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1
Fluid Mechanics I
EG160
Professor Oubay Hassan/Professor M.F. Webster
Room 166 / Room 147
Credit 10
Core module for Civil, Mechanical and Aerospace BEng and MEng
Format: 3 Lectures / week
Fluid Mechanics I
2
Aims
To create an interest in fluid flow
To show that flow phenomena are amenable to analysis
To show the relevance of fluid mechanics to Engineering
To create confidence and ability in problemsolving in fluid mechanics
Contents
Fluids properties
Hydrostatics
Conservation principles
Viscous flow in pipes
Assessment
2 class tests (40 minutes each) 20% of final mark
First lecture of Week 5 and Week 9
2 hours closed book exam 80%
Content
Fluid Mechanics I
3
What is a fluid? What is the difference between a solid and a fluid?
• A solid is “hard” and not easily deformed, whereas a fluid is “soft” and is easily deformed
• A closer look at the molecular structure a solid (steel, concrete, etc.)
» densely spaced molecules
» large intermolecular cohesive forces
• However, for matter that we normally think of as a liquid (water, oil,etc.)
» the molecules are spaced farther apart
» the intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids,
• Gases (air, oxygen, etc.) have
» greater molecular spacing and freedom of motion
» negligible cohesive intermolecular forces
• A more specific distinction is based on how they deform under the action of an external
load. Specifically, a fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted
on by a shearing stress of any magnitude.
• Common fluids such as water, oil, and air satisfy the definition of a fluid
• Some materials, such as slurries, tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily
classified since they will behave as a solid if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the
stress exceeds some critical value, the substance will flow. The study of such materials is
called rheology
Introduction
Fluid Mechanics I
4
• The study of fluid mechanics involves the same fundamental laws you have encountered
in physics and other mechanics courses. These laws include Newton’s laws of motion,
conservation of mass, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
• The broad subject of fluid mechanics can be generally subdivided into fluid statics, in
which the fluid is at rest, and fluid dynamics, in which the fluid is moving.
Introduction
Fluid Mechanics I
5
• ARCHIMEDES 287–212 B.C. Established elementary principles of buoyancy and flotation.
• SEXTUS JULIUS FRONTINUS A.D. 40–103. Wrote treatise on Roman methods of water distribution.
• LEONARDO da VINCI 1452–1519. Expressed elementary principle of continuity; observed and sketched many basic
flow phenomena; suggested designs for hydraulic machinery.
• GALILEO GALILEI 1564–164. Indirectly stimulated experimental hydraulics; revised Aristotelian concept of vacuum.
• EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI 1608–164. Related barometric height to weight of atmosphere, and form of liquid jet to
trajectory of free fall.
• BLAISE PASCAL 1623–1662. Finally clarified principles of barometer, hydraulic press, and pressure transmissibility.
• ISAAC NEWTON 1642–1727. Explored various aspects of fluid resistance–inertial, viscous, and wave; discovered jet
contraction.
• HENRI de PITOT 1695–1771. Constructed doubletube device to indicate water velocity through differential head.
• DANIEL BERNOULLI 1700–1782. Experimented and wrote on many phases of fluid motion, coining name
“hydrodynamics”; devised manometry technique and adapted primitive energy principle to explain velocity head
indication; proposed jet propulsion.
• LEONHARD EULER 1707–1783. First explained role of pressure in fluid flow; formulated basic equations of motion and
socalled Bernoulli theorem; introduced concept of cavitation and principle of centrifugal machinery.
• JEAN le ROND d’ALEMBERT 1717–1783. Originated notion of velocity and acceleration components, differential
expression of continuity, and paradox of zero resistance to steady nonuniform motion.
• ANTOINE CHEZY 1718–1798. Formulated similarity parameter for predicting flow characteristics of one channel from
measurements on another.
• GIOVANNI BATTISTA VENTURI 1746–1822. Performed tests on various forms of mouthpieces–in particular, conical
contractions and expansions.
• LOUIS MARIE HENRI NAVIER 1785–1836. Extended equations of motion to include “molecular” forces.
• AUGUSTIN LOUIS de CAUCHY 1789–1857. Contributed to the general field of theoretical hydrodynamics and to the
study of wave motion.
• GOTTHILF HEINRICH LUDWIG HAGEN 1797–1884. Conducted original studies of resistance in and transition
between laminar and turbulent flow.
• JEAN LOUIS POISEUILLE 1799–1869. Performed meticulous tests on resistance of flow through capillary tubes.
Famous Names
Fluid Mechanics I
6
• HENRI PHILIBERT GASPARD DARCY 1803–1858. Performed extensive tests on filtration and pipe
• resistance; initiated openchannel studies carried out by Bazin.
• JULIUS WEISBACH 1806–1871. Incorporated hydraulics in treatise on engineering mechanics, based on original
experiments; noteworthy for flow patterns, nondimensional coefficients, weir, and resistance equations.
• WILLIAM FROUDE 1810–1879. Developed many towingtank techniques, in particular the conversion of wave and
boundary layer resistance from model to prototype scale.
• ROBERT MANNING 1816–1897. Proposed several formulas for openchannel resistance.
• GEORGE GABRIEL STOKES 1819–1903. Derived analytically various flow relationships ranging from wave mechanics
to viscous resistance—particularly that for the settling of spheres.
• ERNST MACH 1838–1916. One of the pioneers in the field of supersonic aerodynamics.
• OSBORNE REYNOLDS 1842–1912. Described original experiments in many fields, cavitation, river model similarity,
pipe resistance—and devised two parameters for viscous flow; adapted equations of motion of a viscous fluid to mean
conditions of turbulent flow.
• JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT,LORD RAYLEIGH 1842–1919. Investigated hydrodynamics of bubble collapse, wave
motion, jet instability, laminar flow analogies, and dynamic similarity.
• VINCENZ STROUHAL 1850–1922. Investigated the phenomenon of “singing wires.”
• EDGAR BUCKINGHAM 1867–1940. Stimulated interest in the United States in the use of dimensional analysis.
• MORITZ WEBER 1871–1951. Emphasized the use of the principles of similitude in fluid flow studies and formulated a
capillarity similarity parameter.
• LUDWIG PRANDTL 1875–1953. Introduced concept of the boundary layer and is generally considered to be the father
of present day fluid mechanics.
• LEWIS FERRY MOODY 1880–1953. Provided many innovations in the field of hydraulic machinery. Proposed a
method of correlating pipe resistance data which is widely used.
• THEODOR VON KÁRMÁN 1881–1963. One of the recognized leaders of twentieth century fluid mechanics. Provided
major contributions to our understanding of surface resistance, turbulence, and wake phenomena.
• PAUL RICHARD HEINRICH BLASIUS 1883–1970. One of Prandtl’s students who provided an analytical solution to
the boundary layer equations. Also, demonstrated that pipe resistance was related to the Reynolds number.
Famous Names
Fluid Mechanics I
7
Primary Units
• The four primary units of the SI system are shown in the table below:
• Notice how the term ’Dimension’ of a unit has been introduced in this table. This is not a
property of the individual units, rather it tells what the unit represents. For example a
metre is a length which has a dimension L but also, an inch, a mile or a kilometre are all
lengths so have dimension of L.
• The above notation uses the MLT system of dimensions, there are other ways of writing
dimensions
Units
Fluid Mechanics I
8
Derived Units
• There are many derived units all obtained from combination of the above primary units.
Those most used are shown in the table below:
• The above units should be used at
all times. Values in other units should
NOT be used without first converting
them into the appropriate SI unit.
• If you do not know what a particular
unit means, find out else your guess
will probably be wrong.
• One very useful tip is to write down the
units of any equation you are using. If
at the end the units do not match you
know you have made a mistake.
• For example is you have at the end of
a calculation, 30 kg/m s = 30 m
you have certainly made a mistake
Units
Fluid Mechanics I
9
Examples
• During a study of a certain flow system the following equation relating the pressure p
1
and
p
2
at two points was developed
In this equation V is a velocity, L the distance between the two points, D a diameter, g the
acceleration of gravity, and f a dimensionless coefficient. Is the equation dimensionally
consistent?
• If V is a velocity, L a length, W a weight, and µ a fluid property having dimensions of FL
2
T
determine the dimensions of (a) VLW/µ, (b)WLµ, (c) Vµ /L and (d) VL
2
µ /W
Dg
fLV
p p + =
1 2
Units
Fluid Mechanics I
10
• Before we can proceed, however, it will be necessary to define and discuss certain fluid
properties
Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight
Density
• The density of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol ρ ρρ ρ, is defined as its mass per unit
volume. Density is typically used to characterize the mass of a fluid system. In the in SI
the units are kg/m
3
• The value of density can vary widely between different fluids
» For liquids, variations in pressure and temperature generally have only a small effect on the value
of density
» For gas, the density is strongly influenced by both pressure and temperature
Specific Volume
• The specific volume, , is the volume per unit mass and is therefore the reciprocal of the
density
Fluids Properties
ρ
1
= v
Fluid Mechanics I
11
Specific Weight
• The specific weight of a fluid, designated by the Greek symbol γ γγ γ, is defined as its weight
per unit volume. Thus, specific weight is related to density through the equation
where g is the local acceleration of gravity
• Just as density is used to characterize the mass of a fluid system, the specific weight is
used to characterize the weight of the system. In the SI the units are N/m
3
Specific Gravity
• The specific gravity of a fluid, designated as SG, is defined as the ratio of the density of
the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified
temperature is taken as 4
o
C and at this temperature the density of water is 1000 kg/m
3
• and since it is the ratio of densities, the value of SG does not depend on the system of
units used.
It is clear that density, specific weight, and specific gravity are all interrelated, and from a
knowledge of any one of the three the others can be calculated.
ρ γ g =
Fluids Properties
1000 / ρ = SG
Fluid Mechanics I
12
It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize
how fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately
the same value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.
There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the
“fluidity” of the fluid which we will see later in the course.
Examples
• Find the density of mercury if its specific gravity is 13.55
• A reservoir of glycerine has a mass of 1200 kg and a volume of 0.952 m
3
. Find the
glycerine's weight, mass density, specific weight and specific gravity (Ans: 11.77kN, 1261
kg/m
3
, 12.36 kN/m
3
, 1.26)
• The specific gravity of ethyl alcohol is 0.79. Calculate its specific weight and mass density
(Ans: 7.73 kN/m
3
, 790 kg/m
3
)
• The specific weight of a substance is 8.2 kN/m
3
, what is its mass density (Ans: 836
kg/m
3
)
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
13
Pressure
• Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as
the normal force per unit area exerted
on a plane surface (real or imaginary)
immersed in a fluid and is created by
the bombardment of the surface with
the fluid molecules.
