CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

1 What is the internet

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-

linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and IPTV. Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to Web site technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-tobusiness and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research of the 1960s, commissioned by the United States government in collaboration with private commercial interests to build robust, fault-tolerant, and distributed computer netwo rks. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private

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funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. The commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of 2009, an estimated quarter of Earth's population used the services of the Internet. The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own standards. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and

Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.
1.2 Internet Terminology

Internet is a short form of the technical term internetwork, the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. The Internet is also often referred to as the Net. The term the Internet, when referring to the entire global system of IP networks, has been treated as a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and popular culture a trend has also developed to regard it as a generic term or common noun and thus write it as "the internet", without capitalization. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized as a noun but no t capitalized as an adjective.

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The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used in everyday speech without much distinction. However, the Internet and the World Wide Web are not one and the same. The Internet is a global data communications system. It is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides connectivity between computers. In contrast, the Web is one of the services communicated via the Internet. It is a collection of interconnected documents and other resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. In many technical illustrations when the precise location or interrelation of Internet resources is not important, extended networks such as the Internet are often depicted as a cloud. The verbal image has been formalized in the newer concept of cloud computing.
1.3 History of the internet

On the fourth of October in 1957 an event occurred that would change the world. The Soviet Union successfully launched the first satellite into Earth¶s orbit. Called Sputnik 1, it shocked the world²especially the United States of America, who had their own programme of satellite launches underway, but had yet to launch. This lead directly to the creation of the US Department of Defence ARPA (the Advanced Research Projects Agency), due to a recognised need for an organisation that could research and develop advanced ideas and technology beyond the currently identified needs. Perhaps their most famous project (certainly the most widely used) was the creation of the Internet. In 1960, psychologist and computer scientist Joseph Licklider published a p aper entitled Man-Computer Symbiosis, which articulated the idea of networked computers providing advanced information storage and retrieval. In 1962, whilst working for

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ARPA as the head of the information processing office, he formed a group to further computer research, but left the group before any actual work was done on the idea. The plan for this computer network (to be called ARPANET) was presented in October 1967, and in December 1969 the first four -computer network was up and running. The core problem in creating a network was how to connect separate physical networks without tying up network resources for constant links. The technique that solved this problem is known as packet switching and it involves data requests being split into small chunks (packets,) which can be processed quickly without blocking communication from other parties²this principle is still used to run the Internet today. This concept received wider adoption, with several other networks springing up using the same packet switching technique²for example, X.25 (developed by the International Telecommunication Union) formed the basis of the first UK university network JANET (allowing UK universities to send and receive files and emails) and the American public network CompuServe (a commercial enterprise allowing small companies and individuals access to time -shared computer resources, and then later Internet access.) These networks, despite having many connections, were more private networks than the Internet of today. This proliferation of different networking protocols soon became a problem, when trying to get all the separate networks to communicate. There was a solution in sight however²Robert Kahn, whilst working on a satellite packet network project for ARPA, started defining some rules for a more open networking architecture to replace the current protocol used in ARPANET. Later joined by Vinton Cerf from Stanford University, the two created a system that masked the differences between networking

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the spec ification was finalised. This specification reduced the role of the network and moved the responsibility of maintaining transmission integrity to the host comp uter. many organisations started to look for alternatives to Gopher. In the publication of the draft specification in December 1974. The end result of this was that it became possible to easily join almost all networks together. this was called the Internet Transmission Control Program. Tim Berners-Lee had been working on a information management system. ARPA funded development of the software.4 Creation of the World Wide Web Gopher was an information retrieval system used in the early 1990s. It was very popular with universities looking to provide campus-wide information and large organisations looking to centralise document storage and management. The European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland had such an alternative. These menus could cross the boundaries of the current computer and use the Internet to fetch menus from other systems. providing a method of delivering menus of links to files. 1. 1993. published and adopted. computer resources and other menus. The Internet as we know it had arrived.protocols using a new standard. As a consequence. and in 1977 a successful demonstration of three different networks communicating was conducted. they announced that it was going to charge licensing fees for the use of their reference implementation of the Gopher server. In February. 5 . and in 1982 the ARPANET connections outside of the US were converted to use the new TCP/IP protocol. Gopher was created by the University of Minnesota. By 1981.

such as Telenor (a Norwegian communications company. which he had called World Wide Web. Then. This was originally only available on Unix machines and in source code form. the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) released a program that was a combined web browser and Gopher client.in which text could contain links and references to other works. and with it the Web.) which created the first version of the Opera browser in 1994. The popularisation of the web brought commercial interests. many created by research projects at universities and corporations. allowing the reader to quickly jump from document to document. He had created a server for publishing this style of document (called hypertext) as well as a program for reading them. and started work on what was to become Netscape Navigator. later renamed to Netscape Communications Corporation. Marc Andreessen left NCSA and together with Jim Clark founded Mosaic Communications. Version 1. This software had first been released in 1991. On the thirtieth of April in 1993 CERN released the source code of World Wide Web into the public domain. 6 .0 of the software was released in December 1994. it took two events to cause an explosion in popularity and the eventual replacement of Gopher. later in the same year. however. The number of available web browsers increased dramatically. but in December 1993 Mosaic provided a new version with installers for both Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. so anyone could use or build upon the software without charge. called Mosaic. Mosaic rapidly increased in popularity.

Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. However. ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical. ICANN's role in coordinating the assignment of unique identifiers distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body on the global Internet. including domain names. are essential for the global reach of the Internet. This has since become known as the browser wars. the World Summit on 7 . application port numbers in the transport protocols. A rapid escalation soon followed. It operates without a central governing body. headquartered in Marina del Rey. and other non -commercial communities. On 16 November 2005. California. The government of the United States continues to have the primary role in approving c hanges to the DNS root zone that lies at the heart of the domain name system. business. 1. to maintain interoperability.5 Governance The Internet is a globally distributed network comprising many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks.0 was released in August 1995. and tried to innovate and support web standards as well as possible in these times . all technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). and many other parameters. ICANN is the authority that coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet. (the commercial arm of NCSA) licensed their Mosaic technology to Microsoft to form the basis of Internet Explorer. Version 1. Globally unified name spaces. Opera maintained a small but steady presence throughout this period. with Netscape and Microsoft each trying to get a competitive edge in terms of the features they support in order to attract developers. academic. in which names and numbers are uniquely assigned.Spyglass Inc.

or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact. In distance education. In Nigeria. Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket -sized devices. help with homework and other assignments. The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. especially with the spread of unmetered high -speed connections and web applications. data cards. Mobile phones. with the help of collaborative software. knowledge. including email and the web. self-guided learning. held in Tunis.6 Modern Uses of the Internet The Internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and location. virtual universities. whiling away spare time. The Internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means. to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. Educational material at all levels from pre -school to post-doctoral is available from websites. handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet fro m anywhere there is a wireless network supporting that device's technology. may be available. and skills has made collaborative work dramatically easier. through school and high-school revision guides. Examples range from CBeebies. the internet regulatory bodies include the Nigerian Communications Commissions (NCC) and the Nigeria Internet Group 1. services of the Internet. especially through mobile Internet devices. 8 . Service providers may restrict the services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.the Information Society. The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas. established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues.

political activism and creative writing. From the flash mob 'events' of the early 2000s to the use of social networking in the 2009 Iranian election protests . "whiteboard" drawings to be shared or voice and video contact between team members. Extensions to these systems may allow files to be exchanged. the Internet allows people to work together more effectively and in many more ways than was possible without it. conference planning. Linux.Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas. collaboration and information sharing in many industries. wherever they may be across the world. among other programs. The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily. They may do this with or without the use of security. An example of this is the free software movement. Mozilla Firefox. whether in the form of IRC chat rooms or channels. but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups to easily form in the first place. which has produced. Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy grow. Internet "chat". Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via e-mail. Version control systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents without either accidentally overwriting each other's work or having members wait until they get "sent" documents to be able to make their contributions. An accountant sitting at 9 . This is encouraging new ways of working from home.org. depending on the requirements. software development. Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. and OpenOffice. or via instant messaging systems. authentication and encryption technologies. allow colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way when working at their computers during the day. Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research.

Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet. This gives the worker complete access to all of his or her normal files and data.7 Internet Services 1. logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs). interchangeably.1 Information Many people use the terms Internet and World Wide Web. can open a remote desktop session into his normal office PC using a secure Virtual Private Network (VPN) connection via the Internet. but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. 10 . on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth.7. perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday. HTTP is only one of the hundreds of communication protocols used on the Internet. 1. file servers. and other databases that store documents and provide resources and access them using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). in other remote locations. the primary carrier protocol of the Web. Web services may also use HTTP to allow software systems to communicate in order to share and exchange business logic and data. because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into its employees' homes. based on information e -mailed to them from offices all over the world. while away from the office. but the two terms are not synonymous. or just the Web. An office worker away from their desk. includ ing e-mail and other applications. images and other resources. The World Wide Web is a global set of documents. These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers.home can audit the books of a company based in another country. URIs allow providers to symbolically identify services an d clients to locate and address web servers. This concept has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare.

professional web sites with attractive. which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. newer offerings from. Facebook 11 . users worldwide have easy. Some commercial organizations encour age staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information. Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular. instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. d iverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition. such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer. and be attracted to the corporati on as a result. The Web has also enabled individuals and organ izations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. video. sounds. whose product developers publish their personal blogs in order to pique the public's interest in their work. multimedia and applications and scientific content including games. Opera. and Google Chrome. however. and have become increasingly sophisticated. Publishing a web page. One example of this practice is Microsoft. including graphics. These documents may also contain any combination of computer interactive data. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web. for example. Apple's Safari. Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs. a blog. Compared to printed encyclopaedias and traditional libraries. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google. text. let users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. Mozilla Firefox. the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information. office demonstrations.World Wide Web browser software. or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. Publishing and maintaining large.

7. fill underlying databases with content using editing pag es designed for that purpose. There may or may not be editorial. Websites are often created using content management or wiki software with.and MySpace currently have large f ollowings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. the process of creating and serving web pages has become more automated and more dynamic.2 Communication E-mail is an important communications service available on the Internet. members of a club or other organization or members of the public. initially. are much more secure. Over time. The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties in a way analogous to mailing letters or memos predates the creation of the Internet. 1. where the information never leaves the corporate or organization's network. while casual visitors view and read this content in its final HTML form. Internet e-mail may travel and be stored unencrypted on many other networks and machines out of both the sender's and the recipient's control. During this time it is quite possible for the content to be read and even tampered with by third parties. Contributors to these systems. Purely internal or intranet mail systems. very little content. When the Web began in the 1990s. if anyone considers it important enough. Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative. Today it can be important to distinguish between internet and internal e -mail systems. and e-commerce or the sale of products and services directly via the Web continues to grow. approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the ta rget visitors. formatted with HTML. who may be paid staff. 12 . a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server. ready to be sent to a user's browser in response to a request. although in any organization there will be IT and other personnel whose job may involve monitoring.

The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. 13 . Interoperability between different providers has improved and the ability to call or receive a call from a traditional telephone is available. In recent years many VoIP systems have become as easy to use and as convenient as a normal telephone. VoIP can be free or cost much less than a traditional telephone call. Simple. VoIP has also become increasingly popular for gaming applications. documents and other files can be sent as e-mail attachments. and Xbox 360 also offer VoIP chat features. Wii.and occasionally accessing. as a form of communication between players. PlayStation 3. VoIP does not do so without a backup power source for the phone equipment and the Internet access devices. E-mails can be cc-ed to multiple e-mail addresses. Pictures. inexpensive VoIP network adapters are available that eliminate the need for a personal computer. referring to the protocol that underlies all Internet communication. Internet telephony is another common communications service made possible by the creation of the Internet. Currently. Voice quality can still vary from call to call but is often equal to and can even exceed that of traditional calls. Remain ing problems for VoIP include emergency telephone number dialing and reliability. VoIP is maturing into a competitive alternative to traditional telephone service. the e-mail of other employees not addressed to them. a few VoIP providers provide an emergency service. Traditional phones are line -powered and operate during a power failure. Popular VoIP clients for gaming include Ventrilo and Teamspeak. as the Internet carries the voice traffic. but it is not universally available. VoIP stands for Voice-over-Internet Protocol. The benefit is that. especially over long distances and especially for those with always-on Internet connections such as cable or ADSL.

