo =-6-Ly;A; =4.646 m. za =-i)-L,z;A; =-19.38 m.

LA; ;=1 LA; ;=1

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

SOOOlb

1=1

(b) The centroidal moments of inertia are 6

10 =L(Z;-Za)2A;=673.1in4

y ;=1

6

loyz = I,(YI - Ya)(z; -zc}A; = -22.44 in4

;=1

(c) Atx = 150 in., the bending moments are Mz = 750,000 in. -lb and My = O. Therefore, the flexure stress formu-

la, 0' . .0) = 1 2 [-(IOyMz + 10 My)(Y; - Yo) + (Io:My + 10 u, 'It z, - Zo )]A;, yields

10 10 -10 y< y< j\

y z )'<

;=1

6

lo~ = L(Yi - Ya)2 A; = 105.1 in4

;=1

68

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

... Exercise 4.13 (continued)

(j x (1) = 35,940 psi (j x (2) = 32,340 psi

(j_.P) = 28,750 psi

(j) 4) = -28,750 psi (j }5) = 32,340 psi (j) 6) = -35,940 psi

(d) Using the formula for flange load gradient,

p;(i)= 1 2 [(IGyVy-IG ~'II\-YG)+(IGl~-IG v,.)(Zi-ZG)J·A;

IGIG -IG )'t f\ )'t

Y 4 )'t

we find

p;(i) = 287.5 lb/in, p;(2) = 150.9 Ib/in, p;(3) = 95.83 lb/in.

p;(4) = -95.831b/in. p;(5) = -150.9 lb/in, p;(6) = -287.51b/in.

Setting the net shear flow out of flange areas 2 through 6 yields q(2) = q(!) + p;(2) = q(I) + 150.9

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(l) + 150.9) + 95.83 = q(!) + 246.8

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = (q(l) + 246.8)- 95.83 = q(l) + 150.9 q(5) = qC4) + p;(5) = (q(l) + 150.9) -150.9 = q(l)

q(6) ::: q(5) + p;(6) = q(l) _ 287.5

Moment equivalence around point 6 shows that

(q(l) .15).1O+(q(2) .15).10 + (q(3) .10).30 = 5000· 8 or, using Equations (a),

150q(1) + 150(q(1) + 150.9)+ 3oo(q(!) + 246.8):=: 40,000

~ 6OOq(l) + 96,670::: 40, 000 ~ q(l) = -94.45 lb/in.

(a)

Thus,

q(l) ::: -94.45 Ib/in. q(2) = 56.48 Ib/in.

q(4) = 56.48 lblin. q(5) ::: -94.45 Ib/in.

q(3) ::: 152.3 Ib/in. q(6) = -381.9 Ib/in.

Exercise 4.14 The figure shows the section of interest. Note the line of action of the resultant shear force on the section. We see that

AI::: 0.25 in2 Az ::: 0.75 in2 A3 =1.00 in2 A4 ::: 0.50 in2

From this we obtain 1 4

YG = -4-Ly,A; = 7.0 in.

LAii"'l

i=1

Y2 = 10 in. Y3 = 10 in. Y4 =0

ZI =10 in. Z2 ::: 10 in. Z3 =0

1.00 i~ I q(2) 0.75in2
-- ---
I 3 2
I-lain.
I ~ ~ ~ (1)
I
I
, q(3) lain. ~q
5000 Ib ~
4 Win. i
0.5 in2 ---- ---- 025 in2 z
q(4) 1 4

ZG::: -4-LZ;A;::: 4.0 in.

LA;i=l

;=1

alii

4 4

IGy::: I,(Zi -ZG)2 A; = 60.0 in" IGt::: L(Yi - YG)2 A; = 52.5 in"

1=1 i=1

4

IGyz = I,(Yi - YGXZI -zG)A;::: 5.0 in"

i=1

69

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

••• Exercise 4.14 (continued)

From Equation 4.8.2, p;(i) = . 1 2 [(lOY Vy - 10 , ~ 'v Yi - Yo) + (I o~ ~ -I G1< v,.)( z, - za )]A;, the flange

lola -10 '" j\

y z J<

load gradients are

p;(!) = -180.0 Ib/in. p;(2) = 180.0 Ib/in. p;(3) = 320.0 Iblin. p;(4) = -320.0·lb/in.