• From the definition, pressure has the
dimension FL
2
and in SI units is expressed
as N/m
2
. In SI, 1N/m
2
is defined as a pascal, abbreviated as Pa, and pressures are
commonly specified in pascals
• The equations of motion (Newton’s second law) in the y and z directions are a F m =
z s z z
y s y y
a
z y x z y x
s x p y x p F
a
z y x
s x p z x p F
2 2
cos
2
sin
δ δ δ
ρ
δ δ δ
γ θ δ δ δ δ
δ δ δ
ρ θ δ δ δ δ
= − − =
∑
= − =
∑
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
14
• Note that
• Hence,
• Since we are interested in the pressure at a point, we take the limit as δx,δy and δz tend
to zero and it follows that
• we can conclude that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent
of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present. This important result is
known as Pascal’s law named in honour of Blaise Pascal
θ δ δ θ δ δ sin cos s z s y = =
( )
2
2
z
z s z
y
y s y
a p p
a p p
δ
γ ρ
δ
ρ
+ = −
= −
s y z
p p p = =
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
15
Compressibility of Fluids
• This measure how easily can the volume (and thus the density) of a given mass of the
fluid be changed when there is a change in pressure . A property that is commonly used
to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus, defined as
• The bulk modulus (or the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of pressure.
• Large values for the bulk modulus indicate that the fluid is relatively incompressible
Examples
• A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 1000 cm
3
at 1MN/m
2
and volume of
995 cm
3
at 2MN/m
2
. What is its bulk modulus of elasticity?
• If the bulk modulus of elasticity for water is 2.2 GPa, what pressure is required to reduce
a volume by 0.6 precent? (Ans: 13.2 Mpa)
ρ ρ d
dp
V dV
dp
E
v
= − =
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
16
Basic Equation for Pressure Field
• Consider a cylindrical element of fluid inclined
at an angle θ to the vertical. The pressure at
the end with height z is p and at the end of
height z+δz is p+δp
• Resolving the forces in the direction along the
central axis gives
• Or in differential form
• If θ=90
ο
then s is in the x or y directions, (i.e. horizontal),so
or in homogenous domain, Pressure in the horizontal direction is constant.
Hydrostatics
θ ρ
δ
δ
θ δ ρ δ
θ δ ρ δ
cos cos
0 cos ) (
g
s
p
s g p
s gA A p p pA
− = ⇒ − =
= − + −
θ ρ cos g
ds
dp
− =
0 = = =
dy
dp
dx
dp
ds
dp
Fluid Mechanics I
17
• If θ=0
ο
then s is in the z directions, (i.e. vertical),so
• Integrating the above equation gives
• Integrating between z
1
znd z
2
will lead to
• Thus in a fluid under gravity,
pressure decreases with increase in height
Pressure and Head
• In a liquid with a free surface the pressure at any depth z is normally measured from the
free surface so that z = h. This gives:
• At the surface the pressure is the
atmospheric pressure, p
atmospheric
g
dz
dp
ds
dp
ρ − = =
) (
1 2 1 2
z z g p p − − = − ρ
constant gz p + − = ρ
constant gh p + = ρ
c atmospheri
c atmospheri
p h p
p gh p
+ =
+ =
γ
ρ
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
18
• The lower limit of any pressure is zero that is pressure in Vacuum. Pressure measured
above this datum is known as absolute pressure
• Since everything is under this pressure, it is convenient to take the atmospheric pressure
as datum, hence, pressure quotes in this condition is called the Gauge pressure
• Since g is constant, the gauge pressure can be given by stating the vertical height of any
fluid of density ρ which is equal to the this pressure, this vertical height is know as head
of fluid.
Example
What is the pressure of 500 KN/m
2
in terms of the height of water, ρ=1000kg/m
3
, and in
terms of Mercury, ρ=13600 kg/m
3
.
h gh p
guage
γ ρ = =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
19
Examples
• Because of a leak in a buried gasoline storage tank, water has
seeped in to the depth shown. If the specific gravity of the
gasoline is SG= 0.68, determine the pressure at the
gasolinewater interface and at the bottom of the tank.
• For the open tank, with piezometers attached on the side,
containing two different immiscible liquids. Find
(a) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer A
(b) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer B
(c) Total pressure at te bottom of the tank
(Ans:2.0m, 0.82m, 18.9kPa)
• The reading of an automobile fuel gauge is proportional
to the gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank.
If the tank is 32cm deep and is contaminated with 3cm of
water, how many cm of air remains at the top when the
gauge indicates full? Use γ
gasoline
= 6670 N/m
3
and
γ
air
= 11.8 N/m
3
. (Ans: 1.4cm)
5m
1m
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
20
Pressure Measurement
• The relation between pressure and head is used to measure pressure with manometer,
liquid gauge.
The Piezometer Tube Manometer
• A tube which is attached to the top of a vessel
containing fluid at a pressure higher than atmospheric
• The pressure measured is relative to atmospheric,
hence it is gauge pressure
• This method can only be used for liquids. And must not be too small or too large.
1 1 1
h gh p p
A
γ ρ = = =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
21
The “U” Tube Manometer
• The “U” tube measure the pressure of both liquids and gases
• The “U” tube is filled with a fluid called the Manometric fluid
• The density of the fluid whose pressure to be measured must
be less than that of the manomatric fluid
• We know that,
• However,
• Since we are measuring gauge pressure
• Hence,
• If the fluid to be measure is gas, the , and the gauge pressure
3 2 1
p p and p p
A
= =
1 2
h p p
A
γ + =
2 3
h p
man
γ =
1 2
h h p
man A
γ γ − =
ρ ρ >>
man
2
h p
man A
γ =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
22
Measurement of pressure difference using the “U” Tube Manometer
• The “U” tube is connected at the two points where the
pressure difference is to be measured
• Using the figure
• And
• If the fluid is the same at the two points then
• Again if the fluid is gas then
5 1
p p and p p
B A
= =
3 3 1 1 2
3 3 2 1 1
3 2
h h h p p
h h p h p
p p
man B A
man B A
γ γ γ
γ γ γ
+ − = −
+ + = +
=
) (
1 3 1 2
h h h p p
man B A
− + = − γ γ
2
h p p
man B A
γ = −
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
23
Inclined Tube Manometer
• If the pressure difference to be measured is small, one leg of the tube is inclined at an
angle θ θθ θ
• In this case
• If the fluid is the same at the two points then
• Again if the fluid is gas then
) ( sin
1 3 1 2
h h l p p
man B A
− + = − γ θ γ
θ γ sin
2
l p p
man B A
= −
3 3 1 1 2
sin h h l p p
man B A
γ γ θ γ + − = −
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
24
Examples
• A closed tank contains compressed air and oil (SG. 0.9).