colleagues and friends as an attachment. A computer file can be e-mailed to customers. the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured byencryption. This means that an Internet -connected device. This includes all manner of print publications. graphics and the other arts.7. sale. The origin and authenticity of the file recei ved may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. access to the file may be controlled by user authentication. news. software products. The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. for example. photography. can be used to access on -line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio 14 . It can be uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others.1. Streaming media refers to the act that many existing radio and television broadcasters promote Internet "feeds" of their live audio and video streams (for example. The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from. the BBC). and money may change hands for access to the file. This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. such as a computer or something more specific. over a worldwide basis. music. They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview. film. video. These simple features of the Internet. In any of these cases. Classic Clips and Listen Again features. a credit card whose details are also passed²usually fully encrypted²across the Internet.3 Data transfer File sharing is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a file server for instant use by colleagues. are changing the production.

Webcams can be seen as an even lower-budget extension of this phenomenon. YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions. with and without two-way sound. live and in real time. Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole. The range of available types of content is much wider. and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. Podcasting is a variation on this theme. ships in the Panama Canal.4 Entertainment Entertainment is another popular raison d'être why many people prefer to surf the Internet. These techniques using simple equipment al low anybody. the picture is usually either small or updates slowly. YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with a vast number of users. Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. with little censorship or licensing control. where ²usually audio²material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move.receiver. The image quality is depends on internet speed. While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video. Downloading games. traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises. from specia lized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. Video chat rooms and conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams. 'Connected' TV needs good internet connection.5 Mbps for HD 720p quality and the top -of-the-line HDX quality needs 4. requires 2.5 Mbps for 1080p.7. to broadcast audio -visual material worldwide. media of internet has become quite successful in trapping multifaceted entertainment factor. 1. As example for standard image quality needs 1 Mbps intern et speed for SD 480p. It uses a flash-based web player to stream and show video files. In fact. visiting chat rooms or just 15 .

5 Services Lots services are now provided on the internet such as online banking.1 How computers communicate over the internet When it comes to the World Wide Web. job seeking. technology to entertainment.surfing the Web are some of the uses people have discovered. there are numerous things that can be found. almost anything. In fact. or business deals that involves the transfer of information across the globe via Internet. You name it and Ecommerce with its giant tentacles engulfing every single product and service will make you available at your door steps. which is passed around using a common protocol ²HTTP (hypertext transfer protocol). It has become a phenomenon associated with any kind of shopping. purchasing tickets for your favourite movies.7. and hotel reservations. 1.6 E-Commerce Ecommerce is the concept used for any type of commercial manoeuvring. Music. hobbies. allowing for example a Windows machine to sing in harmony with a machine running the latest and 16 . There are numerous games that may be downloaded from the Internet for free. HTML. It has got a real amaz ing and wide range of products from household needs. Chat rooms are popular because users can meet new and interesting people. guidance services on array of topics engulfing the every aspect of life. most pages are written using the same language. 1. The industry of online gaming has tasted dramatic and phenomenal attention by game lovers.8. HTTP is the common internet dialect (specification). 1. Often these services are not available off-line and can cost you more. the Internet has been successfully used by people to find lifelong partners.8 How the Internet works 1. When people surf the Web. news and more can be found and shared on the Internet.7.

98.com. I¶ll look at the HTTP request/response cycle in more detail. and sends it back to your computer to be displayed in your web browser. a client machine (like your computer) knows that it has to be the one to initiate a request for a web page from a server. A server is a computer where web sites reside . Through the use of a web browser²a special piece of software that interprets HTTP and renders HTML into a human -readable form²web pages authored in HTML on any type of computer can be read anywhere. Now. Because of HTTP.greatest version of Linux (Do Re Mi!). they use Internet Protocol or IP addresses (which are basically like phone numbers or postal addresses that identify servers.) For example. HTTP lays out these ground rules for the Internet.when you type a web address into your browser. the various devices accessing the web need to have some rules in place to be able to talk to one another²it¶s like learning to raise your hand to ask a question in class.236. a server receives your request.208. so I can demonstrate some of the concepts to you more effectively. one thing you may not know is that web browsers actually don¶t use URLs to request web sites from servers. finds the web page you want. There are some numbered steps below for you to work along with.opera. including telephones.opera. the IP address of http://dev. Every request/response starts by typing a Universal Resource Locator (URL) into the address bar of your web browser. Dissecting a request/response cycle Now that I¶ve looked at all the parts that allow computers to communicate across the Internet. something like http://dev.com is 213. 1. Open a browser and do this now. Even though they¶re speaking the same language. 17 . PDAs and even popular vid eo game systems.

There are a ton of machines connected to the Internet.149.apple. So the DNS system looks up the www.10/ and hit enter²you will get to the same place.) followed by the web page itself. then type http://17.opera.208.160.com into your address bar and hit enter. Try opening a new browser tab or window.com web site. When you punch http://dev. This type of message is contained in an HTTP header. typing http://www. so there¶s a system in place where your request can get referred on to the right server to fulfil your request.160.149.2.149.160.98 into the address bar and hitting enter²you will get to the same server location that you got to in step 1. Try typing http://213. http://www. but why. the server machine sends a short message back to the client with a message saying that everything is okay (see Figure 1.opera. Your machine sends a request to the machine at the IP address specified and waits to get a response back. 18 .com is basically acting as an alias for http://17.236.10.com and hitting enter. that address is sent off to a name server that tries to associate it to its IP address. The system that makes this work is called the Domain name system (DNS). although you¶ll get a 4 03 ³Access Denied´ error²this is because you don¶t have permission to access the actual root of this server. and sends this IP address back to your web browser. which is essentially a comprehensive automatic dire ctory of all of the machines connected to the Internet. and not every DNS server has a listing for every machine online.10/. finds that it is located at 17. and how? This is because people are better at remembering words than long strings of numbers. If all goes well.apple.

