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HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

HyperMesh 8 0 User s Guide

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Sections

  • Hardware and Operating Systems
  • Starting HyperMesh
  • Starting HyperMesh Batch Version
  • Start-up Options
  • Configuring HyperMesh
  • Configuration File Commands
  • Start-up Files
  • Specifying a Temporary File Directory
  • HyperMesh Database Design
  • Database Names
  • Using and Saving a Database
  • Nodes
  • Fixed Points
  • Free Points
  • Collectors
  • Elements
  • Lines
  • Surfaces and Faces
  • Systems
  • Loads
  • Cards
  • Vectors
  • Title
  • HyperMesh Environment
  • Pull-Down menus
  • Graphics Area
  • Toolbar Area
  • Header Bar
  • Main Menu Area
  • Page Menu
  • Tab Area
  • Model Browser
  • Include Browser
  • Modules
  • Loadsteps Browser
  • Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles
  • Panels
  • Sub-panels
  • Input Controls
  • File Browser
  • The Mouse
  • Rapid Menu
  • Keyboard
  • Secondary Menu
  • Utility Menu
  • BOM comparison tool
  • Quick TetraMesh
  • User Profiles
  • HyperMesh User Profile
  • Using HyperMesh
  • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database
  • Picking Entities on the Screen
  • Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements
  • Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu
  • Viewing Models
  • Using the disp (display) Panel
  • Setting View Options
  • Setting Tolerances
  • Setting Global Parameters
  • Importing and Exporting Data
  • Printing Screen Images
  • Using the Card Previewer
  • General Process for Building Models
  • Creating Collectors
  • Reading Geometry
  • Creating Geometry Data
  • Temporary Nodes
  • Picking Surfaces
  • Editing Surfaces
  • Associativity
  • Geometry Cleanup
  • Building Elements
  • Checking Model Quality
  • Applying Loads
  • Creating Systems
  • Automatic Mesh Generation
  • Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel
  • Mesh Generation Algorithms
  • Smoothing Algorithms
  • Element Biasing
  • Linked or Locked Edges
  • Connector Entity
  • Connector Terminology
  • Connector Definition
  • Connector Realization
  • Connector Review
  • Connectors User Control Mode
  • Master Connectors File
  • Multiple Weld File Format
  • Import Templates
  • FE Configuration File
  • FE Definition Examples
  • HyperMorph Strategies
  • The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
  • Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains
  • Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains
  • HyperBeam Module
  • Example of the Three-Step Process
  • Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam
  • HyperBeam Environment
  • Section Browser
  • Shell Section Graphics Pane
  • Results/Spreadsheet Pane
  • HyperBeam Menu Bar
  • HyperBeam Toolbar
  • Beam Cross Section Property Solver
  • Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements
  • Defining a Cross Section
  • Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties
  • Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver
  • Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers
  • HyperLaminate Module
  • HyperLaminate Environment
  • HyperLaminate Menus
  • HyperLaminate Toolbar
  • Laminate Browser
  • Define/Edit Pane
  • Review Pane
  • Finite Difference Module
  • Creating a Finite Difference Block
  • Creating a Structured Mesh
  • Loads on Geometry
  • Terminology and Definitions
  • Application of Loads to Geometry
  • Exporting Loads
  • Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh
  • Distributed Load Mapper
  • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results
  • Select a data type and a mapping method
  • Set the scale factor
  • Set the mapping algorithm
  • Mathematical Loading
  • Post-Processing Analysis
  • HyperMesh Results Database
  • Specifying the Results File
  • Creating Deformed Geometry Plots
  • Creating Animations
  • Creating Vector Plots
  • Creating Contour Plots
  • Creating Assigned Plots
  • Adding Plot Identification
  • Inspecting the Results
  • XY Plotting
  • XY Plots Module
  • Creating an XY Plot
  • Modifying an XY Plot
  • Working with Multiple XY Plots
  • Modifying Multiple XY Plots
  • Creating Curves on XY Plots
  • Modifying Curve Attributes
  • Displaying Selected Curves on Plots
  • Using the Curve Editor
  • AutoDV Introduction
  • Generation of Perturbation Vectors
  • Manual Perturbation
  • Polynomial Perturbation Vectors
  • Primary Domain Model
  • Primary Domain Node Sets
  • Control Perturbations
  • Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets
  • Harmonic Perturbation Vectors
  • Generation of Variable Loads
  • Running AutoDV Stand-alone
  • Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
  • To create an H3D file from HyperMesh:
  • H3D FAQ's
  • Free Body Diagrams
  • FBD Set Manager
  • FBD Displacements
  • FBD Forces
  • FBD Cross-section manager
  • FBD Resultant Force and Moment
  • FBD Results Manager
  • FBD Export Manager
  • FBD Grid Point Force Balance

HyperMesh 8.

0 User's Guide

HyperWorks

Altair Engineering Contact Information
Web site FTP site www.altair.com Address: ftp.altair.com or ftp2.altair.com or http://ftp.altair.com/ftp Login: ftp Password: <your e-mail address>

Location
North America China France Germany India

Telephone
248.614.2425 86.21.5393.0011 33.1.4133.0990 49.7031.6208.22 91.80.6629.4500 1.800.425.0234 (toll free) 39.800.905.595 81.3.5396.1341 81.3.5396.2881 82.31.716.4321 46.46.286.2052 44.1926.468.600 55.11.4223.5733 64.9.413.7981 64.9.413.7981

e-mail
hwsupport@altair.com support@altair.com.cn francesupport@altair.com hwsupport@altair.de support@india.altair.com

Italy Japan Korea Scandinavia United Kingdom Brazil Australia New Zealand

support@altairtorino.it support@altairjp.co.jp support@altair.co.kr support@altair.se support@uk.altair.com br_support@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com anzsupport@altair.com

The following countries have distributors for Altair Engineering: Mexico, Romania, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan and Turkey. See www.altair.com for complete contact information. © 2007 Altair Engineering, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated to another language without the written permission of Altair Engineering, Inc. To obtain this permission, write to the attention Altair Engineering legal department at: 1820 E. Big Beaver, Troy, Michigan, USA, or call +1-248-614-2400.

Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for: HyperMesh 1990-2006; HyperView 1999-2006; OptiStruct 1996-2006; HyperStudy 1999-2006; ® ® ® HyperGraph 1995-2006; HyperGraph 3D 2005-2006; MotionView 1993-2006; MotionSolve 2002-2006; ® ® ® ® HyperForm 1998-2006; HyperXtrude 1999-2006; HyperOpt 1996-2006; HyperView Player 2001-2006; ® Process Manager™ 2003-2006; HyperWeb 2002-2004; Data Manager™ 2005-2006; Templex™ 19902006; Manufacturing Solutions ™ 2005-2006 All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
® ® ® ® ® ® ©

HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide
Starting and Configuring HyperMesh
Hardware and Operating Systems ......................................................................................1 Starting HyperMesh .............................................................................................................2 Starting HyperMesh Batch Version .....................................................................................5 Start-up Options ...................................................................................................................6 Configuring HyperMesh.......................................................................................................7 Configuration File Commands .............................................................................................9 Start-up Files ......................................................................................................................21 Specifying a Temporary File Directory ..............................................................................21

HyperMesh Database and Environment
HyperMesh Database Design............................................................................................22 Database Names ...............................................................................................................22 Using and Saving a Database...........................................................................................22 Nodes .................................................................................................................................22 Fixed Points .......................................................................................................................22 Free Points .........................................................................................................................22 Collectors ...........................................................................................................................23 Elements ............................................................................................................................27 Lines ...................................................................................................................................30 Surfaces and Faces...........................................................................................................32 Systems..............................................................................................................................33 Loads..................................................................................................................................33 Cards..................................................................................................................................33 Vectors ...............................................................................................................................33 Title.....................................................................................................................................34 HyperMesh Environment ...................................................................................................35 Pull-Down menus...............................................................................................................37 Graphics Area ....................................................................................................................39 Toolbar Area ......................................................................................................................40 Header Bar .........................................................................................................................44 Main Menu Area.................................................................................................................46 Page Menu .........................................................................................................................46
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide i

Tab Area.............................................................................................................................47 Model Browser ...................................................................................................................48 Include Browser .................................................................................................................57 Modules ..............................................................................................................................63 Loadsteps Browser............................................................................................................64 Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles ............................................................65 Panels ................................................................................................................................69 Sub-panels .........................................................................................................................70 Input Controls.....................................................................................................................71 File Browser .......................................................................................................................77 The Mouse .........................................................................................................................79 Rapid Menu ........................................................................................................................81 Keyboard ............................................................................................................................82 Secondary Menu ................................................................................................................86 Utility Menu ........................................................................................................................87 BOM comparison tool ........................................................................................................95 Quick TetraMesh..............................................................................................................112

User Profiles
User Profiles.....................................................................................................................127 HyperMesh User Profile...................................................................................................128

Using HyperMesh
Using HyperMesh ............................................................................................................128 Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database ..............................................................129 Picking Entities on the Screen .........................................................................................130 Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements .......................................................................132 Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu .....................................................................133 Viewing Models ................................................................................................................137 Using the disp (display) Panel .........................................................................................140 Setting View Options........................................................................................................142 Setting Tolerances ...........................................................................................................145 Setting Global Parameters...............................................................................................145 Importing and Exporting Data ..........................................................................................146 Printing Screen Images ...................................................................................................148 Using the Card Previewer................................................................................................150
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Building Models
General Process for Building Models ..............................................................................151 Creating Collectors ..........................................................................................................152 Reading Geometry...........................................................................................................153 Creating Geometry Data ..................................................................................................154 Temporary Nodes ............................................................................................................158 Picking Surfaces ..............................................................................................................158 Editing Surfaces ...............................................................................................................159 Associativity .....................................................................................................................161 Geometry Cleanup ...........................................................................................................162 Building Elements ............................................................................................................164 Checking Model Quality ...................................................................................................167 Applying Loads.................................................................................................................168 Creating Systems.............................................................................................................169

Automatic 2-D Mesh Generation
Automatic Mesh Generation ............................................................................................170 Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel.......................................................................172 Mesh Generation Algorithms ...........................................................................................173 Smoothing Algorithms......................................................................................................175 Element Biasing ...............................................................................................................176 Linked or Locked Edges ..................................................................................................179

Connectors
Connector Entity...............................................................................................................180 Connector Terminology ...................................................................................................181 Connector Definition ........................................................................................................185 Connector Realization......................................................................................................187 Connector Review............................................................................................................188 Connectors User Control Mode .......................................................................................188 Master Connectors File....................................................................................................189 Multiple Weld File Format ................................................................................................190 Import Templates .............................................................................................................191 FE Configuration File .......................................................................................................193 FE Definition Examples ...................................................................................................197

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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide iii

HyperMorph and Morphing Strategies
HyperMorph Strategies ....................................................................................................199 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing......................................................................201 Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains ..................................................220 Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................237 Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains ..................................................................263

Calculating Beam Properties
HyperBeam Module .........................................................................................................272 Example of the Three-Step Process................................................................................274 Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam ..............................................279 HyperBeam Environment.................................................................................................282 Section Browser...............................................................................................................283 Shell Section Graphics Pane...........................................................................................284 Results/Spreadsheet Pane..............................................................................................285 HyperBeam Menu Bar .....................................................................................................287 HyperBeam Toolbar .........................................................................................................294 Beam Cross Section Property Solver ..............................................................................296 Describing Cross Section Planes, Axes, and Elements..................................................297 Defining a Cross Section .................................................................................................298 Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties .................300 Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver .........................................................................301 Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers ................................................................303

HyperLaminate and Composites
HyperLaminate Module....................................................................................................304 HyperLaminate Environment ...........................................................................................305 HyperLaminate Menus .....................................................................................................306 HyperLaminate Toolbar ...................................................................................................308 Laminate Browser............................................................................................................309 Define/Edit Pane ..............................................................................................................313 Review Pane ....................................................................................................................323

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Finite Difference Module
Finite Difference Module ..................................................................................................324 Creating a Finite Difference Block...................................................................................324 Creating a Structured Mesh.............................................................................................325

Boundary Conditions
Loads on Geometry .........................................................................................................327 Terminology and Definitions ............................................................................................328 Application of Loads to Geometry ...................................................................................329 Exporting Loads ...............................................................................................................330 Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh ..............................................330 Distributed Load Mapper .................................................................................................331 Load an input file containing CFD analysis results .........................................................333 Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, or ANSYS input file format) ...............................................................................................................334 Select a data type and a mapping method......................................................................334 Set the scale factor ..........................................................................................................334 Set the mapping algorithm ...............................................................................................335 Mathematical Loading......................................................................................................336

Post-Processing and XY Plots
Post-Processing Analysis ................................................................................................338 HyperMesh Results Database.........................................................................................338 Specifying the Results File ..............................................................................................339 Creating Deformed Geometry Plots ................................................................................339 Creating Animations.........................................................................................................339 Creating Vector Plots .......................................................................................................340 Creating Contour Plots.....................................................................................................340 Creating Assigned Plots ..................................................................................................340 Adding Plot Identification .................................................................................................341 Inspecting the Results......................................................................................................341 XY Plotting .......................................................................................................................342 XY Plots Module...............................................................................................................343 Creating an XY Plot .........................................................................................................344 Modifying an XY Plot........................................................................................................344 Working with Multiple XY Plots ........................................................................................344
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HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide v

Modifying Multiple XY Plots .............................................................................................344 Creating Curves on XY Plots ...........................................................................................345 Modifying Curve Attributes...............................................................................................347 Displaying Selected Curves on Plots ..............................................................................347 Using the Curve Editor.....................................................................................................348

AutoDV
AutoDV Introduction .........................................................................................................351 Generation of Perturbation Vectors.................................................................................352 Manual Perturbation.........................................................................................................352 Polynomial Perturbation Vectors .....................................................................................353 Primary Domain Model ....................................................................................................353 Primary Domain Node Sets .............................................................................................354 Control Perturbations .......................................................................................................355 Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets ....................................................................357 Harmonic Perturbation Vectors .......................................................................................359 Generation of Variable Loads ..........................................................................................361 Running AutoDV Stand-alone .........................................................................................363

H3D Writer
Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh ...........................................................................365 H3D FAQ's .......................................................................................................................369

Free Body Diagrams
Free Body Diagrams........................................................................................................370 FBD Set Manager ............................................................................................................371 FBD Displacements .........................................................................................................375 FBD Forces ......................................................................................................................378 FBD Cross-section manager ...........................................................................................381 FBD Resultant Force and Moment ..................................................................................383 FBD Results Manager......................................................................................................386 FBD Export Manager .......................................................................................................388 FBD Grid Point Force Balance ........................................................................................390

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The following hardware platforms are currently supported: • • • • • • • Pentium-based PC or compatible running Windows WIN NT 4. IBM running AIX 4. LINUX running RH 7. SUN workstations running Solaris 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. depending on their level of sophistication.3 or RH 8.0. or 5.Hardware and Operating Systems HyperMesh is not tied to a specific set of computer hardware or operating system and presents the same appearance on all platforms. Notes for PC Users If you are running Windows NT (depending on model size or processor speed) you may wish to turn the full drag option off. For more specific information concerning your hardware/software configuration. Some platforms may have limitations or extensions. This option is found in the Desktop icon in the Control Panel group. In general.23.13 m. 5.0 User’s Guide 1 .5. or information concerning future platforms. WIN 2000/XP.11 m and IRIX 6. However. please contact your HyperMesh sales representative.0 or 11.3.11. such as drawing a line on the screen. HP-PARISC (HPUX) running 11.1. which prevents HyperMesh from redrawing immediately when a destructive windowing operation is performed. Most of the HyperMesh source code is independent and can be compiled on various systems. HP-ITANIUM (HPUX_IA32) running 11. needs to be "ported" to each hardware platform on which HyperMesh runs.8.3.5. HyperMesh has an identical appearance and behavior on all platforms.0. Silicon Graphics family of workstations running IRIX 6. All UNIX ports are built around OpenGL. a small portion of source code that controls the graphically oriented operations.2.

enter the full path of the HyperMesh script (e. Or Create an alias for HyperMesh in the user . Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . to have HyperMesh start and run according to the standards and preferences of your particular work site. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use.. 2 HyperMesh 8. see Start-up Files. see Configuring HyperMesh.cfg. <altair_home>/altair/scripts/hm) and press the ENTER key. and Windows XP platforms. add the following line in the .cshrc file in the user home directory. Windows 2000.0/altair/script/hm’ Once an alias is created.alias or .Starting HyperMesh This section explains how to start HyperMesh on UNIX. Note: For more information about creating and using start-up files. At the operating system prompt.g. You can create a start-up file or alter the HyperMesh configuration file. enter hm at the command prompt to invoke HyperMesh. For example.cfg configuration file.alias or .cshrc file: alias hm ‘/homes/applications/hm8. hm. To start HyperMesh: 1. Starting HyperMesh in UNIX This section contains the instructions and optional arguments for starting HyperMesh on a UNIX workstation. 2. For more information about the hm.

The quit button is located on the upper right-hand corner of the panel area on any of the main menu pages. The default working directory specified by the HyperMesh icon is the Windows default My Documents directory. Since HyperMesh creates user files. or Click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. By default. From the Start menu. User profiles affect the HyperMesh layout as well as features such as element quality checks. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 3 . To exit HyperMesh. From the Altair HyperWorks group: select HyperMesh. Uncheck always show at startup to prevent this window from opening each time you load HyperMesh. 4. HyperMesh starts and the main menu is displayed on the screen. a window opens prompting you to choose a user profile. Note: See Startup Options for more information about the startup arguments you can use. 5. Choose the desired user profile and then click OK. 2. you may wish to change this directory. 3. click Start and choose Programs. The user profiles window is also accessible from the view pull-down menu. an Altair HyperWorks group is created in Programs on the Start menu. click quit. To start HyperMesh: 1.Starting HyperMesh on PC During installation.

command. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. Select the Shortcut tab. enter the name and path of the directory in which you want to run HyperMesh. Your user files. The path to the HyperMesh executable displays after Target:. Click Apply. 3. Select Properties. 4 HyperMesh 8. Select Properties. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. 3. or Locate and right-click the HyperMesh executable file in the altair/hm/bin directory. 5. Select the Shortcut tab.cmf and hmmenu. 4. 2. enter -nocommand after the HyperMesh path. For example.set. 4. are created in this directory. Right -click the HyperMesh icon on the desktop. if you do not want HyperMesh to write a command file. To change/use startup options: 1. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .To change the working directory: 1. Append the startup options to the path listed in Target:. After Start in:.

2. To start HyperMesh batch version on PC: 1. Click Apply. fit. 4. Select Properties. postscript.Starting HyperMesh Batch Version HyperMesh batch version (hmbatch) allows you to invoke HyperMesh in batch mode at the command line and run a command file. plot.cmf and press ENTER. Select the programs tab. to this path. HyperMesh commands that require display (e. 5. Note: See Start-up Options for more information about the start-up arguments you can use. command. –ccommand. 3. After Cmd line:.) are ignored.0 User’s Guide 5 .g.cmf contains the HyperMesh commands to be executed. Right -click on the hmbatch icon on the desktop. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. type hmbatch –ccommand. Go to the directory from which you want to run HyperMesh. Append the option. Locate and right-click on the hmbatch(. the path to the hmbatch executable is displayed. create. Since this batch version does not have graphical display. hmbatch terminates when it reaches the end of the command file or when it encounters *quit( ) in the command file.cmf. 6. At the operating system prompt. etc.com) executable file in the /hm/bin directory. 2. To start HyperMesh batch version on UNIX: 1.

hm -c<filename> -continue Read the HyperMesh file.res suffix. Forces HyperMesh to run in the foreground. pre-set export paths. Plays back the mouse commands in the mouse. Write the mouse commands to a mouse. Automatically load the specified HyperMesh binary file. res (-r alone specifies the file fl. Use the results file. change screen resolutions. The format of the command is: hm [ -version ] [-h] [-m] where: -version -h -m Display the current version. nodes are not drawn. Allows Templex within command files. -e<filename> <filename> -mmouse. Do not prompt via a pop-up box.set file to replace the installed hmmenu. Otherwise.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .cmf file. These options include: fl.Start-up Options You can enter arguments after the hm command that allow you to specify which command file to run. or the specified file. Always continue on error when processing a command file.res). Automatically run the specified command file. Prevents HyperMesh from creating or writing to the command. fl. Allows you to write a master hmmenu.msf file. -uAnsys to start HyperMesh under the Ansys user profile. Causes HyperMesh to draw nodes to the PostScript file as circles. or to print messages. Sets the name of the HyperMesh results file database to either the input filename with a .hm. Opens the application in a window of the specified width and height in pixels (PC only). Print this message. Start HyperMesh under a specific user profile: for example. Causes HyperMesh to pause on the title splash screen until you press a key on the keyboard. Set the text input field in the export panel to the specified file. Sets the global template file to the specified file.msf file Other options that can be specified after the start-up command allow you to specify model or results files or run command or mouse files.set.msf -nobg -nocommand -psdhm -r[filename] -rres -s<width><height> -templex -t<filename> -titlepause -u<profile> -writemastermenu 6 HyperMesh 8.

or all of the commands may be on one line.cfg file to save your preferences.cfg. If the hm.cfg file exists in multiple directories. Each of the hm. The hm. The following commands are an example of a partial hm. and titlestitlefont_configuration_command>Config fonts Specify the default legend colorlegendcolorfile_configuration_command>Config Specify a color to use for entities with no resultsnoresultcolor_configuration_command>Config Change cursor sizebigcursors_configuration_command>Config Turn element and geom handlesnopickhandles_configuration_command>Config off by default Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending PostScript files to a PostScript printerpostcopy_configuration_command>Config Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending black and white PostScript filespostcopyblackandwhite_configuration_command>Config to a PostScript printer • • • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file controls certain aspects of how HyperMesh runs at your particular site.0 User’s Guide 7 . They may begin in any column. HyperMesh uses the following order of precedence: PC customization path current (local) directory installation directory UNIX current (local) directory home directory installation directory All running copies of HyperMesh must be restarted before any changes to the hm. with each command occupying one line. The commands in the hm. which is read on start-up and is located in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/ directory. You can edit the commands in the hm. menumenufont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file: *menufont(2) *titlefont(3) *graphicfont(1) Note: HyperMesh accesses the configuration file.Configuring HyperMesh HyperMesh has a default configuration file named hm. hm.cfg file allow you to: • • • • • Specify an absolute pointing deviceabsolutepointer_configuration_command>Config Enable buttonbuttons_configuration_command>Config and dialdials_configuration_command>Config input Specify default translatorsfeinput_default_configuration_command>Config and templatesfeoutput_default_configuration_command>Config Specify the default solversregistersolver_configuration_command>Config Specify default graphicsgraphicfont_configuration_command>Config.cfg file are acknowledged. only on start -up. The commands are not sensitive to location in the file. A command can be turned into a comment by removing the asterisk (*) preceding the command.cfg.cfg commands begins with an asterisk and is followed by a set of parentheses that enclose a variable number of arguments.

set file Cadreader.• • • • • • • • • • • • • Note: Indicate to HyperMesh the method for sending ASCII files to a PostScript printerprintfile_configuration_command>Config Specify how to create a PostScript file of the screenpostfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Specify how to create a bitmap file of the screenscreenfile_configuration_command>Config that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device Indicate to HyperMesh the method for creating bitmap files Set reverse video when your printer cannot be set to reverse black and white.tcl. called hmsettings.cfg file Any printer settings (which may also exist in hm. HyperMesh creates this file automatically when upon exiting the program.mac file hmmenu.cfg). Multiple paths can be specified as variable values within this variable name. model or include browser).tcl should not be edited and its format will change between releases.g. deleting this file can restore your HyperMesh settings to the default state if you encounter problems within the HyperMesh user interface that you cannot rectify by any other means. However.cfg file userpage. Hmsettings. hmcustom. HyperMesh uses this file to record various GUI settings for each user. Customization paths You can store configuration files in a file path other than the ones to which they are installed by default. key bindings. This prevents them from being overwritten when you install a new HyperWorks update. tabs which are visible (e. iges.ini.ini. recent files imported and recent files loaded. or ug. Set the screen size Specify the colormap version Set the default graphics simplification mode Tells HyperMesh to load the 3D Writer Specify the input translator and component format Specifies which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system Display the Utility menu when HyperMesh starts Include intermediate (not just the final choice) rotation commands There is another configuration file stored in "My Documents" on the Windows platform and in ~/.tcl file 8 HyperMesh 8. such as tab locations (left/right/both/none). administrators must set up an environment variable called HW_CONFIG_PATH to specify the path.cfg file hmexec file feconfig.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in order to use configuration files stored in a different file path.ini Fatigue.ini files. However.cfg file hyperlaminate. The configuration files which can be used in conjunction with customization paths are: hm. such as catia.altair on Unix and Linux.

This command allows you to force the menu system to use a bold font. under Windows. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *boldmenufont(state) state 1 = bold 0 = use current value Comments The menu system in HyperMesh. (An absolute pointer usually has six buttons. *boldmenufont () Description Syntax To force the menu font to bold on windows.0 User’s Guide 9 .Configuration File Commands The following is a list of the configuration commands that you can use to control how HyperMesh runs at your particular site: *absolutepointer() Use this command if you have a digitizing tablet or any other type of absolute pointing device. uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text.) *bigcursors() Informs HyperMesh that pointing cursors should be double-sized when they are displayed on the screen. You can also change the cursor size by selecting large or standard under cursor size: on the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.

7397916e005. if the *dials() command is not added to the configuration file.-5.000673180986. A value of 1 (default) to the function aligns the Y-axis of the coordinate system in the direction of FE and a value of 0 defines Xaxis and a value 2 defines Z-axis. HyperMesh does not respond to button input. there may be a delay in the operation while the display list is being built.999966514) *quatrotate(0.0.999937705) *quatrotate(-0.999985423) 10 HyperMesh 8.0. In this case. See *CE_FE_SetDetailsandRealize() for information on creating a coordinate system during realization.0.0. Immediate mode results in a faster initial response time. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu.00529684395. *dials() This command informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with dials that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode.0.0047803938.000802068982.*buttons() Informs HyperMesh that your system is equipped with buttons that are used to perform viewing rotations or translations in 3-D mode. HyperMesh does not respond to dial input.00170778765. In this case.0.00785649346.0.00994070323. if the *buttons() command is not added to the configuration file.0. *dynamicrotatemode() Sets mode for output of intermediate rotation commands. This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. When mode is set to 1.00228960797. Syntax *controlkeyviewmode(mode) mode Note: 0 = immediate mode 1 = use display listing (default) When display listing is used. Syntax Arguments Example *dynamicrotatemode(mode) mode Set to 1 or 0. but a lower frame rate (slower). *controlkeyviewmode() Specify whether display listing should be done during control key assisted viewing. Dynamic rotations and translations are always available in the menu (See *buttons()). but the operation will have a higher frame rate (faster).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command is currently used only by the Silicon Graphics and HP 700 family of workstations. the following output is generated: *dynamicviewbegin() *quatrotate(-0. *ce_fe_orientaxis() This command is called from the HyperMesh configuration file to specify the axis of the system that needs to be aligned in the direction of FE during connector realization.

299006.00100703597.575689.756111.0. The specification contains two parts separated with a '\'. 0.612440.9 99998898) *quatrotate(-0. or a symbolic name for the translator. 0.621393) 5. -8. 0 = off.964252. 8.000000. 0. the Utility menu is displayed.213868.000395387048.0.000000. You can display or hide the utility menu from within HyperMesh by selecting Utility Menu from the View pull-down menu.000230328525. the following output is generated: *viewset(-0. -0.0.623743.722177.000000. 0.000327769044.657815.00106667981.0.0. *feinputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which translator in the import/CUSTOM sub-panel is the default. -3. intermediate *quadrotate() rotation commands are output to the command file. 1 = on (default). The symbolic name for each translator is listed below: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.703590. Comments 0.0. *enablemacromenu() This specifies whether or not the macro Utility Menu should display when the program loads. 0. only the finial position is output. reducing the size of the command file. 0.000000. When the mode is set to 1. -3. By default. Otherwise.485656.886445. Syntax *feinputdefault(filename) Arguments entity_type The name of any file found in the feinput directory. 0.999996393) *dynamicviewend() When mode is set to 0.*quatrotate(0.583235. The first part is the type of translator and the second part is a specific version of the translator.761037. 0. -0.030465.0 User’s Guide 11 .00263644785. Comments A symbolic name begins with a '#' character followed by the specification of the translator. 1. 0. 2.

This command requires one argument which can be set to the name of any file found in the template/feoutput directory. 12 HyperMesh 8.FE: #abaqus\abaqus #ansys\ansys #cmold\cmold #moldflow\moldflow #nastran\nastran #patran\patran #marc\marc #optistruct\optistruct #ls-dyna\dynakey #ls-dyna\\dynaseq #pamcrash\pamcrash #ideas\ideas #autodv\autodv #stl\stl #hmascii\hmascii GEOM: #catia\catia #iges\iges #ug\ug_16 #ug\ug_15 #stl\stl #vdafs\vdafs #hmascii\hmascii WELD: #spotweld\spotweld *feoutputdefault() Informs HyperMesh which template is the default.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The font size may also be changed during a HyperMesh session using the menu config sub-panel in the options panel. Syntax Note: *forceoldmenufonts() The menu system in HyperMesh.*forceoldmenufonts () To force the menu font to the old style. Syntax *graphicengine(mode) mode 0 = standard graphics 1 = performance graphics *graphicfont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display numbers. The default simplification mode for performance graphics can also be set in the graphics subpanel in the options panel. style is set using the simplification style switch and curComp is set using the simplify current comp check box. *graphicsimplificationmode() Sets the default simplification mode for performance graphics. This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). uses the font that is specified for the desktop icon text. This command allows you to force the menu system to use the historical fonts. and legends in the graphics area. style. style and curComp are not required. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option can also be set using the engine: toggle in the graphics sub-panel of the options panel. *graphicengine() Sets the default graphics mode. under Windows. where: mode is set using view acceleration and when view acceleration is set to automatic or Ctrl-Shift. element handles.0 User’s Guide 13 . curComp) mode 0 = none 1 = automatic (default) 2 = Ctrl-Shift 0 1 2 3 4 5 = no simplification = feature lines (default) = bounding box = node cloud = element centroid = simplified shading style curComp 0 = do not simplify current component (default) 1 = simplify current component Note: If mode = 0. Syntax *graphicsimplificationmode(mode.

B). however.80). This improves graphic performance. Pick handles will be turned off when HyperMesh is started and turned off whenever a new file is loaded. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. For example. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *postcopy() command to the operating system. The command requires one parameter. The default gray color values are *noresultcolor(80. a character string closed in double quotes "". black (0. The color assigned to these no result entities is specified in the hm. For testing purposes. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. Syntax *legendsetbordercolor(color) Comments *menufont() Informs HyperMesh which size font should be used to display the menu. This command requires one argument that can be set to the name of any file found in the <install_directory>/hm/colors directory.0). then you would use *postcopy("postprt junk"). or khaki (210. where R.G. G. and B are the intensity values for Red. Green and Blue. The complete *postcopy() command of the above example is *postfile("postprt *filename").128). You can copy this file into your home directory and customize many of the default settings. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. if this command is specified. The only information unknown at startup is the name of the file. *nopickhandles() Informs HyperMesh that you wish to have element and geometry pick handles off by default. The color must be between 1 and 64. The font size may also be changed in the menu config sub-panel in the options panel.80. Other colors include: dark blue (0. Syntax legendcolorfile(file) *legendsetbordercolor() Allows you to set the border color. The default color is specified with *noresultcolor(R. 0-D elements (such as contact slave elements and mass elements) cannot be seen easily.255). This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . *postcopy() Informs HyperMesh how to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. You can experiment with the values in the color sub-panel of the options panel. *noresultcolor() Elements or nodes for which no results were found are assigned a color (default = gray) to distinguish them from an actual 0 result. if you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command postprt junk. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename.0. *postcopy() is invoked when you press CTRL-F3. This command links the PostScript capability of HyperMesh and allows plots of the currently displayed screen to be printed directly from HyperMesh.*legendcolorfile() Informs HyperMesh which legend color file should be the default.cfg file.0. The string is sent to the operating system and should be the standard command which you would use to send a PostScript file to a PostScript capable printer. inclusively 14 HyperMesh 8. white (255.175.100). To circumvent this. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. The element and geometry pick handles can be set in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel.255.

Syntax Argument *rapidmenus(mode) mode 0 1 Comments Disable rapid menus. it replaces the characters *filename with the appropriate name. *postcopyblackandwhite() is invoked when you press CTRL-F5. Enable rapid menus. In general. HyperMesh provides a way to access the name of the file when printing. By default.g. the string parameter required is set to a zero length string. O."Hyper3D") UNIX Users: *register3dwriter({bindir+"/hm3dwriter3. *printfile() is invoked in the summary panel on the Post page./non-HyperMesh) tasks. This command requires one parameter. Note that the file name junk was replaced with the characters *filename. *printfile() Informs HyperMesh how to send an ASCII file to a printer. you may use a script file in UNIX or a batch file in DOS with the name of the file as a parameter to perform printing. a character string closed in double quotes. rapid menu functionality is enabled. The string provided is sent to the operating system and should be the command which you normally use to send a file to a printer. For testing purposes. The complete *printfile() command of the above example is *printfile("print_it *filename"). "". Disabling it may be desirable if you use the middle mouse button for other (e. This command is only used in the command file. use *printfile("print_it junk").S. *postfile() Sends the currently displayed screen to a PostScript file. Before sending the string parameter provided in the *printfile() command to the operating system. Provided for consistency with the *screenfile() and *screencopy() commands. To circumvent this.0 User’s Guide 15 . For testing purposes. If your system requires several commands to send a file to the printer. *rapidmenus() The rapid menu functionality for the middle mouse button may be turned off with this command. but allows you to use a different command to send a black and white PostScript file to a printer. PC Users: *register3dwriter({bin_dir+"/hm3dwriter31. "Hyper3D") Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. *register3dwriter() Tells HyperMesh to activate the H3D writer."Hyper3Dwrite".*postcopyblackandwhite() Identical to the *postcopy() command.1"}.dll"}. The only information unknown at start-up is the name of the file."Hyper3Dwrite". If you want to send a file named junk to the printer using the command print_it junk.

A character string that is of type file or value. Reverse video can also be set in the postscript sub-panel of the options panel."infile:input file". The solver field can be of type value or file. "file:output") Arguments This command creates a solver panel with four user-input fields. contact your systems administrator. *screencopy() Tells HyperMesh how to create a temporary bitmap file of the screen and send it to a hard copy device. *reversevideo() Informs HyperMesh that before the strings provided as parameters in the *screencopy() and *screenfile() commands are sent to the operating system.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . one for the solver executable. Each character string represents an input field. one for the input file name.) *memory in MB is replaced by the value. depending on the expected input. A character string that is passed to the operating system to invoke the solver."value:options") solver The name that you want to appear on the toggle in the solver panel. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness. and one for the output file name. A maximum of six fields are allowed per solver. *input is replaced by the input file (the extension is always . "value:memory in MB".sdp is created by HyperMesh. which is a value. one for the memory in MB. The third parameter undergoes the substitution with the user-input values. This command takes several arguments: Syntax *registersolver({solver}. Functionally. *solver is replaced by the solver executable name.out".*registersolver() Informs HyperMesh which solvers are available and how to invoke them. The number of strings is identical to the substitutable fields in the third argument.fem *memory in MB. For more information on spooling bitmapped files directly to the printer."outfile:output file". a site-specific operating system utility is called to create and spool the image to the printing device. a file is created but not spooled to the print device (the CTRL-F1 and CTRL-F2 keys function identically) and you must click the active HyperMesh window to trigger the screen capture. > *output. the colors representing black and white should be reversed. after substituting the user-input parameters. *output is replaced with the user-selected output file (the extension for output file is always ."{home}\ {solver}". This command is necessary only if the hard copy device on your system is not reverse video capable. The status bar indicates when the screen grab is complete. 16 HyperMesh 8. By default. Example *registersolver(OPTISTRUCT. "*solver *input. On UNIX platforms.fem. The name of the solver executable file. optistruct."*solver *input file *output file *options".out). "file:input". it is very similar to the *printfile() command. This command allows you to set up and customize the solver panel in HyperMesh. A file named sliden.

In such cases. Remember that the command parameters represent height and width respectively.8. Functionally. The second parameter is the vertical (y) dimension of the screen. blue) index red green blue Specifies the color location. height. *screensize(1200. On UNIX platforms. although the look of HyperMesh doesn’t change. Syntax *setcolor(index. the length/width ratio of the objects may be distorted.0 User’s Guide 17 . HyperMesh generates a *. The name of the file can be accessed with the characters *filename. (0 through 255) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. if your desktop runs at a resolution of 1920 x 1200 pixels (an aspect ratio of 1.sdf is created by HyperMesh. The units used are not important but must be consistent. A message on the status bar indicates when the screen capture is complete. red. (0 through 255) The color’s blue component. it is very similar to the *printfile() command. thus. follow the same method as described above and measure the vertical dimension of the screen. green.30) is implemented. change the two values to any numbers that have the same aspect ratio of the screen resolution that you use. The command requires two parameters in real format separated by a comma. The *screensize() option changes the aspect ratio of the images drawn in the graphics area. contact your system administrator.75. where n is an incremental number provided for file name uniqueness.bmp file that can be read into wordprocessing programs. width). On the PC. To determine this value. height). Circles may look like ovals. the proportions of the objects is corrected. you must select the HyperMesh window to indicate which window to capture. For more information about creating bitmap screen images.g. The first parameter is the horizontal (x) dimension of the screen. When *screensize(14. *screensize() Informs HyperMesh of the physical size of your monitor. measure the horizontal dimension of the usable portion of the screen excluding any borders in the default window that HyperMesh creates (or the entire screen if your system does not use windows). a bitmap file is generated using the utility defined in the *screenfile() function (typically xwd) and output to a unique file using the same process as above. while screen resolutions are typically listed width by height.*screenfile() Informs HyperMesh how to create a bitmap file of the screen that can be viewed later or sent to a hard copy device (such as a printer). After you press CTRL-F2. Note: in some cases. The numbers are physical measurements of the display area of the screen (width. even after specifying the screen measurements the display can still appear distorted. A file named sliden. it’s important to remember to use the correct order for the command (e. To find this value. (1 through 64) The color’s red component. If you use a wide aspect ratio screen. For example. (0 through 255) The color’s green component.6). *setcolor() Set a colormap entry for each of the entity colors.1920) should allow HyperMesh to render undistorted images.

Symbols mean that everything encapsulated between the two symbols is displayed only if the element uses a section ID. 1. Currently. *setlightsource() Set direction of the global light source. Place the section ID number here. Y axis location. : ‘ / ? . This command may be used in either the hm.0. while the second parameter specifies the format you want your components to follow when importing them to HyperMesh. 18 HyperMesh 8. spaces.*setcomponentformat() The first parameter of this command specifies which feinput translator you would like to use. Example: *setcomponentformat(ansys. Here are some examples of what the component above will show: TYPE3-MAT2 -REAL2-ESYS2 TYPE1-MAT1 -REAL1-ESYS0 TYPE2-MAT2 -REAL3-SECID1-ESYS0 The following characters can be used to customize the name of the components: A-Z. vertical direction of screen. a-z. . and the following: ‘ ~ ! @ # $ % ^ & * .cfg file or from a command file. Place the real number here. Syntax *setlightsource(x. "TYPE%t-MAT%m-REAL%r<-SECID%s>-ESYS%e") %t %m %r % <> %e Place the type number here.0.( ) _ = + \ | [ ] } . z) x y z Comments X axis location. which represents lighting the model as you are looking at it.0. Place the material number here. horizontal direction of screen. The default setting is 0. 0-9. only the ANSYS feinput translator supports this command. Place the element coordinate system number here. y. in/out of screen. Z axis location.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 0.

Raising or decreasing shading quality by 1 roughly doubles or halves the quality.0. this usually occurs in models that are large in one direction. or from a command file.7.0) The green component of the reflected light (range 0.128) Plastic *setspecularity(0.0. shininess) red green blue The red component of the reflected light (range 0. Specular reflection from an object produces highlights. *setspecularity() Set the global specular highlight values for performance graphics mode.0.0) The blue component of the reflected light (range 0.cfg file (where N is a number between 1 and 10. however. green.5. Syntax *setperformancenormalmode(mode) mode Comments 0 = flat normals (default) 1 = smooth normals This command can only be used in the configuration file.0 – 1. Syntax *setspecularity(red. Note. The amount of specular reflection seen depends on the location of the viewpoint.*setperformancenormalmode() Set the performance graphics normal mode. The higher the value.5.0.0.cfg file.0) The shininess value. *setspecularity(0. that N does not need to be an integer—decimal values are acceptable. Add or modify the *shadingquality(N) command in the hm. Example Settings may be used to simulate different materials: Glass *setspecularity(1.1.0 – 1.7. 5 is the default).1. blue. After altering this value you must restart HyperMesh to see the changes. the smaller and brighter the highlight (range 0 – 128) shininess Comments This command may be used in either the hm. but small in another direction.64) Lead *shadingquality() Shaded geometry visualization sometimes does not follow the actual geometry. It is brightest along direct angle of reflection.32) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.7.0.5.0 – 1.0.0 User’s Guide 19 .

20 HyperMesh 8. To assist you in determining the best X Lib font to assign to HyperMesh. This program. the configuration file should have the appropriate fonts for your system. characters in the name. A non-shared colormap can be used. Note that the font size may also be changed in the titles panel on the Post page. *xfontname() Informs HyperMesh which font should be used from the X Lib fonts available on your system. In general. the system colormap does not have 256 colors available. displays the possible X Lib font sets interactively. This string may contain wild card. The X version of HyperMesh requires a 256 color palette. or a similar one. This command requires two parameters. but may cause the rest of the system’s colors to change when the HyperMesh window is active and HyperMesh’s colors to change when the window is not active. This parameter may range from 1 to 4. The first parameter indicates which of the four HyperMesh fonts is being assigned. the *xfontname() command must be modified. On some platforms. if your system is unique or if HyperMesh warns about one of the default fonts. With a shared colormap. The second parameter is a string which locates the X Lib font which you want to assign to the HyperMesh font. *. some colors in HyperMesh may not be available and appear as black.*sharedcolormap() Informs HyperMesh which colormap method should be used in the X version. *titlefont() Informs HyperMesh which font size should be used to display titles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This command requires one parameter ranging from 1 to 4 where 1 is the smallest font available and 4 is the largest font available (default = 2). However. the X Lib utilities are usually distributed with a program called xfontsel.

Delete the command. Select the Environment tab.cmf before you run it. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. problems may arise if you later want to rerun the command. The directories searched include your customization path (if one is set up). To set the environment variable in UNIX: SETENV TMPDIR <directory path> To set the environment variable in Windows: 1. then the temporary files are created with an HM prefix in the referenced directory. if it exists. you can either not generate any entities in the start-up file. it generates the entities specified in the start-up file. Start-up files allow you to automatically define global parameters for the current session of HyperMesh. If you rerun the command. quit HyperMesh. 2.cmf file. double click the System folder. After you have generated all of the necessary commands.cmf to the file name particular to your system. Execute any task that you want the start-up file to automatically perform when HyperMesh opens.cmf file created during your HyperMesh session.. The file must be a HyperMesh command file and is named . If the environment variable is set.. HOME).cmf file when HyperMesh is started. Specifying a Temporary File Directory You can set the environment variable to control where temporary HyperMesh files are created. and the directory from which HyperMesh was invoked.hmexec on UNIX systems and hmexec on Windows systems. Click the TMP line under User variables for . When HyperMesh is invoked. To create a start-up file: 1. Although start-up files may contain any of the commands considered valid in a command file. the commands which were written when the start-up file was executed initially. 5. the directory where HyperMesh is installed. 2.cmf file. . or delete the start-up file commands in command. and then generates the same entities as specified by the command. Click OK. To avoid this problem. including those generated by your start-up file. your home directory (where your home directory is assumed to be specified in the environment variable. 5. All commands executed by the HyperMesh command processor are written to the command file command. Edit the text after Value: to specify the correct path to the directory in which you want temporary files created. 4.0 User’s Guide 21 . 4.hmexec or hmexec. On the Control panel. be aware that if you create entities in the start-up file. 3. it looks for this file and then processes the commands within the file.cmf. Start HyperMesh. 3. Rename command.Start-up Files HyperMesh allows you to create a start-up file that can be used to either execute a series of commands or to define global parameters.

Nodes The node is the most basic finite element entity. Nodes contain a pointer to a surface and are therefore associated to a surface. Fixed points are displayed in the same color as the surface to which they belong. A fixed point is associated with a surface and is labeled with a small "o". all the changes that you have made during your work session are lost. All HyperMesh entities. Nodes represent physical positions on the structure being modeled and are used by the element entity to define the location and shape of the element. HyperMesh prompts you for confirmation before you exit. HyperMesh automatically deletes from the database unused nodes and any loads that were attached to the unused nodes. Note: See Database Names for more information about naming conventions. or are referenced by a card image. This allows you to select nodes and elements by surface. vector.HyperMesh Database Design A HyperMesh database stores information about many different entity types. and systems. This convention allows you to determine easily which of the files in a directory are HyperMesh databases. However. Fixed Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. Using and Saving a Database While you work on a model. Nodes are considered "used" if they are part of an element. There are several types of collectors and each collector stores the model data relative to its type. If you exit HyperMesh without saving the current database.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . including nodes. HyperMesh entities include: Database Names There are no restrictions placed on HyperMesh database names other than those imposed by the operating system.hm for all HyperMesh binary databases. Vertices along the edges of a surface are always marked by fixed points. The automesher always places nodes at fixed points. Free points are not associated with a surface and are labeled with a small "x." 22 HyperMesh 8. lines. Free Points A point is a zero-dimensional geometry entity. See Using and Saving a Database for more information about saving HyperMesh files. loads. elements. are organized within collectors. points. The original database does not change until you save the model. HyperMesh copies the database into system memory. if the current database has been modified but not saved. at Altair we use the extension . Fixed points may appear anywhere on a surface. or group.

You can use the collectors panel to modify the attributes of the auto1 component and the rename panel to change the name. for those entities. If you have not created a component first. All the elements in a component collector are assigned the same properties and materials except when the elements have a property reference. HyperMesh automatically creates a component. In this case. This restricted access lets HyperMesh translate special collections of entities as a unit and allows it to support advanced features of analysis codes. Component Collectors Components are collectors that contain element. Note: Collector names are limited to 160 characters. Configurations 1-4 are created in the interfaces panel. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.0 User’s Guide 23 . All entities within HyperMesh must belong to a collector. This allows you to organize geometry data into units that can be translated. line. and surfaces cannot exist unless a component collector exists. Operations performed on a component affect all the elements. Group Collectors Groups are collectors that are restricted to certain types of elements. an element cannot exist in two different collectors. Configuration 5 is created in the rigid wall panel. assigned colors. and surface data. rotated. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and surfaces that belong to the component. Note: Use the display panel to control the screen display of the collectors in your model. elements. or deleted. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information in the header bar. This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. Lines. Entities can belong to only one collector. Component collectors also retain property and material information about the entities that belong to it. for example. Collectors can be modified and the entities within them can be reorganized. HyperMesh automatically creates a collector for new entities if you do not create a collector first.Collectors A collector gathers related data and allows you to handle the data as one unit. see the organize panel. auto1. For more information about reorganizing collectors. lines. the elements are assigned properties from the property which they reference.

If a model contains any non-rigid elements. you can select and display all the components that belong to it by selecting the assembly. Block collectors contain information relating to a finite difference block.Assembly Collectors Assemblies are collectors that contain several components organized into a single logical unit. You can set a component or property to the correct material collector by entering the collector name after material =. Properties for all other element types. A curve is referenced by selecting the plot collector. Curve collectors contain information about the curves of an xy plot. Material Material collectors contain information about the materials in a HyperMesh model. you can assign the specified properties to new 1-D elements by entering the collector name after property = when you create or update the elements. One plot collector is created for each plot in the database. After an assembly is created. then the model should have at least one material collector. Operations performed on an assembly do not affect the components in the assembly. Plot Curve Block 24 HyperMesh 8. 2-D or 3-D. Entity Information Collectors These collectors maintain information about the entities assigned to them: Property Property collectors contain property information about 1-D elements and are required only when a model contains one or more of the following elements: bar2 bar3 gap joint masses rod spring After you create a property collector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the components in the assembly are not deleted. A plot collector contains information associated with an xy plot. including its walls and cells. are assigned by the component to which the elements belong. if you delete an assembly. Plot collectors contain pointers to curve collectors. See the Finite Difference Module section for more information. For example. Components can belong to more than one assembly. This information includes the name and color of the curve and the line style used to display the curve.

which allows you to access a group of systems as a unit. Note: A load cannot exist unless a load collector exists. and mbjoints entities. Provide the rigid body reference for ellipsoids. elements. a load collector contains loads that are to be applied at the same time. Vector Collectors Vector collectors allow you to organize vectors.0 User’s Guide 25 . Typically. Sets Collectors Set collectors contain lists of entity IDs. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. then HyperMesh creates a collector called auto1. or materials. and planes. Output Blocks Some solvers allow you to request output results for specific nodes or elements. A system can belong to only one system collector. The output blocks entity is used to store these nodes. which can be composed of specified elements. components. Multibody Collectors Setting collector type to multibodies in the collectors panel provides functionality for the creation and modification of multibody collectors. The method by which loads are organized may depend on the analysis code that is used to solve the problem. Hold and define rigid body properties for multi-body analysis. nodes. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of loads. simulating a system loading condition. groups. Note: If no collector has been created prior to the creation of vectors. A load can belong to only one load collector. then HyperMesh creates one called auto1. the set of load collectors represents a system loading condition. Load Collectors Load collectors allow you to organize loads. Load Steps The load steps entity allows you to select a set of load collectors. If no collector has been created prior to the creation of systems. mbplanes. which allows you to access them as a unit. systems. A system collector can hold any number of systems. or components (each set can contain only one type of entity).System Collectors System collectors allow you to organize local coordinate systems. Typically. A vector collector can hold any number of vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: A system cannot exist unless a system collector exists. Multibody collectors serve multiple purposes: • • • Organizing HyperMesh’s ellipsoids. cylinders. Additional information that can be included in sets are the name of the set and the type of entity contained within the set.

Change. There are three ways to define the body’s orientation. click on the edit button under the N1 selection box to bring up x=. To modify the name of a multibody collector. body system assigns a copy of the local coordinate system assigned to the current multibody collector specified in the global panel. 26 HyperMesh 8. and the body’s local coordinate system. creation method: assigns the multibody type specified in the card image= field. The N1 box contains the same functionality as the N1 selection buttons found elsewhere in HyperMesh. center of gravity: provides an N1 node/geometry selection box to define the x. body local system: defines the body local coordinate system of the created body by assigning a local coordinate system entity to the multibody collector. use system assigns the selected system to the created body. Update a Multibody Collector The update sub-panel is provided to modify the body’s local coordinate system and center of gravity. create provides four data blocks for defining: the collector’s name. Review. If only surfaces or lines are available for selection.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . click and hold left mouse button in the model window until the cursor becomes a square. The name= text field is provided for specifying a name for the multibody collector being created and for reviewing the names of already existing multibodies. To define a center of gravity location. duplicate system ensures a unique coordinate system is assigned to the created body by creating a duplicate of the selected coordinate system and assigning this duplicated coordinate system to the created body. drag the cursor over geometry to select it. Note: The element handles option in the modeling sub-panel (options panel) allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. change.Create a Multibody Collector The create sub-panel is used for creating multibody collectors. center of gravity. The same fields and options available in the create sub-panel are also available in the update subpanel. and z= entry fields. The types of multibody collectors available are dependent on the loaded solver interface specified as a template file in the global panel. y=. card image type. For an alternative method to define the center of gravity. Define. location of the center of gravity. Using or not using a card image has no bearing on how multibody collectors behave within HyperMesh and only effect data being exported. Setting creation method: to no card image specifies that a multibody collector type is to be assigned at the time of creation but one can be assigned later in the card image sub-panel. select a node on in the model window. The multibody types available are based on the template loaded in the global panel. and z. The most common type of multibody collector is a "rigid body". review and reset the multibody collector type. release the mouse button. y. which is access through the card panel after the multibody collector has been created. Moments of inertia and other rigid body properties are defined in the multibody collector’s card image. click anywhere on the geometry to define a location. and Reset a Multibody Collector The card image sub-panel is used to define. Setting creation method: to same as assigns a copy of the card image of another multibody collector to the created collector. the rename panel is available in the far left column of every HyperMesh page. The name= field supports names up to 160 characters in length.

If a model uses only the basic element types. hex) of the element.0 User’s Guide 27 . the model is not considered generic and does not transfer between analysis codes.e. The element configuration tells HyperMesh how to draw. The element type allows you to define multiple analysis elements for each HyperMesh element. Element configurations include: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Elements Each element entity performs a specific task to facilitate a controlled and complete interface between HyperMesh and the analysis codes.. quads. i.. In modeling situations where specific analysis codes are used because of their unique capabilities. and work with the element. store. trias. HyperMesh can transfer the model to several different analysis codes.e. Element Configuration The element configuration defines the physical geometry (i. Each element has two associated variables: an element configuration and an element type. quad. and rigids.

refer to Template Design. offsets. The template file HyperMesh uses to write the analysis deck recognizes the different element types and outputs them as configured. 8-noded brick solid element (configuration 208).) 4-noded master interface element (configuration 124). and pin flags (configuration 63). if an analysis code has two different quad elements and you wish to use both in a model. or orientation node. (Must be Type 1. Examples of different types of quads within ABAQUS are S4R and S4R5. which allows the template. or output translator. to distinguish between the different types. 3-noded bar element with property reference.Element Type Defines the category of the element.) 15-noded wedge solid element (configuration 215). local vector. or orientation node. 3-noded master interface element (configuration 123). 2-. 6-noded wedge solid element (configuration 206). The type of the element controls the number of nodes used in the element and the permissible orientations of the element (configuration 22). Note: For more specific information about using the HyperMesh templates. 5-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 205). 2-noded gap element with property reference and vector (configuration 70). assign type1 to the first type of quad element and type 2 to the second type of quad element. 4-. Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mass Master3 Master4 Penta15 Penta6 Pyramid5 Type Name Spherical Revolute Cylindrical Planar Universal Translational Locking # nodes 2 4 4 4 4 6 6 Orientation none/systems/nodes none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems none/systems 1-noded mass element (configuration 1). or 6-noded element with property and orientation systems or nodes. and pin flags (configuration 60). 28 HyperMesh 8. For example. Supported Element Types HyperMesh supports the following element configurations: Bar2 Bar3 Gap Hex20 Hex8 Joint 2-noded bar element with property reference. 20-noded brick solid element (configuration 220). A joint element does not allow types other than specified below. local vector. offsets. (Must be Type 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Pyramid13 Plot Quad4 Quad8 RBE3 13-noded pyramid solid element (configuration 213) 2-noded plot element used for display purposes (configuration 2). (Must be Type 1. (Must be Type 1. 4-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 104).) 4-noded slave interface element (configuration 134). 2-noded beam element with property reference (configuration 61). 4-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 204). 1-noded slave interface element (configuration 135).0 User’s Guide 29 . 3-noded triangular shell element (configuration 103). 2-noded rigid element (configuration 3). 6-noded triangular shell element (configuration 106).) 2-noded spring element with user-defined degrees of freedom.) 3-noded slave interface element (configuration 133). The independent node has user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 55). 2-noded rigid element with user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 5). Each node contains a coefficient (weighting factor) and a user-defined degrees of freedom (configuration 56). Multi-noded element with one independent node and a variable number of dependent nodes. (Must be Type 1. 8-noded quadrilateral shell element (configuration 108). and a property reference (configuration 21). 10-noded tetrahedral solid element (configuration 210). Rigid Rigidlink Rod Slave1 Slave3 Slave4 Spring Tetra10 Tetra4 Tria3 Tria6 Weld Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. an orientation vector. Multi-noded element with one dependent node and a variable number of independent nodes.

No nodes are placed along a suppressed edge. so operations performed on the line affect each segment of the line. such as when you are working within the spline . Suppressed edges (displayed blue dotted) are the internal face edges within a surface. A joint is the common point between two line segments. Surface edges include: Free A free edge (displayed red) is a surface edge that belongs to a single surface which does not have other surfaces aligned with it within the specified cleanup tolerance. Nodes are placed along this edge during automeshing and recognized during meshing of bordering surfaces. A suppressed edge can be changed back to a shared edge. their color is determined by the surfaces to which they belong. Lines from CAD data are not attached to surfaces.Lines The line entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. In general. These edges usually indicate a collapsed or very thin surface or a fully or partially duplicated surface. Line segments are maintained as a single line entity. An edge is a trim line of a surface. circles can be represented exactly in HyperMesh. or line drag panels. Suppressed edges allow the mesh to flow across or over these boundaries. All lines in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: • • • straight elliptical NURBS • • • Note: Used to represent a straight line between two points in space. Each line type in a line is referred to as a segment. These edges (displayed yellow) are shared by more than two surfaces. NURBS can exactly represent the piecewise parametric cubic splines they replace. A shared edge cannot be changed back to a free edge. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number and type of line segments to represent the geometry. A line can be composed of a single line type or multiple line types. Non-manifold edges can be turned into shared edges by deleting one of the attached surfaces. but are then less efficient. Under certain conditions. A shared edge (displayed green) is a surface edge that is shared between exactly 2 surfaces. and their color is determined by the status of the component. Used to represent conics such as a circle. as well as many other types of curves. The end point of each line segment is connected to the first point of the next segment. NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) may also be used to represent a straight or elliptical line. Used to represent lines that are not straight or elliptical.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . ellipse. ruled. By using elliptical segments or NURBS segments. However. You can use surface edges as a line in most panels. Shared Suppressed Non-Manifold /Duplicate 30 HyperMesh 8. you can use surface edges as free lines. or parabola.

The following panels can be used to create lines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • circles fillets intersect lines section surface tangents The following panels can be used to change lines: delete line permute position project reflect reparam rotate scale translate Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 31 .

