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“Comparative study on marketing mix of three selected brands of Tomato Ketchup (Maggi, Kissan & Cremica) and its impact on consumer buying behaviour in Ludhiana city.”
A report submitted towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements of the two years full-time Post Graduate Diploma in “Fashion Merchandising and marketing”
SUBMITTED TO :MR. KAPIL C AGGARWAL (Module Tutor of Marketing and Communication Skill) MS. RATANDEEP REKHI (Module Tutor of Consumer Behaviour) DR. SUNIDHI DHIMAN (Module Tutor of Research Methodology) MR.GAGANDEEP SINGH (Module Tutor of Computers) SUBMITTED BY :PAWANDEEP DHIMAN FMM- 2
I feel immense pleasure to offer my thanks to faculty members, who cooperated in analysis of data and helped me in completion of this project. I am very thankful to my friends who directly and indirectly helped me in collection of data and material related to the research topic. In the end I would like to thank the respondents who gave their valuable piece of time for participating in the survey to complete the study.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Chapters Chapter 1. : 1. Introduction 2. Objectives 3. Marketing mix of Brands Chapter 2. : Review of Literature Chapter 3. : Research Methodology Chapter 4. : Results and Discussion Chapter 5. : Conclusion Chapter 6. : Suggestions Chapter 7. : Bibliography Chapter 8. : Annexure
Page no. 5-11 5 6 7-11 12-16 17-18 19-32 33-34 35-36 37 38-41
Table 4.1.1 Table 4.1.2 Table 4.1.3 Table 4.1.4 Table 4.1.5
Data related to marketing mix.
Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers
Distribution of respondents according to the level of competition faced by the three selected brands of T.K
Distribution of respondents on the bases of particular size of T.K packing preferred by consumers Distribution of the respondents according to the brands preferred by their customers on the bases of taste and its attractive packing Distribution of respondents on the bases of channel of distribution followed by brands
19 20 21 22 23
Table 4.2.1 Table 4.2.2 Table 4.2.3 Table 4.2.4 Table 4.2.5 Table 4.2.6
Data related to consumer behaviour
Distribution of respondents on the bases of age and gender of the respondents using the brand Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup Distribution of the respondents on the bases of type of store preferred by them Distribution of respondents according to the purchase decision on the non-availability of their preferred brand Distribution of respondents on bases of factors and offers provided by the brands and their source of information. Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the particular brand
24 26 27 28 29 31
Sr no. Figure 4.1
Figure 4.1.1 Figure 4.1.4 Figure 4.1.5 (1) Figure 4.1.5 (2)
Figures related to marketing mix.
Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers Distribution of the respondents according to the brand’s attractive packing Distribution of respondents on the bases of 2nd level of channel of distribution followed by brands Distribution of respondents on the bases of multi level of channel of distribution followed by brands
19 22 23 23
Figures related to consumer behaviour .
Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup
Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the particular brand
1. INTRODUCTION :India is a diverse country where different states have different consumption patterns and customs. Competition has become the key word in today’s scenario. Till 1970’s and 80’s Maggie and Kissan were the major ketchup brands but after liberalization Heinz entered Indian market which offered tough competition. These major giants are also facing competition from many local players like Tops, Cremica and other local brands. The ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. Upto mid eighties Kissan was the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and around that time the competition came from Maggi -- a Nestlé’s brand (Anonymous,2009). This project is undertaken to study and understand the 4 P’s of marketing which includes PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE and PROMOTION of three brands of tomato Ketchup and its impact on the consumer buying behaviour. The three brands of the tomato ketchup selected for the study are Maggi, Kissan and Cremica. Price helps in analyzing whether it is competitively priced or not. Promotions showcases which mode of promotion is most effective and how do consumers respond to various celebrity endorsements. Place focuses on efficiency of distribution network of Tomato Ketchup. There are various strategies which are used by manufacturers in marketing their product. The popularity of the brand or the brand positioning depends upon various factors. The manufacturer uses his strengths and opportunities for survival and to overcome against threats and its weakness. Marketing mix or 4 P’s of marketing is the most important tool of any organisation. (Anonymous (2001), Marketing mix) Marketing mix has an impact on the buying decision of a consumer. Marketing is used to identify the customer, to keep the customer, and to satisfy the customer. To understand the behaviour of consumer, marketer must know how a consumer make decision before buying any product for this consumer decision making (consumer buying behaviour) have to be studied.
Marketers need to identify the circumstances that trigger a particular need. Purchase Decision: In evaluation stage. Evaluation of alternatives: There is no single evaluation process used by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situation. Consumer information sources fall into four groups.The consumer decision making is a process having various stages which are as Need Recognition: The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. marketers can identify the most frequent stimuli that spark and interested in a product category. post purchase action and post purchase product users. Kissan . There are various environmental variables which also effect the position of the brand. he or she must know about the strategies which a marketer formulate and plan for 5| Page . By gathering information from a number of consumers. competition. the consumer forms preferences among the brands in the choice set. The consumer may also form an intention to buy most preferred brand. There are several decision evaluation processes. the consumers see each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilities of delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need. The need can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. trade. Commercial sources. The marketers job does not end when the product is bought marketers must monitor post purchase satisfaction. Information search: An aroused consumer will be inclined to search for more information. Cremica) and the buying behaviour of its consumers in selected area of Ludhiana city. As this project is done by the student of marketing and consumer behaviour. technology and government variable. At this level a person simply becomes more receptive to information about a product. Consumer behaviour) This project is focussed on the studying the marketing mix of tomato ketchup and its three brands ( Maggi. Post purchase behaviour: after purchasing the product the consumer will experience some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Personal sources. Public sources. Third. Through gathering information. First. They can develop marketing strategies that trigger consumer’s interest. the consumer learns about competing brands and their features. Marketing mix and environmental factors are closely related which affect the consumer buying behaviour. the consumer is trying to satisfy a need. However. the consumer is looking for certain benefits from the product solution. Second. two factors can intervene between the purchase intentions and the purchase decision. (Anonymous. This includes customer variable.
Maggi. As marketing mix is based on the consumer behaviour the relationship have been studied in this project. The study has been planned with the following objectives : 1. To study the 4P’s of marketing of three selected brands of tomato ketchup i. Kissan and Cremica. To study the consumer buying behaviour in regard to these selected brands of tomato ketchup.e. 6| Page . 3. 2. To do the comparative analysis of the three selected brands of tomato ketchups based upon the marketing mix and consumer buying behaviour.the brand extension and profitability.
