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2.1 INTRODUCTION Before consider what the changing role of Quantity Surveyor is in the future, it is worthwhile to review the background of the Quantity Surveying profession and the roles and responsibilities of Quantity Surveyor. In this chapter, the background of the Quantity Surveyor and the HKIS will be introduced first. And then, the traditional roles and evolved roles of the Quantity Surveyor will be discussed one by one. After that, responsibilities of Quantity Surveyor have some explains. What skills and knowledge are the Quantity Surveyor should be included in the past will be discussed in this chapter. Quantity Surveyor is one of important roles in the construction industry. Thus, the effects of Quantity Surveyor will be mentioned in this chapter also. Lastly, it is a summary of the history of the roles and responsibilities of the Quantity Surveyor. 2.2 BACKGROUND TO THE QUANTITY SURVEYOR Firstly, it has been stated that: ³Quantity surveyors are the profession developed during the 19th century from the earlier "Measurer," a specialist tradesman (often a guild member), who prepared standardized schedules for a building project in which all of the construction materials, labour activities and the like were quantified, and against which competing builders could submit priced tenders. Because the tenders were each based on the same schedule of information, they would be easily compared to find the most suitable candidate.´ QSBC (2009). ³«A quantity surveyor is professionally trained, qualified and experienced in dealing with these problems on behalf of the employer. He is essentially a cost expert whose prime task is to ensure that the project is kept within the agreed budget and that the employer obtains value for money´ (Seelay, 1997, p.40). ³Quantity Surveyors are the financial managers of the construction team who add value by managing the functions of cost, time and quality. They have been trained as construction cost consultants who have expert knowledge of costs, values, labour and material prices, finance, contractual arrangements and legal matters in the construction filed. In general, they provide services of cost management and control in building and engineering projects of any scale´ (Chung, 2000, p.10). HKIS (1999) also recognized the Quantity Surveyor concerned the building contractual arrangements and cost control. They can provide private developers, government departments, contractors, mining and petro-chemical companies and insurance companies some services to suit the various demands. QSBC (2009) also stated that: ³A Quantity Surveyor (QS) is a professional person working within the construction industry. The role of the QS is to manage and control costs within construction projects and may involve the use of a range of management procedures and technical tools to achieve this goal.´ The above are some of roles of the Quantity Surveyor. And then, the definition of the role of the Quantity Surveyor should be known. Refer to RICS (1983a, p.1) which stated that ³In the 1971
the role of the Quantity Surveyor was defined as ³ensuring that the resources of the construction industry are utilized to the best advantage of society by providing. The history of HKIS can be founded in HKIS (2004.. 2.´ (Newton. A Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyor was established in 1992. engineering.9) which recorded that ³It was in April 1984 that HKIS was founded. ³As a tradition. planned. project management. 1985. real estate and construction in Hong Kong over the past 25 years. contract . tender analysis.. inter alia. In 1984. HKIS (2009) remarked the HKIS as the leading professional organization in surveying. the financial management for projects and a cost consultancy service to the client and designer during the whole construction process. etc. preparation of tender documents. Quantity Surveyor should prepared using a single price method of estimating. legal judgment.3-4) ³«The development of the surveying profession in Hong Kong goes back to 1843 with the arrival of the first Surveyor General. 2000. 1997 (in Chung. pp. accountancy. and all within the fields of contracting.18). estimating. produce bills of quantities for tendering. Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors was formed to act as an independent organization but it still maintained close links with the RICS throughout´. measure the progress payments base on the work and prepare final account on the basis of the tender documentation.3 HISTORY OF HKIS According to seeley.´ 2. It can be described as a measure and value system. This distinctive competence of the Quantity Surveyor is a skill in measurement and valuation in the field of construction in order that such work can be described and the cost and price can be forecast analysed. The following listed the traditional role of Quantity Surveyor: Single rate approximate estimatesP Cost planningP Procurement adviceP Measurement and quantificationP Document preparation. p. p.4 TRADITIONAL ROLES OF QUANTITY SURVEYOR Ashworth and Hogg (2007) stated that the traditional role of Quantity Surveyor is still practiced on small to medium sized projects.It was by 1990 that the HKIS qualifications were fully recognized by the Hong Kong Government and HKIS ranks at par with other recognized professional bodies in local affairs«´. especially bills of quantitiesP Cost control during constructionP Interim valuations and paymentsP Financial statementsP Final account preparation and agreementP Settlement of contractual claimsP ³The traditional role of the quantity surveyor«has since been considerably expanded to include such functions as resources control. controlled and accounted for´.report.