All surfaces in HyperMesh are represented mathematically with the following formulations: plane cylinder/cone sphere torus NURBS Used to represent a planar surface. Operations performed on the surface affect all the faces that comprise the surface. Used to represent surfaces which are not definable by the above surface types. Used to represent a toroidal surface. The following panels can be us ed to create surface entities: • • • • • • • • • • • surfaces primitives midsurface The following panels can be us ed to change surface entities: defeature permute position reflect rotate scale surface translate 32 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Surfaces and Faces The surface entity in HyperMesh represents the geometry associated with a physical part. HyperMesh automatically uses the appropriate number of and type of surface faces to represent the geometry. Used to represent a spherical surface. A HyperMesh surface can be made of a single surface type or of multiple surface types. Multiple types are used for more complex surfaces that contain sharp corners or highly complex shapes. Used to represent cylindrical or conical surfaces. When a surface has several faces. Surfaces define 2-D regions that may be used in automatic mesh generation. Each face contains a mathematical surface and edges to trim the surface (if required). HyperMesh maintains all of the faces as a single surface entity. In general. Each surface type is referred to as a face. NURBS may also be used to represent the above surface types but they are not as efficient.

and an analysis system is used to transform the nodal coordinate system. Several systems may be nested. and then delete the system in which the nodes are defined. Loads The load entity allows you to add forces and constraints to the database. By default. or both. and mass elements. When you delete an analysis system. the orientation of the constraint is dictated by the local system. Cards The card entity allows you to create control cards such as CPU limits or Title cards. accelerations. HyperMesh does not maintain the proper orientation for the constraint when you create or delete local systems at the node where the constraint resides. the model retains its cylindrical shape and also its location in space. Vectors The vector entity allows you to define a three dimensional vector in the database. HyperMesh allows you to modify the analysis system of an entity when you define the analysis system. velocities. vectors can be created between two nodes and can change magnitude and direction as those nodes move through analysis. Loads are applied in the global system except when the reference system has been modified. temperatures. Analysis systems are typically used to transform element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom from the global system to a local system. After a constraint has been applied. and pressures are currently supported. you must set the proper orientation for element degrees of freedom or constrained degrees of freedom. You can use the systems panel to modify the reference coordinate system of an entity. Entities that have a reference system are systems. or spherical. Entities are always displayed in the transformed global system. as HyperMesh does not maintain these in the transfer from the local system to the global system.Systems The system entity. When a reference system is deleted. For example. Control cards are defined within templates and are specific to one FE solver. all the entities that were defined in that system are transferred to the global system. Note: A system may be a reference system. concentrated fluxes. cylindrical. The only entity that may be defined in an analysis system is a node. A constraint. is placed in the global system only if a system does not exist at that node. Vectors can be used for orientation of spring and gap elements or to specify a direction during selection. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In HyperMesh. a reference system is used to define the geometric positions of entities. if you define a cylindrical structure in a cylindrical coordinate system. each of these entities is defined in the global system with an ID of zero. commonly called a coordinate system. the position of the entity is maintained relative to the global system in the transformation process.0 User’s Guide 33 . Constraints. may be rectangular. concentrated moments. concentrated forces. loads. nodal points. applied at a node. Additionally. If a system does exist. If you delete a system. an analysis system. Vectors are created in the global system unless a local coordinate system is defined.

34 HyperMesh 8. including the name of the title. and the text displayed in the title. the color of the title.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Title Title collectors contain title information.

Use these options to access different areas of HyperMesh functionality.hm) file retrieved or saved in the active session FE or CAD import does not affect the current file Delete model clears the current file If no . these menus "drop down" a list of options when clicked.HyperMesh Environment There are several main areas in the HyperMesh window: These areas are described below: title bar Located at the top of the HyperMesh window.hm model is retrieved or saved in the active session the current file field is empty Located just under the title bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. this displays the current HyperMesh version. It also displays the path and name of the file currently open in the active HyperMesh session. A current file is determined with the following rules: • • • • Pull-down menus The last HyperMesh (.0 User’s Guide 35 . Like the pull-down menus in many graphical user interface applications.

Main menu Command Window secondary menu 36 HyperMesh 8.Tab Area Located on the left. • • • Tab Area sidebars can be toggled on or off by use of the View pull-down menu. Graphics area Toolbar Area Located above the tool bar(s): the graphics display area is where model geometry and mesh displays. You can type HyperMesh commands directly into this text box and execute them instead of using the HyperMesh Graphical User Interface. You can click-and-drag tabs to move them between the left and right Tab Area sidebars. The main menu is divided into the panel area and the page list. Located just under the graphics area. or both sides of the graphics area. Secondary menus can be accessed by using keyboard shortcuts. these buttons provide quick access to commonly-used functions. such as changing display options. or two toolbars stacked vertically. It displays the name of the current panel and user profile. Tab Location sub-menu. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Header bar Located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. and model status information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . these sidebars display additional tools. such as the Utility menu or Include browser. right. in a tabbed format. Individual items (tabs) can be added to or removed from the Tab Area by selecting the item from the View pull-down menu. this area may contain one toolbar. Located across the bottom of the window. Depending on your display resolution and the number of buttons.

Selecting a submenu heading opens a sub-menu of options related to the submenu heading. Most menu items simply execute a command when selected. When clicked. clicking it alternates between showing and hiding the solver browser in one of the Tab Area sidebars. One example is the solver browser item found in the view menu. Most menu options access HyperMesh panels. Menu items can work in several different ways: Sub-Menu heading These items are marked with a triangular arrow. such as accessing a specific HyperMesh panel. these items are marked with a checkbox and activate or deactivate a feature. but some options perform other tasks such as configuring the layout of the HyperMesh environment. This approach sub-groups similar features together. enable access to many types of HyperMesh functionality. this is because some menu items have sub-menus of additional options. located just beneath the title bar. rather than presenting every option in a single list (which could result in very long lists).0 User’s Guide 37 . Toggle Command Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This method allows similar commands to be grouped logically.Pull-Down menus The pull-down menus. and clicking on the menu name (such as File) "pulls down" a list of the options available in that menu: Notice that there are two lists of options displayed in this screen shot. Each menu contains many different options. and helps prevent any single menu list from becoming excessively long.

use load. Access the on-line Help system. and press enter to select a highlighted option. save. for example). Edit View Organize Geometry Mesh BCs Setup Checks Tools Applications Results Preferences Help Tools for masking. lighting. To import multiple files. such as automesh. Boundary Conditions such as forces. tetramesh. or finding entities. Each of the pull-down menus in HyperMesh groups certain types of functions: File Contains functions to load. Then: Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu or item. pressures. etc. and keyboard configuration. Reflect. and the up and down arrow keys to open a menu and navigate among its options. First. deleting. Morph. Keyboard (menu item) Menu items can be selected with the keyboard in two ways: or Use the arrow keys to move among list of options. Rotate. To add extra models to your workspace. solid map. among other options. or Use the left and right arrow keys to move among the menu headings. element edit. connectors. and contact surfaces. or constraints. these keys are underlined (as the "F" in the File menu). Meshing tools. and export models and other files. 38 HyperMesh 8. Translate. or visibility and location of tab area items. global options. use import. Model quality checks. Tools for creating and renaming collectors. such as OptiStruct. press the alt key to activate the menu area.There are multiple ways to select a pull-down menu or a menu item within it: Mouse Keyboard (menu) Click the menu or menu item with the mouse. moments. Tools for geometry editing and cleanup.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Use the keyboard key indicated by the menu item. these keys are underlined (as the "O" in the Open). assemblies. Model properties such as materials. or Scale entities. import. Change the angle of view on the model. Note: To work with only one model at a time. use the multiple files option in the import sub-menu. HyperMesh preferences such as User Profiles. etc. including element check settings. View results of solved simulations (contour or vector plots. among other options. Quickly access other HyperWorks programs.

geometry. Entities on the screen are selected for use in functions by clicking the desired entity with the mouse. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note: See Entity Selection for more information about picking entities.0 User’s Guide 39 . Models. and plots are displayed in this area. The graphics area dominates the HyperMesh environment and is framed by all of the other interface areas.Graphics Area The graphics area occupies the upper portion of the screen.

Edit solver-specific data in card format. a group of buttons automatically moves to the second row. Selects the element color style. save. Notice that the toolbar may display in one or two rows. set global modeling parameters. Users already familiar with earlier HyperMesh releases will find the same functionality that the permanent menu offered now located in the toolbars. or import files.Toolbar Area The functions on the toolbar allow you to manipulate the view of the model. This accesses the files panel. the two-row configuration is shown above.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Access the collectors panel. The toolbar uses two different groups of visual icons to represent different HyperMesh functions.0. Turn the display of collectors on and off. For example. Normally all of the buttons display on a single row. if you select "by comp". Create or update load collectors. But for 1D elements such as bars and springs. etc) is assigned directly to the element. For example. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to access other collector functions: Create or update material collectors. This button accesses the display panel. Use this panel to individually determine how each component of your model displays its FE mesh. the property color of shell elements (quads and trias) in a NASTRAN model is the same as the component. the property assigned varies based on the solver used. many of these functions were contained in the permanent menu. the model elements’ colors change based on the components that contain them. use the colors panel to change the colors of properties Note: 40 HyperMesh 8. This only applies when a valid template file has been specified in the global panel. Create or update property collectors. but when the toolbar is too narrow to hold all of the buttons. The toolbar buttons perform the following functions: Load. Other options include: • By Prop: colors the elements based on their assigned properties. control which collectors are displayed in the graphics region. Access the visual attributes panel. thus the shell elements are colored in component color even in this mode. and edit solver-specific data. Note: In versions of HyperMesh prior to release 8. the property (PBEAM.

In panels geometry creation and editing panels (e. etc. if you select "by component". 3-dimensional geometry (i. automesh). the geometry is colored based on its corresponding component. Switches the mesh rendering mode to a shaded mode. 2-dimensional geometry (i. • • • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. materials are assigned to elements via their components. etc. All the 1D elements are colored in green. quad. bar. surfaces) that is not part of a solid is colored based on its topology. and no lines. . feature lines. Surfaces that aren’t part of a solid are shaded in gray. Other coloring options include: • Auto: In this mode the geometry coloring changes based on the panel you open.e. This helps you focus on 2D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. solid faces and their edges) is colored based on its topology. then each piece of geometry is re-colored based on the component that contains it. 2D and 3D elements differently. By Comp: Surfaces. 1D/2D/3D: colors 1D. For example. the faces of solids are also colored based on their topology: exterior bounding faces in transparent green. By 3D Topo: In this mode.0 User’s Guide 41 . Determines how geometry features are colored. internal partition faces in yellow. The topology of 2D geometry is ignored and drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel. This helps you focus on 3D geometry in models that include both 2D and 3D entities. geometry is colored based on topology. are colored according to the components that they belong to. Some exceptions apply. suppressed edges in blue. 2D shell elements in blue and 3D solid elements in red. The topology of 3D solid geometry is ignored (drawn in a single color that can be changed in the options panel).• By Mat: colors the elements based on the material assigned to the elements. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between mesh lines. Note: • • . By Topo: In this mode. In most cases. By 2D Topo: In this mode. The individual colors given to each configuration (such as spring or hexa) can be seen and changed in the element types panel. free edges in red. Right-click (or click the down-arrow) to choose between skin-only and full wire frame (including internal lines). surface edit. In the remaining panels (such as translate or delete). By Config: colors elements based on their configurationbeam.e. trias etc. . lines. If geometry shading is turned on. use the colors panel to change the colors of materials.g. etc. Switches the mesh rendering mode to wire-frame mode. all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology: shared edges drawn in green.

in shaded mode surfaces and solid faces are shaded in their components’ color. right-click in the graphics area and hold the mouse button down to make the model spin. Right -click to activate dynamic spin mode.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . . 42 HyperMesh 8. Left-click to deactivate. Right-click to deactivate. click-and-drag in the graphics area to rotate the model. Once active. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. Left-click to deactivate. (shared edges in green. right-click and drag in the graphics area to zoom in/out. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. etc. Modal Zoom. Click the downward arrow for options: with edges or without them. left-click to zoom in. • Either mode also deactivates when you move the mouse pointer outside of the graphics area. this works in one of two different ways: • Left-clicking activates the circle zoom feature. or to alternate between two different views. Draws model geometry in shaded mode. Once active. or when you click either button while the pointer is in the graphics area.• Mixed: This mode behaves similarly to Topology mode in that all the surface and solid edges are colored based on their topology. Click the downward arrow to choose between excluding and including surface lines. Once active. click-and-drag in the graphics area to pan the model view. right-click in the graphics area to change the graphics area center. Circle zoom deactivates after zooming once. right-click to zoom out. Right -clicking activates the dynamic zoom feature. Left-click to deactivate. free edges in red. Draws model geometry as a wire-frame. Returns to the previous view. Once active. . Once active.) In addition. Pan modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate pan mode. This allows you to (for example) perform a free rotation on a model and then quickly return it to its original orientation. Opens the visualization pop-up panel. Right -click to deactivate. Resizes the model view (by zooming in or out and panning the view as needed) in order to fit the model to the graphics area. Right -click to activate center mode. Rotate modes: this functions in one of two different ways: • Left-click to activate dynamic rotate mode. Zoom incrementally.

Use spherical clipping to isolate portions of the model regardless of component or collector. and the right button to rotate it rightward.Rotate Left or Right: this is similar to pressing the left and right arrow keys on the keyboard. You can use keyboard hot keys to access the same viewing options. Rotate Up or Down: this is similar to pressing the up and down arrow keys on the keyboard. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model upward. and the right button to rotate it downward Spherical clipping: accesses the spherical clipping panel.0 User’s Guide 43 . Notes: See Viewing Models for more information about the viewing options available on the toolbar. Click the left mouse button to rotate the model leftward. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Open a pop-up menu used to save and retrieve user-defined or standard views. See Keyboard for more information.

.Header Bar The header bar is located between the main menu area and the toolbar area. The current component and load collector names are displayed on the right side of the bar. When you are on one of the main menu pages (not within a panel). the bar displays the current panel name on the left (in black) and the original panel name to the right (in gray). comp:) in the message bar. Panel titles display on the left side of the bar. Geometry) are displayed.g. and includes buttons that allow you to choose a new collector: The buttons next to the collector names access a selection menu.. the header bar displays the current panel title and model status. Messages also appear on the header bar and temporarily override the title and status information. the current include and current component (comp).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The header bar also displays a brief description of the panel when you hold down the left mouse button on the panel button (see below). This opens a menu that displays the currently selected collector of each type. You can quickly change the active collector by clicking the current collector information (e. When you are in a panel. If you access a panel by using a function key. along with the current menu page name (i. 44 HyperMesh 8.e. It displays information pertaining to the currently loaded model as well as descriptions of the main menu pages and panels.

Miscellaneous messages. You can also obtain a brief description of a panel’s function if you hold down the left mouse button over a panel button. These messages appear in green when using HyperMesh classic dark menu colors and they appear in gray when using Windows light menu colors Click a mouse button to remove a message from the header bar. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 45 . such as status updates or completed operations.Messages posted on the header bar are color-coded: red green/gray Error messages.

delete the file hmmenu. then the menu items described above may not appear on the appropriate pages. Post-processing and xy plotting functions. utility functions. masses. and spot welds Creation and editing functions for 2-D surfaces and elements Creation and editing functions for 3-D surfaces and elements Boundary conditions. The page menu. HyperMesh presents these pages in the page menu. lines. or surfaces 1-D element creation. which is located on the right-hand edge of the main menu area. coordinate system. each containing a list of panels and modules. and then start HyperMesh once again. 46 HyperMesh 8. Most panels are further divided into sub-panels. If you are not using the default HyperMesh menu system.set from the directory you are working in (provided you are not working in the directory where HyperMesh is installed).Main Menu Area HyperMesh functionality is organized according into pages. To change main menu pages: • Note: Click the radio button before the main menu page. and load creation functions. Model editing. model checking functions. and informational functions. Each of these pages contain panels related to the page name: Geom 1D 2D 3D Analysis Tool Post Creation and editing functions for geometry such as points. such as bars.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A secondary menu can be accessed by using keyboard keys. Page Menu HyperMesh panels are grouped by function on several “pages”. Modules contain a collection of panels that are grouped according to functionality. To correct this condition. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. quit HyperMesh.

each sidebar can be toggled on and off separately. both. and/or the solver browser. To maximize available space. However. right side. so you might only see one—or even none—at a time. Turn the Tab Area sidebars on and off by selecting left side.0 User’s Guide 47 . such as the utility menu. model browser. multiple features are organized onto tabs. Each Tab Area sidebar can contain multiple complex features.Tab Area This area of the HyperMesh environment is actually two separate sidebars which flank the Graphics Area. click a tab heading to bring it to the forefront. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or none from the Tab Locations sub-menu of the view pull-down menu.

system collectors. vector collectors.Model Browser The model browser resides on a tab in a Tab Area sidebar and allows you to view the HyperMesh model structure by organizing assemblies. groups. components. and beamsectcols into a tree-like display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . load collectors. 48 HyperMesh 8. multibodies. materials. The browser displays on one of the Tab Area sidebars. entity sets. properties. To open the model browser: Click the model browser item located within the view pull-down menu. This screenshot shows all of the entities that can display in the browser.

so that the items related to each assembly appear within that assembly’s folder in the Assembly Hierarchy. a specific component might appear under Components and again as a sub-item of a specific Assembly. Deactivating the check box for an item hides all of its parent assemblies. To change an entity’s color. and the model browser allows you to set each entity’s color without using the color panel. the right-click menu contains only a single option: color. In this instance. load cols. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select this to open the same color picker used throughout HyperMesh. properties. the mouse pointer automatically moves to its center.0 User’s Guide 49 . Materials. etc. and beamsectcols cannot be organized into assemblies and are all placed at the top level of the tree. The following rules apply: • • • • • • • • Checked entities (components. When appropriate. An empty assembly never displays. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all of its contents. Components. Load Collectors. Materials. Assemblies containing components or multibodies are considered displayed only when all of the contents are displayed. groups. multibodies. Components and Assemblies may appear in multiple places in the tree. The palette automatically disappears when you move the mouse pointer beyond its boundaries. system cols. the color and display style of entities also display in the model browser. Assemblies can also have sub-folders within the main Assembly folder. unchecked entities are hidden. Activating an assembly’s checkbox displays all its components and multibodies. each in their corresponding folder (for example all sets are placed as a flat list in the Sets folder). and its state does not affect the state of its ancestors. Each folder can be expanded or collapsed to display or hide its contents. right-click on the current color in the model browser. for example.) display. The currently assigned color displays in the column. Properties. Check Boxes Items are displayed or hidden by toggling the corresponding check boxes. Colors Assemblies. vector cols. therefore it does not have a check box. groups. entity sets. Deactivating the check box for an item does not affect the state of its parent assembly. Deactivating the check box for an assembly hides all of its components and multibodies. and click the desired color from the palette.Multiple entities of the same type are collected into folders in the tree structure. Note: When the color picker palette appears. and System Collectors can all be colored individually.

Right -clicking opens a popup menu from which you can choose the new style. and load cols have several display states. based on a combination of their elements and their geometry. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. but no mesh. Shaded topology displays with feature lines. Multibodies. or click the ID heading to sort numerically by entity ID. groups. load cols. system cols.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click a second time to remove them. groups. load cols. geometry entities. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the model browser’s own toolbar. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. multibodies. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. and vector cols shown in the tree.Display Mode Components. Include geometry entities in tree structure. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. or both: Include mesh entities in tree structure. Depending on which option you select. system cols. and vector cols have only one display state and will be shown only in element mode. groups. and Reverse Display buttons at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. multibodies (not assemblies). The first set of filters let you restrict the tree structure to display mesh entities. Shaded topology displays with mesh lines. Only shaded topology displays (no mesh). assembly. Since these functions work in combination with the filters. 50 HyperMesh 8. Click a second time to remove them. components. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. You can select these display modes by right-clicking clicking the small icons in the column for each component. and vector cols. Global Switches The Display All . system cols. Transparent shaded topology displays without mesh. repeated clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. only the items displayed in the tree are affected. or load collector. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. assemblies. Display None . In either case. the entity displays differently: Only a wireframe mesh displays. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them.

0 User’s Guide 51 . and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the model browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For example. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Whole name only selects tree items whose entire name matches the specified text. Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. In addition. and Reverse Display as described under global switches above. with the same buttons for Display All. and Reverse Selection. click OK to close the list. in this case they are used for Select All. You can also select groups of entities based on a wildcard search. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. Accomplish this via the matching: combo text/list box. an up-arrow button. . named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. In this way. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the model browser’s tree structure. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. For example. Otherwise. Display None. typing “pillar” in the matching field when using the whole name option will not locate a component named “CH-A-PILLAR-B-I-L”. For example. then all entity types ending with “collector” will be checked and display in the list. However. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. a down-arrow button. if you type “*collector” into this combo box and press <enter>. Select None.The next filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). Fine-tune the search/selection by choosing an option from the ( • • ) button: Match case only selects tree items that match the entered text exactly. including upper/lower case letters. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar.

and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. type a search string into the combination box. For instance. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”.To find an entity. multibodies. A dragged item is added to the bottom of the list in an assembly. You can drag and drop multiple items at any time using the standard shift and ctrl keys. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. “FrontChassis”. clicking again finds match #2. if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. rather than only part of the name. Drag and Drop Components. select it again to remove the checkbox. So. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. all the items in the assembly are moved to the new location (items that are not seen in the tree due to filters are also moved). it is highlighted in the model browser. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. To find entities matching your specified string and options. In this way. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name. the right mouse button activates a menu that allows you to move or copy an item to the new location. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. Since this function works in combination with the filters. with this option active. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). To deactivate the option. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. For example. finding match #1 again. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). such as searching for whole names with matching case. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. for example. and assemblies can be dragged and dropped with the left and right mouse button. In this way you can combine the search options. 52 HyperMesh 8. clicking third time finds match #3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. The left mouse button allows you to move the item into another assembly. or “RearChassis1”. In other words. If an assembly is moved or copied. it is deleted in all its parent assemblies and placed at the top level of the tree. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. Note: If an item is dragged out of the tree and dropped onto empty space. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. for instance. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top.

Folders that contain materials. or beamsectcol can be created at the top level. The options available depend on the entity that you right -click on. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Materials. those children will be automatically moved to the top level. beamsectcols. group. and groups cannot be renamed. You can cancel the rename operation by pressing ESCAPE or clicking anywhere outside the entry box before editing the existing name. All instances of the renamed item will be automatically updated. Most items can be deleted. Options selected in an empty space apply to the entire model. multibody. system col. load cols.0 User’s Guide 53 .Context Menu Clicking the right mouse button on a folder or entity within the browser’s tree structure allows you to change a variety of options. material. Description A new assembly. the item is automatically assigned a unique generic name that can be changed by entering the new name in the highlighted field. The new name must be unique. system cols. Plots. A new assembly. Load Collectors. component. Properties. vector cols. vector col. load col. Delete All except the top-level of Assemblies • Rename All Any item can be renamed by entering a new name in the name text box. and that assembly has children that are not present anywhere else. set. • If a component or multibody is present in more than one assembly in the model. you will be given a choice of either deleting that item from the database entirely or only removing it from the present location. property. Option New Available for: Assemblies. Once created. component. Components. or multibody can be created inside an assembly (activate the menu over an assembly). sets. If you want to entirely delete an assembly. properties.

system collectors. Closes all of the folders in the tree structure. This selects each affected item’s checkbox. All Collapse all Expand all Show Hide Un-checks the item’s checkbox. Display the item in the graphics area. Assemblies. Assemblies. system collectors.Edit Card… All Any single item can be card edited. all groups. load collectors. materials. etc. materials. In such cases. so that only this item displays in the graphics area. multibody. plots. load collectors. all materials. card. If a template is not loaded or if the entity does not have any card images associated to the loaded template. materials. In such cases. A component. and properties.) Show Only Deactivates the checkboxes of all items in the entire model browser except for this single item. this shows all of the items within that branch (e.g. properties. plots. groups. the card editor is not invoked and the appropriate message is displayed.) Make Current components. load collectors. plots. load collectors. so that only the top-most level of items displays. components. system collectors. materials.g. Opens all of the folders in the entire tree structure. groups. so that the item no longer displays in the graphics area. Used to quickly and easily isolate single entities. which allows you to determine what entities display in the tree as well as the columns that the browser displays. components. In such cases. components. multibody. components. plots. components. and properties. materials. beamsectcol All All Assemblies. etc. all groups. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. materials. this hides all of the items within that branch (e. properties. plots. plots. The current component is designated with bold font. and properties. Configure Browser… 54 HyperMesh 8. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. Opens the Model Browser’s Browser Configuration window. exposing every item nested at every level. properties. You can also use this on the entire branch of groups. load collectors. components.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . this hides everything except for the items within that branch. The card image of that entity for the solver template loaded will be displayed. cards. all materials. or beamsectcol can be made current using the pop-up menu. groups. load collectors.

click the Entity types: radio button.Model Browser Configuration window This window opens when you select the configure browser… option from the Model Browser’s context menu. Entities Tab To show all of the entity types that the currently-loaded model possesses. To select entity types manually. A checkmark indicates that the entity type will display in the browser. Separate tabs organize entities and columns. Use this window to change the columns and entity types that display in the model browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired entity type. choose the radio button marked select all entity types in the current model. select none.0 User’s Guide 55 . and select reverse buttons in this mode. You can also use the select all.

56 HyperMesh 8. To select columns manually. You can also use the select all. select none. and select reverse buttons in this mode. click one of the command buttons to close the window and return to HyperMesh: • • Click OK to keep the new settings and close the window.Columns tab To show columns for all of the attributes that the currently-loaded model possesses. click the Column types: radio button. and then activate the checkboxes next to each desired column. Click Cancel to discard the changes (keeping the original settings) and close the window. A checkmark indicates that the column will display in the browser. choose the radio button marked Select all column types in the current model. Command buttons Once you finish configuring the browser.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

review.Include Browser The include browser can be accessed by selecting include browser from the view pull-down menu. An example of a model in the include browser is shown below.dyn contains 55 vectors. etc. It allows you create. For example. The contents of each include is organized (grouped) into folders containing each type. 55 system collectors. which does not have any references to an include file. 296 properties. and update the contents of a model into various include files. organize. 116 sets. Each include file is represented with an icon along with its name and internal HyperMesh ID. Each of the folders can be expanded to review the individual entities in that folder. the include named dummy. The browser can be configured to show only specific entities of interest. You can select entities (using the standard Shift and Control keys) and drag various entities between two includes or between the master model and an include. in the above example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 57 . Each include can be expanded to reveal its contents. 55 systems. The Master Model is at the top level of the include browser. edit. next to which appears the total number of entities of each type. is stored in the master model. Data.

groups. 58 HyperMesh 8. components. When you are satisfied with your selection of entity types. a down-arrow button. multibodies (not assemblies). . The filtering tool is represented by a funnel icon ( ). groups. Global Sorting You can sort the entities in a folder by clicking on the heading of the tree structure. Notice that the list of available entity types includes its own mini-toolbar. Note: These buttons only affect the display state. system cols. Select None. click the checkboxes to toggle the display of that entity type as a folder in the browser’s tree structure. and Reverse Display at the top of the tab change the display state of all assemblies. in this case they are used for Select All. For example. All displays and None hides all of the items shown in the tree. Display None. Multiple clicks toggle between ascending and descending order. In this way. you can make the tree structure shorter and easier to navigate by removing entity types from the browser list that you do not need to work with. Reverse reverses the state (displaying the hidden and hiding the displayed) of all components. the Components folder only displays in the tree structure if Components is checked in this list. and Reverse Selection. Each entity type in the list has a checkbox next to it. load cols. This opens a new line of toolbar buttons in the include browser. and Reverse Display as described under Global Switches above.Global Switches The Display All . the list contains buttons labeled OK and Cancel. multibodies. Otherwise. composed of a combination text/list Find: box. system cols. with the same buttons for Display All. This feature allows you to determine which categories of entity appear in the browser’s tree structure. Finding Entities You can locate an entity by clicking the find icon. However. click OK to close the list. named Show: and located just below the browser’s toolbar. Display None . only the items displayed in the tree are affected. load cols. Filtering You can filter the entity types that appear in the include browser’s tree structure by using special buttons provided in the browser’s own toolbar. assemblies are unchecked only as needed. In addition. click Cancel to discard your changes and close the list without altering the include browser’s tree structure.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since these functions work in combination with the filters. and Options for searching (represented by a downward-facing double arrow). Clicking this icon adds a new list box to the browser. Click the Entities heading to sort alphabetically by name. and vector cols shown in the tree. and vector cols. They do not actually remove entities from the model—only show or hide them. Click this list box to open a list of all the entity types that HyperMesh can display in the tree structure. an up-arrow button.

you can find the next match by clicking the down-arrow again. Note that using wildcards is generally not compatible with searching for whole names! By ID Using this option allows you to type an entity ID into the Find: box instead of a text-based name.0 User’s Guide 59 . if you type “chassis” into the Find: box. clicking the down-arrow button finds match #1. Whole Names Use Wildcards Note that these options are on/off toggles. such as searching for whole names with matching case. clicking a fourth time reaches the end of the tree and starts over from the top. the appropriate assemblies are expanded to expose the entity. To deactivate the option. if the tree contains three entities matching your search string. So. Once the entity that matches the entered string is found. For example. with this option active. click the up or down arrow buttons to search upward or downward through the browser’s tree. In other words. and (if necessary) click the Options for searching button to reveal a list that allows you to specify search behavior: Match Case Only entities whose names contain the search string with upper/lower case matching what you typed into the Find: box. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh will ignore entities labeled “chassis1”. Since this function works in combination with the filters. If the entity is found inside an assembly that is collapsed. clicking again finds match #2. In this way you can combine the search options. for example. until it has performed a single full loop from its starting point. it is highlighted in the include browser. HyperMesh will only find entities whose complete name matches what you typed into the Find: box. For instance. after clicking the down-arrow and finding the first match. you could search for “*pillar” and find components named “A-Pillar” and “B-Pillar”. clicking one activates it (represented by a checkbox in the list). “FrontChassis”. a search for “chassis” will ignore an entity called “Chassis”. rather than only part of the name. In this way. or “RearChassis1”. you can continue searching by repeat clicks of these buttons.To find an entity. Wildcards allow you to search for any items that partially match the text you are searching for. clicking third time finds match #3. To find entities matching your specified string and options. for instance. select it again to remove the checkbox. it only searches for items currently shown in the tree (see Filtering above). type a search string into the combination box. finding match #1 again. When the find function reaches the bottom of the tree it will start over again from the top.

Function New… When function is active Permanently Description Creates a new include. Prompts the user with two choices: • Delete the include file The first option moves all the contents of the include file into its parent include and deletes the include file.Context Menu A context sensitive pop-up menu provides many other include browser functionalities. Thus any new entities created in HyperMesh such as new elements. Make current When an include is selected 60 HyperMesh 8. are automatically placed in the current include. Clicking on the selected (highlighted) include a second time also has the same effect. contacts. Right click in the browser to invoke the following pop-up menu. etc. Makes the selected include "current". components. The new include is created at the top level inside the master model when no include file is highlighted while selecting this option. Delete When an include is selected • Rename When an include is selected Converts the name of the include into an editable text box ready for the new name to be entered.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Delete the include file and its contents The second option deletes all the contents within the selected include along with the include itself. If a specific include is selected (highlighted). the new include is created within it. Deletes the selected include.

the entire set of entities of a specific type. etc. Nastran. Option prompts you to select a name and browse for the file to be imported. mats. This flag is specific to some solvers such as Optistruct. which subdivide their data deck into various sections such as Bulk Data.)..Move to current When entities are selected Moves all the selected entities (individual entities. Allows you to set the various options for a selected include. Includes that have this flag turned on display in the browser in italics. Collapses all the branches of the tree structure for the selected include. or an entire include) into the include that is marked as current. Clears the graphics region of any previous display and displays all the entities that belong to the selected include. Executive Control.0 User’s Guide 61 . etc. The available options are: • • • name file name to be exported (absolute path or path relative to its parent include) Do not export flag (allows you to review the contents of an include but not export it). Exports the contents of the selected include into the chosen file name. For the remaining solvers this option is not available. Exports all the includes with their corresponding content (not the master model only the includes). Expands all the branches of the include’s tree structure along with the various entity type folders (such as comps. The contents of the chosen file are imported into include. Export an include… Export all includes Collapse Include Expand include When an include is selected Permanently Permanently Permanently Display only When an include (or master model) is selected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Include file options… When an include is selected • Import include… When an include is selected Imports the content of a file into the selected include. or Case Control. Flag representing the section of the input deck that the include belongs in.

Allows users to enable (turn on and export) control cards that have been disabled and vice versa.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Configure browser Permanently Opens a window that allows you to select which types of entities should be shown in the include browser. • User selected entity types Allows you to select the entities that you want to display in the browser. Select from a list of all entities (except nodes and elements) in HyperMesh. 62 HyperMesh 8. Edit card Enable/Disable When a control card is selected When a control card is selected Invokes the card image of the control card in the HyperMesh window. Two options are available: • Select all entity types available in current model Displays all the entity types available in the current model (default).

For example. A module may contain panels that are also found on the main pages. edit curves. and are grouped to provide easy panel access without unnecessary navigational clicks. Note: HyperMesh does not make any special distinction between modules and panels.0 User’s Guide 63 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. contains panels that allow you to read curves. the module. To select a module. xy plots located on the Post page. and scale the axis of plots. The main difference between the module and a panel is the additional menu layer.Modules Panels that are used to perform related functions are sometimes grouped together in modules. perform simple math on curves. locate the module button on one of the main menu pages and click the module button.

but may not be active by default. 64 HyperMesh 8. When activated. the Sync button becomes active whenever you make changes to the current HM database. manage and display HyperMesh loadsteps (sub-cases) and the associated control cards. select none. the Loadstep Browser does not automatically sync itself with the HM database. More profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. reverse selection Use these to select the items in the tree. OptiStruct (OS) and Nastran are supported within this framework. the settings apply only to the current display. This allows you to perform many operations inside HM without performance issues. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. Each control has its own function: Select all. The information is arranged into a tree structure for ease of use. When inactive. and control the way that the data displays in HyperMesh (which is the default behavior) or exports (when the Export state button is active). with controls for altering the Display of the information and/or exporting it.0SR1 release. You can also select individual items by clicking on them. For help specific to each profile. Display Options The display options lie in a toolbar at the top of the browser tab. Note: For the 8. while popup forms allow you to quickly enter or select relevant information. or select multiple items by shiftclicking or control-clicking. it can be turned on and off. A right-click menu accesses editing and advanced options. Note that this changes the loadsteps’ export states. keeping the browser in sinc with an actions taken within the rest of HyperMesh can require considerable processing time. but not their visibility in the HM graphics area. Instead. Select it from the BCs Pull-Down menu to display its tab in the tab area. Use this feature to limit the tree to display only loadsteps whose names match a specific text string—either partly or completely.Loadsteps Browser The Loadsteps Browser is used to create. refer to the topics below: Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles Other profiles will be added in future versions of HyperMesh. and then sync the browser with one click. the display settings apply to export of loadsteps. This button acts as a toggle. The Loadsteps Browser displays in its own tab in the tab area. Export state Sync browser Filter The main functionality of the Loadstep Browser varies depending on the active HyperMesh User Profile. For large models. To alleviate this.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . including a name filter that uses HyperMesh standard filtering syntax.

every loadstep listed in the tree has a small checkbox next to it as well as an export state indicator. LOAD. Opens the OptiStruct panel in HyperMesh. You can click these to toggle them back and forth: The loadcols in the loadstep display in the HyperMesh graphics area. OptiStruct In addition. There are many functions available.0 User’s Guide 65 . organized into folders. The loadcols in the loadstep do not display in the HyperMesh graphics area. or all folders if none are selected. MPCADD and SPCADD cards auto-managed. Rename the selected entity. This launches the Loads Summary utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. or all folders if none are selected. this will bring up an appropriate GUI for editing of the loadstep or control card information. MLOAD. either from scratch or by creating an exact copy of an existing subcase. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option is for users who wish to have existing DLOAD. all of the loadsteps in the model default to the blank (unchecked) state. Collapses all selected folders and subfolders. these options include: New subcase Edit options Edit card Delete Rename Renumber BCs Contour Loads Summary Collapse all/selection Expand all/selection Auto-manage load references Create a new subcase. accessed by right-clicking on the tree background or on individual or multiple items. Delete the selected entity or entities. Note: When you first open the loadstep browser. Depending on the entity selected. Expands all selected folders and subfolders. This loadstep will be exported. This option creates a copy of loadcols with these card images and converts them into an auto-managed naming convention for easy editing/reviewing inside the Edit options popup. MOTION. Review the selected entity in the HM card editor. This loadstep will not be exported. For the OptiStruct and Nastran profiles.Loadsteps Browser: Optistruct & Nastran profiles The browser’s tree structure lists relevant control cards and loadstep information. This launches the BCs Contour utility and automatically selects the loadcols associated with the selected loadstep. Renumber the selected entity.

Note: This step is skipped when you create a new subcase! A popup window opens. 5. Another pop-up window opens.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . it is possible that the subcase may reference loadcols that have not been imported (they are in a separate include file). the Add <unavailable> load reference ID option is available. A bold reference signifies that the load reference is defined. allowing you to edit the subcase. Right -click on the desired subcase folder. Type in a subcase name Select the same as option. When this option is active. A pop-up window opens. • • Depending on the load reference selected in the tree. a warning message appears to notify you. The table on the left lists the loadcols that are valid for a particular load reference. allowing you to: • • 2. the new subcase is an exact copy of the existing one. Right -click anywhere in the Loadstep Browser and select New subcase. These references are also listed in the right table with a warning message to notify you that the loadcol doesn’t exist in the database 66 HyperMesh 8. or any subfolder in the Loadstep Browser. This allows users to modify a subcase and add in references to loadcols that do not exist in the current model. The popup has several tabs to gather the relevant information. the list will change accordingly. In order to support this. and select Edit options. depending on the card image or types of loads contained within. When importing a model into HyperMesh. A tree structure lists the load references that are available for the selected subcase type. Click create. Name filtering is available by using standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. then pick an existing subcase to base the new one on. 3. • • If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol is not appropriate for that particular load reference. If a loadcol is assigned and that loadcol does not exist in the HM database. check the box next to the desired option and fill in the required fields. To activate an option. A green indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and is defined. • • • • 4. To add a loadcol to the load reference. Depending on the Subcase Type.To create a new subcase: 1. select the loadcol in the left table and use the right arrow to add the loadcol to the table on the right. 2. allowing you to edit the subcase. The table on the right lists the loadcols currently selected for that load reference. the list of appropriate Load References will change accordingly. A red indicator signifies that a load reference is mandatory for the subcase type and requires attention. a warning message appears to notify you. To edit a subcase: 1.

• • All of the loads contained in a loadcol display regardless of their relevance to the load reference they are assigned to. an entry box appears so that you can enter the appropriate information in the browser. Check/uncheck the display checkbox next to the subcase of interest. The selected utility launches with the loadcols associated with the selected subcase automatically selected. You can also launch the “BCs Contour” and “Loads Summary” utilities from the Loadstep Browser. Select the desired option from the popup menu. Global load references are not checked on/off by selecting or deselecting a subcase. 7. renumber. 8. To remove a loadcol from the load reference.0 User’s Guide 67 . Right -click options allow for additional functionality depending on the current selection. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. Additional control is also available at both the Global Options and Subcase Load References level: 3. 2. • The Add <unavailable> load reference ID option allows you to add a reference to a loadcol ID that does not currently exist in the HM database (as described in step 5). To select multiple loadcols. To remove a loadcol from the load reference.6. You must determine the appropriate loadcols to check on/off depending on the subcase type. except that the first step is to right-click on the Global Options folder or any of its sub-folders. For renaming and renumbering. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. instead of clicking on a specific subcase’s folder or sub-folder. 1. 9. To display a subcase: 1. Click the Display button at the bottom of the Loadstep Browser GUI. Note: To rename. delete. use the all/none/reverse buttons where appropriate. select the loadcol in the right table and use the left arrow to remove the loadcol. or edit the card of a subcase: Right click on the appropriate subcase or loadcol. It is up to you to organize their loads for proper display. To edit the Global Options of a subcase: Editing Global Options works exactly like editing a subcase. 2. These buttons select loadcols from the currently active table.

Looks at each subcase and at each load reference. based on a fixed naming convention (auto<CARD IMAGE NAME>_#). it will: • Create a copy of that loadcol and assign it a new name. MPCADD and SPCADD loadcols: by creating a loadcol. This option does the following: 1. a new copy would be created and named “autoSPCADD_1”.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the loadcol selected for the load reference already has the card image assigned (for users wishing to manually manage their loadcols and point to an existing loadcol with one of the card images listed above) no additional action takes place. Inside the Edit options popup. MLOAD. However. For example. and selecting the appropriate loadcols. nor are they always aware of their existence. there has traditionally only been one way to create DLOAD. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. a loadcol is automatically created and assigned the correct card image when any of these conditions are met: • • • More than one loadcol is selected for the load reference One loadcol is selected and the local scale factor is not 1. Inside the Edit options popup. the loadcol is expanded and editable inside the GUI. The only way to modify the loadcol is via the card editor (right-click option from the editor GUI).0 (DLOAD and LOAD) 68 HyperMesh 8.0 (DLOAD and LOAD) The global scale factor is not 1. assigning the appropriate card image. However. the Auto-manage load references option is available. LOAD. if a load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images above and that loadcol has not been converted to the auto-managed naming convention. MOTION. the loadcol will not be expanded or editable inside the GUI.Loadsteps: Auto-manage load references This option is recommended for all users. many HyperMesh users do not want to be responsible for managing these load collectors. In HyperMesh. To satisfy both types of users. (The original loadcol is not deleted or modified in any way. when appropriate.) • 2. if a load reference pointed to an SPCADD loadcol. If the load reference points to a loadcol with one of the card images indicated above. Assign that new loadcol to the original load reference.

a message is displayed stating the error. thus reducing mouse movement. A description of the panel as well as instructions on how to use it display. If you press a function button and the data is incorrect or required information is missing. To select a panel. Panels with multiple functions have sub-panels that display only those menu items that are relevant to the current operation. You can also use the middle mouse click to advance through input collectors (yellow) or entry fields and then proceed to a function (green) or return (red). Returning out of a panel means accepting what was performed on the model while using the panel. hold the mouse button down while the cursor is over the panel name. Note: To display a brief description of the function of a panel in the header bar. This cannot be rejected once the panel is exited. Each panel has a unique title that describes the main function of the panel. press the "H" key or select HyperMesh and OptiStruct from the Help pull-down menu to display the help topic for the current panel. You can press the ESC key or click return to exit a panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. advance to the next selection. Using the middle mouse button allows you to make the required selections in the graphics region.0 User’s Guide 69 . Note: Once a panel is active. Each panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Some panels contain several functions that perform similar tasks. This behavior is called rapid menu.Panels HyperMesh panels allow you to perform specific tasks by selecting options and entering variable data. Release the mouse button to access the panel. locate and click the panel button on one of the main menu pages. and continue selecting or complete the operation.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Only one sub-panel may be selected at a time. 70 HyperMesh 8.update sub-panel. and card image or dictionary. click the radio button next to the sub-panel name on the left side of the panel. Each sub-panel contains menu items that allow you to enter necessary information for the procedures you wish to perform. Collectors . update.create sub-panel. on the collectors panel there are three sub-panels: create. Collectors . For example.Sub-panels Sub-panel names are listed on the left side of the panel.card image sub-panel. Collectors . To select a sub-panel.

HyperMesh breaks the options up into multiple “pages” within the switch’s pop-up menu. When you click a switch. Step backward one page toward the beginning of the list. Most panels also have toggles and switches that allow you to alternate between choices or select options from a list. Each panel contains input collectors. the list of options presented by a switch can be very long: In these cases. Advance one page toward the end of the list Go directly to the last page of the list Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. data entry fields.Input Controls The menu items on each panel indicate the information that is needed to correctly perform the panel’s function.0 User’s Guide 71 . and function buttons. When you click a toggle. the menu item following it alternates between choices. Menu items include: Menu Buttons The color of the menu button corresponds to its purpose: green yellow red Functions or executable items Collectors Return or abort Toggles and Switches Toggles and switches appear on many HyperMesh panels. plane collectors. a list of options is displayed. toggle switch In some cases. The green arrow buttons on the right-hand edge of the pop-up menu advance or back-track through the list of options: << < > >> Go directly to the first page of the list.

by list by path Allows you to pick the nodes individually from the node list. displaying a list of available selection methods. click the input collector switch to access the pop-up menu of possible data types. you can click on the collector to access a pop-up with the selections by list. An input collector contains a switch or toggle. The extended entity selection window allows you to choose various methods of selecting entities of a specified data type.Input Collectors Input collectors allow you to indicate which entities are to be modified when a function is performed. by path follows the connectivity of the elements between the nodes selected. the function tries to find the closest path along the edges of that part. you can select multiple entities via quick window selection (hold down the SHIFT key and drag your mouse to create a window. see Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu. and a reset (|< ) button. If you want to reset the entity selections. click the data type of the input collector to see the selected entities in the order in which they were selected. and select the type you want to use. See The Mouse for more details). click the reset to deselect all selected entities. this function does not apply. The extended entity selection window opens. Extended entity selection window. These selection options display for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. To access the options: • Click the data type button. show node order by window 72 HyperMesh 8. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are grayed out.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If the data type is a node list. Therefore. if the nodes selected are not connected by elements. or by window. a data type button. Allows you to view the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. Note: If the data type is a line list. by path. Allows you to select a few nodes that form a path and HyperMesh selects all the displayed nodes that lie in the shortest path of the nodes selected. Note: For more information about the extended entity options. In addition to selecting one entity at a time on the screen. An input collector is active when the data type button is enclosed in a blue rectangle. If you select nodes on the edges of a part. show node order. Input Collector To change the data type. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist).

If you select two free (red) edges. Choose vector to specify a vector entity (created in the vectors panel). while the reflect panel requires a plane for the creation of the mirror images of the entities selected. N3 to define a vector (N1.N2). Double-click a node’s button (N1. When defining a plane. or a local system when one can be explicitly specified. This selector is broken down into the following items. For example. it only works with surface edges and not with free unconnected geometric lines. or plane (N1. This coordinate system may be the global coordinate system. The options available are: • Use x-axis. Note. that not every item appears at all times. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Local systems may be rectangular. and loads as well. Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. second or third axis respectively of a coordinate system in your model. the resulting vector is normal to this plane following the right hand rule. switch The switch is used to select the method for defining the plane or vector. This includes vectors defining coordinate systems. Use N1. HyperMesh takes advantage of the following principle: a plane can be defined with a vector (the plane is normal to the vector specified). or N3.N2. as needed: The Plane and vector selector. cylindrical or spherical.N3). just as a vector can be defined with a plane (the vector is normal to the plane specified). N2. and passes through either N1 or the base node (if one is specified). or B) to type in coordinates rather than selecting existing nodes in your model. only the items necessary for the current HyperMesh function will display. y-axis. the translate panel requires that you define the direction of translation.0 User’s Guide 73 . • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. N2. Plane and Vector Selector Several HyperMesh panels require that you define a plane or a vector (direction) to perform a certain function.The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. and z-axis to define the first. Either can be defined via the plane and vector selector—a group of buttons that work in concert to define planes or vectors. however.

N1. and N3. To define a plane: 1.. but serve a different purpose. For example. N2. Note that when using the N1. Select a model vector (i. Select two nodes.N3 and base). Select a model vector (i. N1 and N2. The resulting plane is normal to the N1-N2 vector and passes through N1 (or the base node.. N2. the following selector displays in the position and linear solid panels: This selector is used in these panels to map entities from one location to another. Select the x-. Select two nodes. local coordinate system vectors or load vectors). if selected) is the point on the plane through which the vector passes. N2. or z-axis. Select three nodes. reset Note: Allows you to clear your selection (vector. 3. arrows that represent a local coordinate system vector or load vector). 4. N1. or z-axis and a base node. selecting a plane of projection using the x-axis does not define the location of the plane entirely.e. 3. N1 and N2.B (base node) Use this selector to define the base node—the point in space where the vector or plane is located. A parallel plane can be specified by selecting a base point elsewhere in the model. 2. 2. For example. 74 HyperMesh 8. N1 (or the base node. The vector is the normal of the plane defi ned by the three nodes. N1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To define a vector: 1. N3 option. N3. 4.e. y-. A base node provides the extra information. Select three nodes. if selected). HyperMesh uses N1 as a default base node if no other base node is specified. The resulting plane is normal to the vector. Select the x-.N2. The base node locates a plane normal to the chosen axis. y-. Some selectors may resemble the plane and vector selector.

After positioning the cursor in the input field. comp =. Deletes the character which is above the cursor. In edit mode. After you click either the input field or the description. Move the cursor in the input field to the left and right. and press CTRL-v. characters can be inserted or deleted at the proper location.0 User’s Guide 75 .. You can cut and paste text from one data field to another within HyperMesh and also from data fields in HyperMesh to a command window (except in OpenGL versions). or click the input field a second time to access the HyperMesh calculator. If you want to edit the existing data. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. the following keys perform the corresponding functions: ESC Restores the initial text or value displayed upon entering edit mode.Input Fields Input fields are used to enter text or numerical values. select another menu item. Moves the cursor to the beginning of the input field. and BACKSPACE HOME END DELETE TAB To exit edit mode. Deletes the character to the left of the cursor and moves the cursor one space to the left. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh removes any leading spaces contained in a character string. A description of the type of input precedes the field. and the new character is placed at the far left of the input field. or press a function key. press the ENTER key. Note: If you need to specify the name of a collector for a data input field (i.e. Character String Input To enter a character string. and use the keyboard to enter text until the proper information is displayed. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. press CTRL-c. the value previously assigned to the field is erased. To cut and paste character strings. press a right or left arrow key ( or ) before pressing any other keys. You can enter characters and numbers from the keyboard to modify the value. click the corresponding menu item or input field (the menu item is placed in edit modea). plot =. Input field. The first character in a string cannot be a space. Press the ESC key while the field is still active to restore the initial text or value to the input field. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. respectively. the text currently in the input field is highlighted. title =). Moves the cursor to the end of the input field. click the menu item or input field a second time to select the name from a list of the existing collectors. signifying that the input field in ready for editing.). When you type an alphanumeric character with the keyboard. Moves the input cursor from field to field on the panel.

HyperMesh immediately processes the selection you have made on the pop-up menu and then waits for you to make more selections. HyperMesh interprets it as 1230. HyperMesh displays integer values without a decimal point. In edit mode. click numeric and function buttons on the calculator using HP-style reverse notation. Pop-ups Pop-up menus are displayed when there are seve ral options from which to choose. For example. HyperMesh discards input characters that are not valid numbers and subsequent numbers. click the corresponding menu item or input field and enter the value using the keyboard. Note: You can cut and paste from one input field to another or to a command line in another window (except in OpenGL. To cut and paste numeric data. if you type 123e+1q1.). Some pop-up menus allow multiple selections. When the pop-up menu appears.45. you must make a selection before you can proceed. 76 HyperMesh 8. the view pop-up menu (view on the Toolbar Area) allows you to make multiple selections. HyperMesh automatically displays the value in scientific notation. Some pop-ups are displayed with a border around the menu box and some have no border. If the pop-up does not have a border. HyperMesh truncates the number to eliminate the decimal point. To enter numeric data. the mouse cursor is centered in the menu and the menu is made active. use the mouse cursor to select the text you want to copy. the second click gives you access to the calculator). The pop-up menu remains on the screen until you move the mouse outside the bounds of the box. Calculator pop-up. For example. click the menu item or input field a second time (the first click allows you to enter edit mode. You can also use the HyperMesh calculator to enter the value.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . you can either select a menu item on the pop-up menu or move the mouse outside the bounds of the menu. Real numbers are displayed with a decimal point or in scientific notation.000. and click exit to close the calculator. press CTRL-c. and press CTRL-v.Numeric Data Input Numerical values are specified as real numbers or integers. If HyperMesh expects an integer value and you enter 123. To use the calculator. If the pop-up menu has a border. move the cursor to the location where you want to insert the text. If a real number contains three or more leading zeros after the decimal.

It also displays the file that has been selected from the list. Lists only the file name. The file browser enables you to navigate through the directories on your network to locate files. This field allows you to enter the name of the file you wish to locate. type. browse…. This field allows you to select the type of file you want to locate. Lists the file name. etc.File Browser When you open or save a file using save as. Click Open (or Save) to load (or save) the file shown in the File name field. You can open new directories from this list. and last date modified. Creates a new folder within the current directory.0 User’s Guide 77 .. load…. File name Files of type Open (Save) Cancel Displays the folder at the previous level. Click Cancel to close the file browser. based on the search criteria used. Look in/Save in This drop-down menu contains the overall directory structure.. import…. write as…. you use the standard Windows file browser. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. as well as the contents of the open directory. Folders and/or file names within the selected directory are listed below the Look in/Save in text box. retrieve…..

In the File name field. For example. 2. Press ENTER.* to search for all files in the directory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 78 HyperMesh 8. Or For Files of Type. type filename* where filename is any portion of the name of the file you wish to locate. etc. 3.To search for a particular file extension: 1.hm extension) in the specified directory. To search for a particular filename: 1. select the file type from the drop-down menu. You can also type *. type *. hm6. Type *. All files ending with the specified extension are displayed. 2. 3.ext where ext is the extension of the file type you wish to locate. hm5. Press ENTER. specify the search directory.hm searches for all the HyperMesh database files (files with an . specify the directory to search. All files beginning with the specified characters are displayed in the files list. For File name. *. For Look in/Save in.hm* for all HyperMesh database files with extensions hm4. For Look in/ Save in.

Performs selection operations on single entities. Aborts graphics operations. Selects a new center of rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. Aborts intensive processes. Some operations require pressing a keyboard key in addition to using the mouse. such as Penetration Checks. Fit the displayed model to the screen. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. Single click and release.0 User’s Guide 79 . the pre-highlighted entity is deselected. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click and move. Single click and release. Selects a new center of rotation. Keyboard Left mouse Middle mouse Right mouse Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be deselected (removed from selection).The Mouse The mouse attached to your system is integral to HyperMesh and can be used in almost every aspect of user input. Single click and release. thus allowing you to view the entity that will be selected. If you release the mouse. Deselects an entity in the graphics area. Rapid menu allows you to use the middle mouse button to quickly perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. If you release the mouse. Single click and hold. Pre-highlight the entities as the mouse travels. the pre-highlighted entity is selected Dynamic rotation in the rotate (r) and arc dynamic motion (a) modes. CTRL Single click and release. Click and move.