aroma and also contains iodised salt.Four P ’s of marketing used by brands About Maggi Tomato Ketchup :- [source : http://upload.com/topics/Maggi 4 P’s of Marketing of Maggi Tomato Ketchup 1. http://www. Available in different variants: Maggi Ketchup Maggi Hot & Sweet Sauce.( 1Kg bottle) a. sugar.png] Maggi Tomato Ketchup is primarily a taste enhancer. India’s sole channel in 1984. Market leader Kissan was selling its ketchup in 500 gm. Source : anonymous (2009) Encyclopaedia. tomato paste (34%). they ensured the establishment of the brand Maggi and launched their Maggi ketchup. garlic powder. The main focusing aspect of their advertisement was ‘what ketchup does to your food. PRODUCT :. tomato chatpat. thickening agent (440 & 401). The product ingredients are water. Maggi Tamarind Sauce. Nestle was seriously working on brand extension to leverage brand success in some potential product categories.org/wikipedia/de/thumb/0/06/Maggi-logo. Teekha masala. 7| Page . b. Maggi Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic).svg/677px-Maggi-logo. onion powder. Tomato pudina. b. Maggi Chilli Garlic Sauce. giving the food provider taste. Nestle decided upon 400 gm bottle to give the consumer a ‘price. The main launched its product all over India. They also sponsor various cookery shows to promote alternate usage of products. acidifying agent (260). 2.tasty and more palatable.absoluteastronomy. The company finally decided to enter ketchup market with the brand Maggi. mixed spices and preservative (211). Maggi Masala Chilli Sauce.svg. Maggi was a sponsor for Hum Log. They promote their product very effectively through television by adding humour in the ads. PROMOTION :a. Maggi Tomato Sauce (Without onion & garlic). a popular television show on Doordarshan. Finally in 1985 when Maggi noodles had reached 4000 tonnes business. iodised salt.point’ advantage.wikimedia.
Australia . 4. Nigeria. They have distributed samples in various mall and schools in Delhi. These included the August 1999 ‘Fun-Dooz’ campaign and Jungle Jackpot campaign . 3. On completing its 25 years in India. And it’s now campaign slogan is “Mai & maire maggi”. PRICE :Its Maggi Rich Tomatoes is priced at Rs 90 (1 kg bottle with 20% free offer). Pakistan. retail store etc.c. They also use strategy of free product samples to promote it.The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all karyana stores. Malaysia. Maggi has changed slogan to “ Make a Difference”. PLACE :.Maggi was They came up with their popular character of Pankaj and Javed to communicate with target audience Nestlé carried out various promotional activities as well.Sold in India . Celebrity endorsements:. They used a punch line that is very effective and creates a unique image in the minds of the customers. New Zealand .They have taken Javed Jafferi for endorsement of tomato ketchup. d. Philippines and Singapore. That is “its Different”. spx 8| Page .
The new campaign of Kissan has positioned the Kissan Ketchup a unique product . the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. sugar. 4. • The thickness is more as compared to Maggi Ketchup. condiments. PLACE : Sold in India.A and Australia. onion powder.( 1Kg bottle) • • It is available in different variants: Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no garlic). PRODUCT :. acidity regulator (260). The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all karyana stores. salt. Due to the hidden quantity of the tomato paste in the ingredient. b. Taking the tag line "Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to "Making Pakode taste better". PRICE :Kissan Ketchup is priced at Rs 91 (1 kg bottle). The product ingredients are water.Stabilizers (1442 & 415). garlic powder. tomato paste . retail store etc. U. 9| Page . About Kissan Tomato Ketchup :- g 4 P’s of marketing of Kissan Tomato Ketchup are :1. mixed spices and preservative (211). In these series of ads.S. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the HUL ( Hindustan Unilever Limited ). 2. Kissan Tomchi. The brand takes the positioning of a "Great Accompaniment " 3. PROMOTION :a.
(Company. is one of the largest players in food services business in India. ready-to-eat curries and syrups have something for everyone. Bector. About Cremica Tomato Ketchup : source: http://www. the Cremica Group is today a widely diversified food products company engaged in food retailing and food services industry. mint dip sachets. salsa Mexicana sauce. hotel groups and airlines. b..jpg Established in 1978 as a small enterprise by Mrs. pizza pasta sauce.a0199265103 4 P’s of marketing of Cremica Tomato Ketchup :1. Source : Asian News International ( 2009) http://www. bread spreads. tomato ketchup sachets. its products are exported to 50 countries including Africa. a 90 million dollar company. the USA. It serves as a one-stop solution provider to all leading food service chains. PRODUCT :. chilli garlic sauce.. Today. EBI foods. food retail chains. Mrs Bector's Cremica.mrsbectorfoods. sauces. mustard sachet.thefreelibrary. chilli sauce sachets.' This is a carton with 25 single serve sachets which the company hopes will do well in homes with school-going children. Its product line includes Tomato ketchup. chilli sauce. The Cremica Group includes Cremica Frozen Foods. The company has launched a new `concept product' which it calls a `tiffin ketchup sachet. a housewife and passionate food enthusiast.com/images/sauces_img. Cremica's spread of delightful biscuits. UK and the Middle East. Mrs Bector's Desserts and Cremica Agro India.( 1Kg bottle) a. breads.com/The+Cremica+group+making+waves+in+food+service+industry. 10 | P a g e .
PROMOTION :- a. The company has a retail presence largely in the Northern market. Jaipur.c. The company is a major player in the institutional sales segment and supplies to international chains such as McDonald's. Taj Group of Hotels. d. and Subway. Indore. Subway and to the Indian Army's Canteen Stores Department. Kellogg's. 11 | P a g e . permitted acid (E 260). tomato paste (34. Indian Railways. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the Mrs. common salt. Raipur. c. permitted emulsifier and stabiliser (E415). PRICE :- The price of 1kg Cremica Tomato ketchup bottle for Rs. Chapter 2. liquid glucose. It also makes products for the food divisions of major FMCG companies including a chocolate topping for Kwality Wall's. Bector for cremica tomato ketchup. 3. b. sugar. Coimbatore and Madurai. 2. Agra. Lucknow. a UK based firm. It has customers like Cafi Coffee Day. Kochi. condiments. Jet Airways. It is looking at an entry into smaller places such as Goa. 4. Spencer. onion powder. The product ingredients are water. b. 89 for consumers. It has also partnered with Cadbury’s ITC and EBI Foods. garlic powder. PLACE :- a. They promote their ketchup through hoardings. Pizza Hut. the ice-cream brand of Hindustan Lever. Pizza Hut.5%). wall paintings and from various fast food corners like McDonald’s.
word-of-mouth information acquired from others.2 Marketing mix review 2.1 About consumer behaviour :Referring to Solomon (2006. Consumer behaviour focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources on consumption related items. or exposure to mass media advertising. services. This means that attitudes relevant to purchase behaviour are formed as a result of direct experience with the product.REVIEW OF LITERATURE:The chapter included the information related to secondary data sourced from various published source like books . p. how often they buy it how often they use it. idea or experiences. 2004. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004. Internet etc. Kissan and Cremica brands of ketchup . internet .253) As learned predisposition. (Schiffman and Kanuk. 2. why they buy. purchase.27) consumer behaviour is the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select. where they buy it. and how they dispose it.8) 2. There is a general agreement that attitudes are learned. how they evaluate it after they purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases. attitudes may propel consumer towards particular 12 | P a g e . In consumer behaviour context attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way with respect of a given object. The review have been categorised into following heads :2. p.3 Historical review about tomato ketchup 2. when they buy.4 Studies conducted on Maggi . use or dispose of products.1.1 Consumer attitude :According to Ajzen (1998) the attitudes are the first determinant of behaviour intention. journals etc. p.1 About consumer behaviour 2. That includes what they buy.