A Utube manometer using mercury is connected to the tank.
For column heights h
1
=90cm, h
2
= 15cm and h
3
=22.5cm
determine the pressure reading of the gage.
• the volume rate of flow, Q, through a pipe can be
determined by means of a flow nozzle located in the
pipe as illustrated. The nozzle creates a pressure drop,
along the pipe which is related to the flow through the
equation
where K is a constant depending on the pipe and nozzle
size. The pressure drop is frequently measured with a
differential Utube manometer. Determine an equation
for p
A
– p
B
in terms of the specific weight of the flowing
fluid, γ
1
the specific weight of the gage fluid, γ
2
and the various heights indicated.
For γ
1
= 9.8 kN/m
3
, γ
2
= 15.6 kN/m
3
,h
1
= 1.0m and h
2
= 0.5m what is the value of the
pressure drop, p
A
– p
B
?
B A
p p K Q − =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
25
Problems
• A Differential manometer is attached to two tanks.
Calculate the pressure difference between chambers
A and B. Take SG
Mercury
= 13.6, SG
Oil
= 0.89 and
SG
Tetrachloride
= 1.59. (Ans:37kN/m
2
)
• Calculate the level h of the oil in the right hand tube
(Ans: 0.18m)
• The liquid at A and B is water and the manometer liquid
is oil with SG = 0.8, h
1
= 300mm, h
2
= 200mm and
h
3
= 600mm. (a) determine p
A
p
B
. (b) If p
B
= 50 kPa and
the barometer reading is 730 mmHg, find the absolute
pressure at A in meters of waters. (Ans:1.37kPa, 14.9m)
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
26
Forces on Submerged Surfaces in Static Fluids
We have seen that:
• Hydrostatic vertical pressure distribution, the pressure varies linearly with depth
• Pressures at any equal depth in a continuous fluid are equal
• Pressure at a point acts equally in all directions (Pascal’s law)
• Forces from a fluid on a boundary acts at right angles to that boundary
• Pressure is defined as force per unit area
Fluid Pressure on a Surface
• The determination of the forces developed on the surface due to the fluid is important in
the design of storage tanks, ships, dams, and other hydraulic structures.
• For a horizontal surface, the magnitude of the resultant force is F
R
=p A
• where p = γh is the uniform pressure on the bottom
• If atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the surface,
the resultant force is due to the liquid in the tank.
• Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed
over the bottom, the resultant acts through the centroid
of the area
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
27
• For a general case, assuming that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere and using
the x–y coordinate system shown.
• We wish to determine the direction, location,
and magnitude of the resultant force acting on
one side of this area due to the liquid.
• At any given depth, h, the force acting on dA is
dF = γhdA and is perpendicular to the surface.
• Thus, the magnitude of the resultant
• The integral is the first moment of the area
• y
c
is the y coordinate of the centroid, thus
• The resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the total area
∫ ∫ ∫
= = =
A A A
R
ydA dA y hdA F θ γ θ γ γ sin sin
A y ydA
c
A
=
∫
c c R
Ah Ay F γ θ γ = = sin
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
28
• Since all differential forces are perpendicular
to the surface , the resultant force must also
be perpendicular to the surface
• To find the location of the resultant force we
consider the moment around the x axis
• Since
• The numerator is the second moment of the area, I
x
. Using the parallel axis theorem
• I
xc
is the second moment of the area with respect to an axis passing through the centroid
and parallel to the x axis. Thus,
∫ ∫
= =
A A
R R
dA y ydF y F θ γ sin
2
A y
dA y
y
c
A
R
∫
=
2
θ γ sin
c R
Ay F =
2
c xc x
Ay I I + =
c
c
xc
R
y
A y
I
y + =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
29
• It is clear that the resultant force does not pass through the centroid but always below it
• Similarly the x coordinate of the resultant force can be obtained by summing moment
about the y axis
• I
xy
is the product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes. I
xyc
is the product of inertia
with respect to an orthogonal system passing through the centroid
c
c
xyc
c
xy
c
A
R
x
A y
I
A y
I
A y
xydA
x + = = =
∫
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
30
Examples
• The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the
inclined wall of a large reservoir containing
water γ = 9.80 kN/m
3
The gate is mounted on
a shaft along its horizontal diameter. For a water
depth of 10 m above the shaft determine:
(a) the magnitude and location of the resultant
force exerted on the gate by the water, and
(b) the moment that would have to be applied
to the shaft to open the gate.
• A pressurized tank contains oil (S.G=0.9) and has a square,
0.6m by 0.6m plate bolted to its side. When the pressure gage
on the top of the tank reads 50 kPa, what is the magnitude
and location of the resultant force on the attached plate?
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
31
Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surfaces
• Integration method can be used, however, it can be tedious
• The easiest way is to consider the fluid volume enclosed by the curved surface
• The magnitude and location of the forces on the horizontal and vertical surfaces can be
determined from the relationship of planer surfaces
• In order for force system to be in equilibrium the horizontal components must be equal
and collinear and the vertical components must be equal and collinear
• The location of the resultant force is found by Summing moment about an appropriate axis
2 2
1 2
) ( ) ( ,
V H R V H
F F F W F F F F + = ⇒ + = =
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
32
Examples
• The 3m long cylinder floats in oil and rest against a wall
Determine the horizontal force the cylinder exerts on the
wall at the point of contact.
