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You are on page 1of 35

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

“Golden Valley Institute of Technology” for providing

me an opportunity to pursue my degree course.

I express my sincere thanks to my Principal

Dr.U.N.Kempaiah for providing me with adequate facilities

to undertake this seminar.

I would also like to take this opportunity to express my

gratitude for the support and guidance extended to me by

the faculty members of the Mechanical Engineering

Department. I would like to thank H.O.D of Mechanical

Engineering Department Mr. D.SRINIVASA RAO for

providing me an opportunity and for his invaluable support.

My deep and profound gratitude to my internal guide

Dr.U.N.Kempaiah, for his keen interest and boundless

encouragement.

Finally, I would thank all my friends who have helped

me directly or indirectly in this seminar.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 1

3. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 10

4. COIN FEEDING 13

5. MECHANISM 15

6. COIN SORTERS 31

7. CONCLUSION 33

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

INTRODUCTION

Counting of coins is a tedious task when coin collections are large. Say for

example, in Banks, Temples, bus depots, shops, etc., they are spending a lot of time and

strain for counting their collections. Usually the method they are adopting is first to

separate the coins in each denomination and then count the total in each denomination.

Finally the totals of each denomination are added to get the grand total. From this we can

understand that separating into denominations is a tedious work. So it will be very much

helpful to them if a device can be used to separate the coins in denominations. It will be

relatively easier to attach provisions for automatic counting once the coins are separated.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Chapter 2

STATISTICAL STUDY OF COIN PARAMETERS

For a systematic approach, the coin parameters which may help to sort out the coins into

different denominations are to be identified and their values to be measured.

The following four parameters were considered for sorting of the coins:

Diameter/distance

Thickness

Weight

Magnetic property

2.1.1 Diameter/distance

If the shape of the coin is circular then its diameter itself is the parameter. But all

the coins are not circular in shape so in case of coins which are not circular in shape,

‘distance’ is considered as the parameter. The term distance refers to either corner to

corner distance or flat to flat distance. For example as shown in figure1 for a 5 paise coin

which is square in shape, ‘d1’ is the corner to corner to distance while ‘d’ is the flat to flat

distance. The distance parameter for 10 paise, 20 paise and 100 paise coins are as shown

in the figure 1. The value of diameter/distance of each of the coins is noted in table 1.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Table 1

No Denomination and in mm In mm in mm in gmf Non-

. size magnetic

1 05 Paisa 22.20 19.00 1.90 1.51 Non-

magnetic

2 10 Paisa [small] 16.00 16.00 1.50 1.96 Non-

magnetic

3 10 Paisa [medium] 23.00 20.14 2.14 1.78 Non-

magnetic

4 10 Paisa [big] 25.80 24.64 1.84 2.27 Non-

magnetic

5 20 Paisa 25.80 24.70 1.84 2.20 Non-

magnetic

6 25 Paisa 19.00 19.00 1.38 2.40 Low-

magnetic

7 50 Paisa [small] 22.20 22.20 1.40 4.00 Low-

magnetic

8 50 Paisa [big] 24.00 24.00 1.54 4.98 Non-

magnetic

9 1 Rs. [small] 24.90 24.90 1.50 4.86 Non-

magnetic

10 1 Rs. [medium] 26.00 26.00 1.80 5.94 Non-

magnetic

11 1 Rs. [big] 28.10 28.18 2.00 7.88 Non-

magnetic

12 2 Rs [small] 26.20 26.20 1.60 6.14 Non-

magnetic

13 2 Rs [big] 28.00 28.00 1.80 7.54 Non-

magnetic

14 5 Rs 31.10 31.00 2.20 12.54 Non-

magnetic

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

2.1.2 Thickness

For most of the edge has more thickness than the inside surface. The maximum

thicknesses of the coins were measured using a vernier caliper with a least count of 0.01

mm and the values noted in table 1.

2.1.3 Weight

Weight of the coin is also an important parameter in sorting out the coins. Hence

the weight of each coin has been determined using an electronic weighing machine

having readability up to 0.01gmf. The coins were put one by one on the pan and the

corresponding weights are obtained on an optical read-out and values noted in table 1.

If the coins of one denomination are magnetic while the coins of another

denomination are non-magnetic, these two denominations can easily be separated by

using this parameter.

measurement of their magnetic property made at more than one place and it was noted in

table 1, whether the coins were magnetic or non-magnetic.

b] The diameter/distance should be used in the first stage of separation for there

is a considerable difference in the diameter/distance of each of the coins.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

c] Once the coins are separated using the diameter/distance parameter they can be

further separated using the thickness parameter in the second stage and the

weight parameter in the third stage.