Dynamically rotates the model. Click and move. Pans the model. Single click and release. In entity selection mode quick window selection of entities. Click and move. SHIFT Single click and release. Acts as advance (proceed) function after entity selection in most panels. 80 HyperMesh 8. In display panel – turn on collectors that are inside/outside the window. Click and move.CTRL Click and move. In display panel – turn off collectors that are inside/outside the window. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: Single click and release.quick window deselection of entities. In entity selection mode – choose one of the four quick window selection modes from a pop-up menu: • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window • • • • Entities inside a rectangular window Entities outside a rectangular window Entities inside a polygon window Entities outside a polygon window SHIFT Click and move. Zooms into an area of the model. In entity selection mode .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

For example: in the hidden line panel shown below. if you pick two nodes. In some panels. N2. N3 vector option in the translate panel. For example. HyperMesh performs the fill plot action when you click the middle mouse button. N2 and N3 selected or may not have a magnitude value entered. But once you pick a node to create the line. For example. an error message results. In such cases. rapid menu is assigned to the most commonly used function. an attempt to perform translate + is executed. in the translate or rotate panels once you selected some elements/nodes/comps and direction and distance of translation. Since you do not have N1. In most panels. the entities in the input collector are not cleared. thus reducing "mouse miles". the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel if the active input collector (yellow collector with a blue outline) is empty. when you enter the lines panel. In panels that have pre-filled defaults. The function button that is assigned to rapid menu is outlined in black. For example. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 81 . If you click the middle mouse button after you select the required nodes. return is assigned to the rapid menu. rapid menu advances to the next collector. This allows advanced users to perform common operations without frequently moving the mouse between the graphics region and the panel region. In these panels. the middle mouse button repeats the chosen function as long as the entity collector is not reset to empty. In panels where there is no clear sequence of selections. in the replace panel. For example. select a few nodes for your first node list or line list. In panels where there is a defined sequence of selections (input collectors). The rapid menu function is predetermined and varies between panels. allowing you to use the same entities to repeat the operation. clicking the middle mouse button a second time repeats the translate + or rotate + function. The rapid menu function can also vary within a panel.Rapid Menu Rapid menu is a feature that uses the middle mouse button (a single click for each step) to move through a panel along a predetermined path. the middle mouse button may activate a function for which there is insufficient data. create becomes the rapid menu function. In panels that contain multiple function buttons. For example. thus translating/rotating the same nodes again. it replaces one with the other and proceeds to repeat the operation with the new selection. using the middle mouse button returns you out of the panel. For example in the ruled panel. Some panels do not have function buttons and are repetitive. and then click the middle mouse button to advance to the second node list so that you can begin picking more nodes. collectors/create panel with a preset collector name creates a collector when you click the middle mouse button. when you try to move nodes using the N1. a middle mouse click performs the operation with the defaults. resulting in an error message.

and reverse view Zoom by increments.a b c <ctrl>+<c> d f g h m o p r s t <ctrl>+<t> v w z Notes: 82 HyperMesh 8. In addition. but simply + on the numeric keypad. You can also use the arrow keys on the keyboard to rotate your model. or arrow keys. this opens help for that panel. The secondary menu uses various combinations of the function keys. Arc rotate Return to a previous view Center (spherical) clipping panel display panel Fill/fit model to window. Turn off the menus and display only the graphics window. Press "m" again to bring the menus back. When a panel is active. you must use the keyboard to enter new file or component names or title information. from the main page menu. it opens the Help’s table of contents. press the key once and wait for HyperMesh to redraw the model before pressing the key again. and CTRL key to access panels. Rotate by increments Ctrl Incremental counterclockwise. -. SHIFT key. The hot keys are the same as the letters on the menu.Keyboard Although most HyperMesh operations are performed with the mouse. global panel Open the Help. Note that "+" is actually shift = on the main keyboard. clockwise. there are several keyboard hot keys that you can use to access the viewing functions available on the Toolbar Area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . +. options panel Plot Rotate Dynamically zooms in and out when you move the mouse up and down True view transparent components panel User View pop-up menu Windows panel Circle-zoom When you use the +. You can press ESC instead of clicking return to exit a panel.

when pressed. You can customize the default shortcut mappings to create your own shortcuts for a variety of tasks.0 User’s Guide 83 . so that you can quickly execute tasks that you use frequently simply by pressing one or more keys on the keyboard. zooms and pans the graphics area view to fit the currently displayed model to the screen. The keyboard option opens a free-standing window with a keyboard display. Examples include: • • • • • • • Jumping to a specific HyperMesh panel Automatically performing a task using HyperMesh *commands Executing a macro The following keys are usable when defining shortcuts: Letter and number keys ("standard" keys) <ctrl> plus another "standard" key <shift> plus another "standard" key <ctrl> plus <shift> plus another "standard" key You can assign or remove a shortcut by selecting keyboard from the Preferences pull-down menu. One example of this is the default mapping of the <f> key—which.Mapping Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts can be used to map HyperMesh functions to keys or key combinations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Keys display in the Key-Command Mappings window with colors based on their mapping: To map a function to a shortcut key. shift. • • Any HyperMesh command file commands can be mapped to a shortcut key. Notes • • Some special-function keys. 84 HyperMesh 8. For example. to enter the combine sub-panel in the element edit panel. and some utilize functions which are only accessible via shortcut keys. Ctrl + Ctrl + F1 Ctrl + F2 Ctrl + F3 Ctrl + F4 Ctrl + F5 Ctrl + F6 Incremental clockwise. select the appropriate key by clicking in the keyboard menu or holding down that key on your keyboard. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. Next. Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. such as tab. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Those keys are identified with a different color: Use the hm_pushpanelitem command in a shortcut to jump to a specific sub-panel of a panel. right. backspace etc. esc. Generates a *. Some keyboard shortcuts are mapped by default during installation. Creates PostScript file of the screen and spools it to printer. and down respectively. ctrl. Remapping such keys to new functionality results in loss of original functionality. The selected key highlights in blue. use hm_pushpanelitem {element edit} {combine} This will take you to the last used sub-panel in the specified panel. alt. Examples of such shortcuts are: Incremental rotate left. enter the appropriate command(s) and if necessary the file name (for a tcl script) in the table area of the menu located below the keyboard diagram. up. counterclockwise and reverse view Creates bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer.jpg screen capture or animation file. cannot be mapped.

shortcut mapping examples To create a shortcut key "e" that deletes all the elements in the model. "". 1). Enter the following in the command field next to the key "K". enter the following in the command field next to the key "J": *evaltclstring "macroElementJacobian 0.7: this macro already exists in the QA page of the Utility menu. eval *createmark elements 1 $beams.tcl file with following commands: Proc displayonlybeams {} { *createmark elements 2 "by config" 60 63 set beams [hm_getmark elements 2] *clearmark elements 2 if { ![Null beams]} { *displaycollectorwithfilter(comps.0 User’s Guide 85 . *deletemark elements 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.tcl file. *findmark elements 1 0 1 elements 0 2. enter the following commands in the command field next to the key "E": *createmark elements 1 "all". 1. To create a shortcut key "J" that runs a macro to find all the elements with jacobian < 0.7" 0 To create a shortcut key "shift + K" that runs a macro to check whether any beam/bar elements exist in the model and display them only: Create a findbeams. } else { hm_usermessage "No beam elements in this model" } } In the Key-Command Mappings window. select shift from the Shortcut Key pull-down menu. click the "…" button to browse to and select the findbeams. *evaltclstring displayonlybeams In the file field. To call the same macro. To create a shortcut key "L" that accesses the lines panel. "none". enter the following in the command field next to the key "L": hm_pushpanel {lines}.

and upon completion. it interrupts the active panel and allows you to perform a function in the secondary panel. The secondary menu allows you to use panels that add information necessary to complete the currently active panel. Entities selected while in the secondary panel are still selected when you return to the initial panel. 86 HyperMesh 8. When you use the secondary menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Secondary Menu The secondary menu is a list of panels that can be accessed by using the function keys F1 through F12. The default secondary panels are as follows: Key F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Note: Function key only hidden line delete replace distance mask element edit align node create node line edit check element geometry quick edit automesh plus SHIFT key color temp nodes edges translate find split project node edit surf edit normals organize smooth plus CTRL key print slide slide file print eps create eps file print b/w eps create JPEG file Function keys may be reassigned to different panels by using the build menu panel. to continue using the initial panel. or in combination with the SHIFT or CTRL keys.

mac file in the directory from which it launches and then in the installation directory. by using the arguments $1. clicking one of these buttons opens the page associated with it. passed to them from a control.mac qamodelpage. If it finds this macro. Thus it is actually a group of menus. This file defines the attributes and contents of the User page of the utility menu. The menu is located on a tab of the tab area pane(s). radio options.mac Populates the Display page of the utility menu.mac in the current directory. with optional arguments to pass The page number allows you to create multiple pages. A macro file (hm. similar to the way that only one radio button can be active at a time—selecting a button de-selects all of the other buttons in the group. Macros may accept variable arguments.mac userpage. it looks for a macro file named hm. Populates the User page of the utility menu. to specify where the arguments should be substituted. Attributes that you can change include: • • • • • The utility menu page on which the operations appear Text to be displayed on each control Location and size of the menu The help string to be displayed on the menu bar The macro to call when each control is used.mac geommeshpage. UNIX users also have the option of putting the userpage. etc.mac file may exist in the installation directory for HyperMesh or in the directory from which HyperMesh launches. Each page is associated with a button at the bottom of the utility menu. A userpage. which allows you to create groups of standard reusable macros. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.mac file in their home directory. HyperMesh runs it automatically to define the attributes and contents of the utility menu. Only one button can be depressed at a time. and text that have HyperMesh-supplied and user-defined macros associated with them. The *callmacro() command allows you to call a macro from within another one. The utility menu includes several pages of its own. Macros may contain any valid command file command. it first looks for the userpage. or the application’s base directory. each dedicated to different tasks. Populates the Geom/Mesh page of the utility menu. When HyperMesh starts. and are enclosed by the *beginmacro() and *endmacro() commands. Creates the button group that allows you to switch pages.Utility Menu The utility menu allows you to customize the standard interface to include function buttons. so that you can group the macros by type of operation. $2.mac) controls the display and available operations of the utility menu. When HyperMesh starts. The default hm. and can be shown or hidden from within the view pull-down menu.mac globalpage. HOME directory (UNIX only).mac file sources the following additional macro files: disppage. although only one displays at a time. Populates the QA/Model page of the utility menu.0 User’s Guide 87 . You may also select and run a macro file after HyperMesh starts from within the options panel.

that it still might not display if the tab area pane on which it resides is not active. and Disp pages contain a variety of macros that allow you to quickly perform functions which would normally take several steps. you must remember that once a macro is executed. turning off the display of everything except entities of type. if the utility menu is on the right-hand tab area pane. You can also mask and unmask portions of your model. You can turn the utility menu off completely (removing its tab from the tab area) by un-checking it in the view pull-down menu. Chief among these is the ability to turn the display of individual entity types on and off—for example. however. the Utility menu displays when HyperMesh starts. but you have only the left-hand pane showing in the HyperMesh environment. You can also isolate only a specific entity type. For example. if that pane is open. Note: While macros offer a great deal of flexibility. If you want to remove the Utility menu from the default screen display. Default Utility menu The utility menu is normally located on the left side of the graphics region. To restore the utility menu. and save additional model views. The different pages of the utility menu are: • • • • Geom/Mesh (macros related to model geometry and FE mesh) Disp (Options related to the graphical display of entities) QA/Model (macros related to element quality and loads) User (user-created macros only) The utility menu displays by default. and a macro may not be called recursively. It contains page selection buttons at the bottom of the menu. showing or hiding all 2-D elements. but display of the menu is controlled by a command in the HyperMesh Configuration. with the current page’s button depressed. you can turn the display of individual types back on as desired. QA/Model. it can also be dragged-and-dropped to the right -side explorer pane. there is no way to cancel the execution or reject the results. The Geom/Mesh. until only the desired subset of entity types displays. You can also turn the utility menu off by clicking the small “x” in the upper corner of the tab area when the utility menu tab is in the forefront.cfg file. Disp Utility menu The Disp utility menu contains a variety of macros that allow you to modify the graphical display of HyperMesh entities in several different ways. in the Tab area pane. Note. delete the * before the *enablemacromenu() command in the hm.By default. However. Then. the utility menu will still be invisible even though you have it checked in the view menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . simply check it in the view menu. although it may be obscured by another tab such as the model browser or include browser. 88 HyperMesh 8. or even by clicking-and-dragging the tab to the HyperMesh title bar. you can restrict HyperMesh to only drawing a small sub-set of the entities in your model. By combining these features. if you wish. See the descriptions below for help with each type of macro.

These views function just like the custom views that you can save and retrieve via the user views function (accessed from the HyperMesh toolbar). or 3-D elements. clicking all next to the 2-D label turns on the display of every 2-D element in your model. slot 2. Clicking Off turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. if you turn off the display of lines. These sub-types have buttons labeled on or off. These broad categories have buttons labeled All or none. There are different categories of entities whose display you can turn on and off. These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. but does not affect the display of 0. For example. These views function in addition to the user views. and solids). Clicking All turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. such as elements or geometry. or slot 3. and always include any masks that you may have applied to the model. Smaller sub-types of entity. but does not affect the display of 0. 1. such as 2-D elements or lines. such as 2-D elements or lines.0 User’s Guide 89 . Broad categories. Clicking On turns on the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. These buttons retrieve views of the model that you have previously saved via the scene (1. surfs. The largest group possible is labeled Everything. clicking Off next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every 2-D element in your model. Each broad category or sub-type has a text label on the menu. control an array of several related entities (such as points. Display macros: These controls form the bulk of the menu. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. clicking all next to the elements label turns on the display of every element type in your model.2. or isolate the display of an entity type. 3) save macros. for example.Scene macros: These controls allow you to save and retrieve up to three additional views of your model. This enables you to turn off certain entities while retaining others. none On Off Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These buttons only exist for sub-types of entity. 3) Save Scene (1. This allows you to turn the display of entire classes of entity on or off in one click. and allow you to turn the display of different types of entities on or off. Toggling the display of these does not affect other entities within the same broad category. For example. followed by 2-3 buttons. such as elements or geometry. lines. clicking none hides the entire model. 2. such as geometry. For example.3) Retrieve These buttons save the current view of the model in slot 1. 2. such as 2-D elements or geometry points. clicking none next to the elements label turns off the display of every element type in your model. however. For example. Clicking none turns off the display of all of the entities indicated by the label. regardless of entity type. are more restrictive. Scene (1. The All and none buttons for this category literally affect every entity in the model. So. These buttons perform the actual display macro functions: All These buttons only exist for broad categories of entity type. or 3-D elements. other geometry types (such as points) do not turn off. including its boundary conditions. 1. even within the same broad category. In other words.

Note that these functions are accumulative. These nodes are redundant because they must be created on existing geometry. hide. if you choose to show only 2-D elements. etc. Labels (located under the BC’s category). Unmask All Clear Temp Nodes This macro removes any and all masks that you have applied to the model. Comments Handle (located under the Elements category) refers to the text labels that appear on some elements. results in only the lines (plus FE elements. however. Note. refers to the text labels for boundary conditions such as pressures and forces. so that only 2-D elements remain visible. or isolate the surfaces touching those lines. boundary conditions. Clicking only isolates the entity type indicated by the label by hiding every other entity type in the model. To exit the macro. The only exception to this accumulative usage is repeated use of the only option: since it always hides everything except the chosen entity type.Only These buttons may appear for broad categories of entity or sub-types. masking allows you to reduce the number of entities drawn onscreen. either by way of the mask out macro or the mask panel. Similarly. The By Edge… macro (under Geometry à Surfs) allows you to turn off all surfaces attached to one or more edge lines. Select the desired lines and click proceed to show. Temporary nodes are any nodes that users create during a HyperMorph session. that entities can’t be partially hidden—so while some of the mesh elements on a surface may be masked out. This allows you to view only the adjoining mesh. Click Clear Temp Nodes to automatically remove all temporary nodes from the model. Mask and Node macros: The final set of controls concern masking and unmasking entities. as well as removing temporary nodes. then turning on lines. however. if you isolated a model’s geometry lines. Like the display controls.) displaying. then clicked show adjacent elems any mesh along . you can then add other entities to the view by turning them On one-by-one. multiple only commands do not work accumulatively. This macro reveals one or more rows of elements adjacent to the entities currently displayed. Show Adjacent Elems 90 HyperMesh 8. turning off all geometry. so that only the specified entity type remains visible. or press the <esc> key. they should be deleted before the model is sent to a solver. masking is based on entity location rather than entity type. rather than all of the mesh for an entire component. clicking Only next to the 2-D label turns off the display of every entity in the model except for 2-D elements. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . such as rbe3 elements. either click proceed again without selecting any lines. For example. Clicking one of the buttons for this option causes HyperMesh to display a lines selector. for this reason. those lines would be revealed—but only a single row of elements. Mask Out This macro automatically applies a mask to hide every entity in the model that does not currently display in the graphics area. the surface itself will not be unless it is completely outside of the graphics display area.

This macro is intended to be used with sheet metal parts with uniform thickness and does not work for molded solid parts. Depending on the tolerance you specify. Two other options available are: 1) Create a rigid spider along the hole and 2) Enforce a minimum number of nodes around the hole. You select a line whose length represents the solid thickness and a surface.5 times its original size. Isolates either an inner or an outer surface layer (based on the user selected surface) from a 3D model. You can also review the thickness as a contour plot on the elements. Scales a copy of a selected circular line to 1. points may even project to multiple edges. Extracts a midsurface from a thin solid representation of sheet metal stamped parts. Quickly creates an automatic tetrahedral mesh while meeting the requirements for minimum element angle and element size. and displays a menu for entering the width of the washer. as well as a set for working with FE mesh. You select a node along the hole. by offsetting one side surfaced to midplane. Projects free points to surface edges. which is part of either the inner or outer side of the solid. Isolate Surface ThinSolid=>Midsurf Washer Adj Circ Pts The mesh macros are: Auto Connectors Midsurf Thickness A pop-up menu that allows you to automatically create connectors and FE realize them from a master connection file.0 User’s Guide 91 . This macro works only on the surfaces attached to the selected surface.Geom/Mesh utility menu This menu contains a set of macros related to working with model geometry. Creates a layer of washer elements around a circular hole in the mesh. The other layers and thickness are then placed in a temp directory and masked. Quick Tetramesh Fix 2nd Order Midnodes Add Washer Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows a higher quality mesh around circular holes. etc. The geometry macros are: Preserve edges Project points Prevents specific edges from being suppressed during autocleanup or batchmeshing. Assigns the thickness of a midsurface geometry to FE nodes or elements. The macro also creates the corresponding property card and updates the thickness. Its primary use cases are solid parts with varying thickness. and then projects those points to a concentric line. and then trims this new line into the surface. creating a higher quality mesh. Improves element quality by moving the mid-edge nodes of second order elements. the macro determines the radius of the hole. Places four additional fixed points on an inner line. The macro then creates a layer of washer elements around the hole and remeshes the surrounding elements to maintain mesh connectivity. with ribs (T junctions). This can be helpful to achieve uniform meshing with regard to weld points.

If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the maximum internal angle. Tools There are eight tools to isolate elements that fail certain element check criteria. This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that fill the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their aspect ratio. if necessary. Trims the model along user-defined trim lines. the quality criteria used by these macros remains consistent with those used throughout the rest of HyperMesh—and can be indirectly adjusted by changing the settings on the check elements panel. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. This is useful for reducing the model size by taking advantage of symmetry etc. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements.Trim Hole Creates a circular hole (of a given radius) in the mesh at the selected node (as the center of the hole). Fills the selected hole and remeshes the surrounding mesh to maintain connectivity. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Jacob (Jacobian) Warp (warpage) Aspect (aspect ratio) Max ang: Q (quad) 92 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements for their warpage. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Creates a bead of a given height and width along the selected two nodes and connects to the surrounding mesh. Length This macro checks all the displayed elements against the minimum length criteria. If any elements fail the criteria. Since the criteria on that panel are customizable. The element quality criteria used by these tools comes directly from the values entered on the check elements panel. If any elements fail the warpage test. If any elements fail the criteria. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. An optional layer of washer elements can be created along with a rigid spider along the hole. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Fill Hole Box Trim Bead QA/Model Utility menu The QA utility menu contains many tools to help you quickly review and clean up the quality of a preexisting mesh. If any elements fail the criteria. it displays a message and leaves the model display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed elements against the maximum Jacobian value. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. delete the rigid spider before using this macro.

If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Split Warped Checks all displayed quad elements for warp exceeding the acceptable value. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged Min ang: Q (quad) Min ang: T (tria) You can use the following macros to quickly modify any elements that fail the element checks. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). If any elements fail the criteria. BOM Comparison Tool Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. two. or three attached layers of elements (one button for each). Allows you to apply the smoothing algorithm to the selected elements plus one. The remesh uses the current size. two. If none of the displayed elements fail the criteria. Reads a generic Bill Of Materials file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM as well as the corresponding FE model. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the minimum internal angle. They only affect the report.Max ang: T (tria) This macro checks all the displayed tria elements against the maximum internal angle. Each element failing this criterion is then split along its diagonal to form two tria elements instead of the original quad. it displays a message and leaves the display unchanged This macro checks all the displayed quad elements against the minimum internal angle. If any elements fail the criteria. The results are shown as the number of elements and percentage of elements failing each criterion. It also displays a dialog that allows you to review the free edges of the component and any elements attached to the component. does not break connectivity. and uses the mixed element type. This macro displays the component name. Allows you to remesh the selected elements plus one. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. number of elements in that component and their ID range. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Brings up a user interface that allows you to set the various quality values and check the quality of all the 2D elements in the model. Find Attached Remesh Smooth Quality Report Model Tour Allows you to review (tour) the selected components individually. Finds all of the elements attached to the displayed elements. If any elements fail the criteria. You can also export the results to a text file using save as. it displays the failed elements and masks the remaining elements. Note: Changing the criteria on this report interface does not change the settings in the check elements panel.0 User’s Guide 93 .

The model tools included on this page are: Load Size These numbered buttons represent different display sizes for load indicators: 0 is the smallest. Automatically finds all components directly attached to any and all load indicators. 94 HyperMesh 8. Since these buttons affect all loads. while 3 is the largest. these elements are un-masked. pressures. the numbers do not directly correspond to any specific values or ratios. including forces. these comps are un-masked. If masked. these loads are un-masked. Automatically finds all loads directly attached to a selected component. Note that this only affects the graphical display of load indicators—it does not change the load magnitudes. constraints. and so on. these elements are un-masked. Find Elems>>Loads Find Comps>>Loads Find Loads>>Comps Find Elems>>Connectors Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all load indicators. If masked. If masked. Automatically finds all elements directly attached to any and all connectors.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If masked.

and updates between design iterations as well as other CAE activities. the formats and content of the BOM can vary. The HyperMesh BOM Comparison Tool focuses primarily on the Excel format. and Abaqus user profiles. BOMs usually use Microsoft Excel® format (CSV format) or XML format. see the following topics: • • • • • • • BOM Comparison Tool Graphical User Interface (GUI) BOM Comparison Tool Control Section BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section BOM Comparison Tool Master Column BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The BOM reader includes the following abilities: • • • • • Reads a generic BOM file of CSV format (comma separated values file) Provides a GUI to manipulate data in the BOM and the corresponding FE model Provides an option to update attributes in the FE model based on the data available in the BOM Provides an option to complete the existing BOM based on the data available from the model Filters out all vague information present in the BOM and provides a feature to edit the vague information into a valid data and move it back to the BOM Provides a functionality to export a new BOM file Note: The BOM Comparison Tool only applies to the Nastran. property assignments. Radioss-Block. One BOM may contain more data than another BOM for the same program. A BOM is often used as the master document for model meshing. model comparison. For an in-depth description of the parts that make up the BOM Comparison Tool user interface and how to use them. Since users in different design and analysis groups use BOM information.BOM comparison tool The BOM Comparison Tool located on the QA/Model utility menu reads a generic Bill of Materials (BOM) file and provides an interface to manipulate data in the BOM and its corresponding FE model. LS-Dyna.0 User’s Guide 95 . assembly.

Contains options for metadata management. Contains filtering options for displaying tree and table info. Displays failed records from a loaded BOM file. This section controls most tool functions. Contains a tree structure displaying part names and ids.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 96 HyperMesh 8. part of the tree section. Contains master column selection.BOM Comparison Tool GUI The BOM Comparison Tool’s GUI consists of seven sections as shown below: Control section: Tree section: Master column: BOM display section: Metadata display section: Failed records section: Display filter section: Contains menu items and buttons to perform various operations. This section contains a table to display BOM info as it is seen in the actual BOM file.

Once you had added or deleted all necessary entries. or type a new header into it and Add them. or generate a new BOM by querying the HM model in current session. Invalid records can be edited to form valid data and can be moved to the BOM Display table. You can select additional items from a combo box. HyperMesh checks for the standard headers Part Name. Only valid records from a BOM file display in the BOM Display Section’s table. Show Failed Display all the invalid records that the tool encounters while reading a BOM file in a table. you will be prompted select the heading from the BOM file that corresponds to each standard header. Material. Use the Complete BOM operation to either complete an existing BOM. If any are missing. Update the model attributes to match the BOM.BOM Comparison Tool Control Section This portion of the interface contains drop-down menus and the toolbar. File menu New Open Create a new session Browse for and load a new BOM file. click Continue to generate the new file. and Gauge. Material Id. Part Id. Close the BOM Comparison Tool.0 User’s Guide 97 . If all are found. details populate the relevant fields in the BOM comparison tool. or click an item already in the list and insert the new item just above it. Save and Export Exit Edit menu Update Model Complete BOM Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This option switches the BOM Display Section to Comparison mode if it is currently in BOM View mode (see below). If the corresponding model contains the missing data. You may also select items in the list and Delete them from the file. Save and export the current information shown in the BOM Display section as a new BOM csv file in a user selected location. you can complete the BOM data by querying the HM database and extracting the data. Sometimes the BOM doesn’t contain all of the data you want. Check Model Checks the model against the BOM. This option opens a new window listing the items to be added to the BOM file.

Categorizes BOM information into four sections: • Match: components in BOM whose standard attributes match exactly with those in the model. In_Model_Only: components found in model but not in BOM. Same function as Edit > Complete BOM. Same function as Edit > Update Model. 98 HyperMesh 8. • • • Same function as File > Open.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Same function as File > Show Failed. Same function as File >Save and Export. Different: components in BOM whose standard attributes differ from those in the model. In_BOM_Only: components found in BOM but not in model. Same function as Edit > Check Model.View menu BOM View Compare View Display section displays BOM info as it appears in the BOM file.

It then displays the part names. to affect which parts display in the tree and which parts are selected or deselected.0 User’s Guide 99 . and press the <return> key to display the desired information in the tree and BOM display table. in brackets in the form of a tree structure located on the left side of the tool window. and can be used to filter the BOM info anytime in the session. This section also includes selection and filtering controls. Each tree branch is associated with a row in the BOM display table containing all standard information for the part in the tree branch. select the desired header in the options menu. appended with part ids. the tool identifies the part name and part id of all valid records. You can enter a string in the combo box. Data associated with switched-on branches displays in the BOM display table Switch on only those branches in the tree (and associated data in the BOM display table) that correspond to the displayed parts in the model (Show displayed) Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The combo box remembers previously entered strings until you quit the tool.BOM Comparison Tool Tree Section When a BOM file is loaded into the tool. Apart from this there are filter buttons each one of which is explained below: (Select All) (Select None) (Reverse selection) Displays all the branches in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table Switch off all the branches in the tree and delete all the data in the BOM display table Switch on all the “off” branches in the tree and vice versa. Filter options are given for displaying only the desired part info in the tree and the associated data in the BOM display table.

The master column data is used as a key for the following operations: • • • Update model attributes as in BOM Complete BOM by querying model Check model against BOM The tool allows three master column combinations between the BOM and the model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Compare by Part Name in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part name as the key. i. The tool queries the data in the model based on any one of these column combinations: • • • Compare Part Id in BOM with Part Id in model: the tool compares the attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part id as the key. BOM info can be displayed in two different modes: BOM only. part name and part number. Only columns with three attributes can be used as master columns. and Comparison. located in the center of the tool window just below the master column section.BOM Comparison Tool Master Column The central top portion of the tool window contains the master column section. This section allows you to select the desired master column option. Compare by Part Number in BOM with Part Name in model: the tool compares attributes of a part in the BOM with the part in the model using part number as the key. The master column is the column in the BOM file whose attributes are considered as a key in comparison and validation operations. By default information displays in BOM Only view: 100 HyperMesh 8. columns containing part id. BOM Comparison Tool BOM Display Section BOM info displays in a table in the BOM display section.e.

Create metadata creates metadata of all the attributes of the parts in the model corresponding to the selected row in the table.0 User’s Guide 101 . Update metadata updates metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. Delete metadata deletes metadata of all the attributes of the parts corresponding to the selected row in the table. In the Different category. Delete deletes the selected row in the table. which categorizes the BOM information into four categories: • • • • Match: BOM components whose standard attributes exactly match those in the model Different: BOM components whose standard attributes differ from those in the model In_BOM_Only: components found in the BOM but not in the model In_Model_Only: components found in the model but not in the BOM The screenshot below illustrates Comparison view: Column 1 shows the category name with the number of parts falling under that category enclosed in brackets. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Right-Click menu Right -clicking on the table opens a menu of functions: • • • • • • Display selected parts displays parts in the model corresponding to the selected rows in the BOM display table. remaining columns display the BOM info. mismatched attributes between BOM and the model are highlighted in light blue.Use the toggle button located in the top-right portion of the GUI to switch to Comparison mode. Display all parts will display all the parts in the model.

Metadata information contains all the attributes for a part in the model. the tool checks for the validity of each standard attribute in a record (a record corresponds to one line of info in the BOM file). the whole record is considered invalid and will be stored out-of-sight. After selecting a row in the BOM Display table. The tool considers the following five terms as standard attributes: • • • • • Part Name Part Id Material Material Id Gauge If at least one attribute is missing or repetitive. second row corresponds to metadata associated with the model BOM Comparison Tool Failed Records section When a BOM file is loaded. You have the option to edit each of those failed records to make them valid and move them to the BOM display table using the Move button. update and delete metadata using some of the menu items on the BOM display table.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The metadata display section contains four display options in the form of a combo box. First row corresponds to BOM info. 102 HyperMesh 8. This opens a Failed records table as shown below. Click the Show failed menu item or corresponding button in the control section to see the failed records.BOM Comparison Tool Metadata Display Section You can create. and then use this combo box to select the type of information displayed in the metadata display table: None Metadata related to BOM All metadata Differences between BOM/metadata clear the table if already some data exists display BOM related metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display all the metadata for the selected row in the BOM display table display two rows of info in the metadata table.

The preserve edges macro provides a way to ensure that specific components edges and feature lines do not accidentally get discarded during autocleanup or batch meshing. Thus. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a component selector in the HyperMesh panel area. picking a new set of lines starts over instead of adding to the selection.0 User’s Guide 103 . any previously stored feature lines will purge each time you click select lines or select comps.Preserve Edges Both the batch mesher and the autocleanup features seek to improve mesh speed and/or quality by suppressing minor features (which are assumed to be insignificant). Saves the preservation state. Removes all lines from the preservation list. When active. Click this button to highlight the lines already marked for preservation. so that autocleanup and batch mesher will know which lines must be preserved. Select Lines Show Preserved Comps selection boundary Select comps Clear all lines Save preserved Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Use the comps selector to choose the components whose boundary edges you wish preserved. When you click the preserve edges button. a new pop-up window opens to accept your settings: The following options are available for the Preserve Edges macro: Clear at start When this checkbox is active. However. this checkbox prevents HyperMesh auto-cleanup from equivalencing the boundaries between adjacent components. Note that this will not preserve lines inside the components—only the outer boundary edge. Clicking this button returns focus to HyperMesh and displays a line selector in the HyperMesh panel area. sometimes minor features are still important to your analysis. Use the lines selector to choose the lines you wish preserved.

You can also review the contour plot of thickness data with this macro. 104 HyperMesh 8. the controls for this macro display in a new tab in the tab area. allows you to transfer thickness data from surfaces to the associated nodes/elements. Clicking this button opens a surfs selector in the HyperMesh panel area. Discards any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. only the visual highlighting effect is removed (until you click show preserved again). Type a value into this field. Midsurf Thickness Geometric surfaces that represent the mid-plane of a solid part. use this to select the surfaces whose edges you wish to project points to. have thickness information stored in their definition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Project Points Use this macro to project geometric points (such as weld points) to nearby edges. Any points within this distance of the selected surfaces’ edges will be projected to those edges. The thickness data can be a single value for the entire part or a varying function. OK Cancel Accepts any changes you’ve made and closes the pop-up window. After selecting surfs and clicking proceed. if extracted using the HyperMesh midsurface function. The lines remain preserved. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu.Reset highlights After clicking the show preserved button. using the same units as your model. The Midsurf thickness macro. use this button to remove the highlight from the preserved lines. When you click the Midusrf thickness… menu button. HyperMesh displays a target element size field.

The following options are available in the Midsurf thickness. Groups the elements that have thickness values within the specified ranges into the new component based on the Range Interval or Gage File options.. Creates components with name “t[thickness value]” by copying the properties of the base component t0 and assigning the appropriate thickness based on the value of the Range Interval or Gage File options. CQUAD4 T1-T4 and Zoff fields will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). (For example. Use the Components option to group elements that fall within userspecified thickness intervals into common components. The components option performs the following generic steps for each User profile: 1. Most solvers only have Z-offset defined on the element card.0 User’s Guide 105 . the PSHELL T field will be populated for OptiStruct and Nastran). a base component named t0 must be defined. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For each User profile. so this value will always be populated on the element cards for any solver that supports Z-offset. Z-Offset Values Activate this checkbox to take z-offsets into account. HyperMesh uses Z-offsets when midsurfacing parts that have variable thickness. 3. The t0 component definition will be used for all created components based on the Range Interval specified in the Component Organization Method section described below. then assign the thickness value to the component property card image for each User Profile. In order to execute this mode. The nodes option is valid for only LS-DYNA and ANSYS solvers. (For example. Assigns appropriate thickness values to the Component. 2. the values will be updated on the element card for that solver.. Refer to the User profile section for more details on the unique behavior of the Midsurf Thickness utility for each User profile. Use the Nodes/Elements option to assign the thickness and Z-offset values directly to the element cards. macro: Apply thickness to You can choose to assign or view the thickness values at the nodes or on elements. This option is only valid for OptiStruct and Nastran User profiles. check the Z-offset values checkbox. the zoffset (which is saved as part of the midsurface data) tells a solver how much of a positive-normal offset exists between the actual part surface and the midsurface: To assign Z-offset values to the element cards for supported solvers.

Thickness calculation method This option is valid only while applying the thickness to elements. Gauge – You must specify the thickness range intervals in a Gage File. Closes the tab. n is determined by the maximum thickness in model divided by the user specified tolerance and then rounding to up to the next integer. Assign Contour Assigns the thickness from the surface definition to the nodes or elements chosen. Creates a contour plot of the thicknesses on the selected elements/nodes. You can specify thickness range intervals by two methods: 1. Min – the minimum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value. 2. Thickness range intervals are automatically generated based on the thickness tolerance using the following formula. HyperMesh groups elements having thickness values within the specified range intervals into appropriately created components with the appropriate thickness values assigned to the component. Close 106 HyperMesh 8. • • • Lower limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* i ) Upper limit = (tolerance / 2) + (tolerance* (i + 1)) Assigned value = tolerance*(i+1) Where i = 0……n. This option is very useful for visualizing and verifying the results of the Midsurf Thickness utility before applying the midsurf thickness mapping operation. The thickness assigned to each created component is n*tolerance. You can obtain the thickness value from the surface at: Average – the average of the element’s nodes. This step does not assign the thickness to the nodes or elements. Centroid –the element’s centroid (interpolated from its nodes) Max –the maximum value of the element’s nodal thicknesses. Click here for details on the format of the gauge file. Component Organization method This option specifies the thickness range intervals used when grouping the elements into components based on their thickness values. If the Assigned Value is not specified. it is a review/display function only.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Range Interval – You must specify a thickness tolerance.

Select a Component Organization method and either select a file or enter a tolerance based on the method. and enter any default values for this card. assign the base property card image. 5. 10. Click the Proceed button. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Select a Thickness Calculation method. To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Components Option: 1. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of thickness for the Node/Element option. Pick the desired nodes. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping To Contour Thickness for Node/Element Option: 1.0 User’s Guide 107 . Select the Nodes/Elements option. 6. Select the Nodes/Elements option. Load the desired model file. 2. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 8. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. 6. Create the base component “t0”. 11. 3. 6. Change to your preferred User Profile. Optional: use the Z-Offset check box to assign both thickness and Z-offset values. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. 7. Click the Proceed button to perform the thickness mapping. 3. 7. 4.To Assign Thickness and Z-Offset Values using Nodes/Elements Option: 1. 7. Load the desired model file. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 5. 2. 9. Click the Assign button to open the element selection panel. 5. 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. 3. Select the elements to map midsurface thickness onto. Select the Components option. 4. Load the desired model file. 4. 2. Leave the checkbox blank to assign only the thickness values. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab.

Activate the Z-Offset check box. 6. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. Load the desired model file. 11. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click the Proceed button. Select the Components option. 5. 108 HyperMesh 8. Activate the Z-Offset check box. 9. To Contour Thickness for Components Option: 1. 2. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the components option. Click Proceed to open the element selection panel. 5. 2. 4. To Contour Z-offset for Components Option: 1. Select the desired nodes. Change to your preferred User Profile. Click Proceed. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. Change to your preferred User Profile. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the z-offset for the Node/Element option. 7. 10. Select the desired nodes. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. 8. 8. Select the Components option. 3. Select the desired nodes. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Click the contour button to open the node selection panel. Select the desired elements. Click the Contour button to open the node selection panel. 10. 6. 2. 7. 4. Select the Nodes/Elements option. 7. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Load the desired model file. Load the desired model file. 5. 3. 6. Access the Midsurf thickness… utility from the Geom/Mesh page of the Utility tab. Select a Thickness Calculation Method. Select the desired elements. The utility opens the Contour Panel and shows the distribution of the thickness for the components option.To Contour Z-offset for Node/Element Option: 1. 8. 4. 9.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. Click the Proceed button.

Below is a specific example of a gauge file: Number of Gauges 4 End [max Thk] Assigned Value [Assigned Thk] Gauges Begin 0.05 0.1 0. then the average of the upper and lower limits will be used as Assigned Value.05 0.05 0. • • • Unsupported Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”.1 0. 3.1 0.15 0.15 End 0. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.2 Midsurf Utility Behavior under different user profiles Abaqus 1.0 0.Gauge file example The Gauge file uses the following format: Number of Gauges [Number of Gauge Data Lines] Gauges Begin [min Thk] … If the Assigned Value is not specified.2 Assigned Value 0.15 0. Nodes/Elements Option • 2.0 User’s Guide 109 . Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. Z-Offset value • Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

110 HyperMesh 8. • • • • • 3. 1. • Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Components Creates the component Creates “Real Set” property Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported OptiStruct and Nastran 1. 3. Assigns thickness value to created component based on Component Organization Method option. Nodes/Elements Option • 2. Z-Offset value • If Z-Offset is checked “on” Z-offset values from the midsuface will be retrieved and assigned to the elements associated to that midsurface. The components option will group the elements with thickness intervals.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Nodes/Elements • • • • 2. • • • Assigns the Thickness and Z-Offset values to the Element Card based on the user selection Components Option Creates components named “t[assigned thickness]”. Organizes elements into the created components based on element thickness value calculated using the Thickness Calculation Method option and the Component Organization Method.Ansys The only difference between the nodes/elements and components options are that the nodes/ elements option will group the elements which match only exact thickness values.

• • • 3.Ls-Dyna 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Radioss 1. • • • • • 3.0 User’s Guide 111 . • • • • • 3. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Creates the property card Assigns the thickness value to property Assigns the property to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported PamCrash 1. Nodes/Elements • 2. • Assigns the thickness values to the Element card Components Creates the component Assigns the thickness value to Component Group the elements to the Component Z-offset Value Unsupported Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

the mesh may deviate from the underlying geometry in order to maintain good quality elements. The maximum feature angle protects nodes on corners with a feature angle greater than the value specified. helping to better maintain the geometry. The surface trias from which the tetramesh will be extrapolated will be generated with angles that measure at least this many degrees. Use this control to limit how acute the resulting elements will be. For example. Click proceed to finalize the selection. if two nodes of an element share different features (as in thin steps). This macro is accessed on the Geom/Mesh utility menu located on the standard utility menu. the features may not be maintained as they do not pass minimum element criteria. During the process of quick tetramesh. Its main objective is to quickly and automatically create a tetramesh that meets the minimum interior angle and minimum element size. This applies only to cases where you can maintain features while fixing minimum element size. Surfaces and/or elements can be used to define the volume. and displays in a new tab in the tab area.Quick TetraMesh The Quick TetraMesh macro quickly creates a tetramesh of an enclosed volume defined by geometry and/or elements. The following options are available in the Quick TetraMesh macro: Volume Complist Double-click components and use the comps collector that displays in the panel area to select comps representing the geometry of the solid to be tetra meshed. To alleviate this.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . you can select “sacred elements” so that the tetmeshing function closely follows the original geometry. Altair Engineering Minimum Tria Angle Maximum feature angle 112 HyperMesh 8.

When this option is checked. Choose between automesh and batch. but requires more computing time. Chordal deviation uses smaller elements along curves. If the feature angle exceeds the given value. ignores/replaces existing elements. Choose between chordal deviation and uniform. Choose floating. it gives special preference to trying to keep the nodes on a sacred surface.0 User’s Guide 113 . Minimum allowable area for any element. Average element size of the mesh to be created. and projections onto the original geometry. but may produce lowquality elements along such locations. splitting of elements. The tetramesher will not move the nodes of these elements. Tet from Mesher Perform mesh cleanup only Help Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Some of the cleanup operations performed are: the suppression of free edges. and always uses uniform density. no tetra elements are created and the macro simply goes through the cleanup steps for the shell mesh. Mesh size Minimum Edge Size Minimum Elem Size Sacred surface Sacred elements Mesh type Mesh Density The mesh type options are Trias Only and Mixed. No single edge of any generated element will be shorter than this. even if doing so would improve element quality. both trias and quads may be created. Note that this setting overrides the float setting in the tet from option. Opens a pop-up window with basic information about each control that displays on the tab. in which the quick tetramesher is free to move nodes in a surface tria mesh to achieve better tetra elements based on them. correction of sliver elements. but does not currently support sacred surfaces or elements. or the one used by the batch mesher. All the cleanup steps are designed to improve the mesh quality. two adjacent elements are considered reversed and actions are performed to correct the situation. but only for the elements selected as sacred. in which the mesher must keep the tria mesh unchanged. With the Mixed mesh type. feature lines. Note: this does not work if two adjacent surfaces are both marked as sacred! These are existing trias that you have created according to your requirements and wish to maintain while tetrameshing the part. When HyperMesh tries to move element nodes to improved element quality. This is useful in ensuring that a particular feature is captured exactly the way you want it to be. Uniform uses identically-sized elements throughout the mesh. and edges to improve accuracy. or fixed. The Batch mesher generally produces better results. This determines the meshing engine used: the one used by the automesh panel.Maximum reverse angle The maximum feature angle allowed between normals of adjacent elements.

this persists until you exit HyperMesh. These sacred elements need to be trias. 6. attempt to remesh using different settings if you do not like the initial results. 5. Load the geometry. manually mesh problem areas. Closes the tab. or if mesh in certain areas is not satisfactory). improves element quality by moving the midedge nodes of second order elements. After making adjustments. Locate features in the model that have feature angles greater than 150 degrees. if any (e. Suggested process to effectively use quick tetramesh: 1. however. Launch the Quick Tetramesh macro. Fix 2nd order midnodes This macro.g. This helps to obtain the desired mesh in critical areas. You can manually mesh some critical geometry and select those elements as sacred elements. click this to re-run the meshing operation on the same components. 2. Re-launch the Quick Tetramesh macro and select sacred elements to protect.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Identify problem areas. Close Debug Surface Mesh The Quick Tetramesh macro meshes the unmeshed surfaces in the model using chordal deviation and fixes all the elements that fail the criteria provided. Use the delete panel to delete the tetras then. For critical areas where you want to control the mesh such as bolt holes. and Maximum angle. Note: There is no Undo function! You can. any surfaces edges that were ignored. Minimum Ratio between the minimum and maximum edge length. Select these elements as sacred elements. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. manually mesh using chordal deviation. and specify the quality constraints: Minimum Jacobian (evaluated at the corner nodes or integration points). Run with the desired mesh size. 4. moved midnodes lose any preexistent association with the underlying geometry. the tool heals small cracks in the model. Locate entities attached to the selected components. 114 HyperMesh 8. As a part of the cleanup. 3. A series of tools that help you located problem areas which can cause poor meshing: Find Holes Find T-Con Dihedrals Attached Try TetraMesh Locate holes in your model. You select the elements on which you want to improve the quality. Note: Moved midnodes are saved to your save list.Mesh Perform the quick tetramesh with the specified settings. In addition. Locate T-connections in the model.

so a value of 0. nd Order Midnodes window. The utility will move midnodes such that the angle at the ends of each segment will not deviate from a straight line by more than this amount (thought of another way. A value of 1 represents perfectly equal segment length.5 would allow the shorter segment to be half as long as the longer segment. the angle between the segments at the midnode will not exceed 180 degrees minus this value). nd The Fix 2 4. Click the elems selector and select retrieve to load the saved failed elements. 3. you use the Fix 2 Order Midnodes utility: 1. The Fix 2 Order Midnodes window opens. and use the radio buttons to determine whether HyperMesh should evaluate each element’s Jacobian at the corner nodes or the integration points. Click the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes button on the geom/mesh Utility Menu. Remember that this is a minimum length. but no greater than 1. HyperMesh 8. This pop-up window exists independently of the rest of the HyperMesh environment. nd In the Fix 2 • Order Midnodes window. or longer—but not shorter than half the length of the longer segment. An element selector and proceed button display in the panel area. Specify a minimum Jacobian value. Specify a limit to the ratio of minimum and maximum length for the segments of the midnodebearing edges.Typical usage of this utility begins with use of the check elems panel to identify poorly-formed nd elements. 2. while a length of 0 would mean that the shorter segment might not exist—so this value must be greater than 0. See the screenshot above for an example using a value of 30 degrees. and using that panel’s save failed option. Click proceed.0 User’s Guide 115 Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering • • Altair Engineering . choose your element quality constraints: Choose a maximum angle. From that point onward. so you can click-and-drag it to any desired location.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Reject undoes any changes made when you pressed apply. Click one of the command buttons to finalize: • • • Apply tells HyperMesh to move the midnodes to try to match the criteria you specified. When you click Apply. as well as the overall results: Before clicking Apply After clicking Apply 116 HyperMesh 8.5. Close closes the Fix 2 nd Order Midnodes window. The images below illustrate the before-and-after state of a specific midnode and the criteria used. a message displays under the Results heading to inform you of exactly what HyperMesh did to the mesh.

only one row displays because all layers will be set to the same values. or to vary from one another. Otherwise. measured from the node. This is the number of layers of washer mesh elements that you want to surround each hole. You can also specify a number of layers of washer elements to include. A new window opens: The options in the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window determine the type of hole that HyperMesh creates at each chosen node: Hole radius Number of layers Uniform/Varying Each node will receive a hole of this radius.Trim Hole Macro This macro. then click proceed. Clicking the Trim Hole button opens a special. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. with a nodes selector and a proceed button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The number of a specific washer layer. Pick nodes on your model for the centers of each hole that you wish to create. This toggle only applies when the number of layers is more than zero. If you chose varying width for the layers. creates a circular hole of a given radius in the mesh at a node specifying the center of the hole. and specifies whether you want mesh layers to all be the same width. No.0 User’s Guide 117 . temporary panel in the HyperMesh panel area. the table displays one row for each of the number of layers that you specified.

Note: This macro does not remove any rigid spiders that currently fill the hole. evenly spaced around its circumference. When you click the Fill Hole button in the utility menu. delete the rigid spider before using this macro. Note that this only undoes a single click of the trim button. fills in one or more holes in your geometry with automatically-generated mesh. Close Fill Hole Macro This macro. If you don’t like the results of the last trim operation. and enables two more options: • • Choose individual rigid links to create rigid elements at each node of the new hole. so it can only undo multiple holes if they were created simultaneously during a single trim operation. Close the Mesh Trimming with Circular Holes window. • Value Create rigid spider along the hole The scale factor or width of the layer(s). Width: specify a fixed width for each layer. Each new hole will be created with at least the number of nodes that you specify in the density field. This checkbox tells HyperMesh to create a rigid spider in each of the new holes created. Click this button to create the new hole(s). use “0.5” for a washer layer that’s half as wide as the hole radius. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. click this button to undo it.Scale/Width Determines the width of the washer layers. Minimum number of nodes around the hole Trim Reject This determines the mesh density around the new hole(s). if necessary. • Scale: you can specify each layer’s scale relative to the Hole radius.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For example. Choose single rigid link to create one rigid element that connects to all of the nodes around the new hole. a new window opens: 118 HyperMesh 8.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and X=xmin and X=value. allows you to trim the model (or selected subset) along the global axis to fit the selected 3-D box. 4. a full car model can be trimmed along the Y=0 axis to obtain the left or right side of the car. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=ymiddle.0 and Y=ymax.There are two methods of filling holes: Manual Use this option to select the holes that you wish to fill: 1. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=xmin and X=value. The selected model can be trimmed along eight standard types: left right front rear frontleft frontright rearleft rearright Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y=ymin and Y= ymiddle (ymiddle =(ymin+ymax)/2). Note that this only undoes a single click of the fill button. Split the model along global Y=ymiddle and save the model between Y= ymiddle and Y=ymax. Click proceed in t he panel area. and attempt to fill them with mesh. and X=value and X=xmax. with the Select Nodes button now green to indicate that nodes have been chosen. Fill Reject Close Box Trim Macro The Box Trim macro. If you don’t like the results of the last fill operation. Split the model along global Y=0. The window temporarily minimzes. Click the Fill button to fill the selected holes with mesh. so it can only undo multiple fills if they were created simultaneously during a single fill operation.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value) and save the model between Y=0.0 and X=value (selected value).0 and Y=ymax. For example. 2. Close the Filling holes with mesh window. 3.0 User’s Guide 119 . HyperMesh will automatically scan you model for holes smaller than this value. Split the model along global Y=0. The Filling holes with mesh window returns. Automatic Use this option to let HyperMesh select holes automatically based on size. Split the model along global Y=0. returning you to the main HyperMesh environment with a nodes selector active in the panel area. Split the model along global X=value (selected value) and save the model between X=value and X=xmax. located on the Geom/Mesh utility menu. and X=xmin and X=value. Type a value into the entry field labeled Fill circular holes with radius smaller than:. and save the model between Y=ymin and Y=0. Select nodes on the edges of the holes that you wish to fill. and X=value and X=xmax. click this button to undo it. Click the yellow Select Nodes button.0. Click this button to perform the fill operation. whether you chose to select your holes manually or automatically.

This macro is useful in applications where some types of analysis can be performed on one-half (or quarter) of the model using symmetry boundary conditions. 120 HyperMesh 8. e The model can also be trimmed using custom box by either selecting the two corner nodes or center node and dimensions. The axis directions and terminology are based on modeling standards in the automotiv industry. Note: This macro is for the 1st order plate elements only.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

If you select Corners. 3. If no load collector is specified. You can turn on the option of creating constraints (SPCs) for all the nodes along the face of the box. define the box by either selecting two corner nodes (Corners) or selecting the center node and dimensions (Distance from center). select the node/enter value for trim location. the constraints are created in the current load collector. Y and Z bounds of the box. select the elements you would like to trim and click proceed or the middle mouse button. 6. . If you select custom. the outer X. (Reject will undo all the above. The nodes are constrained in the appropriate directions depending on the trim axes and are stored in the specified load collector (SPC collector).) 5. If you select a standard type. Click Trim. Then enter Delta X. 4. From the Box Trim dialog. Delta Y and Delta Z values which is the distance from the center node to the outer bounds of the box in global X. Using the extended entity selection. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and select the two corner nodes that define If you select Distance from center. and select the center node. click the icon.0 User’s Guide 121 . From the Geom/Mesh utility menu. A large hexa element that represents the box will be created for visualization in the specified collector. click Box Trim. choose the appropriate option from the Box trim type: menu.To box trim a model: 1. 2. You can also specify a Box collector. . If no elements are selected. all displayed elements are selected. click the icon. Y and Z directions.

refer to Connector Definition and Connector Realization for more information.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Virtually every option available for FE realization in the connectors module is also available in the Auto Connectors macro. The Auto Connectors macro automates the importation and FE realization of connectors from either a Master Connectors File or an older Master Weld File. Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog 122 HyperMesh 8.Auto Connectors Macro Note: If you are unfamiliar with HyperMesh connector entities.

This script automatically reads the default HyperMesh feconfig.user-defined option Input requirements for connector entity creation and FE realization are: • • • Note: Master connectors/weld file FE config Projection tolerance In the case of a user-defined FE config.cfg file and displays a list of all the appropriate user-defined FE types (found in the feconfig.Automated Connector Creation and Fe Realization dialog . Additional options are: • • • Build systems Snap to node Attach to shells Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file) in the Fe type field. the user-defined FE type-t o-realize is required.0 User’s Guide 123 .cfg file. The property and diameter can be specified if necessary. The user-defined FE type definitions can be found in the appropriate feconfig.

The length of the Hexa element will be equal to the actual distance between the two connecting components/elements. The equivalent area is taken to determine the side of the hexa.0:: 0. Minimum thickness 1.25: 3. ACM Welds An ACM (Area Contact Method) weld is a special representation of a spot weld. The second figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.25:: PartId1 2:: 2:: PartId2 3:: 3:: 5:: PartId3 The syntax is the same as used for spotweld.25:: Z 1. The weld is defined using a solid (HEXA) element whose cross-sectional area is equivalent to the area of the weld nugget. A format example is shown below. Thickness Files DvsT file (diameter vs thickness ) contains a table that associates the thickness of components and the nugget diameter of the weld. These solid elements are connected to the corresponding components using RBE3 elements.05:: Y 2. T1 and T2 are the component thicknesses. Project to shell 124 HyperMesh 8.0 Maximum thickness 1. The size of the solid element is determined using the DvsT file.0 Nugget diameter 7 8 The nugget diameter is 7.99. For additional supported formats. PointId 12:: 23:: 1t/2t/3t 2:: 3:: X 2. The first figure below shows the ACM weld created using this method.25:: 3. This creates the Hexa elements between the component/element shell surface. The nugget diameter corresponding to the minimum thickness of the connecting parts is obtained from the DvsT file.4 2. Diameter vs.Master Weld Files The Master Weld File provides the weld location and parts to be connected.0 for the thickness range of 1. Th e solid element is created at the exact weld location independent of the shell elements that represent the sheet metal parts. The length of the weld element is calculated using one of the following methods: (T1+T2)/2 This creates the Hexa elements with a length equal to the average component thickness it is connecting. The file format includes thickness range and the corresponding diameter of the weld nugget.9 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The size of the hexa is calculated to match the cross-sectional area of the weld nugget.4 to 1.exe feinput translator. see Spotweld Interface Overview.

The nodes of the shell element closest to the dependent node are assigned a greater weight relative to the node that is farther away.0 option ACM creation using Project to Shells option The weights of the RBE3 elements are calculated based on the projection of the dependent node on the shell element. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.The figures below show ACM created using the two currently available methods.0 User’s Guide 125 . ACM creation using (T1+T2)/2.

3. Once a connector is created. hexas are created with weld nugget diameter =1. Make sure that the connectors are created at each of the weld locations along with connecting parts information. Click realize. which determines the size of the hexa based on the thicknesses of the components being connected. they can be realized as ACM spotwelds as follows: 1. The 1D element is not connected to the shell element. In addition to the creation of CWELD elements. 6. 4. The appropriate property script is automatically loaded for the selected type. 7. Choose custom element config and select type = Nastran 70 ACM((T1+T2)/2) or type = Nastran 71 ACM (Shell Gap) per your requirements. Select a DvsT file. 5. a corresponding property card (PWELD) is created with an updated diameter ‘D’ attribute value. Select the connectors to be realized as ACMs in the fe realize panel of the connectors module on the 1D page. For CWELD elements. 2. Load the Nastran user profile from the user prof… panel in Geom or Tools page.0. 8. 9. Set the appropriate tolerance (proj tol=) value. the diameter is determined from a DvsT file based on the component thickness.ACM welds can be created and managed in HyperMesh using connectors. For details regarding connected shell elements or nodal information see the element card. Make sure the attach to shell and snap to node options are turned off in fe options….0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 126 HyperMesh 8. meshless elements. Make sure all the connecting parts have PSHELL cards with correct thicknesses. CWELD Elements CWELD elements are created as patch-patch. If no DvsT file is selected.

They include Abaqus. Note that the user profiles change the appearance of a panel . Ansys. loading a specific Utility menu. add functions to (or remove them from) a panel. removing unused panels or sub-panels.0 User’s Guide 127 . The configuration can include loading a specific template. Note: Ensure that items required for a specific function are not removed from the interface. HyperMesh. The hmmenu. Permas. Moldflow. and removing. They may. OptiStruct. Pamcrash. or renaming panel options.set file keeps track of which user profile was last loaded. and an interface customized for CFD uses. moving. Select User Profiles from the Preferences pull-down menu. Once you choose a standard user profile.User Profiles The HyperMesh user interface can be configured according to your specific needs and saved as a user profile. Madymo. LsDyna. the appropriate template and Utility menu load (you can return to the standard HyperMesh GUI by selecting the HyperMesh profile). renaming panels. Radioss.they do not affect the internal behavior of each function. The current user profile displays on the header bar. User profiles for the following products are included: HyperMesh OptiStruct ABAQUS ACTRAN ANSYS LS-DYNA MADYMO NASTRAN PAM-CRASH & PAM-CRASH2G PERMAS RADIOSS CFD Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A set of standard user profiles is included in the HyperMesh installation. Nastran. however. Actran.

If a template file exists before loading the profile. Using HyperMesh This section explains how to use a typical HyperMesh panel by description and example. the template remains the same. It contains information about: • • • • • • • • • • Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Input Collectors Viewing Models Using the Display Panel Setting View Options Setting Tolerances Setting Global Parameters Importing and Exporting Data Printing Screen Images Using the Card Previewer 128 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . None The HyperMesh user profile does not load a template.mac) is loaded. If a template file exists before loading the profile. the template remains the same. The standard HyperMesh Utility menu (hm. Utility menu: Panel changes: The standard HyperMesh Utility menu is loaded.HyperMesh User Profile Template: None/Unchanged This user profile does not load a template.

. and Save As… options located in the Files pull-down menu. To save a database..0 User’s Guide 129 . and click Open. click retrieve. If the file being saved already exists... HyperMesh asks for confirmation before overwriting the file. Save.. or type in a name for the file to be saved. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select a path and file name. updating/overwriting its older version each time you Save. Open and Save As… both invoke browsers so that you can navigate to the desired file directory and either select a file to open. Next. but can be less efficient than using the File menu. Next. Save simply saves the current model under its current name. and click Save. This process is familiar for users of HyperMesh 7.. Using the Files Panel However. and then select the hm file sub-panel... and then select the hm file sub-panel. You can also click save as. open the files panel by clicking the files toolbar button. select a file using the Open file. you can also use the hm file sub-panel on the files panel to save and retrieve HyperMesh binary databases. dialog.Retrieving and Saving a HyperMesh Database Using the File pull-down menu The simplest way to open or save a HyperMesh model database is to use the Open. To retrieve a binary HyperMesh database.0 and earlier. click save.

If you need to select nodes on geometry or on an element where nodes do not currently exist. You can set the default mode for the graphics mode you wish to use by activating/deactivating the *graphicengine(mode) command in the hm. The following list indicates the pick handle locations for each type of entity: Nodes The pick handle for a node is located at the node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You may need to change the command if the default has been changed by a prior user. The pick handle for a coordinate system is located at the origin of the system. Elements Shell and solid element pick handles are displayed as pixels at the centroid of the element. move the mouse to the location on the screen where the node resides. Each type of entity has a pick handle that allows you to select the entity. or surface within that component. Line handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. Each pick handle is displayed as a small "+. A component can be selected by picking an element. Note: For more information about picking entities. see Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements. Lines Each segment of a line has pick handles along its length." If there are many pick handles. a "+" is displayed at only some of the pick handles. 1-D element pick handles are displayed as letters at the centroid of the elements: K M BAR2 BAR3 R RL W RBE3 J ROD GAP spring masses bar2 bar3 rigid rigid link weld rbe3 joint rod gap Click the element handles check box on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel to switch on or off the display of element handles.cfg command file. Components do not have pick handles. line. Surfaces can be selected along their edges or on interior UV lines (also known as surface lines). Click geom handle on the modeling sub-panel on the options subpanel to switch on or off the display of line handles. To select a node.Picking Entities on the Screen After you select the correct data type. see Entity Selection. you can use the mouse to pick the desired entities in the graphics area of the screen. Systems 130 HyperMesh 8. Element handles can be selected whether or not they are displayed. Surfaces Components Surfaces do not have pick handles.