• The 2mdiameter drainage conduit is half full of water
at rest.
Determine the magnitude and line of action of the
resultant force that the water exerts on a 1m length of
the curved section BC of the conduit wall.
1m
960N/m
3
1m
Hydrostatics
C
Fluid Mechanics I
33
Problems
• Isosceles triangular gate AB is hinged at A. Compute the
horizontal force P at point B for equilibrium, neglecting
the weight of the gate. (Ans: 22.47 kN)
• The triangular channel is hinged at A and held together
by cable BC at the top. If cable spacing is 1m into the
paper, what is the cable tension. (Ans: 88.5 kN)
• Determine the pivot locaion y of the square gate so that
it will rotate open when the liquid surface is shown.
(Ans: 0.833m)
• Compute the air pressure required to keep the gate closed.
The gate is a circular plate of diameter 0.8m and weight
2.0kN.(Ans: 43 kPa)
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
34
Problems
• Compute the horizontal and vertical components of the
hydrostatic force on the quartercircle face of the tank.
(Ans: 308kN, 289kN)
• Compute the hydrostatic force and its line of action on
semicylindrical indentation ABC per meter of width into
the paper. (Ans: 115.1 kN, φ = 10.6
o
)
• The face of the dam retaining water to depth 10m is
shaped as shown. Determine the magnitude of the
hydrostatic force acting on the curve portion AB per
meter width of the dam and the moment of this force
about A. (Ans: 658 kN, 2470kNm)
Hydrostatics
Fluid Mechanics I
35
Fluid Dynamics
Fluid Dynamics
This section discusses the analysis of fluid in motion  fluid dynamics. The motion of fluids can
be predicted in the same way as the motion of solids are predicted using the fundamental laws
of physics together with the physical properties of the fluid
Objectives
• Introduce concepts necessary to analyse fluids in motion
• Identify differences between Steady/unsteady uniform/nonuniform
compressible/incompressible flow
• Demonstrate streamlines and stream tubes
• Introduce the Continuity principle through conservation of mass and control volumes
• Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation
• Demonstrate practical uses of the Bernoulli and continuity equation in the analysis of flow
• Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid
• Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is
used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids.
Fluid Mechanics I
36
Fluid Dynamics
Flow Classification
It is possible  and useful  to classify the type of flow which is being examined into small
number of groups. The following terms describe the states which are used to classify fluid flow:
• uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every point in the
fluid it is said to be uniform
• nonuniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every point the flow is
nonuniform. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that flows near a solid boundary
will be nonuniform – as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary,
usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the crosssection of the stream of
fluid is constant the flow is considered uniform)
• steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity, pressure and crosssection)
may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time
• unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time, the flow is
described as unsteady. (In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and
pressure, but if the average values are constant, the flow is considered steady
Fluid Mechanics I
37
Fluid Dynamics
Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four type:
• Steady uniform flow. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. An
example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.
• Steady nonuniform flow. Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not
change with time. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet 
velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.
• Unsteady uniform flow. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the
same, but will change with time. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a
pump pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off
• Unsteady nonuniform flow. Every condition of the flow may change from point to point
and with time at every point. For example waves in a channel.
steady flow is by far the most simple of the four. You will then be pleased to hear
that this course is restricted to only this class of flow
Fluid Mechanics I
38
Fluid Dynamics
Threedimensional flow
• Although in general all fluids flow threedimensionally, in many cases the greatest changes
only occur in two directions or even only in one.
• Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as velocity, pressure, depth etc.) at a
given instant in time only vary in the direction of flow and not across the crosssection. An
example of onedimensional flow is the ideal flow in a pipe.
• Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall  yet nonzero in the centre – there is a
difference of parameters across the crosssection. Which is only necessary if very high
accuracy is required.
• Flow is twodimensional if it can be assumed that the flow parameters vary in the direction
of flow and in one direction at right angles to this direction.
Fluid Mechanics I
39
Fluid Dynamics
Streamlines and Streamtubes
• The motion of each fluid particle is described in terms of its velocity vector, V
• If it is steady flow, each successive particle that passes through a given point will follow
the same path. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the x–z plane.
• For steady flows each particle slides along its path, and its velocity vector is everywhere
tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow
field are called streamlines
• Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to that boundary
• The fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines, hence, fluid can not cross it
• Streamlines can not cross each other
• Any particle starting on one streamline will stay on the same streamline
• Streamlines are two dimension while streamtubes are three dimensions
Fluid Mechanics I
40
Fluid Dynamics
Flow rate
• Mass flow rate: is the mass of fluid flowing per unit time
• Volume flow rate – Discharge: is the volume of fluid flowing per unit time. (It is also
commonly, but inaccurately, simply called flow rate). The symbol normally used for
discharge is Q. Multiplying this by the density of the fluid gives us the mass flow rate
Mean Velocity:
• This is the discharge divided by the area cross section.
• This does not imply that the velocity is constant across
the cross section
Inviscid Flow:
• That is the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity.
• In practice there are no inviscid fluid. However, for many flow situation the viscous effect is
small compared to other forces such as pressure gradient and gravitation.
