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# Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## Firstly, I am very grateful to this esteemed institution

“Golden Valley Institute of Technology” for providing
me an opportunity to pursue my degree course.
I express my sincere thanks to my Principal
Dr.U.N.Kempaiah for providing me with adequate facilities
to undertake this seminar.
I would also like to take this opportunity to express my
gratitude for the support and guidance extended to me by
the faculty members of the Mechanical Engineering
Department. I would like to thank H.O.D of Mechanical
Engineering Department Mr. D.SRINIVASA RAO for
providing me an opportunity and for his invaluable support.
My deep and profound gratitude to my internal guide
Dr.U.N.Kempaiah, for his keen interest and boundless
encouragement.
Finally, I would thank all my friends who have helped
me directly or indirectly in this seminar.

## Department Of Mechanical Engg. , G.V.I.T. 1

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

CONTENTS

## CHAPTER PAGE NO.

1. INTRODUCTION 1

## 2. STUDY OF COIN PARAMETERS 2

3. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 10

4. COIN FEEDING 13

5. MECHANISM 15

6. COIN SORTERS 31

7. CONCLUSION 33

## Department Of Mechanical Engg. , G.V.I.T. 2

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INTRODUCTION

Counting of coins is a tedious task when coin collections are large. Say for
example, in Banks, Temples, bus depots, shops, etc., they are spending a lot of time and
strain for counting their collections. Usually the method they are adopting is first to
separate the coins in each denomination and then count the total in each denomination.
Finally the totals of each denomination are added to get the grand total. From this we can
understand that separating into denominations is a tedious work. So it will be very much
helpful to them if a device can be used to separate the coins in denominations. It will be
relatively easier to attach provisions for automatic counting once the coins are separated.

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Chapter 2
STATISTICAL STUDY OF COIN PARAMETERS

For a systematic approach, the coin parameters which may help to sort out the coins into
different denominations are to be identified and their values to be measured.

## 2.1 COINS AND THEIR PARAMETERS

The following four parameters were considered for sorting of the coins:

Diameter/distance
Thickness
Weight
Magnetic property

2.1.1 Diameter/distance

If the shape of the coin is circular then its diameter itself is the parameter. But all
the coins are not circular in shape so in case of coins which are not circular in shape,
‘distance’ is considered as the parameter. The term distance refers to either corner to
corner distance or flat to flat distance. For example as shown in figure1 for a 5 paise coin
which is square in shape, ‘d1’ is the corner to corner to distance while ‘d’ is the flat to flat
distance. The distance parameter for 10 paise, 20 paise and 100 paise coins are as shown
in the figure 1. The value of diameter/distance of each of the coins is noted in table 1.

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Table 1

## Sl. Coin Diameter Distance Thickness Weight Magnetic/

No Denomination and in mm In mm in mm in gmf Non-
. size magnetic
1 05 Paisa 22.20 19.00 1.90 1.51 Non-
magnetic
2 10 Paisa [small] 16.00 16.00 1.50 1.96 Non-
magnetic
3 10 Paisa [medium] 23.00 20.14 2.14 1.78 Non-
magnetic
4 10 Paisa [big] 25.80 24.64 1.84 2.27 Non-
magnetic
5 20 Paisa 25.80 24.70 1.84 2.20 Non-
magnetic
6 25 Paisa 19.00 19.00 1.38 2.40 Low-
magnetic
7 50 Paisa [small] 22.20 22.20 1.40 4.00 Low-
magnetic
8 50 Paisa [big] 24.00 24.00 1.54 4.98 Non-
magnetic
9 1 Rs. [small] 24.90 24.90 1.50 4.86 Non-
magnetic
10 1 Rs. [medium] 26.00 26.00 1.80 5.94 Non-
magnetic
11 1 Rs. [big] 28.10 28.18 2.00 7.88 Non-
magnetic
12 2 Rs [small] 26.20 26.20 1.60 6.14 Non-
magnetic
13 2 Rs [big] 28.00 28.00 1.80 7.54 Non-
magnetic
14 5 Rs 31.10 31.00 2.20 12.54 Non-
magnetic

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2.1.2 Thickness

For most of the edge has more thickness than the inside surface. The maximum
thicknesses of the coins were measured using a vernier caliper with a least count of 0.01
mm and the values noted in table 1.