To facilitate the selection of graphical entities such as nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To select a system collector. The pick handle for a load is located at the pick handle of the entity to which the load is applied. Titles Vectors Curves Note A title can be selected by picking within its bounding box. simply select a load within that system collector.0 User’s Guide 131 . Blocks are drawn in shaded mode with transparency and can be selected by picking anywhere on the entity. or loads. Load collectors do not have pick handles. A plot can be selected by picking within its border. simply select a system within that system collector. A curve can be selected by clicking anywhere along the curve. To select a load collector. Vector pick handles are located at the arrow tip of the vector.System Collectors Loads Load Collectors Plots Blocks System collectors do not have pick handles. Blocks do not have pick handles. you can turn on the coincident picking option from the modeling sub-panel of the options panel (accessed from the toolbar). when several of them are coincident (present at the same location). elements.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Then move your cursor to the exact location on the geometry where you would like the node to be placed and click the left mouse button to place a node. When you are in a node collection mode. 3. they also allow you to create new nodes on geometry or on elements. Move your cursor to the exact location on the element where you want to add a node and click the left mouse button. The cursor becomes a small white box 2. . Release the left mouse button. While the line/surface is highlighted. release the left mouse button to select it. This function can be accessed from any node collector in any panel. Then move the cursor to the exact location on the elements of that component and click the left mouse button to place the node. To select new nodes on elements: 1. You can create temporary nodes on an element (similar to creating a node on the fly on a line or surface). While the line or surface is highlighted in this manner. 132 HyperMesh 8. A temporary node is created at that location and is selected in the node collection for the panel. position the cursor on an element handle and hold the left mouse button down. This function allows you to create welds at locations that do not have pre-existing nodes. surfaces) on which you would like to place a node. 3. To select new nodes on geometry: 1. Continue to hold the left mouse button down and use the mouse to move this special cursor box close to the desired geometry entity.Picking Nodes on Geometry or Elements Node and node list input collectors allow you to not only pick existing nodes in the model. 4. You can create nodes on elements by holding the left mouse button down on an element handle until the cursor becomes a square and selecting the element. Position the cursor on a node and press the left mouse button. edges. you can select nodes at the desired location(s) on the geometry. You can create a node on geometry by holding the left mouse button down along the geometry handle until the cursor becomes a square and then selecting the geometry (lines. 2. The cursor becomes a small white box and the element is highlighted.

coordinate systems. the entities selected by this operation are those attached to the selected component. You may select multiple collectors from this list. Allows you to select entities adjacent to the entities already selected. and points by collector. loads. When you select by adjacent. lines.Using the Extended Entity Selection Menu The extended entity selection menu provides a number of entity selection options. HyperMesh displays a list of the available collectors. You can then select an option from the extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh displays a list of the available assemblies. HyperMesh includes the entities that are adjacent to the entities already selected. Allows you to select entities by specifying an entity among a large group of continuously connected elements. Extended selection techniques are described in the following table: all Allows you to select all entities of the specified type. surfaces. the set to be added to the user mark includes entities displayed and those not displayed. the elements or lines contained in the selected components are selected. With all other entities. click the data type button on the current input collector. You may select multiple assemblies from this list. by adjacent by assems by attached by collector Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Selections that are not valid for the current entity type are displayed in dimmed text.0 User’s Guide 133 . When you select all. Allows you to select entities by assembly. equations. Allows you to select elements. When you select by attached. Entities that are not displayed will not be selected although they may be attached to the entity selected. If you select component collectors in regard to elements or lines. When you select by assems. To access the extended selection menu. These selection options are displayed for all of the entity types in HyperMesh. Input Collector Extended entity selection menu. HyperMesh includes the entities currently displayed that are attached to the entities already selected. When you select by collector. vectors.

or "t" may be substituted for the dash (-). adjacent surfaces or elements are progressively selected when the angle between them is less than or equal to the specified feature angle. You can use keywords to specify a range that determines which entities are selected. When you select by include.10. Attached. It finds surfaces and elements that are attached to each other without crossing a feature line. When you select by group. by output block Allows you to select the nodes. The element type is dependent on the template file specified in the global panel. comps. HyperMesh displays a panel for specifying an element configuration and type for selection. The standard format is: <start number> . HyperMesh displays a list of the available output blocks from which you may select. 8 . The feature angle parameter in the options panel’s modeling sub-panel determines the feature lines. When you select by output block. 4. a pop-up window prompts you to type ID numbers or ranges of ID numbers. loads. "thru". 800. Allows you to select entities by typing in their ID numbers. groups etc. and the letter "b" may be substituted for "by" when you specify the range. 5. You may select multiple groups from this list. Allows you to select entities by surface face. that belong to selected include.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Examples of valid by id expressions: 127 127 – 722 300 through 600 300 thru 600 300 t 600 1000 . 100 3. 850 1 .<end number> by <increment value> "through".by config Allows you to select elements by configuration and type. elements. 134 HyperMesh 8. Note: Includes created via the include browser are only valid for solvers that support them. 400 t 500 b 3 by face by group by id by include Allows you to select FE entities such as elements. Output blocks are created in the output blocks panel. 3. Examples of valid lists of by id expressions: 1. systs. When you select by id. When you select by config. 77.100 by 2. Allows you to select entities by group. groups and mats within an outputblock.2000 b 100 You can also use a comma to separate individual entities or entity ranges.2000 by 100 1000 . HyperMesh displays a list of the available groups. 5. HyperMesh displays a list of the available includes that you may select.

by sets by surface by window by width displayed duplicate on plane retrieve Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Alternatively. lines. Allows you to select the entities which are associated to a surface.0 User’s Guide 135 . Click select entities to highlight the enclosed entities. and selects all the nodes/lines that fall in the closest path connecting the selected ones. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes. Select original to place the new entities in the same component collectors as the original entities. Sets are created in the entity sets panel. Select current to place the new entities in the currently active component collector. click reject entities to deselect enclosed entities that were previously highlighted. HyperMesh displays a panel from which you may select one or more surfaces. When you select by surface. This is useful when you want to apply constraints to a plane.by path Allows you to pick multiple nodes or lines. When disp is selected. This can be very useful when you use the reflect function on a model (only available for elements and lines). Allows you to duplicate the currently selected elements. You can associate entities to a surface in the node edit panel. HyperMesh displays a list of the available sets from which you may select. surfaces. all entities within collectors that are active in the disp (display) panel are selected. Similarly. either by picking a sample surface or by specifying a range of values for the width. Allows you to retrieve previously saved entities from the user mark. Allows you to select all of the entities currently displayed on the screen. by path for lines uses the connectivity of surfaces/solids and thus requires the selected lines to be surface/solid edges. or by selecting save failed in the check elems panel. Allows you to select the entities within a set. When you select by sets. Once the surfaces have been selected. Entities can be saved to the user mark by selecting save in this popup window. When you select duplicate. click select and HyperMesh selects the entities which are associated to the surfaces. Allows you to select entities inside a user-defined multiple-sided polygon in the plane of the screen. and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh. or points. the function tries to find the closest path along that free edge. Allows you to select surfaces by width. Select points in the graphics area to define a window enclosing the pick handles of the desired entities. The initially selected entities are deselected when the duplicate elements are created and selected. Selecting by window activates the build window panel. a pop-up window allows you to choose a component for the newly created duplicate entities. Allows you to select a group of entities whose pick handles reside on a plane. as shown in the global panel. If you select two nodes on a free edge of some elements.

the function tries to find the closest path along the free edge.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Since this function uses the connectivity of the surfaces. the function tries to find the closest path along the free surface edges. Allows you to select nodes by window and internally. Some panels in HyperMesh require only a single entity to collect. Thus their extended entity selection menu is different from that of the standard extended selection menu. The extended entity selection menu is not displayed in such situations. This function uses the connectivity of the elements between the nodes and thus requires the selected nodes to be part of a continuous shell mesh.reverse Allows for a Boolean "not" to be performed on the currently displayed elements. it only works with surface edges and not free unconnected geometric lines. for example. the order of the nodes selected is determined based on its spatial location and element connectivity (if connecting elements exist). 136 HyperMesh 8. Allows you to pick surface edges (two or more) and selects all the surface edges that fall in the closest path connecting the selected edges. origin in the systems panel requires only one node. all selected elements are removed from the mark. show node order by window The linelist collector provides the following extended selection options: by list by path Allows you to select lines or surface edges individually in the desired sequence. such as nodelist and linelist must remember the sequence in which the entities are selected. Some collectors. If you select two free (red) edges. Allows you to pick nodes (two or more) and selects all the nodes that fall in the closest path connecting the selected nodes. Allows you to review the nodes currently stored in the nodelist collector by numbering the nodes in the sequence of their selection. all elements which are not on the mark and are currently active are selected. Allows you to save the currently selected entities to a holding area known as the user mark. If you select two nodes on the free edge of the elements. The nodelist collector displays the following extended selection options: save Notes: by list by path Allows you to select nodes individually in the desired sequence. When reverse is selected.

or rotate the model in clockwise or counterclockwise directions. then click cw (clockwise) or ccw (counterclockwise). The viewing functions allow you to: Setting Basic Views The view pop-up menu allows you to display your model in several basic views. The following window viewing options are included as default keyboard shortcuts: z + and f p s Circle zoom: click-and-drag the mouse to draw a circle. The view zooms to that circle when you release the mouse button.0 User’s Guide 137 . identify. View pop-up menu. reverse the view. fill the window with the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Release the mouse button to stop zooming. The view menu Changing the Window The window viewing options allow you to zoom in and out of the currently displayed window. The view commands are accessible even when you are using other panels. Slide zoom. and down arrow keys to rotate the model incrementally. • • • Use the left. and restore different views of your model. Using View Rotation There are multiple methods you can use to rotate a displayed model. right. click-and-drag the mouse to zoom in and out. Click the user view button in the Toolbar Area to access the view menu. Hold down the ctrl key. The save and restore options allow you to save. up. (Numeric keypad) Current Window Zoom Fit to screen Plot (refreshes the rendering in the Graphics Area). specify an area to see in closer detail. then click-and-drag on the model in the graphics area. and refresh the screen.Viewing Models The functions on the Toolbar Area allow you to control the view of your model.

2. The area circled is used to recalculate the window when the mouse button is released. Press Z on the keyboard. move the mouse to circle the area to be zoomed in on. HyperMesh displays a message requesting you to circle the area of the model to be more closely investigated.CTRL .on the numeric keypad to zoom out. Automatic full screen refreshes are kept to a minimum. To perform a circle zoom: 1. To zoom in and out of the current window: 1. To drag the model: 1. To refresh the screen: • Click the plot refresh toolbar button or press P on the keyboard. 2. A trailer line appears wherever the mouse is moved. press the p key or the plot refresh toolbar button to refresh the screen. Slide the mouse: or 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Simultaneously press and hold the CTRL key and the right mouse button. Press the s key. The cursor changes to dynamic center mode. Press + on the numeric keypad to zoom in. 138 HyperMesh 8. To fit the entire model on the screen: • Press F on the keyboard. To use the mouse to zoom in and out: 1. These two functions increase or decrease the current window by the user-defined factor specified on the modeling sub-panel on the options panel. Click and hold the mouse button. The model and/or the window are not resized when you refresh the screen. Use the mouse to drag the model to the desired position on the screen. Release the mouse button.right click allows you to drag the model. 2. If the screen appears messy or inaccurate after entities have been plotted and erased. 3. Move the mouse to the appropriate area on the screen and hold the left mouse button down. 3. down to zoom in up to zoom out Release the mouse button to end the zoom function. 2. Press . With the mouse button still depressed.

Exit by moving the mouse into the menu area. The current center is indicated by a small white box. by clicking the right mouse button. Press C on the keyboard. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This returns the screen graphic to the view before a rotation. You can toggle between two views of a model by clicking (or pressing) repeatedly. 2.0 User’s Guide 139 . To change the screen center: 1. center. is performed by selecting a new center for the current window. or by pressing any key. 3. click the previous view button in the Toolbar Area or press b on the keyboard.Performing View Translation Translation of the model. The center relocates. Move the mouse to the point where you want the new center located and click the left mouse button. or other viewing manipulation was performed. Return to the Previous View To return to the previous view of your model. Move the mouse into the graphics area. also called panning. 4. zoom.

At this setting. the elements in the selected components are displayed if the component (on the left-hand side of the panel) is selected. Select the type of collector you want to remove from the screen display. Use the left mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want added to the display. 2. Click all. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. 140 HyperMesh 8. The name and ID of the collector are displayed on the left side of the page. To turn on all the collectors of a specified type: 1. located on the permanent menu. To turn all the collectors off: • Click none. the switches (on the right-hand side of the panel) are set to comps and elems. Collectors can also be turned off by moving the mouse to the graphics region and picking an entity which they collect. To turn a collector off: 1. The colors of each component display next to the component names. Use the right mouse button to click the check box of the collector you want removed. Click the upper switch. Click the lower switch and select name (id) to display the name and the collector’s ID number. A list of the collectors of the selected type is displayed on the left side of the panel. The name of the collector is displayed on the left side of the page. 3. 3. Click the lower switch and select (id) to display the collector’s ID number instead of the name. allows you to select which components and collectors are displayed on the screen. To turn a collector on: 1. or both: 1. 2. Components can be turned on and off by selecting the check boxes of the components in the display list.Using the disp (display) Panel The disp (display) panel. Select the type of collector you want to display. Select the collector type. IDs. In the default mode of the display panel. 2. 2. Click the upper switch. Click the upper switch. To change to another collector type: 1. To change the collector list to display names. Access it by clicking the display button in the Toolbar Area or selecting Display > Collectors from the View pull-down menu. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The ID of the collector is displayed in parenthesis on the left side of the page. Select the type of collector you want to display. Click the lower switch and select name to display the collector’s name. 3.

Enter the character string to use for the filter.0 User’s Guide 141 . To display geometry: • Click the toggle and select geoms to display the surfaces and lines in a component. Click the leftmost toggle to filter =. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. You can use the asterisk (*) for a wildcard. 2.To reverse the selection: • Click reverse to toggle between having all the selected components on or off. To use a filter: 1.

a circular insert pops up containing various loads displayed separately with their IDs turned on. The element handles option specifies whether or not to draw element handles. You can then pick the appropriate load. The zoom factor specifies the multiplication factor that is used to increase or decrease the scale of the current view when you press the + and – keys on the numeric keypad. The geom handles option allows you to specify whether or not to display line and surface handles. elements. When the pick tolerance is increased. This option allows you to display the element labels as template names or HyperMesh names. The entities supported for coincident picking are nodes. Increasing or decreasing the angle makes the model appear to rotate faster or slower. The surf lines parameter specifies the default number of u-v lines to draw on new surfaces when they are created.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The pick tolerance specifies the maximum distance. Viewing option settings include: rotate angle The rotate angle specifies the number of degrees that your model rotates when you use the arrow keys. setting the rotation angle to a lower value allows a smooth transition from frame to frame. it is easier to pick an entity. For smaller models.Setting View Options The modeling sub-panel on the options panel (accessible via to toolbar or the Tools pull-down menu) allows you to define several viewing options. This function is activated by turning on coincident picking in the options panel. This sub-panel also allows you to specify node and cleanup tolerances. Fixed points can also be turned on and off from vis opts in the geometry cleanup panel. An element handle is a single-pixel dot at the centroid of an element. Displaying surface lines can help you to visualize a surface better. Turning off pick handles can speed up the redraw time. fixed points The fixed points option allows you to specify whether or not to display fixed points. This does not affect the display of free points. The number of surface lines on existing surfaces can be changed by using the surf lines panel. pick tol zoom factor surf lines element handle geom handle coincident picking template labels/ HM labels 142 HyperMesh 8. in pixels. The coincident picking option allows you to graphically select a desired entity from a stack of coincident entities when there are multiple entities at the same location. but it can slow down the redraw speed of a large model. that the cursor can be from the pick handle of a graphical entity in order to select it. loads and systems. The element handles option also allows you to display the center of gravity for multibody collectors and text labels for 1D elements. for more information see Setting Tolerances. For example. if multiple loads are detected at the same location.

If a shrink value is applied.Shrink The shrink option controls the shrink factor to be used when drawing elements. Hidden Line with Mesh Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the edges drawn in mesh line color. To select a node. then selecting FE Styles. Hidden Line with Feature Lines The element displays as a filled polygon with the "feature" edges drawn in mesh line color. select the element to which the node of interest is attached. as you are not required to have a pick handle on the screen in order to pick the entity. Shrinking elements is a convenient way to detect holes in a mesh and to improve wireframe element picking. Display attributes can be applied to all components by using the wireframe elements and shaded elements toolbar buttons.0 User’s Guide 143 . HyperMesh selects the node closest to the point where the element was selected. If no shrink is selected. Access this panel by opening the View pull-down menu. it is much easier to work when you are zoomed in on a particular area. They can be applied to individual components or sets of components through the Visual Attributes panel. For nodes that are not attached to any elements. This feature allows you to assign a set of display attributes to each component of your model that determines how each component is displayed. Component Display The graphics engine treats each HyperMesh component as an independent unit. Hidden Line The element displays as a filled polygon. The benefit of this feature is that it allows you to create zero length elements between two coincident nodes in a mesh. Transparent The element displays as a filled transparent polygon. For lines and surfaces. Entity Selection The graphics engine allows you to select entities by moving the mouse anywhere along the entity of interest. Another key feature in the graphics engine is the method by which nodes are selected. so that its corners do not appear to touch its nodes. each element is drawn so that its corners directly connect to its nodes. HyperMesh allows you to select the node by picking the "node sphere" on the screen. The shrink value must be between 0 and 1. the element is scaled by the specified value about its centroid. The display attributes that you can assign to each component are: Wireframe Element edges display with lines. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

you should obtain more system memory. Optimization The graphics engine optimizes the display of your finite element model. this could seriously affect performance. or as a value-based surface in which you specify a value that indicates where an isosurface should be displayed. If this situation occurs. One of the optimizations is the removal of interior solid faces. and faces panels. with the elements in back eliminated from the display. contour. If you have solid elements in your model. When a component is set to hidden line. since HyperMesh is creating entities that reside in the same location in space as another entity. HyperMesh relies on the zbuffer found on your graphics device. HyperMesh graphics use some memory.User Features of the Graphics engine When you are post-processing. There are some limitations to using a zbuffer and some display output differences of which you should be aware. then HyperMesh draws the whole model in hidden line. HyperMesh calculates where the external faces are in your model. If you encounter this problem. The isosurfaces sub-panel is available on the contour and animation panels. edges. The cutting plane feature can be found in the hidden line. it may help to use the shrink option (modeling sub-panel on the options panel). and displays these instead of displaying all of the faces. Isosurfaces Hidden components Memory usage 144 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and then another entity closer to you at another. the display lines which represent the edges (for example) might be partially or completely blocked out by the original entity in the database. To perform this task. Isosurfaces can be displayed on a model in either a legendbased mode in which each of the legend colors generates an isosurface. One problem with using the zbuffer technology is that if two entities lie in the same location in space. the interior is filled with solid color. Here. In some cases. the graphics engine draws all selected or temporary nodes as spheres when one or more components are set to a display attribute other than wireframe. or nearly the same location in space. the zbuffer may have difficulty deciding which entity to display. To correct this situation. and animation panels. If swapping occurs while you are running HyperMesh. If one or more of the components in a model are set to a display style besides wireframe. you might see a "dotting" or "stitching" effect where the zbuffer considers one entity to be closer to you at one pointer. If this occurs. The zbuffer allows HyperMesh to render your model in hidden line. This can make it very difficult to see a node. the graphics engine offers advanced and powerful features: Cutting plane Cutting plane functions have been expanded to allow three planes to be active simultaneously. Potential areas of zbuffer stitching are in the features. Cutting plane control is more interactive and is controlled by selecting any of the active planes with the mouse and then dragging the plane across the model. you can turn the zbuffer off by making all of the components in your model wireframe.

and eliminating extraneous vertices.01 1.1 1.1 0. controls model parameters that are accessed by several different panels.01 1e-3 0.Setting Tolerances The modeling sub-panel is located on the Options panel. and initializes the tolerances as appropriate.1 10. which is accessible from the toolbar or from the Tools pull-down menu.1 0.. HyperMesh considers any two nodes to be coincident if the distance between them is less than the value.1 10. Element size Node tolerance min max 0.max 1e-4 0. This sub-tab allows you to define tolerance values.0 10. Use this panel or the template sub-panel on the files panel to specify the template file you want to use. The cleanup tolerance value specifies how much HyperMesh is allowed to modify the geometry in the course of "cleaning" it. The global panel controls which components or collectors are active.0 User’s Guide 145 .0 Cleanup tolerance min. the tolerance values are determined by the demands for that mesh.0 Setting Global Parameters The global panel. any entities created are stored in the active collectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. These parameters remain constant until changed. cleanup tol Since the objective is to make a finite element mesh for the geometry.01 1. Since you will approximate the geometry with a finite element mesh. When you specify a node tolerance.0 1e-4 0.01 1e-3 0. You need to approximate the size of the elements that make up the smallest feature of importance in your model. accessed by selecting Global Parameters from the Model pull-down menu. you need to work with a cleanup tolerance that is less than the node tolerance used in the mesh generation..0 0. click the toggle after element order: to second. These tolerance values include: node tol Node tolerance is essentially the resolution to which HyperMesh maintains the finite element data in the model. "Cleaning up" refers to cleaning up the CAD geometry data by equivalencing edges. HyperMesh attempts to make a reasonable guess at this value when you import a CAD file. If you want to create second order elements. but without additional input it uses a cautious estimate.0 100. Elements are designated as first order elements by default.0 0. deleting fillets.

HyperMesh uses templates to create the analysis input decks for finite element solvers. Select the desired file extension to limit the files that display in the files to import list. CATIA.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Click the file pull-down menu.Importing and Exporting Data The import sub-panel on the files panel allows you to input external CAD line and surface data or finite element models. Ls-Dyna. The CUSTOM interface allows you to import models using your own custom-built translation package. and STEP. You can also import/merge HyperMesh model files (. You can also use the templates to perform complex editing or data manipulation tasks. The Multiple File Import window opens. Click Import to import the selected files. Click the button to deselect all of the files in the list. and a secondary window opens to show the import progress and any errors that may occur. Click the “open folder” icon in the directory field to open a browser. Marc. 5. Abaqus. Select the desired file type. 8. and Ideas. You can modify the existing templates to support a desired feature or create a new template to support another analysis code. 2. Altair Engineering 9. Pamcrash. Cmold. 7. Patran. PRO/E. Click the button to select all of the files in the list. but not all. Click import to open the import sub-menu. 4. 6. Browse to and select the directory that contains the models you wish to import. <ctrl>-click to select multiple files one at a time. UG. To import multiple files: 1. Ansys. DXF. • Selected files are highlighted to indicate their selection. 3. 146 HyperMesh 8. Click the button to invert the selection (deselect any currently selected files and select any currently non-selected ones). Click multiple files. Select the desired files in the files to import list: • • • • Left-click to select a single file. The CAD formats currently supported are IGES. Geometry data can be written in IGES format. Radioss. Click Close to close the Multiple File Import window. This is useful in cases when you want to choose most of the files in the list. The export sub-panel on the files panel allows you to write information from a HyperMesh database to many finite element formats. Nastran. VDAFS. PDGS. STL. Moldflow. The window minimizes during the import process. HM ASCII. The FE formats we support are Optistruct. HyperMesh ascii. The HyperMesh templates can be used to create model summaries and perform some analysis calculations. you can select the ones you don’t want and then invert the selection. The custom option can be used to import models using a translator provided with the HyperMesh installation but cannot be accessed via the pop-up menu.hm) into the current model session.

Click write. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. Click the lower switch and select layers.0 User’s Guide 147 . and use the browser to select the file containing the data. 7. Select IGES.) To create an analysis deck via an external translator: 1. For translator:. Click the toggle and choose either outer loop optional or outer loop mandatory. 2. Click filename = and enter the name of the output file. To write geometry data in IGES format: 1. Select the export sub-panel on the files panel. 2... 2. 3. For file:. Click the upper switch and select the plane format of the data. 4. 6. 4. (Note that the IGES interface exports geometry only. Click write. 9. groups. Select EXTERNAL. 2. Select the data format that corresponds to your input data from the pop-up menu. click import. if they are not already present. and enter the name of the output file or select. A column of switches and toggles appears on the right..To read data using a standard translator: 1. 6. 3. Click template = and specify the file name of the template file. Click write as. 4. Select the FE option. or layers & groups.. Select IGES. template = appears if it is not already present. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. click import. To read data using a custom translator: 1. Select the CUSTOM option. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 5. 8.. A new input field. click browse… and choose the translator required to read the file. For file:. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. and use the browser to select a file. 5.. Click the toggle to select all or displayed to specify whether you want all your model data to be exported or only the entities that are currently displayed. 4. 3. 3.

2. Select Options from the Tools pull-down menu. postscript sub-panel: color checkbox Activate the color checkbox to print in color. plot optimize page length = 148 HyperMesh 8. Select fill model to expand the model to its maximum size within the graphics area of the PostScript page.* is generated. The ? is a number provided for file uniqueness. Select generate bitmaps to generate a bitmap PostScript file. reverse video generate bitmaps fill to page fill model bitmap preview Select reverse video to indicate that your printer cannot produce reverse video images.0 inches.Printing Screen Images The postscript sub-panel on the options panel allows you to modify the default print specifications before you create a PostScript file. You can check this by selecting Print from the File menu to show the print dialog box and pressing the Properties button next to the printer name. To print an imported encapsulated PostScript image in MS Word. Select Image > PostScript. The following options are available in the options panel. Make sure the option Print PostScript over text is selected. Deactivate the color checkbox to print in black and white. or psp for a PostScript file whose destination is the printer). a PostScript tab is present in the properties dialog. The color checkbox is active by default. 3. This requires processing time to optimize the image output.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A PostScript file with the name post?. If it is not selected. Select bitmap preview to generate an image that can be viewed when you view the file in another document. Open the File pull-down menu. Select fill to page to fill the PostScript image to the specified page dimensions. The standard page length is 11. and * is an extension (either eps for a PostScript file whose destination is the hard disk. If the printer selected is capable of printing PostScript. press the Options button in the print dialog. To set MS Word to send the imported file as a PostScript image to the printer. Set the options to your print specifications. Select the PostScript sub-panel. 2. the PostScript preview or file information is printed instead of the actual PostScript image. Click page length = and enter the new size to alter the page length. To create a PostScript file: 1. Select plot optimize to decrease the size of the PostScript file generated. To change PostScript settings file: 1. The generate bitmaps option must be off if you select this option. you must have a PostScript capable printer installed.

On UNIX platforms.page width = image size = line width = print it standard/enhanced Click page width = and enter the new size to alter the page width. If you select enhanced. Select line width = and enter the new width to alter the line width. Printing Screen Images Using Keyboard Commands You can also use the following function keys in combination with the CTRL key to print and/or save screen images without accessing the postscript sub-panel. hm. Click the toggle to standard/enhanced to change the postscript file resolution to print blended contours. The resolution is displayed in the header bar.cfg.jpg screen capture or animation file. a slider bar is displayed. Select print it to send a copy of the file to the printer when you generate the PostScript file.0 User’s Guide 149 . If the functions do not create output.cfg. Creates a PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Click image size = and enter the new size to scale the image on the page to your specifications. It creates a smaller PS file. The enhanced option allows you to print blended contours (not discrete). hm. CTRL-F3 CTRL-F4 CTRL-F5 CTRL-F6 Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This command executes the operating system command in the *postcopy() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file.cfg. The standard page width is 8. (Note: This works only in UNIX.5 inches. hm. the default installation does not spool the bitmap file to the printer. but takes longer to generate. The slider controls the smoothness of the gradient fill of the blended contour. your systems administrator must configure these functions for your system. In order for the functions to work correctly. CTRL-F1 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and spools it to the printer.) Creates a PostScript file of the screen and writes it to disk. Creates a black and white PostScript file of the screen and spools it to the printer. CTRL-F2 Creates a bitmap file of the screen and writes it to disk. This command executes the operating system command in the *screenfile() function as set up in the HyperMesh configuration file. Generates a *. please contact your systems administrator.

Using the Card Previewer A control card may be in one of three states: State Undefined Defined (See note. and allows you to enter data in the field. When you override a default value field. pick the yellow field label. Default values for attributes are common throughout the card previewer. the label text color changes to cyan.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . A card that has been defined may be disabled. however. A default value field has two states: State Default = ON Default = OVERRIDDEN Description In this state. the control card is not output.) Inactive Note: Color Gray Green Red Explanation The control card was either never created or has been deleted. To override a default value field. The attributes for that card remain. 150 HyperMesh 8. Those control cards that are defined (green in the control card editor) are output. Any control card viewed in the card previewer is activated. the field label color is yellow and no data entry is allowed.

the following building process is used: • • • • • • Create collectors Obtain line and surface geometry from an external file.General Process for Building Models This section describes how to build a finite element model in HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide 151 . In general. or hand digitize the data Reconcile conflicts in the geometry and prepare it for use Build the model by using element-building panels Verify the quality of the model Create boundary conditions and systems Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Select the create sub-panel. Based on the assigned template. Select the collectors panel. Before you build a model in HyperMesh. each collector may use a dictionary or card image to define the attributes assigned to the collector. Note: For more information about the types of collectors used in HyperMesh. If you are creating a component or property collector. 5. For collector type:. Click name= and enter comp1. Click the switch under creation method: and select no card image. 6. 4. 6. 3. Click name = and enter a name for the collector. Select dictionary or card image and then click dictionary = or card image = to select the dictionary or card image from a list. HyperMesh uses the definitions contained in the dictionaries or card image to translate models to external analysis codes. create a component collector for the lines and surfaces. 8. 2. Click create. 4. 2. You are not required to provide a material name when you create a component or property. Click the upper switch and select comps. The collectors panel allows you to create and update collectors and assign and edit card images or dictionaries. Where available. 7. select material = and enter a name for the material. Click create.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select same as and then click same as = to select the collector whose type and dictionary or card image information you want to copy from an existing collector. click the switch and select the type of collector that you want to create. HyperMesh automatically creates a material for you and gives it the same name as the component or property. Click the switch under creation method:. if desired. Click return. To create a collector: 1. Select the create sub-panel. click color and select the desired color for the component from the pop-up menu. 3. 152 HyperMesh 8. 7. If you choose not to. 5. Select the collectors panel. − − − Select no dictionary or no card image if you do not want to assign a dictionary or card image.Creating Collectors All entities in a HyperMesh database are stored in collectors. To create a component: 1. refer to Collectors in Database Design.

PDGS. The types of geometric entities and organizational information imported vary for different formats. IGES. 4. When the geometry is read into the current database. To import geometry: 1. HyperMesh creates a new component if an active component does not already exist. DXF.Reading Geometry HyperMesh imports CAD geometry (such as lines. Unigraphics. ACIS and STEP.0 User’s Guide 153 . Using the toggle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select the Geom option. please review the individual CAD translator topics for additional information. 2. 5. surface data. Select the appropriate file format to be imported from the pop-up menu. select create blanked component or no blanked component. Pro/E. Parasolid. Select the import sub-panel on the files panel. and point data) in the following formats: CATIA (V4 and V5). select use automatic cleanup tol to use the cleanup tolerance associated with the geometry of the imported file. Blanked components are geometric data that exists in the CAD file but is marked as not displayed or turned on. VDAFS. Click Open to import the model into HyperMesh. − − Using the toggle. 3. or select cleanup tol and enter a tolerance value. Click import… to invoke the file browser and select the file that contains your geometry data.

split. The ruled. and at the intersection of other geometry. knots and weights. you can create or edit geometry using the line and surface builders. extending. Several methods are available.Creating Geometry Data If geometry is not available from a CAD system. Create circles or arcs. The panels used in this process are listed below: lines creation and editing panels lines line edit circles Create lines in a variety of methods. at tangents. Edit existing surfaces by removing individual features such as holes or fillets. 154 HyperMesh 8. or extend. Edit existing surfaces by trimming. or spin. These lines form one path because they intersect at four points. Create standard shaped surfaces or solid entities. There is no limit on the number of lines used to create a mesh/surface. drag. and create a spline surface and/or mesh in the enclosed area. spheres.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . point/node creation and editing panels nodes temp nodes Create new nodes. or shrinking. and drag/spin sub-panels of the surfaces panel can be used to create NURBS surfaces. The spline option creates a surface through 3-D lines. spline/filler. HyperMesh will connect the disconnected lines with straight lines. If you select a set of lines that do not form a closed loop. Edit existing lines in a variety of methods such as combine. surfaces creation and editing panels surfaces primitives surface edit defeature Create surfaces from existing lines or nodes by different methods. including: from points. and cylinders. including squares. Creating NURBS surfaces A NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) surface is a parametric surface defined by control points. smooth. Add or remove nodes used only for geometry creation or editing. such as spline. cones.

line by using the lines panel. Lines that contain sharp edges can cause problems when you create a surface. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. If the tolerance is too small and an intersection cannot be found. smooth. These sharp edges are sometimes the result of data created on other CAD/CAM systems and brought into HyperMesh via a translator. Creating a surface with these lines results in a relatively complex surface. which takes longer to create. These lines may need to be "smoothed" by using the line edit panel or replaced with a new. The tolerance setting on the options panel is used to determine the intersections between lines. These lines result in a more complex surface. and slows the automeshing process.0 User’s Guide 155 . HyperMesh reports an error when you attempt to create the surface.These lines form more than one path and cause an error.

Lines used to define a skinned surface. The skin option can create a skinned surface through a set of lines.The "circular" shaped line has been replaced with a smooth line. A skinned surface created from the lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 156 HyperMesh 8. In some cases the sharp edges are required to represent the model and should not be smoothed. which results in a much simpler surface.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A ruled surface created from the lines.0 User’s Guide 157 . Lines used to create a ruled surface.The ruled option can create a ruled surface between two lines.

. the easiest method of selecting a surface is to pick the surface near its edges or surface visualization lines. There may be times when you wish to use an unattached node later in the modeling process. you can select any one of them by clicking on the edge. Removes all the temporary nodes from the database. you can hold the left mouse button down until the surface of interest is highlighted. In the temp nodes panel. there are three functions: • • • add clear clear all • • • Adds selected individual nodes to the temporary node list. The temp nodes panel allows you to modify the temporary node list.e. If several surfaces share an edge. Release the mouse button when the desired surface is highlighted. where appropriate. click anywhere on the surface to select it. i. edges. and release it to confirm the selection. Each surface highlights as selected. protecting them from automatic removal by HyperMesh’s database management (except for some panels that automatically clear all temporary nodes. faces. In shaded mode. If you use any surface edge lines in the line edit panel. Surface edges may be used in the same way as lines in any surface creation panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Picking Surfaces In HyperMesh. edit elements). and while holding the mouse button down. 158 HyperMesh 8. you can display surfaces in wireframe mode or in shaded mode. Removes selected individual nodes from the temporary node list. Similar to wireframe mode.Temporary Nodes A temporary node list retains nodes that are not attached to an element. In wireframe mode. duplicates of the lines are created and the operation is applied to the duplicates. moving the mouse slightly from side to side.

If the sweep does not intersect the surface. This allows them to be meshed at the same time. For example. A circle and a surface (represented with surface lines) before trimming. The surface is trimmed by sweeping the line along the vector and intersecting the surface with the sweep. You must select the surface and the line and specify a direction vector. After the circle is used to trim the surface. use the trim with line sub-panel of the surface edit panel. the surface is not trimmed. You can use the surface edit panel to modify surface geometry when it is necessary to make changes before you generate a mesh. The features and automesh panels have a cleanup sub-panel.Editing Surfaces Each HyperMesh surface contains one or more faces.0 User’s Guide 159 . which contain surface editing tools. It is usually preferable to combine multiple faces into one surface entity before you use the meshing tools. two new surfaces are created (shown highlighted) and the original surface is trimmed. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. to trim a surface with a line.

160 HyperMesh 8. use the trim with surf sub-panel. Two surfaces before trimming. The smaller surface is split into two surfaces after it is trimmed with the larger surface.To trim one surface with another.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

the associativity is not broken. if you transform a component that contains both a surface and its associated nodes/elements. the nodes are automatically associated to the surface. Some operations break associativity. However. If you transform. When you create a mesh with the automesher. Associativity is also broken if you trim a surface. node. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. such as translate. Associated nodes and elements can be selected by surface.Associativity Nodes and elements can be associated to surfaces. When nodes are associated to a surface. a surface. Note: Re-associating nodes to a surface is usually a time consuming task.0 User’s Guide 161 . associativity is broken. which allows you to select all the nodes and/or elements associated to a surface. you can use the smooth panel to smooth elements on the surface and the node edit panel to move the nodes along the surface. or element. use the node edit or project panel. To re-associate a node to a surface.

To make the geometry more appropriate for meshing. overlaps.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The quick edit. The juncture between two surfaces often contains gaps. their priorities are different from those of analysts trying to use the data. or other misalignments. The initial CAD geometry often contains gaps. edge edit. point edit. These features can distort the elements or demand a finer mesh. misalignments. and prevents unnecessary artificial or accidental edges from being present in the final mesh. 162 HyperMesh 8. each a separate mathematical face. or pinholes. and autocleanup panels contain tools to help you prepare surface geometry for meshing. A single smooth surface is typically split into smaller patches. analysts need to combine a number of faces into a single smooth surface. This allows the elements to be created on the entire region at once.Geometry Cleanup When designers create CAD geometry.

and eliminate pinholes. you can easily build a much better mesh.With the tools of the geometry cleanup panels. combine surfaces into large meshing regions. Using the simpler.0 User’s Guide 163 . cleaner geometry. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can close the gaps between surfaces.

This section describes the element types and indicates which panels you can use to build the elements. rods. Building 1-D Elements One-dimensional elements currently supported in HyperMesh include bar2s. and joints. 1-D Element Bar2 Stores A property reference A local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Bar3 Property reference Local axis vector Pin flags Offset vectors Optional orientation nodes Gap Joint Property reference Property reference Optional orientation nodes or system(s) Plot RBE3 Rigid link A reference to two nodes A degree of freedom at each node Weight at each node A degree of freedom code One independent node Multiple dependent nodes Rigid Rod Spring A degree of freedom code A property reference A property reference A degree of freedom code An optional orientation vector A degree of freedom code Supports rigid elements. and a property reference. springs. line mesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . Supports NASTRAN RBE3 elements. Plot elements are generated in the edit element. Altair Engineering 164 HyperMesh 8. you can build elements directly on the geometry. Supports kinematic joint definitions supplied with Safety Analysis Codes. Masses have the ability to store one node. Supports complex beams. Building 0-D Elements The 0-D elements currently supported in HyperMesh are masses. elem offset. or features panel. gaps. The 1-D element-building panels are located on the 1D page of the default main menu. Supports display type elements. Supports simple beams. The following list indicates the storage capabilities and purpose of each of the 1-D elements. welds. Purpose Supports complex beams. Note: bar3s contain a third node designed to supported second order beams. a value of mass. Supports gap elements. rbe3s. Masses can be created in the masses panel. plots. Supports springs or damper. rigids. Weld Note: Supports weld elements. rigid links. edges. Supports rigid elements with multiple nodes. bar3s.Building Elements After you create or obtain geometry data.

four-noded quads. Builds elements by spinning a line. Builds elements by dragging a line. Builds elements between two rows of nodes. row of nodes. Builds elements on toroidal surfaces. a row of nodes and a line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. By default. Builds elements on spherical surfaces. Builds elements by offsetting a group of elements in the direction of their normals.0 User’s Guide 165 . row of nodes. and eight-noded quads can all be built in HyperMesh. Builds elements by hand. but second order parabolic elements may be generated by changing the element order in the global panel. or two lines. Builds elements on conic or cylindrical surfaces. Builds elements by dragging a line or group of elements along or about a control line. Builds elements that lie on a surface defined by lines.Building 2-D Elements Three-noded trias. first order linear elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. six-noded trias. These two-dimensional elements can be built in any of the following panels: automesh cones drag edit element elem offset line drag planes ruled spheres spin spline torus Note: Builds elements on surfaces according to user specifications. or group of elements about a vector. or group of elements along a vector. Builds elements on square or trimmed planar surfaces.

and 15-noded pentas. first order elements are generated when the functions in these panels are executed. Builds solid elements between a variable number of lines. Creates solid elements by offsetting a group of two-dimensional elements normal to the surface formed by the group of two-dimensional elements.Building 3-D Elements HyperMesh builds 4.and 10-noded tetras. Builds solid elements between nodes. Propagates split hexas. but second order solids may be generated by switching the element order in the global panel. Builds elements by hand. and 8. lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 166 HyperMesh 8. By default. Tetras can be built in the edit element panel by hand or by using the tetramesh panel. Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a line. Pentas and hexas can be built in any of the following panels: drag edit element line drag linear solid solid map solid mesh elem offset spin split tetramesh Note: Drags a group of two-dimensional elements along a vector to create solids. and surfaces.and 20-noded hexa elements. Creates solid elements between two-dimensional elements. Spins a group of two-dimensional elements about a vector to create solids. Fills with tetra elements a volume that is enclosed by tria elements or surfaces. 6.

aspect ratio. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check tetra elements for collapse. you can use the check elems panel to verify the geometric quality of the elements in the model. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The group sub-panel provides a tool to check for and eliminate group or interface elements whose underlying structural element has changed and left them detached. aspect ratio.0 User’s Guide 167 . skew. skew. The 1-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check one-dimensional elements for free ends Determine if a group of rigid elements form a loop Check weld and rigid elements for double dependency Check all elements for a minimum length of a side The 2-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage. and NASTRAN-style aspect ratio The time sub-panel allows you to check for elements whose small size might cause problems for an explicit solver. CFD-style volumetric skew. The user sub-panel allows you to verify element quality by using a template file that checks for userspecified conditions.Checking Model Quality After you build your model. You can check your model for connectivity and duplicate elements. and jacobian ratio Check the maximum and minimum interior angles of quad and tria elements Check all elements for a minimum length of a side Check a mesh of elements for its maximum chordal deviation from a real or inferred surface The 3-d sub-panel allows you to: • • • • Check elements for warpage.

Applies a constraint or enforced displacement at a node. Applies a pressure on an element or geometry. EQ. T. Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow with an optional label. HyperMesh stores and displays all loads in the global coordinate system. The label may include the magnitude of the force. Before you apply loads. Applies a general equation constraint between nodes. Loads are displayed in the color assigned to the load collector. HyperMesh transforms the loads appropriately to any local nodal output coordinate system. with an optional label. Applies a velocity at a node. and updating loads and constraints. Applies a concentrated force along any user-defined vector at a node. Equations are displayed with the label. The size of loads and constraints is based on model units and can be modified from within the boundary condition panels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The label may also display the magnitude of the acceleration. M. V. flux.Applying Loads The final step in the model building process is to apply constraints and forces and to create or assign coordinate systems. HyperMesh currently supports the following load types: • accelerations • Applies an acceleration at a node. Depending on the analysis code being used to calculate results. Velocities are displayed as a singleheaded arrow with an optional label. Forces are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label F. P. The label may include the magnitude of the moment. Moments are displayed as a double-headed arrow with an optional label. create a load collector. Applies a temperature constraint at a node. Temperatures are displayed as a straight line starting at the node at which the temperature is applied extending upward. The label may include the magnitude of the flux. A. The label may include the magnitude of the pressure. Accelerations are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a concentrated moment about a user-defined vector at a node. • constraints • • • equations fluxes • • • forces • • moments • • pressures • • temperatures • • velocities • Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. 168 HyperMesh 8. Constraints are displayed as a triangle with an optional label that displays the degrees of freedom effected by the constraint. Pressures are displayed as a single-headed arrow with an optional label. Applies a flux load at a node. The label may include the magnitude of the velocity. reviewing.

Reference systems transform geometric location or input vectors from the global system to a local system.Creating Systems Systems in HyperMesh are referred to as coordinate systems and may be rectangular. HyperMesh supports reference and analysis systems.0 User’s Guide 169 . cylindrical. Nodes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Systems are built and referenced in the systems panel. mass elements. A system collector must exist and be current in order to build a system. Analysis systems transform the output system of a node entity. forces. or spherical. Note: System collectors collect system entities. and other systems are eligible entities for a reference system.

While you are in the meshing module. 170 HyperMesh 8. trias. you can use any of viewing tools on the visual options menu to simplify the visualization of complex structures in your model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You can adjust the node biasing on each edge to force more elements to be created near one end than near the other. Most of the element creation panels use this module. the module operates the same. you may choose from a greater variety of algorithms. which allows you to see immediately the locations of the new nodes. have more flexibility in specifying the algorithm parameters. There are two approaches to the automeshing secondary panel. Most of the functions are still available and operate in the same way. If you do not use surfaces. You can also specify whether the new elements should be quads.Automatic Mesh Generation HyperMesh has a centralized plate and shell mesh generation tool called the automeshing secondary panel. which supplies as much automated assistance as possible. If you use surfaces. The created mesh can be previewed. Furthermore. A solid model created by dragging automeshed plate elements. Mesh smoothing is also available and you may select the algorithm for that operation as well. You control interactively the number of elements on each edge or side and can determine immediately the nodes that are used to create the mesh. You may choose from several mesh generation algorithms. which allows you to evaluate it for element quality before choosing to store it in the HyperMesh database. the meshing process is usually faster and uses less memory. until you are satisfied with the resulting mesh. HyperMesh responds with immediate feedback on the effects of the changes. you can specify the mesh generation and visualization options to use on each individual surface. • If you use surfaces. depending on whether or not you use surfaces as the basis for the operation. You can adjust interactively a wide variety of parameters and choose from a suite of algorithms. or mixed and whether they should be first or second order elements. there are situations in which it is not possible or not desirable to create a surface. • For either method. and employ the mesh-smoothing operation to improve element quality.

The automeshing secondary panel can make second order elements for boundary element solutions. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 171 .

undo. abort. smooth. the screen display changes to present only the information applicable to the current operation. 172 HyperMesh 8. reject. and return functions (see Automeshing Secondary Panel in the Panels section). You can switch freely between the sub-panels.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Using the Automeshing Secondary Panel The functions of the automeshing secondary panel are divided into six sub-panels. as well as the local view pop-up menu. density algorithm type biasing details checks Each automeshing sub-panel has the mesh.

and chooses the algorithm that will give the best results. Eventually the entire region is filled with elements. at least one tria always needed. HyperMesh uses a streamlined version of this algorithm that is optimized for the different shape and connectivity requirements of tria elements. Free • • If quads is the selected element type for the current face. the default mesh generation algorithm is Autodecide. the best choice of algorithm is usually to map a standard mesh onto the region using transfinite interpolation. If trias is the selected element type. it chooses the Free algorithm. The mesh generation algorithms include: Autodecide If you are meshing a surface. HyperMesh chooses a standard template based on the element densities around the perimeter of the region. or pentagonal in shape. a submapping algorithm is used. If there is a tight corner on the boundary that would require a poor quality quad. In this case. The Free meshing algorithm is a general-purpose formula that works for most meshing conditions. placing elements along the edges as it proceeds. The advancing front algorithm uses the following process: • Traverses the perimeter of the region.0 User’s Guide 173 . rectangular. but there are some situations in which one or more trias are included: • • • If the total number of elements specified for the perimeter of the face is odd. gives quality results rapidly. If mixed is the element type. and where applicable. Such an operation is exceedingly fast. The surface can have interior holes or edges and any number of sides. HyperMesh first creates a quads mesh and then divides each element along its shortest diagonal. Examines the groups of elements to see if a local change in the connectivity might improve element quality. Applies repeatedly the selected smoothing algorithm until no node is moved farther than the specified smoothing tolerance.Mesh Generation Algorithms The mesh generation algorithms are divided into two types: those that require the presence of a surface to provide a context of operation. Each site where an element could be placed is measured and one of several possible elements is chosen. HyperMesh attempts to produce an all-quads mesh. To make tria elements. For most configurations. you can usually eliminate them by changing some of the meshing parameters and then remeshing the region. an advancing front algorithm is used. Rectangle. HyperMesh recognizes more than 18 different configurations requiring distinct templates. or those working entirely from node and/or line data. HyperMesh uses a single tria. Ignoring rotations. if that is the case. Sometimes two or more trias are needed because of the particular order in which the elements were generated. Map as Triangle. or Pentagon If the region is free from internal holes and the boundary is clearly triangular. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh analyzes the geometry of each face and the element densities specified for each edge. If quads or trias is the selected element type.

the algorithm is to map a sphere-covering mesh.Map without Surface If you are creating a mesh entirely from line and/or node data. the algorithm is to drag. You can still use the density and biasing manipulation tools but some edges will be linked together. 174 HyperMesh 8. the mesh generation algorithm is decided by the tool that was used to describe the desired operation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If you use the drag panel. so that the configuration always satisfies the balancing requirements of the intended mapping. and if you use the spheres panel. with no surface. If you use the spin panel. the algorithm is to spin.

this choice usually gives the best results.Smoothing Algorithms There are three smoothing algorithms used by HyperMesh: Autodecide By default. allowing variation in element size. Size Corrected Shape Corrected Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The size-corrected smoothing algorithm attempts to even out the sizes of the elements at the cost of some element quality. The shape-correcting smoothing algorithm attempts to correct the elements’ shapes. usually in the form of worsened aspect ratios from the stretching of elements. HyperMesh uses a modified isoparametric-centroidal over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.0 User’s Guide 175 . this choice usually gives the best results. If there is a transition from small elements to large elements in the region. HyperMesh traverses the perimeter of the region looking for variations in element edge length and choose between size-correcting and shape-correcting smoothing algorithms. If the element spacing around the perimeter is roughly uniform. HyperMesh uses a modified Laplacian over-relaxation that can correctly handle mixtures of quads and trias.

1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) = 1. 176 HyperMesh 8. You can designate that the smaller intervals go near the start of the edge. then: . When you use the drag and solid offset panels. the biasing intensity corresponds to the positive slope of a straight line over the interval [0. you can use biasing to cluster several layers of elements near the surface of a solid. near both ends with larger intervals in the middle.Element Biasing The automeshing process allows you to bias the placement of nodes so that their intervals are not uniform in size. Specifically.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the mesh at one end could be scaled several times larger than at the other end. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. near the end of the edge. or near the middle of the edge. and b is its y-intercept. Element biasing allows you to moderate the changes in aspect ratio from the start to the end. Linear Biasing In linear biasing. This interval is uniformly divided into as many subintervals as specified by the element density and they are mapped along the edge so that the length of the image interval is proportional to the height of the line over the midpoint of the source interval. you may want to use biasing to improve element quality when transitioning from smaller to larger element sizes. In linear solids. let n be the element density and let . Within the automesher.1] of the Real Line. Each image interval corresponds to the side of an element. If m is the slope of the line. There are three methods you can use to calculate the biasing of node positions: Use biasing to preserve element quality in complex regions.

progressing along the edge.Using x(0) = 0.1] with x(0) = 0 and x(1) =1. Let be the geometric growth factor. For this. We need a function Let then: so that: which gives the proper interval lengths.0 User’s Guide 177 . placing the smaller elements at the end instead of the beginning. the nodes are placed according to 1 .1]. with each successive interval being a constant factor larger than the previous. If the biasing intensity is negative. We can use b to scale the behavior of the function so that convenient values are in the range [0.5. Exponential Biasing In exponential biasing. and x(1) = 1. Negative biasing intensities just reverse the edge.20]. . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. let n be the element density and let . This formula was chosen so that an intensity of zero will still represent no biasing. Thus. Specifically.0 plus 1/10 of the absolute value of the biasing intensity. Thus. That factor is 1. We want a node placement function x(s) taking values in [0. a positiv biasing intensity puts small elements at the start of e the interval. the sizes of the intervals grow geometrically.x(s). we find: so. . and convenient values will fall in the range [0. then x(s) scales them to the range of [0. The value used is b = 1. m is the absolute value of the biasing intensity.20].

and has the behavior noted above. Specifically.1] with x(0) = 0. If we use: for positive biasing intensity r. 178 HyperMesh 8. x(1) = 1. they are placed at the middle of the edge. nodes are distributed long the edge in a pattern that is symmetric across the midpoint of the edge. . then x(s) becomes: where erf() is the statistical error function. If the biasing intensity is positive.Bellcurve Biasing In bellcurve biasing. We need so that takes values in [0. the smaller intervals are placed at the beginning and end of the edge. and if it is negative. let n be the element density and .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. HyperMesh automatically links those edges together so that they stay balanced. The resulting edge is locked and you cannot change the element density or biasing.0 User’s Guide 179 . If you try to adjust the element density numbers corresponding to these locked edges. "The value of this number cannot be changed" is displayed.Linked or Locked Edges Most of the surface-less mesh generation algorithms requires that some edges have exactly the same element density and biasing values as other edges. Use the automeshing secondary panel to prepare input for solid offset. The error message. Some of the surface creation panels allow you to use a node list to define one or more sides of a surface. In these circumstances. HyperMesh uses those nodes directly to make elements within the automeshing secondary panel. Any change to one of the edges is immediately applied to all others that are linked to it. it has no effect.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The characteristics of connector entities can be divided into four categories: Connector Terminology Connector Definition Connector Realization Connector Review 180 HyperMesh 8. you can create an FE weld by realizing a connector. Just as you can create an FE shell mesh by meshing a surface.Connector Entity Connectors are geometric entities (not FE) primarily used to create welds.

and lines can be used to define connector location. A connector that was realized can revert back to being unrealized if. nodes points lines The connector is created at the node location. The color code provides an easier way to visualize and filter connectors based on their state. The connector location option is set in the create panel. points.Connector Terminology Connector State The connector state is defined as one of the following types: unrealized The initial definition of the connector entity after it is created. or the weld element is deleted. Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The connector is considered failed if the weld creation at the connector was not successful. realized failed Note: Connector Location The position in space at which a connector entity is created. Only nodes. a link entity is suppressed from its definition. Only one connector is created for each line. The connector is considered realized only if weld creation at the connector was successful. The connector is displayed in green. but the line may be split into multiple projection locations as specified by the offset. The connector icon is created at the center of the selected line. and density values. The connector is created at the point location. spacing. for example.0 User’s Guide 181 . The connector is displayed in yellow. The connector is displayed in red.

A node facilitates a node-node weld connector. Surfaces can be used to create welds to connect geometry before meshing. tags. The tag entity can be used to define a weld connector to either a node. elems Note: 182 HyperMesh 8.Link Entity A reference to a separate HyperMesh entity that can be added to a connector. A part that needs to be welded is often represented as a component.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or an element that it holds. The connectors can hold a single entity or a combination of these entities. components Components can be used to connect elements or surfaces. surfaces. The surfaces can be either meshed or unmeshed. The following entities are supported. geom Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its geometry (connect surfaces only). Specifies that the entity needs to be connected (welded) using its mesh. An element facilitates a patch-patch weld connector. The welds create fixed points for the mesh. Only nodes. The link entity options are set in the create and add links panels. elements surfaces nodes tags Note: Link Entity State Specifies if the HyperMesh entity referenced by the link entity is meshed or unmeshed. The elems option connects the mesh on the component or surface and the geom option connects the geometry on the component or surface. The link entity state options are set in the create and add Links panels. The above states are applicable to only surfaces and components added to the connector entity. and components can be added to connectors. elements. The HyperMesh entities to which the link entities refer are welded together during realization.

Re-connect Rules
Defines how a connector should protect its link entity information. none If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity is then removed from the connector. If a link entity references a HyperMesh entity that is removed from the HyperMesh database, the link entity retains the ID of the HyperMesh entity. The link entity remains in the connector. Same as the by id rule except that the entity name is retained.

by id

by name Note:

These rules are useful for applications such as part replacement. A part can be added to a connector ith the use id or use name reconnect rule and can be replaced with a redesigned part with the same ID or name, without having to change the connector definition. The re-connect rule options are set in the create and add links panels.

Number of Layers
The total number of thicknesses (layers) to connect at the connector. total T Sets the number of thickness to connect (2T/3T/4T/nT). This influences the number of welds created at a connector. Sets the total number of link entities that can be added to the connector. The number of link entities added to a connector is always less than or equal to the total thickness. The number of layers option is set in the create and add links panels.

Note:

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Connector Rules
Shapes the definition of a connector entity. none The connector is created with no link entities and no thickness defined. In this state, the connector must first be updated with more information before it can be successfully realized. This option requires link entities to be specified before the connector is created. The link entities are added to the connector based on the user-supplied criteria. For this option, the connector only remembers what type of link entity it is to connect, rather than a specific link entity. During the fe realize process, the connector searches the HyperMesh database to generate the best (usually the closest) link entity it can using the supplied information.

now

at fe realize

Note:

The connector rules (connect when:) option is set in the Create and Add Links panels.

Connector Realization
Creating welds at a connector. fe realize The process of creating welds (FE) to connect the HyperMesh entities referenced by the link entities added to a connector.

Note:

The connector entity can be used to create only welds at this time.

Request for Connection
A set of parameters used during realization to create a physical connection between link entities.

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Connector Definition
The connector is simply a database of information defining a specific request for connection at a specific location. A connector definition describes the connector between multiple HyperMesh entities at a specific location. Entities that are to be connected are referred to as link entities. The connector location is defined as a node, a geometric point, or a geometric line. In the following example, there are two components (Top and Bottom) that are to be connected at the location of a point (with an id of 10). In this case, both components are considered to be link entities, since they are to be linked together. The point defines the location of the connector.

After a connector is created, the connector icon is placed at point 10, and components 1 and 2 are incorporated into the request for connection. The following diagram shows the connector after it is created (with an id of 7) at the location of point 10 (point 10 is not visible).

In this example, connector 7 has been defined and no welds have been created. The connector stores the following information: • • • Which link entities the request for connection is to connect (Comp 1 and Comp 2) The thickness of the realization (Thickness = 2) Where to connect the link entities (the connectors current location)

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HyperMesh entities currently supported as link entities include COMPS, ELEMS, SURFS, NODES, and TAGS. Any number of link entities of differing types can be added to a connector in any order. The connector sets the order of link entities during the realization process. The example above is a simple case where we have added two link entities of the same type (COMPS) to a single connector. Note: An element-to-tag-t o-component connector is possible, as is any other combination of the supported link entities.

