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MONTFORT SR. SEC. SCHOOL (C.B.S.

E )
ASHOKAWAN, WARDHA ROAD, NAGPUR
AFF / NO./ 1130070

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that _______________________________________

has satisfactorily completed the INVESTIGATORY PROJECT titled

_____________________________________________ as prescribed by

CBSE BOARD for Std. XII in MONTFORT SR. SEC. SCHOOL.

NAGPUR, during the academic year 2000-2011.

The said work has been assessed and is found to be up to the standard

envisaged for the level of the course.

Mr. Ranade Sir Prv. Bro. Bala Showry


Teacher Incharge Principal
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TOPIC PAGE NO.

1. ABOUT THE PROJECT

2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

3. ABOUT THE GUAVA FRUIT

4. FOOD VALUE PER 100 g OF EDIBLE PORTION

5. PICTURES

6. ACID BASE TITRATIONS

7. REDOX TITRATIONS

8. EXPERIMENT

9. PROCEDURE

10. OBSERVATIONS

11. CALCULATIONS

12. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

13. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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This project is about the amount of oxalate ions in guava fruit at
different stage ripening, and drawing conclusions.

It is a simple project that involves simple concept and techniques. The


source of oxalate ions in guava fruit is oxalic acid. Guava fruit contains a
large number of acids out of which oxalic acid is a major one. Its quantity in
the fruit can be determined by volumetric analysis.

This project involves a pre-requisite knowledge of the mole concept,


redox reactions, titrations, and most importantly the concept of
equivalent mass of compound (i.e. chemical equivalence).

Apart from the main experiment carried out in the laboratory and its
conclusions, the project also gives useful information about the guava fruit -

1 its consumption
2 its benefits and uses
3 its positive effects on human health
4 its nutritive value.

Also, the project highlights about titrations – definition and how and why it is
carried out in a laboratory. The project also gives information about redox
titrations and benefits of using Potassium Permanganate in redox titrations
as it is used in this project.

The different stages of guava fruits that I have taken are :

1. Raw fruit – young fruit, hard and growth is incomplete.

2. Ripened fruit – properly ripened fruit, in a stage at which it is usually


consumed.

3 Over-ripe fruit – old fruit, just before it begins to rot.

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This project was very innovative and exciting for me. I could bring it
out successfully and so I am thankful to a couple of people.

First of all I am highly obliged to my Chemistry teacher, Mr. Quazi who


approved me for this topic and guided me throughout.

I am also great full to Montfort School Library for providing me with the
necessary books that I required for the project.

I am thankful to Montfort school laboratory and lab assistant Mr. Subhash


who helped me to successfully carry out titrations and taught me how to
handle the chemicals carefully.

I would also like to thank my friends and family, especially my mother, for
supporting me morally.

Last but not the least, I would like to thank my institution for allowing me
to do this project and for providing me with all the necessary chemicals that
were required.

It is all due to the support and concern of the above people and
institution that I could complete my investigator project
satisfactorily, without which things would have never gone well.

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Guava, (Psidium guava) known as poor man’s apple and one of the most
familiar fruits in India, assumes special importance because of the plants
hardy nature, by which, it has high adaptability to a wide range of climatic
and soil conditions. The fruit has very high vitamin ‘C’ content (200 to 300
mg/ 100 gm of edible portion ). Besides this, it is a fruit best suited for jelly
making. It can tolerate high level of salinity in the soil as well as in the
irrigation water.

BENEFITS AND USES OF GUAVA


1. Guavas are an excellent source of vitamin C and also contain iron
calcium, and phosphorus. The guava fruit contains the highest vitamin
C content out of all the citrus fruits with as much as 180 mg per 100 g if
fruit.

2. Older children and adults, a cup once or twice daily of a leaf decoction
is the tropical herbal medicine standard.

3. A guava leaf decoction is taken to relieve colds and bronchitis.

4. The roots, bark, leaves and immature fruits, because of their


astringency, are commonly employed to halt gastroenteritis, diarrhea,
dysentery and vomiting in cholera patients.