From the study of magnetic property it is found that some of 25 and 50 paise are

magnetic while some other coins of the same denominations were non-magnetic. So it

does not seem to be a good parameter for separation.

diameter in anti-clockwise direction, is held stationary. A thin circular plate which is

referred to as rotating arm has holes to accommodate a coin having maximum diameter.

This plate is mounted just above the template as shown in the [figure 2] and

driven by a hand wheel.

The rotating arm dimensions should be so designed that only one coin is carried in

each of the arm holes. When the coin comes over the corresponding hole it falls through

that hole.

It may not be possible to separate all coins using this method alone as

diameter/distance of certain coins are very near. While designing the holes on the

templates the different orientation of coins have to be taken into consideration. For

example 5 paise coin can come either in the corner to corner position or flat to flat

position perpendicular to the pitch circles diameter of the holes. If the template hole is

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

designed for the flat to flat position of the 5 paise coin then the coin will not fall into the

hole if it is coming in the corner to corner position.

This is the main difficulty of this method. All coins except round coins will have

more orientations. So some coins will have to be collected together & then separated

using other parameter.

On a thin plate number of slots of varying width are cut along a line in increasing

order [Fig. 4], (each slot has slightly greater width than the min. thickness of the

corresponding coin) i.e. this second slot is greater in width than the 1 st slot .This plate is

bent into an ‘L’ shape along the line & held inclined at an angle to both vertical &

horizontal planes such that when a coin falls on it, it rolls down along the slots. The coin

falls down in a slot which is just greater than its thickness.

This method alone cannot be used for separating all coins, as many coins have the same

thickness. So due to these difficulties, sometimes more than one coin has to be collected

in one slot & other parameter should be used for further separation.

A leaf spring is hinged [Figure 5] at one end and the other end is kept free as a

cantilever system. When the coins are allowed to fall on the spring, the free end of the

spring deflects, the deflection being proportional to the weight of the coin. A mechanism

can be designed to sort out coins using the difference in their deflection.

If the weights of two coins are very near it may be difficult to sense the difference

in the deflection so such coins will have to be collected together and further separation

should be done using other parameters.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

1.82

30

140

30

26.5

2

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

W

A B

L

X

W

A B

Y

IN A LEAF SPRING

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Chapter 3

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

From the previous study of each parameter it can be found that it is difficult to

separate the coins using only one parameter.

Study about magnetic property showed that it cannot be used since the coins are magnetic

and non-magnetic in same denomination. So the remaining three parameters i.e. diameter,

thickness and weight are to be used for separating the coins.

All the different combinations of the above 3 parameters are

3.1 combinations I

(a) Diameter/Distance (First Parameter)

(b) Thickness (Second Parameter)

(c) Weight (Third Parameter)

By the combination the sorting of the coins is done in the followed way. First the

coins will be separated using the parameter diameter/distance. The coins whose diameter/

distance are very close to each other may fall together. Hence those coins which fall

together are separated using the thickness parameter in the second stage and further the

coins having the same diameter / distance and thickness are separated by using the weight

parameter in the third stage.

From the value in [Table 1] we see that the 50 paisa [small] and the 5 paisa are

collected together in the third hole of the template. While 20 paisa and 100 paisa [small

and medium] is collected together in the seventh hole of the template.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

It is assumed that the 10 paisa [medium] and 10paise [big] are removed before

feeding the coins into the chute. The remaining coins are easily separated in this stage of

separation.

In third hole and seventh hole two different coins are collected. From [Table 1] it

is clear that the 20 paisa and 100 paisa [small and medium] coins collected in the seventh

hole can be separated using this parameter. The 5 paisa and 50 paisa [small] can not be

separated using this parameter, for the 5 paisa coins does not roll freely over the angle

plate.

The 5 paisa and 50 paisa [small] coins collected together in the third hole of the

template can be separated using this parameter. As there is considerable difference in

their weight. The coins flow diagram for this combination is shown in fig.6.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

(a) Diameter/Distance

(b) Weight

(c) Thickness

(a) Thickness

(b) Diameter/Distance

(c) Weight

3.4 Combination IV

(a) Thickness

(b) Weight

(c) Diameter/Distance

3.5 Combination V

(a) Weight

(b) Thickness

(c) Diameter/Distance

3.6 Combination VI

(a) Weight

(b) Diameter/Distance

(c) Thickness

3.7 Selection of one solution

Among the combination (I) to (VI), combination one is selected as trial solution, as

the coin sorting takes place more speedily and easily than the other five combinations.