Applying flange equilibrium, Equation 4.8.3, to stringers 2, 3 and 4 yields q(2) = q(1) + p;(2) = q(1) + 180

q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) = (q(l) + 180) + 320 = q(1) + 500 q< 4) = q(3) + p;( 4) = (q(1) + 500) _ 320 = q(l) + 180

Moment equivalence about point 4 requires

(q(l) .10) . 10 + (q(2) .10) ·10 = 5000·10

or

l00q(l) + lOO(q(1) + 180) = 50,000 ~ q(l) = 160 lb/in.

Thus q<I) = 160 lb/in. i2) == 340 lb/in. q(3) = 660 Ib/in. q<4) = 340 lb/in.

Exercise 4.15 From the given data we know

Al = 2.0 in2 y, = 0 Zl = 0 in.

A2 = 1.0 in2 Y2 = 0 in. Z2 = 12 in.

A3 = 0.5 in2 Y3 = 0 in. Z3 :; 24 in. 4.5 in R

A4 = 0.50 in2 Y4 = 6 in. Z4 ;;;; 24 in.

As = 0.75 in2 Ys = 7 in. Z5 = 16 in.

~=0.75in2 Y6=8in. z6=8in.

A7 = 2.0 in2 Y7 = 9 in. Z7 = 0

From this we obtain the location of the centroid

I 7 1 7

Yo = -7-Ly,A; = 4.3 in. zG = -7-L z;A; = 4.3 in.

LA; ;=1 LA; ;=1

;=1 ;=1

and the moments of inertia about axes through the centroid

7 4

loy = L(Z; _ZO)2 A; = 571.2 in" loz = L(Yi - YO)2 A; = 126.1 in4

.=1 i=l

~)------l---o--'-------,;;,---O _----L_ l II ~t/l) 11 ---t/2) 31

k-12 in. ... 12 in.---

4

loyZ = L(Yi - ya)(Z; - zG)A; = -28.2 in4

;=1

At station z e 150 in, Mz =25.150.150 = 281,250in.·lb and My =_5.150.150 =-56,250in.·lb. Tberefore,

2 2

the flexure stress formula, ax(i) = 1 2 [-(IOyMz+lo MyVYi-Yo)+(lazMy+lo,Mz)(Zi-zo)]A;,

10 10 -10 1< j\ y

Y z 1<

shows that

ail) = 11,310 psi ai2) = 8783 psi ai3) = 6252 psi

ai4) = -7416 psi ai5) = -8007 psi cri6) = -8597 psi

ap = -9188 psi

70

Chapter 4

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

.•• Exercise 4.15 (continued)

Using the formula for flange load gradient,

p;(1) = 1 2 [(IOyVy-1o Vz'vyj-ya)+(lol"'-lo,v;,)(Zi-ZG)l~

10 10 -10 )'t f\ 1

Y Z ,..

together with the fact that Vy == -25 ·150:; -3750 Ib and '" :; -5 ·150 = -750 lb, as shown in the above sketch, we

find

p;(l) = 301.7 Ib/in. p;(2) = 117.11b/in. p;(3) == 41.68 Ib/in. p;(4) == -49.44 lb/in.

p;(5) = -80.97 lb/in. p;(6) :: -85.97 lb/in. p;<7) = -245.0 lb/in,

Setting the net shear flow out of flange areas 2 through 7 then yields q<2) == q(l) + p;(2) == q(i) + 117.1

q(3) = q<2) + p;(3) = (q(l) + 117.1)+41.68 = q(l) + 158.8

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) = (q(l) + 158.8)-49.44 = q(l) + 109.3 is) == q<4) + p;(5) = (q(l) + 109.3)- 80.07 == q(l} + 29.27 q(6) == q(S) + p;(6) = (q(l) + 29.27) _ 85.97 = il) - 56.70 q(7) == q(6) + p;(7) = (q(l) _ 56.70)- 245.0 = q(l) - 301.7

Moment equivalence about point 7 requires

(q(l) .12).9 + (q(2) .12).9 + (l3) .6). 24+ 2(tn .4.52 ) == 3750·8+ 750·4.5

oc

l08q(l) + 108(q<1) + 117.1)+ 144(q(1) + 158.8)+ 20.25n(iI) - 301.7) = 33,380 which simplifies to

l00q(l) + l00(q(l) + 180) = 50,000 => q(1) == 160 lb/in.

