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Bode Plot

# Bode Plot

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11/17/2012

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# Introduction to Bode Plot

• 2 plots – both have logarithm of frequency on x-axis
o y-axis magnitude of transfer function, H(s), in dB
o y-axis phase angle

The plot can be used to interpret how the input affects the output in both magnitude and phase over
frequency.

Where do the Bode diagram lines comes from?
1) Determine the Transfer Function of the system:

) (
) (
) (
1
1
p s s
z s K
s H
+
+
·

2) Rewrite it by factoring both the numerator and denominator into the standard form

) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
1
1
1
1
+
+
·
p
s
sp
z
s
Kz
s H
where the z s are called zeros and the p

s are called poles.

3) Replace s with j? . Then find the Magnitude of the Transfer Function.

) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
1
1
1
1
+
+
·
p
jw
jwp
z
jw
Kz
jw H
If we take the log
10
of this magnitude and multiply it by 20 it takes on the form of
20 log
10
(H(jw)) =

,
`

.
|
+
+
) 1 (
) 1 (
log 20
1
1
1
1
10
p
jw
jwp
z
jw
Kz
=
) 1 ( log 20 log 20 log 20 ) 1 ( log 20 log 20 log 20
1
10 10 1 10
1
10 1 10 10
+ − − − + + +
z
jw
jw p
z
jw
z K

Each of these individual terms is very easy to show on a logarithmic plot. The entire Bode log magnitude plot is
the result of the superposition of all the straight line terms. This means with a little practice, we can quickly sketch
the effect of each term and quickly find the overall effect. To do this we have to understand the effect of the
different types of terms.

These include: 1) Constant terms K
2) Poles and Zeros at the origin | j? |
3) Poles and Zeros not at the origin
1
1
p
j ω
+ or
1
1
z
j ω
+
4) Complex Poles and Zeros (addressed later)
Effect of Constant Terms:
Constant terms such as K contribute a straight horizontal line of magnitude 20 log
10
(K)

H = K

Effect of Individual Zeros and Poles at the origin:
A zero at the origin occurs when there is an s or j? multiplying the numerator. Each occurrence of this
causes a positively sloped line passing through ? = 1 with a rise of 20 db over a decade.

H = | ω j |

A pole at the origin occurs when there are s or j? multiplying the denominator. Each occurrence of this
causes a negatively sloped line passing through ? = 1 with a drop of 20 db over a decade.

H =
ω j
1

Effect of Individual Zeros and Poles Not at the Origin
Zeros and Poles not at the origin are indicated by the (1+j? /z
i
) and (1+j? /p
i
). The values
z
i
and p
i
in each of these expression is called a critical frequency (or break frequency). Below their critical
frequency these terms do not contribute to the log magnitude of the overall plot. Above the critical
frequency, they represent a ramp function of 20 db per decade. Zeros give a positive slope. Poles produce a
negative slope.

H =
i
i
p
j
z
j
ω
ω
+
+
1
1

20 log
10
(K)
?
0.1
1
10 100
(log scale)
20 log
10
(H)
?
0.1
1
10 100
(log
10
scale)
20 log(H)
-20 db
dec.
dec.
+20 db
z
i

p
i

-20 db
?
0.1
1
10 100
(log scale)
20 log(H)
dec
?
0.1
1
10 100
(log scale)
20 log(H)
20 db
dec
• To complete the log magnitude vs. frequency plot of a Bode diagram, we superposition all the lines
of the different terms on the same plot.