2.1.3 Weight

Weight of the coin is also an important parameter in sorting out the coins. Hence
the weight of each coin has been determined using an electronic weighing machine
having readability up to 0.01gmf. The coins were put one by one on the pan and the
corresponding weights are obtained on an optical read-out and values noted in table 1.

## 2.1.4 Magnetic property

If the coins of one denomination are magnetic while the coins of another
denomination are non-magnetic, these two denominations can easily be separated by
using this parameter.

## In each denomination 10 coins were taken at random and on each coin

measurement of their magnetic property made at more than one place and it was noted in
table 1, whether the coins were magnetic or non-magnetic.

## a] No single parameter will sort all the coins.

b] The diameter/distance should be used in the first stage of separation for there
is a considerable difference in the diameter/distance of each of the coins.

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c] Once the coins are separated using the diameter/distance parameter they can be
further separated using the thickness parameter in the second stage and the
weight parameter in the third stage.

From the study of magnetic property it is found that some of 25 and 50 paise are
magnetic while some other coins of the same denominations were non-magnetic. So it
does not seem to be a good parameter for separation.

## In this method a circular template with a number of holes, in ascending order of

diameter in anti-clockwise direction, is held stationary. A thin circular plate which is
referred to as rotating arm has holes to accommodate a coin having maximum diameter.

This plate is mounted just above the template as shown in the [figure 2] and
driven by a hand wheel.

The rotating arm dimensions should be so designed that only one coin is carried in
each of the arm holes. When the coin comes over the corresponding hole it falls through
that hole.

It may not be possible to separate all coins using this method alone as
diameter/distance of certain coins are very near. While designing the holes on the
templates the different orientation of coins have to be taken into consideration. For
example 5 paise coin can come either in the corner to corner position or flat to flat
position perpendicular to the pitch circles diameter of the holes. If the template hole is

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designed for the flat to flat position of the 5 paise coin then the coin will not fall into the
hole if it is coming in the corner to corner position.

This is the main difficulty of this method. All coins except round coins will have
more orientations. So some coins will have to be collected together & then separated
using other parameter.

## 2.2.2. Solution using thickness

On a thin plate number of slots of varying width are cut along a line in increasing
order [Fig. 4], (each slot has slightly greater width than the min. thickness of the
corresponding coin) i.e. this second slot is greater in width than the 1 st slot .This plate is
bent into an ‘L’ shape along the line & held inclined at an angle to both vertical &
horizontal planes such that when a coin falls on it, it rolls down along the slots. The coin
falls down in a slot which is just greater than its thickness.
This method alone cannot be used for separating all coins, as many coins have the same
thickness. So due to these difficulties, sometimes more than one coin has to be collected
in one slot & other parameter should be used for further separation.

## 2.2.3 Solution using weight of coins

A leaf spring is hinged [Figure 5] at one end and the other end is kept free as a
cantilever system. When the coins are allowed to fall on the spring, the free end of the
spring deflects, the deflection being proportional to the weight of the coin. A mechanism
can be designed to sort out coins using the difference in their deflection.

If the weights of two coins are very near it may be difficult to sense the difference
in the deflection so such coins will have to be collected together and further separation
should be done using other parameters.

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1.82

30

140

30
26.5
2

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W
A B
L
X

W
A B
Y

IN A LEAF SPRING

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Chapter 3
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

From the previous study of each parameter it can be found that it is difficult to
separate the coins using only one parameter.
Study about magnetic property showed that it cannot be used since the coins are magnetic
and non-magnetic in same denomination. So the remaining three parameters i.e. diameter,
thickness and weight are to be used for separating the coins.
All the different combinations of the above 3 parameters are

3.1 combinations I
(a) Diameter/Distance (First Parameter)
(b) Thickness (Second Parameter)
(c) Weight (Third Parameter)

By the combination the sorting of the coins is done in the followed way. First the
coins will be separated using the parameter diameter/distance. The coins whose diameter/
distance are very close to each other may fall together. Hence those coins which fall
together are separated using the thickness parameter in the second stage and further the
coins having the same diameter / distance and thickness are separated by using the weight
parameter in the third stage.