Thus

q(l) == 40.26 Ib/in. q(2) = 157.4 lb/in. q(3) = 199.0 Ib/in. q(4) = 149.6 Ib/in. is) = 69.54 lb/in. q(6) = -16.44 Ib/in. q(7) = -261.4 Ib/in.

A minus sign means the shear flow is in the direction opposite to that shown in the above figure.

71

Exercise 4.16 Using Figure 4.8.14 of the text as a guide, the area and coordinates of the concentrated areas are as follows:

Al ::: 0.15 jn2 Yl ::: O. ZI ::: -2.366 in.

A2 = 0.15 in 2 Y2 ::: 0 Z2 = -0.634 in.

A3 ::: 0.25 in2 Y3 = 0 Z3 = 1.057 in.

A4 = 0.25 in2 Y4 ::: 0.0 in. Z4 ::: 3.943 in.

As::: 0.5 in2 Ys = 2.113 in. Zs = 0

~ = 0.5 in2 Y6 = 7.887 in. Z6 = 0

A7 =: 0.15 in2 Y7 = 10 in. Z7 = -2.366 in.

As = 0.15 in2 Ys = 10 in. Zs = -0.634 in.

~ = 0.25 in2 Y9 :;:; 10 in. Z9 = 1.057 in.

AIO = 0.25 in2 YIO = 10 in. Z1 = 3.943 in.

By symmetry; the Y coordinate of the centroid is YG = 5 in. and fa ::: O. Furthermore, ~ = 0, so Equation 4.8.2 for the flange load

~

gradient reduces to

p;(i) = ;Y (Yi - yG)A;

G,

Using the above data in this formula, together with V. = -IOOOlb yields

p;(l) = p;(2) = 15.52 Ib/m.

p;(3) ::: p;(4) = 25.86 Ih/in.

p;(S) = 29.86Ib/in. p;(6) = -29.86Ib/in.

p;(1) = p;(8) = -15.521b/in.

p;(9) ::: p;(IO) ::: -25.86 Ib/in,

Setting the net shear flow out of each concentrated area equal to the flange load gradient, we get q(l) = p;(1) = 15.52 lblin.

q(2) = q(l) + p;(2) = 31.031b/in. q(3) = p;(3) = 25.86 Iblin.

q(4) = q(3) + p;(3) = 51.721h/in. q(5) ::: q(2) + q(4) = 82.76 lb/in. q(6) ::: q(S) + p;(S) = 112.6 Jb/in.

q(7) = q<6) + p;(6) = 82.76 lb/in.

0= q(8) + p;(1) => q(8) = I5.52Ih/in. q(8) = q(9) + p;(S) => q(9) = 31.03Ih/in.

o = q(lO) + p;(!O) => q(lO) = 25.86 lb/in.

q(lO) ::: q(ll) + p;(9) => q(ll) ::: 51.72 Ih/in.

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

113

These shear flows are plotted at the right, and they compare favorably with those shown in Figure 4.7.7 of the text

72

Chapter 4

1000 Ib'

82.8

z

25.9

')

10

Shear flows (lblin.)

1

3

4

~r--==-----'

'_"-'311iLJ 25.9

51.7

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

Exercise 4.17 At x = 0, the shear flow is qo = 1 ~ = 250 Ib/in. Thus, from Equation 2.5.4, q = q ho~L ,we have

h

250 _4·10 - loolb/'

= q -2- => q = . m,

4

At x= IS in., h = (1- 1. 5). 4 + l_ .. 5 . 10 = 8.5 in., so that

20 20

4·10 .

q,,=15 = 100 8.52 = 55.4lb/m.

-I

10 in.

j_

Exercise 4.18 The coordinates of the stringers at x = 40 in. are YI = 5 in., Y2 = 10 in. and Y3 = 20 in. Therefore the centroid of that section is

3

~y;A; 35.

YG =-.-3-=3m.

LA;

y

5 ill.

,=1

and the moment of inertia about the centroid is

~( )2 350. 4

IG = L.J Y; - YG A; = - ... - w.

< ,=1 3

The bending moment at the wall is M ~ = -40,000 in. ~ lb.

Th f Equati 491 pC;) - Mt(Y;- ya) d th

us, . Tom , uauon ..... , .. JC - n;, .. e

fG

,

flange loads at the wall are p,,(l) = -2286Ib, P,,(2) = -571.4 Ib and pY) = 2857 lb. The flange loads are ail zero at the free end; therefore, the average flange load gradient in each stringer is

p;(1) = -2286- 0 = -57.14 Ib/in.