which could be added to the 4Ps. situation and emotion. p.behaviour or repel the consumer away from particular behaviour. with particular attention being paid to services marketing in recent years. quality. . cited by Vignali 2001) recognized the following variables as an integral part of the marketing mix. 2006 p. 2. (Brassington. number of outlets.2 Marketing Mix :The concept of the marketing mix as the combination of the major tools of marketing was first developed by Borden in the 1950s.1. The marketing mix creates an offering for the customer. friends. Marketers need to ensure that the marketing mix meets their customers’ needs and wants in addition to that all of its components need to be consistent with each other. Place – location. physical and people. (Schiffman and Kanuk. Later research discovered that consumers are just as likely to purchase impulsively and to be influenced not only by family.2004.30) Vignali (2001) acknowledges that for many years 4Ps have been used as the principal foundation on which a marketing plan is based. 13 | P a g e . It ties together the psychological. (Schiffman and Kanuk. Product – features. All of these factors combine to form a comprehensive model of consumer behaviour that reflects both the cognitive and emotional aspects of consumer decision-making.2 Consumer decision-making process :Many consumer theories regarding the consumer behaviour were based on economic theory on the notion that individuals at rationally to maximize their benefits/satisfaction in the purchase of goods and services. Price and Promotion) was later formulated by McCarthy in 1975.1) of consumer decision-making process Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) identified three distinct but linked stages from which the process of consumer decision-making can be viewed. 2.253) 2. Place. Fifield and Gilligan (1996. quantity.19) In this simplified model (Figure 3. and advertisers but also by mood. social and cultural concept into easily understood framework. theorists have identified additional variables. If not costumers will turn away to its competitors. Vignali (2001) applied 7Ps analysing the marketing mix of McDonald’s in the following way: 1. 2004.process. The idea of 4Ps (Product. However. p.
The study was conducted Ahmadabad city. place and promotion . determinants. In this project . Promotion – advertising. 4. Upto mid eighties Kissan was the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and around that time the competition came from Maggi -a Nestlé’s brand. Process – blueprinting. the manufacturers of Rasna Brands of soft drink concentrate and is expected to launch Tomato Ketchup shortly. levels. 2. Price – strategy. Noga of Nagpur Orange Federation and SunSip of Wimco gradually disappeared from the market. Delmonte now has joined hands with Paoma Industries. Overall. Maggi Ketchup (79) scored the highest among the national brands followed by Kissan Sauce (78) and Heinz Ketchup (78). Madhur Premium Sauce and Ketchup topped the list. but with a range of sauces in order to increase market share and expand the market by offering more usage occasions. 4 Ps includes product. training. People – quantity. At a time when Kissan had become generic to tomato sauce.1 History of Tomato ketchup in India :- Anonymous (2009) reviewed that the ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore. 5. With Kissan and Maggi fighting neck to neck other smaller but established brands like Dipy's from Herbertsons. It did not come in with one.3 Historical review :- 2. Volfruit from Voltas. ambience of the service. public relations. It was found out that the `Best Buy’ tomato ketchup in the 14 | P a g e . Maggi came in with its sauces range. Maggi Sauces now enjoys a share of about 50% of the market. quality. 2. An in-house laboratory test on 15 brands of tomato sauce and ketchup from across the country and 2 unbranded samples were conducted. automation.3. largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. control procedures. the main focus is on the 4 P’s of marketing rather than 7 Ps. price .4 Survey on tomato ketchups :Trivedi H (2008) conducted study on consumer buying decision making of ketchup. 7. From a market share of 14% in 1985. promotion. Physical – cleanliness. With Maggi launching several varieties of Tomato Ketchup there was a growth in the market.3. sales promotion. decor. 6. Maggi was the upstate new corner who came in with a loud aggressive national burst. bring consumers with different needs into the Maggi Sauces fold and weaning away users of different brands to Maggi. Among the regional brands.
According to him Cremica was established in 1978 as a small enterprise by Mrs.4. Mrs Bector’s Desserts and Cremica Agro India. and we will be further reinforcing a new strategy in these markets. besides tomatoes.1 About cremica :.(The Cremica group making waves in food service industry ) Karan Kapoor ( 2009) writes an article on Cremica Tomato ketchup. 2. It has customers like Cafi Coffee Day. hence they were not rated and ranked. food retail chains. Since 1996.4. FMCG major Nestle is changing the slogan for its ketch up brand to Make a Difference. bread spreads. the Cremica Group is today a widely diversified food products company engaged in food retailing and food services industry. The Cremica Group includes Cremica Frozen Foods. Managing Director of Mrs. a 90 million dollar company. is one of the largest players in food services business in India. Similarly Madhur Ketchup is the `Best Buy’ in the regional category. 2. EBI Foods. It serves as a one-stop solution provider to all leading food service chains. As Maggi tomato ketchup turns 25 this year in India.S. sauces. Taj Group of Hotels.Sona Continental and Tops Continental were tested as a separate category because it had vegetables as ingredients. Today. Both the brands were found to be nonconforming. Cremica has been supplying buns. a housewife and passionate food enthusiast. Mrs Bector’s Cremica. Bector’s Food Specialities Ltd. Nestle is adopting a more interactive approach with customers through its new campaign. the USA. ketchups and toppings to McDonald’s – its key business partner. We have had a highly successful launches of these products in Australia and the U.2 Maggi ketchup completes 25 years in India & is still making a difference :According to Press Trust of India (2010) article nearly two decades after it first tickled the funny bone with the It's Different punchline for Maggi sauces. Two brands . It has also partnered with Cadbury’s ITC and EBI Foods. breads. We have recently launched a new range of chip-dips and bread spread in the ethnic Indian range and these are going abroad to a number of countries.national category is Nilon’s Sauce since its price was less than that of Maggi Ketchup. Cremica’s spread of delightful biscuits.” said Adshay Bector. to stay in sync with the new generation of customers. a UK based firm. Spencer and Barista as well. ready-to-eat curries and syrups have something for everyone. hotel groups and airlines. Bector. UK and the Middle East. “Our sauces are going to Australia. its products are exported to 50 countries including Africa. Hassi 15 | P a g e .
like those used to make ketchup. 2. but keeps it from causing damage. has as much as five times the amount of lycopene as fresh tomatoes. Today.4 Maggi : FROM 2-MINUTES TO 25 YEARS… Ambika Sharma (2009) reviewed that the Nestle R&D Centre in Singapore is using their technological know-how and knowledge of culinary art in India to develop an innovative product that does not have any added preservatives and contains low levels of oil. squeezable pack of Maggi Ketchup priced at Rs. It has cancer fighting elements called lycopene.Khushi and Maggi Sauce. 16 | P a g e .4. From the above reviews it can be said that marketing mix strategies of the brands affect the consumer buying behaviour.Far from a delight but still a necessity Akisha (2004).5 Is tomato ketchup is bad ? According to Oprystar on 30th Jan . pizza etc. Lycopene does not lessen the amount of cholesterol. This time they have thought of letting the consumers do the talking. With continuous innovation and renovation of its product portfolio based on strong consumer insights. Kissan tomato ketchup is every type snack ketchup. This can also help fight against heart disease.4. According to her . Maggi also launched Maggi Pichkoo. Make a Difference. In its endeavour to make Maggi Tomato Ketchup affordable to many more families. Maggi stands generic to its category.3 Kissan Tomato ketchup :. 2007. Maggi’s tomato ketchup is spicy where as Kissan tomto ketchup is tangy and mush thicker than Maggi tomato ketchup. The Cancer Research Foundation of America has found that cooked tomatoes. Lycopene is a natural antioxidant that protects the heart by preventing the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (bad) in your arteries. One can have it with hot burger. As the brand grows they are looking for new ideas to communicate with consumers. tomato ketchup is good . 2.4. Maggi has become an integral part of millions of Indians.12. The various reviews have been given by the authors and researchers which act as base for this project. an easy to handle. which will see the ketchup range sport a new tagline. Maggi is also organising various campaigns in Delhi and NCRC area. 2. starting from next month. expressed her views about Kissan tomato ketchup.