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Connector Realization
During connector realization, welds are created using the connector definition. Note: In HyperMesh, the only form of realization currently supported is fe realization (weld creation). For successful realization, the connector must be populated with all the relevant details required for its realization type. For example, fe realization requires the connector to be populated with a projection tolerance and an FE configuration type.

The following diagram shows connector 7 realized with a valid tolerance value, and a config value of type 21 (spring).

One advantage of separating weld fe realization from the connector definition, is that a connector can be re-realized as a weld of a different configuration (or possibly, a user-defined weld) without having to redefine the connector. If you edit the connector definition (i.e. add or delete a link entity from the connector), the connector removes the welds it created, and reverts back to an unrealized state. The connector is unrealized only if its user-control mode is turned off. By default, the connector mode is off but it can be turned on by registering custom FE with a connector. Connectors store all FE information that they create, allowing advanced find, mask, delete, and organizational functionality in a number of common HyperMesh panels. If the weld creation is unsuccessful (due to low tolerance, insufficient link entities, etc.) the connector icon is displayed as failed (red). An unrealized connector is yellow, a realized connector is green, and a failed connector is red.

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Connector Review
There are many advantages to the way connectors store information. Not only does this local storage allow you to edit the connector definition, it also allows you to review connector details and the quality of the realization. There are a number of tools that can be useful in the review process. The visualization pop-up allows you to update the visual appearance of a connector based on its state, thickness (number of layers), or the component in which it is located. In addition, the vis opts panel also allows you to filter the displayed connectors by various criteria (such as thickness). This filter can then be used for “displayed” mark creation. HyperMesh includes a connector information table that creates a table of connector definitions from a mark and allows you to delete link entities. The quality panel allows you to check the quality of welds created from the connectors. The connector database can also be queried through Tcl functions.

Connectors User Control Mode
Each individual connector can be placed in a user control mode using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. This user control mode is most useful for automated Tcl scripts. Once in user control mode, the following procedures are possible for a given connector: • • • Pre-existing FE can be registered as a given connector’s realization by using the *CE_FE_Register command. Connectors can be edited without automatically unrealizing (as happens most notably when a link is added or removed from a connector, or when an FE realization entity is deleted). A connector’s state can be manually changed from realized to failed, or from failed to realized by using either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. A connector’s state will not change to or from the unrealized state using this method.

Once a connector is placed into the user control mode, the user control mode remains active until an unrealize command is called (such as *CE_Unrealize), an already realized connector is rerealized, or the user control mode is manually turned off with either the *CE_SetSpecificDetailById or *CE_SetSpecificDetail commands. While a given connector is in user control mode, it may not behave the same as a normal connector. Specifically, there are a number of scenarios where a user-controlled connector will not auto unrealize in response to database changes that would cause a normal connector to auto unrealize. Note: It is strongly recommended that when FE is registered to a user-controlled connector, that the connector links and other necessary details should also be set with a given connector (so that the connector can properly re-realize if a user interactively requests it to). At the bare minimum, connectors should know which links they are to connect.

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Master Connectors File
Most of the information stored in the connector entity can be exported to a master connectors file. This file contains connector entity information such as location, link entity, link entity state, link entity rules (see Connector Terminology). The exported file may also contain metadata information stored in the connector. The master connectors file contains welding information at a given location and also assists in the weld automation process. An exported master connectors file can be re-imported using the connectors reader to re-create connectors. The master connectors file is exported in a single format. The outline of a generic HyperMesh master connectors file is provided below: • • Master connectors files can have comments beginning with the characters # or $, or there can be blank lines in between. The format of the file is fixed and the order of heading definitions cannot be changed. The column information is shown below:

Notes: • • • The header at the beginning of the file specifies information about the column data. Number of layers defines the thickness to connect at the specified location (X, Y, Z). The data between the brackets are repeated for each link entity. For standard HyperMesh FE types such as ACM and CWELD, the FE Config will have a number of 1001, which defines the user-defined type number specified in FE Config File. The FE Type will be the number defined in the FE Config File (for CWELD it is 72). For a detailed explanation of custom FE Configurations see FE Configuration File. The data between the brackets (link entity information) in the table are repeated for the number of links (NumLinks). The NumLinks variable must be equal to the number of link entities.

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Metadata is an attribute type that can be stored on a HyperMesh entity. User-defined information (such as Station Id or Gun Id) can be stored on the connector entity as metadata. The Metadata is defined by a name-value pair and is supported for multiple data types (int, double, string, etc.). Please see the HyperMesh on-line help for more information on Metadata. The Metadata name is written to the master connectors file in the following format ~<Sturct><DataType>Name. <Struct> represents whether the value associated is a single variable or an array. <DataType> represents the type of data stored in the value. For example, a Metadata of name Assembly containing an array of integers is written out as ~AIAssembly. The only delimiter supported in the entire file is the double semicolon “::”. The entire column of data in the file should be of the same type. The connectors reader uses the templex template to read the master connectors file. See weld templates for more information. By default, the file is read into HyperMesh through the HMIN function call, HMIN_CE_CreateDefined.

• • • •

The connector entity is created with the information specified in the master connectors file and displayed as unrealized (yellow). To realize the connectors as welds, the fe realize panel must be used.

Multiple Weld File Format
In addition to the master connectors file, the connectors reader also supports master weld file formats previously supported by the spotweld reader.

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Import Templates Templates work with the connectors reader to import multiple file formats.375 Weld Template :: 2. Each template works on only one specific format file. The spotweld.cfg file under the same directory.0 User’s Guide 191 . For custom templates. a spotweld_format directory must exist in the same location as the master weld file. the required headings must be added to the template requests and record blocks.0 :: 3:: 2:: 1:: int num header { type "CONNECTORS" set mark find "[0-9]+::" rewind set num = 0 if { do 1000000 { if { isdigit } then { set num = sum(num. An example for a specific master weld file format is shown below: # Index::T::X::Y::Z::EID1:: EID2:: EID3:: 1:: 3:: 48. The templates are stored in the <install_directory>/hm/bin/feinput/spotweld_format and are registered in the spotweld. To read in metadata. The following example shows the template for a simple format file with two semi colons as delimiters.cfg file must contain only the names of all the registered weld templates.4375:: 9. 1) } readln null } } set numrecords = num set numrequests = 9 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

requests "ID/T/X/Y/Z/EID1/EID2/EID3/EID4" set numcomponents = 1 components "Value" } record { read request // ID qfind "::" set mark read request rewind read num qfind "::" read request // X qfind "::" read request // Y qfind "::" read request // Z do num { qfind "::" read request // EID } set num = diff(4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . num) do num { read constant 0 // fake EID } readln null } //T 192 HyperMesh 8.

). The weld definition is solver dependant (NASTRAN. and pamcrash2g. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.cfg file from the <install_directory>/hm/bin directory is loaded in each of the panels related to each connector type (e. The specific solver template for the type of weld must be loaded in HyperMesh before the welds can be created using a connector entity. Spot. The FE configuration file has a pre-defined format that must be used to define different weld configurations. dyna. The specified name is saved and displayed in the info table during connector review process. nastran.0 User’s Guide 193 .cfg) is used to define custom welds such as ACM (Area Contact Method) and other special types. The user-defined number for the FE combination. See FE Definition Examples for information regarding the format and options for FE definition. Seam. LSDYNA. The user-specified name for the FE combination. ansys.FE Configuration File The FE configuration file (feconfig.> *style <style_type> *head <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <RIGID_FLAG> *body <BODY_FLAG> <HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG> [<HM_FE_CONFIG> <HM_FE_TYPE> <LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG>] *post <POST_SCRIPT_NAME> The template parameters are defined below. optistruct. FE Definition Template The FE definition template is shown below: CFG <SOLVER> <USER_FE_TYPE> <USER_FE_NAME> *filter <filter_type1> <filter_type2> <etc. By default.g. USER_FE_TYPE USER_FE_NAME Note: This should be the first line in the user FE definition. etc. pamcrash. Area. etc). the feconfig. marc. The weld definition in the file includes the type of weld to create and the surrounding connector to shells. SOLVER The solver template for which FE needs to be created. Supported solvers are: abaqus. The data can be separated using a space. This is input in the fe realize template as FE Type.

a zero should be input. For example.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Note: The style definition line for these configurations must not be edited.*FILTER This option can be used to allow only the specified connector types to realize the configuration. plot. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. In addition. If the type is not defined. this option is used as a filter when displaying FE configurations in the type = field of respective realize panels. so the type field should be zero. The various types supported for rigids are equation. rigidlink. Note: *HEAD Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. *FILTER spot seam indicates that this configuration can be realized only by the spot and seam connector types. If the rigid flag = 1. the weld node is connected to all the vertices of the shell elements using rigid to form a spider. Note: *STYLE A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. Defines how the weld node is to be connected to the surrounding shell element. The string head is required to specify that a rigid is to be created to connect the weld node to the surrounding shell element. equation and rbe3 do not have a type defined. etc. This option indicates that the configurations have specific behaviors associated during realization. For example. If rigid flag = 0. *style bolts 1 indicates that this is a bolt connection of type 1 that creates a specific bolted connection between the parts. HM_FE_CONFIG The config for the rigid currently supported by HyperMesh. and that they are native types. This option is not applicable to equation and rbe3. rbe3. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE HM_FE_TYPE RIGID_FLAG CONNECT_FLAG 194 HyperMesh 8. For example. the weld node is connected to only one of the shell element vertex using the rigid.

rod. Note: A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This allows HyperMesh to parse the CFG file for configuration instead of relying on metadata saved individually with each connector (as was done prior to 8. The solver defined type for the HyperMesh config. The *post lines are optional. If the body flag = 1. The flag specifies the length factor to be used for series welds. The config for the weld currently supported by HyperMesh. hexa8. The body flag is used to calculate the length of the weld. This Tcl script must be located in the current working directory. There can be more than one weld in a series. etc. The type number is defined in respective solver templates and differs. For example. If the body flag = 0. spring. if you choose to type in a property script instead of specifying a CFG file in the connector’s generation panel.*BODY BODY_FLAG The string body is required to specify that a weld is to be created to connect the link entities added to the connector. Note. The series weld definition has more than one weld between the link entities. the length is calculated based on the average thickness of the connecting layers (link entities). attributes. HM_FE_CONFIG HM_FE_TYPE LENGTH_LOCATION_FLAG Note: *POST A “*” is required in the beginning of the line to specify that this is a definition and not a comment. This postscript will be automatically executed post FE realization and it can be used to edit weld properties.tcl extension. that metadata is still created and saved if you do not use POST to assign a property script (for example. The various types supported for welds are. welds are created in parallel. and other solver specific details. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0). the users home directory (UNIX only).0 User’s Guide 195 . but if specified it must be followed by the name (excluding path) of a valid Tcl script with a .0. the length is calculated based on the distance between the connecting layers (link entities). based on the solver. plot. this option can also be used to specify a property script for the configuration. If the length location flag = 1. CBUSH is of config spring and type 6. The length location flag is used to specify if the weld created should be of type series or parallel. Starting with HyperMesh 8. however. a series weld is created. or the scripts/connectors/ directory. If the length location flag is >= 0 and < 1.

5 (50%) each. User comments should start with a hash character “#”. Series welds are not created when the distance between the connecting link entities is zero.FE Specification Rules • • • • • • • • Each solver will have a specific definition so the same user-defined types can be repeated for each solver. 196 HyperMesh 8. an ACM can have only one hexa weld element specified in the definition. Series and parallel weld element combinations are not supported.0 (100%). The total length of series welds cannot exceed 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Series welds are not supported where the link entities are coincident. 1D and 3D element combinations are not supported. The head and the body definition must begin with a “*” to define rigid and weld definitions. Hence there cannot be three welds specified in series having a length factor of 0. Multiple solid element combinations are not currently supported. Therefore.

The length of the hexa is equal to the distance between the connecting shell elements.5 The series weld is created at the center with length equal to half the distance between the link entities.5 The two series welds are created with a length equal to half the distance between the link entities.FE Definition Examples Washers CFG nastran 56 bolts *filter bolt *style bolt 0 *head rigidlink 1 1 dofs=123 rigidlink 1 3 *body 0 rigid 1 1 dofs=456 ACM Welds CFG nastran 71 acm *head rbe3 0 0 *body 1 hex8 1 1 The above definition creates ACMs with HEXA8 solid elements as welds and RBE3 elements as rigids.5 spring 6 0. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0. Series Welds CFG nastran 101 series *head plot 0 0 *body 0 spring 6 0.0 User’s Guide 197 .

If this 0-D element is the only config given in the *body. "1" has the same behavior as "0" except only a single 0-D element is created even if multiple bodies are created (as happens in >2T welds) and "2" places the 0-D element at the connector location. The behavior for each value is as follows. 0-D Welds CFG pamcrash2g 1 plink (ce loc) *head plot 0 0 *body 0 mass 5 2 plot 0 1 *post prop_plink. then it is placed at the center of the proposed 1-D element path.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Parallel Welds CFG dyna 101 parallel *head plot 0 0 *body 0 bar2 1 1 bar2 1 1 The bar elements are created at the same location and connect the same link entities. "0" places the 0-D element along the proposed 1-D element path. 198 HyperMesh 8. or "2". "1".tcl Supported values for the length location flag are "0".

logical and intuitive. During the morphing process. HyperMorph also allows the creation of shape variables. Overview: The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing • The Domains and Handles Concept • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Global Domain and Global Handles Local Domains and Handles Partitioning Dependent Handles Working with Shapes Setting Up Optimization Creating morph volumes Registering nodes Altering Morph Volumes Tangency Morphing by Moving Nodes Morphing by Using Other Panels Sculpting The Domains and Handles Concept The Morph Volume Concept The Freehand Concept Space Frame Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • • Matching a Mesh or Line or Surface Data Making Parametric Changes Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Mirror Images: Using 1-Plane Symmetry Reducing 3D to 2D: Using Linear Symmetry Reducing 3D to 1D: Using Planar Symmetry Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. It enables rapid shape changes on the finite element mesh without severely sacrificing the mesh quality.0 User’s Guide 199 .HyperMorph Strategies HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways that are useful. which can be used for subsequent design optimization studies.

Shell Model Strategies • • • • • • Creating Handles and Domains Morphing on Local Domains Section Mapping Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing Solid Model Strategies • Creating Handles and Domains • • • • • Viewing Solid Models Morphing on Local Domains Morphing Global Handles Using Constraints Using Biasing 200 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

When the handles are moved. Handles placed at the corners and along the edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn morph the mesh inside the morph volumes. such as translation. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for multiple control points along the edges. HyperMorph can do this automatically. into morphs using the record sub-panel. The Freehand Concept This approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without needing to create any HyperMorph entities. The HyperMorph Strategy Guide is intended illustrate the capabilities of HyperMorph and introduce you to both the basic and advanced functionality to help you get the most out of the tool. angles. the morph volume concept. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel. While all the entities and functions are fully compatible and may be used in a complementary fashion they can be divided into three basic approaches to morphing: the domains and handles concept. such as scaling or node projection. The morph volume approach is quick and intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes. or you can define your own domains and handles. The basics of the three concepts are summarized below: The Domains and Handles Concept This approach involves dividing the mesh into domains made up of elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. Each approach has its own strengths and weaknesses when dealing with the numerous applications of morphing and you are advised to gain a basic understanding of each approach so that you can decide which approach is best for your needs. A number of methods exist to create the morph volumes including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive. You define the nodes which will move. The domains and handles approach is the most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. The domains and handles approach also allows parametric morphing of distances.0 User’s Guide 201 . the shape of the mesh changes according to the domain boundaries.The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing HyperMorph contains six exclusive entity types and a wide array of functionality. which are highly deformable six-sided prisms. on-screen method. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing. This approach is most useful for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to space frame type meshes (global domains). and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh to match geometric data and other meshes. and projection to geometry as well as using a "tool" to "sculpt" the mesh into the desired shape. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved. The freehand approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the creation of new entities while implying the concepts of domains and handles. allowing for rapid changes to any mesh. The Morph Volume Concept This approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph volumes. and the freehand concept. the nodes which will stay fixed. allowing the user to do virtually any kind of morphing. radii. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. rotation. dividing the mesh into logical domains. and the affected elements manually.

Global handles and domains are best for making large scale shape changes to the model. each of which is associated with a number of global handles. However. thus making morphing slower. The global group consists of global domains. A model can contain both global and local handles and domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . calculating influence coefficients is too time-consuming. The advantage of this approach is that it makes morphing an interactive process. when handles and domains are initially set up or edited. or violet if they are dependent on other handles. or elements. During the morphing process the mesh morphs in a logical way with nodes near the moving handles moving more and nodes near the stationary handles moving less. changes the positions of the nodes inside those domains. cyan. the actual morphing occurs quickly. parametric changes to the model. It is located at the centroid of the nodes selected when you create the global domain. 3D domains. Local handles are intended to be used to make small scale. the color indicating their level of dependency. even for large models.The Domains and Handles Concept When using the domains and handles approach. you can edit the color of the domains in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels. However. You can adjust the base size of all the handles in the model in the parameters sub-panel of the domains or morph options panels or in the handles panel. Thus. the model is divided into domains where handles are used to control its shapes. Global handles are the largest handles in the model and they are red if they are not dependent on other handles. When the handles are moved. the process of calculating influences can be too slow or too memory intensive and so the large domain solver makes it possible to morph such domains. The advantage of the large domain solver is that it is faster for morphing large domains but the drawback is that it must be invoked every time you wish to morph. Global handles will only influence the nodes in the global domain to which they are associated. for very large domains. edge. The amount each node moves with respect to each handle is relative to an internally calculated influence coefficient. 2D domains.000 elements (although you can change this default limit) the large domain solver is used. but once they are calculated they can be stored and applied rapidly. Dependent global handles are also smaller than the handles on which they are dependent. 202 HyperMesh 8. edge domains. The size given is used as the radius for the independent global handles as well as the diameter of the independent local handles. The nodes in each domain move as a function of the handles that are either associated with the domain or are touching the domain. 3D. 2D. For domains that have more than 50. or yellow. In the areas between the handles. The local group consists of five types of local domains: 1D domains. Therefore. Domains consist of nodes. Domains and handles are divided into two basic groups. which allows you to make both large and small scale morphs and have them combine logically. Each domain is associated with any number of local handles. but it is not necessary to have both types of domains and handles in a model. For very large domains. the shape of the domains touching those handles change. which in turn. You cannot edit the color of the handles nor the relative size between the dependent and independent handles. Global Domains and Global Handles Global domains are represented by a cube made up of dashed lines. These local handles can only influence nodes contained in any domains that they are either associated with or are touching. global and local. and general domains. The process for calculating the influence coefficients is somewhat time consuming. and general domains. in the case of global domains. the mesh is stretched or compressed to match the desired shape. but when handles are moved in order to morph the model no calculations are necessary. in the case of 1D. HyperMorph spends an amount of time proportional to the size of the new or edited domains calculating the handle influences.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 203 . reposition them. These global handles are named corner followed by a number from one to eight.When a global domain and handles are generated automatically. The automatic global handle generation works particularly well for space frame models such as full car models. If the handles are not generated in the positions where you want them to be. HyperMorph generates a number of global handles. or use the generate auto-function. HyperMorph creates a global handle at each of the eight corners of a box surrounding the model laid out along the global axes. or create new handles. HyperMorph generally creates no more than about 30 global handles for models of any size. Example of a model with a global domain and global handles Eight handles are placed at the corners of a box enclosing the model. By movi ng the handles you can stretch or deform the model along all three axes. you can always delete them. These handles are named handle followed by a number. such as when you create a global domain with the create handles option turned on. HyperMorph also places at least one global handle within the box in areas of peak nodal density within the model.

If you are willing to accept distortions in the local geometry. 204 HyperMesh 8. There are subtle differences in how the global handles influence the nodes for each method with the main difference being that the parts of the model defined by local edge domains have their shape preserved when using the hierarchical method. You should select which method is right for the type of morphing that you want to perform. the direct method. or the direct method if the node is not in a local domain The method used can be selected in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel and the parameters sub-panel in the domains panel with the default being the direct method.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . In the mixed method. Straight edges will remain straight and circular holes will remain circular for the hierarchical method. global handles influence the nodes in the model directly. If you wish to preserve the local geometry. global handles will influence every node inside the global domain using the hierarchical method if the node is inside a local domain. while the direct method may bend or warp these features into curved edges and elliptical holes. In the hierarchical method. and the mixed method. which in turn influence nodes. the space frame morphs in a way such that the bars run between the handles. global handles influence the local handles found at nodes inside the global domain. In the direct method. choose the hierarchical or mixed method. choose the direct method.A space frame with six manually created global handles When the handles are moved. There are three options for determining how global handles in global domains influence the mesh: the hierarchical method.

An example of global morphing using the hierarchical method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. An example of global morphing using the direct method When the highlighted (white) handle is moved to the right. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Note how the straight edge remains straight and the circle remains round. which move the mesh. the mesh is affected directly. Note the resulting distortion of the edge and circle.0 User’s Guide 205 . it moves the local handles.

four joined rectangles for general domains. These local handles are named local followed by a number. but may produce more desirable influences. The color of the domains can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. The placement of local handles depends on the type of domain created and the partitioning options if partitioning is selected. The geometric method can be slow for large models or large numbers of global handles. and is the fastest and most robust method for generating global influences based on a spatial formulation for the entire model. Both methods attempt to determine how a global handle affects nodes or local handles in the space surrounding it. HyperMorph automatically places local handles at the ends of all edge domains. a cube for 3D domains. Dependent local handles are smaller than the independent local handles and are different colors depending on the level of their dependency. The spatial method is the default. When local domains are created..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or for the entire model by using the generate auto-function. The colors of the handles cannot be changed. The influences between the global handles and local handles (using the hierarchical method) or nodes (using the direct method) can be calculated using either the spatial method or the geometric method. Independent local handles are orange and have a radius of one half the value of the handle size parameter. 206 HyperMesh 8. Local Domains and Handles Local domains are represented by a single rectangle for 1D domains. two joined rectangles for 2D domains. and a line for edge domains. The geometric method is the method that was originally used for the Tcl/Tk interface of HyperMorph and HyperMesh and generates influences based on the geometric relationship between a given node or local handle and the surrounding global handles.An example of global morphing using the direct method and biasing factors By increasing the biasing factor for the highlighted (white) handle. Local domains can be created individually by selecting nodes or elements in the create sub-panel of the domains panel. the angular shape of the morph becomes rounded.

All other handles in the model are given a biasing factor of 1. the bias factors for the dependent handles for a 1D domain are given an initial value of 3. The shell elements have been placed in two 2D domains separated at the bend line due to partitioning. In the example above. Domains made up of 1D elements. Also note that 2D domains have been created on the faces of the 3D domain and that edge domains have been create on the edges of all the 2D domains. Finally. Additionally. handles have been placed at the ends of all the edge domains. An independent local handle is placed at the centermost node of the 1D domain and dependent local handles are placed at every other node of the elements in the 1D domain. The higher biasing factor given to dependent handles on 1D domains is intended to prevent mesh distortion when the 1D elements connect to nodes in 2D and 3D domains. The independent handle is larger and orange. 1D elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 1D domains. All the dependent handles in a given 1D domain are directly dependent on the independent handle. are called 1D domains. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A higher biasing factor means that a given handle will have greater influence over the surrounding mesh than the others.Example of a model with local domains and local handles with partitioning. This is done to preserve the unique relationship established for groups of 1D elements. This dependency relationship means that moving the independent handle also results in moving the dependent handles the same amount in the same direction. while the dependent handles are smaller and green. the rigid elements have been placed in a 1D domain with the center node having an independent (orange) handle and the other nodes having dependent (green) handles.0 User’s Guide 207 . These elements are placed in a component named ^morphface. such as bars and rigid elements. The solid elements have been placed in a 3D domain. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. Note that shell elements have been created on the faces of the 3D domain.

these domains are subdivided into smaller domains along break angles and curvature changes according to the partitioning parameters. such as floating in space near the domain. edit them. If the handles or domains are not laid out in the positions where you want them to be. If partitioning has been selected. Since you morph the model by moving handles. they will influence the nodes in any domain that shares the node at which it is placed. Note that it is possible to create a handle on a node that is not touching the domain to which it is associated. HyperMorph tries to predict where the handles should be placed to reduce the amount of time it takes to prepare your model for morphing. the entire spider is moved. maintaining the proper shape and connectivity for the rigid spider. This is true even if the handle is associated with the 2D domain. Also. Edge domains are placed along the edges of the 2D domains and are also partitioned. shell elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 2D domains. Local handles are placed at the ends of all the edge domains. it helps to have handles already at the positions where you want them. the local handles are placed at the corners of the 2D domains and at other useful positions. This allows you to place a handle outside of a domain.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .A rigid spider becomes a 1D domain An independent local handle (orange) is placed at the centroid of the 1D domain and dependent handles (green) are placed at each node. A handle associated with any domain will always influence the nodes in domains that it is touching. even though the generated local handles are associated with the edge domains. Domains made up of shell elements are called 2D domains. and have it influence the nodes within its domain. In general. By moving the orange handle. The intent is to make it faster and easier for you to apply parametric changes to the model. or create new ones. 208 HyperMesh 8. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. you can delete them.

Elements are created on the faces of each 3D domain and placed into a component called ^morphface. these elements and their 2D domains will be regenerated the next time you enter or exit a HyperMorph panel or the delete panel. HyperMorph will not create ^morphface elements coincident with the existing elements. Domains made up of solid elements are called 3D domains. A block of solid elements is made into a 3D domain The gray shell elements on the face of the 3D domain are the ^morphface component. In cases where shell elements that are attached to the faces of solid elements are present in the model. The elements on the face of each 3D domain are placed into a 2D domain that is then partitioned if the partitioning option is active.Two 2D domains with edge domains and handles The model on the left shows the initial handle positions. even at nodes not on the associated domain. However. The color of the ^morphface component can be changed in the parameters sub-panel of the domains panel. The model on the right shows the addition of four new handles. Handles can be placed anywhere. Note that these elements will not be written out to any FEM formatted deck since the component name begins with a “^”. The ^morphface component has been partitioned into 2D domains.0 User’s Guide 209 . It is recommended that you do not delete or edit these elements nor rename or delete the ^morphface component. if you do. Handles are created at the corners of the 2D domains. When creating local domains or using the generate auto-function. solid elements that share common nodes are grouped together into 3D domains. Edge elements are placed around each 2D domain and local handles are created at the ends of each edge domain. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Also. Nodes on edge domains will only move as a function of the handles touching the edge domain. This preserves the boundaries of 2D and 3D domains such that straight edges remain straight. When you release the mouse button. This makes it easier for you to tell which domain you are selecting. only the icon for the domain remains highlighted. nodes in a 2D domain on the face of a 3D domain will only move as a function of the handles touching the 2D domain.Domains made up of a list of nodes are called edge domains. Examples of edge domains Edge domains are placed around the edges of 2D domains. or choose to create the domain as a general domain instead. the boundaries may not be preserved during morphing. It allows you to move handles within a 2D or 3D domain without affecting the edges. edge domains are placed around the edges of all 2D domains. and curved edges retain their curvature. 210 HyperMesh 8. If you do not want to have the boundaries of a domain preserved you can delete the edges for a given domain. Note that when an edge domain is created. When you are selecting domains and are holding the mouse button down while placing the mouse over the icon of a 2D or 3D domain (or an element in the domain). Edge domains and 2D domains on the faces of 3D domains play an important function in determining the influences for the handles over a given domain. HyperMesh will highlight both the domain icon and the surrounding edge domains. non-reflective symmetries allow the influences of handles to extend through edges and faces depending on the type of symmetry. it is partitioned and handles are placed at the ends and joints. In the model at the right an edge domain has been created inside a 2D domain. Similarly. No other handles will affect the nodes on the edges.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For domains that have non-reflective symmetry types. When creating local domains or using the generate aut o-function. flat surfaces remain flat.

General domains are very useful for realized connectors which are often represented as clusters of different element types.0 User’s Guide 211 . no 2D domains are created on the faces of any 3D elements and no edge domains are created either. the elements within a single general domain must touch one another. and 3D elements. Like all other domains. When a general domain is created. 2D. where 1D. 2D. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. two handles connected by an edge domain are created and moved.How edge domains affect morphing In the top two frames two handles inside a 2D domain are created and moved. Note that the edge domain remains straight. General domains are not automatically created when generating local domains or using the generate auto-function. However. preserving the shape of the feature. Otherwise. In the bottom frames. handles on a general domain freely influence all of the nodes inside the general domain. thus no handles are created for the domain. and 3D domains are used. General domains can be made up of any combination of 1D. Another use is for meshes where precise changes are required for one section. but the rest of the mesh (where a general domain is used) can simply follow along. allowing it to stretch and deform in an unbounded manner with morphing extending across differences in element type. general domains respect all neighboring edge domains and 2D domains and thus if you create 2D and edge domains for your general domains they will impose restrictions on handle influences for the general domain.

Partitioning allows you to prepare your model for morphing more quickly and easily since it divides your model into sections where parametric changes can be applied. If there are no surfaces in the model.Example of interaction between a general domain and 2D domains In the top frame. partitioning will ideally divide your model such that every radius and straight or flat section is placed into a separate domain. or edit the domains by hand using the create and organize sub-panels in the domains panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . However. In the bottom frame the two handles inside the general domain are translated. and solid elements. or where the domain changes from flat to curved. or the use geometry option in the partitioning sub-panel is unchecked. If you are unsatisfied with the partitioning. Two handles have been placed within the general domain at the ends of the rigid spiders. 212 HyperMesh 8. Note how the shell elements in the general domain morph. two 2D domains are created for parts of two shell meshes and a general domain is creating from the remaining rigid. such as at the edges of surfaces associated with the mesh. you may change the partitioning parameters in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel and try again (using the redo last button). bounded only by the edge of the 2D domains with the other edges free to follow the handles Partitioning Partitioning can be applied directly to 2D domains and indirectly to 3D domains (3D domains are created with 2D domains on their faces). Partitioning is a method of dividing 2D domains into smaller 2D domains at logical places. partitioning is not an exact science and there will be areas where elements are not placed into the desired domains. shell. You can invoke partitioning when creating 2D or 3D domains by activating the partition 2D domains check box. or where the angle between elements exceeds a certain value.

a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. changes direction. so if one method is not producing the partitions that you desire. the node based method seems to work better on first order tria and tetra meshes while the element based method seems to work better on mixed quad and tria meshes. or changes curvature by more than the curvature tolerance. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is less than this value. In either case. If the curvature changes from straight to curved. In general. The node based method tends to create fewer partitions than the element based method. then any partitions created outside of the surfaces will be added to the partitions created using the surfaces if the partitioning algorithm does not find a break along the edges or the surfaces. the domain angle controls the break angle along which a partitioning break is made.Example of partitioning For the model on the left. the curve tolerance controls the angle of which values less than it are considered straight for curvature measuring purposes. If you have selected use geometry. the element-based algorithm works better for quad/mixed meshes and second order meshes. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. although exact performance for each method depends heavily on the features in your model. These can be set individually for quad/mixed meshes and for tria/tetra meshes. There are also several parameters that govern the creation of domains for either algorithm. Note that in order for a new partition to be created. partitioning was used. Note how the 2D domains are divided along angle and curvature change boundaries. There are two algorithms you can use to partition. This option is helpful when surface data is incomplete of some of the nodes have been moved away from their surfaces. If you have also selected add to geometry. When using curvature-based partitioning. all elements whose nodes are associated to surfaces in the model will be partitioned along the edges of the surfaces. They are found in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. domain angle and curve tolerance have a roughly similar meaning as the element based method. All other elements will be partitioned using one of the partitioning algorithms.0 User’s Guide 213 . while the node-based algorithm works better for tria/tetra meshes. they are considered flat. a break due to angle or curvature must be found along its entire edge. a new domain is created with an edge running between the two elements. element-based and node-based. If the angle between the normal vectors between two elements is greater than this value. Partitioning can be angle-based or curvature-based. Each algorithm has its strengths and weaknesses. For the model on the right. the other method might work better. Also note that the edge domains are partitioned regardless of whether the partitioning option is on or off. For instance. otherwise they are considered to be curved. For the node based method. the 2D domain was created without partitioning.

and so on.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If a handle is dependent on more than one handle. biasing will affect them. When the handle at either end of the edge domain is moved. The review button in the update sub-panel of the handles panel allows you to view the handles on which a specific handle is dependent. independent (red) and dependent (yellow. This allows you to combine the changes easily without having to apply separate perturbations for all of the handles. Handles that are dependent on other handles appear smaller and in a color different from the handles on which they are dependent. and then make those handles dependent on one or more other handles. and pink) The conditions for handle dependency are as follows: • • • A handle that is dependent on another handle inherits the movements applied to the higher level handle. • • Transparent control of domain edges and faces You can create a dependent handle on an edge domain that is dependent on the handles at the ends of the domain. These dependencies are calculated internally and cannot be modified manually. blue. Making a handle dependent has no affect on the way it influences nodes. In the hierarchical method. Global handles. the dependent handle moves along as if it was not there. This means that movements applied to the dependent handle are not applied to the independent handles. independent (orange) and dependent (green. and violet) Local handles.Dependent Handles You can make a handle dependent on one or more other handles. 214 HyperMesh 8. When the dependent handle is moved. This system allows you to create any number of dependency layers. it inherits the full movement of the higher level handle. If a handle is dependent on only one other handle. it will inherit a percentage of the movements applied to each higher level handle. but dependency loops are not allowed. the shape of the edge can be changed. A dependent handle can be moved independently of the handles on which it is dependent. The percentage is based on the distance between the dependent and independent handles. all local handles are dependent on global handles. • • • Handle dependencies are useful for several different applications. This allows you to add the movements of dependent and independent handles in a logical manner. A handle may be dependent on any number of handles. cyan.

This allows you to move an entire cross section while only having to select one handle. in essence. When the highlighted handle on the left is moved (center frame). the center handle follows along. performing localized “global” morphing. the center handle is moved independently.0 User’s Guide 215 . Dependencies . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This allows you to stretch all of the domains uniformly by moving the independent handles. In the lower frame. Linking several domains together You can make all of the handles within several domains dependent on a few at the corners of the domain.• • • Grouping features together to move as a unit You can make all the handles at one cross section of a beam dependent on a single handle.example 1 The center global handle is dependent on the two outer global handles.

When the independent handle is moved. Dependencies . each hole can be positioned separately by moving the dependent handle associated with it. Also.example 3 An independent handle was created between the two holes and the handles governing the positions of the holes are made dependent on it. the three green handles on the top are dependent on the orange handle on the top. The bottom has similar dependencies. In the model on the right. 216 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Dependencies . The entire cross section is controlled by one handle. all of the green handles are dependent on the orange handle. Note that the dependencies can extend beyond the 2D domain boundaries.example 2 In the model on the left. both holes move with it. The top and bottom halves of the cross sections are controlled by just two handles.

In the case of freehand morphing. When you morph your model. Creating shapes allows you to generate shape variables for optimization and store model changes for parametric studies. or create a shape in the shapes panel with the save current state option turned on. The dependent handles were constrained along vectors parallel to the sides of the part. When you create a shape using the save as shape or save shape sub-panels. Working with Shapes Shapes are collections of handle and/or node perturbations. If you create a shape in either the morph or freehand panels. if constraints are being used. the morph consists only of node perturbations. the handle and/or node perturbations are stored in the new shape entity along with biasing factors for the handle perturbations and details such as the biasing style. To get to the current state of the model from the initial state. or the morph is a mapping or radius changing operation. the dependent handles follow and reduce mesh distortion by spreading the morph across the entire part instead of only around the hole. each morph on the undo/redo list will be saved as a separate shape. If you save the model using the save each morph step option in the shapes panel. all of these shapes must be applied. the morph consists only of handle perturbations. However. When the handle at the hole is moved downward. When you create a shape.0 User’s Guide 217 . The vectors are drawn the exact length of the perturbation and the vectors for the handle perturbations are drawn with thicker lines to denote that they are different from node perturbations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. For many morphing operations. Note that while shapes with handle perturbations will move nodes when they are applied.Using dependencies to reduce mesh distortion In this example two dependent handles were created on the edges of the part near the center hole. vectors are drawn for each handle and node perturbation for the shape. HyperMorph stores the morph internally as a collection of perturbations which you can then undo or redo. those shapes do not contain node perturbations and thus vectors are not drawn at those nodes. node perturbations are required to fully describe the shape. HyperMorph takes the difference between the initial state of the model and the current state of the model when creating a new shape.

you can apply it to your model with any given scaling factor. To create shape variables for an optimization run: 1. or vice-versa: 1. the shape will be saved as either handle perturbations only. 5. Select the type of conversion that you wish to perform. If you select handle perturbations. 3. or saved as part of another shape. 218 HyperMesh 8. you should save shapes as node perturbations. 9. HyperMorph will ask you if you want to preserve any existing shapes saved as handle perturbations by converting them to node perturbations. Select the shapes to be converted. the shape will be saved as node perturbations only. Set the toggle to multiple desvars. Click undo all to return to your base model shape. A desvar for each shape is created with the initial value and bounds in the panel. From the BCs page. it becomes a shape variable. Select the convert sub-panel. 4.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Select the shapes for which you want to create shape variables. save shapes as handle perturbations and they will require less memory and disk space. Note: A shape is not a shape variable. 8. Select the save shape sub-panel. 10. Click create. optimization module. 7. select the shape panel. Whenever you make a change to your model. Save your morph as a shape. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for each shape variable you want to create. The difference between the two types comes into play if you change the handles or domains in your model. 4. Morph your model into the shape of the first shape variable. redone. Once a shape is saved. you can select whether to save it as handle perturbations or node perturbations. Setting Up Optimization Morphing can be used to create shape variables for optimization. If you plan to make changes to domains and handles. If you select node perturbations. If you later decide that you want to change a shape from node perturbations to handle perturbations or vice versa you can do so in the convert sub-panel of the shapes panel. If not. The shape is converted. Each desvar is given a unique name. but by adding a desvar which points to the shape. while shapes saved as handle perturbations will differ from shapes that have been saved with changes to the handle influences.When you are saving a shape. 2. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. Shapes saved as node perturbations are not affected by changes to domains and handles. select the morph panel. Click convert. Applying a shape in this way is like any other morphing operation and can be undone. 6. or a combination of handle and node perturbations if node perturbations are required to describe the shape. From the HyperMorph module on the Tools page. 3. 2. To convert shapes saved with handle perturbations to shapes saved with node perturbations. 5. select the shapes panel.

you can set up the rest of your optimization problem within the optimization module. Once you have created shape variables for your shapes. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Freehand concepts and strategies. Animate the shape variables: Click undo morphing if you did not click undo all after saving the last shape. this help system will be updated in a service pack release to include Morph Volume concepts and strategies.11. The deformed panel displays. allowing you to view each shape variable by animating it. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Click animate. The Morph Volume Concept Morph Volume strategies are still being created.0 User’s Guide 219 . The Freehand Concept Freehand strategies are still being created.

From the HyperMorph module. Click create. these handles will be where you want them to be. such as a wheel or the engine block. From the Tool page. Often the desired shape changes are general. shorter. If more than one handle is created at a time. Delete any unwanted handles. You should place global handles both in areas where you want to apply perturbations and in areas that you want to stay fixed. 7. Local handles are not required since local changes to the frame components are not necessary. Select create. Click create. all that is necessary is to create a global domain and global handles. these changes can be performed by placing a handle at each joint in the frame and moving those handles to the desired locations. Set the toggle to create handles. or altering the basic positions of components within the frame. Set the toggle to all nodes. If not. Space frame models can generally have element counts in the hundreds of thousands. select the handles panel. A global domain and global handles are created at useful positions throughout the space frame. 4. 6. Select the domains panel. If you want a part of your model to move as a rigid body. wider. delete them and add global handles elsewhere: Press F2 or go to the delete panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Space Frame Model Strategies using Global Domains Space frames are models that have a sparse distribution of elements. you should avoid creating them unless it is necessary. A new global handle is created at each node or at the specified xyz location. You can also use morph constraints to fix nodes in place during global morphing but if you want them to affect the surrounding mesh you must select the stretch mesh around nodes option when creating the morph constraint. Select an xyz position or any number of nodes where you want global handles. 3. such as a car body. 220 HyperMesh 8. For these types of models. such as making it smaller. In many instances. Type in a name. Creating Handles and Domains . 2. Since local handles and domains for large models can consume a great deal of resources. In many cases. the handles will each be given a unique name by appending a number after the name you have given. 5. select the HyperMorph module.space frame model 1. use a cluster type morph constraint. but their basic structure is rather simple. Set the selector to global domain.

0 User’s Guide 221 .A global domain and global handles for a full car model Exiting any panel in the HyperMorph module or the delete panel automatically triggers HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. There are many options available for moving the handles. so you will want to make all the changes you desire within each panel before exiting. or symmetries. editing. this can be time consuming. makes it necessary for HyperMorph to refresh the handle influences. domains. For large models or large changes. or deleting handles. The best one to use depends on the results that you want to achieve: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Adding. if necessary.

Change the lower middle selector from on domains to along vector. 2. Make sure that the stretch mesh around nodes option is unchecked. Click create. Line. Select a vector. select the morph panel. Select the nodes on the target mesh. For large models it may be too slow to morph interactively in real time. As you drag the mouse. All the nodes in the target mesh are constrained to remain fixed during morphing operations as long as the constraint is active and the use constraints box is checked (see the morph options panel). 3. From the HyperMorph module. Click morph. Change the rightmost toggle from real time to on release. If you are going to match a mesh you need to make sure that the mesh does not get morphed when you are moving the handles. Move the handle to the new location and release the mouse button. Select move handles. 5. But you can still morph interactively with any size model by setting HyperMorph to perform the morphing after you move the handle and release the mouse button. which leaves a dark trail through the mesh. 4. 8. Change the upper middle selector to interactive. 6. To morph interactively by moving the handle and releasing the mouse button: 1. the morph is applied to the model and the graphics are updated for the entire model. Select the create/update sub-panel. only the graphics for the handle are updated. Note that if you check the stretch mesh around nodes option. To constrain the nodes on the target mesh: 1. Since on release was selected. 5. This can be accomplished by constraining the nodes on the target mesh. or Surface Data The basic approach for HyperMorph is to move the handles into positions that change the shape of the model to match the mesh or geometry data. 7. 2. 9.Matching a Mesh. Switch the selector to fixed. the handle follows along the selected vector. Select a handle on the screen and hold the mouse button down. 6. One of the most enjoyable ways to morph is interactively. As you drag a handle across the screen and you can watch the mesh move along with it. 4. the nodes between the constrained nodes and the handles will be affected regardless of whether the mesh is continuous between them. repeat steps 7 through 9. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . From the HyperMorph module. When you release the mouse button. select the morph constraints panel. 222 HyperMesh 8. If the handle position needs to be changed again.

all of the selected handles are moved the same distance in the same direction. select several handles on the screen.10.0 User’s Guide 223 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. In the middle frame they are interactively moved upwards along a vector to a point matching with the profile line. When you release the mouse. Morphing to a profile line In the top frame. In the bottom frame the process has been repeated for the other handles on the roof. the global handles on either side of top of the windshield are selected. Perform steps 7 through 9. Move more than one handle at the same time: Before clicking morph. The result is a morphed vehicle model that closely matches the profile line.

Change the upper middle selector from interactive to move to node.Morphing to a profile line A handle is added to the center of the rear windshield and is moved to better match the profile line. To match a target mesh or geometric data by moving the handles to a specified node location: 1. Altair Engineering 224 HyperMesh 8. To create nodes on the fly on lines and surfaces: 1. If you intend to add or delete handles in your model. However. HyperMorph uses the position of the mouse on the screen to figure out where you want to move the handle. Hold the mouse button down and drag the mouse over a line or surface until it is highlighted. HyperMorph will give you the option of converting existing shapes from handle perturbations to node perturbations automatically after you add. A node will be created and the handle will immediately be moved to the node. 2. edit. or a surface. 2. Select a handle. 3. save your shapes as node perturbations. any shapes saved as handle perturbations may not yield the same morphed shape after handles have been added or deleted. Select a node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . or delete any morphing entities. a plane. You can also select other features to drag the handle along such as a line. Handles may always be added or deleted from a model without affecting the current morphed state of the model. Click on the line or surface where you want the node. You can use this feature to position a handle anywhere you want line or surface data. The handle is moved to the position where the node was prior to morphing and the rest of the mesh morphs accordingly.

One way to do this is by translating or rotating handles. Select alter dimensions. Select a vector and distance. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. The handles rotate about the axis the specified angle and the model morph accordingly. Set the upper left selector to distance. Change the distance value. select the morph panel. 3. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a.0 User’s Guide 225 . The handles move the specified distance in the specified direction and the model morphs accordingly. From the HyperMorph module. Change the upper middle selector from move to node to translate. Select a few handles. Select a few handles. Click rotate. both node a and node b will move the same distance. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for node a as a group and the follower handles for node b as a group either towards each other or away from each other so that the new distance between node a and node b is equal to the specified distance. To translate or rotate handles: 1. Select an axis of rotation.Making Parametric Changes Dimensions such as distance and angle can be changed easily in HyperMorph. If the left selector is set to hold middle. Click morph. Rotate the handles. Click translate. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Set the rotation angle. If the left selector is set to hold end a. Or Select the desired xyz translation. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. Translate the handles. 2. Select node a and node b at nodes whose distance you want to change. Specify dimensions more precisely in the alter dimensions sub-panel. node a will not move (same for node b). Change the upper middle selector from translate to rotate.

The distance is changed and the model morphs. Set the upper left selector to angle. Change the middle left selector to nodes and handles. vertex. Select follower handles for node a that are near node a. 6. 5. the vertex. Change the angle value.Morphing by altering the distance between two nodes The width of the car is found by placing node a (green dot) on the right hand door and node b (blue dot) on the left hand door. Select follower handles for node b that are near node b. 7. To change the angle: 1. 4. and node b are the specified angle. and node b at nodes whose angle you want to change. Click morph. 3. iterattion is not necessary. HyperMorph moves the follower handles for each end in a way so that the new angle between node a. HyperMorph will iterate to achieve the desired angle. or at least get close. The handles on the right side of the model are selected as followers for node a and the handles on the left side of the model are selected as followers for node b. If node a and node b are selected coincident with one of the follower handles. 2. 226 HyperMesh 8. Select node a.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . If necessary.

By placing three fingers on each side. The angle is changed from 160 degrees to 150 degrees.0 User’s Guide 227 . You can visualize the handles as places on a sheet of rubber where you are placing your fingers. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you allow for even stretching to occur between each set of fingers. However. blue. If you place three fingers on one side and two on the other and try to stretch the sheet. for cases where you are trying to morph a mesh that covers a wide area. and selecting two handles on either side of the windshield as followers for node b (red node). the parts of the model that are morphed are those that lie between the handles that are moving and those that are not. the space between your fingers on the two finger side will be pulled towards the three finger side. In morphing this is accomplished by placing handles evenly along both sides of the mesh to be stretched. Controlling Global Morphing with Handle Placement Global morphing differs from local morphing in that there are no definite boundaries between the handles that restrict their zones of influence. For the general space frame cases. you will need to place several handles across both of sides of the zone of influence. selecting two handles at the front of the car as followers for node a (green). and red).Morphing by altering the angle formed by three nodes The slope of the windshield is altered by defining an angle using three nodes (green. Note that the handles on either side of the windshield were constrained to move along the x-axis (front to back) thus maintaining the height of the roof. positioning handles at the joints between the members of the space frame restricts the handle influences to the parts of the frame that they are touching. When you perform global morphing operations.

Now when the handle on the roof is moved upwards. 228 HyperMesh 8. only the part of the car between the roof and the handles along the midline of the car is stretched.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Controlling global morphing with handles – part 2 A handle is added directly below the handle on the roof near the center of the car.Controlling global morphing with handles – part 1 The handle on the roof is moved upwards and the center section of the car is morphed along with it.

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9. 5. select the symmetry panel. 7. 2. 6. Change the left toggle from approximate to enforced. From the HyperMorph module. Mirror Images . Switch the selector from none to 1 plane. 8. Return to the HyperMorph module. Select the global domain icon. Select the system you created. Enter a name. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry. morph volumes will usually yield better results. 4. the fender of the model is morphed.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 3. Also note that in cases where detailed shape changes are required.Adding handles to control global morphing Using several handles on either side. you can create a plane of symmetry at the center of your space frame and have your morphs applied in a symmetric fashion. To set up a plane of symmetry: 1. Note that dependent handles are used to simplify the morphing operation. 230 HyperMesh 8.Using 1-Plane Symmetry If your space frame is symmetric. Create a system at a node where the plane of symmetry is to be located and have the x-axis pointing normal to the plane to be created. select the systems panel.

Since enforced was selected. the model maintains symmetry across the symmetry plane. Click create. If you want to add handles to one side of the plane of symmetry and not the other. HyperMorph automatically applies the handle movements to the handles on the other side of the plane of symmetry through the symmetry link.10. The icon for a 1-plane symmetry is a rectangle positioned like a small mirror for the symmetry system. HyperMorph creates new handles that are reflections of ones that are not linked to any others and creates a symmetric link between them. The mesh itself does not need to be symmetric to use the symmetry options. yet still have symmetry active for the symmetric handles. HyperMorph also links any handles that it finds that are reflections of the other. the enforced option will automatically create or delete handles on the other side of the symmetric link in order to enforce symmetry of the handles.0 User’s Guide 231 . Now when you perform a morphing operation you only need to move the handles on one side of the plane of symmetry. As a result. A plane of symmetry is created at the origin of the system and based perpendicular to the x-axis. If you have the symmetry links check box activated. The perturbations applied to handles on one side of the plane of symmetry will be mirrored on to the other side. System and 1-plane symmetry The plane of symmetry is positioned at the origin of the system and perpendicular to the x-axis. When handles are created or deleted. The symmetry will be applied to the handles and handle perturbations that will influence the mesh in a symmetric fashion. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. use the approximate option instead.

Using 1-plane symmetry Three handles on the right hand side of the roof are selected and moved towards the centerline. HyperMorph automatically moves the corresponding nodes on the left hand side of the roof in a symmetric fashion.

Reducing 3D to 2D - Using Linear Symmetry
You can use linear symmetry to apply morphs to the model in such a way that the model is essentially reduced to two dimensions. To create a linear symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be reduced. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from 1 plane to linear. Select the system you created.

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9.

Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

10. Click create. A linear symmetry is created along the x-axis of the system. The icon for a linear symmetry consists of two parallel lines along the dimension to be reduced. The origin of the system is irrelevant. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a line extending along the system xaxis. If two handles lie along a line parallel to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same y and z coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since linear is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others that are linked via the symmetry. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and linear symmetry The linear symmetry icon consists of two parallel lines along the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a linear symmetry system does not matter; the effect of the linear symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a linear symmetry is very useful for making profile changes to a space frame model. It does not matter where the handles are placed along the x-axis, greatly simplifying the model set up. You only need to look at the model from one view to set up the handles and to morph the model. For models with a large number of elements this can save a great deal of time.

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Using linear symmetry The handle on the rear part of the roof is selected and the entire rear portion of the roof is morphed along with it. With linear symmetry you only need to place handles on one side of the model to affect the entire profile.

Reducing 3D to 1D - Using Planar Symmetry
Planar symmetry is similar to linear symmetry accept that it reduces two dimensions instead of one. This enables you to morph your model along a single axis with only two or more handles. To create a planar symmetry: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. From the HyperMorph module, select the systems panel. Create a system with the x-axis pointing along the dimension to be retained. Return to the HyperMorph module, select the symmetry panel. Select create. Enter a name. Select the global domain icon. Switch the selector from linear to planar. Select the system you created. Select x-axis as the axis to align the symmetry.

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11. Return to the HyperMorph module. 12. Select the symmetry panel. 13. Select update by domain. 14. Select the global domain. 15. Select the planar symmetry. 16. Click update. A planar symmetry is created and the other two symmetries from the global domain are removed. You are allowed to have any number of symmetries associated with a domain and all will apply, but combining linear and planar symmetry in the same direction results in an unrealistic situation and poor influence calculations. The planar symmetry icon is displayed as a filled-in rectangle perpendicular to the system x-axis. Now each handle acts on the mesh as if it were a plane perpendicular to the x-axis. If two handles lie in a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis, they will be linked through symmetry. When you move a handle, all the nodes and handles with the same x coordinates will move along with it. Note: Since planar is a non-reflective type of symmetry, leaving symlinks unchecked will not prevent the handles from having linear influences. However, it will stop movements from one handle from being applied to others. If you wish to turn the symmetry off for a given morphing operation, make the symmetry inactive in the morph options panel.

System and planar symmetry The planar symmetry icon is a plane perpendicular to the system x-axis. Note that the placement of a planar symmetry system does not matter, the effect of the planar symmetry system is determined only by the direction of the x-axis. Applying a planar symmetry greatly simplifies a model. Essentially, it reduces the model to a lying along single axis. This symmetry type is very useful for changing dimensions along one axis through the entire model.

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Using planar symmetry The handle at the rear of the model is selected and the entire trunk of the car is morphed. With planar symmetry you only need a row of handles lying roughly along the planar symmetry system x-axis.

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Shell Model Strategies using Local Domains
Shell models are models that are made up primarily of shell elements, namely, quads, and trias. In general, a shell model represents many parts, each with numerous features such as holes and edges, and connected together using 1D elements such as bars and rigids. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shapes of the shell model features. This is done using one of the following methods: • Moving the handles on the part to new locations • • Moving the global handles around the parts to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the parts, or mapping the nodes of a part to line or surface data

For most models you only need to create 2D domains for the entire part, but you can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature.

Creating Handles and Domains - shell model
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Change the toggle to all elements or select all the elements in the model. Click create. A 2D domain is created for each group of continuous shell elements. Parts joined by 1D or 3D elements are separated into different domains. If partition domains is checked, the 2D domains will be partitioned according to the settings selected in the partitioning sub-panel of the domains panel. Once partitioned, edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. All of this is automatic, but 1D and 3D elements will not be placed into 1D and 3D domains unless you set the selector to local domains instead of 2D domains. In many cases, the domains and handles will be generated where you want them to be. If not you can always add, edit, or delete the handles and domains to meet your needs.

A shell model is partitioned into 2D domains 6. If you wish to generate a global domain as well as local domains for your model with a single button click, either change the selector to global and local and click create, or to auto functions and click generate.

In the case of the generate auto function, if there are any domains or handles in the model, HyperMorph will first ask if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. If you say “yes”, or if there are no morphing entities in the model, HyperMorph automatically generates 1D, 2D, 3D, and edge domains for the entire model and a global domain and handles as well.

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For tria meshes which lack underlying geometry, both the node-based and element based partitioning algorithms may prove unsatisfactory. In these cases you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when partitioning. To accomplish this, go to the partitioning sub-panel, select element based as the algorithm for tria/tetra meshes, and change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees. HyperMorph will then only make partitions along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. You can then go in and manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should go. This method is almost mandatory for meshes that began as first order meshes but were transformed into second order meshes. For these meshes, HyperMorph will detect a curvature break at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. The result will be a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. Solving the influence coefficients for 2D domains which contain more than 20,000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the large domains into multiple domains or lower the limit for the large domain solver. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. However, even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid, morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming, and thus subdividing 2D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. To divide your shell model, do this: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select create. Set the selector to 2D domains. Select the elements to be placed into a new 2D domain. Click create. When selecting the elements for the new domain you do not need to select only shell elements. HyperMorph automatically removes any other elements before creating the domain. It does not matter if the elements selected are already in a 2D domain. When the new domain is created, the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. Handle influences need to be recalculated every time handles, domains, or symmetries are added, edited, or deleted. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. These calculations occur when you enter or leave any HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. Thus, for models with large domains you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. HyperMorph only recalculates the handle influences for handles in regions that have been edited. If the domains are not created exactly how you want them to be, you can edit them in the domains panel. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. The organize subpanel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split, merge, and place handles along edge domains. It is suggested that you create and edit all the 2D domains, then create and edit the edge domains. This order works better since creating or editing 2D domains will result in the regeneration of the surrounding edge domains with the previous modifications to those edge domains being discarded. Sometimes partitioning does not divide the mesh in the ways that would be most useful to you. Occasionally, elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. Partitioning is not an exact science, so some cleanup is sometimes required.

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To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. From the HyperMorph module, select the domains panel. Select organize. Change the selector to add nodes/elems . Change the toggle to local domain. Select the elements to be moved. Select the target domain. Click organize. This will move the elements from the domain that they are currently in to the selected domain. HyperMorph also refreshes the edge domains around both domains as well as the edge domains at the interface. New handles may also be created during this process, and if retain handles is not checked, handles may be deleted. It is suggested that you keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing.

Partitioning problems The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. For this example the retain handles option was left unchecked resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. Note that the edge domains are always partitioned for any new domain and handles are placed at the end of the edge domains. For the example above, a handle was created in a new location due to the edge partitioning being different for the two domain configurations. When you hold the mouse button down and the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D domain or over an element inside a domain, the edge domains surrounding the domain are highlighted as well. This allows you to better visualize the domain that you are selecting. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain, and some domains can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements.

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Two domains are organized into one Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. but in some cases it may not identify the proper starting and ending points. select the domains panel. 3.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMorph tries to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Change the selector to combine domains. 2. If you do your edge editing first. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D domains. Select the domains to be grouped together. 5. This is why any editing of the edge domains should come after the editing of the other domains.To group two or more domains together: 1. 240 HyperMesh 8. The selected domains are combined into a single domain and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. You may need to correct this by hand. 4. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. Click organize. From the HyperMorph module. Select organize. Edge domains are used to make radius changes.

From the HyperMorph module. 6. Select edit edges. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. Change the selector to split. To merge edge domains: 1. The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. 2. 4. From the HyperMorph module. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select an edge domain. 5. 3. 5. select the domains panel. Splitting an edge domain . Select edit edges. select the domains panel.0 User’s Guide 241 . 3. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel.a circular edge domain is divided into two half circles A handle was created at the joint to allow you to manipulate the edges. Select any number of connected edge domains. Click split. 2.To split edge domains: 1. Click merge. 4. Change the selector to merge. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end to end such that the resultant edge domain is a continuous series of nodes. A handle is created at the selected node.