Fluid Mechanics I
41
Conservation Principles
Continuity
• Matter cannot be created or destroyed. This principle
is know as the conservation of mass.The principle is
applied to fixed volumes, known as control volumes
(or surfaces)
Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time + Increase of mass in the control
volume/unit time
• For steady state
Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time
• For incompressible flow ρ = constant, hence
constant V A V A
m m
= =
2 2 2 1 1 1
ρ ρ
Q V A V A
m m
= =
2 2 1 1
Fluid Mechanics I
42
Examples
• For the pipe contraction shown, determine
the velocity of water at section 2 if the
velocity at section 1 is 2.1 m/s and the
surface area of section 1 and section 2 are
0.01 m
2
and 0.003 m
2
respectively
• For the pipe expansion shown, determine
the velocity of water at section 1 if the
velocity at section 2 is 3.0 m/s and the
diameters of section 1 and section 2 are
30 mm and 40 mm respectively
• If the mean velocity in pipe 1 is 2 m/s and its
diameter is 50mm and pipe 2 diameter is 40 mm
and takes 30% of the total discharge and pipe 3
diameter is 60mm, determine the values of
discharge and the mean velocity in each pipe
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
43
Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation
• Mass passing in 1 sec =
• Weight passing in 1 sec =
• Kinetic Energy passing in 1 sec =
• KE per unit weight =
• Potential Energy passing in 1 sec =
• PE per unit weight =
• Work done by pressure in 1 sec = force * Distance =
• Work done per unit weight =
• Energy per unit weight =
• Along a streamtube If there is no energy dissipation
AV ρ
gAV ρ
( )
2
2
V AV
2
1
2
mV
ρ =
2g
V
2
( )gh AV mgh ρ =
h
( )V pA
g
p
ρ
2g
V
h
g
p
2
+ +
ρ
Datum
h
A
V
Constant
2g
V
h
g
p
2
= + +
ρ
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
44
Conservation Principles
Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation
• In the direction of the streamtube we have the following forces
» Pressure force at upstream end =
» Pressure force at downstream end =
» Pressure forces around the circumference = zero
» Weight force =
• Using Newton 2
nd
Law
» deviding by
» Noting that gives
» This is known as the Euler’s Equation, for incompressible fluid this can be integrated to yield
pA
A p p ) ( δ + −
( )
dL
V d
dL
dV
V
dt
dL
dL
dV
dt
dV 2 /
2
= = =
) / ( ) ( dt dV L A hg A A p p pA m δ ρ δ ρ δ = − + − ⇒ = a F
hg A Lg A mg δ ρ θ δ ρ θ − = − = − cos cos
0
1 1
= + + ⇒
dL
dh
dt
dV
g dL
dp
g
L gA
ρ
δ ρ
0
2
1 1
2
= + +
dL
dh
dL
dV
g dL
dp
g ρ
Constant h
2g
V
g
p
2
= + +
ρ
Fluid Mechanics I
45
Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation
• Note that all the individual terms in the Bernoulli’s equation have units of length
• The term is know as potential head
• The term is know as velocity head
• The term is know as pressure head
• The term is know as total head
Example
• A fluid of constant density of 960 kg/m
3
is flowing
steadily through the tube shown. The diameter at
section 1 is 100 mm and at section 2 is 80 mm.
The pressure gauge at section 1 indicated a pressure
of 200 kN/m
2
and the velocity was 5 m/s.
Determine the pressure at section 2.
2g
V
2
h
g
p
ρ
2g
V
h
g
p
H
2
+ + =
ρ
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
46
Application of the Energy Equation
Pitot Tube
• If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body,
some move to the left and some to the right. But one,
in the centre, goes to the tip of the blunt body and stops.
This point is known as the stagnation point
• Applying the Bernoulli’s equation between point 1 and 2 gives
• The term is called dynamic pressure
• Knowledge of the static and stagnation pressure will enable the
calculation of the velocity of the fluid
• This is the principle on which the Pitotstatic tube is based
• Two concentric tubes are attached to two pressure gauges
2
1 1 2
2
1
V p p ρ + =
2
1
2
1
V ρ
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
47
Example
• For the Pitot tube shown, show that the
relation between the fluid velocity and
the manometer reading h
Venturi Meter
• The Venturi meter is a device for measuring
discharge in a pipe.
• It consists of a rapidly converging section
which increases the velocity of flow and
hence reduces the pressure.
• By measuring the pressure differences the
discharge can be calculated.
( )
ρ
ρ ρ −
=
man
gh
V
2
1
Conservation Principles
h
h
Fluid Mechanics I
48
• Using the Bernoulli’s equation between 1 and 2
• Using the continuity equation
• However,
• Hence,
• The theoretical discharge is
• To get the actual discharge we account for losses due to friction, we include a coefficient
of discharge
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
2 2
z
g
V
g
p
z
g
V
g
p
+ + = + +
ρ ρ
gh h z g p gz p
man
ρ ρ ρ + − + = + ) (
2 2 1 1
2
1 1
2 2 2 1 1
A
A V
V A V A V Q = ⇒ = =
1
2
2
2
1
1
−


¹

\


¹

\
 −
=
A
A
gh
V
man
ρ
ρ ρ
1 1
A V Q
ideal
=
ideal d actual
Q C Q =
Conservation Principles
A
B
h
Fluid Mechanics I
49
Flow Through a Small orifice
• At the surface velocity is negligible and the pressure
atmospheric.
• At the orifice the jet is open to the air so again the
pressure is atmospheric
• If we take the datum line through the orifice then
z1 = h and z2 =0.
• Hence,
• This is the theoretical value of velocity.
• To incorporate friction we use the coefficient of velocity
• Each orifice has its own coefficient of velocity, they usually lie in the range (0.97  0.99)
• The actual area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not the area of the orifice. We
obtain this area by using a coefficient of contraction for the orifice
gh V
g
V
h 2
2
2
2
2
= ⇒ =
l theoretica v actual
V C V =
l theoretica c actual
A C A =
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
50
• So the discharge through the orifice is given by
gh A C Q
V A C C V A Q
orifice d actual
l theoretica orifice v c actual actual actual
=
= =
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
51
Flow Over Notches and Weirs
• A notch is an opening in the side of a tank or reservoir which extends above the surface of
the liquid.
