Communication is the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. (D.E. McFarland) Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. (Newman and C.F. Summer Jr.) Communication is any behavior that results in an exchange of meaning. (The American Management Association) Communication is a process of passing information and understanding from one person to another (Keith Davis)

Through communication we exercise: *influence on other *bring about changes in the attitudes and views of others *Motivate others *Maintain relations 

The transmission of the sender s

ideas to the receiver and the receiver s feedback or reaction to the sender completes the communication cycle. 
One way Communication process

Components/elements of Communication Process

1. Sender :  Sender/Transmitter initiates the process of Communication  He must be clear about the purpose and the receiver (intended communication has a purpose)  The sender¶s functions are clarifying the objectives, encoding the message, choosing the medium and sending the message

2. Idea and encoding: The process of putting the idea into symbols is called encoding Symbols (words, signs, pictures, sounds) stand for ideas Symbols must be understood by the receiver Sender and receiver, both must assign the same meaning to the symbols used

3. Medium: 
Medium is the channel used for conveying the encoded message to the receiver.  The choice of medium depends on factors like *urgency of the message *availability and effectiveness of a medium *relationship between the two communicants

4. Received Message and decoding: The process of converting words or symbols of received message into ideas is called decoding.  The meaning that a receiver gives to the message is influenced by ««. *his/her knowledge *intelligence * past experience *Relation with the sender 

If the sender and the receiver have a common

field of experience, the receiver¶s understanding of the message will be according to the sender¶s intentions. 6. Context:  Context is the environment in which the process of communication takes place. It includes««.. *situation *the place *the time *the circumstances of each communicant *their relationship The context influences both encoding and

7. Feedback:

*Feedback is knowledge of the receiver¶s response to our communication. *Feedback can be utilized to modify the communication method to make it more effective *Immediate and continuous feedback is available in face to face communication. *Feedback is slow in written communication. *The feedback comes partly when the reply comes and partly when the receiver¶s action is seen by the sender *In Mass communication, that is, TV, radio, internet, newspaper etc. feedback is so little and delayed that special efforts are made to collect feedback from public. *Feedback is not only for checking the understanding of the message, but also important to know how the message has been received (emotional reaction)

OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION 1. Information 2. Persuasion OBJECTIVES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Instructions and Orders Education and Training Warning Raising Morale Motivation Advice Counseling Appreciation

OBJECTIVES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION Suggestion Request Application Appeal Demand Representation Complaint 


An objective is something that we want to attain or accomplish by our efforts, it is the purpose with which we undertake an activity. The main objectives of communication are«« 1. Information 2. Persuasion 1. Information: consists of facts and figures and data arranged in patterns which are useful for different purposes. *Information reduces uncertainty about the situation or the environment *Information moves in all directions in an organization *Information moves out of the organization *Information may be given orally or in writing

External Information«.. «..About company¶s product «..About availability of credit «...about availability of raw materials «... About govt. rules and regulations «...About advtg. Media «...About latest development in the field of science and technology Internal Information«.. «...About job assignments and procedures governing them «...About status and decision making power «...General Information on the policies and activities of the organisation

2. Persuasion means making efforts to change or influence the attitudes and behavior of others by using the best arguments. *requires the skill and ability to use the symbols of communication in an effective manner. Factors in persuasion  The personal character and reputation of the persuader must be respected and accepted by others (source credibility)  The emotional appeal made by the persuader must be suitable and effective (satisfaction of social and ego needs of others)  The logic of the presentation made by the persuader must be reasonable.

The persuader needs knowledge of the background and the present attitudes/views of the people in order to use the right appeals and reasons.

The art of persuasion *Persuasion needs conviction from the persuader *Don¶t impose yourself on the person being persuaded *Consider the open-mindedness of the other person *Bring yourself to the level of other person

OBJECTIVES OF DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION Instructions and orders Instruction is information about processes and procedures of tasks to be performed by the subordinate. * Can be done orally, individually or in groups *Oral instruction may be supplemented with written and visual material (User manuals) Order is the assignment of tasks. *Authoritative communication *directive to the employee to do, modify or alter the course of action *Order is formal *It is in the written form, sometimes can be given orally *Generally means that the matter mentioned in it, is formally and finally accepted 

Types of Order A) Written and oral order

*Written Orders are given in the following cases ---if it is essential to keep a record of it ---if highly responsible in nature ---if repetitive in nature ---situation of the order receiver is not comfortable for Oral order *O.O. are given when: ---job is to be done immediately ---jobs are ordinary ---relationship between superior subordinate is permanent

B) General and specific orders ---related to one specific activity/employee ---to cover obvious and unforeseen situations C) Procedural and operational orders ---Procedural: General: tell how procedures are to be adapted ---Operational: specific: relate to job at hand D) Mandatory and Discretionary Orders ---MO: have to be obeyed ---DO: in the shape of recommendations, suggest what is desirable *Characteristics of an effective order ---It must be clear, complete and precise ---Its execution should be possible ---It should be given in a friendly way 

Effective ordering 1) Planning --What action is required? --Is it Feasible? --Who is to perform it? --In what time it is to be done? --Likely problem and solutions? --Type of order? 2) Preparing the order receiver 3) Presenting the order 4) Verification of reception 5) Action 6) Follow up 7) Appraisal  Instruction is a type of order in which the subordinate is not only ordered to do a job but is also given guidance on how to do it.