This feature is quite useful for saving time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Change the selector to add handles.Merging two edge domains The two half circles are merged into a single domain. 5. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. Select one or more domains. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. The dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. If the domain containing the radius to be changed is very large you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change before you go into the morph panel. Click create. Since retain handles was unchecked. 4. the handle at the joint was deleted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish the change: 1. 3. 2. select the domains panel. 242 HyperMesh 8. From the HyperMorph module. Select edit edges.

Secondly. and element offset Using freehand morphing capabilities such as move nodes. click return. or arc angle of an edge domain Mapping nodes to a line. surface.Creating handles on an edge domain A dependent handle is created on each node of the edge domain. It will be as if they were not there. line and surface difference.0 User’s Guide 243 . when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge will be transparently applied to the dependent handles. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. In these cases you should divide large domains. record. and sculpting Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. plane. During influence calculation you might run out of available memory. or mesh Using section mapping. Morphing on Local Domains You can change the shape of a model with local domains and handles using one or more of the following methods: • • • • • • Moving the local handles Changing a distance or angle Changing the radius. Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. The first is that since they are dependent.When you are satisfied with your domains. HyperMorph calculates the influences for the handles and you are ready to begin morphing. or lower the limit of the large domain solver. . delete unnecessary handles. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. curvature. the influences do not need to be recalculated.

There are six ways to move handles in the move handles sub-panel of the morph panel: interactive This option allows you to move handles interactively by dragging the mouse across the screen. or place them on lines.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and move a handle by clicking on it and dragging it to a new location. Interactive morphing is most effective for visualizing how the mesh will react when a handle is moved and for making approximate shape changes. plane. or domains. You select an entity such as a vector. to orient the mouse location in 3D space. These options allow you to position handles at specific node or point locations. This option allows you to rotate handles about an axis. surfaces. or another mesh. If you want to move a handle a specific distance or to a specific position. This option allows you to translate handles along a vector or element normals. surface. line. This option allows you to position handles at specific XYZ locations or place them on lines. it is better to use a non-interactive option. or another mesh. translate rotate move to XYZ move to node. surfaces. move to point 244 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 245 . the length of the flange is reduced.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the two handles along the edge of the flange and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section (green and blue nodes). Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

246 HyperMesh 8. Morphing by translating handles By selecting the handles at the bottom of the part and translating them upwards.Morphing by translating handles By selecting the three handles and translating them along a vector defined at the end of the section. the thickness of the lower section is reduced.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the width of the channel is increased.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 247 .Morphing by translating handles By selecting all the handles around the bolt boss and translating them horizontally. the end angle of the section is modified.constant The right end of the block is given a constant rotation. Morphing by rotating handles . Morphing by rotating handles .constant By selecting all the handles at the end of the section and rotating them about a point (violet node). the position of the bolt boss is modified.

the circle at the center of the model remains on the same plane as before. This will cause the nodes to be rotated as well as the handles with the amount of rotation being equal to the influence coefficient. check the true rotation checkbox. This is because the nodes have followed the handles instead of being rotated about the axis.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 248 HyperMesh 8. not all morphing applications are best done using true rotation.Morphing by rotating handles . When applying handle perturbations to your model. Morphing by rotating handles . Note how the magnitude of the twist increases linearly with the distance from the base (purple) node. To correct this situation. This concept comes into play when you are using the rotate function.linear The entire block is given a linear rotation. After rotating handles you may find areas in the model (particularly those defined by curved edges) that are not rotated the same as the neighboring handles. it is important to note that the nodes in the model follow the movements of the handles according to the influence coefficients. Although it could be argued that true rotation is the "correct" way to morph via rotation of the handles.normal Although the highlighted handles are rotated.

For solid models. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Select handles corresponding to those nodes. This occurs when both a dependent handle and the handle on which it is dependent are selected to be morphed. the angle between nodes. The basic concept is as follows: Select two nodes (node a and node b). or the radius or curvature of an edge domain.true rotation During "true rotation" the nodes rotate along with the handles. the following message may be displayed: “Some handles selected are dependent on others. The handles selected are the ones that will move to make the distance between node a and node b (or angle with a vertex selected) equal the specified value. such as the distance between nodes. Would you like to ignore dependencies for this operation?”. While morphing a model.Morphing by rotating handles . You must select at least one handle for each end and the handle may be coincident with one of the nodes. The alter dimensions sub-panel of the morph panel allows you to change one of the parameters in the model.0 User’s Guide 249 . controlling a particular dimension often involves moving more than one handle for each end. For most cases you will want to click yes. If you click no. the given perturbation and any inherited perturbation is applied to each dependent node. If you click yes the given perturbation is applied to each handle and the dependent handles are not given an additional perturbation inherited from another handle.

Morphing by altering dimensions . the thickness of the block between the radius and the back face is altered from 15 to 25 by moving the entire back face.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .distance By selecting the thickness of the block as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the radius (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles on the back face (highlighted) to follow the blue node.distance By selecting the width of the bottom of the channel as the desired distance to alter (green and blue nodes) and by selecting the handles on the left (highlighted) to follow the green node and the handles on the right (shown as gray) to follow the blue node.Morphing by altering dimensions . the width of the bottom of the channel can be changed from 60 to 30 with the rest of the channel changing along with it. 250 HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide 251 . blue. and red nodes) and by selecting the handles at and directly below the green node (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handles at. the angle of the left side of the section is changed from 110 degrees to 90 degrees. blue. near.angle By selecting the angle of the left side of the channel (green. and red nodes) and by selecting the handle at the bottom right of the channel (shown as gray) to follow the green node and the handle at the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node.angle By selecting the angle between two faces of the block (green.Morphing by altering dimensions . the angle is altered from 126 degrees to 90 degrees. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and below the red node (highlighted) to follow the red node. Morphing by altering dimensions .

Note: Morphing by altering dimensions – radius – center By selecting the edge domain around the edge of the hole. 252 HyperMesh 8.radius . or arc angle factor for them. you need to set the curve ratio to 1. The curvature tool is intended for domains that do not have constant curvature. and click morph. and arc angle options are used as follows. select the center calculation and style options. Making the bias factor retroactive does not work for radius changes. so if you want to change a radius from 5. All the domains are changed simultaneously. Morphing by altering dimensions .5 and kept in line with the edges at either end. You select any number of curved edge or 2D domains.The radius. curvature.6. Note: The curvature tool scales your radius by a factor rather than a set radius. the radius is changed from 3 to 1.0. set the new radius.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . curvature multiplication.5. the radius is changed from 5 to 2.0 to 8.fillet By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the fillet option.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold ends By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part and selecting the hold ends option, the radius is changed from 5 to 10 with the ends held in place.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - hold end By selecting the edge domain at the corner of the part, selecting the hold end option, and selecting a node at the end of the edge domain, the radius is changed from 5 to 8 while the held end remains in place.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - radius - fillet By selecting all of the edge domains that form the fillet between the flat sections and the round section and changing them simultaneously, the fillet is reduced from 20 to 8.

Morphing by altering dimensions - radius The radius is changed in three different ways. At the top right, the hold center option is used. At the lower left, the hold ends option is used. At the lower right, the fillet option is used. In all cases, both the top and bottom edge domains were selected as well as the 2D domain and the by normals option was used for center calculation. This option will directly calculate the radii for the nodes on the 2D domain instead of inferring them from the edge domains which makes this approach more accurate for 2D domains as well as more reliable for non-uniform meshes.

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Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the mesh is changed from 60 to 90 degrees using by axis (the vertical axis and violet base node) to calculate the center of curvature.

Morphing by altering dimensions - arc angle The arc angle of the fillet is changed from 90 to 180 degrees using by normals to calculate the center of curvature. There are five methods available for calculating the center of curvature for the selected domains: • by normals - this method is the default and uses the element normals to approximate where the center of curvature is for each node in the selected domains. This method is not always accurate, but often gives good results for regular meshes. by axis - you may select an axis which will serve as the center of curvature. by line - you may select a line which will serve as the center of curvature. by node - you may select a node which will serve as the center of curvature. by edges - this method uses the edge domains to calculate the center of curvature with the center lying in the plane of the edge domains. The symmetry option refers to how the morphing of the edge domains is applied to neighboring 2D domains. The auto-symmetry option was the default for HyperMorph prior to version 8.0. In 8.0 you may choose to turn off symmetry when using this option.

• • • •

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For auto-symmetry, the changes in the radii of the edge domains are applied to any 2D domain, depending on the number of edge domains you change for the 2D domains. If you change only one edge domain for a given 2D domain, the radius change will not be applied linearly across the 2D domain. If you change the radii of two edges for any given 2D domain, either a linear or planar temporary symmetry is created between the two edge domains for the 2D domain that will apply radius changes more linearly across the 2D domain. This works best if the mesh is regular. If you are changing only one edge for a 2D domain, you can increase the bias factor of any handles on an edge domain to yield a more even distribution. Mapping an edge domain to a line or a 2D mesh to a plane, surface, or mesh is done using the map to geom panel. This option is very effective for fitting a mesh to new geometric data. When mapping a domain to a geometric feature, all the nodes in neighboring domains are stretched along with it, minimizing mesh distortion. You have several options for determining how the nodes for the mapped domain are placed on the geometry. When mapping an edge domain or node list the nodes can be moved normal to the line, along a vector to the line, or distributed along the full length of the line. When mapping a 2D domain or selection of nodes to a plane, surface, or mesh, the nodes can be moved normal to the target, normal to the elements of the 2D domain or selected nodes, or along a vector. If you wish to fit a mesh to a surface, there is no option to do this automatically, however, with multiple mapping operations, or using the user control option you can fit a 2D domain to a surface. Furthermore, you have the option of creating a morph constraint between the nodes and the map target automatically after mapping. This constraint will allow you to do further morphing operations while maintaining the constrained nodes on the geometry. The map to geom panel is also effective for solid model meshing. You can create a block of solid elements roughly in the shape of the geometry that you are trying to mesh, and then use map to surface to morph the faces of the block to the geometry.

Morphing by mapping to line - automap - normal to geom The edge domain is mapped to a line by moving the nodes normal to the line.

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Morphing by mapping to line - automap - fit to line The edge domain is mapped to the line by fitting them along the line. Any proportional spacing between the nodes will be maintained after mapping.

Morphing by mapping to surface By selecting the 2D domain on the top of the solid block to be mapped to the surface, the entire solid block is morphed to match the surface.

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Morphing by mapping to surface A rectangular C-section is mapped to a curved surface.

Morphing by mapping to surface - user control This example shows the user-control approach to mapping a mesh onto a surface. The surface and 2D domain are selected and the user control button is clicked. This brings up a new panel which allows you to place handles or map edges prior to the surface mapping operation. One by one each edge domain is placed on one of the lines around the target surface using the fit to line option. This stretches the 2D domain to match the surface more closely than before. When the map button is clicked, the domain is the mapped to the surface, fitting it perfectly to the geometry.

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Morphing Global Handles
Global handles are most effective when used to make general shape changes for a model, such as changing the basic shape of a model, stretching parts of a model, or making changes that involve the movement of many local handles. There are three methods available for affecting the way global handles influence the model, the direct method, the hierarchical method, and the mixed method. The default is the direct method, where the global handles move the nodes directly. In the hierarchical method, the global handles move the local handles which in turn move the nodes, but if any nodes lie outside of local domains they will be unaffected. In the mixed method, the hierarchical method is used for all nodes in local domains and the direct method is used for all other nodes. The hierarchical method maintains the shape of edge domains in the model, but if local handles are not evenly placed throughout the model, some parts will become distorted. The direct method gives you what you expect but often distorts the shape of the edge domains. For shell and solid models, better morphing is more likely to occur if you use the hierarchical method, and place local handles in areas where there is distortion.

Using Constraints
Morph constraints are a powerful tool that can be used to restrict the movement of nodes during morphing operations. The following types of constraints can be applied to any node: fixed, cluster, along vector, on plane, along line, on surface, and on elements. Whenever a handle is moved that influences a node, which is constrained, the node is moved according to the handle perturbation and is then projected back onto the feature to which it is constrained. This allows the nodes to slide across vectors, lines, planes, surfaces, and meshes, to remain fixed when handles are moved, or to move as a cluster along with other nodes. You may also constrain nodes where handles are located which, in effect, constrains the handles. When a perturbation is applied to a constrained handle, the handle are moved along the constraint feature regardless of the applied perturbation. This means that if you apply a translation in the x direction on a handle that is constrained along a vector x - y = 0, the handle moves along both the x and y axes. There are also morph constraints that can be applied to domains, such as the smooth constraint, which applies spline-based smoothing along the constrained edge domains, and model constraints, which allow you to set a given parametric target (such as length, angle, mass, etc.) and have HyperMorph adjust the model to meet that target. These constraints as well as bounded and set distance options for the node constraints are described more fully in the panel help. Morph constraints can be very useful for morphing a mesh that has been mapped to, projected to, or created upon a surface. Note that the map to geom operation allows you to have a morph constraint automatically created after mapping. Once you have done so, the nodes will remain on the surface during morphing operations. Note: Although morph constraints can keep nodes on a curved line or surface during morphing operations, when morphs are saved as shapes and then turned into shape variables for optimization, the nodes will not stay on the line or surface during optimization. This is because optimization is a linear process and the shapes will be treated as linear, meaning that the nodes will move directly from their original point to their maximally perturbed point without moving along any constraint.

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Controlling handle positions with morph constraints The angle of the lower right corner is changed from 74 to 90 degrees using the alter dimensions (angle) operation. The middle frame shows the result with no constraints. The frame on the right shows the result with the node in the upper right corner constrained to move along a vector that lies along the top edge.

Nodes tracking a line during morphing The nodes along the right edge domain are constrained to the line. When the handle is moved, it and the other constrained nodes move along the line.

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Biasing increases or decreases the influence of a handle over the nodes within its area of influence. they too will be moved along the surface regardless of the applied perturbation. Using Biasing Biasing allows you to control the shape of a mesh when applying handle perturbations. provided both handles are global handles or they are located on edge domains.0 User’s Guide 261 . If the handles were also part of the map to geom operation. If the biasing values for all of the handles are equal to 1. the nodes are moved along the surface a distance corresponding to the applied handle perturbations. HyperMorph automatically placed the handles back on the surfaces after applying the translation so that the constraint was obeyed. In this example. which is the default value for all handles except for dependent handles on 1D domains.000 at the edges. and 3.000 at the corners. the handles were translated linearly.000.Morphing after mapping to surface All mapped nodes are automatically constrained to the surface. the morphing between the handles is linear. Higher biasing values generate a smooth curvature near the handles. When the handles are translated. To smoothly change the shape of a domain it is recommended that you use a biasing factor of 1. 2.000 in the middle. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. while lower biasing values generate harsh corners near the handles.

The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. The model at the lower left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 2. Biasing can be applied retroactively after a morphing operation.000 for the handle at the hole.000. the mesh unfolds (right frame). you can change the biasing value by activating the make retroactive check box.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 2.Biasing for a 2D domain The model at the upper left has all five handles with the default biasing value of 1. 262 HyperMesh 8. After applying a morph. When the biasing value of the handle at the hole is increased to 3.000. Biasing to reduce mesh distortion When the hole is moved downward with a biasing factor of 1. Apply the morphs and change the biasing values retroactively until you get the shape that you want. This is useful in selecting a good biasing value to apply for a given morph. and have the current list of applied morphs updated to reflect the new biasing values.000.000 and the mid-edge handle with a biasing value of 0.500.000.000. The model at the upper right shows the four corner handles with a biasing value of 1. the mesh folds over due to the influences of the other handles (middle frame).

edges. tetras. or delete the handles and domains to meet specific needs. flanges. edit. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you can add. The surfaces of each 3D domain are covered with shell elements that are placed in a component named ^morphface.0 User’s Guide 263 . edge domains are placed around the 2D domains and handles are placed at the ends of the edge domains. Click create. select the domains panel. You can also add a global domain and global handles for shape alterations of a general nature. A 3D domain is created for a solid model Note the automatic creation and partitioning of 2D domains on the face of the solid and the creation of edge domains and handles for the 2D domains. Once partitioned. From the HyperMorph module. the domains and handles are generated where you want them to be.solid model You can create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in a model. Creating Handles and Domains . and hexas. This procedure is automatic. 4. This is done using one of the following methods: • • • • Moving the handles on the part to new locations Moving the global handles around the part to new locations Altering the radius or curvature of curved edges of the part Mapping the nodes of the part to line or surface data. each part is placed in its own 3D domain. it is only necessary to create a single 3D domain for the entire part. HyperMorph is designed to make it easy to change the size and shape of features in a solid model. In general. Change the toggle to all elements. bosses. Select create. namely. a solid model represents a single part with numerous features such as holes. or manually select all of the elements in the model. these 2D domains are partitioned according to the settings selected in the parameter subpanel of the domains panel. In many cases. If partition 2D domains is checked. 5. 2. For solid models. The elements in ^morphface covering each 3D domain are placed into 2D domains. pentas. Set the selector to 3D domains. If they are not.Solid Model Strategies using Local Domains Solid models are models that are made up of solid elements. To create a single 3D domain consisting of all the elements in the model: 1. and ribs. If the model is made up of more than one part. 3.

3. element based and node based. If there are any domains or handles in the model. the 2D domain made up of the elements on the surface of the 3D domain will not have edge domains and thus no handles will be generated for it. morphing cannot be performed. the node based partitioning will work better. 2. or if there are no morphing entities in the model.To create a 3D domain along with a global domain and global handles to your model: 1. this approach will give you a “blank slate” 2D domain that you can partition by hand. 2D. Click generate. 264 HyperMesh 8. For meshes on which the automatic partitioning does not work well. as well as a global domain and handles. 4. select the domains panel. Be sure to try both methods of partitioning. However. which produces dependent (green) handles. However. and 1D domain. Without handles. Automatic generation of domains on a solid model Note the addition of a global domain. you may find it easier to start with a blank slate rather than editing the automatically created domains. If you do not select partition 2D domains when you generate a 3D domain. global handles. From the HyperMorph module. such as first order tetra meshes. Note: The element based method sometimes works better on second order tetras since it accounts for element curvature. if the second order tetras are converted first order tetras and thus have no curvature. before deciding to partition by hand. If you click yes. you are asked if you want to delete all the current morphing entities. Set the selector to auto functions. and 3D domains are automatically generated for the entire model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 1D. Select create.

and thus subdividing 3D domains can often be the best solution for efficient morphing. This results in a domain for every element on a curve which makes morphing impractical. you do not need to be concerned about selecting the morphface elements. Additionally. However. When the new domain is created. Therefore. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Morphface elements are placed at the internal interface between the new domain and the other domains and create a 2D domain for the interface. Select update. To do this. 5. but it will not partition the interface. if you are only going to morph a part of your 3D mesh. From the HyperMorph module.Also. 6. Not that in some cases HyperMorph will not be able to subdivide a 3D domain without dividing an indivisible 2D domain. a curvature break is detected at every element along a curve if the midpoint nodes of the elements have not been modified to capture the curvature. it does not matter if the selected elements are already in a 3D domain. Select any 2D domains on the surface of the 3D domain that are permissible for HyperMorph to split into more than one 2D domain. 3. When selecting elements for the new domain. Set the selector to 3D domains. To divide your solid model manually: 1. morphing using the large domain solver can be time consuming. Select the 3D domains to be subdivided. 2.0 User’s Guide 265 . You may also want to lower the domain angle to 30 degrees.000 elements can become very time consuming even though it is only done after domain editing and during morphing operations such as radius change and map to geom. In these cases you may want to divide the domain into multiple domains using the subdivide 3D function in the update sub-panel of the domains panel. Solving the influence coefficients for 3D domains which contain more than 20. This method is very helpful for meshes that began as first order tetra meshes but then were then transformed into second order meshes. Select the elements to be placed into a new 3D domain. select the domains panel. the elements are moved from the old domains to the new domain. For these meshes. This better accommodates the division of tetra meshes that cannot be divided along flat or curved internal faces and thus would be partitioned into many domains. To subdivide your solid model: 1. or lower the limit for the large domain solver. 3. select the domains panel. Set the selector to subdivide 3D. in the parameters sub-panel. HyperMorph automatically subdivides the 3D domains into one or more 3D domains while leaving the 2D domains not selected as being divisible unchanged. 5. Click subdivide. change the uppermost toggle from curvature based to angle based. You can then manually divide the 2D domains where the curvature breaks should be located. for first order tetra meshes. you may find it more effective to ignore curvature when automatically partitioning. From the HyperMorph module. Partitions will be made only along edges in the model where the domain angle is exceeded. even though influence calculations for large domains are more rapid. you only need to create domains for that part. In these cases the 3D domain will be left undivided. The large domain solver limit can be found in the global sub-panel of the morph options panel. 2. Also. Select create. 4. 4. Click create. other elements are automatically removed before the domain is created. you do not need to select only solid elements.

you can edit them in the domains panel. Create and edit the edge domains. or symmetries are added. and creating or editing 2D domains results in the creation and deletion of edge domains. If the domains are not created exactly the way you want them. For large models you will want to make all of your domain changes before exiting the domains panel. These calculations occur when you enter or leave a HyperMorph panel or when you leave the delete panel. elements end up in domains adjacent to where you want them or placed in their own domain. The influences for handles are only recalculated in regions that have been edited. Since creating or editing 3D domains results in the creation of 2D and edge domains. or deleted. merge. The edit edges sub-panel allows you to split.Note: When you divide a 3D domain into parts. You can divide your 3D domains to restrict the handle influences and control mesh distortion. Dividing a 3D domain into many 3D domains can be very useful for controlling the movement of nodes within the domain when the handles on the surface are moved. Occasionally. A single 3D domain is split into four 3D domains The influences of the handles will not extend across the boundaries between the domains. The create sub-panel allows you to create new domains. make sure that you divide it along lines where you want your 2D domains on the surface to be. Automatic partitioning does not always divide a mesh in the most useful ways. They are also recalculated during radius changes and geometry mapping. So when you divide your model into 3D domains. When some meshes are morphed. edited. This is generally caused by handle influences extending too far through the 3D domain. domains. Influences must be recalculated every time handles. you should perform the tasks in the following order: Create and edit all the 3D domains that you want first. Create and edit the 2D domains. 266 HyperMesh 8. it has the effect of partitioning the surface of the original 3D domain along seams where the divisions were made. and place handles along edge domains. The organize sub-panel allows you to edit domains by adding and removing elements to or from a domain and by grouping domains together.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Some cleanup may be required. the internal elements can become distorted.

Click organize. The model on the left shows problems that partitioning can encounter for some meshes. Having the edges for the domain highlighted during selection is often necessary to tell which icon goes with which group of elements. 5. 2. as well as the 2D domains at the interface if solid elements are being organized. The edge domains around both domains are refreshed. You should keep retain handles unchecked unless you have created shapes for the model that use the handles on the domains that you are editing. 4. Select the target domain. will highlight the edge domains surrounding the domain. the retain handles option was left unchecked. handles may be deleted. This allows you to visualize the domain that you are selecting. For this example. and if retain handles is not checked. Select the elements to be moved. select the domains panel. and for some domains it can end up away from the elements of the domain and near other domain icons. 3.To move elements from one domain to another: 1. 6. Note: Holding the mouse button down when the mouse is either over the icon for a 2D or 3D domain or over an element inside a domain. From the HyperMorph module. The domain icon is placed at the centroid of the domain. New handles may also be created during this process. The model on the right has been corrected using the organize sub-panel of the domains panel. Change the selector to add nodes/elements.0 User’s Guide 267 . Select organize. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. resulting in the elimination of handles that are no longer on the corners of the 2D domains. The elements are moved from their current domain to the selected domain.

6. Select an edge domain. HyperMorph attempts to partition edge domains where curvature begins and ends. Change the selector to combine domains.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You will need to correct this by hand.To group two or more domains: 1. Select organize. but in some cases. Select the domains to be grouped. The selected domains are combined into a single domain. They are also updated whenever a change occurs for a domain of which they are on the edge. 3. Edge domains are used to make radius changes. 2. which becomes a handle (right model). This is why you should edit the edge domains after the other domains have been edited. If you perform edge editing first. so it is important to make sure that any radius in the model that you intend to change be captured correctly by edge domains. select the domains panel. Now the radius of each new edge domain may be modified independently of the other. 2. The lower edge domain has been split at the gray node (left model). The selected edge domain is split into two edge domains at the selected node. Click split. 4. 3. A handle is created at the selected node. 268 HyperMesh 8. Edge domains are automatically partitioned when they are created. 5. Click organize. and the surrounding domains and handles are updated. From the HyperMorph module. Select a node on that domain that is not on the edge. Select edit edges. select the domains panel. 4. 5. it will not identify the proper starting and ending points. your changes may be erased when you edit the 2D and 3D domains. From the HyperMorph module. To split edge domains: 1. Change the selector to split.

Dependent handles created using the handles on edge feature Creating dependent handles in this way has two significant effects. These handles are dependent on the independent handles to either side of them along the edge domain. 4. If a model is very large. Change the selector to add handles. The first is that since they are dependent. The two edge domains are merged into one edge domain. 2. when you make a radius change to an edge domain that has a handle at each of its nodes. It will be as if they were not there.0 User’s Guide 269 . This feature helps save time when you are changing the radius for the edge domain. Select edit edges. 3. Change the selector to merge. movements applied to any of the independent handles on the edge are transparently applied to the dependent handles. Dependent handles are created on the selected edge domains. Select any number of edge domains. Click create. 3.To merge edge domains: 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the domains panel. Select one or more domains. Click merge. 2. From the HyperMorph module. the influences do not need to be recalculated. 4. you may find it more efficient to place dependent handles on the edge domains whose radii you wish to change before you enter the morphing panel. 5. Note that you can also merge edge domains in the organize sub-panel. Secondly. From the HyperMorph module. select the domains panel. which makes the radius change process much faster for large models. 5. To create dependent handles along an edge domain: 1. Select edit edges. You may also create dependent handles along an edge domain. This function only allows you to merge edge domains that lie end-to-end such that the resultant merged edge domain is a continuous series of nodes.

270 HyperMesh 8. Since HyperMorph creates a component called ^morphface. solid fill The option produces a display that is similar to what you see when you perform a fill plot in the hidden line panel. You only see the side of the model that is facing you (as if your model was a real part). or lower the limit of the large domain solver. a full wire frame can make it very difficult to visualize the model because every element in the model is displayed. In these cases. you will see the two sides of your model superimposed over each other. Note: During influence calculation for large models you might run out of available memory. you should divide large domains.6. When you are satisfied with your domains. The influences for the handles is calculated and you are ready to begin morphing.solid model The HyperMesh graphics engine supports different visual options for viewing models as you work on them. click return. delete unnecessary handles.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . the default setting is to display only that component—thus showing only the outer surface of your model and making it easier to work on. since the viewing mode is still wire frame. which contains shell elements on the surface of the 3D domains. Viewing Solid Models . but only the surface elements are drawn because in a solid model. your model is displayed as a wire frame. This generally happens when a given domain is too large and it contains too many handles. surface-only wire frame In this default mode. if desired (as shown). However. You can still display the surface mesh.

0 User’s Guide 271 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. so by viewing only the domains you can visualize the model with minimal clutter. Partitioning generally captures all the features on the surface of a solid. This is similar to looking at the model in a meshless wire frame mode.You can also view a solid model for morphing by turning off all the components and looking at only the domains and handles.

including splitting and joining operations Selecting vertex coordinates when the spreadsheet display is active Edit the beam section manually via dialogs and a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates. Transfer the data into the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or element data takes place in the HyperBeam panel within HyperMesh. and deleting vertices Editing line segments. Edit the beam section graphically via mouse clicks and drags. Beam section manipulation and property calculation takes place in the HyperBeam module. The HyperBeam panel in HyperMesh allows you to: • • • • Define the beam cross sectional plane via the existing HyperMesh vector definition methods.HyperBeam Module The HyperBeam module allows you to calculate general beam section properties from geometry or element data. Access previously defined beam cross sections for editing in the HyperBeam module. Select the lines. The HyperBeam module allows you to: • • View the beam section. as dictated by the beam section template. rod) element property data for an FEA model. moving. steps one and three are performed within HyperMesh and step two is performed in the HyperBeam module. This data can be imported into the HyperMesh finite element pre-processor and used to create one-dimensional (bar. It is a threestep process. beam. elements or surfaces that represent the beam cross section. surface. Step One Step Two Step Three Beam section definition from line. Step 1: Beam Section Definition. and any beam section properties calculated. Operations that can be done this way include: • Editing section thickness Creating. Step 2: Beam Section Manipulation. Operations that can be accomplished in this way include: Hand editing of vertex coordinate geometry and connectivity Editing section thickness Creating parts Editing part to vertex associativity Parameterizing the beam section for optimization via a spreadsheet containing the vertex 2-D coordinates Organizing HyperBeam sections into a single level structure of HyperBeam collectors 272 HyperMesh 8. Each step is described in more detail below. Beam section properties are imported back into HyperMesh and applied to element property cards. its local coordinate system.

You can import beam section properties into HyperMesh that have been defined in HyperBeam by using the collectors panel with the properties entity selected.Step 3: Beam Property Import. The beam section characteristics are displayed in the card image of the property collector but must be edited from within the HyperBeam module.0 User’s Guide 273 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

N1. The shell section subpanel is selected from the HyperBeam panel. This plot element will be used to align the section within HyperBeam. The purple line is a plot element created in the global y-direction. It assumes that the OptiStruct user profile is loaded. N2 and N3 locations are selected as shown in the figure below. And the plane base node is chosen (change option to specify node) at N1 also. The blue lines are plot elements denoting the beam section. 274 HyperMesh 8. The selector type is set to elems and the blue plot elements are selected.Example of the Three-Step Process This example illustrates how HyperBeam can be used to attach beam section properties to a OptiStruct PBAR card image.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Elements or lines can be used to describe a beam section. project to plane is then selected under cross section plane:.

Later we will need to know this when the beam section is aligned for bar elements. HyperBeam is invoked when you click create. N3 describes the positive sense of the z-axis.The vector created by N1 to N2 describes the local y-axis used in HyperBeam.0 User’s Guide 275 . It is important to note the alignment of the local axes at this point. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

HyperBeam would yield different results as shown below. 276 HyperMesh 8. and N3 was reversed (essentially the z-direction was flipped).If the node selection was performed differently.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

The direction specified within the bars panel defines the alignment along the y-direction. it is necessary to attach the beam section to the PBAR card image. the PBAR card image must be attached to the 1-D element in question. This operation is performed in the bars panel. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the HyperBeam alignment axis.Once HyperBeam solves the cross sectional properties. Bar element alignment using HyperBeam sections is very straightforward if the section was defined using an absolute y-direction.0 User’s Guide 277 . the y-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. This can be done in the collectors panel. the z-direction within the bars panel will align with the y-direction of the HyperBeam section. In this case. and the local bar element alignment axis. The figure below illustrates the alignment of the global axis. After the card image is created. If there were a 1 within the Z comp.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This option can be found in the review sections subpanel in the HyperBeam panel.The beam cross section can also be attached to the beam to visually inspect the alignment. 278 HyperMesh 8.

Area Area Moments of Inertia Area Product of Inertia Radius of Gyration Elastic Section Modulus Max Coordinate Extension Plastic Section Modulus Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. the system parallel to the local coordinate system with the origin in the centroid is called the centroidal coordinate system.0 User’s Guide 279 . The coordinate system defined by the user is called the local coordinate system. Thickness warping is also neglected.z plane. The x axis is defined along the beam axis. only the theory of thin walled bars is used. For shell sections.Cross-sectional Properties as Calculated by HyperBeam The beam cross section is always defined in a y. the system referring to the principal bending axes is called the principal coordinate system. This means that for the calculation of the moments and product of inertia terms of higher order of the shell thickness t are neglected.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Torsional Constant Solid Shell open Shell closed Elastic Torsion Modulus Solid Shell open Shell closed Warping Constant (normalized to the shear center) Shear deformation coefficients 280 HyperMesh 8.

Schramm. Leipzig. FL. Wiley & Sons. 1993. Fachbuchverlag. The Theory of Thin Walled Bars. Boca Raton. Pilkey. Pilkey and W. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Structural Mechanics – Variational and Computational Methods. ed. Lehrbuch – Hoehere Festigkeitslehre.. Rubenchik. CRC Press. 1979. A. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40 (1997) 211-232. Gjelsvik. U.Shear stiffness factors Shear stiffness Nastran Type Notation References W. Wunderlich. 1981. Beam Stiffness Matrix based on the Elasticity Equations.D. and W.D.0 User’s Guide 281 . H. Goeldner. V.

It also has a menu bar. Click each section of the HyperBeam window below to access detailed information about the menu areas. and results/spreadsheet sections. and status bar.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .HyperBeam Environment HyperBeam has three main panes: the section browser. 282 HyperMesh 8. shell section graphics pane. toolbar.

select Cut from the Edit menu. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select the collector where you want the section to appear. until you create thumbnail images for a different selection of sections. thumbnail images of all the sections are shown in the graphics pane. select Copy from the Edit menu. At the highest level is the model. and enter the new name. select the section. To move a section.bm extension to save beam section files). HyperBeam displays this hierarchy in a standard tree structure. click Save. and select Paste from the Edit menu. select a section by left-clicking on it. and dragging and dropping it into the collector where you want it to be located Copy a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. There are two ways to "drag and drop": • Move a section to another collector by selecting the section you want to move. Section types are identified by icons. select the collector branch in the section browser window. To view thumbnail images of the sections in a section collector.Section Browser This section browser presents a hierarchical view of all of the beam sections and section collectors on your database. copying sections. select the desired sections or section collectors in the section browser (hold down the control key to select multiple items). To export sections to an external file. Below that are all of the collectors followed by the beam sections at the lowest level. You can use the section browser to find a particular section of your model for displaying or editing. right-click in the section browser pane. choose Create Thumbnails from the pop-up menu. click once on the item to select it. and dragging it to the collector where you want it to be located. give a filename and location in the Save As window (it is recommended to use the . the thumbnail images that were just created may be viewed in the graphics pane by selecting Model in the section browser tree. as listed below: Shell Solid Standard Generic You can perform the following tasks in the section browser: • • • • To rename a section or section collector. choose Export Section from the pop-up menu. To view thumbnails of selected sections. holding down the control key. click again to indicate that you want to rename it. select multiple sections by holding down the control key and left-clicking on multiple sections. To copy a section.0 User’s Guide 283 . and renaming sections and section collectors. select the section. right-click in the section browser pane. You can also reorganize the database by moving sections between collectors. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. select the collector where you want the section to appear.

You have control (on the preferences dialog) over whether the z-axis points up or down. or equivalently. The color of the lines for each part is selected on the section's properties dialog. The bar is labeled with the part's number in the section and the current numerical value of the thickness. if the section's x-axis points into or out of the monitor. the metal thickness used for a flange is the sum of the thicknesses of all the parts that share it.The Importance of Flanges When HyperBeam computes the properties for the section. You can modify the section itself with the shell section editing tools. if you have them enabled on the view menu. The section's torsion and warping factor are displayed in the lower left corner of the pane. Shell Section Graphics Pane The graphics pane displays a representation of the geometric layout of the section.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . depending on if you have the toggle set on the toolbar or the view menu. If you accidentally omit those vertices from the connectivity for a part. The section axis is always drawn with its y-axis pointing to the right. Each vertex may or may not be labeled by its ID. each sheet metal part is drawn by lines connecting the dots that show the section's vertices. The shear center appears as an x with a circle around it. The centroid appears as a plus with a circle around it. The section's local coordinate system and its principle coordinate system (at its centroid) are displayed. then HyperBeam underestimates the stiffness of a section. separated by a colon. Each part is also marked with a slider bar that you can use to adjust the part's thickness. For shell sections. if you have them enabled on the view menu. 284 HyperMesh 8. The preferences dialog allows you to set the font and background color to use in the text graphics pane.

to toggle between them.Results/Spreadsheet Pane Section Properties Results Whenever HyperBeam computes the section properties of the current section. there are more results computed than are displayed in the default template. and the associated vertex moves to the new location. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's vertices and their coordinates. and optimization bounds for the section. "No results to display. You can type a new value into any of the coordinates. you can use the spreadsheet button on the toolbar. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. but you can select it and copy it to paste it into another application such as a word processor. the spreadsheet pane displays a list of the section's variables and their current values. The section results pane shares screen space with the section definition spreadsheets. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. you can delete them from the template so that they are not displayed. If the results are not available.0 User’s Guide 285 . You cannot edit the text in this portion of the window. You can change the display of text and values by editing the scripts file. If the section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. If you select Copy from the Edit menu. consult the documentation for the results output template. Shell Section Spreadsheet (non-optimization version) For a shell section. If there are computed values that are not necessary. You specify the text font. so you may choose to add additional values to the template. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. If this section has been designated an optimization section on the properties dialog. To see the list of all the results available. text color. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. You can toggle this region of the window between results display and spreadsheet display by using the button on the toolbar. You will find controls for the actual format and layout of the text and results in two locations. then HyperBeam displays the message. You can specify a new results template by selecting the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. you can switch to a word processor or spreadsheet program and paste the contents into another document. such as when you have edited the section definition and dynamic update is disabled." Standard Section Spreadsheet For a standard section. variables. Also. it displays them in the results pane. and background color on the Results tab on the Edit/Preferences dialog. The spreadsheet pane supports export to other applications. then the spreadsheet displays equations. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. then the spreadsheet additionally displays optimization bounds for each variable.

To define a variable for use in an equation. 286 HyperMesh 8. A menu is displayed that allows you to choose between adding or deleting a variable.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click the coordinate and it will appear as the dependent vertex. or trigonometric functions. and optimization bounds. it is assumed the optimizer treats that coordinate as fixed. click the right-hand side of the equation and enter the formula. If all three values are equal. a vertex coordinate can be defined using an equation. Each vertex coordinate now has three values: an initial value. a lower bound. The coordinate will be set equal to the last value it had calculated. A vertex that is defined by an equation may not appear on the right-hand side of another equation. variables. then the shell-section spreadsheet expands to display the rest of the necessary information. use the right mouse button to select the variable's section. In the equation. click the variable with the right mouse button. blank spaces may be prohibited. The equation is passed to the optimization solver. you can use other vertex coordinates. To delete a variable. Alternatively. into which you can enter the variable's name. and an upper bound. Select delete variable on the menu. arithmetic functions. initial value. (For example. a new blank line appears. click the vertex coordinate to make it active and delete the text of the equation. A menu is displayed. Next. If you choose add.) To delete an equation.Optimization Shell Section Spreadsheet If the shell section has been designated an optimization section on the Properties dialog. with a few restrictions. so it must be formatted as appropriate for that solver.

Setting the Section Graphics Options The Graphics tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Specifies the main background color for the section graphics region. File Menu New Save Import Section Export Section Export Results Print Print Preview Print Setup Exit Create a new section collector. Save the beam cross-section. select Preferences. The Preferences dialog allows you to specify the appearance and behavior of HyperBeam.0 User’s Guide 287 . Some operations such as importing and exporting are accomplished only from the menu bar. Edit Menu Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Delete Preferences Undo the last procedure. Copies and removes the selected text or entity. Delete the currently selected text or entity. Redo the last procedure. Options are provided to export all sections.HyperBeam Menu Bar The HyperBeam menu bar allows you to perform a wide variety of operations using drop-down menus. Set the graphics and results preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export a beam cross-section. The Graphics and Results tabs in the Preferences dialog allow you to set preferences for the section graphics window and the results/spreadsheet window. Paste the selected text or entity into the location of the cursor. standard section. Other operations can be performed using either the menu bar or the corresponding tool button. There are controls for the results/spreadsheet window and controls for the section graphics window available. Prints the currently displayed beam cross section and the section analysis results. select Preferences to display the tabs. Displays a print preview. From the Edit window. or only selected sections. or generic section. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Copies the selected text or entity. Allows you to set up printer preferences. Opens a file browser so you can export the results for the selected section to a text file. Exit the HyperBeam module and return to HyperMesh. Opens a file browser so you can import a beam cross-section. On the Edit menu.

which allows you to choose which font and face to use for the results display. The distance entry field allows the distance between nodes of the grid to be adjusted. It is recommended that you use a fixed-width font. Allows you to specify whether HyperBeam should display the section with the x-axis coming out of the page (so z axis goes up) or going into the page (so the z-axis goes down). so that their sizes are relative to one another. Each section type can have its own custom script. which allows you to choose which font and face to use for section graphics window. Displays the font dialog box. so it can display just those values known to be relevant. See the Templex Reference On-line Help for additional details. such as courier. Contact Altair for technical details on exchange file formats and return codes. The Scale Thumbnails checkbox allows thumbnail images to be displayed. Allows you to specify a bitmap or second color for a gradient to display as the background of the section graphics window. Results output templates The computed results for a section are formatted using a user-specified TEMPLEX scripts. for best formatting.Font Background effects Displays the font dialog box. External solver for thin shell sections 288 HyperMesh 8. x-axis direction Grid Thumbnails Specifying the Results/Spreadsheet Display The Results tab allows you to set the following options: Background color Font Select the background color for the results display.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You may substitute your own solver to compute values for thin Shell sections. Allows you to display a grid behind the section image.

. Turns on and off the display of the status bar. Tools Menu Break a Segment Join Segments Create a New Part Move Vertices Reorient Shell Section. Moves the model in the selected direction. Turns on and off the display of the system coordinate axes.. Allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. Properties.. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition. Allows you to move vertices. Turns on and off the display of the Warping Factor.0 User’s Guide 289 . automatically updates the display when you make changes. Magnifies the graphic in the graphics pane.. Reduces the size of the graphic in the graphics pane. When selected. Turns on and off the display of the Vertex IDs. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. rearrange vertices in a part. Part Editor. Turns on and off the display of the Torsion Factor. If selected. Allows you to break a segment so that you can add a new vertex. Allows you to specify the section that you want to zoom in on to examine in greater detail. Allows you to modify the properties of the beam cross-sections.. Allows you to delete a vertex to join two segments. Switches the display in the Results/Spreadsheet pane.. updates results.View Menu Toolbar Status Bar Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit to screen Update Results Dynamic update Systems Torsion Factor Warping Factor Spreadsheets Vertex Ids Turns on and off the display of the toolbar. Allows you to add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Scales the graphic so that it exactly fits the active window. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

or the current centroid to be the new origin. or the principle axes change. Specifying the y-axis You can specify the direction for the for the y-axis of the local coordinate system using vertices. if you subsequently move that vertex. 290 HyperMesh 8. the origin will not move with it. you must specify the location of its origin relative to the vertices and the direction of the y-axis. Note that. reflecting it about the y-axis. the origin for the section does not follow it.Reorient Shell Section The reorient shell section dialog allows you to change the local coordinate system that defines the beam cross section. reverse x-axis Activate the check box to flip the section over. Specifying the Origin You can designate a vertex.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To specify a new coordinate system. If you move a defi ning vertex. the current principle axes. Likewise. You can also move the origin by a fixed amount by defining y and z offsets. the current shear center. if the shear center or centroid changes because of any changes to the section properties. this coordinate system does not adjust with them. or at an angle offset from the current y axis.

For example. on the Tools menu and entering data in the Edit Parts dialog. the segment between vertices 1 and 2 is a flange. 13. There is list of the vertex IDs at the bottom of the list. To set a new thickness. You can add or remove vertices to change the part. 14. To designate a segment between two vertices and a flange. you can set upper and lower bounds for the optimization of the section's sheet metal thicknesses. … and the connectivity of the bottom flange is 1. 2. 4. in the section illustrated below.Part Editor Parts of thin-shell sections can be edited by selecting Part Editor. 15 … Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.. The part editor also allows you to review and edit part vertex connectivities. 5. 2. When you use the part editor tools for. enter a value in the appropriate field.0 User’s Guide 291 . A part in this context is an individual piece of sheet metal that is typically welded to other parts along flanges. You can use the up and down arrows to review any part. the currently selected part of the section is highlighted. 12. The part features that you need to control are its thickness and the connectivity of its vertices. (You can also adjust thickness by using the graphic tools. 3. so the connectivity of the top part is 1. include those vertices in more than one part.) If you are currently in an optimization section..

The properties that can be specified differ for each type of section. Section type 292 HyperMesh 8. You can activate this option if you need to specify optimization parameters for this section. such as upper and lower bound on thicknesses. Fill color Choose the color to use for displaying the material portion of the section in the graphics pane. or vertex coordinates. Specify the shape out of the available choices to use for the standard section. Set the warping factor.Properties Properties for beam cross-sections are specified by selecting Properties on the Tools menu and entering data in the Thin-Shell Section Properties dialog. Optimization Solid Section Properties The Solid Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a solid section. or equations tying coordinates together. See the HyperBeam panel for more information on beam cross-sections types. On the Tools menu. select properties.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperBeam recognizes four types of beam cross-sections. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane. Standard Section Properties The Standard Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single standard section. Thin Shell Section Properties The Thin Shell Section Properties dialog allows you to specify details pertaining to a single shell section. This operation cannot be undone. Torsion factor Warping Factor Line color Set the torsion factor. Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.

Generic Section Properties The Generic Section Properties dialog allows you to specify the line color of a generic section. Line color Choose the color to use for displaying the lines and vertices of the section in the graphics plane.0 User’s Guide 293 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

They control how the section is displayed in the graphics pane and the results/spreadsheet pane. View Controls The view controls are available on the View menu and the toolbar. To add a new sheet metal part to the current section. Resize the display to fit the pane. or deactivate the tool by toggling its button on the toolbar. Zoom out on the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Enlarge the view in the graphics pane while maintaining the same center. Circle zoom Zoom in Zoom out Pan Fit Show/hide Ids Update results Show/hide spreadsheet Properties Zoom in on area of the beam section by using the mouse to draw a circle around the area of interest. Specify a new center for the graphics display. activate this tool and click at approximately the place you want it to appear. Bring the section results up to date.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . activate this tool and click on the vertex.HyperBeam Toolbar The toolbar allows you to quickly access some of the more commonly used functions. If you want to delete a vertex. Turn on and off the display of vertex IDs in shell sections. activate this tool and then click in the graphics area the sequence of vertices. You can use any mixture of existing or new vertices in creating the part. Alternate between displaying results or the spreadsheet. if you have turned off the auto-update of section results. Pops-up the properties dialog Shell Section Editing Tools There are five tools to modify the basic definition of a shell section: Break segment If you want to add a new vertex between two existing vertices. double-click the last vertex. Join two segments/ eliminate vertex Create a new part 294 HyperMesh 8. To finish the part.

Cut an item and hold it in memory for pasting. and click and hold on the vertex to move and drag it to its new location. Status Bar The HyperBeam status bar displays messages and information about the interface. Open the print dialog. Redo the last action performed.Move vertex Part-editor To reposition a vertex. rearrange vertices in a part. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. a short description of the action performed when you click the icon is displayed in the status bar. Allows you to rearrange parts in a section. Paste a copied or cut item. If you place the cursor over a toolbar icon. or add or remove vertices from a part's definition.0 User’s Guide 295 . General Tools There are eight tools that allow you to manage a HyperBeam session: Save Undo Redo Cut Copy Paste Print On-line Help Save the session. Undo the last action performed. activate this tool. Open the HyperBeam on-line help. Copy an item.

principal axes. moments of inertia.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . and apply those properties to a HyperMesh model. the beam cross section functions favor NASTRAN analysis in nomenclature and bar offset calculations. HyperMesh uses a finite element methodology to calculate the properties for the cross section. The tools on the beam xsect panel can help you complete the necessary property cards for finite element analysis using HyperMesh bar2 elements. The properties that HyperMesh calculates include cross sectional area.Beam Cross Section Property Solver The beam cross section property solver allows you to define a beam cross section. Note: For design reasons. This process is performed in the beam xsect panel. calculate its properties. 296 HyperMesh 8. The panel functions also facilitate the creation of bar2 elements. center of gravity. shear center. and torsion and warping constants.

second order elements are always used. The save elements option allows you to save the elements defining the cross section as part of the HyperMesh model. If you are using offset sections. these elements are not output when you use the export subpanel on the files panel. The name of the component is preceded by a caret (^). the cross section must be planar. All properties are calculated on the plane. the Y. the plane is determined by a "best fit" from the data provided. When you pick elements. the coordinate system. The save element option is located on the pick geom sub-panel on the beam xsect panel. These specifications are applied by using the toggles under cross section plane: or plane base node:. Planes In order for properties to be calculated correctly. the order of the selected HyperMesh element is used.Describing Cross Section Planes. If you define the base point by picking a node.0 User’s Guide 297 . surfaces. If you use the default method. and Elements The following factors relating to the cross section plane. Save Elements Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. or elements is used. These elements are placed in a newly created component for each calculation. If you define the plane. The system is the same as the coordinate system for the plane. If you do not specify a base point. HyperMesh uses one of two methods to define the plane. This option is specified by using the toggle under analysis type: on the pick geom sub-panel. This tells HyperMesh to ignore the contents of the component when exporting a model. If you use the offset lines sub-panel. Linear weighting of the points on the selected lines. You can also use the standard HyperMesh plane collector to define the plane. Note: The save element option has no effect when you define sections by elements. 1 versus 2 Order Element Analysis st nd For beam cross sections that were fully defined by lines or surfaces.and Z-axes are defined to be the principal axes of the cross section. If you create the bar2 element by using this method. You may specify any existing HyperMesh node as the base point of the plane. Local Axes Many of the properties are defined relative to a local coordinate system. HyperMesh defines the plane base at the Center of Gravity of the cross section. In all cases the planar normal is defined as the positive X axis. your N1 and N2 selections are used to define the positive Y-axis. you may choose to have the properties calculated using first or second order elements. or have it calculated for you. HyperMesh calculates the plane for you. If HyperMesh calculates the plane. using NASTRAN conventions. secondary panels called define offset parameters are opened. and the Z-axis is the cross product of the X and Y axis. this node can be referenced as an end of a bar2 element created with the panel. offset values are calculated for you. and the element order can be defined in the beam xsect panel. Unless you change the name of the component. Axes. These options are specified by using the toggle under plane base node:. in this case.

HyperMesh allows this point to be chosen at any end or joint of a selected line. or reverse normal to the line. the offset direction is centered. The thickness used is considered to be the total thickness of the sheet metal piece. Holes are allowed in the section but all portions of it must touch all other portions. The weld point is located a given distance from a fixed point. Then it looks for nodes within tolerance of each other. The choices are centered. Although you can use the line segments option. The tolerance is defined as 15% of the largest distance between the weld areas on the lines minus the offset distances. The offset direction is user-specified. Any continuous set of HyperMesh lines (as determined by HyperMesh) is considered to be a single piece of sheet metal. Weld points are used to join separate pieces of sheet metal at a point. With either method. use the combine lines option and specify a break angle. Note: If you define a cross section with elements and use the intersect panel to cut elements. HyperMesh attempts to join four nodes per line per weld to a corresponding set of four nodes on another line. The line sets may be changed one at a time by selecting the graphical toggle and picking the line set or all sets may be changed at once by clicking the toggle sides button. When you define a weld point. The initial definition of the cross section uses the user-defined nominal thickness for each line. After the initial cross section is defined. HyperMesh first looks for coincident node pairs to join. or by entering the desired values. and weld points. After nominal = for initial thickness is defined. When you use this method. based upon the line data in the model. an offset of each line is created. By default. provided they are used in the definition of the cross section. the section must be a contiguous area. You can also change the offset direction after the initial cross section definition.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The distance from the point and the diameter of the weld may be changed graphically. When this method is used in the offset lines sub-panel of the beam xsect panel. you may change any or all of the line thicknesses.Defining a Cross Section There are two methods you can use to describe a cross-section for analysis: by offsetting HyperMesh lines or by selecting a fully enclosed area. Each HyperMesh line in the set can be assigned a thickness. If weld points are not defined for offset sections. 298 HyperMesh 8. with the line as the center of the sheet metal piece. Offset Sections The offset sections method is designed to support thin-walled cross sections manufactured from sheet metal. the section is considered fully open and no correlation will exist between nodes on different sets of lines. it is best to use fewer lines with the property calculator. An arrow is displayed that indicates the offset direction. you can also specify weld points for the cross section. Any number of lines may be selected to be part of a weld point. thicknesses. You can change the thickness of lines interactively by using the mouse cursor or you can enter a value and apply it to specific lines or all of the lines. normal to the line. The beam cross section is described by a set of lines. you can define any or all line thicknesses using the thickness = option.

Fully Defined Sections For this method of beam cross section definition. you can use the pick geom sub-panel of the beam xsect panel to select any set of elements. lines. If you select by elements. aside from projecting to a common plane.0 User’s Guide 299 . the area is automeshed to generate elements for the cross section. If the section is defined using elements. or surfaces that describe a fully closed area. No alterations are made to those elements. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. When lines or surfaces are chosen. HyperMesh uses the connectivity provided by the elements. Defining the section using lines or surfaces in this manner creates a fully closed section. those elements are considered to be the section. Note: This means that all nodes along common boundaries are taken as the same and the solver does not consider moving them independently.

The following postprocessing options can be performed in any combination desired and are not exclusive of other functions. with which you can apply the calculated properties to the HyperMesh model.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The post-processing panel is displayed. At any time you can click apply results to perform all the currently specified options. individual menu items are displayed that perform only the sub-set of desired operations. Temporary nodes are also created at the Center of Gravity and Shear Center. The following symbols are displayed at the Center of Gravity and the Shear Center: Center of Gravity symbol Shear Center symbol The local axes of the beam are also displayed. 300 HyperMesh 8. the properties are calculated. The post-processing panel displays only the menu items necessary for the current operation. Otherwise.Post-Processing of Beam Cross Sections: Applying Calculated Properties After you select the solve function in the beam xsect panel.

and the spacing between welds. K2 A. that solver is automatically selected. The size determination is for user-viewing preference only and does not affect any of the actual values. Izz. If you already have a card image template specified in the global panel. For more information. J.0 warping factor modifies the Warping Constant. ANSYS. Display Size You can control the size of the Center of Gravity and Shear Center symbols and the local Coordinate system with the draw size = field. and replaced by the newly calculated data or default data for that property/component. or PAM-CRASH. see Creating Collectors. Shear Center x1 and x2 Area. For more information. relate fully welded sections to partially welded sections. If these factors remain at the default value of 1. RADIOSS. These factors. MARC. Iyy. Irr. This function does not work for dictionary solvers. I2. Γw. no changes are made to the calculated value. Similarly non 1. and the modified value. HyperMesh checks to see if data already exists for the currently chosen solver on that property/component. Otherwise. Iyy A. The changes are applied to all HyperMesh properties and/or components. elform 2 Mat’l type 202 geometry Data A. the original value. If data exists. I1. I22. Izz. When you apply the results to the properties or components. SA A. K1. see Save and Display Results. LS-DYNA. independently developed over many years. you are prompted to confirm that you wish to overwrite the data on that property/component. N1. After you select the solver. K1. CENTROID. use the FEA solver: switch to select the solver. Ir A. CW. I12. SHEAR CENTER R SECTION_BEAM. J.0 User’s Guide 301 .Defining a Prop/Comp Card for a Solver In order to relate the calculated properties to a card for your desired output solver. Is. All of the solver data of the property/component is deleted if you answer yes. OPTISTRUCT. I2. ABAQUS. J. I12. I1. As. Centroid x1 and x2. J. principal Y axis unit VECTOR ANSYS LS-DYNA/ RADIOSS PAM-CRASH MARC Property Property Component Component Torsion and Warping Factors torsion factors and warping factors are the only fields common to all operations of the postprocessing panel. Itt. It. These constants provide a means to apply empirical "fudge factors" to the results.0. The values that are saved in summary files or displayed on the screen show the factor. N2 A. K2. A non unit Torsion factor will modify the value of the Torsional Constant. Iss. Ist. HyperMesh material data associated with the property/component is not affected. you may select NASTRAN. I1. I2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Solver NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT NASTRAN/ OPTISTRUCT ABAQUS Comp/Prop Property Property Component Card Name PBAR PBEAM (end A) BEAMGENERAL. you can specify the already created HyperMesh properties or components to which to apply the results as a card image.

The BAR2 element that you are creating can also be assigned an orientation. that is referenced by the bar element. This option is provided to aid in understanding the orientation of the cross section relative to the overall model. you must save the results as an ASCII file. either as a vector or by letting HyperMesh create a node along the axis. it creates a new node. If you want a permanent record of the calculations you have just performed. the information includes a named list of the properties/components. it applies a global unit vector to the bar created. You are asked about each selected property until you answer "yes" to the question presented. If you use a nodal orientation. you can select the summary file option and specify a file name in the field after summary file. Coordinate Systems/Vectors A HyperMesh coordinate system may be created to save the orientation of the cross section. The node for this end of the bar is either the centroid of the section or the user-selected base node. to describe the bar’s orientation. check to make sure the desired component is currently active. The cross section may be chosen as either end A or end B of the bar. There are many properties calculated that are not assigned to solver cards. or move the bar element to that component by using the organize panel. Manipulating them does not change the property values that may be saved and referenced by the created bar element. If you want to save these. The system is created identical to the one displayed on the screen.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if any.Creating a Bar Element Another option is to create a HyperMesh BAR2 element by specifying two nodes and optionally choosing a direction vector or node and property for the element. The other end of the bar may be defined by picking a node or specifying a distance along the x axis of the cross section. you are asked if you want each property associated with the newly created bar element. If any properties (not components) are selected when you build a BAR2 element. Save and Display Results All of the calculated properties may be viewed or saved to an ASCII text file. You may use the cross section’s local Y or Z axis. Note: If you create a BAR2 element and it does not show on the screen. to which the calculated properties were assigned. This feature works only with apply results. The sign of the distance is the direction along the x axis. Whether you choose to save a summary file and/or display it on the screen. You may also create a HyperMesh vector in either the local Y or Z direction of the cross section. use the disp (display) panel to confirm that the elements of the current component are selected for display. If the solver for which you are defining a model uses components. If only one property is selected. 10% of the length of the element away from the existing node. The element is created in the currently active component. The properties can also be viewed on the screen in the same manner as summary templates. If you use a vector orientation. 302 HyperMesh 8. and not with summary alone. that property is automatically assigned to the new BAR2 element.