For this a structured questionnaire has been prepared both for retailer and customers. No 1. Research Tool :Interview schedule method has been used for retailers as well as customers. Research Design Research tool Sample size Sampling Method Data collected from areas Final data analysis tools Research Methodology Exploratory Interview Schedule 130 respondents ( 10 retailers + 120 customers) Convenience random sampling method In Ludhiana ( Model Town.120 Sampling Method : - 17 | P a g e . 4. Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road) M. Customers :. 3. It also helps in understanding the consumer behaviour for buying the particular Brand’s tomato ketchup. 6. For retailers interview schedule is prepared keeping in mind the marketing mix concept and environmental factors where as for customer’s interview schedule is prepared keeping in mind consumer decision making has been the base. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Sr. 5.S Excel and MS Word Research Design :Exploratory research design has been chosen for conducting this project. 2.10 2.CHAPTER 3. Sample Size :Sample comprise of 130 respondents 1. Retailers :. Exploratory research helps in understanding the relationship between marketing mix and consumer behaviour.
With the help of convenience random sampling the respondents are randomly selected by the researcher from the areas which are convenient for researcher. Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road. For pre-testing. 18 | P a g e . The data was coded and analysed with the MS excel application and also it were tabulated and graphically presented with the help of MS word application. 1/10th of the non-sampled respondents have been taken as sample.Convenience random sampling method is used for selecting the sample. Pre-testing :- The pre-testing of the research tool has been conducted before the final data collection to know reliability and validity of the research tool. Model Town. Final data collection and analysis:- Data have been analysed by using the appropriate statistical tools and techniques. Data Collection Plan :• Data Gathering :- This study involves data collection (primary research) from different areas of Ludhiana i.e.
The data collected from the retailers was related to marketing mix. 50% Figure : 4.1 Data related to marketing mix.Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers 19 | P a g e .1 Data related to marketing mix :The data related to 4 P’s of marketing was collected from 10 retailers from Model Town .1. 20% Maggi.1 :. Results and Discussions The chapter deals with the results pertaining to the data collected from 10 retailers and 120 customers. 30% Kissan. The data so collected have been discussed under following heads : 4. Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road areas of Ludhiana city. However the data related to consumer buying behaviours was collected from 120 customers who consumed three selected brands (Maggi.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumers (N-10) Brands Maggi Kissan Cremica Total Frequency 3 5 2 10 Percentage 30 50 20 100 MostD emanded B rand Crem ica.1.Chapter 4. 4. Kissan and Cremica ) of tomato ketchup.2 Data related to consumer buying behaviour 4. It has been presented in following tables :Table 4.
as its taste is mostly like by the consumer due to its hidden quantity of the tomato puree in the ingredients which is not disclosed by Kissan as it is written by Maggi (34%) and cremica (34. They positioned Kissan tomato ketchup a “Great accompaniment”.e. giving the food aroma and healthy product where Kissan positioned it’s tomato ketchup as ketchup which can be consumed with any snacks like fast food snacks like pizza. It is not directly competing with other two tomato ketchup brands.2 Distribution of respondents according to the level of competition faced by the three selected brands of tomato ketchup (N-10) Type of competition Frequency 2 8 - Percentage 20 80 -- Total 2 (20) 8(80) - Intense Moderate No-Competition * Intense competition means that there is neck to neck competition among the brands i.1. Whereas thirty percent of them said that Maggi tomato ketchup was preferred by the consumers.2. tough competition.The data related to the most demanded tomato ketchup brand by the consumer has been presented in the table 4. ** Moderate competition means that brands are competing but the competition is not tough. burger or Indian snack like samosa or pakoda.e. Kissan tomato ketchup and Cremica tomato ketchup). However only 20 % of them said that Cremica brand was demanded by the consumers. Table 4. Hence.1.1. That is the reason which makes the ketchup of Kissan richer in red color and thicker in its quality. fifty percent said that Kissan the most demanded tomato ketchup. The data related to the level of competition among the three brands have been described in the table 4.1. Cremica has positioned its brand as something for everyone. the most selling brand among the three was Kissan.5%). It can be seen from the table that majority of respondents (80%) said that there is moderate competition among the three tomato ketchup brand (Maggi tomato ketchup. It can be said that each tomato ketchup brand have its own brand image in the market. 20 | P a g e . It is clear from the data that majority of respondents i. Whereas only twenty percent of respondents said that there is intense competition among the brands. There is competition among them but up to certain level keeping in mind their brand image. As Maggi tomato ketchup has positioned its ketchup as taste enhancer.
All the respondents said that 1 kg bottle of tomato ketchup has been sold by them and seventy percent of respondents said that sachet have been sold by them along with 1 Kg bottle of ketchup. The data collected is also including 78 females out of which 50 are housewives which usually buy products for their family. The 1 Kg bottle is mostly bought by the family sector.Table 4.3 Distribution of respondents on the bases of particular size of tomato ketchup packing preferred by consumers (N-10)** Size of Tomato Frequency ketchup Sachet Pichkoo 200 G 600 G 1 Kg 7 10 Percentage 70 ---100 Total 7(70) 10 (100) ** Multiple Responses The above table depicted information related to maximum sale of particular size of tomato ketchup. They mostly buy in bulk quantity that is the main reason for the sale of 1 Kg tomato ketchup bottle the most even in the presence of smaller sized bottle like Pichkoo of Maggi ketchup and Sachet of Cremica.1. 21 | P a g e .
So it can be said that both Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup have better taste then Cremica tomato ketchup. 22 | P a g e . Hence.4 :. In case of attractive packaging .Distribution of the respondents according to the brand’s attractive packing The data related to the information about the taste and attractive packaging of the brand has been depicted in table no.1. Distribution of the respondents according to the brands preferred by their customers on the bases of taste and its attractive packing (N-10) Factors Taste Attractive packing Total * Figures in parentheses are percentage Attra tive Pa k g of B nds c c a ing ra Magg i 70% Kissan 2 0% C ica rem 10% Maggi 5 (50) 7 (70) 12 (120) Kissan 5 (50) 2 (20) 7 (70) Cremica 0 1 (10) 1 (10) Total 10 10 Figure :.e.4.4.4.Table 4. It can be seen that both Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup have good taste (50%) according to respondents.1.4. taste of its product as compared to the packaging.1. it is clear that majority of respondents (70%) say that packaging of Maggi Tomato ketchup attracts customer as compare to Kissan and Cremica tomato ketchup having just twenty percent and ten percent response. it is cleared that Maggi is concentrating more on the quality and packaging of product where as Kissan is concentrating more of the quality i.