## 3.1.1 Diameter/Distance as the First Parameter

From the value in [Table 1] we see that the 50 paisa [small] and the 5 paisa are
collected together in the third hole of the template. While 20 paisa and 100 paisa [small
and medium] is collected together in the seventh hole of the template.

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It is assumed that the 10 paisa [medium] and 10paise [big] are removed before
feeding the coins into the chute. The remaining coins are easily separated in this stage of
separation.

## 3.1.2 Thickness as the second parameter

In third hole and seventh hole two different coins are collected. From [Table 1] it
is clear that the 20 paisa and 100 paisa [small and medium] coins collected in the seventh
hole can be separated using this parameter. The 5 paisa and 50 paisa [small] can not be
separated using this parameter, for the 5 paisa coins does not roll freely over the angle
plate.

## 3.1.3 Weight as the third parameter

The 5 paisa and 50 paisa [small] coins collected together in the third hole of the
template can be separated using this parameter. As there is considerable difference in
their weight. The coins flow diagram for this combination is shown in fig.6.

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## 3.2 Combination (II)

(a) Diameter/Distance
(b) Weight
(c) Thickness

## 3.3 Combination III

(a) Thickness
(b) Diameter/Distance
(c) Weight

3.4 Combination IV
(a) Thickness
(b) Weight
(c) Diameter/Distance

3.5 Combination V
(a) Weight
(b) Thickness
(c) Diameter/Distance

3.6 Combination VI
(a) Weight
(b) Diameter/Distance
(c) Thickness
3.7 Selection of one solution

Among the combination (I) to (VI), combination one is selected as trial solution, as
the coin sorting takes place more speedily and easily than the other five combinations.
The design of a possible prototype is made; to sort coins using the first combination.

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Chapter 4
COINS FEEDING

## It is mentioned previously in 2.2.1 that the rotating arm of separating mechanism

is designed to take only one coin in one hole at a time. To prevent jamming, the coin has
to be in horizontal position before it is taken up by the rotating arm. That is, coins have to
be stacked one above the other. This cannot be achieved by merely pouring the coins into
the feeding funnel which has direct contact to the rotating arm. Hence, a mechanism was
thought for feeding the coin one by one stacking the coin one above the other.

## 4.1 Rotating Plate with Gravity Feeding

A plate with a number of holes, each capable of seating only one coin at a time is
rotated over a stationary plate, he coin falls down due to gravity when they come above
the hole of the stationary plate [fig 7].A guiding funnel below this hole loads the coin to
the rotating arm of the separating mechanism.

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Chapter 5
MECHANISM

## 5.1 SEPARATING MECHANISM

(a) Template
(b) Rotating arm
(c) Angle plate
(d) Leaf spring and spring housing
(e) Connecting [vertical] shaft
(f) Coin guide
(g) Coin collectors

5.1.1 Template

Template is one of the most critical part of the setup. It is a circular alluminium
plate, having eight holes in ascending order of the diameter. The template is shown in fig
8. The first hole in the template catches the coin having the least diameter/distance(10
paise[small]).The last hole catches the coin having the largest diameter/distance (200
paise[small]).The diameter/distance of each coin and diameter of their corresponding
holes is shown in table 2.

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The Diameter of the coins and the diameter of their respective holes on the template

Table 2

## Sl. Coin Diameter/Distance hole size

No. Denomination in mm in mm

## 1. 10 paise [small] 16.00 17.00

2. 25 paise 19.00 20.00
3. 50 paise[small] 22.20 22.60
4. 10 paise[medium] 23.00 23.50
5. 50 paise [big] 24.00 24.50
6. 100 paise [small] 24.90 25.50
7. 20 paise and
100 paise [medium] 25.80 26.20
8. 200 paise [small] 26.20 26.70

## It is circular plate of alluminium alloy, having 11 equispaced holes of 28.5mm

diameter on a 189mm P.C.D.[fig 9].Only one coin can be seated at a time inside a
hole[for the thickness of the plate is 1.5mm].The coins dropping into the guiding funnel
are continuously picked up by the holes on the rotating arm and carried over the holes of
the template, in an anti-clockwise direction.