Example 1:
For the transfer function given, sketch the Bode log magnitude diagram which shows how the log
magnitude of the system is affected by changing input frequency. (TF=transfer function)

1
2 100
TF
s
·
+

Step 1: Repose the equation in Bode plot form:

1
100
1
50
TF
s
| `

. ,
·
+
recognized as
1
1
1
K
TF
s
p
·
+

with K = 0.01 and p
1
= 50

For the constant, K: 20 log
10
(0.01) = -40

For the pole, with critical frequency, p
1
:

Example 2:
Your turn. Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function,

4
2
5 10
505 2500
x s
TF
s s
·
+ +

Start by simplifying the transfer function form:

50
-40 db
0db
? (log scale)
20 log
10
(MF)

Example 2 Solution:
Your turn. Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function,

4
2
5 10
505 2500
x s
TF
s s
·
+ +

Simplify transfer function form:

4
4
5 10
5 10 20
5*500
( 5)( 500)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
5 500 5 500
x
s
x s s
TF
s s s s
s s
· · ·
+ +
+ + + +

Recognize: K = 20 à 20 log10(20) = 26.02

1 zero at the origin

2 poles: at p
1
= 5 and p
2
=500

Technique to get started:
1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph
2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph.
3) Add the constant offset, 20 log
10
(K), to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left
side of the graph.
4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin. working from left (low values) to right (higher
values) of the poles/zeros.

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)

Example 3: One more time. This one is harder. Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function,

200( 20)
(2 1)( 40)
s
TF
s s s
+
·
+ +

Simplify transfer function form:

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1
20log
10
(TF)

? (log scale)

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)

Technique to get started:
1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph
2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph.
3) Add the constant offset, 20 log
10
(K), to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left
side of the graph.
4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin. working from left (low values) to right (higher
values) of the poles/zeros.
Example 3 Solution: Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function,

200( 20)
(2 1)( 40)
s
TF
s s s
+
·
+ +

Simplify transfer function form:

200*20
( 1) 100 ( 1)
200( 20)
40 20 20
(2 1)( 40)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
0.5 40 0.5 40
s s
s
TF
s s s s
s s s
s s
+ +
+
· · ·
+ +
+ + + +

Recognize: K = 100 à 20 log10(100) = 40

1 pole at the origin

1 zero at z
1
= 20

2 poles: at p
1
= 0.5 and p
2
=40

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1
20log
10
(TF)

40 db/dec
20 db/dec
20 db/dec
40 db/dec
? (log scale)
Technique to get started:
1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph
2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph.
3) Add the constant offset, 20 log
10
(K), to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left
side of the graph.
4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin. working from left (low values) to right (higher
values) of the poles/zeros.
The plot of the log magnitude vs. input frequency is only half of the story.
We also need to be able to plot the phase angle vs. input frequency on a log scale as well to complete the
full Bode diagram..

For our original transfer function,
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
1
1
1
1
+
+
·
p
jw
jwp
z
jw
Kz
jw H
the cumulative phase angle associated with this function are given by
) 1 (
) 1 (
) (
1
1
1
1
+ ∠ ∠ ∠
+ ∠ ∠ ∠
· ∠
p
jw
p jw
z
jw
z K
jw H
Then the cumulative phase angle as a function of the input frequency may be written as
]
]
]

+ − − − + + + ∠ · ∠ ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
1
1
1
1
p
jw
p jw
z
jw
z K jw H

Once again, to show the phase plot of the Bode diagram, lines can be drawn for each of the different terms.
Then the total effect may be found by superposition.

Effect of Constants on Phase:
A positive constant, K>0, has no effect on phase. A negative constant, K<0, will set up a phase shift of
±180
o
. (Remember real vs imaginary plots – a negative real number is at ±180
o
relative to the origin)

Effect of Zeros at the origin on Phase Angle:
Zeros at the origin, s, cause a constant +90 degree shift for each zero.

∠TF

Effect of Poles at the origin on Phase Angle:
Poles at the origin, s
-1
, cause a constant -90 degree shift for each pole.

∠TF

? (log)
+90 deg
?
-90 deg
Effect of Zeros not at the origin on Phase Angle:

Zeros not at the origin, like
1
1
z
j ω
+ , have no phase shift for frequencies much lower than z
i
, have a +
45 deg shift at z
1
, and have a +90 deg shift for frequencies much higher than z
1
.