The design of a possible prototype is made; to sort coins using the first combination.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Chapter 4

COINS FEEDING

is designed to take only one coin in one hole at a time. To prevent jamming, the coin has

to be in horizontal position before it is taken up by the rotating arm. That is, coins have to

be stacked one above the other. This cannot be achieved by merely pouring the coins into

the feeding funnel which has direct contact to the rotating arm. Hence, a mechanism was

thought for feeding the coin one by one stacking the coin one above the other.

A plate with a number of holes, each capable of seating only one coin at a time is

rotated over a stationary plate, he coin falls down due to gravity when they come above

the hole of the stationary plate [fig 7].A guiding funnel below this hole loads the coin to

the rotating arm of the separating mechanism.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Chapter 5

MECHANISM

(a) Template

(b) Rotating arm

(c) Angle plate

(d) Leaf spring and spring housing

(e) Connecting [vertical] shaft

(f) Coin guide

(g) Coin collectors

5.1.1 Template

Template is one of the most critical part of the setup. It is a circular alluminium

plate, having eight holes in ascending order of the diameter. The template is shown in fig

8. The first hole in the template catches the coin having the least diameter/distance(10

paise[small]).The last hole catches the coin having the largest diameter/distance (200

paise[small]).The diameter/distance of each coin and diameter of their corresponding

holes is shown in table 2.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

The Diameter of the coins and the diameter of their respective holes on the template

Table 2

No. Denomination in mm in mm

2. 25 paise 19.00 20.00

3. 50 paise[small] 22.20 22.60

4. 10 paise[medium] 23.00 23.50

5. 50 paise [big] 24.00 24.50

6. 100 paise [small] 24.90 25.50

7. 20 paise and

100 paise [medium] 25.80 26.20

8. 200 paise [small] 26.20 26.70

diameter on a 189mm P.C.D.[fig 9].Only one coin can be seated at a time inside a

hole[for the thickness of the plate is 1.5mm].The coins dropping into the guiding funnel

are continuously picked up by the holes on the rotating arm and carried over the holes of

the template, in an anti-clockwise direction.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

in section 2.2.2 .the seventh hole of the template collects 20 paisa and the 100 paisa

coins which are guided over the angle plate , inclined at 30 degree to the horizontal, so

that the coins troll freely over it. The 100 Paisa coins fall into the slot on angle plate

while the 20 Paisa coins cross the slot and are collected at the end of angle plate. The

details of the angle plate are shown in the fig.10.

As discussed in section 2.2.3 a leaf spring is designed for the separation of coins

having different weights. The 5 paisa and the 50 paisa [small] coins collected together in

the third hole are separated using this method. Five paisa coin has a weight of 1.5 gmf

while 50 paisa [small] coin has a weight 4.0 gmf. So they have a considerable difference

in weight and hence, they can be separated using weight as a parameter.

The spring is considered to be a cantilever with load at free end. A phosphor bronze sheet

of 0.2 mm thick and 20 mm wide is selected for making the spring. The deflection of free

end of the spring is obtained as follows, with the help of figure shown on the page no 24.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

1.82

30

30

140

26.5

2

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

W

A B

L

X

W

A B

Y

Mx = - W (1 –x)

EI d²y/ dx² = - [- W (1- x)] = Wl - Wx

EI dy/dx = Wlx – Wx² / 2 + C1 ---------------------------- (a)

EIy = Wlx² - Wx²/ 6x + C1x + C2 ---------------------------- (b)

At x=0, dy/dx = 0 and y=0

Substituting in (a), C1 = 0

Substituting in (a), C2 = 0

EI dy/dx = Wlx – Wx² / 2 and

EIy = Wx² /2- Wx²/ 2

At x=1

Slope θB = 1/EI (Wl² - Wl²/2) = Wl²/EI

Deflection YB =1/EI (Wl³ /2 - Wl³ /6) = Wl³ /3EI

For a section of 20 mm width And 0.2 mm thickness,

I= bd³ / 12 = 2* 0.02³ / 12 = 16 * 10-6 / 12 = 4/3 * 10-6 cm4

W= 1.5 * 10-3 kg for 5 paisa.

For YB = 2 cms

l3 = 2 * 3EI/W = 2*3*1.132.106*4*10-6 /1.5*10-3*3

l3=3018.67 cm3

l=14.45 cms

say length of spring is 15 cms

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Yв = (4 * 10³ *15³ * 3) / 3 * 1.132 * 106 * 4 * 10-6)

Yв =2098 cms

Hence, the deflection of the spring for the 50 paisa [small] coin is 2.98 cms.