Hence. **** multi level means the Brand is following the distribution channel in which they send their product to the wholesalers. it clear that Maggi is using all the distribution mix for the channel of distribution.distributer-retailercustomers ) is followed by the Maggi Brand. from distributors the product goes to retailers then to the final consumer.1.Table 4.1.1. ica 30 Crem ica 30% Multi L evel of distribution Mag i g 30 % 2ndLevel K sn is ads Bran Cremica Kissan 40 % Figure 4.1. from wholeseller the product goes to retailers then to the final consumer.5 Distribution of respondents on the bases of channel of distribution followed by brands (N-10)** Level of Distribution Maggi 6 (60) 3 (30) 9 (90) Kissan 5 (50) 4 (40) 9(90) Cremica 3 (30) 3 (30) 6 (60) Total 14 (140) 10(100) 2nd Level (M-W-R-C) Multi Level (M-W-D-R-C) Total * figures in parentheses are percentage ** Multiple Responses *** 2nd level means the Brand is following the distribution channel in which they send their product to the wholesellers. 50 is a Crem . 60 ag 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 mgi ag Percentage of respondents K s n. from wholeseller the product goes to distributors .retailer-customers) and thirty percent of respondents said that multilevel (Manufacturer.5 (2) Distribution of respondents on the bases of multi level of channel of distribution followed by brands The information about the channel of distribution followed by brands has been depicted in table 4.5 (1) Distribution of respondents on the bases of 2nd level of channel of distribution followed by brands Figure 4.wholeseller.5. 2 level of D nd istribution m g i . 23 | P a g e . In case of Kissan tomato ketchup. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents (60%) says that Maggi’s distribution channel is 2nd level ( manufacturer –wholeseller. fifty percent of respondents say that 2nd level is followed and forty percent said that multi level channel is followed.
2) 1 (0.1 Distribution of respondents on the bases of age and gender of the respondents using the particular brand in Ludhiana city (N = 120) Brands Age 15-25 25-35 35-45 45.2) Maggi 22(18.8) 59(49. It is clear from the data that majority of respondent (28.67) 52(43.8) 1(0.8) 8 (6.2.7) 9(7.8) 33(27.2) Kissan 31 (25.5) Cremica 1(0.8) 59(49.2 Data related to the consumer buying behaviour :The data related to consumer buying behaviour was collected from 120 customers who consume three selected brands from Model Town. Sarabha Nagar and Malhar Road areas of Ludhiana city.4.1.above Total Gender Male Female Total Maggi 34 (28.8) 120 Total 42 78 120 * Figures in parenthesis are percentage The data related to the background information of the respondent have been presented in the table no 4.3) Kissan 19(15.3) 19 (15.8) 13 (10.8) 8 (6.3) Cremica 7 (5.3%) who prefer Maggi 24 | P a g e . It has been presented in following tables :Table 4.4) 37(30.8) 5 (4.4) 13(10.5) 52(43.8) 2 (1.5) Total 72(60) 34(28.2.67) 9(7.
Hence.8 % males like to buy Cremica brand among tomato ketchup. It can be concluded that Maggi brand is able to positioned it’s ketchup among the females and between the 15-25 age of customers.4 % of males like to buy tomato ketchup. only six point seven percent females like to buy Cremica ketchup and merely o. Data related to the gender of the respondents show that thirty point eight percent of females prefer to buy Maggi tomato ketchup and 18. In case of Kissan tomato ketchup.8%) who prefer Kissan Tomato Ketchup belong to the age group of 15-25 years followed by ten point eight percent of respondents belongs to the age group of 25-35 years while only six point seven percent of respondents belong to the age group of 35-45. Majority of respondent (25.3%) buy Maggi Brand in tomato ketchup in the age group of 15-25. 25 | P a g e . In case of Kissan tomato ketchup .5 % of females buy it and 15. However .Tomato Ketchup belong to the age group of 15-25 years followed by fifteen point eight percent of respondents belongs to the age group of 25-35 years while only four point two percent of respondents belong to the age group of 35-45 and only zero point eight three percent of respondents belong to the age group of 45-above.8 % of males like to buy Kissan tomato ketchup. it is clear that Maggi brand has good brand association among the age group of 15-25 of customers. Whereas in case of Cremica only five point eight respondents are there who prefer Cremica Tomato Ketchup belong to the age group of 15-25 years followed by one point seven seven percent of respondents belongs to the age group of 25-35 years. From the above findings it seems that tomato ketchup is mostly buy by females as compare to males. 27. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents (28.
Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup (N-120)** Frequency of use Always Sometimes Never Total * Figures in parentheses are percentage ** Multiple Responses Freq en of u e of Bran s u cy sag d Ma g gi 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 K sn is a Crem ica Maggi 52 (43.4) 58 (47.1.4) 59 (49.8) 55 (45.2 :.2.2) 4 (3.4) 109 (91) Cremica 9 (7.Distribution of respondents on the bases of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup 26 | P a g e .5) 43 (35.2.8) 107 (89.5) 5 (4.1) R pondents es 52 5859 46 43 55 9 Alw ys a S etim om es F requency 5 4 N er ev Figure 4.Table 4.1) 115 (95) Kissan 46 (38.
3.32.5) 4 (3.2 %) sometimes use Kissan tomato ketchup. Distribution of the respondents on the bases of type of store preferred by them (N-120)** Store Convenience store Departmental store Whole seller Total Maggi 16 (13.6) 6 (5) 2 (1.6) 10 * Figures in parenthesis are percentage.3. Majority of respondents (45.The above data is related to the information about the frequency of usage of a particular brand of tomato ketchup by the respondents.5%.1% of respondents had never used Maggi tomato ketchup.5% and Cremica-5%). While in case of convenience store .5%) and thirty five point eight percent respondent sometime use Cremica tomato ketchup. This explains that Brand image of Maggi and Kissan is stronger than Cremica tomato ketchup.3 % of respondents buy Maggi tomato ketchup .2.It is clear from the table that majority of respondents purchase their selected brand from departmental store ( Maggi.4 % of respondents always use Maggi brand of the tomato ketchup. The reason is that Cremica tomato ketchup is only in Punjab region and they are not dealing with customer directly as Maggi and Kissan brands are doing.4) 39 (32. Majority of respondents (49. As compare to Maggi tomato ketchup ( 47. Whereas. Table 4.4) 50 Cremica 2 (1. Only 3.1) 60 Kissan 13 (10. Whereas in case of Kissan tomato ketchup thirty eight point four percent of respondents used Kissan brand.2. then point eight 27 | P a g e .3 % had never used Kissan tomato ketchup and 4.5) 5 (4. 13. It is clear from the table 4. It is clear from the table that majority of respondents never used Cremica tomato ketchup as to other two tomato ketchup brands. ** Multiple responses The information related to the type of store preferred by respondents has been presented in table 4.8%) never use Cremica tomato ketchup.2. however only seven point five percent of respondent always use Cremica as their tomato ketchup.2 that 43. Maggi brand’s customers are brand loyal as they always use Maggi tomato ketchup and sometime use Maggi in alteration to Kissan tomato ketchup. Kissan-32.8) 39 (32.