you¶ll get an HTTP error returned to your web browser instead²the infamous 404 ³page not found´ error is the most common example you¶ll come across.opera. This is because some web developers have just left the web server to return their default error pages. Formats requiring other applications or plug-ins Because web browsers are only equipped to interpret and display certain technologies like web standards. everything is fine. Try typing in http://dev. so you¶ll get a 404 error returned. If something goes wrong.Figure 1: In this case. and others have coded custom error pages to appear when a non-existent page is returned. Try it with a few pages. and the server returns the correct web page.html . 3. and you¶ll see a variety of different pages retuned. that don¶t exist. for example you typed the URL incorrectly. The page doesn¶t exist. if you¶ve requested a URL that points to either a complex file format. or a web page containing a technology requiring plug-ins.com/joniscool. For example: 19 . on different we b sites. it will either be downloaded to your computer or opened using the required plug-ins if the browser has it installed.

If not. PDF. 2. Both of these usually have similar results. If you encounter a page containing a Flash movie. the browser will usually ask you if you want to download or open the file. the browser will play it using an installed plug-in. If you encounter a Word document. if one has been installed. you will either be given a link to install the required plug-in. if one is installed.) complex image file such as a Photoshop PSD.1. or the file will download and look for a desktop application to run it. Excel file. MPEG or other video format. or SIT for example. 20 . compressed file (ZIP. or another complex file that the browser doesn¶t understand. MP3 or other music format. except that the latter will cause the file to be downloaded and then opened by an application that does understand it.

The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa. the eighth most populous country in the world. This name was coined by Flora Shaw. The name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Archaeological evidence shows that human habitation of the area dates back to at least 9000 BCE. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west. It is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies. in the late 19th century. The economy of Nigeria is one of the fastest 21 .341) is a federal constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and its Federal Capital Territory. Chad and Cameroon in the east. Abuja. and Niger in the north. The area around the Benue and Cross River is thought to be the original homeland of the Bantu migrants who spread across most of central and southern Africa in waves between the 1st millennium BCE and the 2nd millennium. the future wife of Baron Lugard.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Nigeria officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria with a population of one hundred and fifty two million two hundred and seventeen thousand three hundred and forty one (152. Igbo and Yoruba.217. Its coast in the south lies on the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The people of Nigeria have an extensive history. aBritish colonial administrator. In terms of religion Nigeria is roughly split half and half between Muslims and Christians with a very small minority who practice traditional religion. and the most populous country in the world in which the majority of the population is black.

legal.3% in 2009. though currently underperforming manufacturing sector is the second -largest on the continent. a new constitution was adopted in 1999. with the International Monetary Fund projecting a growth of 9% in 2008 and 8. It is ranked 31st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2009. and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. economic reforms of the past decade have put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential.1 The Nigerian Economy The economy of Nigeria is a middle income. and its emergent. International Monetary Fund (IMF) has also announced that Nigeria is the third fastest growing economy in the world after China and India. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum -based economy. it is also the largest exporter of oil in Africa. and institutionalizing democracy. and entertainment sectors.9 per cent in 2009 to 7. communications. British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. mixed economy emerging market with well-developed financial.growing in the world.3 billion in 2010. It is the third largest economy in Africa. Following nearly 16 years of military rule.4 per cent in 2010. transport. independence came in 1960.7 billion in 2005 to $374. Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity more than doubled from $170. whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy. Previously hindered by years of mismanagement. as a result of the increase in the rate of growth of the nation¶s economy from 6. 2. although estimates of the size of the informal 22 . producing a large proport ion of goods and services for the West African region.

Nigeria successfully convinced the Paris Club to let it buy back the bulk of its debts owed to the Paris Club for a cash payment of roughly $12 billion (USD). This accounts for less than 14% of official GDP figures (and drops to 10% when the informal economy is included in these calculations).5mbpd (13. with the inclusion of the informal sector. Therefore. the top 3 producers Saudi Arabia. To put oil revenues in perspective: at an estimated export rate of 1.4%).2 million barrels per day (mbpd). In 2006. and though it is ranked as 15th in production at 2. collectively accounting for 63.8%). it is estimated that GDP per capita hovers arou nd $3.9mbd. though the petroleum sector is important. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has not kept up with rapid population growth.sector (which is not included in official figures) put t he actual numbers closer to $520 billion. the GDP per capita doubled from $1200 per person in 2005 to an estimated $2. with a projected sales price of $65 per barrel in 2011.7mbpd (16.500 per person in 2009 (again. it remains in fact a small part of the country's overall vibrant and diversified economy. Nigeria produces only about 3. It is the largest economy in the West Africa Region.2 billion. 9. and the United States produce 10.8mbpd (15. once a large net exporter of food. Nigeria's anticipate d revenue from petroleum is about $52.4%) of the world's total production. 3rd largest economy in Africa (behind South Africa and Egypt).3% of the world's supply. Although much has been made of its status as a major exporter of oil. now imports some of its food products. Russia. and Nigeria.4%) respectively.500 per person). Correspondingly. and on track to becoming one of the top 30 economies in the world in the early part of 2011. and 8. 23 .6mpd (45.

the country is still struggling with the infrastructure of this technology. industry observers and experts who have keenly watched the country take its first baby steps in this direction say the growth so far had been phenomenal. Nigeria. fourteen years after. 1997 Linkserve Limited immediately began commercial operations in the country. Literacy Training and Developme nt Program for Africa (University of Ibadan) and Administrative Staff College of Nigeria (ASCON). the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) did the right thing. a body known as the Nigeria Internet Group had been conceived as a non governmental organisation with the aim of promoting and facilitating full access to the internet in Nigeria. had stepped into the internet age. National Data Bank. thus becoming the very first internet service provider (ISP) in Nigeria.2 History of the internet in Nigeria It had been long in coming. In 1995. with the direct assistance of the United States Information Service (USIS). But then. Regional Information Network for Africa (RINAF) and the British Council. On January 1st. the nation¶s telecoms regulator. The Nigeria Internet Group was formed in 1995 after the first internet workshop organized by the Yaba College of Technology in collaboration with a number of organisations including the Nigerian Communications Commission. Nigeria Internet Group formed. The workshop was put together in order to raise the level of awareness of the benefits of internet in Nigeria and provide a forum for discussing the future of networking.2. a year before these companies were registered. The nation. Yet today. 24 . we dare say. seven years after it was introduced in the United States. like every other country in the world on its first encounter with the internet had struggled to understand its seemingly overwhelming power ± still is. finally. but then in 1996. It licensed 38 internet service providers to sell internet services in Nigeria.