5. It also has hypoglycemic and anti bacterial properties. The fruit, when
eaten whole helps reduce both, high blood pressure and cholesterol
levels.

6. Guava benefits in battling diabetes, combats cancer and protects


prostate.

7. Guava can improve heart health by helping to control blood pressure


and cholesterol.

8. Guava is highly effective in removing constipation.


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Properties / Actions Documented by Research

Guava fruit acts as a :

Amebicide, analgesic (pain reliever), antibacterial, anticandidal,


antidysenteric, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant, antispasmodic,
antiulcerous, cardio depressant, cardiotonic (tones, balances, strengthens
the heart), central nervous system depressant, cough suppressant,
gastrototonic (tones, balances, strengthens the gastric tract), hypotensive
(lowers blood pressure), sedative, vasoconstrictor).

Other Properties / Actions Documented by Traditional Use

Guava fruit also has the following effects on human health :

Anti-anxiety, anticonvulsant, antiseptic, astringent, blood cleanser, digestive


stimulant, menstrual stimulant, neervine (balances / calms nerves),
vermifuge (expels worms).

Main Actions (in order) :


Antidysenteric, antiseptic, antibacterial, antispasmodic, cardiotonic (tones,
balances, strengthens the heart ).

Drug Interactions :
None reported, however excessive orchronic consumption of guava may
potentiate some heart medications.

Contraindications :
1. Guava has recently demonstrated cardiac depressant activity and should
be used with caution by those on heart medications.

2. Guava fruit has shown to lower blood sugar levels and it should be
avoided by people with hypoglycemia.
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FOOD VALUE PER 100 g OF EDIBLE PORTION
Calories 36-50

Moisture 77 – 86 g

Crude Fiber 2.8 – 5.5 g

Protein 0.9 – 1.0 g

Fat 0.1 – 0.5 g

Ash 0.43 – 0.7 g

Carbohydrates 9.5 – 10 g

Calcium 9.1 – 17 mg

Phosphorus 17.8 – 30 mg

Iron 0.30 – 0.70 mg

Carotene (Vitamin A) 200 – 400 I.U

Thiamine 0.046 mg

Riboflavin 0.03 – 0.04 mg

Niacin 0.6 – 1.068 mg

Vitamin B3 40 I.U.

Vitamin G4 35 I.U

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Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can determine the
concentration of an unknown reagent using a standard concentration of
another reagent that chemically reacts with the unknown. This standard
solution is referred to as the “titrant”. We have to have some way to
determine when the reaction is complete that we are using. This is referred
to as the “end point” or more technically the equivalence point. At that point,
the entire unknown has been reacted with the standard titrant and some
kind of chemical indicator must let us know when that point has been
arrived at.

Generally, we know the Normality of the titrant since it is a standard


solution. We also pre-measure the volume of the unknown. We then titrate
with the standard from a burette into the container with the measured
unknown and the chemical indicator until the indicator either turns color or a
precipitate indicates that the end point or the equivalence point has been
reached. Having the initial and final readings of the titrant burette gives us
the volume of the titrant used. The only unknown in the above equation is
the Normality of the unknown.

Molarities of acidic and basic solutions are often used to convert back and
forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how
were the molarities of these solutions determined? This section describes a
procedure called titration, which can be used to find the molarity of a
solution of an acid or a base.

In titration, one solution (solution #1) is added to another solution ( solution


# 2) until a chemical reaction between the components in the solutions has
run to completion. Solution #1 is called the titrant, and we say that it is used

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to titrate solution #2. The completion of reaction is usually shown by a
change of color caused by a substance called an indicator.

A solution of a substance that reacts with the solute in solution #2 is added


to a burette. (A burette is a laboratory instrument used to add measured
volumes of solutions to other containers). This solution in the burette, which
has a known concentration, is the titrant. The burette is set up over the
Erlenmeyer flask so the titrant can be added in a controlled manner to the
solution to be titrated (figure 1) . For example a 0.115 M NaOH solution
might be added to a burette, which is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask
containing the nitric acid solution.

When an acid base reaction is used, the process is called acid-base


titration. When a redox reaction is used, the process is called a redox
titration. Titration is also called volumetric analysis, which is type of
quantitative chemical analysis.