2. Education and training: *Conscious process of communication *involves both teaching and learning *widen knowledge; improve skills It is carried out at three levels a) For management *innovations *succession planning b) For employees *for introduction of technology in work routine *for reorientation c) For outside public *knowledge of new products *relative merits and demerits of brands in the market *various sales promotion schemes

3. Warning *as a corrective measure *intended to caution someone of possible danger ----some warnings are general ----usually warnings are given to specific persons ----person should not be reprimanded in front of others ----the cause of undesirable behavior should be investigated ----Aim: betterment of the organization 4. Raising Morale *represents mental health *sums up resolution and confidence *catalyses achievements


suitable work profile good performance is appreciated encouraged to give suggestions congenial work atmosphere efficient superiors with positive attitude avenues for personal growth proper grievance handling

5. Motivation *encourages goal achievements *order, persuasion and communicator are important *communicator stays in the background

6. Advice *may be given on matters related to work, or on personal matters if the relationship permits *It is most effective if it is oral, face to face, informal and confidential ---Importance of Advice *need for expertise and specialized knowledge in this era of complexity *essential function of managers and supervisors ---Flow of advice: *Horizontal and downwards ----To make advice effective«« *should be man-oriented and work-oriented *should not make the other person feel inferior *should be beneficial for the receiver of advice *promotes understanding *can be a two way channel of communication

7. Counselling *is objective and impersonal *counselor has low involvement and deep subject knowledge *Advice: personal, Counselling: professional 8. Appreciation *of good efforts, work and achievements *creates a good attitude among the staff *makes the recipient feel good and improves the motivation *can be given orally, in writing and by non-verbal methods

OBJECTIVES OF UPWARD COMMUNICATION 1) Suggestion: ---supposed to be a subtle and mild form of communication ---Accepting suggestions is discretionary ---Can be voluntary ---flows horizontally and vertically upwards 2) Request -----made by staff for various kinds of permission or favors -----can be made orally with the immediate superior -----can be in written form to a higher authority through immediate superior 3) Application ---is a written request, giving full details of the matter and supported with reasons (for job or leave)

4) Appeal ---is an request for help or support for something that does not fall within your privileges ----may be written or oral with proper reasons ----can be made by an individual or by group ----power of persuasion is necessary for a successful appeal 5) Demand ---put through an employee union ----has to be supported by good arguments ----are usually collective and in writing ----if the management is unsympathetic or the union is aggressive, requests or appeals for better service conditions may turn into demands

6) Representation ---is always in writing (for grievances redressing) ---can be made by a group of persons ---must contain full explanation of the case with all documentary evidences

7) Complaint ---are made when there are faults or the defects in the goods or services (for correction) ---may be oral or written depending upon the nature of complaint and the relationship between the two communicants

COMMUNICATION MODELS 1. ARISTOTLE¶S MODEL OF COMMUNICATION *The earliest model of communication *developed by the greek philosopher ARISTOTLE *Five essential elements of communication«« 1. Speaker 2. Speech/Message 3. Audience 4. Occasion 5. Effect *ARISTOTLE advised the speaker to construct a speech for different audiences on different occasions for different effect *Most applicable to public speaking


*Presented in the Mathematical Theory of Communication (1949) by Claude E. Shannon and Warren Weaver *This theory is widely accepted because modern communication studies are based on this *The model was developed during the second world war in the Bell Telephone Laboratories *This engineering model conceives communication as a linear act of transmission of a message from a source to a receiver via a signal producing transmitter

A source of information with messages to communicate  A transmitter or sender with the capacity to transform message into signals  A receiver which decodes the signal in order to retrieve the initial message  The destination, a person/thing for whom the message is intended

*According to this model, communication follows a simple left to right process *The information source (speaker) selects a desired message from all the possible messages. The message is sent through a transmitter and is changed into signals. The signals are received by the receiver, changed back into the message and given to a destination, a listener.

*In the process of transmission certain distortions are added to the signal which are not part of the message and these will be called as NOISE *Simplicity and linearity are the main characteristics of this model *The simplicity of the model has attracted several derivatives and linearity has led to criticism

Shannon and Weaver has identified three levels of problems in the study of communication Level A: Technical problems: How accurately can the symbols of communication be transmitted? * These problems are the simplest to understand and these are the ones that the model was originally developed to explain Level B: Semantic Problems: How precisely do the transmitted symbols convey the desired meaning? *These problems are easy to identify, but hard to solve Level C: Effectiveness problems: How effectively does the received meaning affect conduct in the desired way? *At first sight, these problems imply that Shannon and Weaver see communication as manipulation

PERFECT COMMUNICATION (BY SHANNON AND WEAVER) The sender X communicated effectively with receiver Y when Y responds in the way X desires him to. *The source is seen as the decision maker, the source decides which messages to send. The selected message is then changed by the transmitter into signal which is sent through the channel to the receiver *In a conversation, the brain is the source, the mouth is the transmitter, the signal is the sound wave which passes through the channel (air) and the ear is the receiver. *In discussing communication, Shannon and Weaver introduced the term NOISE, a label for any distortion which interfered with the transmission of signal from the source to the destination e.g. static on the radio *The engineering model was used in electronics for several purposes, from the design of telephone networks to the matrices of computer memories.