40 .

p;(2) "" -571.4 - 0 =; -14.29 Ib/in. 40

p;(3) = 2857 - 0 = 71.43 Ib/in.

40

The generic section at the right shows the average shear flows and the average flange load

gradients. Writing Equation 4.9.9 for flange 1 yields q:l) J

0= q(ll - 57.14 => q(!) = 57.14 Ib/in. 1 (-14.29 Jblin.)

q<1) J

10 ill.

3 (71.43 Iblin.)

For flange 2, we have

q(!) = q(2) -14.29 => q(2l = 71.43 lb/in.

1 (-57.14tb/in.)

The linearly-varying widths h of the panels are, at x = 25 in., are h(l) = 6.875 in. and h(2) = 8.125 in. The shear flow at that station is obtained from Equation 2.5.4:

(1) (25) = -(I) h(l)(O)h(!)( 40) = 57.14 5 ·10 = 60.45 Ib/in.

q q h(I)(25)2 6.8752

(2)(25) = -(2) h(2) (0)h(2)( 40) = 71.4310.5 .. ~ 54.10 Ib/in.

q q h(2) (25/ 8.1252

73

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

Exercise 4.19 The coordinates of the stringers at x = 30 in. are Yl = 9 in .• Y2 = 3 in .• Y3 == -3 in. and Y 4 = -9 in. Therefore the centroid of that section is

YI I I

t

9 in.

;~D~l __ x _]3m. I

4

Ly;A;

Y - ;=1 - 3 in

0--4-- .

LA;

;=1

and the moment of inertia about the

9 in.

centroid is 4

10, = L(Yi - YO)2 A; = 90 in."

;=1

The bending moment at the wall is M z = -30,000 in. -lb. Thus, from Equation 4.9.1. p;i) = - M z (y; - Yo) A;, the 10

,

flange loads at the wall are p;l) = 2000 Ib, pP) = 0, pP) = -1000 Ib and p;4) = -1000 lb. The flange loads are all zero at the free end; therefore. the average flange load gradient in each stringer is

p;(l) = 2000 - 0 = 66.67Ib/in. p;(2) == 0 - 0 = 0 Ib/in,

30 30

p;(3) == -1000-0 = -33.33 Ib/in. p;(4) == -1000 -0 -33.33 Ib/in.

30 30

The generic section at the right shows the average shear flows and the average flange 1 (66.67Ib/in.)

load gradients. Writing Equation 4.9.9 for flange 1 yields tl) ~

q(l) == 66.66 Ib/in. 2 (0)

For flange 2. we have q(2) == q(1) + 0 ~ q(2) == 66.67 Ib/in.

At flange 3, 7j(3) = q(2) _ 33.33:) q(3) = 33.33 Ib/in.

The linearly-varying width h of each of the three panels, in inches, is given by h(x) = _!_ x + 2. The shear flow in each panel as a function of x is obtained from Equa- 12

tion 2.5.4:

(1) (x) _ -(1) h(1)(O)h(1)(30) _ 800

q - q h(1)(X)2 - (2 + x/12)2

(2)(x) == 712) h(2)(O)h(2)(30) == 800

q h(2) (xi (2+x/12)2

(3) (x) == -(3) h(3)(O)h(3)(30). 400

q q h(3)(X)2 (2+x/12)2

4 (-33.33Ib/in.)

3 (-33.33 Ib/in.)

These shear flows (Ib/in.) are tabulated below.

74

Solutions Manual

.• .Exercise 4.19 (continued)

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

15 75.7 75.7 37.9

•••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ ••• ~~ •••••••••••••••• ~~ •• ~ •••••••••••• ~~ •••••••••••••••••••••• , •••• ,~ •••••••••••••• ~ .~ •••••••••••• ~ •• r ••••••••• ~~ •••••• ~.

20 59.5 59.5 29.8

25 48

-------------------_ .. _------ ---------------------------------------------------

30 39.5

x (in.)

o

--------------------

5

10

200 200

-------------------------- ----------------------------

137 137

100 68.5

99.6

99.6

49.8

48

39.5 19.8

-------------_ ....