∠H

.

To draw the lines for this type of term, the transition from 0
o
to +90
o
is drawn over 2 decades, starting at
0.1z
1
and ending at 10z
1
.

Effect of Poles not at the origin on Phase Angle:

Poles not at the origin, like
1
1
1
p
j ω
+
, have no phase shift for frequencies much lower than p
i
, have a -
45 deg shift at p
1
, and have a -90 deg shift for frequencies much higher than p
1
.

∠TF

.

To draw the lines for this type of term, the transition from 0
o
to -90
o
is drawn over 2 decades, starting at
0.1p
1
and ending at 10p
1
.

When drawing the phase angle shift for not-at-the-origin zeros and poles, first locate the critical frequency
of the zero or pole. Then start the transition 1 decade before, following a slope of
±45
o
/decade. Continue the transition until reaching the frequency one decade past the critical frequency.

Now let’s complete the Bode Phase diagrams for the previous examples:

?
0.1z
1 1z
1
10z
1
100z
1
+90 deg
+45 deg
?
0.1p
1 1p
1
10p
1
100p
1
-90 deg
-45 deg
Example 1:
For the Transfer Function given, sketch the Bode diagram which shows how the phase of the system is
affected by changing input frequency.

1 (1/100)
2 100
( 1)
50
TF
s
s
· ·
+
+

20 log|TF|

TF

+90
-90
-40db
50
5
?
?
0.5
Example 2:
Repeat for the transfer function,

20log|TF|
4
2
5 10 20
505 2500
( 1)( 1)
5 500
x s s
TF
s s
s s
· ·
+ +
+ +

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)

0
o
-90
o
10
0
180
o
-180
o

90
o
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)
20 log
10
(MF)
Phase Angle

Example 2 Solution:
Repeat for the transfer function,

20log|TF|
4
2
5 10 20
505 2500
( 1)( 1)
5 500
x s s
TF
s s
s s
· ·
+ +
+ +

0 db
-40 db
10
0
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)

0
o
-90
o
10
0
180
o
-180
o

90
o
10
3
10
2
10
1

? (log scale)
20 log
10
(MF)
Phase Angle

Example 3: Find the Bode log magnitude and phase angle plot for the transfer function,

100 ( 1)
200( 20)
20
(2 1)( 40)
( 1)( 1)
0.5 40
s
s
TF
s s
s s s
s
+
+
· ·
+ +
+ +

0 db
-40 db
10
-1
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
2
10
1
10
0

? (log scale)

0
o
-90
o
10
-1
180
o
-180
o

90
o
10
2
10
1
10
0

? (log scale)
20 log
10
(MF)
Phase Angle

Example 3: Find the Bode log magnitude and phase angle plot for the transfer function,

100 ( 1)
200( 20)
20
(2 1)( 40)
( 1)( 1)
0.5 40
s
s
TF
s s
s s s
s
+
+
· ·
+ +
+ +

0 db
-40 db
10
-1
80 db
-80 db
40 db
10
2
10
1
10
0

? (log scale)

0
o
-90
o
10
-1
180
o
-180
o

90
o
10
2
10
1
10
0

? (log scale)
20 log
10
(MF)
Phase Angle

Example 4:
Sketch the Bode plot (Magnitude and Phase Angle) for

3
100 10 ( 1)
( 10)( 1000)
s
TF
s s
× +
·
+ +
=

20log
10
|TF|

Angle of TF

Example 4:
Sketch the Bode plot (Magnitude and Phase Angle) for

3
100 10 ( 1)
( 10)( 1000)
s
TF
s s
× +
·
+ +
=
10( 1)
1
( 1)( 1)
10 1000
s
s s
+
+ +

Therefore: K = 10 so 20log
10
(10) = 20 db
One zero: z
1
= 1
Two poles: p
1
= 10 and p
2
= 1000

20log
10
|TF|

Angle of TF

40

20

0 db

-20

-40

10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4

10
-2
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4

180

90

0 deg

-90

-180

Matlab can also be used to draw Bode plots:

Matlab (with the sketched Bode Plot superimposed on the actual plot)
3
100 10 ( 1)
( 10)( 1000)
s
TF
s s
× +
·
+ +

w=logspace(-1,5,100); %setup for x-axis
MagH=100000*sqrt(w.^2+1^2)./(sqrt(w.^2+10^2).*sqrt(w.^2+1000^2));
%transfer function
MagHdb=20*log10(MagH); %transfer function converted to dB
subplot(2,1,1)
semilogx(w,MagHdb,':b',x,y,'-b') %semilog plot
xlabel('frequency [rad/s]'),ylabel('20 log10(|TF|) [db]'),grid %xaxis label
subplot(2,1,2)
semilogx(w,PhaseHDeg,':b',xAng,yAngDeg,'-b')
10
-2
10
0
10
2
10
4
10
6
-20
-10
0
10
20
30
40
2
0

l
o
g
1
0
(
|
T
F
|
)

[
d
b
]
10
-2
10
0
10
2
10
4
10
6
-100
-50
0
50
100
P
h
a
s
e

A
n
g
l
e

[
d
e
g
]

Notice that the actual plot does not follow the sketched plot exactly. There is error between our sketched
method and the actual Bode plot. How much error is expected?
Let’s look at an example of a zero, )
10
1 (
s
TF + · . Note, ?
critical
The largest error that occurs on the Magnitude plot is right at the critical frequency. It is on the order of 3
db.
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
0
10
20
30
40
50
2
0

l
o
g
1
0
(
|
T
F
|
)

[
d
b
]
10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
0
20
40
60
80
100
P
h
a
s
e

A
n
g
l
e

[
d
e
g
]

The largest error that is shown on the Phase plot occurs at 0.1?
critical
and 10?
critical
below the critical frequency). Error at these points is about 6 degrees.

It’s understood that sketching the Bode diagrams will contain some error but this is generally considered
acceptable practice.

To quickly sketch the graphs:

1. Determine the starting value: |H(0)|
2. Determine all critical frequencies (break frequencies). Start from the lowest value and draw the graphs
as follows:
Magnitude Phase (create slope 1
above ω
critical
)
Pole is negative -20dB/dec -45
o

Pole is positive -20dB/dec +45
o

Zero is negative +20dB/dec +45
o

Zero is positive +20dB/dec -45
o

Add each value to the previous value.

Examples:
1. H(s) = |H(0)| = |0+1/0+10 = 1/10 |= |0.1| => -20dB
Critical frequencies: zero@ -1 and pole @ -10
Magnitude Plot Phase Plot

The dotted line is a more accurate representation.
2. H(s) = |H(0)| = |10*(-1)/(-3)(-10) |= |-1/3| = 1/3 => -10dB
Note that the angle of (-1/3 real value) is 180
o

critical frequencies: zero @ 1, pole@3 and 10

Above the critical frequenc y.1 1 dec 10 100 ? (log scale) A pole at the origin occurs when there are s or j? multiplying the denominator. Each occurrence of this causes a negatively sloped line passing through ? = 1 with a drop of 20 db over a decade. they represent a ramp function of 20 db per decade.1 1 pi 10 dec. Zeros give a positive slope. H= 100 -20 db jω zi jω pi ? (log10 scale) 1+ . 20 log(H) +20 db dec. 20 log(H) dec 0. Below their critical frequency these terms do not contribute to the log magnitude of the overall plot.Effect of Constant Terms: Constant terms such as K contribute a straight horizontal line of magnitude 20 log10 (K) 20 log10 (H) 20 log10 (K) H=K 0. Each occurrence of this causes a positively sloped line passing through ? = 1 with a rise of 20 db over a decade. Poles produce a negative slope. 1+ zi 0. The values zi and pi in each of these expression is called a critical frequency (or break frequency).1 1 10 100 ? (log scale) Effect of Individual Zeros and Poles at the origin: A zero at the origin occurs when there is an s or j? multiplying the numerator.1 1 10 100 ? (log scale) -20 db H= 1 jω Effect of Individual Zeros and Poles Not at the Origin Zeros and Poles not at the origin are indicated by the (1+j? /zi) and (1+j? /pi ). 20 log(H) 20 db H = | jω | 0.

