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Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

subatomic particles:

relative mass Relative electrical Where found

proton 1 +1 nucleus
neutron 1 0 nucleus
electron 1/1840 -1 shell

atomic number, Z: number or protons

mass number, A: sum of protons and neutrons

A – Z = number or electrons

When the number of protons and electrons in an atom is not equal, it is called an Ion

Anion (-): gains electron

Cation (+): losses electron

Isotope: atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons

radioactive isotopes (“radioisotopes)

Carbon-14: date objects

Ion-125: “tracers”

Cobalt-60: radiation treatment

mass spectrometer: categorize particles by mass

use: determine the natural abundance of the isotopes of an element

 calculate the relative atomic mass

1. vaporization
2. ionization (cations)
3. acceleration (by electric field)
4. deflection (lighter  less deflection)
5. detection

condition: high vacuum

electron arrangement

electron gains energy  gets excited and move to higher energy level

 emits light (light is a form of energy) looses energy and drops to original energy


Energy Difference = Plank’s constant * frequency, ∆E = hf

velocity = wavelength * frequency, c = λ * f

Lyman series: drop to 1st energy level, ultraviolet region

Balmar series: drop to 2nd energy level, visible region

Paschen series: drop to 3rd energy level, infrared region

electrion configuration

energy level: n

total orbitals: n2


(each orbital can contain up to two electrons of opposite spin)

Electron Capacity: 2n2

Aufbau principle: electrons fill the sub-levels in a way, that in requires the least possible

amount of energy.

Hund’s rule: sub-level orbitals are singly occupied as far as possible by electrons with the

same spin

ionisation energy: the minimal amount of energy required for ionization of an atom in

gaseous state.

electron-electron repulsion

nuclear-electron attraction

(filled inner orbitals provides ‘shielding’)

effective nuclear charge (ENC = Z – number of

filled orbitals)