24

------------ _"_"--------------

Exercise 4.20 The width of each panel at the near and far sections are

h(I)(O) "" 4 in. h(l) (150) == 4 in. h(2) (0) "" 15 in. h(2) (I 50) = 4 in. h(3)(0) = 2 in. h(3)(150) == 64 in. h(4) (0) = 21tin. h(4) (150) = 4 in. h(S) (0) = 14 in. }P) (150) = 6 in. h(6\O) = 3 in. h(6) (150) == 62 in.

Moment equivalence about flange 1 at X = 0:

r .. I----"~~~~68.~~~~--.J 1-' .. O------~-58·---~

(q(2)(O).15).4+(q(3)(0).2).4+2( 1r~22 +~'17'4}(4)(0)= 20,000

or

6Oq(2) (0) + 8q(3) (0) + 80.57q(4) (0) = 20,000 (a)

From Equation 2.5.4, the shear flow at x = 0 is related to the average shear flow by q(i)(O) 0;;; q(;) h(i;,~150) . Since h' (0)

the box beam is in pure torsion, the average shear flow is the same in all panels and equal to q. Thus

(2)(0) = - h(2)(150) = 0 266T (3)(0) = - h(3)(150) = 32"',(4)(0) = -

q ~ q h(2) (0) " ~ q q q h(3)(0) q q q

Substituting these into Equation (a) above shows that q"" 56.73 lb/in, With this result, we can use Equation 2.5.4 to obtain

(1)(0) = - h(1)(150) = 56.73 Ib/in.

q q h(I)(O) ~

(2)( )

(2)(0) - - h 150 = 15 13 Ib/,'

q - q h(2) (0) - ., ~ m.

(3}(0) = - h(3)(150) = 1815 Ib/in.

q q h(3) (0)

q(4)(0) = q h(~~~150) = 56.73tb/in. h (0)

q(I)(150) = 7j hO)eO) = 56.73 lb/in,

h(I)(150) '~ ~ ~ ~

q(2)(150) = 7j h(2)(0) = 212.7 Ib/in.

h(2)(150) ., ~ "~' '~

q(3)(150) = q h(3)(0) = 1.773 Ib/in. h(3)(150)

q(4) (150) == q h(4)(0) = 56.73 Ib/in, h(4) (150)

75

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

(5)( )

q(5\150) '"' q h . 0 = 132.4 Ib/in.

h(5)(150) .

(6)( )

q(6) (150) ::: q h 0 = 2.7451b/in. h(6) (150)

..• Exercise 4.20 (continued) (5)(0) _ - h(S)(150)

q - q h(5)(O)

(6)(0) -,- - h(6)(150)

q - q h(6) (0)

24.311b/in.

1172lb/in.

Exercise 4.21 The area moment of inertia about

the z -axrs is 10• =4·(32.1)=36in.4 Since - ... ---- .....

V = fa = 0 we use p(i) = - Ml(Yi - yo) A. to fmd

z yz' JC 1 ...

a,

the the flange loads at the wall:

pCI) = p(2) = _ (1000·50)(-3 - 0) (1) = 4167 lb.

JC JC 36

p(3) = p(4) = _ (ICX)()· 50)(3 - 0) (1) = -4167 lb.

JC JC 36

Since the flange loads are zero at the free end, the average flange load gradients are

p;(l) = p;(2) = 4167 - 0 = 83.33 Ib/in. p;(3) = p;(4) = -4167 - 0 = -,-g3.33 lb/in.

50 50

Using Equation 4.9.9, we obtain the average shear

flows in panels 2, 3 and 4 in terms of the average shear flow in panel 1, as shown at the right on a generic section.

q(2) = -27.78 + 83.33 = 55.55 Ib/in. q(3) = -27.78 lb/in, q(4) = -27.78- 83.33 = -111.1 Ih/in.

At x = 30 in., h(l) = h(3) = 16 in. and h(2) = h(4) = 6 in. Thus, from Equation 2.5.4 we get

h(l) (0)h(I)(50) I (2)(0)h(2)(50)

(1)(30) = -(I) = -21.70 lb/in. (2)(30) = -(2) l 55.551b/in.

q q h(I)(30i . q q h(2)(30)2

h(3) (0)h(3)(50) h(4) (0)h(4) (50)

(3)(30) = -(3) = -21.70 lb/in. (4)(30) = -(4) -111.1Ib/in.

q q ~~ .. q q ~~

A minus sign means the shear flow is opposite in direction to the average shear flow shown on the generic section above.