and sought to create a common forum where African Internet practitioners can come together and discuss policy issues peculiar to Africa. 2. a shocking 0. In comparison. had touched off the 0% ground mark in 1997. The summit. focused on the sustainable development an d utilization of the Internet in Africa. The Nigerian Government then had been supported by United Nations Development Programme Agency UNDP/IIA in a US$ 1million project to assist NITEL establish the internet backbone. Three years later in 2007. in May 1999. According to the data on Nigeria. it struck 7% and then it rose speedily in the 2008 to touch 15.3%. users of the internet there had already lifted off the bottom line at 2. By 1995 they were a full 25 . Between the year 2002 to 2004 it rose to 1. As at when the World Bank survey stated in the United States in 1993. which the source claims was last updated in July 16 2010.5%.2 % in 2008. focused the period 1996 ± 2009 on telecommunications development on nations of the world. which took place at the ECOWAS Secretariat from 11-13 May 1999. Egypt.3 Growth of Internet services in Nigeria A report by the International Telecommunications Union. But the figure had been so insignificant.9%. UNDP/IIA was also strengthening NITEL¶s telecommunication training school to become a regional internet training centre.3% . its North African counterpart.Four years later. striking two percent in 2002. the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) in collaboration with the Nigeria Internet Group (NIG). hosted by the Federal Ministry of Communications. 5% in 2004 and then rising steeply and speedily to twelve percent in 2005 to finish at 16. users of the internet in Nigeria in every 100 persons interviewed as at 1996 were 0% and it ran this way for four years. The line lifted off the bottom for the first time at the tail end of the year 2000. organised an Africa Internet Summit (AFRINET ¶99).

It was also recorded that about 81 internet host sites were already fully functional in the country.000 internet subscribers in a population of about 140 million people. international and government related areas. 26 .4% shooting speedily to 60. Another study like the one conducted by the World Bank was carried out in Nigeria in 1999 by local based analysts. 2. Internet users as at that time too had been estimated to be about a 100.1% by 2002.´ He said another major problem was illiteracy. research. Internet Service Providers have however said that the blame should not be heaped at their doorsteps. Their data revealed that the entire nation had a total of about 3. Today. It is only in this country that we just like making simple things seem as if they are meant for only the µrich¶. ³You at least have to be able to read and write to be able to learn to use the internet and majority of these people are stark illiterates. The host sites had been identified to fall into commercial. The internet basically remains an urban phenomenon in the country.000. It¶s so sad´. about 76 Americans in every one hundred have access to the internet.´ he said.4 Challenges of Internet access in Nigeria Low penetration has been the major issue. academic.9. He had said ³Coverage will remain this low if they continue charging for it as if it is gold. According Victor Okeke. Even in villages where GSM is already present and fully functional some of them still cannot access the internet. Comments from an online reader had also identified another major challenge crippling internet growth in the country. The rural areas have been shut out from this illumination and there seems to be no hope for them anytime soon. a systems analyst ³the vast majority of natives in rural areas are poor and cannot afford computers and phones that could give them access to the internet.

Mr Nyibo Odero. a lot of development is still needed ³African nations still need to do a lot to grow´. Also. They have to be made available to aid the distribution of bandwidth to the remote areas. Mr Rudman. government needs to subsidise the right of way for the operators to pass through. Google¶s Office Lead. Asia and Africa EMEAA. He said the continent remains low and poor on internet infrastructure and penetration to be termed a market spot! Journalists had been trying to learn from Mr Nyibo Odero and Christian Miccio. English speaking West Africa had at a briefing with ICT news journalists in Lagos that there was a major IT infrastructure problem in the nation and this should be urgently addressed. how much the search giant was investing in the country whose entire corporate working populace and other private individuals constantly log on to the internet and used majority of Google¶s tools before Mr Mattos interrupted. 27 . Nelson Mattos also told ICT news journalists at the same briefing in Lagos that Nigeria and indeed the entire African continent could never become market potential for internet-broadband access as far as he was concerned. CEO of the Internet Exchange Point of Nigeria (IXPN) in an encounter with journalists had said that government must work to provide the right infrastructure to aid the provision of internet services.Earlier this year. He did not avoid the question though. English Middle East.´ He said that though much has been invested in various African countries yet. his answer was a single word ³Significantly. ³Infrastructure is still a major problem for the industry as the right infrastructures are not available. Google¶s Navigable Maps product manager. ³It is important to make internet access easily available to people in this country and then the prices even for a simple standard laptop is crazy!´ Another Google executive. this time its Vice President Technology.

the main objective of the Internet exchange point (IXPN) in the country was to interconnect various Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and network operators to exchange traffic among their networks.´ Mr. ³We are making sure that the internet connection would remain local. The possibilities that await in Nigeria's fu ture are endless. Muhammed Rudman. Built by Alcatel but financed by Globacom. it will increase the quality and number of internet services for Globacom's customers. According to him. Alheri.If the government is charging the operators too high. the cable spans 9200km and came from Portugal and passing through 15 countries to reach Nigeria's financial and commercial capital. Most especially. it is a major opportunity to improve internet penetration.5 Future of the internet in Nigeria The international submarine communication cable has finally docked in Lagos.´ added Mr. by means of mutual pairing agreements. Rudman had added. a Nigerian company owned by billionaire Dangote. It seems that Nigeria's internet fut ure is at the doorstep. The arrival of the underwater cable to India was arguably a crucial factor in 28 . Once launched. as all links to the internet service can go through within the country than for the link to connect from outside the country and back. Consider the India example.´ said Mr. which allow traffic to be exchanged at no cost. 2. ³With the coming broadband connection. the cost would be passed on to the consumers. a leading telecommunications service provider in Nigeria. Already. government must also improve on power supply. Rudman. is putting up fibre optic cable lines all over the country to provide the faster internet capabilities to homes and offices. generally referred to as autonomous systems.

forcing them to improve their products. and accelerated the country's IT field. 29 .transforming India into a leader in the outsourced services market. but investment. Now. Nigeria might not necessarily experience a growth in its IT sector or become a leader in the outsourced services market. but the underwater cable could provide a better outlet for indigenous industri es such as Nollywood and the thriving Nigerian music scene. There would also be more competition for local producers. That reality brought not just jobs to the country.