• It is usually a device for measuring discharge.
• A weir is a notch on a larger scale  usually found in rivers.
• Weir can be sharp crested but also may have a substantial
width in the direction of flow  it is used as both a flow
measuring device and a device to raise water levels.
• We will assume that the velocity of the fluid approaching
the weir is small so that kinetic energy can be neglected.
• We will also assume that the velocity through any elemental
strip depends only on the depth below the free surface.
• These are acceptable assumptions for tanks with notches or
reservoirs with weirs, but for flows where the velocity
approaching the weir is substantial the kinetic energy must
be taken into account
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
52
• To determine the theoretical discharge over a weir we
will consider a strip of thickness δh, width l and at depth h
• Velocity through the strip
• Discharge through the strip
• Integrating from the free surface to the weir crest
Rectangular Weir
• The width is constant, b, Hence
• To obtain the actual discharge we introduce the coefficient of discharge
Triangular Weir
• The width b at depth h is , hence
gh V 2 =
gh h l AV Q 2 δ δ = =
∫
=
H
dh lh g Q
0
2 / 1
2
2 / 3
0
2 / 1
2
3
2
2 H g b dh h g b Q
H
= =
∫
2 / 3
2
3
2
H g b C Q
d actual
=
( ) 2 / tan ) ( 2 θ h H b − =
( )
2 / 5
2 2 / tan
15
8
H g C Q
d actual
θ =
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
53
Examples
• Water flows along a circular duct from A to B where
conditions are those shown. Assuming no losses,
estimate the pressure at B.
• If the velocity of the water jet at point A is 20 m/s,
what is the pressure at point B? Neglect all losses
due to viscous effects and assume that the nozzle
outlet is at the same height as point B.
• A horizontal venturi tube, for measuring the flow of water, tapers from 300 mm diameter
at the inlet to 100 mm diameter at the throat and has a discharge coefficient of 0.98. If the
differential Utube manometer, containing water over mercury (specific gravity 13.6),
connecting the inlet and the throat, shows a difference in mercury levels of 55 mm,
determine the volume flow.
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
54
Problems
• A pitotstatic tube used to measure the air speed in a wind tunnel is coupled to a water
manometer. If the dynamic pressure is h mm of water, obtain an expression for the air
speed in m/s. (Ans: 3.99h
0.5
)
• Water collects in the bottom of a rectangular oil tank as
shown. How long will it take for the water to drain from
the tank through a 0.02 mdiameter drain hole in the
bottom of the tank? Assume quasisteady flow. (Ans: 2.45 hr)
• A triangular orifice is cut in the vertical side of a tank containing a liquid. The base of the
orifice is horizontal and of breadth b. The apex of the orifice is at a height d above the
base and is located at a depth d below the liquid surface level. If the coefficient of
• discharge is unity, derive an expression for the volume flow rate. (Ans: 0.91b(gd
3
)
0.5
)
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
55
Problems
• Water flows through the pipe contraction shown.
For the given 0.2m difference in manometer level,
determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter
of the small pipe, D. (Ans: 0.0156 m
3/
s)
• Water flows steadily through the pipe shown such
that the pressures at sections (1) and (2) are
300 kPa and 100 kPa, respectively. Determine the
diameter of the pipe at section (2), D
2
, if the
velocity at section 1 is 20 m/s and viscous effects
are negligible. (Ans: 0.0688 m)
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
56
Conservation Principles
The Momentum Equation
• Moving fluids exerting forces on whatever it hits
• In fluid mechanics the analysis of motion is performed in the same way as in solid
mechanics by the use of Newton’ s Second Law of motion
• The momentum equation is a statement of Newton’s Second Law and relates the sum of
the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change of momentum.
• Newton’s 2
nd
Law can be written:
The Rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the
body, and takes place in the direction of the force
• We start by assuming that we have steady flow
• In time δt
» momentum of fluid entering stream tube
» momentum of fluid leaving stream tube
» Applying Newton’s Second Law
dt
m d ) ( V
F =
1
V t V A
1
δ ρ
1 1
2
V t V A
2
δ ρ
2 2
t
t V A t V A
1 2
δ
δ ρ δ ρ
1 2
V V
F
1 1 2 2
−
=
Note
1 represent inflow
2 represent outflow
Fluid Mechanics I
57
Conservation Principles
» Assuming fluid with a constant density and using the continuity equation
» Since the velocity have components in the x, y, and z direction, it is more convenient to consider
each direction separately
• The force F is made up of following components:
» F
R
= Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body touching the control volume
» F
B
= Force exerted on the fluid body (e.g. gravity)
» F
P
= Force exerted on the fluid by fluid pressure outside the control volume
• When using the momentum equation, the following steps need to be considered:
» Draw a control volume
» Decide on coordinate axis system
» Calculate the total force
» Calculate the pressure force
» Calculate the body force
» Calculate the resultant force
2 1
V A Q V A Q
2 1
= =
2 1
) (
1 2 1 2
V V F Q Q − = ρ
) ( ) ( ) (
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 z z z y y y x x x
V Q V Q F V Q V Q F V Q V Q F − = − = − = ρ ρ ρ
Fluid Mechanics I
58
Conservation Principles
Application of the Momentum Equation
The Force Due to the Flow Around a Pipe Bend
• Consider a pipe bend with a constant cross section lying in the horizontal plane and turning
through an angle of θ
• Control Volume : The control volume include the faces
at the inlet and outlet of the bend and the pipe walls
• Coordinate system
It is convenient to choose the coordinate axis so
that one is pointing in the direction of the inlet velocity.