they buy from whole sellers.8% each) postpone their purchase if their preferred brand of tomato ketchup is not available.8) 4 (3.2.6) * Figures in parenthesis are percentage.6 % of respondents buy from convience store. As taste and quality are the two main attributes which attracts consume to buy particular tomato ketchup brand. 4.4 Distribution of respondents according to the purchase decision on the nonavailability of their preferred brand (N-120)** Purchase Decision Postpone your purchase Switch over to other brand Go to the other shop to search for your preferred brand Total Maggi 19 (15.8) 22 (18. only three point four percent of Cremica buyer postpone their purchase if their brand is not available. From the above table it clear that both in case of Maggi and Kissan buyer (15.2) 60 (50) Kissan 19 (15.1 % of Maggi’s respondents buy from whole sellers and 3 % of Kissan’s and 1. In case if the preferred brand is not available 25 % of respondent are those who switch to other brand if Maggi tomato ketchup not available in the market and in case of Kissan Tomato ketchup eighteen point three percent respondent switch to other brand. So in case of one brand of ketchup is not 28 | P a g e . Nine point two percent of respondents go to other shop to search for Maggi tomato ketchup.4 %) search for Cremica tomato ketchup in other shop if it is not available in particular store. However.4. The table highlight the impact of organised retail on unorganised stores.8) 30 (25) 11 (9. However.2) 52 (43.4) 1 (0.percent of respondents buy Kissan tomato ketchup from convenience store (nearby store) as only 1. Whereas in case Cremica tomato ketchup. Table 4.4) 11 (9. Thus it is cleared from the table that organised retail stores dominate around 32.2. buyers of Cremica brand (4.4) 9 (7. ** Multiple responses The data related to the purchase decision of the respondents in case of non-availability of the brand have been depicted in the table 4.6 % in case of Cremica .4) Cremica 4 (3.5 % both Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup respondents make purchase of tomato ketchup from departmental store.
83) 24 (20) 29 (24.83) 18 (15) 26 (21.5) 1(0.33) 17 (14.33) 36 (30) 35(29.83) 1 (0.V ads Word of mouth Hoarding * Figures in parenthesis are percentage.33) Cremica 4 (3.33) 7 (5.16) 1 (0.16) Maggi 9 (7.16) 7 (5.33) 4(3. And if that is also not there in the shop they will go to other shop or they will postpone their purchase.33) 1 (0.8) Total 82 2 7 7 25 87 31 27 18 43 57 14 80 65 2 29 | P a g e .5) 4 (3.7) 3 (2.5 Distribution of respondents on bases of factors and offers provided by the brands and their source of information (N-120)** Factors Quality Price Brand Image Offer Ingredients Taste Offers provided by brands Discount Buy one get one Combo pack Free gift Extra quantity Sources of information Newspaper T.8) Cremica 5 (4.67) Cremica 1 (0.5) - Kissan 29 (24. it is cleared that majority of customer switch to other brand of tomato ketchup if their preferred brand is not available.2) 10 (8.33) 15 (12.67) 9 (7. Table 4.5) 38(31.17) 1 (0.5) 47 (39.available they will go for other brands ketchup.5) 2 (1.83) 3 (2. ** Multiple responses Maggi 38 (31.83) 2 (1.67) Kissan 4 (3.83) 1 (0. Hence.83) 4 (3.6) 27(22.2) 1(0.2.5) 36 (30) Kissan 10 (8.83) 1 (0.8) 6 (5) 3(2.2) Maggi 17 (14.
Twenty four point one percent buy due to extra quantity provide by Maggi Tomato ketchup.The information is about the offers provided by the brands and their source of information has been depicted in the table 4. In case of ingredient as a factor for buying tomato ketchup.16%) buy Kissan due to its quality.8 % each ) look for combo packs 30 | P a g e . seven point five percent of respondent look for ingredient while buying maggi tomato ketchup.4 % of cremica tomato ketchup respondents looks for discounts offers before buying tomato ketchup. in case of Kissan and Cremica tomato ketchup thirty percent of respondent buy kissan due to its taste and merely three point three percent of Cremica respondent buy due to its taste.8 % of respondents look for ingredient before buying tomato ketchup.5 % of Kissan respondents look for ingredient for before buying ketchup. The table depict the importance of the various product attributes like quality . 12.33 % of kissan and 3.2%) buy Maggi tomato ketchup because of its taste.2 %.2 % of kissan tomato ketchup respondents buy tomato ketchup having buy one get one offer. Both in case of maggi and kissan buyers (5. majority of respondents (24. From the above data it can be depicted that majority of respondents (39. In case of Cremica only 0.24. In case of free gifts offered by the brand 20 % of maggi tomato ketchup and 15 % of kissan tomato ketchup respondents and o. 14.6 % ) go for extra quantity when they buy tomato ketchup. Among the offers provided by the brands.2% of respondents buy Kissan due to its quality and four point two percent of Cremica’s respondent like the its quality. 8. Kissan21. In case of Kissan Tomato Ketchup.83 % of cremica’s respondents go for free gifts. 8.2 % of maggi . Thirty one point six percent buy Maggi tomato ketchup because of its quality whereas in case of Kissan Tomato Ketchup 24. taste . However. It can be very well observed in the table that taste undoubtedly is the most important attribute that people prefer more over any other while selecting particular brand of tomato ketchup.5.33 % of maggi. majority of respondent ( Maggi. 14. price .2. brand image. ingredient in the eyes of respondents. Where as in case of discounts and buy one get one offer .
1.4. From the data it can be said that maggi has been successful in promotion of its tomato ketchup through electronic media as it is the vast medium of information which is the fastest and effective source of information to capture large population . Table 4.5) (5) Satisfied 40 41 3 84 (70) (33.5%) came to know about maggi tomato ketchup from people with whom they communicate and in 2. The second most common source of information is work of mouth which is and new concept of marketing used by brands now days. As in Maggi’s buyers (22. In case of kissan . T.5 % in case of cremica’s respondents.2.2) (2.5) Dissatisfied -a L evel of S tisfaction 120 Highly 115 110dissatisfied 105 100 95 Total 58 50 90 85 80 75 (48.6 .4 % of cremica’s buyer look for combo packs.Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction of the respondents after using the particular brand in Ludhiana city (N-120)** Level of Maggi Kissan Cremica Total satisfaction Highly 18 9 6 33 ( 27.2 % of respondent said that they came to know about kissan from friends or relative or from shopkeepers.33) (41.5) satisfied (15) (7. 29.V ads are the major source of information regarding Maggi tomato ketchup (31.67) 70 ** Multiple responses 65 60 55 50 ** * Figures in parenthesis are percentage. From the various source of information.Maggiissan K 45 40 35 30 25 Mag i g 20 15 K sC ica is an rem 10 C ica rem 5 0 H hly S fied ig atis S fied atis R espondents 9 (7. It can be figure out from the table that “extra quantity” offer is the first choice among the customers. thirty percent in case of Kissan tomato ketchup and five percent in case of Cremica tomato ketchup. :. :.among the offers provided by the brands whereas 3.5) - 31 | P a g e levels Fig.6.6 %) among the respondent .4) (34.