5 x104 s TF = 2 s + 505s + 2500 Start by simplifying the transfer function form: .• To complete the log magnitude vs. sketch the Bode log magnitude diagram which shows how the log magnitude of the system is affected by changing input frequency. K: recognized as TF = K 1 s +1 p1 and p1 = 50 20 log10 (0. we superposition all the lines of the different terms on the same plot.01 For the constant. frequency plot of a Bode diagram. with critical frequency. Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function.01) = -40 For the pole. p1 : 20 log10 (MF) 0db -40 db ? (log scale) 50 Example 2: Your turn. (TF=transfer function) TF = 1 2s + 100 Step 1: Repose the equation in Bode plot form:  1   100   TF =  s +1 50 with K = 0. Example 1: For the transfer function given.

20 log10 (K). . working from left (low values) to right (higher values) of the poles/zeros. Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function. 4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin.02 1 zero at the origin 2 poles: at p1 = 5 and p2 =500 Technique to get started: 1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph 2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph. 3) Add the constant offset.80 db 40 db 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 100 101 102 103 Example 2 Solution: Your turn. TF = 5 x104 s s 2 + 505s + 2500 Simplify transfer function form: 5 x104 s 5 x10 s 20 s 5*500 TF = = = s s s s ( s + 5)( s + 500) ( + 1)( + 1) ( + 1)( + 1) 5 500 5 500 4 Recognize: K = 20 à 20 log10(20) = 26. to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left side of the graph.

80 db 20log10 (TF) 40 db 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 100 101 102 103 Example 3: One more time. 200( s + 20) TF = s (2 s + 1)( s + 40) Simplify transfer function form: 80 db 40 db 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 100 101 102 103 . This one is harder. Find the Bode log magnitude plo t for the transfer function.

200( s + 20) TF = s (2 s + 1)( s + 40) Simplify transfer function form: 200*20 s s ( + 1) 100 ( + 1) 200( s + 20) 40 20 20 TF = = = s s s s s(2 s + 1)( s + 40) s ( + 1)( + 1) s( + 1)( + 1) 0.5 40 0.Technique to get started: 1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph 2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph.5 40 Recognize: K = 100 à 20 log10(100) = 40 1 pole at the origin 1 zero at z1 = 20 2 poles: at p1 = 0. 20 log10 (K).5 and p2 =40 80 db 20 db/dec 40 db 40 db/dec 0 db 20 db/dec ? (log scale) -40 db 40 db/dec 20log10 (TF) -80 db 100 101 102 103 . Example 3 Solution: Find the Bode log magnitude plot for the transfer function. working from left (low values) to right (higher values) of the poles/zeros. 4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin. 3) Add the constant offset. to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left side of the graph.

