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GIS Technology and Its Applications

GIS Technology and Its Applications

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Published by Junny
GIS Fundamentals
GIS Fundamentals

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Junny on Apr 27, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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by Mr. Junny A. Manglib Faculty, ICT Department

ISABELA STATE UNIVERSITY College of Development Communication and Arts & Sciences Department of Information and Communication Technology Garita Heights, Cabagan, Isabela

10 March 2011 @1:30-2:30 PM Environmental Information Center Hall


GIS has already affected most of us in some way without realizing it. If you have ever using an internet mapping software or program like (Google Earth Software) to find directions, you have probably used GIS. GIS is now one of the powerful tool used to truly integrate the enterprise by leveraging the spatial component of data within the many enterprise databases. Almost all data stored has an address or locational component of each data record to build manage and analyze relationships between the data records.



In fact, an integrated GIS will allow an organization to eliminate duplicate data storage , reduces data maintenance and share data electronically across function easily and also reduce data retrieval time and eliminate the need to store multiple hardcopy documents and maps.

Users· Application Areas of GIS
1. Agriculture -(Ex. Irrigation and Water management) 2. Management-( ex. Parks and Recreation Management, Water Resource Management ) 3. Natural Sciences-(Environmental Science Assessment, Environment Impact Assessment) 4. Physical Sciences-(Hydrology, Epidemiology, Geochemistry) 5. Law-(Real Estate Analysis)

Users· Application Areas of GIS
6. Engineering-(Environmental Engineering, Geomatics(Surveying) , Transportation Engineering and Planning) 7.Architecture-(Land use and Development Plan, Landscape Architecture) 8. Business-(Economic and Management Research, Decision Support Systems) 9. Education-(Research and Extension Activities, continuing education(as elective course) 10. Library-(Map and Imagery Collections, Government documents Archives and Management)

Users· Application Areas of GIS
11. Military Science-(Mapping, Tactics and Strategy) 12. Social Sciences-(Historic preservation, Area and Ethnic Studies, Economic Studies, Tax Mapping and Revenue Collection Analysis) 13. Local Government Sector-(Local Governance) a. Public Safety-(monitoring and evaluation , health risk assessment, Crime Analysis, Home Land Security) b. Local Policies-(Strategic Planning) c. Fiscal Management-(Tax Analysis and Mapping, zoning and agribusiness analysis and forecasting) d. Agriculture and Natural Resources-(Community Land use Planning, Biodiversity Mapping, Watershed Management)

e. Public Service-(poverty analysis and mapping, waste management, traffic management, locating buildings and properties) f. emergency management-GIS has been used to help government and business entities meet the challenges of major emergencies such as fire, police, secure activity, public works, building and safety emergencies. Emergency Management Applications of GIS includes: 1. managing and allocating resources, 2. planning(analysis based plans), 3. visual decision support system 4. risk assessment and planning)

Benefits of using GIS Technology
The benefit of using GIS technology in Research and Extension Activities are as follows; 1. Fast Response Capabilities 2. Saving Time 3. Fast Access of Information 4. Strong Analytic Capabilities 5. Reduce overheads in managing GIS Projects

Learning GIS

Maybe you are asking what will be an individual's qualifications to learn GIS. Basically , for you to qualify; (1). your Interest (2). you should be computer literate. (2). knowing the basic concepts and theories behind the technology (4). attend more trainings on GIS (5). put into practice

many experts offer definition of GIS with different emphasis placed on various aspect of GIS. GIS is a Spatial Decision Support System(SDSS) designed for input, storage , analysis and output of geographic data. A system that has the ability to integrate information and to help people in making decisions. According to William Huxhold's book, GIS is an organize collection of computer hardware , software and geographic data, and a trained staff. A system used to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate and display all forms of geographically referenced information.

Components of a GIS
There are four components of GIS. I have ranked these components according to its importance.

Firstly, DATA- The core of GIS. Data alone is not enough, veracity of data and currentness' should be an important. Secondly, PEOPLE- Refers to a well-trained people and knowledgeable in spatial analysis and skilled in using GIS software. (ex.Technical expert, GIS specialist)


Components of a GIS

Thirdly, HARDWAREequipment needed activities of GIS from data analysis. (ex. scanner, printer, GPS)

This refers to the to support the data collection to digitizer, image


Fourthly, SOFTWARE- This refers to GIS application package used for creating , editing, and analyzing spatial and attribute data. (ex. GIS xtools, ArcView Software, IDRISI, NRDBpro, ARCInfo, ATLAS, WEB-GIS software)

SOURCES OF GIS DATA Hardcopy maps y Aerial photographs y Remotely sensed imagery y Point data samples(from surveys using GPS device) y Existing digital data files.

Manual digitizing y Automatic Scanning y Entry of coordinates using Coordinate Geometry(COGO) y Conversion of existing digital data

Resources required to develop a GIS y Hardware Needed 1. Computer Equipment- Industry ²standard personal computer with at least a Pentium or higher Intel- based microprocessor and a hard disk of not below 40 GB with CD-ROM drive Memory (RAM)- at least 128 MB(512 or higher is recommended) Operating System- Windows XP or Windows 7 RDBMS Software package installed= MS Office Access 2007, Oracle or SQL

Resources required to develop a GIS 2. GPS device ² for gathering geographic data location 3. Large Inkjet Printer- for printing maps and hardcopy outputs, etc. 4. Image Scanner- for scanning images 5. UPS ² power back-up in case of power outage 6. Digitizer- for digitizing paper maps

Software Needed
Software Specification 2. Arcview 3.2 package 3. AutoCAD 4. ArcInfo 5. IDRISI 6. NRDB Pro 7. Relational Database Management System-(Oracle, Access, SQL)

Other Considerations

GIS Team (Technical Expert, GIS specialist, Database programmer- training for GIS team is very important for them to be abreast in the new innovation.

Allocation of Budget- Annual Budget must be allocated y Internet Connectivity (Internet Access)- for capturing web-based GIS data and for easy sharing of geographic data with the colleagues .

Needs assessment y Conceptual design of the GIS system y Life cycle of a GIS database y Survey of available data y Survey of available data y Detailed database design and planning y Pilot study and benchmark tests

GIS Database Construction y GIS System Integration y GIS Application Development y GIS System use and Maintenance

Need Assessment

Conceptual Design

Database Planning and Designing

Construction of GIS Database

GIS System Integration GIS Use and Database Maintenance

Survey of Available Data

Pilot Testing or Bench mark

Acquisition of GIS HW and SW

Application Development

Hardware and Software Survey

GIS Development Cycle
1. Evaluating the content accuracy and availability of existing data sets or maps 2. Preparation of data models of the GIS database 3. Survey of available data Identification of the basic GIS architecture (ex. Hardware and GIS software) 4. Survey of available data can commence once needed data have been identified in the needs assessment. The inventory of tabular and digital data . 5. Survey of available GIS hardware and software thorough internet for updates on the specs and prices

GIS Development Cycle
6. Developing a logical or physical database design based on the data model prepared 7. Benchmark tests are intended to demonstrate the functionality of the GIS software 8. Building the digital database from the source data(maps and tabular files) 9. The database must be created in a careful and organized manner and it must be integrated and tested for reality and functionality 10. Development of GIS application with all the functions needed to create , edit , build and maintain the database usually by GIS personnel or trained staff. 11. Use and maintain the GIS system


GIS project manager y Skilled Database Programmer y GIS Software Analyst


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