For moment equivalence about flange 1 at the free end, we have

[6q(2) (0)] ·10 + [10q(3)(0)]' 6 = 0 => qC2)(0) + q(3)(0) = 0 In terms of the average shear flows,

q(2)(0) = -q (2) hC2l (50) = q(2l (1) = q-(I) + 83.33 h(2) (0)

Thus, from Equation (a),

(q(ll + 83.33) + 2q(1) = 0 => q(1) = -27.78 Ib/in.

so that

1000 lb

Stringer areas = 1 sq. in.

q"'-(I)

(-83.33) (-83.33)

4 ~_':-~=4ml ~~==-;;<?3

q<n - 8333 ! t m j, t q'" + 83~3

(83.33) .. (83.33)

q<IJ

(a)

(3)(0) _ -(3) h(3)(50) _ -(1) 20 - 2-(1)

q -q h(3)(0) -q 10 - q

76

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

Exercise 4.22

10,000

Flange loads (lb)

x

Stringer x=o x= 100 in.
I 0 17,361
2 0 11,111
3 0 4861.1
4 0 -17,361
5 0 -11,111
6 I 0 -4861.1 From the given flange loads we ascertain the average flange load gradients:

p;(l) = 173.61 Ib/in, p;(2) == 111.11Iblin. p;(3) == 4S.611Ib/in.

p;(4) == -173.611b/in. p;(S) == -1l1.111b/in. p;(6) = -4S.61lIb/in.

These are shown on the generic cross section at the right, along with the assumed directions of the average shear flows. Of course, q(!) is shown in the same direction as the given

q(l) (0). Since, in general. (j = q(O) :i~~ (from Equation

(1)(0)

2.5.4) q(l) = q(!)(O) h .. = ISS.5 10 = 94.40 lb/in.

, h(i)(I00)· 20

Then from Equation 4.9.9 and the average flange load gradients we obtain

q(1) + (j(2) == p;(2) ==> 94.40 + q(2) = 111.11 ==> q(2) == 16.71 Ib/in. q(3) = q(2) + p;(3) ==> q(3) = 16.71 + 48.611 ==> q(3) = 65.32 Ib/in, q(4) = q(3) + p;<4) ==> q(4) == 65.32 -173.61 ==> q(4) = -108.3 Iblin. q(5) = q(4) + p;(5) ==> q(51 = -108.3 -111.11 => q(5) = -219.4 lb/in,

71(6) = q(S) + p;(6) ==> q(6)::; -219.4- 4S.611 => 71(6) = -268,0 lb/in.

At x == 75 in., hell == h(2) == h(4) = h(5) == 17.5 in. and h(3) = h(6) ;: 24 in. Thus, using Equation 2.5.4, (1)(75) _ -(;) h(i)(O)h('\IOO)

q - q (.) 2 ' we get

h' (75)

q(!) (75) = 94.40 10.22 = 61.65 lblin. 17.5

q(3) (75) = 65.32 10· ;0 = 34.02 Iblin. 24

q(5) (75) = -219.4 10'2~ = -143.3lb/in. 17.5

q(2)(75) == 16,7110.220 == 10.91 Jb/in. 17.5

q<4)(75) = -10S.3 10· 2~ = -70.73 lb/m, 17.5

q(6\75) == -268,0 10· ;9 = -139.6Ib/in. 24

A minus sign means the shear flow is opposite in direction to that shown on the generic section above,

77

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

Exercise 4.23 From the given data, the y coordinate of the centroid of the cross section at the wall is readily found to be Ya = 0.0625 m. Using this together with the given data it is easy to fmd the moment of inertia of the wall section about a y axis through the centroid:

Linearly-tapering flange areas

Stringers ,1": 0 ,1":2m
land:! 620mm1 620mm2
3 and" 620mm2 1700 mm2
Sand' 460mm" lS60mm2 6 2 .. 4

IG = L(Yi - Ya) A; =0.00218 m

~ i:1

By symmetry, I a = 0 , and since ~ = 0, the formula for flange load at the wall is simply pY) = M z (y; - Y G )A;