We also need to be able to plot the phase angle vs. has no effect on phase. ∠ TF ? -90 deg . 4) Apply the effect of the poles/zeros not at the origin. (Remember real vs imaginary plots – a negative real number is at ±180o relative to the origin) Effect of Zeros at the origin on Phase Angle: Zeros at the origin. cause a constant +90 degree shift for each zero. to show the phase plot of the Bode diagram. s -1 . Then the total effect may be found by superposition. 20 log10 (K). ∠ TF +90 deg ? (log) Effect of Poles at the origin on Phase Angle: Poles at the origin. 3) Add the constant offset.. A negative constant. H ( jw) = Kz1 ( jw z + 1) 1 jwp1 ( jw p + 1) 1 the cumulative phase angle associated with this function are given by ∠K∠z 1∠( jw z + 1) 1 ∠H ( jw) = jw + 1) ∠jw∠p1∠( p 1 Then the cumulative phase angle as a function of the input frequency may be written as ∠H ( jw) = ∠  K + z1 + ( jw z + 1) − ( jw) − p1 − ( jw p + 1)     1 1  Once again. K<0. will set up a phase shift of ±180o . lines can be drawn for each of the different terms. The plot of the log magnitude vs. s. For our original transfer function. Effect of Constants on Phase: A positive constant. working from left (low values) to right (higher values) of the poles/zeros. K>0.Technique to get started: 1) Draw the line of each individual term on the graph 2) Follow the combined pole-zero at the origin line back to the left side of the graph. input frequency is only half of the story. to the value where the pole/zero at the origin line intersects the left side of the graph. cause a constant -90 degree shift for each pole. input frequency on a log scale as well to complete the full Bode diagram.

1p1 1p1 10p1 100p1 ? -45 deg -90 deg 1 To draw the lines for this type of term. 0.1z1 1z1 10z1 100z1 +45 deg ? To draw the lines for this type of term. have no phase shift for frequencies much lower than zi. like . When drawing the phase angle shift for not-at-the-origin zeros and poles. 0. have no phase shift for frequencies much lower than pi. ∠ TF . and have a -90 deg shift for frequenc ies much higher than p1 . Effect of Poles not at the origin on Phase Angle: Poles not at the origin. the transition from 0o to -90o is drawn over 2 decades. starting at 0.1p1 and ending at 10p1 . the transition from 0o to +90o is drawn over 2 decades. starting at 0. and have a +90 deg shift for frequenc ies much higher than z1 . Then start the transition 1 decade before. first locate the critical frequency of the zero or pole. have a + z1 45 deg shift at z1 . have a jω 1+ p1 45 deg shift at p1 . like 1 + +90 deg ∠H .Effect of Zeros not at the origin on Phase Angle: jω .1z1 and ending at 10z1 . following a slope of ±45o /decade. Continue the transition until reaching the frequency one decade past the critical frequency. Now let’s complete the Bode Phase diagrams for the previous examples: . Zeros not at the origin.

5 -40db 5 50 500 rad/s ? +90 TF ? -90 . TF = 1 (1/100) = 2s + 100 ( s + 1) 50 20 log|TF| 0.Example 1: For the Transfer Function given. sketch the Bode diagram which shows how the phase of the system is affected by changing input frequency.

20log|TF| TF = 5 x10 4 s 20 s = 2 s + 505s + 2500 ( s + 1)( s + 1) 5 500 80 db 40 db 20 log10 (MF) 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 100 101 102 103 180o 90o Phase Angle 0o ? (log scale) -90o -180o 100 101 102 103 .Example 2: Repeat for the transfer function.

Example 2 Solution: Repeat for the transfer function. 20log|TF| TF = 5 x10 4 s 20 s = 2 s + 505s + 2500 ( s + 1)( s + 1) 5 500 80 db 40 db 20 log10 (MF) 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 100 101 102 103 180o 90o Phase Angle 0o ? (log scale) -90o -180o 100 101 102 103 .

Example 3: Find the Bode log magnitude and phase angle plot for the transfer function.5 40 80 db 40 db 20 log10 (MF) 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 10-1 100 101 102 180o 90o Phase Angle 0o ? (log scale) -90o -180o 10-1 100 101 102 . s 100 ( + 1) 200( s + 20) 20 TF = = s s s (2 s + 1)( s + 40) s( + 1)( + 1) 0.

s 100 ( + 1) 200( s + 20) 20 TF = = s s s (2 s + 1)( s + 40) s( + 1)( + 1) 0.5 40 80 db 40 db 20 log10 (MF) 0 db ? (log scale) -40 db -80 db 10-1 100 101 102 180o 90o Phase Angle 0o ? (log scale) -90o -180o 10-1 100 101 102 .Example 3: Find the Bode log magnitude and phase angle plot for the transfer function.