Use the line edit panel on the Geom page to either split or combine existing lines. How do I define a weld point at a different location? Use the graphical controls to change its location on the line. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 303 . split the HyperMesh line at the desired point and then choose the new point at the split. Select those lines as your section definition. If you need a different reference point. How do I obtain lines from a shell element model to use as my offset lines? Use the hidden line panel on the Post page and choose line plot as the desired output. Each HyperMesh line has a different thickness.Beam Cross Section Questions and Answers This section provides answers for common questions about using the beam cross section process: How do I change the number of lines on which I can define a thickness? Change the number of HyperMesh lines you are selecting.

Nastran.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . review and edition of composite laminates. Any changes made to those entities which HyperLaminate touches (materials. 304 HyperMesh 8. this is not advisable.HyperLaminate Module HyperLaminate is a HyperMesh module that facilitates the creation. component collectors and design variables) may result in synchronization problems and loss of data. which are updated simultaneously in HyperMesh and HyperLaminate). or by selecting HyperLaminate from the Setup pull-down menu. HyperLaminate is launched from within HyperMesh either from the HyperLaminate button on the 2D page of the main menu. Ansys and Abaqus user profiles. In support of this process certain materials and design variables are also supported by in the HyperLaminate module. The HyperLaminate module is supported for the OptiStruct. so while it is possible to work in HyperMesh while HyperLaminate is running. The current HyperMesh database is only updated with information from the current HyperLaminate session on exit from HyperLaminate (an exception to this rule are Abaqus materials.

provides a vertical tree view of materials. copy. laminate or design variable definition (depending on the selected branch in the laminate browser). as shown here: Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus that allow you to manage files. This browser.HyperLaminate Environment The HyperLaminate environment consists of five general areas. laminates and design variables. The HyperLaminate toolbar contains five tools that allow you to generate new materials. change views.0 User’s Guide 305 . Right clicking on a branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. This is the right hand pane of the HyperLaminate module. and delete entries in text boxes. and to cut. Toolbar Laminate Browser Define/Edit Pane This is the central pane of the HyperLaminate module. The review pane has a number of tabs that display the current state of the selected branch. and access on-line help. edit materials. Left clicking on an entity populates the Define/Edit and Review panes with details of that branch. laminates or design variables. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. paste. laminates and size design variables in your model. Here users may enter or change data related to a material. Review Pane Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

Exports material and laminate information to a text file.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser. Edit Cut Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. File New Export to File Exit Generates a new entity. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. The following chart lists each menu option. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. At this point the current HyperMesh database is updated with the information in the current HyperLaminate session. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. This text file can be printed. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table. Exit HyperLaminate. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. 306 HyperMesh 8.HyperLaminate Menus The HyperLaminate menu bar contains five menus.

Tools Ply lay-up options Displays the Ply lay-up Options dialog. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. contact. Activates the HyperLaminate on-line help. Display/hide status bar.0 User’s Guide 307 . Displays version. Allows you to select defaults for new Laminates for: • • • • • View Toolbar Status Bar Help About HyperLaminate Help Topics color convention repetitions ply thickness common thickness Display/hide toolbar. and copyright information.

308 HyperMesh 8. Cut Copy Places selected data from an entry field on the clipboard for pasting. Removes the selected data from an entry field and places it on the clipboard for pasting. this deletes the selected text from a text box or the selected rows from a ply lay-up order table.HyperLaminate Toolbar The HyperLaminate toolbar is located below the menu bar and its display is controlled by the Toolbar option under the View pull-down menu.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . depending on the selected sub-topic in the Laminate Browser. Can also remove rows from a ply lay-up order table and place these on the clipboard for pasting. Paste Pastes data from the clipboard in selected entry fields. Can also paste rows from the clipboard above selected rows on a ply lay-up order table. Can also place rows from a ply lay-up order table on the clipboard for pasting. The toolbar is shown and described here. (a dialogue is displayed to confirm the deletion). Icon Name New Function Generates a new entity. When the cursor is active in the Define/Edit pane. this deletes the selected entity from the Laminate Browser. Delete When the cursor is active in the Laminate Browser.

On launching HyperLaminate. Laminates: PCOMP and PCOMPG iii. MAT2 and MAT8 ii. the Laminate Browser is populated with all the relevant materials. Materials: MAT1. The data is presented in a slightly different format for the various user profiles as shown here: OptiStruct & Nastran Ansys Abaqus The Laminate Browser is organized in a three level hierarchy: 1. Laminates and Design Variables. Laminates: SOLIDSECTION. for Abaqus: i. Design Variables: DESVAR b. Materials: MATERIAL and MPDATA ii. SHELL99. for the active user profile. SOLID46 and SOLID 191 c. At the intermediate level are the entity subtypes or card images. and laminates in your model. for OptiStruct and Nastran: i. Materials: ABAQUS_MATERIAL ii. 2.Laminate Browser The Laminate browser. provides a vertical tree view of the materials. SHELLSECTION and SHELLGENERALSECTION Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. laminate definitions and size design variables existing in the HyperMesh database. located on the left side of the HyperLaminate window. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the browser also includes size design variables. At the highest level are the entity types: Materials. for Ansys: i. Laminates: SHELL91. These are: a.0 User’s Guide 309 .

on the toolbar. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Rename . displayed with the names as defined by you. At the intermediate level (entity sub-types) only one operation is available: New – which will create a new entity of the selected sub-type. A new entity appears under the selected branch. The selected entity is highlighted. 2. 3. Right click on selected entity sub-type. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. Or 1. a new MAT1 entity is created.e. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. i.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Duplicate – which creates a copy of the selected entity. the Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with details of that entity. 2.3. At the lowest level (entities) three operations are available. . 310 HyperMesh 8. and Delete – which will delete the selected entity. Make the desired changes to the entity definition in the Define/Edit pane and click apply or update laminate to update the entity. 2. Right clicking on an already selected (highlighted) branch offers context sensitive operations for that branch. A new entity appears under the selected branch. Or 1. if MAT1 is selected and we right click on it and choose New. At the lowest level are the entities. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. To review and update entities: 1. • • At the highest level (entity types) no operations are available. 2. Click New. It is then possible to alter and update the entity definition. A new entity appears under the selected branch A default name and id are assigned to each newly created entity. • From the Laminate Browser it is possible to: To create entities: There are three options for creating new entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Click the New icon. Select New from the File pull-down menu. Select an intermediate level branch (an entity sub-type or card image) of the browser tree. Left or right clicking on a branch in the browser selects that branch and it becomes highlighted. When an entity (lowest level branch in the tree hierarchy) is selected.which allows the entity to be renamed.

Click Duplicate. To duplicate entities: 1. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Or 5. Right click on the selected entity. Duplicate. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Duplicate. 2. 7. A confirmation dialog is displayed. Click Yes.To rename entities: 1. A confirmation dialog is displayed. and Delete. Duplicate. The name of the selected entity. 3. 6. in the Laminate Browser. To delete entities: There are three options for deleting entities in HyperLaminate: 1. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. 3. 2. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. A duplicate of the entity is created and appears in the Laminate Browser. 3. and Delete. 4. Click Rename. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename.0 User’s Guide 311 . and Delete. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. Right click on the selected entity. Select Delete from the Edit pull-down menu. You can also rename an entity by altering the relevant field in the Define/Edit pane and then clicking on Apply or Update Laminate. 2. 4. Right click on selected entity. A context sensitive menu appears with three options: Rename. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. Enter the desired new name in the text box. Click Delete. switches to a text box. Click Yes. Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it. Or Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

10. either complete their definition (by clicking Edit – which takes you to the HyperMesh material card previewer) or exit and restart HyperLaminate (in which case the undefined materials are purged). Click the Delete icon.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .8. Note: Abaqus materials that are created but not defined (they appear in a red font in Laminate Browser) may not be deleted. A confirmation dialog is displayed. as they do not really exist. on the toolbar. Click Yes. To delete these undefined materials. The entity is deleted and disappears from the Laminate Browser. 312 HyperMesh 8. 9. . Right or Left click on an entity (lowest level in tree hierarchy) in the Laminate Browser tree to select it.

On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Define/Edit pane is populated with the current definitions. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). To reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. Once the desired changes have been made. Materials For OptiStruct. The configuration of the Define/Edit pane differs for different user profiles and sub-types (card images). Nastran and Ansys materials.Define/Edit Pane The Define/Edit Pane. all material property information for the selected material may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. the central pane of the HyperLaminate window. allows you to edit the definition of the selected entity.0 User’s Guide 313 . Below are screenshots showing the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct MAT8 definition and an Ansys MATERIAL definition: OptiStruct – Materials – MAT8 Ansys – Materials – MATERIAL Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . As with the other user profiles. to reset all material property fields to zero you can click the Clear button. HyperMesh component color. where you can review and alter the definition of the selected material. Once you has finished reviewing/editing the material. but to fully define the material properties they must click the Edit button. Clicking the Edit button takes you to the material card previewer in the HyperMesh GUI. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus SOLIDSECTION laminate is shown here: Abaqus – Laminates – SOLIDSECTION 314 HyperMesh 8. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Abaqus material is shown here: Abaqus – Materials – ABAQUS_MATERIAL Laminates For Laminates. stacking sequence convention and the ply lay-up order to be edited. clicking return will return you to the HyperLaminate GUI. the Define/Edit pane allows the laminate name. This is for all supported user profiles and laminate sub-types.For Abaqus materials users may rename or redefine the color of the material in the Define/Edit pane.

The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 180. 90. The midlayer is not reflected. 180. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an Ansys SHELL99 laminate with variable ply thickness is shown here: Ansys – Laminates – SHELL99 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Symmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). Antisymmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate. 180. the total number of plies is always odd. variable ply thickness allows up to 4 nodal thicknesses to be defined for each ply. f.0 User’s Guide 315 . The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. b. Due to the midlayer. It is possible to choose between constant and variable ply thickness for certain user profiles. 270 and 360 respectively). Due to the midlayer. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. The ply angles used for the top half are the same as the ply angles used in the bottom half. Repeat: The Ply lay-up order table describes a single sub-laminate which is repeated a number of times. 90. 180. c. 270 and 360 remain as 0. The midlayer is the last ply defined in the table. 90. 90. The number of repetitions is given by the Repetitions: field (which is activated when this Convention is chosen). The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. The midlayer is not reflected. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. Symmetric: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate.There are a number of options for Convention for the stacking sequence: a. the total number of plies is always odd. 270 and 360 remain as 0. 270 and 360 respectively). Antisymmetric-Midlayer: The Ply lay-up order table describes the bottom half of the laminate and a midlayer (or core). Total: The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate in its entirety. The ply angles used for the top half have the opposite sign to the ply angles used in the bottom half (but 0. e. The top half of the laminate is the mirror image of the bottom half. d.

selecting a theory from the pull-down list and defining an Interlaminar shear allowable: value. Select multiple rows by selecting one row and then. or for all rows at once through the Output ply stress results: field under the Stress and failure theory output: heading. by checking the Failure Theory check-box. Each row of the Ply lay-up order table has an SOUT field. either above or below selected rows (choose from the Above Selected or Below Selected radio buttons). the Add/Update plies: fields are populated with the information common to the selected rows. It is possible to set the SOUT field individually for each row. when multiple rows are selected the clipboard contents are pasted above each selected row. When multiple rows are selected. by clicking the Insert New Ply button. Blank fields indicate that not all of the selected rows contain the same values for that field. Rows may be inserted in the table. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. The Ply lay-up order table describes the laminate from the bottom ply (most negative Z) moving upwards (increasing in positive Z direction). pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. or repetitions field and based on the selected Convention). common thickness gives every ply in the laminate the same thickness. Ctrl+c.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . All fields in the Ply lay-up order table may be edited. which when set to YES includes the plies described by that row in the stress output and the failure theory calculation. this will keep the current selection and add all the rows between the current selection and the newly selected row). copied. Once one or more SOUT fields are set to YES it is possible to activate failure theory calculation.It is also possible to choose a common thickness for all plies. Select multiple rows as described in the previous paragraph. It is also possible to edit multiple rows at once. Rows are always pasted above the selected rows. ply thickness and ply orientation for a number of plies (defined by the No. Rows are added to the table by completing the Add/Update plies: entry fields and clicking the Add New Ply button. Rows may be cut. A screenshot of the Define/Edit pane for an OptiStruct PCOMPG laminate is shown below: OptiStruct – Laminates – PCOMPG 316 HyperMesh 8. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to request stress and failure theory output. using the toolbar. select other rows (alternatively multiple rows may be selected with the Shift key held down. with the Ctrl key held down. pasted or deleted to/from the table. Each row of the table defines the material. Changes can be made to the Add/Update plies: fields and Update Selection can be clicked to update the selected rows with the updated information (no changes occur to the selected rows for blank fields).

For PCOMPG each row in the Ply lay-up order table should represent a single ply so only the Total stacking convention should be used for PCOMPG. adding extra fields to the right of the Thickness T1 and Orientation fields. Use one of the following three methods to create a new material in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. . Design Variables For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles the DESVAR design variable card is supported in HyperLaminate. on the toolbar. This field is used to assign a global ply id to a ply definition (the global ply id is a post-processing aid).0 User’s Guide 317 . To define a new material: 1. As this id should not be repeated within the same laminate. 2. of repetitions field is not available for PCOMPG. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. A new material appears under the selected branch. Checking the Optimization check-box expands the Ply 0 lay-up order table. but this is not enforced in the GUI. A new material appears under the selected branch. you can click the Clear button. Click Update Laminate to apply all the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). Selecting a design variable to the right of a thickness or orientation assigns the selected design variable to that thickness or orientation. All information for the selected design variable may be edited in the Define/Edit pane. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to assign a design variable to a thickness or orientation field in the Ply lay-up order table. clicking Apply will save those changes for the current HyperLaminate session (it is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A new material appears under the selected branch. c) Click New. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. Once the desired changes have been made. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. A default name and id are assigned to newly created materials. The newly created material is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected material sub-type. To reset all design variable fields to their default values.The Ply lay-up order table for the OptiStruct and Nastran PCOMPG laminate sub-type is different from other laminate subtypes in that it has a GPLYID field. b) Click the new icon. Design variables may be selected in these extra fields. b) Right click on selected material sub-type. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. Or a) Select a sub-type under the material branch of the Laminate browser. the No.

Click on Edit and provide the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). 3. Ctrl+c. Note: It is not possible to rename an Abaqus material until after it has been defined (edited). pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. To review or modify an existing material: 1. For the Abaqus user profile: 1. Data may be cut. The final material definition is displayed in the Review tab. 2. For the OptiStruct. 3. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to zero. Provide the material definition by filling in the entry fields in the Define/Edit pane. 5. 318 HyperMesh 8. 4. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette.For the OptiStruct. Each change is reflected in the Review pane. 3. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected material definition. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. using the toolbar. copied. Click return. Nastran and Ansys user profiles: 1. Also it is not possible to create a new Abaqus material if an undefined material definition already exists (appears in a red font in Laminate Browser). 2. Click Apply to save the changes. 2. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Select the material to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane.

To define a new laminate: 1. 3. Make all desired changes to the material definition in the card previewer. Use one of the following three methods to create a new laminate in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate Browser. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 6. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.For the Abaqus user profile: 1. The newly created laminate is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration for the selected laminate sub-type. 5. For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles define the Stress and failure theory output: information as desired. Click Apply to save the changes. 2. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. 4.0 User’s Guide 319 . . b) Click the new icon. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. This returns you to the HyperLaminate GUI. 4. If desired a new name for the material may be entered in the Material: field or the material color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. 3. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser. on the toolbar. c) Click New. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Laminate name: field or the component color may be altered by clicking on the color swatch and selecting a new color from the pop-up color palette. Click return. b) Select New from the File pull-down menu. A default name and id are assigned to newly created laminates. A new laminate appears under the selected branch. 2. Click on Edit to see the material definition in the HyperMesh card previewer. Or a) Select a sub-type under the laminates branch of the Laminate browser.

320 HyperMesh 8. a) For Convention:. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). row 3 will be pasted as row 8. Eg. and what was row 7 will now be row 9. select Constant or Variable. pasted or deleted to/from selected fields. you can check the Common Thickness box and specify a thickness to be used by all the entry rows. Total Symmetric Antisymmetric Symmetric-Midlayer Antisymmetric-Midlayer Repeat If you select Repeat. If rows 1 and 3 are copied and pasted at row 7. Having checked the Common Thickness box and entered a common thickness value. Ctrl+c. copied. pasted or deleted. the thickness fields retain the common thickness value. When multiple non-sequential rows are copied and then pasted. Complete the Ply lay-up order table. Note: 7. This is governed by the stacking convention and the number of repetitions. if you now uncheck the box. using the toolbar. select one of the following stacking sequence conventions. Note: Note: Rows are always pasted above selected rows. the Ply lay-up order table includes a single thickness column: Thickness T1 If Variable is selected. For the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles it is possible to define thickness and orientation fields in the Ply lay-up order table as designable and to assign design variables to them. Table rows may also be cut. If Constant is selected. Data may be cut. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. Ctrl+c. Note: The option to switch between constant or variable thickness is only available for certain laminate sub-types.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. specify how many times you want to repeat the entire block of entry rows. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. copied. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. 6. 10. The number of rows in the table is not the number of plies. but are now editable. 8. Add/Insert rows by completing the Add/Update plies: fields and clicking Add New Ply or Insert New Ply (for Insert New Ply it is possible to choose to insert the ply above or below the selected rows). 9. For all user profiles define the Stacking sequence convention: information. they will be pasted as sequential rows. b) For Ply thickness:. the Ply lay-up order table includes multiple thickness columns: Thickness Thickness Thickness Thickness T1 T2 T3 T4 c) For Constant ply thickness. using the toolbar. row 1 will be pasted as row 7.5.

A context sensitive menu appears with one option: New. Click Update Laminate to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). A new design varaible appears under the selected branch. (only subtype available is DESVAR). b) Select New from the File pull-down menu.5 may be entered. 2. To define a new design variable: Design variables are only supported for the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. 2. The newly created design variable is automatically selected in the Laminate browser and the Define/Edit pane takes on the appropriate configuration. . Initial. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. A default name and id are assigned to newly created design variables. 7. b) Right click on the selected sub-type. 3. where a move limit value other than the default of 0. Or a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). Select the laminate to be edited from the Laminate Browser. (only subtype available is DESVAR). The laminate definition may be modified in the Define/Edit pane in a manner similar to defining a new laminate. Checking the Move limit box activates the Move limit field.To review and modify an existing laminate: 1. 6. 5. 4. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 1. (See To define a new laminate). The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected laminate definition. lower bound and upper bound values for the design variable can be entered in the appropriate data fields. If desired a new name for the laminate may be entered in the Desvar: field. c) Click New. Checking the Ddval ID box activates the Ddval ID field. 3. where the id of a discrete value list may be entered. A new design variable appears under the selected branch. b) Click the new icon.0 User’s Guide 321 . Use one of the following three methods to create a new design variable in HyperLaminate: a) Select a sub-type under the design variable branch of the Laminate Browser. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate). on the toolbar.

copied. Ctrl+c. pull-down Edit menu or Ctrl+x. Each change is reflected in the Review pane.To review and modify an existing design variable: 1. Edit the data fields in the Define/Edit pane. The Define/Edit and Review panes are populated with the selected design variable definition. Click Apply to save the changes for the current HyperLaminate session (It is important to remember that the HyperMesh database is only updated on exit from HyperLaminate).0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 2. Data may be cut. 3. The final design variable definition is displayed in the Review tab. Clicking Clear will reset all fields to their default values. Select the design variable to be edited from the Laminate Browser. Ctrl+v and Ctrl+d respectively. 322 HyperMesh 8. pasted or deleted to/from the data fields. using the toolbar.

Review Pane The Review Pane. The Review tab is headed by the laminate name. showing a graphical representation each ply’s orientation and listing the referenced material. The Stiffness/Material Matrix tab provides the two sets of matrices. Nastran and Ansys materials. For Abaqus materials. all material property information for the selected material is displayed in the Review pane. thickness and orientation. Materials For OptiStruct. allows you to review the information pertaining to the selected entity. This is followed by a description of the laminate. The second set of matrices are the equivalent material matrices. Laminates For laminate definitions for all user profiles. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. so this information is only updated when the Update Laminates button is clicked. the review pane has two tabs. more commonly referred to as the ABD matrices. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. information for the selected design variable is displayed in the Review pane. listing the plies in order from the bottom ply (most negative z). On selecting an entity in the Laminate Browser the Review pane is displays the current definition of that entity.0 User’s Guide 323 . a Review tab and a Stiffness/Material Matrix tab. This information is updated as the definitions are altered in the Define/Edit pane. Design Variables For OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. no information is displayed in the Review pane. these are used by many finite element solvers to represent the laminated composite as a homogenized shell. The first set of matrices are the composite shell stiffness matrices. the total number of plies in the laminate and the total thickness of the laminate. Information displayed on these tabs is only for the saved laminate definition. the right-hand pane of the HyperLaminate window.

and solidification processes by creating an orthogonal. you can export the grid. and k directions of the block. the block is created with the default bounds of -10. j. Finite difference blocks are built performing the following steps: Creating a Finite Difference Block The first step in creating a finite difference block is to create the block. The panels in this module allow you to intersect your finite element shell model with a finite difference block. the outer boundary of the volume." All of these dead cells are placed in walls. structured mesh in a cubic volume around your model. a small set of coordinate axes is displayed at the corner of the block. If a finite element model is currently loaded. chemical reaction. After you create a finite difference block. 324 HyperMesh 8. When the block is displayed.Finite Difference Module The Finite Difference module allows you to perform heat transfer. and dead cell information as an analysis input deck by using the HyperMesh template system. the block is created with a default size of ten percent larger than the model in each direction (the size of a model is determined by its nodes). three-dimensional. Always finalize the size of your block before beginning the next phase. Cylindrical and spherical volumes are not supported in the current release. fluid flow.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . You cannot change the shape of the finite difference block after you create the structured mesh without destroying all the grid lines. and a block may contain multiple walls of dead cells. creating "dead cells. You can adjust the size of the block by using the functions on the FD blocks panel. Note: The color of a block may be modified at any time by using the update function on the FD blocks panel.0 in each direction. wall. Otherwise.0 and 110. These axes serve as a reminder of the i.

Note: Before any wall operation is begun. you can verify the aspect ratio or expansion ratio limits. which creates dead cells wherever a one. The wall functions are described below: create delete update delete all display Creates a new wall with the name and color specified in wall = and color. or k nodes has been selected. each cell within a block is live. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. respectively. You must create a wall before you create dead cells. Cells that alter the flow are known as dead cells. select the desired elements and click intersect. Updates the color of an existing wall. See the FD nodes panel for more information. Intersecting Elements with Cells The intersection of grid lines in the i. Asks for confirmation before proceeding. You may then select which walls to display and turn off by using the left or right mouse button. j nodes. j. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Deletes all existing walls.Creating a Structured Mesh After you create a block. and k directions creates a large number of small cubic volumes called cells. A cell may exist in only one wall. all or part of the finite element model may be intersected with the cells in the finite difference block. meaning that the cell does not alter the flow being studied. based on whether i nodes. Initially. All the one-and two-dimensional elements selected are intersected with the cells in the current block. and displayed in the current wall color. After you create a wall. Solid elements are currently not supported in the interse ction operation. depending upon the restrictions enforced by the analysis code being used. Grid lines are created in one direction at a time. To intersect the model with the cells. Deletes the specified wall. Displays a list of all walls in the block. marked as dead. HyperMesh allows you to automatically intersect a finite element model with the cells in a finite difference block. the block must be selected by using the block = menu item. Cells that intersect an element are placed into the current wall.or two-dimensional element intersects any part of a cell. which also contains all the functions you can use to manipulate walls. The intersection and modification of live and dead cells is done in the FD walls panel. and k directions. j.0 User’s Guide 325 . you create a structured mesh in the block by creating grid lines in the i. After you create a mesh.

Creating Finite Difference Hidden Line Plots Hidden line plots of cells in a finite difference block are useful in the verification phase of a finite difference model. since only dead cells are plotted. then only cells in the currently displayed plane(s) may be edited. if planar mode is used to display one or more of the planes of cells. it is easier to see which cells are dead. Click the left mouse button to add cells and the right mouse button to remove cells from a wall. by volumes. When cells are selected. plane-by-plane. j. The FD walls panel allows you to edit cells. If the block is displayed in planar mode. If you change the color of a plane.Modifying Cells Cells may be changed from live to dead or dead to live individually. you must click hidden line again to display the new color. Cells do not have a visible pick handle and must be selected at the corner closest to the origin of the block. After edit cells is selected. and k are at their minimum values. by using the next and prev menu functions. you can edit any cell in the block. where the block coordinate axes are located. The edit cells function allows you to add individual cells to the current wall and mark them as dead. use the cursor to select the cells to add or remove. all dead cells are displayed in the color of the wall to which they belong. Because cells have no visible pick handle. and k directions must be modified to provide the plotting color for cells in each plane. the color menu items in the i. When the entire block is plotted. Otherwise. However. j. and i. they are highlighted.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . or remove cells from the current wall and mark the cells as live. 326 HyperMesh 8. or by planes. It is possible to step through the model.

Automatically. constraints. See Exporting Loads for more information.0 User’s Guide 327 . using the load on geom panel. you control the display of loads applied to elements. using the files panel/export sub-panel. you control the display of loads applied to geometric entities. To visualize loads on mesh and/or loads on geometry. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector. from the display panel (accessed via the toolbar) select loadcols from the switch. Use the none. Comments Loads on mesh and loads on geometry can be displayed together (similar to the simultaneous display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component). You can apply loads to geometry by using the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. loads or boundary conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be remapped to the new mesh. These are the same panels used to apply loads to a mesh.Loads on Geometry HyperMesh allows you to apply loads to geometrical entities and map them to the FE mesh using the load on geom panel on the Analysis Page. When elems is selected. moments. and accels. temperatures. and load collectors may contain one type or both types simultaneously. and click the toggle to select elems or geoms. all and reverse buttons to assist in selecting which loadcols should be displayed. pressures. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on geometry have been applied. velocities. There are two ways to map loads on geometry to the mesh associated with this geometry (loads on mesh): • • Manually. flux. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The disp (display) panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on geometry. One advantage is that you can remesh a model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. This means that you can control the display of both types of loads independently. by exporting the FE deck. A geometrical entity can be associated with one mesh or multiple meshes (HyperMesh component or components) and/or with one load collector or multiple load collectors. When geoms is selected. After remeshing. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on mesh.

The process of mapping geometrical loads to mesh loads. Loads applied to mesh (nodes or element). or a surface. load mapping 328 HyperMesh 8. Loads applied to geometrical entities.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Terminology and Definitions geometrical entities loads on geometry or geometry loads loads on mesh or mesh loads A point. The loads are mapped from the geometrical entities (to which the geometrical loads are applied) to the mesh that is associated with the geometrical entities. Loads can be applied directly to mesh or applied by mapping them from loads on geometry. a line.

etc. lines and surfaces. node). Panel accels constraints flux forces moments pressures Geometrical Entities points. flux. Next. constraints. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. forces. and click create.) located on the Analysis Page. points. To apply a load to a geometrical entity. temperatures velocities Note: Refer to the specific panel for detailed information about creating. Third. and accels.Application of Loads to Geometry You can apply loads to geometrical entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to mesh. define the load or boundary condition parameters in the same way you would for the application of the load or boundary condition on a FE mesh entity (e.g. points. The following chart specifies the geometrical entities to which loads can be applied. moments. in each of the load application panels listed above. or surfaces) using the panel selection box. velocities. reviewing. access a HyperMesh load panel (e. lines. Creating a load collector by using the collector panel. temperatures. 2. lines and surfaces. 1. lines and surfaces. HyperMesh stores the loads/boundary conditions in the database and displays them in the graphical window. lines and surfaces. select a geometrical entity on which the loads will be applied (points. pressures. first create a load collector in which the loads applied to geometrical entities will be stored. The process includes two basic steps. points points points surfaces nodes on edge: lines (for 2-D solid elements) nodes on face: surfaces (for 3-D solid elements) points.g.0 User’s Guide 329 . Applying loads to the geometry using one of the following panels on the Analysis Page: forces. and updating loads and constraints. and choose the create sub-panel. constraints.

A simultaneous display is similar to the display of both elements and geometry belonging to a specific component. For the same arrow magnitude percentage setting or uniform size setting within the load application panels. When exporting the model using an export template. Note: A major graphical display difference between loads on geometry and loads on mesh is the density of the arrows. elems controls the display of loads on mesh and geom controls the display of loads on geometry. are mapped to loads on mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported. The loads on mesh that are exported may have been applied directly to mesh. all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any). all the displayed loads on mesh are exported. The basic length of the arrow also differs. only the loads on mesh are exported.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . a single arrow for each geometrical entity represents loads on geometry. or both. loads on mesh that have been applied directly to mesh. Multiple arrows represent loads on mesh (one arrow per node or element). they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and exported as well. 330 HyperMesh 8. all load types are saved and are retrieved when you open the . The all/displayed toggle on the export sub-panel on the file panel allows you to determine which loads are exported. If all is selected. When saving the model as a HyperMesh database. Visualization of Loads on Geometry and Loads on Mesh The disp (display) panel allows you to visualize loads on mesh and loads on geometry either individually or together by setting the collector type to loadcols and using the toggle between elems and geoms. mapped from geometry to mesh. If any loads on geometry are displayed and have not been mapped. and loads on mesh that have been mapped from loads on geometry. an arrow that represents a load on geometry is longer than arrows representing loads on mesh.Exporting Loads HyperMesh sessions can contain loads on geometry. If displayed is selected. All the loads on mesh (both displayed and hidden) that are associated with the displayed loads on geometry are exported as well.hm file.

to the next field below. NASTRAN.0 User’s Guide 331 . from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory. The Distributed Load Mapper macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file. Entering data in the Distributed Load Mapper dialog requires the following steps: • • • • • Load an input file containing CFD analysis results Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. ABAQUS..Distributed Load Mapper The Distributed Load Mapper (DLM) macro enables you to perform structural finite element analyses by incorporating the results of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. The Distributed Load Mapper dialog is displayed when you click DLM. dlm. on the macro menu.0 format or at spatial coordinates is mapped to a structural analysis mesh in OPTISTRUCT.. until all data has been entered. or ANSYS format.mac. ABAQUS. When you enter data in the dialog you should begin with the first field and proceed. in order. Aerodynamic pressure loading and temperatures computed in a CFD analysis and written out either in TECPLOT 4. NASTRAN. or ANSYS input file format) Select a data type and a mapping method Set the scale factors Set the mapping algorithm Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

for example. D:\dlm_map_files\structural_model. for example. structural_model_tecplot. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. wing_cfd_model_dynain • A DLM specific file.dat Structural analysis model file. A valid HyperWorks/HyperMesh license must be available on the local system or network for the DLM mapping algorithms to run. The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing inward from the wings outer surface.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 332 HyperMesh 8.0 format file related to the structural input model. Examples of Typical Input Files • • Computational fluid dynamics results database file.dat Examples of Typical Output Files • A DLM specific file. The element normals of both the CFD mesh and the structural analysis mesh must be consistent in that all the elements should be aligned and pointing in a common direction. For instance. one of the following conditions must exist: • • The element normals of both the CFD model and the structural model must both be pointing outward from the wings outer surface. the CFD base model and the structural finite element model must exist in the same position in coordinate space. This file is related to the base CFD model. D:\dlm_map_files\wing_cfd_model.dat One file containing all the mapping parameters and selections detailed in the DLM interface. This file is related to the structural input model. used to post-process in Altair HyperView. DLM Input and Output Files It is useful to understand the input and output files related to a DLM session. The only exception to this is when some of the DLM transformation functions are used correctly and appropriately through their selection in the DLM interface. structural_model_dynain • • A Tecplot 4. if you are mapping a pressure loading on a wing structure. These files are always called hmimp.Assumptions Regarding the DLM Interface and Mapping Process In order to map effectively.

.105462790E+00 1.960968852E+00 4.356568158E-01-8. The file is placed in the same directory as the CFD database and takes its name from the parent file. y.548135996E-01-8. i. Click Open. click Browse.Load an input file containing CFD analysis results 1. filename_dynain..926119655E-02 1.e. Use the browser to locate a file. 2. .095489740E+00 .098905325E+00 1. The data must be prescribed in a fixed format. a DLM specific file is created so that the data being mapped can be visualized in Altair HyperView. . The pressure or temperature data at spatial coordinates must be distributed densely enough to have approximately one data point for each element of the structural model. Note: • • • DLM accepts three input file formats: Tecplot 4.960631967E+00 4. and z coordinates first. For Computational fluid dynamics results database file:. a warning message is displayed. The file also must have a header and footer as shown below: #XYZDATA #pressure 1.357369840E-01-8.854129910E-02 1..0 User’s Guide 333 . Each row should show the x.970389962E+00 4. #ENDDATA Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. followed by the pressure or temperature value each data occupying 16 characters and a space separating them. If the CFD file is in a Tecplot format.0 BLOCK and POINT data formats DLM specific input file format (files which end filename_dynain) Measured pressure or temperature at xyz coordinates If the selected file is not in a DLM appropriate format.452460170E-02 1.

enter a scale factor to physically scale the base CFD analysis model. This would ensure that the base CFD model would match and be positioned in the same Cartesian space as the structural analysis model. 2. The file is placed in the same directory as the structural model database and takes its name from the parent file. For Structural analysis model file:. which would leave the coordinates of the base CFD model unchanged prior to mapping. if dimensional reduction/scaling was used in the actual CFD analysis. ABAQUS. or to simply investigate the effects of scaling the load upon the model. For CFD model scaling:. if the XYZ dimensions of the model were scaled to 1/200 of the actual size and submitted for analysis. or ANSYS input file format) 1.. and Z coordinates of all the nodal locations in the base CFD model is scaled. If a value of 200 is entered for CFD model scaling:. or ANSYS input deck. These scaled values are output to the structural model data file in the PLOAD card section. Once the data is mapped. For example. The default is 1. NASTRAN.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . if the CFD result scale factor is 1. A DLM-specific formatted file is written out for post-processing in Altair HyperView. 2. These data parameters are read into the interface when you load the base CFD model file (Load an input file containing CFD analysis results).00 (no scaling).000. For Mapping method:.. The data type is read from the information in the header block of the base CFD file.500. For Data parameter mapped:.e. the X. 3.Load a structural analysis model (in OPTISTRUCT. The mapped data written to structural analysis model files can relate to two different locations on the finite elements of the model.500. The base CFD model file may contain up to seven different data types. 2. The default value is 1. 334 HyperMesh 8. Y. it is appended to the structural model input file in the form of PLOAD or TEMP cards appended to the end of the OPTISTRUCT. click Browse. . The data can either be mapped and related to the nodes of each element in the structural model. The PLOAD card output to the structural model files is altered appropriately to the selected nodal or elemental configuration. filename_dynain. Note: The data from the base CFD model is superimposed onto this model through the mapping process. or to the element centroids of each quadrilateral or triangular element in the structural mesh. Select a data type and a mapping method 1. For example. all the data mapped during the DLM session is multiplied by a factor of 1. i. Click Open. select the data type to be mapped. Set the scale factor 1. For CFD result scaling:. This could be used to apply a safety factor to the results. enter a scale factor by which to increase or decrease the results. ABAQUS. NASTRAN. Use the browser to locate a file. select Element nodes or Element centroids.

0 User’s Guide 335 . select one of the following options: Averaged Takes the data and average for data points captured in the proximity of the structural data position being mapped to. and the DLM dialog closes upon completion of the mapping process. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The mapping algorithms are accessed. Maxima Minima Extrema Averaged extrema Delaunay-O’C 2. Selects the minimum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. Accepts whichever is larger in magnitude.Set the mapping algorithm 1. for instance. the Modulus value of the data points captured in the vicinity of the element/nodal location being mapped to. Click OK. the mapping process runs. Selects the maximum value captured in the proximity of the data point being mapped to. For Mapping algorithm:. The default mapping algorithm. Takes the maximum and minimum of the data points captured in the proximity of the data location being mapped to. and takes an average of these two values.

z) = The browser allows you to select the structural model in NASTRAN format on which to apply a mathematical function. dlm.0 10e-01 336 HyperMesh 8.y.. from the <install_directory>\hm\scripts\dlm directory.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering operands may be input in the following forms: corresponds to 1. This field allows you to enter an equation string using standard spreadsheet inputs for the various operators and operands.Mathematical Loading Distributed pressure loads can be created at nodes via mathematical loading functions using the Mathematical Loading macro. on the macro menu.0 corresponds to 1. Mathematical Loading dialog The Mathematical Loading macro requires the following input: Structural analysis model file: Equation string fn(x. The Mathematical Loading macro is added to the macro menu when you select menu config from the HyperMesh options panel and load the file.0 corresponds to 1. The Mathematical Loading dialog is displayed when you click Math.mac.0 Altair Engineering . The operators for which the algorithms are programmed are listed below: Programmed Operators: Unary minus ^ Power of ln Natural Log log Log to the base 10 sin sine cos cosine tan tangent asin arcsine acos arccosine atan arctangent exp Exponential / division * Multiplication + Addition Subtraction Acceptable 1 1..

0 User’s Guide 337 .0. The dialog informs you when there is an error in this instance. However unrecognized characters and functions will cause the loading to yield unacceptable results.1e+01 corresponds to 1. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Spaces and a mixture of uppercase and lower case letters are acceptable.0 x corresponds to the coordinate position x of the nodes of the model y corresponds to the coordinate position y of the nodes of the model z corresponds to the coordinate position z of the nodes of the model The following input rules apply: • Equation strings should always have balanced parentheses to ensure that the logic of the math expression is maintained. use the Field Loads macro on the Geom/Mesh macro menu. • Note: To create pressure loads at element centroids via mathematical functions.

and may contain a subset of the total model. element value complex nodal displacement complex nodal value complex element value complex nodal von Mises complex element von Mises Data types are not required to contain results for every node or element in the model. Stores one floating point value at an element. each load step (the response of the model to each incremental amount of load applied) translates to a simulation. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at an element. If this occurs. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. 338 HyperMesh 8. and vector plots. Data types are one of the forms described below: nodal displacement nodal value Stores three floating point values at a node. HyperMesh sets the results values needed for that function to zero for all of the nodes or elements that are missing. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. if this is appropriate.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . phase. HyperMesh prints a message indicating that results for some of the entities requested were not found in the database. A results database is divided into sections called simulations. assigned. if you run a linear statics problem and apply three different loading conditions to your model. If you run a nonlinear job. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at a node. phase. Each simulation stores the results for a model as it responds to a loading condition. This translation is done using result translators. Each data type found in a simulation contains a group of results of the same type. This form of data type is usually used to store displacements or a vector quantity. each simulation in a results file may contain two data types: displacements and von Mises stress. A data type may contain only one type of result. offset) at a node. the results file generated by the translator contains three simulations. This form of data type is used to store stress quantities or other types of results where a single value is needed at an element. offset) at an element. This section describes the structure of a HyperMesh results database and explains how to use the post-processing functions to create contour. HyperMesh Results Database The structure of a results database allows you to access results by a method similar to that of the analysis code. deformed. refer to the individual translators in the Interface help system. Results files can be translated into HyperMesh results databases which are then read into HyperMesh for post-processing. For example. for more information. In order to complete the post-processing function being executed. For example.Post-Processing Analysis The HyperMesh post-processing functions allow you to review the results files and databases generated by external codes. Stores a complex value (magnitude and phase) at a node. Stores a complex von Mises value (magnitude. Each simulation in the results database is further subdivided into data types. Stores one floating point value at a node.

Linear Linear animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts with the original position of the structure and ends with the fully deformed position of the structure. Transient animation is used to animate the transient response of a structure. Creating Deformed Geometry Plots The deformed panel allows you to display the deformed geometry of your model statically. modal. Modal animation creates and displays an animation sequence that starts and ends with the original position of the structure. Transient animation displays the structure in its timestep positions as calculated by the analysis code. It is from the data contained with the nodal displacement records that HyperMesh is able to calculate the deformed geometry of the structure.. and for file:.. Linear animation is usually selected when results are from a static analysis. For transient animation. The three types of animation include linear.Specifying the Results File In order to perform post-processing functions. HyperMesh uses only one simulation and this simulation must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The deforming frames are calculated based on a sinusoidal function. in either wire frame or hidden line mode. The selected simulation must have a data type in it that contains nodal displacement records. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse.0 User’s Guide 339 . to select a file using the browser. HyperMesh calculates the deformed geometry of the structure from the data contained within the nodal displacement records. Transient animation sequences are generated in the transient panel. each of the simulations used in the animation sequence must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records. Modal Transient The selected simulations must include a data type that contains nodal displacement records in order for HyperMesh to create an animation sequence. Modal animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. Modal animation is most useful for displaying mode shapes. for results file:. you must first specify the name and location of the HyperMesh results database. In the global panel. select the results sub-panel. An appropriate number of frames are linearly interpolated between the first and the last positions. For linear and modal animation.. to select a file using the browser. enter the path and name of the results file or click browse. Creating Animations The HyperMesh animation functions allow you to view your model structure in motion. There are two ways to select a results file: • • From the files panel. Linear animation sequences are generated in the deformed panel. and transient. HyperMesh uses a range of simulations.. In this case.

HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the contour plot. For each element.Creating Vector Plots A vector plot displays the model with a vector at each node that has a result-based direction and magnitude. so no further calculations are required. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when element centroid values are used to create a contour plot. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the centroid of the elements. You should be aware that averaging is taking place when nodal values or nodal displacements are being used to create an assigned plot. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. Each data type is handled differently when it is used to generate a contour plot. The values are located at the centroid of the element. nodal values and displacements 340 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . The elements are then displayed in the solid color assigned to them. This allows you to display elements that have values within a specified range. See the vector plot panel for more information. element values1 Creating Assigned Plots The assign function in the contour panel assigns a color to each element in the model. When the assign function is performed. this is accomplished by adding the results at each node and dividing by the number of nodes on the element. Creating Contour Plots The contour function in the contour panel generates color bands on a model. based on the values found in the results file. In order to accomplish this. In order to accomplish this. HyperMesh averages the results at the nodes to the centroid of the elements. HyperMesh may have to average results before it can display the assigned plot. When a contour function is performed. element values The results are already stored at the centroid of the element. The results file must include a simulation that contains one of the three forms of data types. The bands of color are created by calculating a value for each node in the model and then interpolating across each element. HyperMesh can create the contour plot without modifying any of the values in the results file. nodal values and displacements The results are stored at the nodes. the objective is to take all of the results and place them at the nodes of the elements. HyperMesh averages the centroidal element values to the nodes of the elements. based on the values in the results file. Vector plots are used to determine the direction of movement and allow you to verify the location of the center of rotation of a model.

Inspecting the Results A contour or assigned plot provides a fast. the temporary title is displayed on the upper left side of the screen. Temporary titles can be added to each type of plot by entering a title in the title = field in the contour panel.Adding Plot Identification After you create a results-based plot. HyperMesh plots a legend if the results-based plot created requires it.0 User’s Guide 341 . and value of the node or element are displayed in the menu area. To modify the descriptor. you can select the node or element after the results-based plot has been created. change the color of the text in the legend. simulation and data type. you can add titles. click color to change the color of the text of the descriptor. HyperMesh creates the "descriptor" in order to display the simulation and data type that were used to create the plot. When you want to determine the actual value that an analysis code has calculated for a node or element. click font and select the size font you want to use in the descriptor. click within the descriptor to access the title edit panel. After you enter the title and create the plot. reverse the colors of the legend. and relocate the legend and the descriptor. click within the displayed legend to access the legend edit panel. By default. The ID. modify the colors used in the legend. To modify a legend. the descriptor is located in the upper left-hand corner of the plot above the legend. convenient way of viewing the results of a large number of elements. Functions on this panel allow you to move the legend to a different location on the screen. change the font size. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. and also change the colors used in the legend that correspond to the model.

Information about curves is stored in curve collectors. There is no limit to the number of plot collectors that a HyperMesh database may contain. Procedures for creating and editing xy plots and curves include: • • • • • • • • • • • Creating an XY Plot Modifying XY Plots Working with Multiple XY Plots Modifying Multiple XY Plots Creating Curves on XY Plots Reading Curves from an ASCII File Creating Analysis Based Curves Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions Modifying Curve Attributes Displaying Selected Curves on Plots In addition. you must assign the curve collector to a plot. which are referred to as plots. 342 HyperMesh 8.XY Plotting The functions in the xy plots module allow you to study the relationships between data vectors in results files. Plots maintain a list of pointers to curves that are to be displayed on the plot. To display a curve. The plot may contain any number of curves. A curve may appear on more than one plot at a time and there is no limit to the number of curves that a HyperMesh database may contain. This section introduces the functions that are available in the xy plots module. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model. You can create standard plots or dual plots that show real /imaginary or phase/magnitude data. which are referred to as curves.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Information about xy plots is stored in plot collectors.

Allows you to perform simple mathematical calculations on a curve. You can apply a scaling factor to the original data points. and the line style (solid. Calculates and displays the integral of a curve. You can also change the color and font size used to display these entities. This panel allows you to read data vectors from files as well as perform advanced mathematical operations on curves. The curve attribs panel allows you to change the color. and label. The grid labels panel allows you to change the color. etc. The legend panel allows you to change the location and the font used to display the legend. To access the xy plots module. circle zoom.). Generates a curve from the currently-selected results file. subtitle. thickness of the grid lines. you can use the curve editor to view and modify curves already defined in your HyperMesh model.XY Plots Module The xy plots module is a group of panels that perform operations on plots and the curves displayed on those plots. Allows you to rename curves. The border panel allows you to change the thickness and color of the border around the plot. The grid attribs panel allows you to change the color. Allows you to determine the coordinate values of points in a curve. Grid labels appear along the x and y axes in the plot (tick marks). The plot titles panel allows you to change the plot title. dashed. and number of significant places in the labels. Creates and modifies the curves in the database.0 User’s Guide 343 . marker style (used to indicate the point location). The xy plotting panels are described below: axis labels The axis labels panel allows you to modify the x and y axes titles and labels. In addition. You can also change the curve title that appears in the legend. axis scaling border curve attribs edit curves grid attribs grid labels integrate legend plot titles plots query curves read curves rename results curves simple math In addition. line style. You can set the values explicitly or implicitly by using the panel functions such as find curves. and the margin displayed around the grid lines. font. select xy plots on the Post page of the main menu. and zoom out. Allows you to create an xy plot and assign curves to the xy plot. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Reads curves from an ASCII file. You may also specify whether the border is displayed and the size of the margin between the border and the plot. The axis scaling panel allows you to modify the starting and ending values of the plot axes. thickness. you can change the color and font size used to display these entities.

the plot = field allows you to select one plot and the plots entity selector allows you to select multiple plots. You can modify one plot so that it has the desired values. HyperMesh immediately displays the update. After each change. the panels in the xy plots module are updated to reflect the change. you may wish to modify one of the values on all of the plots.Creating an XY Plot Each xy plot window is assigned a name when you create it. select the panel that applies to the attribute you want to change. Each time a panel in the xy plots module is accessed. thickness. HyperMesh displays the existing values of the current xy plot (the plot listed after plot =) in the data entry fields in the panel.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This process also applies to curves. the grid labels and grid attributes. HyperMesh initially assigns default values to the xy plot attributes. and then apply those modifications to the other plots. and labels. and also the margin and border around the xy plot. Access this panel by pressing the w key. 344 HyperMesh 8. and change the attribute in the panel. or add a title to the plot. Working with Multiple XY Plots HyperMesh places every xy plot within a window. you may wish to change the axis titles so that they are all the same. When you modify xy plots using the panels of the xy plots module. in one step. This allows you to control multiple plots by resizing and moving plots around the screen. To modify an xy plot. Modifying Multiple XY Plots When several plots are contained within a database. or width of the border. For example. select the plot you want to change. XY plot window placement is controlled with the Windows panel. Modifying an XY Plot After you create an xy plot. Plot attributes include the title. you can change the color. subtitle. The first step in the process of creating an xy plot is to use the plots panel to name and create an xy plot collector. These attributes can be adjusted before or after you add curves to the plot. Every time you change the current xy plot. or a subset of the plots.

transform a curve. which is displayed in the legend.TITLE X1. Examples of external filters are in the filters subdirectory that is provided when this option is selected. ENDDATA XYDATA. Y1 X2. which define two curves. Y1 X2. ENDDATA Each curve in the file is defined in a block format. When you create an analysis curve. . After XYDATA. you select entities of interest in your model. and then select a data type for the x axis data points and a data type for the y axis data points. there are two blocks of data. Essentially. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. XYDATA. filters exchange data with HyperMesh. For every operation. the title assigned to the curve. Y2 . The block ends with an ENDDATA statement. Point data follows with a set of (x.0 User’s Guide 345 . In the above example. y) data pairs on each line. you can specify that the x or y values of the curve remain fixed.TITLE X1. You can also apply external filters to curves in this panel. or export the curve.Creating Curves on XY Plots You can create curves using four different methods: • • • • Read curves from an ASCII file Extract a curve directly from a results database Create curves by using a few simple math operators Read single curves from files as well as generate curves by using mathematical expressions Reading Curves from an ASCII file When HyperMesh reads curves from an ASCII file with the read curves panel. using the standard HyperMesh curve data file format. Creating Analysis-Based Curves Analysis-based curves are generated from the HyperMesh binary results file. After this information has been supplied. Creating Curves using Simple Math Operators Curves can be created using simple math operators in the simple math panel. The block begins with the statement. it assumes that the format of the input file is as follows: XYDATA. You can combine two curves. . follows on the same line. Analysis-based curves are generated in the results curves panel. HyperMesh reads the required data from the results file and generates the appropriate curve. . . Y2 .

the component must be selected. Each vector of a curve can be defined using either a data vector in a data file or a math expression.Creating Curves from Files or Math Expressions The edit curves panel allows you to create new curves or edit existing ones. For more information about math expressions. The y vector can be a function of x or the x vector can be a function of y. To reference the y vector of curve 1. After the data request set has been selected. To edit the x and y vectors of a math curve. New data can be selected from a source file or mathematically defined.vector: For example: c1. and component. and the data source for the y vector could be a math expression. the data source for the x vector could be a file. Once the data type has been selected. based on what has been modified. the data request set needs to be selected. you must indicate the curve number and the x or y vector. HyperMesh recalculates the curves in the proper order. Available data types depend on the data file. Source file data is divided into type. The data sources for the x and y vectors are displayed in the x = and y = fields. When you modify a curve. 346 HyperMesh 8.y To reference the x vector of curve 1. Type Request Component Note: Data files can consist of different types of data. For example. request. refer to the Altair Math Reference.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in the format curve number.x c1.

The style of line used to draw the curve. Modify the list by selecting the curves by name and removing or adding the curves to the current plot as desired and click return. you can select which curves in the database you want to display on an xy plot. The names of the curves that are already displayed on the current xy plot are highlighted. This scale factor is used to scale the y values in a curve. curve title curve width curve style curve color curve marker The curve title is displayed in the legend. when the curve is displayed. The following curve attributes may be changed in the curve attribs panel. To select curves for a plot. x scale factor y scale factor Displaying Selected Curves on Plots After you have read or created curves. select the plots panel and click select curves. HyperMesh currently supports either thick or thin lines. Determines the markers drawn around each data point in the curve. and four different patterns. no line at all. The color used to draw the curve. triangular. HyperMesh currently supports a solid line.0 User’s Guide 347 . The curve may also be displayed with no markers shown. The width of line used when the curve is drawn. and square markers. HyperMesh currently supports 15 standard colors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. This scale factor is used to scale the x values in a curve.Modifying Curve Attributes Modifying curves is very similar to modifying plots. HyperMesh displays a list of the available curves in the database. HyperMesh currently supports circular.

Changes made in HyperMesh do not immediately affect the curve editor. graph area (red). outlined with colored boxes in the image below: the curve list (green). To display curves in the graph area: 1.Using the Curve Editor The curve editor is a pop-up window that allows you to view and modify graphed curves in a more intuitive and holistic way than the individual xy plots panels provide. Modify the curve attributes if needed. The curve displays in the graph area. The curve’s attributes fill in the fields in the curve attributes area. For this reason. 348 HyperMesh 8. 2. Click the desired curve in the curve list. Note that any changes you make in the curve editor will be retained. click the close command button. Click the display checkbox in the curve atributes area. 3. but changes made in a HyperMesh panel do not automatically get sent to the curve editor. in the sense that changes made in the curve editor are automatically sent back to HyperMesh. It’s important to be aware that the curve editor is not completely symmetrical with HyperMesh.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . To summarize: • • Changes made in the curve editor immediately affect HyperMesh. Access the curve editor from HyperMesh’s Setup pull-down menu. The curve editor contains four main areas. because they are automatically applied as you make them. if you leave the curve editor open while making changes within the HyperMesh XY plotting module. you must use the update button in the curve editor to import the changes. and must be imported by use of the update button. and graph attributes (cyan). To quit the curve editor. curve attributes (blue).

To change a curve's attributes: 1. and 1.5. Click the display checkbox to toggle the display of the curve in the graph area. A list of available colors displays. select a number from the every: list box. For example. To draw the curve in a thicker line. Click the curve in the graph area.0. Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. For example. and then typing in a new value. Make any desired changes to the curve’s attributes: Modify each X and/or Y value by clicking it. Note: If you choose no line. The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. For example. you could change it from “Y” to “time”. For example. you could change it from “X” to “Acceleration”. if it is already set to Display. For example.5). 2. making a finer grid. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. In the graph attributes area. the line’s symbol points will still display. 1.0 User’s Guide 349 . modify the fields inside the X-axi s frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s X -axis label. click the desired color to select it. Select a Line style to change the curve’s line from solid to dotted. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. even if your data included accelerations ranging from 0 up to 10 m/s . but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Or 2. or show no line at all. To change the graph's attributes: 1. To change the symbol spacing. To place a marker symbol at each point on the curve. Modify the fields inside the Y-axis frame: Type in a new label to change the graph’s Y-axis label. you could 2 restrict the X axis to only graph accelerations from 1 to 5 m/s . click the thick line checkbox. Select a precision to change the number of decimal places that display in the numbers on this axis. pressing the <delete> key to erase the current value. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0. Click the curve that you wish to modify. Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn.0. if you choose “3” then only every third point will display as a symbol. Change the Color by clicking the colored box. select a symbol from the list box. 2 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Either click the curve in the curve list.

The number of Tics indicates how many evenly-spaced. 1. numbered increments display between the beginning and end of the axis. 3. click the curve that you wish to delete. In the curve list. Type in a new name for the curve. Click proceed. For example. but you only wish to graph the accelerations that occur between 30 and 35 seconds. 350 HyperMesh 8. 2. A confirmation window displays. Click proceed. setting Tics to “3” produces three increments (at 0.5. To rename a curve: 1. 3.- Choose a min and max to restrict the graph to a specific range of values. or No to keep the curve. 2. To create a new curve: 1. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a name for the new curve. Click the hide checkbox to toggle the display of the legend on and off. For example. Click the Delete command button. Click the New… command button in the curve editor window. Click Yes to confirm the deletion. The Grids per tic sub-divides each tic. Type in a name for the new curve. even if your data included accelerations from 0 seconds to 60 seconds. type in the X and Y coordinates for each data point in the curve. 2. 4.0. Modify the fields inside the Legends frame: Select a location to determine where the legend displays in the graph area. you cannot recover it. HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. making a finer grid. but these grid lines are not numbered (much like the fractional markings on a ruler). Click the new curve in the curve list and modify its attributes as needed.0.5). - Change the number of Tics and Grids per tic to control how fine the grid behind the curves is drawn. 3. 3. you could restrict the range by typing “20” into the min and “35” into the max. if your data ranges from values of 0 to 2. To delete a curve: 1. For example. and 1.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . HyperMesh returns you to the curve editor. HyperMesh temporarily supplants the curve editor and prompts you to specify a new name for the chosen curve. which now uses the curve’s new name. once you delete a curve. Undo You cannot undo a deletion. Click the desired curve in the curve list.

In finite elements. The two most commonly used in commercial software packages like OptiStruct. Altair HyperStudy. with the perturbation vector approach as the default setting. such as beam section properties. BVi variable DVi . a more flexible tool to set-up and generate shape perturbations. a finite element model must be loaded into HyperMesh. Genesis. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal locations with respect to the original finite element mesh. and spring properties are design variables. and Genesis. AutoDV generates perturbation vectors. and Templex. In shape optimization. Further. input parameters of a model.AutoDV Introduction AutoDV is utility developed for the generation of perturbation vectors for shape optimization in optimization packages such as Altair OptiStruct. Altair HyperOpt provides both. the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of basis vectors. the shape of the structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates. Altair OptiStruct and Altair HyperStudy use the perturbation vector approach. In the past. If there is a choice in the optimization code. most of AutoDV’s capability to create perturbation vectors using control perturbations is fully integrated in HyperMesh. AutoDV can also be used to generate distributed loads. There are different approaches used to define the shape in an optimization setup. Both approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors. In size optimization. are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. AutoDV interfaces with HyperMesh thru the AutoDV template for export and AutoDV reader for import. HyperOpt. Before importing AutoDV data. PVi is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable DVi . usually density-related values that define the material distribution are the design variables. Nastran. AutoDV is now complemented by HyperMorph. the structural shape change is defined as a linear combination of perturbation vectors. is the vector of nodal coordinates. Shape Optimization The type of design variables that are used distinguishes different types of structural optimization. the shell thickness. The function of creating harmonic shape functions for 2D problems only works with AutoDV. Altair HyperOpt. HyperStudy. Starting with HyperWorks 6. x Note: Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. AutoDV has been stand-alone software.0 User’s Guide 351 . Using the basis vector approach. the perturbation vector approach must be selected. x = x 0 + ∑ DVi ⋅ PVi where x 0 is the vector of nodal coordinates of the initial design. x.0. The boundary shape changes must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes. the design variables define the boundary shape of the part to be optimized. x = ∑ DVi ⋅ BVi x is the vector of nodal coordinates. In topology optimization. The basis vectors define nodal locations. The stand-alone solver is still available and can be used for the generation of manual perturbations. where is the basis vector associated to the design Using the perturbation vector approach. Nastran.