~ la

Since M z ;:;; 28 leN - ill at the wall, this yields the flange loads at x = 2 ill as follows:

p_P) ;:;; 35.79 leN pP) = -35.79 leN

pP) = 98.14 leN p!4) ;:;; -98.14 leN

pP) = 90:06 leN p16) = -90.06 leN

The average flange load gradients between the near and far end of the beam are therefore

p;(l) = 35.79-0 = 17.90 kN/m p;(2) = -35.79-0 =-17.90kN/m

2 2

p;(3) = 98.14-0 =49.07 kN/m p;(4);:;; -98.14-0 -49.07 leN/m

2 2

p;(5) = 90.06- 0 = 45.03 kN/m p;{6} = -90.06- 0 = -45.03 leN/m

2 2

Assuming the directions of the average shear flows as shown above on the generic section, Equation 4.9.9 yields

q(l) = q(6) + p;(!) => q(1) = q(6) + 17.9

q(2) = (j(I) + p;(3) => q(2l = (q(6) + 17.9) + 49.07 => (j(2) = q(6) +66.97

q(3) = q(2) + p;(5) => q(3) = (q(6) +66.97)+45.03 => q(3) = q(6) +112.0 (a)

q(4) = q(3) + p;(6) => q(4) = (q(6) + 112.0) -45.03 => q(4) = q(6) +66.97

q(5) = q(4) + p;(4) => 7P) = (q(6) +66.97)- 49.07 ==> q(5) = q(6) + 17.90

Moment equivalence about flange 1 at the free end (x = 0) requires

[q(3) (0). 0.125]. (0.125 + 0.25) + [q(4)(0)' 0.125].0.125+ [q(5)(0)' 0.25].0.125 = 0

or

0.04688q(3) (0) + 0.0 1562q<4) (0)+ 0.03125q(5) (0) = 0 (b)

From Equation 2.5.4, q(O) = q[h(L)fh(O)]. where h(O) and heLl are the widths of the panel at x = 0 and x = L. respectively. Thus. taking note also of Equations (a), we have

q(3)(O) = q(3) = q(6) + 112.0

(4) (0) -( 4) 1.0 (-( 6) 66 97) 8

q =a --= q + . .

0.125

q(S)(O) = q(5) = q(6) + 17.90

78

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

•• .Exercise 4.23 (continued)

Substituting these into Equation (b) and SOlving for 7/6), then substituting that result back into Equations (a) yields q(l) = -51.91 kN/m q(2) = -2.842 kN/m q(3) = 42.19 kNlm

7/4) = -2.842 kN/m (is) = -51.91 kN/m q(6) = -69.81 kN/m

Evaluating Equation 2.5.4, q = q h(O}~(L), at x = 1 m, shows that

h

q(1)(1 m) = q(l) = -51.91kN/m q(2)(1 m) = q(2) 0.125· \0 = -1.123 kN/m

0.5625

(4)(1 m) = -(4) 0.125 ·1.0 = -.··1.123 leN/m

q q 0.56252

q(6)(1 m) = q(6) = -69.81 kNlm

q(3)(1 m) = q(3) == 42.19 kN/m q(5\1 m) = q(5) = -51.91 kN/m

Exercise 4.24
Stringer x(in.) y (in.) z(u..) AT ea (in2)
I 0 2 12- 0.5
40 0 0 0.5
2- 0 1.5 26 0.2
X 40 1.15 10 0.2
3 0 3 30 0.3
40 2.5 20 0.3
4 0 5 30 0.3
Z 40 5.5 20 03-
5 0 5.S 26 O.l
40 6.75 10 0.2
6 0 6 22 0.5
40 8 0 0.5 Since \';: = 0 and, by symmetry, IG = D, the equation for flange loads

'"

is simply pY) = MAy, - YG)A; . At the wall (x= 40 in.), IG

,

6

LYiA;6

YG = i=~ = 4 in.; IG, = L(Yi - YG)2 A; = 20.38 in."

LA; 1=1

1=1

At the wall the bending moment is M z = 200,000 in. -Ib. Therefore, the computed flange loads at the wall are

pP) = ]9,630 lb pP) == 5399 lb ppl = 44171b

p;4) = -44171b pP) = -53991b p;6) = -19,630 lb

The flange loads at the free end are zero, so the average flange load gradients for each stringer over the 40 in. span are

p;(I) = 19,630 - 0 = 490.8 Iblin. p;(2) = 5399 - 0 = 135.0 lb/in, p;(3) ;= 4417 - 0 = 110.4 Ib/in.