resources control and in assessing the effects of time. more often than not well in advance of site acquisition and of a commitment to build (RICS. This management role is most effective when linked to authority. the traditional role of handling these works by architects had been changed to become the role of quantity surveyors. management and resource control. In 1980s. besides deal with complex construction contracts. It is because the inherent adversarial nature of the construction industry which are involved in contractual disputes and ligation. responsibility and risk taking.documentation. 2007). and the Government and Private Forms of Building Contract were changed to recognize such QS role. mechanical and electrical engineering services. such QS role is still with the civil engineers as stated in the Government Form of Civil Engineering Works´ (HKIS. That means the role of the Quantity Surveyor is extended in 1980s. The Quantity Surveyor involve complex resource procurement and management processes. 1991). and project management and control also relate to the Quantity Surveyor. Quantity Surveyor is an important member of the design team in both the public and private sectors to advising employers and architects on the probable costs of alternative designs. he will evolve his role. and all quantity surveying related works of infrastructure projects are always handled by civil engineers notwithstanding that majority of these works are actually handled by quantity surveyors under the supervision of civil engineers. 2. in the infrastructure works. costs and value is other reason of this change (Ashworth and Hogg. multi-disciplinary working. valuation and variation. contracting. diversity in procurement. Newton (1985) raised Quantity Surveyor use the expert system of computer technology can . These roles are policy making. Other evolved roles have included project and construction management and facilities management. However. RICS (1983a) believed that Quantity Surveyor after gained the knowledge and experience in construction economics. 2008). strategic planning. For the construction project. In the building works. numerate skills. Quantity Surveyor¶s roles from the historically dealt with work through prime cost and provisional sums to advice procurement method which becomes a new potential role of Quantity Surveyors because of the increasing array of options that were available. The filed of contracting. life cycle costing and building procurement adviser. More engineering services orientated increased emphasis on the services such as measurement. Clients need early and accurate cost advice. work in construction management. Quantity Surveyors should more direct and more related to client. they are involved in the field of manpower planning.5 EVOLVED ROLES OF QUANTITY SURVEYOR RICS (1983a) also pointed out that the Quantity Surveyor¶s expertise had been further developed after 1971. Seeley (1997) pointed out the Quantity Surveyor not only regarded building contract and often as project manager on civil and heavy engineering contracts to control the project from inception to completion and coordinate with other parties to take over the works. civil and industrial engineering construction. provides the basis for a disciplined and well managed approach to projects.
6 RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUANTITY SURVEYOR In the past. heating. heating.P Cost planning. Some evolved roles stated in Ashworth and Hogg (2007) are listed as following: Investment appraisalP Advice on cost limits and budgetsP Whole life costingP Value managementP Risk analysisP Insolvency servicesP Cost engineering servicesP Subcontract administrationP Environmental services measurement and costingP Technical auditingP Planning and supervisionP Valuation for insurance purposesP Project managementP Facilities managementP Administering maintenance programmesP Advice on contractual disputesP Planning supervisorP Employers¶ agentP 2. preparing periodic assessments of anticipated final cost and reporting thereon. As a consultant Chartered Quantity Surveyor. independence and in first. valuations for interim certificates. air conditioning. air conditioning. cost planning. In the post-contract. Quantity Surveyor should taking particulars and reporting valuation for interim certificate for payments on account to the contractor.P . he should improve the quality of service and the matching of the known resources to suit for the requirement of clients.P Advice on tendering procedures and contract arrangements. preparing accounts of variation upon contracts and cost monitoring services such as providing approximate estimates of final cost at the following frequency (RICS.make him become identity. negotiating tenders and pricing bills of quantities. ventilating and electrical services.P Preparing tendering documents for main contract and specialist sub-contractor. There are some services should be provided to clients during pre-contract stage and post-contract stage. That means the role of Quantity Surveyor can be established early in the design or construction process. ventilating and electrical services. 1983b). Quantity Surveyor should preparing bills of quantities and examining tenders received and reporting thereon. In the precontract stage. measuring and making up bills of variations including pricing and agreeing totals with contractor and adjusting fluctuations in the cost of labour and materials if required by the contract. the responsibilities of Quantity Surveyors are mentioned in RICS (1980) which listed some responsibilities of Quantity Surveyors as following: Budget estimating.