6. Select the solver panel. Run AutoDV through the solver panel using the appropriate options. using the AutoDV template. retrieve the baseline HyperMesh database and complete steps 2 and 3. However. Manual Perturbation To generate perturbation vectors by the manual perturbation method: 1. giving the *. where nnn is the design variable ID. and generates the corresponding perturbation vector. AutoDV creates condensed <prefix>.base file using the baseline model of the structure using the OptiStruct template supplied in the distribution.pert<nnn> files contain data only for the perturbed grid points. move the grids to define the perturbed shape. Do not save the perturbed model. Polynomial perturbation vectors using design domains.pert<nnn> files that contain only the perturbed grids.pert file a different ID. AutoDV compares all <prefix>. a finite element model representing the baseline shape of the structure must be developed.base model. Before these methods can be applied. Write a <prefix>. 2. 3. Example: mymodel. Write out a perturbation file <prefix>. 3. To generate another perturbation vector.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .pert006. AutoDV requires that the <prefix>. Harmonic perturbation vectors using design domains. In HyperMesh. Click the switch and select AutoDV as your solver. 4. identifies the perturbed grids.Generation of Perturbation Vectors Perturbation vectors can be generated in one of three ways: 1. the files generated by HyperMesh contain the entire model. 5. 7. 352 HyperMesh 8.pert<nnn> models with the <prefix>.pert<nnn>. Manual perturbation of grids in HyperMesh. 2.

However. Define primary domain model elements and domain node sets. Select the domain subpanel. On the BCs page. DPENTA6. 3. Pick the nodes that form the domain element. All domain elements may be organized in more than one domain component. Assign shapes to design variables. Use the solver panel to run AutoDV. select the optimization panel. build a secondary domain model and define secondary node sets. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. To create a domain element: 1. DTETRA4 These element types are generated using the AutoDV template provided in the distribution. 2-D elements 3-D elements DQUAD4. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. 4. 5. If needed.Polynomial Perturbation Vectors To create polynomial perturbation vectors: 1. 3. but not necessary. It is recommended. 5.0 User’s Guide 353 . Select the perturbations panel. Primary Domain Model This example shows how to create a primary domain model over the finite element model using the following first order 2-D and 3-D domain elements. DTRIA3 DHEXA8. none of the domain components should include finite elements. 7. The Domain model must encompass those finite element grids of the model that need to be perturbed. 4. 2. Select the type of domain element. 6. that you organize 2-D and 3-D domain elements in separate components. Each domain element generally encompasses a large number of finite elements. Output a bulk data file using the HyperMesh template for AutoDV. Define shapes and control perturbations.

6. 2. Pick the domain element from the graphic display.e. Select the nodes for the domain node set. or they can be created manually. i. you must implicitly ensure that relationship while creating domain elements and node sets by making sure that all the nodes that need to be perturbed as a shape variable are completely encompassed or parameterized by the domain model. This relationship is not explicitly defined by the user. Select the domain subpanel. 8. This generally happens at the common edges and corners between domain elements. Domain node sets can be created automatically when the domain element is created. There should be exactly one domain element related to each node set. Select the perturbations panel. 5. To manually create a domain node set for an existing domain element: 1. 7..0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the optimization panel. On the BCs page. However. all corner nodes of that element must belong to that node set. it is identified by AutoDV. 3. Toggle nodeset to manual. 354 HyperMesh 8. Select update. 4.Primary Domain Node Sets Node sets constitute the primary entities for generating perturbation vectors. All nodes in a given node set are perturbed using mathematical relationships based on the control perturbations applied on the Domain Model. Click add. A given node may belong to more than one node set.

defining a zero magnitude vector is the same as placing no vector. Py. Instead. Create shape design variables: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. the interpolation function is a product of three functions: P(x. a DQUAD4 domain has 8 control points).y) = Px(x) Py(y) Pz(z) where P x. 3. A linear interpolation uses control perturbation at the corners. the interpolation function is a product of two functions: P(x. To define control perturbations: 1. you do not need to create a second order domain element. 8 characters) in shape =. A quadratic interpolation would use the corner as well as the mid-side control perturbations. Click return to return to the perturbations panel. For 2-D domains. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. On a given edge. In order to generate a quadratic perturbation. Select the perturbations panel. Select perturbations using the toggle. In either case. otherwise it is linear. They are automatically added to the shape specified in shape =. and Pz are polynomial interpolation functions of up to quadratic order. The deformed panel is displayed so you can animate the design variable to validate your definition.0 User’s Guide 355 . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. − AutoDV computes perturbations of all structural grids by interpolating control perturbations. Control perturbations are defined by creating vectors at control points.. Animate the shape design variable: − Click animate. For corner control points.y) = Px(x) Py(y) For 3-D domains.Control Perturbations Perturbation vectors are generated by interpolating control perturbations defined at selected control points. The interpolations are performed as follows. 2. AutoDV identifies the mid-side perturbations and internally changes the corresponding edge of a domain element from linear to quadratic (curvilinear edge element). AutoDV assigns a control perturbation of magnitude zero to the corner point. place the control perturbation on a mid-side node on an edge of the domain node set. The order of interpolation is based on the presence of mid-side control perturbations. The corner points of a domain element and mid-side nodes of the corresponding node sets constitute control points (e. Click create shape. Click create vector to create the vectors. the interpolation is parabolic if a mid-side control perturbation is defined. That mid-side control point does not have to lie on the edge of the domain element.g. Enter a name (max.

AutoDV computes the perturbation vectors for shape variables in the following order: • • • Identifies all domain elements and node sets attached to vector belonging to a given shape variable. the presence yields a quadratic interpolation. 356 HyperMesh 8. Computes perturbation of each grid in the list by interpolation using the related control point perturbations. Whereas the absence of a mid-side control perturbation yields a linear interpolation on that edge. In the case of a zero magnitude mid-side perturbation.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Generates the corresponding list of grids to be perturbed in that variable. defining zero magnitude vector is not the same as placing no vector. the interpolation is quadratic with the value of zero for the mid-side node.For mid-side control points.

Interpolating those perturbations linearly to all the grids of the secondary domain. The domain model for each plate contains one element each. AutoDV responds by: • • • Computing pert urbations on the primary domain model using the control perturbations. illustrated below. Secondary domain is not required if the nodes are connected using a single 1-D element. The gum-drops are modeled using a rigid (R1)-spring (K)-rigid (R2) representation. Here. Move the end nodes as well as all intermediate nodes into an independent node set. For example. the perturbation vector for this model is as shown in the illustration below.Secondary Domain Models and Node Sets A secondary domain model allows computation of perturbation vectors for grids on 1-D elements connecting two different components. the control perturbation causes grids G1 and G4 to be perturbed as shown. grid points G2 and G3 are generally coincident. consider the two sheet metal components connected using gum-drops. This problem is solved using a secondary domain model as follows: • • Create one rigid element (type DRBE2) between the two end nodes (G1 and G4 in this example). However. Here. With only primary domain. Identifying perturbations of the end nodes of the secondary domains. You may use the secondary domain model where two nodes belonging to the primary domain are connected using several 1-D elements in a series. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. they remain unperturbed.0 User’s Guide 357 . because grids G2 and G3 are not part of any node set. The perturbation vectors are also shown in the illustration.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . 358 HyperMesh 8. Note: A DRBE2 element does not have to be connected to a control point. and no control perturbations are required at the two nodes of the DRBE2 element.Using the example illustrated above. this yields the perturbation shown below.

Generate domain elements and node sets as described in the previous section. In the shape panel.y) = P (x. and T is the harmonic function given by: T(x. There should be no other vector in that shape. Edit X_ORDER. The orders m and n of harmonic functions are user-controlled. Harmonic variables are defined only on DQUAD4 domains. However. create a design variable using that shape. the harmonic component of the shape variable has a value of 1.one at each corner control point of that element. y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) Where Xm(x) = cos (m*x/2) = sin (m*x/2) =1 and Yn(x) = cos (n*y/2) = sin (n*y/2) =1 for odd values of n for even values of n for n = 0 for odd values of m for even values of m for m = 0 For m = n = 0. 2. and Y_TYPE: Card image X_ORDER Y_ORDER Symbol m n Default 0 0 Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The design variable label should not have more than four characters. The harmonic shape variables are computed using a product of the following two functions: V(x. Then the shape variable is reduced to the polynomial shape variable. Each harmonic shape variable component must contain exactly four vectors. Select the design variable in the card pre-viewer in the permanent menu.Harmonic Perturbation Vectors Harmonic shape variables are defined using a process similar to that for polynomial shape variables. 3. 4. Select the DQUAD4 element on which harmonic perturbation vectors are desired and create a shape with exactly four vectors .y) T (x. To define harmonic perturbation vectors: 1. modeling requirements for generating harmonic variables are very stringent. one DQUAD4 element at a time. Y_ORDER. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. X_TYPE.0 User’s Guide 359 . y) Where P is the polynomial function described in the previous section. one at each corner point of the DQUAD4. Each vector may have a different length and orientation. These are part of the vector collector card.

AutoDV generates a series of independent perturbation vectors. Accordingly. even all. modify the setting in the harmonic subpanel. odd.You have the option of generating all. even Default all all For given values of m and n. Examples of the naming procedure follow: Example 1: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv01 2 0 1 dv010001 X_TYPE = all Y_TYPE = all 3 1 0 dv010100 4 1 1 dv010101 5 2 0 dv010200 6 2 1 dv010201 desvar name = dv01 Example 2: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv02 X_TYPE = even Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv020001 3 2 0 dv020200 4 2 1 dv020201 desvar name = dv02 Example 3: X_ORDER = 2 Y_ORDER = 1 Shape Variable m n Name 1 0 0 dv03 X_TYPE = odd Y_TYPE = all 2 0 1 dv030001 3 1 0 dv030100 4 1 1 dv030101 desvar name = dv03 360 HyperMesh 8. odd. It generates shape variable names by appending the x and y orders to the component name. or even harmonics by entering the appropriate harmonics types in the vector collector. Card image X_TYPE Y_TYPE Options all. odd.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

Domain elements and domain node sets for the domain where the load is applied must be created before you can generate a variable load. Run AutoDV to generate the variable loads: Before you run AutoDV. moments and temperatures. − − − − On the BCs page. Select AUTODV as the solver. Variable loading can be generated for forces.0 User’s Guide 361 . 2. Apply the variable loads: − − − − − − − On the files panel. AutoDV computes the variable loads on each structural grid by interpolating the control perturbations defined on control points. Click simulation = and select the variable loading condition wants to apply. Variable loads are generated by interpolating control vectors defined at selected control points. Create control perturbations to define the characteristic of the variable load: − − − − − Select the optimization panel on the BCs page. Select all the displayed nodes and set mult = to 1. 8 characters) in desvar =. Click create to create the vectors.animate suffix. you must write an AutoDV input deck using the AutoDV template. Select the perturbations panel. select the results subpanel. The control points can be the corner points of a domain element or the mid-side nodes along the edge of domain elements. select the apply result panel. On the Post page. Create a control perturbation at a control point: − − − Select perturbations using the toggle. select the solver panel. Click file = and enter the result file with the . Click solve to create the interpolated variable loads. Click create. They are automatically added to the design variable specified in desvar =. 3. the corner and mid-side control points. Select the create load subpanel. Click name = and enter the name of the AutoDV input deck. Enter a name (max. Click apply to apply the variable loads. Define vectors on corners or edges of domain elements. Creating control perturbations at the corner nodes of the domain element yields a linear interpolation. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.Generation of Variable Loads Generating variable loads with AutoDV is similar to generating perturbation vectors. Select desvar using the toggle. A quadratic interpolation can be generated by creating control vectors either on the mid-side control points or on both. 4. To generate a variable load: 1.dv.

0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .Examples: 362 HyperMesh 8.

Running AutoDV Stand-alone
To run AutoDV, select AUTODV as the solver in the solver panel and then give the prefix of the input file name along with the options. The input file name should be prefix.base. autodv -file <prefix> -inp opt1 -ent opt2 -code opt3

The valid entries and default values for options are given in the following table. Note that these parameters could be given in any order. Entity <prefix> Valid Options Prefix of the input file name, or input file name. OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS, HYPERSTUDY, TEMPLEX, HYPEROPT FORC, MOMT, TEMP, LONG OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, PAMCRASH, RADIOSS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MARC, ANSYS, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT Default Value Solver Panel input file =

Opt1

analysis code =

Opt2 Opt3

NONE NONE

component = subcode type =

The interdependency of options on each other is explained in the following table. For example, for a given opt1, it gives the possible values for opt2 and opt3. Opt1 OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS OPTISTRUCT, NASTRAN, GENESIS HYPERSTUDY TEMPLEX Opt2 None Long Opt3 Ignored Remarks For shape optimization None – Standard format Long – Long format For variable loading

FORC, MOMT, TEMP Ignored

Ignored

OPTISTRUCT, HYPERFORM, NASTRAN, DYNAKEY, DYNASEQ, RADIOSS, PAMCRASH, MARC, ANSYS, ABAQUS, ABAQUS2D, MADYMO OPTISTRUCT, ABAQUS, NASTRAN

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/Generic and HyperStudy

HYPEROPT

Ignored

For shape optimization with HyperOpt/OPTISTRUCT, HyperOpt/ABAQUS, and HyperOpt/NASTRAN

Altair Engineering
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After AutoDV runs, it creates the following files: prefix.dat A bulk data file that contains the DVGRID and LOAD information, respectively depending on opt2. A bulk data file for the perturbed model corresponding to the shape variable nnn. This file originally contained the manually generated perturbed file. After the program runs, this file contains only the GRID data for all perturbed grid points. This file contains the shape design variables in the HyperMesh results format. This file can be loaded to HyperMesh and results can be viewed. Note: The animation should be used only as a check for the shape of the perturbation vector. It will not display the upper and lower bounds for the shape variable. The file prefix.dat becomes part of an input file for the respective native analysis package. Note: If you create a perturbed model file, prefix.pertnnn, and also a set of control perturbations with an identical shape variable ID, nnn, the resultant perturbation vector from AutoDV is a union of the manual as well as the interpolated grid perturbations. For the common nodes in the two sets, the manual grid perturbations given in prefix.pertnnn override those generated by using interpolation. prefix.subcode.node.tpl Templex template to replace the nodal coordinates in the original input deck. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX. Contains nodal coordinates and perturbation vectors for use in the file, prefix.subcode.node.tpl. Generated if opt1 = HYPERSTUDY, or TEMPLEX.

prefix.autonnn

prefix.dv.animate

prefix.shp

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Creating an H3D File from HyperMesh
Using an H3D file, you can save 3-D animations from HyperMesh in the .h3d format for viewing with the HyperView Player. HyperView Player is an Internet browser plug-in for visualizing 3-D Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models and results. Using product data in Altair's compact .h3d format allows you to incorporate animated images in an HTML document for presentation or engineering reports. Simulation results can be sent by e-mail, or placed on the web for others to open and review. HyperView Player is available as a free download on Altair's Web site at http://www.altair.com. To create an H3D file from HyperMesh: 1. 2. Select one of the following panels: contour, deformed, hidden line, transient, or geom cleanup. To control the display attributes for your model: 3. Specify your desired display attributes using visual options or the visual panel.

Click the Hyper3d button or H3D>HV. Two files are created. One is an H3D file, using anim#.h3d as the file name. The symbol # is automatically assigned to the H3D file. The other is a sample HTML file including an <EMBED> statement for the corresponding H3D file. H3D>HV loads the newly created H3D file into HyperView. You can define this option in the options panel under modeling.

4.

To review the model in a web browser: Double click the HTML file to launch a browser. or Click H3D to activate the standalone HyperView Player.

You can customize the external HTML template, h3d_template.html, located in the altair/hm/html directory, to suit your needs. Note: In the HyperMesh geom cleanup panel, the Hyper3D button is displayed when you select the shaded option in the visual options subpanel.

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Embedding a HyperView Player Object in HTML Documentation The following section defines the arguments and provides an example for embedding statements in an HTML document in order to view a HyperView Player graphic object. Note the following updates to HyperView Player: Simplified HTML File Statement Since the H3D file created from HyperView, and HyperMesh includes scene information, the arguments in the old statements for model readers and result readers are no longer needed. The HTML statements have been simplified in this release. However, the HTML files created for HyperView Player 3.1 are still supported. HyperView Player only supports H3D direct readers. You can create an H3D file using: • • • • Note HyperView HyperMesh HyperMesh result translators, such as hmnast, hmnasto2, hmdyna, hmradioss, hmpam, hmansys, and hmabaqus OptiStruct You may need to modify your HTM L files created for HyperView Player 3.1 if you were using direct readers other that h3d.dll, such as adams.dll, gfile.dll, lsdyna.dll, and madymo.dll, since those readers are no longer supported in HyperView Player.

Direct Readers

To embed a HyperView Player object, the <EMBED> statement in HTML is used. All arguments are case insensitive.

General Arguments for EMBED Statements
type width/height SRC="URL" Application/x-h3d Measured in pixels The location of the plug-in data file as indicated by its URL.

Embedded Statement Example
<EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="HTTP:\\www.altair.com\h3d\bumper.h3d"> <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 src="../bumper.h3d">

More examples can be found in the HyperView Player demo directory, and our Web site, http://www.altair.com.

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Using an HTML File
You can use HyperView Player to share information by embedding it in an HTML file. You can use either a relative path or a standard Uniform Resource Locator (URL) to specify the path for the H3D file in the <EMBED> statement. There are three different ways to define file transfer protocol: FILE, HTTP and FTP. This section describes how to select a protocol for file transfer using files, anim1.html and anim1.h3d as examples.

Embedded Mode
FILE://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="File://c:\Altair\demos\hvp\anim1.h3d"> An absolute path is required for File:// and the H3D file must reside in the specified path. When you distribute the files, you may need to modify the HTML file for the path.

HTTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="http://www:8080/~John/anim1.h3d> Others can access your public web area on the Internet. When sharing an H3D file, you can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files in your public HTML directory and send the link to others in the company by email. The link can be, for example, http://www:8080/~John/anim1.html. By doing this, you do not need to distribute the H3D file and can guarantee the path is working correctly. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click the link in the email, the model will be displayed.

FTP://
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="FTP://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html> You can place the anim1.html and anim1.h3d files on your FTP site. If you have HyperView Player installed, and you click ftp://ftp.altair.com/pub/outgoing/HVP/anim1.html, the model is displayed.

Relative Path
Example: <EMBED type="application/x-h3d" width=450 height=400 SRC="../anim/.h3d> Using a relative path allows you to distribute an HTML file easily. You can create a folder with the necessary HTML and h3d files for distribution.

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Full page mode
In an HTML file, you can easily hyperlink a string to an H3D file. When you click the hyperlink, the plug-in loads a model in full-page mode.

Using E-mail
You can attach an H3D file to an email. If the recipient is using a PC, he or she can click the attachment and the H3D file will load automatically. You can also save the H3D file and at a later time, double-click the file to invoke the standalone version of HyperView Player. Another available option is to drag the H3D file and drop it into a browser to view the model in a full window.

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H3D FAQ's
How can I view a model with shaded display in HyperView Player? The model display settings are recorded during H3D creation. Set up the desired model display, with such options as mesh lines and feature lines, in the Vis panel under the Performance Graphics mode in HyperMesh.

Why doesn’t the legend setting in HyperView player reflect the setting in HyperMesh? HyperView Player only supports default settings for the legend display from HyperMesh. The specified Max and Min values in HyperMesh are not recorded in the H3D file of this version.

Can I view complex result animation in HyperView player? No, the H3D writer does not support complex result data.

What types of element are not supported in the H3D file? Second order elements, rigidlinks, and RBE3s are not supported in this version. The mid-side node of a second order element is ignored when it is read into HyperView Player.

How can I change the window size for viewing HyperView Player in the browser? You can modify the width and height values in the <EMBED> statement in the HTML file. (For example, width = 600, height = 600)

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Free Body Diagrams
HyperMesh allows you to create or edit Free Body Diagrams (FBD) using several tools that display in the tab area. Each FBD tool displays on a separate tab, which opens when you activate that tool. Location: Results menu, Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tools) Tool menu (to access the FBD Set Manager only) Tab Area (for the tools themselves)

Free Body Diagram (FBD) utilities facilitate the extraction and post-processing of Grid Point Force (GPFORCE) results. FBD utilities currently support OptiStruct and Nastran .op2 files, and are only available in the OptiStruct or Nastran user profiles. FBD extractions are typically utilized for breakout and/or sub-modeling analysis schemes, where balanced “free body” sub-cases are extracted from a coarse grid model and applied to a fine grid sub-model for eventual optimization and/or analysis. FBD is also used to extract cross-sectional resultant forces and moments (typically at the centroid of a cross-section) for use in traditional strength calculations. Each tool has a separate entry in the menu. In addition, see the overview on Grid Point Force Balance tables to gain further understanding of FBD operations within HyperMesh, while the Set Manager utility assists in generating the element and node sets which the FBD utilities analyze.

This coarse grid model is typical for FBD extractions.

Typical FBD – Forces output on a wing rib

Typical Result Force and Moment output on a floor beam

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along with the entity set display and export states. Nastran. Location: Tools menu (to access the Set Manager) Tab Area (to use the Set Manager) The Set Manager consists of a tree structure listing the current entity sets in the model. To set display options for the Set Manager: 1. renaming. See To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display for details. Use the toolbar buttons in the Set Manager tab to manipulate the display options. The sync button synchronizes the entity set display states with the current HyperMesh display. creating. Nastran. The Set Manager utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct.FBD Set Manager Use the Set Manager tool to automate the grouping and display of model components through HyperMesh entity set functionality. The filter buttons allow for additional selection control. or Abaqus user profile. It also includes functions for displaying. The set manager displays in the tab area. and changing the export state of entity sets. appending entities to. 2. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. as desired: • • • • Use <ctrl>-click and <shift>-click to select multiple items in the tree structure. 3.0 User’s Guide 371 . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. deleting. geometry. and ABAQUS user profiles. or export state) that the filter buttons apply to. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. From the Tools pull-down menu. The selection type options allow you to control the entities (elements. select Set Manager.

The graphic above shows all of the available options. Delete Reference: Removes a set reference from a entity set type of sets. Supported entity set types are shown above. Rename: Rename the selected set. accessed by right clicking in the background. select Set Manager.To use the Set Manager right-click functionality: 1. Expand All: Expands all branches of the tree. Multiple sets may be selected by using standard Ctrl/Shift-click functionality. 2. Right -click anywhere within the tree structure to open the right-click menu: There are many functions available. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. on folders. Delete: Deletes the currently selected set(s). including: • • • • • • • New: Create a new entity set of the specified type. Collapse All: Collapses all branches of the tree. HyperMesh prompts you to type in a name for the set or accept a default name. or on individual or multiple items within folders. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. Nastran. 3. grouped in folders by type. 372 HyperMesh 8. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to add to the set. From the Tools pull-down menu. Add Entities to Set: Adds entities into the currently selected set. or Abaqus user profile. The set manager displays in the tab area.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

after clicking either the display or sync buttons. Export Session File: Saves a session file (. which control the display of each of these entities separately. The set manager displays in the tab area. select Set Manager. Nastran. Display Options: Determines how the sets display in the Set Manager tree. to the disk. • • • • • • • To change the Set Manager's display and export states: 1. The Blank State signifies that the entity set will be exported. and then displays only the currently selected set(s) in the HyperMesh display. this information is automatically converted to the new solver format when Set Manager is opened. The display and export icons associated with each entity set are described below: • The display toggle determines whether the entities contained within the entity set are displayed in HyperMesh.ses). and is only available for component and element sets. or by using the display options icons in the toolbar.ses) containing group definitions. containing group definitions for the selected node or element sets. The display and export states of entity sets are controlled by clicking on/off the display and export icons located next to each entity set in the tree. after clicking either the display or sync buttons.• Remove Entities from Set: Removes entities from the currently selected set. Once a display toggle is changed. When switching between supported solvers. This operation brings up an entity selector in HyperMesh used to select entities to remove from the set. Display IDs: Displays a popup window showing the IDs of all entities contained in the selected set. For component sets there are two toggles: one for elements (first check box) and one for geometry (second check box). Show: This operation adds the entities contained in the selected set(s) to the HyperMesh display. click the Synch toolbar button to update the HyperMesh display with the current selection.0 User’s Guide 373 . From the Tools pull-down menu. The export state of each entity set is stored in the HyperMesh database. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. The Blank State signifies that one or more of the entities in that entity set are not displayed. or Abaqus user profile. Hide: This operation removes the entities contained in the selected set(s) from the HyperMesh display. grouped in folders by type. 2. The Checked State signifies that all entities in the entity set are currently displayed. Import Session File: Loads a session file (. • The export toggle determines whether the entity set definition is to be exported when the model deck is written. Available options are shown above. Its tree structure lists all entity set currently existing in the model. These group definitions will be converted into HyperMesh entity sets. Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct. The Checked State signifies that the entity set will not be exported. 3. Show Only: This operation turns off (masks) all currently displayed entities.

while the Synch button in the Set Manager toolbar allows you to update the set manager to match the current state of the HyperMesh display. constantly synchronizing the display state of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display can introduce performance issues.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . in which case the Set Manager and the HyperMesh display are synchronized until another selection is made within the Set Manager. 374 HyperMesh 8. the Display button can be used to update the HyperMesh display to the current Set Manager selection. In addition. To remedy these occurrences. the Display button at the bottom of the Set Manager allows you to update HyperMesh to match the Set Manager settings.To synch the Set Manager with the HyperMesh display: The Set Manager is meant to allow users to easily control the display and review of entity sets for model grouping and visualization purposes. The Synch button resides in the toolbar described by the topic To set display options for the Set Manager. but display states always default to the unchecked state on startup. For large models. the Set Manager utility does not automatically synchronize the display states of entity sets with the current HyperMesh display. Export states synch automatically. Instead.

Use the . Only sub-cases with displacement results from the currently selected. The FBD Displacements tab displays in the tab area.op2 file containing the displacement output for the current model. Additionally. This procedure reduces the size of the . The sub-case display can be switched between ID and Name (ID).op2 file changes.LABEL(ID)”. From the Results pull-down menu. This lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract displacement information.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Displacement extractions. all appropriate displacements and rotations are extracted.op2 file display for selection. Tab Area (for the tool itself) After you define an element set with an associated node set. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Location: Results menu. You can select multiple sub-cases by ctrl-clicking or shift-clicking. The tool also supports .op2 file into the database (overwriting the previously selected one). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS io option card The FBD Displacement utility is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE . The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUB-CASE #”. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. you must load the new .op2 file: field to specify the full path and filename of the . consider using STRESS = NONE to further reduce the size of the . Once an . 4. or if the original . only the LABEL is used. for Nastran and OptiStruct.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. To extract displacement data for a user-defined node set: 1.op2 file is selected. select Free Body Diagram. then FBD Displacements. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.op2 files containing displacement data from OptiStruct and Nastran. • • Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. 2.op2 file is required. a text summary table within HyperMesh. If no SUBTITLE exists. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility extracts displacement data for user defined node set(s). Ensure that you are using the OptiStruct or Nastran user profile.op2 file. If a new . Note: Recommended practice is to output displacement data for the node set(s) of interest only. and a formatted . sub-case names and IDs with displacement output are saved with the rest of the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. 3.0 User’s Guide 375 . including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. Select a sub-case.

• The Coordinate System selector determines the coordinate system used to display the nodal coordinates (x. Select entities. There are several options: • The Element Set selector defines the elements that contain the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. You will be prompted to give the newly created node set a name. • The Show model checkbox is a graphical review option that. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the extraction.y. • 6.0e-6. Results coordinate system transformations are not performed on displacement data. automatically displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element and node sets.5. If a coordinate system is not specified. The option helps to eliminate “relatively small” values from being output to the result formats. Displacement data (Ux. This functionality allows you to verify which element and node sets are currently selected. It is assumed that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the .op2 file format. Choose Output options: The Output options section contains various options to review and display results of FBD Displacement extractions.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .csv file output options. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used for controlling the output of results to the various formats. 376 HyperMesh 8. If a node set is not selected. In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). The FBD Displacement utility extracts and applies the displacement and rotation results from the . then all nodes within the element set are used. select the required nodes and a coordinate system.z) in the summary table and . Uy. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. and toggle to the assign sub-panel.op2 file.…) is always output in the system that the results are stored with in the . otherwise modify the value as desired. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. when checked.op2 file in the output coordinate system without any further coordinate system transformations. Additional nodes may be added to the node set once it is created by clicking the Node Set selector and picking additional nodes. click Coordinate Systems. This procedure selects the nodes interfacing with the remainder of the structure. Situations when this behavior could occur include modification of nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. The Auto find interface nodes option automatically finds the nodes attached to elements that are not contained within the currently selected element set. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. • The Zero Tolerance entry defines the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. The Node Set selector defines the nodes at which displacement data will be extracted. The entity selection section allows you to select and/or create the appropriate entities required to execute the FBD Displacements utility. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database does not match those used to run the analysis then the extracted values will be incorrect. The Set Manager utility on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. On the Setup menu. and click Set Analysis.

The load collector name format is FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp. node set and sub-case IDs). but in a comma-separated file. The loads in this load collector are created with the SPC load type.• The Create Load Collectors option will extract the specified displacement data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window5. This collector can be referenced as the SPC in the sub-case panel. A single load collector. it will be appended to the end of the file. The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. The table contains information about the sub-cases. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. for the current element and node set. If it does not exist. You may select a new file or an existing file.0 User’s Guide 377 .csv file option creates a . Selecting yes will not overwrite the file. element and node set(s). • The Show summary table option outputs the results to a popup window for instant review. For example.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. IN any case. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. node set 1 and sub-case 1. and detailed displacement data at each node. you will be warned that the File already exists and asked if you want to replace it. is created for each sub-case. If an existing file is selected there are several items to note: If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. • The Create . Loads in this collector are created with the SPCD load type. FBDD_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Disp would be created for element set 1. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. it will append/replace the data. This collector can be referenced as the LOAD in the sub-case panel. A sample window with partial output is shown below. The Create SPCD option will additionally create a load collector with the name “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD”.

Tab Area (for the tool itself) Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.op2 file changes) you must load the new . sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. for Nastran and OptiStruct.op2 files containing GPFORCE data from OptiStruct and Nastran.csv) file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. 378 HyperMesh 8.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions. The op2 file field accepts the full path and filename of the . To select a results file: Click on the folder icon inside of the op2 file field. The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved. overwriting the previously selected. each of which corresponds with the process order of using the tool. Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file that contains the GPFORCE output for the current model. If a new . The FBD Forces utility is currently supported by OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file. and/or a formatted Comma-Separated Values (. The ID option lists the sub-cases in the format SUBCASE #.op2 file. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards The FBD Forces utility is broken down into three major sections. use this to browse to and select the desired . This procedure reduces the size of the . This opens the standard file selection dialog window. Additionally. The sub-case list can be switched between ID and Name (ID). See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. Multiple sub-cases can be selected via Ctrl-click or Shift-click functionality.op2 file is required (or if the original . Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected.FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data (including forces and moments) for a user-defined element set. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file are displayed for selection only. The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case in the format SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID). The tool supports .0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . If no SUBTITLE exists. only the LABEL is used. and is useful for doing breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. Location: Results menu.op2 file into the database. Once you’ve selected an op2 file. To select a sub-case: The Sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information.

MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. (See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding the GRID bulk data card. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the GPFORCE data is summed for the selected element set. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets.0.0 User’s Guide 379 . 4. or when loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. This could occur when modifying a nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis and. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. Use the FBD type selector to determine the grid point force and moment data to extract and utilize for FBD calculations for each node in the selected element set. result system and summation node. Reaction Loads Only extracts and utilizes only SPC and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on nodes in the selected set. Rigidlink. RBE3. RJOINT. and RBAR. 3. Available options include All Loads. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point force and moment result vectors are transformed and output. RROD. Applied Loads Only extracts and utilizes only the applied loads grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. Use the Element Set selector to define the elements that make up the free body and contain the nodes at which GPFORCE data will be extracted. the extracted values will be incorrect. If a results system is not specified. To specify output options: 1. and supported MPC grid point data for FBD calculations on the nodes in the selected element set. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel.To select entities: 1. select the required nodes and a coordinate system. and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this operation . In addition. sets the CD field on the GRID card(s). results coming from. Applied Loads Only. Activate the Show Model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode while highlighting the currently selected element set.0) is used by default.) If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis. applied. • • • All Loads extracts and utilizes all element contribution.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. 2. This is useful for verifying free body behavior through zero-sum values for all force and moment components about any node.op2 file. This allows you to verify which element sets is currently selected. The FBD Forces utility extracts grid point force and moment results from an . and Reaction Loads Only. If a node is not selected. the HyperMesh origin (0. cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. On the assign sub-panel. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . SPC. or output to. It is also useful for calculating the result of applied or reaction forces about any node.

csv file option to create a . The table contains information about the sub-cases. Use the Zero Tolerance entry field to define the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero.0e-6. To maintain floating-point precision the default is set to 1. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. therefore it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which FBD result must be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh 4. activate the Show summary table option.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering . The load collector name format is “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. If it does not exist. and component Fx. You may select a new file or an existing file.csv file that contains the same information as the summary table. When you save the HyperMesh database. All calculations are performed with floating point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. sub-case 1. referencing the component force and moment load collectors. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. If an existing file is selected. 5. Use the Create . A sample window with partial output is shown below. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node.2. HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current element set. This load collector is named “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” and can be referenced in the sub-case panel as the LOAD entry for the various sub-case definitions. This option helps to prevent relatively small values from being output to the result formats. and there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets. it will be appended to the end of the file. To output the results to a popup window for instant review. all FBD Forces load collectors are saved to the database. Altair Engineering • 380 HyperMesh 8. However. The FBD Results Manager tool can be used to review the load collectors generated from FBD Forces utility. modify the value as desired. selecting yes will not overwrite the file—it will append/replace the data as described above. For example FBDF_E(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. This allows FBD information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. • The Color option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors. element set(s). Use the Create Load Collectors option to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for visualization in the model window. sub-case IDs). In addition a load collector with the Nastran/OptiStruct LOAD card is also created. This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager utility. but in a comma-separated file. it is appended to. 3.

If multiple node sets are selected for a single element set. The mesh shouldn’t have any discontinuities (holes. starting from the selected nodes and progressing along the length of the selected elements. It also features semi-automatic generation of element and node sets for defining cross-sections. The Display sections checkbox is a graphical review option that. The Set Manager tool on the Tools menu can be used to create the necessary element sets. 2. 4. Tab Area (for the tool itself) This utility contains tools for defining cross-sections. Use the Result System selector to define the coordinate system into which the grid point vector results will be transformed and output. the utility defaults to “Centroid”. When using the “Centroid” option. etc…) and must have identifiable rows of nodes. 3. Location: Results menu. The FBD Cross-section Manager interface has two creation methods available for cross-section definition: manual and (semi-) automatic. 5. Use the Node Set selector to define the nodes in each currently selected element set at which grid point data will be extracted and summed from. If this node is deleted from the model. node set. displays the element set. Use the Element Set selector to specify the elements containing the nodes that define the crosssection.0 User’s Guide 381 . This auto-create cross-section capability requires a continuous mesh with rows of nodes (of any orientation) to work properly. when checked. This option calculates the nodal averaged centroid of the coordinates of all of the nodes in the node set and creates a temporary node at that location. The Advanced options section provides the means to semi-automatically create cross-section element and node sets for beam-like structures with regular meshes. If no node is selected. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The FBD Cross-section Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. and a local result coordinate system. the loads associated with that node are also deleted.FBD Cross-section manager The FBD Cross-section Manager (CSM) utility creates and manages cross-section definitions that are used within the Resultant Force & Moment utility. which are defined by an element set. each set is added to the table as a separate cross-section definition which can be modified later by selection. Use the Summation Node selector to define the node about which the grid point data will be summed. If a results system is not specified. HyperMesh adds separate crosssection definitions to the table with the original element set and each selected node set. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. gaps. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. To define a cross-section manually: 1. Use the Set Manager tool on the Tools menu to create the necessary node sets. a temporary node is created. Only the nodes contained within the selected node set will be part of the grid point extraction. node set. result system and summation node which define the cross-section in the graphics display area. If multiple element sets are selected. summation node.

highlighting the currently selected elements and nodes. where “#” increases with each new set generated. or deleted. By default. Cross-Sections can then be accessed from within the Resultant Force and Moment utility. This is the offset value for generated set names. first cross-section). all cross-section definitions are also saved. Selected crosssections can also be deleted from the database by using the Remove selection button on the right end of the filter buttons. the offset value is zero and HyperMesh generates numbered set names starting with one. each element set will contain the elements from the previous set.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . This displays the entire model in transparency mode. Type a Numbering offset into the text box. 2. result system and summation node. the generated set names are numbered starting from that value.6. 382 HyperMesh 8. Therefore. you type in “NSET” each element set will be named NSET [#]. Standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality can be used to select cross-sections. which utilizes the cross-section definitions to perform these calculations. For example. Therefore. If the offset value is set to a value greater than zero. 7. Optional: activate the sets accumulate option This determines whether each progressive set also contains the elements from the previous set. When the HyperMesh database is saved. If checked. the cross-section data is saved to the HyperMesh database. Use the Elements selector to choose the elements that define the entire “beam-like” component from which cross-sections will be generated. node set. it is important to avoid renumbering any element or node sets for which cross-sections are to be retained within HyperMesh database. highlighting the currently selected element set. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox. Use the Nodes selector to pick nodes for the first node set (i. 3. Type a prefix for the name of each generated node set into the Node set prefix field. where “#” increases with each new set generated. Optional: use the filter buttons on the top of the spreadsheet to select which cross-sections are required.e. Comments Each time a cross-section is created. 7. Type a prefix for the name of each generated element set into the Element set prefix field. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the crosssection names and the associated sets. cross-section definitions only need to be defined once and stored in the HyperMesh database. 4. For example. To define a cross-section automatically: 1. or only the new “row” of elements. modified. 5. you type in “ESET” each element set will be named ESET [#]. These nodes should be at one end of the beam. 6. Optional: activate the Show model checkbox to automatically display the entire model in transparency mode. This allows you to verify a cross-section definition.

you must load the new . Results can be output to load collectors in HyperMesh for graphical review.csv file which can be loaded into traditional spreadsheet software packages. Multiple sub-cases can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. overwriting the previously selected.op2 file and helps speed up the Resultant Force and Moment extractions. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . or if the original . only the LABEL is used. a text summary table within HyperMesh.op2 file display for selection only. Location: Results menu. for Nastran and OptiStruct. Clicking on the folder icon opens the standard file selection dialog window for browsing files. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool).op2 file into the database. sub-case names and IDs with GPFORCE output are saved to the HyperMesh database for use with all FBD utilities. If a new . Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.FBD Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment (RF&M) utility extracts grid point force (GPFORCE) data for user defined cross-sections created via the Cross-section Manager. The sub-case section lets you specify from which sub-case(s) to extract GPFORCE information. To select a sub-case: Select the desired sub-case(s) from the list in the sub-case section.op2 file field to specify the full path and filename of the .op2 file is required.op2 file. Additionally.op2 file is selected. When an . The subcase list can be organized by ID or Name (ID).0 User’s Guide 383 . To select a results file: Use the . Two utilities available within HyperGraph also interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Note: Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. The Resultant Force and Moment utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided. and/or a formatted . The Name (ID) option lists the sub-case as “SUBTITLE – LABEL (ID)”. The ID option lists the sub-cases as “SUBCASE #”. If no SUBTITLE exists. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.op2 file containing the desired GPFORCE output for the current model. Sub-cases with GPFORCE results from the currently selected. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The resultant force and moment utility generates input data for shear and moment (VMT) diagrams and/or to perform load-case screening with Potato plots in HyperView.op2 file changes.op2 files containing grid point force data from OptiStruct and Nastran. The tool supports . See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding SUBTITLE and LABEL sub-case information cards. This procedure reduces the size of the . The sub-case name and ID information is retained within the HyperMesh database once saved.

otherwise modify the value as desired. .0e-6. Output coordinate systems are defined in HyperMesh by accessing the Systems panel. Use the Zero Tolerance field to specify the cut-off point below which a result quantity is considered zero. To specify output options: The Output Options section contains various options to review and display the results of Resultant Force and Moment extractions. Multiple cross-sections can be selected by Ctrl-clicking and Shift-clicking. MPC force and moment data are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: RBE2. In addition. The option helps to eliminate relatively small values from being output. node set 1. The list can be filtered using the buttons provided.fbd file output options. operation sets the CD field on the GRID cards). and click Set Analysis In OptiStruct and Nastran this . HyperMesh creates multiple load collectors—one for each force and moment component—for each selected sub-case of the current cross-section. Activate the Create Load Collectors checkbox to extract the specified grid point data and display it in organized load collectors within HyperMesh for graphical visualization within the model window. 2. The Resultant Force and Moment utility extracts grid point force and moment results from the . sub-case 1. RROD.To select a cross-section: Pick the desired cross-sections from the list in the cross-sections area of the tab.z) in the summary table. including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax.csv file. and component Fx. All calculations are done with float point precision and the zero tolerance value is only used to control the output of results to the various formats. and . each made up of an element set and node set. Rigidlink. Result coordinate systems for cross-sections are defined using the Cross-section Manager. RBE3. 1. the extracted values will be incorrect. Cross-sections are created using the Cross-section Manager. the HyperMesh “base” system is used by default. The load collector name format is “RF&M_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_(compID)”. (On the assign sub-panel. HyperMesh assumes that the output coordinate system assigned to each node in the HyperMesh database matches that used to run the analysis and generate the . Resultant force and moment vector results are always output in the result coordinate system defined for each cross-section. RJOINT.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . select the required nodes and a coordinate system. For example RF&M_E(1)_N(1)_S(1)_Fx would be created for element set 1. To maintain float precision the default is set to 1. 3. The Cross-sections section lets you specify the cross-sections from which you wish to calculate resultant force and moment results for each selected sub-case.y. RBAR. 384 HyperMesh 8. and/or loading a results file that does not match the currently loaded model. If the output coordinate systems for each node in the HyperMesh database do not match those used to run the analysis.op2 file in the output coordinate system in which the solver output these results. If a coordinate system is not specified. Use the Coordinate System selector to determine the coordinate system used to output the nodal coordinates (x. results coming from or output to cylindrical or spherical result coordinate systems should be inspected for validity near the origin and along principal axes. This can occur when modifying nodal output system within HyperMesh without rerunning the analysis.op2 file.

However.csv or .csv file option to create a . This color can be modified later using either the HyperMesh interface or the FBD Results Manager.fbd file option to create a file that can be read into HyperGraph using the “Shear and Moment Plot” and “Potato Plot” utilities. 6. You may select a new file or an existing file. You may select a new file or an existing file. the existing block will be overwritten with the new data. it will be appended to the end of the file. The table contains information about the sub-cases and cross-sections. selecting ‘yes’ will not overwrite the file. Two utilities available within HyperGraph interact with data generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility: Shear and Moment Diagrams (VMT Plots) and Potato Plot. sub-case IDs).The “Color” option allows you to choose a color for all created load collectors.csv file containing the same information as the summary table. all resultant force and moment load collectors are saved in the database. This allows resultant force and moment information to be reviewed and utilized in the future without having to rerun the tool. Renumbering element or node sets after running the tool invalidates the link between the load collector names and the associated sets and therefore it is important to not renumber any element or node sets for which resultant force and moment result are to be retained as load collectors in HyperMesh. If an existing file is selected. These utilities are accessed from the Free Body Diagrams item within the HyperGraph Utilities menu. Comments When saving over existing . Activate the Show summary table option to output the results to a popup window for instant review. but in a comma separated file. HyperMesh will ask if you wish to replace the existing file. and detailed data from the grid point extraction at each node. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. it will append/replace the data into the file as described above.0 User’s Guide 385 . You can also use the FBD Results Manager to review the load collectors generated from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. Activate the Create . it is appended to. If it does not exist. 5. it is appended to. 4. there are several items to note: • If the data you are extracting already exists in the file (based on element set. Activate the Create . If an existing file is selected.fbd file. When the HyperMesh database is saved.

FBD Forces (Reaction Loads). Specify any desired Display options: The Display options section allows you to decide which force and moment components display in the graphics area for the current selection. You must choose an existing element set for which you wish to the review the FBD. 4. The Load handles option determines whether to display the load handles. FBD Forces (All Loads). Fz…checkboxes determine which component/resultant vectors display when you click the Accept button. Multiple subcases can be selected using standard Ctrl/Shift –click functionality. 3. For FBD Displacements and Resultant Force and Moment Result types. Selecting an FBD result type scans the HyperMesh database and updates the Subcases list with available sub-cases for the currently selected element set and result type. FBD Forces (Applied Loads). when checked. or Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. and Resultant Force and Moment load collector output. These checkboxes are disabled for the FBD Displacements Result type. Select one or more Element sets. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). Displacement. Valid types include FBD Displacements. Grayed-out checkboxes indicate force and moment components or results that can’t display for the currently selected element set/sub-case/node sets. Location: Results menu. only the node sets that are common to all of them will be listed. Pick the desired Results type. • The Fx. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Results Manager utility is currently supported by the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. The Results selection section lets you select the FBD result type to review.FBD Results Manager Use the FBD Results Manager to graphically review and manage the load collectors generated from all FBD and Resultant Force and Moment utilities. Fy. and Resultant Force and Moment. Select the desired Sub-cases by clicking on them. If multiple sub-cases are selected. Displacement. 2.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Filter buttons allow for additional selection control as shown including a name filter that uses standard HyperMesh filtering syntax. The Label loads option determines whether to display the load labels (vector magnitude values as text next to the vector). The Entity selection section allows you to select the element set for which to review FBD. displays the entire model in transparency mode and highlights the currently selected element set. To review and manage FBD load collectors: 1. This selector lists all of the node sets associated with the currently selected element set and sub-cases. the Results selection interface is modified to include a Node sets selector. The optional Show model checkbox. • • 386 HyperMesh 8.

if desired. The Update load collector color option will recolor the load collectors associated with the current selection to the color selected in the Color option.0 User’s Guide 387 . Note that these values do not affect the vector magnitude—only their screen size. • 5. Click the Color box to pick a different color. each of which requires a numeric value. removing it from the tab area without displaying any results in the graphics area. Magnitude % or Uniform size. The Reset button clears the graphics area of all result vectors and resets all of the FBD Results Manager entry fields. Click one of the command buttons at the bottom of the tab: The Accept button displays the selected result vectors on in the graphics area. A popup warning tells you what will be deleted and requires you to confirm the deletion. Two options are available. The Delete button deletes the load collectors associated with the current selection. The Close button closes the FBD Results Manager.• The Vector size option allows you to control the display size of the result vectors. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.

or type in a name for a new one. In addition. If multiple node sets are selected for export the following will occur: An SPCADD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collectors will be assigned to it.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Optional: activate the show model checkbox to display the entire model in transparency mode. For FBD Displacements. Use the Element set selector to specify the set for which you wish to export data. an additional list of node sets displays. Tab Area (for the tool itself) The FBD Export Manager is currently supported in the OptiStruct and Nastran user profiles. If FBD Force and FBD Displacement load collectors from the same sub-case are selected for export. HyperMesh prompts you to select one or the other from which to create the sub-case. LOAD = will also be assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collector for the selected sub-case. • • If the SPCD option was enabled when creating FBD Displacement loads. 2. the exported data can be used for breakout modeling within a sub-modeling scheme. 3. 4. The SPC = will reference the newly created SPCADD load collector. Select the desired node sets in the same fashion as the subcases. 5. Specify Export options:. To export FBD. 388 HyperMesh 8. If you choose FBD Displacements or Resultant Force and Moment as the result type. Click add to export to add the highlighted results to the export batch. a SUBCASE will be created with SPC = assigned to the “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_Disp” load collector for the selected sub-case. Click the one(s) that you wish to export to highlight them. a SUBCASE will be created with LOAD = assigned to the “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_C” load collector which references the LOAD card pointing to each component “FBDF_E(#)_S(#)_(compID)” load collector for the selected sub-case. Location: Results menu. click the Create appropriate subcases checkbox and then click the open-folder button in the Output file text box. use <ctrl>-click or <shift>-click to select multiple results. Displacement. the Results type affects how HyperMesh creates sub-cases: For FBD Forces – All Loads. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). If you wish to create sub-cases upon export. This opens a standard file browser window that you can use to browse to the desired destination directory and either select an existing file. or Resultant Force & Moment collectors: 1. This option will also create SUBTITLE and LABEL cards if they are available from the sub-case information within the currently selected . After export. If the SPCD option was enabled when creating the FBD Displacement loads. This populates the list of subcases. highlighting the currently selected element set for review. Choose the results type that you wish to export from the list box. Displacement. The LOAD = will reference the newly created LOAD load collector. a LOAD load collector will be created and the appropriate “FBDD_E(#)_N(#)_S(#)_SPCD” load collectors will be assigned to it.op2 file.FBD Export Manager The FBD Export Manager exports FBD. and/or Resultant Force and Moment load collectors generated by other FBD utilities.

Reset clears all of the export criteria so that you can start over. removing it from the tab area. Displacement. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 389 . Click the appropriate command button at the bottom of the tab: Export executes the export process.6. Exports the model with the “displayed” option. and/or Resultant Force and Moment loads are displayed. Creates temporary mass elements on the nodes where the selected FBD. Deletes the temporary mass elements from the current model. meaning that clicking it: • • • • • Turns off the display of all currently displayed elements. and Removes unnecessary header information from the output file. Close closes the tab.

390 HyperMesh 8. several types of entries are possible depending on the forces acting at that node.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Location: Results menu. including: • • • • • Applied forces and moments SPC forces and moments MPC forces and moments Element forces and moments from elements attached to the node Total summed values for each node. output from OptiStruct and Nastran with the GPFORCE io options command. This model cons ists of two elements. Free Body Diagram sub-menu (to access the tool). The complete GPFORCE table for the above cantilever beam model is presented below.FBD Grid Point Force Balance The Grid Point Force Balance table. Note that for any given node within the GPFORCE table. which in turn must sum to zero for the complete GPFORCE table. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding GPFORCE io option cards. a fixed support on the left end. Tab Area (for the tool itself) Shown below is a sample model which will be used to demonstrate the grid point force calculations that HyperMesh FBD utilities perform. and a point load on the right end. is the data around which all FBD-Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utility calculations are performed.

Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide 391 .

MPC loads: Zero iv. if all element contributions are from elements from within the defined element set. 3 and 4.121e+03) and is extracted iii. Element 1 has nodes 1. The following example of FBD-Forces extraction uses an element set defined with only element: The element set contains only element 1.121e+03 b. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set will be extracted and utilized in the FBD calculations. Total FBD Value at Node 2 = -2. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Node 1 i. Total FBD Value at Node 1 = 2. applied loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 1 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not considered. For all nodes connected to elements in the element set. Applied loads: Zero ii. Node 2 i. Element contributions: element 1 is the only element contribution to node 2 and element 1 exists in element set so Fx contribution is not condered. For FBD type Reaction loads only.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . For FBD types Applied loads only.Process The FBD Forces and Resultant Force and Moment utilities use element and node set definitions to define what information to extract and sum from the GPFORCE table. for any given node. 4. v. Therefore. For FBD types All loads and Reaction loads only. Fx calculation. • • 2. Furthermore. v.121e+03) and is extracted iii. MPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. This information is then used to produce free bodies and/or resultant force and moments. The element set serves several purposes: 1. then the node is an “interface” node and element contributions from the elements not a part of the element set are extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. Applied loads: Zero ii. if any element contribution is not from one of the defined elements within the element set. for any given node. For FBD types All loads and Applied loads only. SPC loads: Fx component exists (2. FBD Forces The FBD Forces utility uses an element set to define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. then the node is an “internal” node and element contributions are not extracted or utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads are neither extracted nor utilized in FBD calculations. 2. looping through all the nodes attached to elements in the element set: a. 3. MPC loads: Zero iv. For FBD types 2 Applied loads only. all nodes connected to elements in the element set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations. SPC loads: Fx component exists (-2. all nodes connected to the elements in the element set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in FBD calculations.121e+03 392 HyperMesh 8.

Fz) for each node. The sum of the forces components (Fx. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. Fz. Mz) is not the direct sum of all nodes as the (rXF) terms for the force resultant vector about the sum point must also be added to each moment component appropriately.085e+03) v.0 (ie. Note that the sum of the moment components (Mx. v. Node 3 i.0 User’s Guide 393 . Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1. Notice that the sum of all components is zero about any point in the model. My. iv. illustrated in the screenshot below. ii. Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Fy.085e+03) Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. is the simple sum. Fx component satisfies free body requirements) Fy. however. ii. iii.085e+03 Sum all nodes in Fx = 0. iv. Mz calculations follow similar procedures. This verifies that the FBD-Forces extraction is indeed a “free body”. Node 4 i.c. Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8. Mx. iii. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1.085e+03 e. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. d. The final FBD-Forces results are presented in the summary table output from the FBD-Forces utility. My. • Applied loads: Zero SPC loads: Zero MPC loads:Zero Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4.

Total Fx Value at Node 4 = 1.085e+03 c. SPC loads: Zero iii. The node set contains nodes 3 and 4.085e+03) x. The following example of Resultant Force and Moment extraction uses a cross-section definition given by an element set defined with only element 1. All nodes in the node set that have MPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force 2 and Moment calculations . 4. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. a node set defined with nodes 3 and 4. All nodes in the node set must be attached to one or more elements in the element set.085e+03 b. Node 3 i. 5. summation node set to node 3. SPC loads: Zero viii.Resultant Force and Moment The Resultant Force and Moment utility uses an element set and a node set (cross-section definition) define the values to extract from the GPFORCE table. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (-1. All nodes in the node set that have Applied loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. 2. All values are zero in this model. • 394 HyperMesh 8. All nodes in the node set that have SPC loads will be extracted and utilized in Resultant Force and Moment calculations. Sum nodes in node set in Fx = 0. For all nodes in the node set. MPC loads:Zero iv.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering . Node 4 vi. Applied loads: Zero vii.085e+03) v. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total Fx Value at Node 3 = -1. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. Element contributions from only those elements which are not a part of the element set of the cross-section definition will be extracted and utilized in the Resultant Force and Moment calculations.0 Fy calculation. Fx calculation. only element 2 Fx component is extracted (1. MPC loads:Zero ix. Applied loads: Zero ii. 3. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. The cross-section definition serves several purposes: 1. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system: • • • The element set contains only element 1.

Node 3 xxi. Calculate the cross-product of all the forces about the Y-axis at node 3.085e+03) + (0. SPC loads: Zero xxiii. Applied loads: Zero xxii.808e+02 d.024e+00) xxx. MPC loads:Zero xxiv.• Fz calculation looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.574e+02 c. MPC loads:Zero xxix. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (6. SPC loads: Zero xviii. All values are zero in this model. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xvii.574e+02) xx. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-1. My calculation. Applied loads: Zero xxvii. Node 4 xvi.426e+02) xv.166*1. Total My Value at Node 3 = -8. looping through all the nodes in the node set: a.000e+02. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (-8. SPC loads: Zero xiii.808e+02 xxxiii. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. MPC loads:Zero xix. Selecting node 3 as the summation node (any node in the model can be selected) and performing rXF (all element edge lengths are 0.0 User’s Guide 395 . looking through all the nodes in the node set: a. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = -1.024e+00 c. Sum nodes in node set and all rXF terms in My = -2.426e+02 b. Node 4 xxvi. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Node 3 xi.871e+00 b. Element contibutions: element 1 and 2 contribution to node 3. only element 2 Fz component is extracted (3. Sum nodes in node set in Fz = 1. • • Altair Engineering Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering HyperMesh 8.000e+03 (The value of the applied shear) Mx calculation.574e+02) = -1. Element contibutions: elements 1 and 2 contribute to node 4. Applied loads: Zero xii. MPC loads:Zero xiv. Total Fz Value at Node 3 = 6.0*3. Node 3: no additional rXF contributions since it is the sum point xxxii. Total Fz Value at Node 4 = 3. SPC loads: Zero xxviii.871e+00) xxv.166) the following is obtained: xxxi. Node 4: rXF for My component equates to the following equation (rz*Fx) + (rx*Fz) = (-0. Since only element 2 is not in the element set. Total rXF Value summed at Node 3 = -1.

op2 file in float point precision in binary format. for Nastran and OptiStruct. Additional Information: • Recommended practice is to output GPFORCE data for the element set(s) of interest only.op2 file and helps speed up the FBD Forces extractions.• Mz calculation. See the OptiStruct online reference guide for more information regarding STRESS and DISPLACEMENT io option cards. which is the summary table output from the Resultant Force and Moment utility. The element and node sets serve several purposes: 1. consider using STRESS = NONE and/or DISPLACEMENT = NONE options to further reduce the size of the . This maintains the integrity of the calculations as well as enhances the performance of the utilities. summation node set to node 3. FBD Displacements The FBD Displacements utility uses an element set and a node set to define the values to extract from the Displacement table. for a cross-section defined with element 1 (element set). 2. looping through all the nodes in the node set a. Additionally.op2 file. The element set is for visualization and breakout modeling purposes only. nodes 3 and 4 (node set). This procedure reduces the size of the . All values are zero in this model. and result coordinate system as the HyperMesh “base” system. MPC forces and moments are properly extracted for the following MPC constraint types: o RBE2 o RBE3 o Rigidlink o RJOINT o RROD o RBAR The GPFORCE and Displacement results are extracted of the . The final Resultant Force and Moment results are presented in the graphic below. All nodes in the node set will have displacement and rotation values extracted. • • 396 HyperMesh 8.0 User’s Guide Proprietary Information of Altair Engineering Altair Engineering .

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