Hence.whereas Cremica being local brand doesn’t give tough competition to other two established brands of tomato ketchup. The 1 kg bottle of tomato ketchup (100%) is largely demanded even in the presence of smaller size bottles. 4.Distribution of respondents on the bases of Level of satisfaction after using the particular brand The above data related to the level of satisfaction of the respondents have been presented in the table 4. It is clear from the data that 27. Fifteen percent of them were using the Maggi tomato ketchup followed by consumers of kissan (7. The most saleable brand is Kissan (50 %)tomato ketchup according to retailers in Ludhiana.6 :. 220.127.116.11 %) of respondents are satisfied after using Kissan tomato ketchup.2. 70 percent of respondents were satisfied from the brand of tomato ketchup they were using in which thirty three point four percent were using the Maggi tomato ketchup followed by kissan (34. it can be concluded that all most all the respondents are satisfied from their selected brand after using them.5 %) whereas only five percent of them were the customer of Cremica brand.6 Figure :. two point five percent of respondents are satisfied after using the Cremica tomato ketchup. In case of Cremica tomato ketchup. The moderate competition is faced by Maggi and Kissan(80%) .5%).6. 2.1.3%) and Cremica tomato ketchup (7. 32 | P a g e . Maggi tomato ketchup (49. Major findings based on above discussed data :1.4.Figure :. However .2% )is most popular brand among tomato ketchup as compare to Kissan (43.5 percent of respondents were highly satisfied from the brand of ketchup they were using.
Chapter 5. taste of both Maggi(50%) and Kissan(50%) are equally liked by the customers. Maggi tomato ketchup and Kissan tomato ketchup both are more popular then Cremica tomato ketchup as Cremica is a local brand but still it is competing with established brands of tomato ketchup like Maggi and Kissan. its 33 | P a g e . Majority of respondent (45. 4. have a long shelf life and can be stored at any given temperatures which is tested and approved. Majority of customer (70%) were satisfied after using their selected brand of tomato ketchup.8%) had never used Cremica brand as their tomato ketchup as they don’t like the taste and quality of the tomato ketchup. That is they like to buy tomato ketchup from departmental store. 7. Organised retail store (60%) are more popular among the customer. As all the products of Maggi are produced identical which fulfills its promise to its target market. 5. free gifts along with the purchase. According to customers . It is an Indian customer’s psyche that “whatever looks good and feels good would be of good quality” so Maggi packs had been designed keeping in mind the same concept. 8. aroma & seasoning. 6. as one can always rely on a Maggie product for a particular taste which it guaranties that is no matter which pack you are buying you would be provided with the same taste. Reliability is also one of Maggi’s strength. Maggi products are durable as due to its preparation these products are easy to store. People like to buy Maggi tomato ketchup because it is easily available. The most common channel of distribution is 2nd level ( manufacture-wholeseller-retailer- customers) which is used by Maggi(60%) and Kissan (50%) tomato ketchup. Maggi Brand is preferred by customers who are between the age of 15-25. 2. then Kissan and Cremica.5. 3. According to retailers. CONCLUSION From the above discussions it is clear that 1. attractive offers like extra quantity. Quality is the main factor on which Maggi Tomato Ketchup emphasizes as it is Maggi’s main strength which provides Maggi an edge over its competitors. But the packaging of Maggi (70%) is more attractive than other two brands of tomato ketchup.
34 | P a g e . Pizza Hut. The main strength of Maggi is its marketing techniques i. The product quality was good and the communication was excellent. Jet Airways. Customers were intrigued as to what is different about the brand and was curious to try the sauce. 12. Kissan has concentrated in the product and less on the promotion of its tomato ketchup. Subway and to the Indian Army's Canteen Stores Department. Bector for cremica tomato ketchup. Kissan has positioned tomato ketchup as a sauce which can be consumed with any type of snacks like bread. Various promotional techniques are used by Maggi Brand.Teenager. unpredictable and "whacky". They promote their ketchup through hoardings. They don’t get involved in campaigning of their product as it is been done by Maggi tomato ketchup. The company has a retail presence largely in the Northern market. The marketing techniques of Kissan tomato ketchup are not as good as that of Maggi tomato ketchup. 7. dosa. Whereas Kissan is also like by customer because it is richer in color then other tomato ketchup brands. 8. Customers can also call up to listen to jokes by Maggi ketchup brand ambassador Javed Jaffrey . Now a days. Indian Railways. 10. It is also adopting a more interactive approach with customers through its new campaign. Brand Image is defined as young . it is tasty and thicker the other tomato ketchup brands like Maggi and Cremica. 11.e.promotional schemes. Maggi leveraged the brand equity very effectively. 6. wall paintings and from various fast food corners like McDonald's. No particular celebrity endorsement is used by the Mrs. color of the packages and the pictures depicted on the pack appeals to the customers. Hassi Khushi and Maggi Sauce. Ever changing.The promotional technique used by Maggi Brand is unique then other tomato ketchup Brands i. humorous. 9. which could be used by Maggi for improving the packaging of products. Kissan and Cremica. advertisements. Kellogg's. Maggi through its new campaign making customers participating in the campaign by share jokes with the firm. The brand was positioned as a "Different" sauce with the baseline "It’s different". pizza & pakoda etc.e. Maggi is change its brand positioning as a unique brand and having different taste then other available tomato ketchup brands. According to customers.
This can also help fight against heart disease.13. According to the survey conducted by “The Cancer Research Foundation of America”. In these series of ads. Mascot is an effective way to endorse a product as Maggi tomato ketchup is promoting ketchup by taking Javed Jafferi its brand ambassador. tomato ketchup is good for health. 2. Thus . This would help customers perceiving it as a healthy product. It has cancer fighting elements called lycopene. Suggestions Suggestion for Maggi :1. proteins etc. Suggestions for Cremica :35 | P a g e . print media commercials) with a brand ambassador or mascot. Company should advertise its tomato ketchup by depicting attributes related to nutrition value. The ads of Kissan tomato ketchup is not like by customers because now a days only squeezo ads are coming (one kid holding the bottle of kissan tomato ketchup and ordering it to pore the ketchup on his command ) which doesn’t attracts the customers . According to the consumer. radio. Hence company should try to provide more discounts on the product. Suggestions for Kissan :Taking the tagline "Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to " Making Pakode taste better". the taste of Cremica tomato ketchup is sweet taste which is not liked by customers. percentage of vitamins. the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. But they should launch new advertisement campaign (TV. it can be said in the end that Maggi is the most popular Tomato Ketchup in the market in Ludhiana followed by Kissan and then Cremica. Even Cremica is not directly dealing with its customers as Maggi and Kissan are doing. ‘Buy One Get One Free’ is the most preferred promotional offer. According to the data collected it is recorded that the level of discounts offered is low.