the quantity surveyor should advise the client to make separate provision for all other costs including consultant¶s fees.P Providing a reasonable number of copies of bills of quantities and other documents. Quantity Surveyors are employed in consultancies only in the past. they want get the long-terms view about the initial design and construction phase.´ Chartered Quantity Surveyor will provide a construction management service because of marketorientated. the impact of fee competition.P Pricing with a selected contractor and/or sub-contractors. More and more Quantity Surveyors will be employed by clients. cost control of project. client needs and the profession. For the changes in markets. pricing Bill of Quantities and post-contract cost management services such as valuations for certificates and calculating fluctuations in the cost of construction.P Preparing final account. This is a normal responsibility for final accounts and raises no new issues for quantity surveyors apart from the unusually large number of separate works contract accounts to be dealt with. the trend of different sectors will have different workloads and the challenges are arising for the European Union. Quantity Surveyor should do precontract Estimating. the nature of contracting will be changing. HKIS and RICS (1994) recognized Quantity Surveyor should providing advice on tendering procedures and contractual arrangements. RICS (1991) reported that something is changing of the world in 1990s such as markets. Bills of Quantities were still important. For the changes in client needs. Also. fluctuations where appropriate and an overall project contingency. The profession¶s unique skill-base which combines procurement and cost management would be practiced by Quantity Surveyors. cost control and market forecasting are new services for client¶s business.P Preparing periodic assessments of anticipated final cost and reporting thereon. employment patterns.P Measuring work and adjusting variations in accordance with the terms of the contract. negotiations with contractors. tender invitation and scrutiny. Preliminary cost advice and cost planning. For the changes in the construction industry.Beyond this. cost and quality should be emphasized by Quantity Surveying.Examining tenders received and reporting thereon or negotiating tenders. developers and contractor. 1986). preparation of final account and measurement for and preparation of bills of quantities are included in the principal activities of . finance costs.P Bennett (1986. For the changes in the profession. Thus. the ways in which the quantity surveyor is appointed and the changes in their role and practice. cost study services.31) said that ³The quantity surveyor¶s responsibility is to ensure that the budget is complete and that no necessary costs are omitted or duplicated«. management to time. valuation of work in progress. land costs. preparing bills of quantities and examining tenders received and reporting thereon in pre-contract stage. The quantity surveyor¶s further major responsibility is to ensure that the cost control and accounting procedures adopted by the construction manager are satisfactory. settlement of claims. construction industry. pricing of variations.P Preparing recommendations for interim payments on account to the contractor. Preparation of contract documentation. pricing same and agreeing totals with the contractor. Some competition may come from non-construction professionals. Some of them are towards realizing this potential (Bennett. p. The areas of early cost advice.