The spring housing is so designed such that the 5 paise coin falls out through the hole

provided in to housing, while 50 Paisa coin falls in side the housing.

The spring is fixed to the housing with the help of two rivets; the housing is fixed to the

coin guide with the help of a clamp. The details of the spring and housing are shown in

the fig 11.

The shaft made of mild steel. The details of the shaft shown in the fig. 12.

The coin guides are made of sheet-metal they are hollow cylindrical pipes. Flattened at

the ends, and stuck to the template holes at the bottom using araldite. PVC tubes are

inserted into the guides to lead the coins in to their respective collectors.

These are square boxes of mild steel, inserted into their holders which are welded to the

horizontal plate fixed to the frame.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

(b) Fixed feed plate

(c) Feed driving shaft

(d) Feeding Chute

(e) Guiding Funnel

It is a 1.5mm thick round plate made out of aluminum alloy, and as 10 equi-

spaced holes on a 180 mm P.C.D. The holes have diameter of 32mm in order to provide

space for the maximum coin size. A hole can contain one coin at a time. The holes carry

the coin to the top where it falls down into the guiding funnel or into the 200 paise, 500

paisa slots depending on their diameter. At the center of the rotating feed plate, there is a

small hole of 11.2mm diameter through which the threaded end of the feed driving shaft

inserted and fixed by means of a nut. It also contains four holes of 5mm diameter on

30.5mm P.C.D., to fix the boss on to it.

It is a 4mm thick aluminum plate fixed to the frame which is supported on stand.

It has three holes 26.3mm, 28mm and 32mm on a 180mm P.C.D. as shown in the fig 14.

The center of the plate has a hole through which the feed driving shaft rotates. There are

four counter sunk holes on a 55.5mm p.c.d to fixed the boss on to it.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

The Feed driving shaft is made of mild steel the details of which are shown in fig

12.

It is one of the important parts of the coin sorter. A pipe of 35mm diameter is cut

at 30 degree to the vertical and joined to from an elbow pipes. One end of the elbow pipe

is flattened and the rectangular hopper is inserted into it, and welded. The circular end of

elbow rests just above the rotating feed plate. The coins fed into the funnel get stacked

one above in the elbow, and are continuously picked-up by the rotating plate. The funnel

is fixed to the inclined frame with the help of L shaped, strip welded to it, and an

adjustable mechanism, to alter the clearance between the rotating feed plate and the

funnel to the desired level [fig 16]

The coins falling one by one from the feeding system have to be taken to the hole

of the rotating arm of the separating system. This is the function of the guiding funnel.

Coins fall in to the guiding funnel due to gravity from the hole of fixed plate. The coins

slide down the guide guiding funnel and reach the rotating arm. When a hole of the

rotating arm comes below the coin it picks up the coin and carries it over the template for

sensing the coin denomination.

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

DRAWING

1 1 Funnel

2 4 Screw “MS”

3 1 Boss [Rotating Feed Plate]

4 1 Rotating Feed Plate

5 1 Stationary Feed Plate

6 1 Boss [Fixed Feed Plate]

7 4 Screw “MS”

8 1 Feed driving Shaft

9 4 Bevel Gears

10 1 Guiding Funnel

11 1 Boss [Rotating Arm]

12 1 Rotating Arm

13 1 Template

14 1 Boss [Template]

15 1 Angle Plate

16 1 Connecting [Vertical] Shaft

17 1 Leaf Spring and Housing

18 1 Driving Shaft

19 1 Driving Shaft Housing

20 1 Connecting [Vertical] Shaft House

21 1 Hand Wheel

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

1)

• Coin off-sort bagging attachment

• Easy to read LED display

• User friendly controls

• Hopper capacity: 4,000 coins

• Weight: 28 lbs.

• Power: AC 100/120w

2)

• Hopper capacity: 10,000 coins

• Weight: 36 lbs.

• Power: AC 100/120w

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

3)

• Hopper capacity: 2,000 coins

• Weight: 19 lbs.

• Power: AC 100/120w

Coin Sorter For Indian Coins 2004-2005

CONCLUSION

As we know that counting of coins can be a tedious job when coin collections

are large in places like temples, bus stands, shops, or even in banks. The coin sorting

machine can be of great help to these sectors.

Once coins are separated by using this coin sorting machine the different coins

can be counted and finally the totals of each coin can be added with their values to get the

grand total sum.

So, it will be very much helpful to them if a device can be used to separate the

coins in different denominations, and these sector people can save their time and labour

as well.

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