They must directly contact its customer. But they must make a direct link with its customers as Maggi and Kissan are doing. Bibliography 36 | P a g e . They must promote their product to the other regions of India by advertising through electronic media (Like they are doing with the Mrs. No doubt Cremica tomato ketchup is doing good business with international chains like Mc. The distribution channel of cremica tomato ketchup is mostly covering northern region only in India. Company should improve the taste of the tomato ketchup as most of the consumers didn’t like the taste of the cremica tomato ketchup as it is sugary which is due to liquid glucose which is not present in the ingredients of Maggi and Kissan tomato ketchup. 2. Bactor’s biscuits). Jet Airways etc. Pizza Hut .1. Donald’s.
html Ankgol (2007) Kissan tomato ketchup. http://www. (2007) Research For Business Students. Shiffman. Http://buzz7. http://www. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited (4th Ed.(Company. Mumbai (2005).com/article/ Cremica .com/10092009/storyd.reviewstream.) Oprystar (30th Jan .absoluteastronomy. A. Maggi – its different http://www. Http://www.oppapers. 2010). www.4psbusinessandmarketing. India's 100 most valuable brands-2009 .com/groceries/which-top-10-ketchup- 13 14 15 16 brands. Person Education Limited (8th Ed. P.. Marketing Plan For Maggie. L.Maggi ketchup completes 25 years in India & is still making a difference.4psbusinessandmarketing.org A Correspondent.org Anonymous .. (2005) Consumer Behaviour. Http://www.Site Source : Anonymous (2009).com/The+Cremica+group+making+waves+in+food+service+in dustry.com/reviews/?P=85640 Kapoor Karan ( 2009).asp?sid=3077&pageno=1 Anonymous .com/world/the-cremica-group-making-waves-in-food-service-industry.com/news/Maggi-ketchup-completes-25years-in-India-amp-is-still-making-a-difference/612612/ Sharma Ambika (2009).rediff.ludhianadistrict.. HLL plans relaunch of its food brands .financialexpress. 9 10 http://www. And Thornhill.-a0199265103 Trivedi Harshit (2008) food. & Kanuk.The Cremica group making waves in food service industry.html Press Trust of India(Apr 29.fnbnews... 2007) is tomato ketchup are bad ? http://blogs. marketing mix. www.com/essays/Marketing- Plan-For-Maggie/208231 Term papers (2008).com/holistichealth/2008/03/ Nestle Agency (2006). http://www.. Lewis. M.ibibo. Http://sawaal. Http://www. L.india-776538.wikepedia.com/topics/Maggi Asian News International ( 2009) Pg no.thefreelibrary.consumer behaviour.).wikepedia.com/cremica Annexure 37 | P a g e . 17 13 13 16 7 8 4 5 9 10 Http://www.com Saunders.
4. Age: a.. Kissan ……… ……… Cremica ………. From where do you usually purchase selected brand ? a. You find it expensive d. If no. 45 and above 6. Location: ……………………………………………………………………………. Never ………. Lack of awareness b. 35-45 d. Convenience store c. then what is the reason of not using the remaining brand : a. If your preferred brand is not available for repeat purchase then what will you do? . 8. Maggi b. ……….(For Customer) THE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE “Comparative study of 4 P’s of marketing and consumer buying behavior of a product (Tomato Ketchup) and its 3 brands (Maggi. Kissan c. Always b. Any other (please specify) ………………………. Sex : a. 3. 9. Occupation: …………………………………………………………………………. 10. Cremica 7. Male b. Which brand of ketchup do you prefer? a. ……….. Any Other ( Pls Specify) ………………………………………………………………….” 1. Departmental store d. c. ……… ………. Do you use the particular Tomato Ketchup? Maggi a. Kissan and Cremica) in Ludhiana city. Name:…… ………………………………………………………………………….. Female b. 15-25 5. 2. Whole seller 38 | P a g e b. Sometime ………. You don’t like the product Quality e. 25-35 c. Lack of availability c.
Any Other …………………………………………………… 16. Postpone your purchase b. Satisfied e. Can’t say c. Which offers influence you the most to purchase the particular brands ? a. Type of store :a. Ingredients c. Does celebrity endorsement prompt you to purchase the particular ketchup? a. Departmental 4. Karyana b. What is the source of information about these brands: a. Go to the other shop to search for your preferred brand 11. Buy one get one d. Highly satisfied d. Hoardings f. T.……… 2. Newspaper ads b.Yes b. What is the level of satisfaction you get after using the brand? a. Switch over to other brand c. Word of mouth e. Brand Image f. Dissatisfied 17. Any other ……………………………………………….V.…………………………………. Any suggestions for the brand ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………….Yes b. Offers b. Taste 12. Radio c. Highly dissatisfied b. Combo packs b. What factor of these products affects your buying decision? a. 3. Do you remember any of the T. 13. Extra quantity offer f. RETAILER’S INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. Do you give importance to brand name while merchandising tomato ketchup? 39 | P a g e . Price e. Discounts offer c.a.V. advertisement of the brand ? a. Address: …………………………………………. No 14.. Name of the shop :. No 15. Free Gifts e. ads d. Quality d.
Which brand has more customers? a. What are the substitutes available in the market? ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………. Type of intermediaries? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11. 200 g d. youngsters’ c. Cremica Any other please specify …………………………………… 16. No 14. Multi level …. Children b. 2nd level . 10.……. Kissan c. Where does this product sell the most? a. Cremica Any other Please specify ……………………………………… 6. Cremica d. 40 | P a g e . How many brands are available in the market ? …………………………………………………………………………………… 8. ( M-W-C) b. Which of the following class of customer consumer the product? a. Kissan c. Intense c. all of them 18. can’t say 12.. Any Other …………………………………………………….. 13. low class d. 1kg Any other please specify…………………………………………………. Cremica 7. Sachet b. Villages b. Who is the final consumer of the product? a. Maggi b. (M-W-R-C) c. can’t say 19.. ………. No 5. 600 g e. Pichkoo Pack c. Do brand give any kind of additional services to the retailers ? a. What do you think the packaging of which brand attracts customers? a. High class b.. Middle Class c. Decoration material d. 15. all three 17. ………. towns c.a. How would you describe the competition among these 3 brands? a. What is the size of Tomato Ketchup you usually sell ? a. In your opinion which brand’s Tomato ketchup has a better taste? a.. What type of channel of distribution is followed by the brand ? Maggi Kissan Cremica a. Kissan c. Kissan c. Moderate b.…… ………. ………. cities d. Maggi b. ………. old age people e. Yes b. no competition 9. middle age people d. Maggi b. If yes then what are those additional services ? a. Maggi b. In your opinion which brand of tomato ketchup is the most demanded or popular ? a. Brand Banners/ hoardings c. Yes b. ………. 1st level ………. Commission on particular quantity sale b..
……….. Any further suggestions to the brands for enhancing their business in terms of Product. What do you think about the brand image of Maggi a.. b... d. Kissan ……… ……… ……… ……… ……… Cremica ………. . Can’t Say ……. Excellent ……. 21. Place or Promotion : ……………………………………………. e. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 41 | P a g e . Poor …….. ……….(M-W-D-R-C) 20. Price.……… ………... c.…………………………………………………. Average ……. Good …….