In the pre-contract stage. Sub-contract administration. post-contract cost control and final account. selecting. estimating and controlling costs. other programming techniques. risk analysis. policy decisions. undertaking the valuing of variations and potential variations. Moreover. advise on financial implications. especially bills of quantities. Advising on life-cycle costs. use of network analysis techniques. For the tender stage.the quantity surveyor (Seeley. Scheduling resources. grant and financial matters and forecasting expenditure flows. maintain and develop cost plan. Quantity Surveyor should provide and price bills of quantities. Quantity Surveyor also needs to prepare recommendations for interim payments. advise on cost of design team¶s proposals. Use of computer technology and developing computer aided design techniques. network analysis. some skills and knowledge of Quantity Surveyor would be introduced. provide advice on contractual matters. and to suit for the changing of working environment and economics (RICS 1983a). advise on use of areas and provide measurement of areas. RICS (1983a. Planning and programming design and construction work. Measuring and describing construction work. prepare cost analysis. strategic planning. Preparing valuations for insurance purposes and advising on insurance claims. RICS (1999) pointed out some services of Quantity Surveyor should be provided during different stage of the project. Advice and settlement of contractual disputes and claims. 1997). Quantity Surveyor in 1980s should expand their skills and knowledge such as construction economics. monitor cost implications during detailed design stage. Preparing and administering maintenance programmes. project and construction management. Advising on cash flow forecasting. undertaking feasibility studies. Valuing work in progress. Quantity Surveyor should prepare and develop preliminary cost plan. Quantity Surveyor should advise on the contractual documentation to clients. Besides the above skills and knowledge. Producing contract documents. pp. organizing and evaluating tender bids and contractual arrangements. Advising on cost-limits and preparing budgets. . 2. evaluating alternative designs. Cost-analysis. resource control. Settlement of final accounts. design and construction management technology.12) listed a lot of skills and knowledge of a Quantity Surveyor should have as following: Planning. Advising on appropriate methods of procurement. and exercising cost control during construction.7 SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE OF QUANTITY SURVEYOR IN THE PAST Here. Advising on taxation. mathematical modeling. Analyzing complex projects into manageable work packages. Furthermore. Cost benefit analysis.
The quantity surveyor¶s further major responsibility is to ensure that the cost . more proactive and more mobile to adapt the changing client requirements. fluctuations where appropriate and an overall project contingency. finance costs. They have many effects to the construction industry as following introduction. Management of cost is one of the important to clients. Technique of cost planning.8 EFFECTS OF QUANTITY SURVEYORS IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY Quantity Surveyor acts an important role in the construction industry. It is because these tools were effective to increase importance and emphasis to meet the client¶s objectives. 1986). p.Newton (1985) observed the expert system of computer technology can be one of powerful skills of Quantity Surveyor for them to adapt the future. Quantity Surveyor can develop construction management to increase the competitive power (Bennett. value engineering. risk analysis and management became tools to add value for the client. The Quantity Surveyor makes the construction industry become more successful by using their skills. Brandon (1990) pointed out some techniques of Quantity Surveyor should have as following: Development and appraisal--the front end decision to investP Value management--optimisation of the benefit/cost relationshipP Estimating and bidding methods--cost prediction and reliabilityP Risk analysis--coping with risk and uncertaintyP Life cycle costing--the longer term view of the cost of the assetP Expert systems--qualitative reasoning to support expert decision makingP Computer aided design--relating the design database to the QS functionP Integrated databases--designing the database for efficient and reliable information retrievalP Procurement systems--assessing the contractual relationship/ arrangement between partiesP RICS (1991) believed that Quantity Surveyors would need to be more innovative. management of time and cost. knowledge of contractual methods and tendering should be implemented by Quantity Surveyor (Seeley. the quantity surveyor should advise the client to make separate provision for all other costs including consultant¶s fees. Construction management techniques includes good understanding of design and construction technology. 1983b). Independent cost advice on the project should provided to clients by Quantity Surveyor (RICS. 1983a). whole life costing. and Quantity Surveyor can advice in establishing budgets and cost control. Bennett (1986. quality management and site safety. Thus. value management. land costs. knowledge and expertise (RICS. Ashworth and Hogg (2007) pointed out that design cost planning.Beyond this. 2. 1997).31) said that ³The quantity surveyor¶s responsibility is to ensure that the budget is complete and that no necessary costs are omitted or duplicated«.