982.378) internet hosts (Source CIA Factbook). There were also forty three million nine hundred and eighty two thousand two hundred (43.CHAPTER 3 THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNET ON THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC LIFE IN NIGERIA World Internet usage increased by an annual average of 14.718.9% of the population and one million seven hundred and eighteen thousand ( 1.8 billion users and in Nigeria alone.200) Internet users as at June. 2010 which is about 28.000) Facebook users on August 31 2010.1% between 2004 and 2009 reaching over 1. Figure 2: Internet Hosts in Nigeria Source: CIA World Factbook 30 . there were one thousand three hundred and seventy eight (1.

It connects businesses directly to their consumers. while giving them access to new consumer markets worldwide. The improvement of a country's business environment and global competitiveness through digital infrastructure. all of which attract inward investment. improved human capital and increase in labour productivity.49% 2004 2005 2006 2008 2008 2010 Table 1: Internet Hosts in Nigeria.91% -32. These include but are not limited to: 1.00% 31.24% 0. 2.00% 34.Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Number of Internet Hosts 1142 1142 1535 1549 1048 1048 1378 Rank 117 117 126 133 152 152 164 Percentage Change Date of Information 2004 0. Source: CIA World Factbook Broadband (high-speed Internet) is becoming the dominant form of fixed -line connection. businesses and consumers. 31 .41% 0. while wireless technologies have resulted in a boom in con sumers who can access the Internet in remote areas. The Internet and the accompanying infrastructures have beneficial implications for the economy.

8. 7. The Internet also increases business profits by improving efficiency. The global economic downturn of 2008 -2009 led to many companies cutting travel budgets and IT solutions have enabled this. productivity and communications. Supports e-government platforms which will improve the delivery of public services and reduce corruption. These are: 32 . while encouraging innovation and Research and Development (R&D). empowering them with knowledge. This in turn raises profits and incomes. Narrow regional divides especially between rural and urban areas. For example. while access to online markets increases competition and improves prices. The economic benefits are summarized based on six main factors. 6. Internet increases entrepreneurship by making it easier to form new businesses ± this will help employment and government tax revenues. 5. Services such as healthcare will benefit from the Internet by improving information and efficiency. the Internet helps the agricultural sector in developing countries by giving famers access to information and market prices. Many businesses are able to reduce travel costs as online communication has improved. 3.3.1 Economic benefits of the internet in Nigeria This increasing Internet penetration has the potential to generate significant economic benefits. Internet usage will speed up the globalisation process by reducing physical barriers. 4. Consumers are also provided with valuable tools for information. thus reducing costs.

Employment 5. This includes increased productivity in existing businesses. Tax revenues FIGURE 3: Economic benefits of the internet Source: The Boston Consulting Group 3.1. or gross profit per employee) of firms 33 .1 Demand-side impact The demand-side impact of Internet adoption is defined as the GDP contributions generated by firms using the Internet. Productivity impact on GDP As discussed above. it is argued that adoption of the Internet will improve the productivity (gross value added per employee.1. Infrastructure development 4. and new business activities. New business activity 3. Productivity improvement 2. which can be new business entities or as new departments or units within existing businesses. Other Supply side impact 6.

Each large firm has the revenue of multiple small firms. The productivity benefit at the firm level is assumed to be equal to the productivity gain for the country as a whole at the point in time. Figure 4: Productivity gains translated into GDP Source: The Bolton Consulting Group This is done by multiplying the productivity gain at the firm level b y the weighted penetration and the total GDP contribution for the sector. particularly large vs small firms. The chart below shows how productivit y gains at the individual firm level are ultimately translated into GDP impact at the economy level. This is then multiplied by the weighted pe netration rate.that integrate it into their operations. and a simple penetration figure (total number of connections/total number of firms) would understate the overall GDP impact. but there are generally fewer large firms than small firms. Weighted penetration rate takes into account the differential in the average size of firms in each segment. 34 . This is particularly important as large firms typically have a much higher penetration rate.

These include. 3. but are not limited to: ‡ Businesses based on offering Internet access and its benefits to first -time or lowincome users.1. such as with an online auction site or job search services ‡ Providing services to other Internet businesses. digital studios ‡ Leveraging the Internet as a sales channel for goods or services ‡ Using the Internet as an information aggregator to bring together bu yers and sellers. server and storage. only locally retained 35 . It comprises three elements: Infrastructure Employment and Others y y y Infrastructure Significant investment must be undertaken to set up and maintain the net works required to support the Internet.2 Supply side impact The supply side impact captures the GDP contribution of economic activities that are undertaken to produce or consume Internet services. such as internet cafes. such as website design.New business activity Particularly in developing economies. the Internet creates multiple opportunities for entrepreneurs to exploit. commerce platforms. In estimating the GDP contribution from infrastructure. These can be seen as an injection into the economy. where infrastructure and communications are less advanced.