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Redox titration (also called oxidation reduction titration ) is a type of titration
based on a redox reaction between the analyte and titrant.

It is a titration of a reducing agent by an oxidizing agent between the


analyte and titrant.

Redox reaction may involve the use of a redox indicator.

This experiment involves the use of potassium permanganate which is the


oxidizing agent as well as the indicator.

Permanganate ion is a powerful oxidizing agent, especially in acidic


solution, which can be used to analyze (by titration ) solutions containing
many different species. In these titration reactions, the intensely colored
MnO − ion is reduced to form the colorless Mn 2 + ion.
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An advantage of using the permanganate ion in the titration of colorless


unknown solutions is that it is “self indicating”. As long as the reducing
agent remains present in the sample, the color of MnO − quickly
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disappears as it is reduced to Mn 2 + . However, at the endpoint, all the

reducing agent has been used up so the next drop of MnO 4 solution is
sufficient to cause an easily detected color change, colorless (faint,
permanent peach / pink ). So we know that at the endpoint, the oxidizing
agent (Mn O −) and reducing agent (H O or Fe
2+
) have reacted in
4 2 2

exactly in proportion to their stoichiometry in the balanced redox equation. If


we know how much of the oxidizing agent we added, then we can figure
out exactly how much reducing agent was present in the unknown!

AIM : To determine the amount oxalate ions in guava fruit at different


stages of ripening.

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THEORY
Guava fruit contains oxalate ions in addition to vitamin ‘C’. Oxalate ions can
be extracted by boiling the fruit pulp with dilute H 2SO 4 . It is then estimated
volumetrically by titrating the solution against a standard KMnO solution.
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APPARATUS
Burette, pipette, titration flask, funnel, beaker, electronic weighing machine,
filter paper, pestle and mortar.

CHEMICALS :
Guava fruits, 0.5 N KMnO solution, conc. H SO distilled water.
4 2 4

PROCEDURE

1. Weigh 100 g of guava fruit (raw, ripened or overripe ) and grind it into a
fine pulp in a mortar with a pestle.
2. Transfer the crushed pulp to a 250 ml beaker and boil with 50 ml of dil.
H SO .
2 4

3. Cool the contents and filter in 100 ml measuring cylinder. Make the
volume 100 ml by adding more distilled water.

4. Pipette out 20 ml of guava solution in a titration flask and add 20 ml of


dil. H 2SO 4 . Titrate the solution against 0.5 N KMnO 4 solution taken in
the burette till the end point is reached.

5. Repeat the whole experiment by taking 100 g of guava fruit at different


stages of ripening (say ripened or overripe).

Volume of guava fruit taken for each titration = 20 ml.

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Weight of guava fruit taken = 100 g.

Normality of KMnO solution = 0.5 N


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Sr. no. Type of Guava Fruit Volume of 0.5 N KMnO


4

solution (end point)

1 Raw fruit 142 ml

2 Ripened Fruit 146 ml

3 Overripe fruit 150 ml

CALCULATIONS

1 FOR FRESH GUAVA FRUIT (RAW FRUIT )

To calculate the normality of oxalate ion :

Volume of N/2 KMnO used for 20 ml of guava solution = 142 ml


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Applying normality equation :

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(Guava Solution ) N V = N V ( K M nO ) solution
1 1 2 2 4

N ×20 =0.5 ×142


1
N =( 0.5 ×142 ) / 20
1
N =3.55 N
1

To calculate the strength of oxalate ion in raw guava fruit :

Equivalent weight of oxalate ion = 44

Strength of oxalate ion in fresh fruit = N ×44


1
= 3.55 × 44
= 156. 2 gL −1

II FOR RIPENED GUAVA FRUIT

To calculate the normality of oxalate ion :

Volume of N/2 KMnO used for 20 ml of guava solution = 146 ml


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Applying normality equation :
(Guava solution ) N V = N V ( KMnO solution )
1 1 2 2 4
N ×20 =0.5 ×146
1
N =( 0.5 ×146 ) / 20
1
N =3.65 N
1

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