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## The principle of separating coins using thickness as a parameter as been discussed

in section 2.2.2 .the seventh hole of the template collects 20 paisa and the 100 paisa
coins which are guided over the angle plate , inclined at 30 degree to the horizontal, so
that the coins troll freely over it. The 100 Paisa coins fall into the slot on angle plate
while the 20 Paisa coins cross the slot and are collected at the end of angle plate. The
details of the angle plate are shown in the fig.10.

## 5.1.4 Leaf Spring and Spring Housing

As discussed in section 2.2.3 a leaf spring is designed for the separation of coins
having different weights. The 5 paisa and the 50 paisa [small] coins collected together in
the third hole are separated using this method. Five paisa coin has a weight of 1.5 gmf
while 50 paisa [small] coin has a weight 4.0 gmf. So they have a considerable difference
in weight and hence, they can be separated using weight as a parameter.

The spring is considered to be a cantilever with load at free end. A phosphor bronze sheet
of 0.2 mm thick and 20 mm wide is selected for making the spring. The deflection of free
end of the spring is obtained as follows, with the help of figure shown on the page no 24.

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1.82

30
30

140

26.5
2

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W
A B
L
X

W
A B
Y

Mx = - W (1 –x)
EI d²y/ dx² = - [- W (1- x)] = Wl - Wx
EI dy/dx = Wlx – Wx² / 2 + C1 ---------------------------- (a)
EIy = Wlx² - Wx²/ 6x + C1x + C2 ---------------------------- (b)
At x=0, dy/dx = 0 and y=0
Substituting in (a), C1 = 0
Substituting in (a), C2 = 0
EI dy/dx = Wlx – Wx² / 2 and
EIy = Wx² /2- Wx²/ 2
At x=1
Slope θB = 1/EI (Wl² - Wl²/2) = Wl²/EI
Deflection YB =1/EI (Wl³ /2 - Wl³ /6) = Wl³ /3EI
For a section of 20 mm width And 0.2 mm thickness,
I= bd³ / 12 = 2* 0.02³ / 12 = 16 * 10-6 / 12 = 4/3 * 10-6 cm4
W= 1.5 * 10-3 kg for 5 paisa.
For YB = 2 cms
l3 = 2 * 3EI/W = 2*3*1.132.106*4*10-6 /1.5*10-3*3
l3=3018.67 cm3
l=14.45 cms
say length of spring is 15 cms

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## Weight of 50 Paisa [small] coin = 4.0 /10³ kgs

Yв = (4 * 10³ *15³ * 3) / 3 * 1.132 * 106 * 4 * 10-6)
Yв =2098 cms

Hence, the deflection of the spring for the 50 paisa [small] coin is 2.98 cms.

The spring housing is so designed such that the 5 paise coin falls out through the hole
provided in to housing, while 50 Paisa coin falls in side the housing.

The spring is fixed to the housing with the help of two rivets; the housing is fixed to the
coin guide with the help of a clamp. The details of the spring and housing are shown in
the fig 11.

## 5.1.5 Connecting [Vertical] shaft

The shaft made of mild steel. The details of the shaft shown in the fig. 12.

## 5.1.6 Coin Guide

The coin guides are made of sheet-metal they are hollow cylindrical pipes. Flattened at
the ends, and stuck to the template holes at the bottom using araldite. PVC tubes are
inserted into the guides to lead the coins in to their respective collectors.

## 5.1.7 Coin collector

These are square boxes of mild steel, inserted into their holders which are welded to the
horizontal plate fixed to the frame.