Contribution to government revenues Although not a component of GDP. Some of the revenues are again exported overseas. expenditure on CSR activities. These are excluded. meaning wage payments to employees. to pay for foreign goods or services. and is therefore reported alongside the other economic metrics. The main components are ‡ Value added taxes ‡ Regulatory fees or other industry-specific taxation ‡ Corporate taxes from the service providers and their value chain ‡ Corporate taxes from increased productivity (which is gross profit) ‡ Corporate taxes from profits of new business activities The model assumes that the current rates of taxation remain in force for the duration of the projection. etc. or as profits attributable to foreign owners. This expenditure forms the revenues for the Internet Service Provider value chain. is excluded. a catch-all term that includes domesticallyretained profits. which flows out of the economy. 36 . Employment and others In the model. is an area of keen interest. in the form of taxes and regulatory fees. Expenditure on foreign equipment and foreig n expertise. or ³others´. and the domestically retained portion is then put through the multiplier. comprising the ISP and its suppliers. contribution to government revenues. The GDP impact is captured either as ³employment´. consumer expenditure on Internet services is considered an injection into the economy.expenditure is included in the multiplier.

increase the level of engagement and desire to learn. for countries where access to basic education is a pro blem. 3. Three major issues are highlighted here .2. in fact. Studies suggest that such approaches improve academic results and help spread literacy. Internet-based selflearning initiatives can be used to supplement the school system.2 Social benefits Just as important as the economic impact are the social benefits that the Internet can bring. It is an essential tool for raising standards of living. and rural development even though many more exist. and can be applicable to a broad spectrum of countries.3. Such systems work by providing terminals that children can use outside of classroom hours. The Internet has the potential to improve access to education and quality of education in multiple ways. and. They are education. For example. reducing poverty. and improving the qualit y of life for the citizens. healthcare. and leverage both their innate curiosity and a system of peer -supported learning. 37 .1 Education Education is a critical priority for all countries.

thus making it scalable for large populations. This would help the students in any educational level to study wide. who are then able to see the patients. Two examples of how the Internet can help mitigate these issues are highlighted here. as well as the time and manpower savings from direct data entry. ask them questions and offer diagnoses. The vans have a wireless broadband link to physicians in the main hospital back in the city.A limited amount of educational resources is also available on the internet. This significantly increases the number of patients that each physician can serve. particularly in rural areas. Here. and infant mortality rate is also high.2 Healthcare Healthcare is a second area of priority for all countries and especially for Nigeria where the life expectancy is low at 63 years. 1. The key benefits of such a method are the speed and accuracy of data. allowing local and interna tional health organizations to track the spread of diseases. 2. and enables them to extend their expertise into rural areas without having to give up the comforts of urban life.2. 38 . 3. nurses go out to the field in specially -equipped vans to meet patients and perform basic procedures. compare notes and get quick educational help. real-time information from remote areas using handheld computers with Internet connections. Field medical officers can provide accurate. such as taking blood pressure and setting up stethoscopes. Another aspect of how the Internet can contribute to improving healthcare is in the tracking of disease outbreaks. Ehealth initiatives can help improve healthcare access.

Rural residents can provide services such as data imaging and formatting. website design. such services significantly increase the returns to literacy. or providing services to Internet users. The digital divide has been identified as a social concern that needs to be amel iorated. by enhancing access to information and basic services. such as computer maintenance. as well as lifestyle options. JAMB registrations etc to serving the providers themselves.3 Rural Development Generally. Incomes are on average lower than in urban areas.3. application processing. such as visa applications. Lifestyle and entertainme nt options are also generally limited.3. 39 . particularly for jobs that can be done from home. from their homes or at designated centres. post UME registrations. The Internet can also help mitigate the rural -urban digital divide. and therefore are likely to increase the demand for education. etc. The Internet can help increase income and diversify sources of income. as with cybercafés. communicating with their clients electronically. The Internet can create alternative income opportunities. Mitigating the rural-urban gap by improving rural income and lifestyle oppo rtunities is therefore the third key priority for the Nigerian Government. Entrepreneurs can build businesses around the Internet value chain.. These are some of the key drivers of rural-urban migration. they can also serve as a critical source of income for women. conditions in the rural areas in Nigeria are more difficult than in urban areas. etc. Another way in which the Internet can improve income opportunities is by enabling Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) to rural areas. and are often more volatile due to a reliance on agriculture and fishing. which in turn places great strain on the urban centres receiving these migrants. from providing Internet access. Critically. such as entertainment. In more conservative countries or regions.

even if they do not actively use the Internet as the primary means of delivering their services. With better access to information. for example.and widespread adoption of the Internet in rural areas is the best way to achieve this. This can be achieved by. can also help reduce the 40 . improving Internet access enhances the effectiveness and capability of all NGOs. government services.3. such as banking services. and represent a high quality. banking and remittances. the quality of services may not be high given the general unwillingness of skilled labour to w ork in rural areas. Initiatives which directly leverage the Internet will clearly benefit from improved coverage and higher speeds. such as government. Online transactions.5 Carbon emissions Another significant area where the Internet c an help is in reducing fuel costs and carbon emissions from traffic. The Internet can reduce both of these by reducing the need for car trips. rural residents can be made more aware of their rights. 3.4 Strategic partnerships Given that a large number of NGOs and IGOs are actively working to address social issues in Nigeria. Furthermore. even shopping and entertainment. Online service provision avoids these concerns. offices allowing some staff to work at home some days of the week. The Inte rnet can be used to cost-effectively address infrastructure gaps and enhance the provision of essential services. there is significant scope to leverage them through partnerships to accelerate the attainment and delivery of benefits. to a large area at a far lower cost than traditional methods. and hence better able to defend them should the need arise. low-cost option that benefits all parties. which would require a very dense network of branches/outlets to effectively serve the population. 3.3. Furthermore. This is particularly true in areas of low population density or poor transport links.