advise on cost implications of design and standards of construction and/or of alternative solutions and advise on the method of contractor procurement best suited to the project. Realistic budget and financial could be prepared by the Quantity Surveyor.control and accounting procedures adopted by the construction manager are satisfactory. usually monthly. Under the terms of the contract. Environmental issues would be informed by surveyors to their clients to ensure that it is considered in the decision making process (Seelay. Quantity surveyor is essentially a cost expert to ensure the project is kept within the agreed budget and the employer obtains value for money. Quantity Surveyor could submitted claims for extra payments in civil engineering project and building project to help contractor to earn more profit. This is a normal responsibility for final accounts and raises no new issues for quantity surveyors apart from the unusually large number of separate works contract accounts to be dealt with. Seelay (1997. Quantity Surveyor has a skill in measurement and valuation in the field of construction in order that such work can be described and the cost and price can be forecast analysed. Quantity Surveyor would look after the financial interests of the contractor. for instance. Ashworth and Hogg (2007) believed that Quantity Surveyor use his knowledge of cost planning can avoid tenders being received that were over budget. RICS (1999) noted that Quantity Surveyor could set a realistic budget and advice the procurement method best suited to the requirements of the Client. 1997).9 CHAPTER SUMMARY According the above discussion. planned. Independent Quantity Surveyor could prepare an accurate bill of quantities because he would measure and value any variations that might occur during the progress of the works. controlled and accounted for.415-416) also pointed out that ³«he can. It is essential that the contractor¶s quantity surveyor ensures that the correct contractual conditions and financial details are embodied in the orders and subcontract arrangements«surveyor is required to report to management. in their dealings with the architect«contractor¶s surveyor «advising design staff on the most economical form of construction and cost planning and monitoring the development as a whole´. The Quantity Surveyor can keep the total expenditure within the employer¶s budget and remains compatible with the cost plan by frequently estimate of cost. The Quantity Surveyor can make everyone work in construction more efficient. pp. And then produce bill of quantities more quickly. on the overall financial state of the contract. It is benefits for the Quantity Surveyors when they negotiate a contract because they can learn more about the practical organization and management of contracts. 2. Most of their traditional roles are . be involved in the placing of subcontract orders for both nominated and domestic subcontractors.´ RICS (1992b) noted that Quantity Surveyor could setting a realistic cost budget. giving comparisons of actual cost with the corresponding internal value for the various cost codes and subtrades«providing contracts personnel with the opportunity to consider remedial action«preventing a recurrence of similar problems on future contracts«contractor¶s quantity surveyor can advise contracts staff on significant aspects of the contract conditions.
he will evolve his role. all parties should know their role to develop the field of Quantity Surveyor (RICS.related to the cost. These roles are policy making.8-12) believes that Quantity Surveyor after gained the knowledge and experience in construction economics. property developers and others with a major input in management. Quantity Surveyor should develop their skills and knowledge because it is one of the methods of selecting a Quantity Surveyor by clients (RICS 1992b. returns are low. resource planning and manpower control. Quantity Surveyor act as project and construction managers to perform wider management and co-ordination functions. profession. 1983a) summarized the changing scene in client requirement. strategic planning. multi-disciplinary working. pp. contracting. diversity in procurement. That means the roles of Quantity Surveyor would not leave the link to the cost and it would develop to the direction of management. work in construction management. numerate skills. the institution. Encourage Quantity Surveyors use more new technology can get more benefit and experience. RICS1999). Individual Quantity Surveyors. Clients are becoming more critical and demanding in terms of both time-scale and cost for money and the profession must react accordingly. life cycle costing and building procurement adviser. There is decline in new building and engineering work and an increase in repair. erect and internally re-plan buildings more efficiently and economically.html . (RICS. in education and training. Make more occupy in different company to Quantity Surveyor for their practice.blogspot. building owners. the Quantity Surveyor should develop their skills and knowledge to get more experience in different fields and increase their power to keep the competitive. 1983a).com/2009/07/chapter-2-history-of-rolesand_20. Changing technology will affect the construction industry¶s ability to design. sub-contractors. More Quantity Surveyors are being employed in resource and manpower planning. RICS (1983a. From CHAPTER 2: HISTORY OF THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF QUANTITY SURVEYOR http://chankinwo-dissertation-cn3307. They are employed by contractors. maintenance. and most of their evolved roles are related to management and the cost. construction and project management and allied areas. Thus. management and resource control. economic and political. energy conservation and rehabilitation work. Additional and more specialist courses should be provide a education and training to people who want to become a professional Quantity Surveyor. In the private sector.
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