40· 40 40

p;( 4) = -44!~ - 0 = -110.4 Ib/in. p;(S) =-53:6 - 0 :::- -135.0 Ib/in. p;( 6) = -19, ~o - 0 = -490.8 lb/in,

The assumed directions for the average shear flows are shown on the generic section above. Applying Equation 4.9.9 at flanges 2 through 6 shows that

q(2) = q(1) + p;(2) :::) q(2) ;;= q(1) + 135.0

79

Solutions Manual

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

Chapter 4

••• Exercise 4.24 (continued)

q(3) = q<2) + p;(3) => q(3) = (q(i) + 135.0)+ 110.4 => q(3) = q(J) + 245.4

q(4) = q(3) + p;(4) => q(4) = (q(l) + 245.4)-110.4 => q(4) = 711) + 135.0 q<5) = q(4) + p;(5) => q(5) '" (q(l) + 135.0) -135.0 => q(5) = q(1)

q(6) = q(5) + p;{6) => q(6) = q(1) _ 490.8

The panel widths at each end of the beam are

h(ll(O) = ~(Y02 - Yol)2 + (ZOl - ZOI )2 = 4.031 in.

h(2) (0) = ~(YOJ - YO,)2 + (Zo) - Zo, )2 = 4.031 in. 1t(3) (0) = ~(Y04 - YO,)2 + (zo, - to, )2 = 2 in. h(4)(O) == ~(Yo, - YO.)2 + (Zo! - Zo. )2 = 4.031 in. h(5) (0) = ~(Yo. - Yo, t + (Z06 - zo, t = 4.031 in. h(6)CO) = ~(YOI - Yo. f + (ZOI - ZoJ2 = 4 in.

At the free end of the beam, moment equivalence about flange 1 requires

2A3q(3)(0)+ 2A4q(4) (0) + 2Asq(5) (0) = 0 where, from the figure at the right, we see that

A3 = 1.. 2·8 = 8 in.2 As = .!... 4 -4 = 8 in?

2 2

A4 = 2+4 ·8-(A3 + As)= 8 in.2 2

Therefore, q(3)(0) + q{4\0) + q(5) (0) =0. Using

(a)

h(3)(40)=~(Y40. _Y40,)2 + (Z40. -z4oJf =3in. h(4) (40) = ~(Y40, - Y40. t + (Z40, - Z40J2 =:0 10.08 in. It(S) (40) = ~(Y406 - Y40,)2 + (Z406 - Z40, )2 = 10.08 in. h(6J(40) == ~(Y401 - Y406 t + (Z401 - Z4(6)2 = 8 in. cf5)(o)

--

I'

4in.

ll~~ '""1'--,4 in.--l---,

Equation 2.5.4 to express these shear flows in terms of the average shear flow in the panel yields q(3)(O) = h(3)(40) q(3) = l(q{1) + 245.4) = 1.5q(l) + 368.1

h(3) (0) 2

(4)( )

(4)(0)= It 40 -(4)= 10.08(_(1)+135)=2.5-(1)+337.6

q h(4)(0) q 4.031 q q

(5}(0) = h(5)( 40) -(5) = 10.08 _(I) == 2 5-(1)

q h(5)(O) q 4.031 q . q

Substituting these into the moment equivalence equation, we find

(1.5q(1) + 368.1)+ (2.5Q(1) + 337.6)+ 2.5q(!) ~ 0 => Q(!) = -108.5 lb/in.

From this and Equations (a) above we therefore have the average shear flow in each panel,

q(l) = -108.5 Ib/in. r/2) = 26.43 Ib/in. q(3) = 136.9 lb/in.

q(4) = 26.43lb/in. q(5) == -108.5 Ib/in. (P) = -599.3lb/in.

. . h(i)(O)h(i)(40)

With the aid of Equation 2.5.4, q(')(x) == q(') (") 2 ' at any station of each panel, and, therefore, at the loca-

h' (x)

tions requested: x == 0,20 in. and 40 in.:

80

Solutions Manual

.. .Exercise 4.24 (continued)

x=o

til) -271 lb/in.

tl2) 66.1 Ib/in.

q(3) 205 lb/in.

q(4) 66.1 Ib/in.

f(5) -271 Ib/in.

16) -1200 lb/in.

Fundamentals of Aircraft Structural Analysis

x = 20 in. -88.6 Ib/in.

21.6 lb/in, 131Ib/in. 21.6 lb/in. -88.6 lb/in,

-533 lb/in.

Chapter 4

x = 40 in.

--43.4 Ib/in.

10.6 Ib/in. 91.3 .Ib/in. 1O.6Ib/in.

--43.4 lb/in

-300 lb/in.

81

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