3. including long distance. this is expected to worsen in the near -term. Nigeria has historically suffered from high unemployment.7 Other social benefits Communication Costs Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) has given customers that use phone service the opportunity to reduce their costs. which is significantly higher than the EU average. ranging from 14-21% over the last 5 years. It is conceivable that the number of trips could fall by up to 10%.3.3. 41 . You can join mailing lists or message boards with others that have similar interests to you. Networking Networking with other individuals that share your interests has become easier thanks to the Internet. With the current global economic slowdown.6 Jobs and the community The concerns surrounding jobs and the community arise from the interplay of two related social challenges. The first is the impact of chronic high unemployment on communities.number of trips made. Internet providers now offer phone services. triggering significant savings on fuel costs and improving the environment by reducing emissions. 3. for one low price instead of h aving it based on a charge per minute.

credit card number etc. you can keep up with what the latest research by using the Internet. Email and personal websites have made it easier to share that information with your friends and family. Shopping The Internet has made shopping much more convenient. Sometimes those written pieces were out of date before you ever read them. can be accessed by other culprits to make your problems worse. you may be facing grave danger as your personal information such as name. you no longer have to call everyone or send them a letter. Now you can order items over the Internet and with express shipping have them at your front door in a day or two from stores that are thousands of miles from your home. 3. These emails may pertain to advertising or random bulk emails and 42 .Sharing Information When an event happens in your life that you want to tell a large group about. You are no longer limited to shopping at the stores in your hometown or within driving d istance. researching had to rely on written works such as encyclopedias and magazine articles or journals. Spamming : One of the biggest problems that the internet has created is that of spamming.4 Negative effects of internet usage on social and economic life in Nigeria Theft of Personal information If you use the Internet. Today. Spamming refers to the activity wherein unwanted emails and other links are sent in bulk to people. Research Before the Internet became a popular. address.

A very serious issue concerning the Internet. This is because the internet can have a huge addictive pull and people are at times known to surf the internet for up to 15 or 16 hours a day. Though different from chemical addiction it is a real problem as some lose employment and suffer other adverse effects from overuse.these may contain viruses that may corrupt the system and even if they don¶t cause any harm these can be plain annoying. Pornography: This is perhaps the biggest threat related to your children¶s healthy mental life. So even though the internet has in many ways brought the world closer together it has also in many other ways caused a lot of damage to relationships and growth of individuals. Chat rooms and forums or other ways of interactivity cannot really replace real life socializing and if that takes place internet can be quite detrimental 43 . There are thou sands of pornographic sites on the Internet that can be easily found and can be a detrimental factor to letting children use the Internet. Computers attached to internet are more prone to virus attacks and they can end up into crashing your whole hard disk. Virus threat Virus is nothing but a program which disrupts the normal functioning of your computer systems. causing you considerable headache. Addiction It is possible for Internet users to become habitually addicted. Though many develop online relationships these "cyber" buddies cannot replace "real life" socializing. Isolation Using the Internet for long periods of time can isolate people from family and friends.

Inappropriate Websites Children can often stumble upon or seek out inappropriate websites when using the Internet at home. forums and chat rooms available.Inaccurate Information Though there are many legitimate websites full of factual information there are a plethora of sites with inaccurate information and it is often hard to tell the difference. Trust Issues as a result of anonymity Another problem or disadvantage of the internet is that it has allowed a great deal of anonymity to a large number of people who may access the different websites. Hacking of Personal Information Providing personal information online when shopping or banking can result in hackers gaining access to private data that can be used to steal your funds and even your identity. which can be dangerous if the child shares personal information. Time and again you see cases of people using someone else¶s information and research and passing it off as their own. 44 . Information Misuse While the internet has made life easier for people in many ways it is also reflecting an uglier side to its existence through a number of problems that it has thrown up for its users. With a large amount of information freely available on the internet theft and misuse of this information is a likely possibility. This has allowed perverted individuals to at times take advantage of innocent people and abuse their trust.

The case where funds are withdrawn or where sensitive data are obtained is called phishing. Some unscrupulous individuals have been successful in creating viruses and links that once clicked can automatically transmit your personal email addresses and other details to certain parties and even your bank account details in some extreme cases.Financial Hack Issues Since business dealings and financial transactions have become easier because of the internet another problem that has arisen is that people can now misuse your private information including financial details such as the credit card number. There have been cases of financial frauds and other problems that people have experienced following misuse of such sensitive information. 45 .

Access to the Internet will produce significant cost savings in many sectors of the economy. in an era where consumers are aware more than ever that "time is money´.CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION Though internet use has disadvantages as discussed earlier. in their capacities as consumers an d citizens that are not easily quantified but nonetheless real. Savings in time. The Internet will also generate a variety of benefits to users. resulting in faster productivity growth. and products and services will be tailored specifically to them. It will also produce lower prices for consumers. 46 . these benefits will be more noticeable and appreciated. Finally. resulting in faster growth in living standards. added convenience. the advantages of the internet on the social and economic life of Nigeria and Nigerians far outweigh these disadvantages.

buzzle.telenor.html 47 .pdf Social Benefits of the Internet at eHow.com/facts_5038423_disadvantages-internet-home.htm#ng http://blog.html?countryName=Nigeria&countryCode=ni&regionCod e=af&rank=164#ni http://en.com/articles/advantages-disadvantages-internet.html https://www.indexmundi.internetworldstats.cia.com/facts_4866570_social -benefitsinternet.com/en/resources/images/Towards%20a%20Conne cted%20World _tcm28-50426.ehow.com/articles/view/2-the-history-of-the-internet-and-the-w/ http://www.html#ixzz1CPKQMMq4 http://www.html http://www.opera.ehow.wikipedia.REFERENCES http://www.com/2009/02/nigerias -internet-future.org/wiki/Internet http://dev.com/nigeria/internet_hosts.html http://telenor.gov/library/publications/the -worldfactbook/rankorder/2184rank.pdf http://www.nigeriancuriosity.com/en/resources/images/Towards%20a %20connected%20world_the%2 0socio-economic%20impact%20of%20the%20Internet_tcm28 -50427.euromonitor.com http://www.html http://www.com/2010/05/qa -socioeconomic-impact-of-growing-internetusage.com/africa.

com/Ma-Ni/Nigeria.articleswave.com/computer-articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-theinternet.info/internet-tips/advantages-and-disadvantages-ofinternet. food.html http://www.everyculture.com/2010/10/internet -13-years-of-growth-from-ground-zeroin-nigeria-from-1960-1996/ 48 .traditional. people.free-computer-tips. women.http://www. history. beliefs. traditions.html Culture of Nigeria .html#ixzz1CT5qNIXe http://www. customs http://www. clothing.vanguardngr.

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