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## (a) Rotating feed plate

(b) Fixed feed plate
(c) Feed driving shaft
(d) Feeding Chute
(e) Guiding Funnel

## 5.2.1 Rotating feed plate

It is a 1.5mm thick round plate made out of aluminum alloy, and as 10 equi-
spaced holes on a 180 mm P.C.D. The holes have diameter of 32mm in order to provide
space for the maximum coin size. A hole can contain one coin at a time. The holes carry
the coin to the top where it falls down into the guiding funnel or into the 200 paise, 500
paisa slots depending on their diameter. At the center of the rotating feed plate, there is a
small hole of 11.2mm diameter through which the threaded end of the feed driving shaft
inserted and fixed by means of a nut. It also contains four holes of 5mm diameter on
30.5mm P.C.D., to fix the boss on to it.

## 5.2.2 Fixed Feed Plate

It is a 4mm thick aluminum plate fixed to the frame which is supported on stand.
It has three holes 26.3mm, 28mm and 32mm on a 180mm P.C.D. as shown in the fig 14.
The center of the plate has a hole through which the feed driving shaft rotates. There are
four counter sunk holes on a 55.5mm p.c.d to fixed the boss on to it.

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## 5.2.3 Feed Driving Shaft

The Feed driving shaft is made of mild steel the details of which are shown in fig
12.

## 5.2.4 Feeding Chute

It is one of the important parts of the coin sorter. A pipe of 35mm diameter is cut
at 30 degree to the vertical and joined to from an elbow pipes. One end of the elbow pipe
is flattened and the rectangular hopper is inserted into it, and welded. The circular end of
elbow rests just above the rotating feed plate. The coins fed into the funnel get stacked
one above in the elbow, and are continuously picked-up by the rotating plate. The funnel
is fixed to the inclined frame with the help of L shaped, strip welded to it, and an
adjustable mechanism, to alter the clearance between the rotating feed plate and the
funnel to the desired level [fig 16]

## 5.2.5 Guiding Funnel

The coins falling one by one from the feeding system have to be taken to the hole
of the rotating arm of the separating system. This is the function of the guiding funnel.
Coins fall in to the guiding funnel due to gravity from the hole of fixed plate. The coins
slide down the guide guiding funnel and reach the rotating arm. When a hole of the
rotating arm comes below the coin it picks up the coin and carries it over the template for
sensing the coin denomination.

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## NO. ON QUANTITY DESCRIPTION

DRAWING
1 1 Funnel
2 4 Screw “MS”
3 1 Boss [Rotating Feed Plate]
4 1 Rotating Feed Plate
5 1 Stationary Feed Plate
6 1 Boss [Fixed Feed Plate]
7 4 Screw “MS”
8 1 Feed driving Shaft
9 4 Bevel Gears
10 1 Guiding Funnel
11 1 Boss [Rotating Arm]
12 1 Rotating Arm
13 1 Template
14 1 Boss [Template]
15 1 Angle Plate
16 1 Connecting [Vertical] Shaft
17 1 Leaf Spring and Housing
18 1 Driving Shaft
19 1 Driving Shaft Housing
20 1 Connecting [Vertical] Shaft House
21 1 Hand Wheel

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1)

## • Speed: 2000 coins per minute

• Coin off-sort bagging attachment
• Easy to read LED display
• User friendly controls
• Hopper capacity: 4,000 coins
• Weight: 28 lbs.
• Power: AC 100/120w

2)

## • Speed: 3500 coins per minute

• Hopper capacity: 10,000 coins
• Weight: 36 lbs.
• Power: AC 100/120w

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3)

## • Speed: 1800 coins per minute

• Hopper capacity: 2,000 coins
• Weight: 19 lbs.
• Power: AC 100/120w

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CONCLUSION

As we know that counting of coins can be a tedious job when coin collections
are large in places like temples, bus stands, shops, or even in banks. The coin sorting
machine can be of great help to these sectors.

Once coins are separated by using this coin sorting machine the different coins
can be counted and finally the totals of each coin can be added with their values to get the
grand total sum.

So, it will be very much helpful to them if a device can be used to separate the
coins in different denominations, and these sector people can save their time and labour
as well.