Importance of Effective Communication *Internal Communication: Communication within the organization 1. Business has grown in size *no. of branches within the country and abroad *Need for every node to be aware of HQ information and vice-versa 2.Business activity has become extremely complex *specialized activities (planning, productin, sales, stores, advtg. Etc.) handled by different departments * So there is a need of communication for coordination amongst these departments

3. Effective communication promotes a spirit of understanding and cooperation *Effective communication between the management and the employees, bring about an atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence *The employees know what is expected from them *the management is aware of the potentialities (can be exploited) and limitations (can be made up) of the employees *External Communication: Communication with govt. agencies and departments; and with distributors, retailers, customers and public) 1. With govt. agencies and departments *need to deal with licensing authorities and regulatory Bodies *tactful and proper liasoning

2. Distributors, retailers, customers etc. *to survive competition *persuade to sell 3. Communication Skill a Job Requirement *Certain areas need exceptional communication skills. e.g. PR, Sales etc. 4. Important Factor for Promotion *John Fielden (1965) ranked the communication skill higher than other essential attributes such as capacity for hard work, the ability for making sound decisions, academic qualifications and ambition drive. *According to him the ability to communicate is the most essential requisite for promotion of the executives.

Barriers to Communication Wrong choice of medium: Each communication must be transmitted through an appropriate medium. An unsuitable medium is one of the biggest barriers to communication. Physical Barriers: Noise: ---Loud noise of machines in factories ---Electronic noise like blaring while using telephone or loudspeaker ---The word noise is also used to refer all kinds of physical interference like illegible hand writing, bad quality of photocopies, poor telephone connections etc.

Time and distance: ----If telecom facilities are not available or are not working ----if employees are working in different shifts ----faulty seating arrangement in the hall 3. Semantic Barriers: Interpretation of words: ---the transmitter and the receiver assign different meanings to the same word (³value´, ³poor´) Bypassed instructions: ---use different words for same meaning (take this paper to the stockroom and burn it)

Denotations or Connotations: *literal meaning of a word is called its denotative meaning ---it just informs and names objects without indicating any ± tive or +tive qualities (table, book, accounts, meeting) etc. *Connotative meanings arouse qualitative judgments and personal reactions (honest, competent, sincere, cheap, slow etc.) But some words have favorable connotation in certain context and unfavorable in others (cheap) which creates miscommunication.

How to overcome semantic barriers: *Use the words which are familiar to the receiver *If you want to give unfamiliar meaning to a familiar word then clarify it to the receiver when you use it for the first time *Whenever possible, use the words with positive connotations Different Comprehension of Reality: *no two persons perceive reality in identical Manners Abstracting: picking a few details and leaving out others. *It saves time, space and money *but improper abstracting can lead to miscommunication

how to overcome: *make abstract as fairly representative of the whole situation as possible *be mentally prepared for different abstracting from different individuals b) Slanting: giving a particular bias to the reality *in slanting, we are aware of the existence of other aspects, but we deliberately select a few (usually unfavorable) and make them representative of the whole. how to overcome: *try to be objective in observations and assessments *try to avoid the mistake of judging the whole by what might be only a fraction of it

c)Inferring: drawing inferences from observations (if rains fail, prices will go up) *inference of the experts in their fields are even accepted as legal evidence *but when non-experts draw inferences without trying to verify facts, they get into communication trouble. how to overcome: *carefully distinguish between facts and assumptions *make sure that our inferences are based on verifiable facts 

Socio-psychological barriers Attitudes and opinions: If an information agrees with our opinions and attitudes, we tend to receive it favorably Emotions: Emotional states (worried, excited, afraid, nervous, happy, calm, cool etc.) of mind of sender and receiver will be reflected in the message of the sender and will influence the understanding of the receiver Closed mind: If the receiver is closed mind, he will not be prepared to reconsider his opinions. Status-consciousness: Generally people don¶t like to communicate with the persons who are superior (because of fear, hesitation etc.) or junior (ego problems) in status in comparison to their position.

The source of communication: If the receiver has suspicion about the source (sender), there is a barrier to communication (if source credibility is not there) Inattentiveness: If the message contains a new idea, then there is inattentiveness (because generally people resist changes), which acts as barrier to communication. Faulty transmission: If there is a requirement of translation of the original message into simple language and this translation is not accurate then it will not be communicating the original message exactly. Poor retention: Oral messages in particular are lost due to poor human retention. Unsolicited communication: We are unresponsive if the communication is unsolicited or not invited.

³The meaning of communication is in the way that it is received´. What do you think of this statement?