Example 4: Sketch the Bode plot (Magnitude and Phase Angle) for 100 × 103 ( s + 1) TF = = ( s + 10)( s + 1000) 20log10 |TF| Angle of TF .

Example 4: Sketch the Bode plot (Magnitude and Phase Angle) for s 10( + 1) 3 100 × 10 ( s + 1) 1 TF = = s s ( s + 10)( s + 1000) ( + 1)( + 1) 10 1000 Therefore: K = 10 so 20log10 (10) = 20 db One zero: z1 = 1 Two poles: p1 = 10 and p2 = 1000 20log10 |TF| 40 20 0 db -20 -40 10-2 Angle of TF 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 180 90 0 deg -90 -180 10-2 10-1 100 101 102 103 104 .

':b'.100).2) semilogx(w.ylabel('20 log10(|TF|) [db]').^2+1^2). %phase done in radians PhaseHDeg=PhaseHRad*180/pi.ylabel('Phase Angle [deg]').'-b') %semilog plot xlabel('frequency [rad/s]').5.^2+1000^2)).yAngDeg. %phase done in degrees subplot(2.'-b') xlabel('frequency [rad/s]').y.grid %xaxis label subplot(2. %transfer function converted to dB PhaseHRad=atan(w/1)-atan(w/10)-atan(w/1000).x.MagHdb.^2+10^2).1. %setup for x-axis MagH=100000*sqrt(w.1./(sqrt(w.Matlab can also be used to draw Bode plots: Matlab (with the sketched Bode Plot superimposed on the actual plot) 100 × 103 ( s + 1) TF = ( s + 10)( s + 1000) w=logspace(-1.*sqrt(w.xAng. %transfer function MagHdb=20*log10(MagH).':b'.1) semilogx(w.grid .PhaseHDeg.

How much error is expected? s Let’s look at an example of a zero. TF = (1 + ) . There is error between our sketched method and the actual Bode plot. ? critical = 10 rad/s 10 .40 30 20 log10(|TF|) [db] 20 10 0 -10 -20 -2 10 10 0 10 frequency [rad/s] 2 10 4 10 6 100 Phase Angle [deg] 50 0 -50 -100 -2 10 10 0 10 frequency [rad/s] 2 10 4 10 6 Notice that the actual plot does not follow the sketched plot exactly. Note.

1? critical and 10? critical (one decade above and below the critical frequency). It is on the order of 3 50 40 20 log10(|TF|) [db] 30 20 10 0 -1 10 10 0 10 frequency [rad/s] 1 10 2 10 3 100 80 Phase Angle [deg] 60 40 20 0 -1 10 10 0 10 frequency [rad/s] 1 10 2 10 3 db. . The largest error that is shown on the Phase plot occurs at 0.The largest error that occurs on the Magnitude plot is right at the critical frequency. Error at these points is about 6 degrees. It’s understood that sketching the Bode diagrams will contain some error but this is generally considered acceptable practice.

Examples: 1. H(s) = |H(0)| = |0+1/0+10 = 1/10 |= |0. Determine all critical frequencies (break frequencies). pole@3 and 10 |H(0)| = |10*(-1)/(-3)(-10) |= |-1/3| = 1/3 => -10dB . Start from the lowest value and draw the graphs as follows: Magnitude Phase (create slope 1 decade below to 1 decade above ωcritical) Pole is negative -20dB/dec -45o Pole is positive -20dB/dec +45o Zero is negative +20dB/dec +45o Zero is positive +20dB/dec -45o Add each value to the previous value.1| => -20dB Critical frequencies: zero@ -1 and pole @ -10 Magnitude Plot The dotted line is a more accurate representation. Determine the starting value: |H(0)| 2.To quickly sketch the graphs: 1. Phase Plot 2. H(s) = Note that the angle of (-1/3 real value) is 180o critical frequencies: zero @ 1.

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