• Calculate the total force:
• Calculate the pressure force:
• Calculate the body force: The only body force is that exerted by gravity and have not
component in the x and y directions
) 0 sin ( ) (
) cos ( ) (
2 1 2
1 2 1 2
− = − =
− = − =
θ ρ ρ
θ ρ ρ
V Q V V Q F
V V Q V V Q F
y y Ty
x x Tx
θ
θ
sin 0
cos
2 2
2 2 1 1
A p F
A p A p F
Py
Px
− =
− =
Fluid Mechanics I
59
Conservation Principles
• Calculate the resultant force:
» Hence
» the force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction
θ θ ρ
θ θ ρ
sin sin
cos ) cos (
2 2 2
2 2 1 1 1 2
A p QV F
A p A p V V Q F
F F F F
F F F F
Ry
Rx
By Py Ry Ty
Bx Px Rx Tx
+ =
+ − − =
+ + =
+ + =


¹

\

=
+ =
−
Rx
Ry
Ry Rx R
F
F
F F F
1
2 2
tan φ
F
Rx
F
Rx F
R
Φ
V5_5.mov
Fluid Mechanics I
60
Conservation Principles
Force on a Pipe Nozzle
• Because the fluid is contracted at the nozzle
forces are induced in the nozzle
• Control Volume and Coordinate system are shown
• Calculate the total force:
» Using the continuity equation
• Calculate the pressure force:
» We use the Bernoulli equation and noting that the pressure outside is atmospheric
• Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x direction
• Calculate the resultant force:
) (
1 2 x x Tx T
V V Q F F − = = ρ
2 2 1 1
A p A p F
Px
− =


¹

\

− = ⇒ = =
1 2
2
2 2 1 1
1 1
A A
Q F V A V A Q
T
ρ


¹

\

− =
2
1
2
2
2
1
1 1
2 A A
Q
p
ρ
1
2
1
2
2
2
1 2
2
)
1 1
(
2
)
1 1
( A
A A
Q
A A
Q F
F F F F
Rx
Bx Px Rx Tx
− − − =
+ + =
ρ
ρ
Fluid Mechanics I
61
Conservation Principles
Force Due to an Inclined Jet Hitting a Plate
• Control Volume and Coordinate system are shown
• Calculate the total force:
» Using the energy equation and noting that z
1
=z
2
=z
3
and the pressure is all
atmospheric we can prove that v
1
= v
2
= v
3
= v
• Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric
• Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions
• Calculate the resultant force:
) sin (
cos
1 2 3
1
θ ρ
θ ρ
Q Q Q V F F F F F
V Q F F F F F
Ry By Py Ry Ty
Rx Bx Px Rx Tx
+ − − = ⇒ + + =
− = ⇒ + + =
) sin ) ((
) ) ((
cos ) ) ((
1 1 3 3 2 2
1 1 3 3 2 2
1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2
θ ρ
ρ
θ ρ ρ
V Q V Q V Q
V Q V Q V Q F
V Q V Q V Q V Q F
y y y Ty
x x x Tx
− − =
− + =
− = − + =
V
2
V
1
V
3
Fluid Mechanics I
62
Force on a Pelton Wheel Blade
• The above analysis of impact of jets be extended and applied to analysis of turbine blades
• One clear demonstration of this is with the blade of a turbine called the Pelton wheel
• A narrow jet is fired at blades which stick out around the periphery of a large metal disk
• The jet is deflected by the blade and the change of its momentum transfer a force to the
blade and hence a torque to the drive shaft
• Calculate the total force:
• Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric
• Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions
• Calculate the resultant force:
Conservation Principles
) cos (
1 2
V V Q F F F F F
Rx Bx Px Rx Tx
+ = ⇒ + + = β ρ
) cos (
) )
2 2
((
1 2
1 2 2
V V Q
V Q V
Q
V
Q
F
x x x Tx
+ =
− + =
β ρ
ρ
Fluid Mechanics I
63
Examples
• Air flows from a 600 mm diameter pipe, through a
nozzle which is bolted on to the end of the pipe,
and discharges into the atmosphere. The outlet
diameter of the nozzle is 300 mm. A Utube
manometer, connected to the pipe, shows a
pressure difference of 250mm of water. Assuming
that there are no losses, estimate the speed of the
air at the outlet of the nozzle and the force in the bolts required to hold the nozzle in
position. (Ans: 65.2 m/s; 415 N)
• A horizontal pipeline has a bend which changes the direction of the water flowing through
it by 45° and at the same time changes in diameter from 0.5 m upstream to 0.25 m
downstream. The gauge pressure upstream is 2x1O
5
N/m
2
and the volume flow is O.4m
3
/s.
Neglecting losses, determine the force required to hold the bend in position. (Ans:R=33kN)
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
64
Problems
• A nozzle providing a horizontal jet of water 25 rnm diameter at a speed of 10 m/s is
supplied by a pipe from an open reservoir whose free surface is 7 m above the nozzle. The
jet powers a simple turbine made up of flat plate blades which the jet strikes at 90°. The
blades are connected to a shaft so that the point of impact between the jet and the blades
is 300 mm from the centre of the shaft
Mate an estimate of: (i) the loss of head in the pipe. (ii) the force exerted by the jet if the
blades are stationary.
If the shaft is allowed to rotate at 200 rev/min, calculate: (iii) the force now exerted on the
blades;(iv) the power available at the shaft; and (v) the overall efficiency, taking the free
surface of the reservoir as the input
(Ans: (i) 1.9 m; (ii) 49.1 N (iii) 18.3 N; (iv) 115 W; (v) 34%)
• A horizontal streamlined nozzle issues a jet of fluid of density ρ, cross sectional area a and
velocity U. Ignoring any viscous losses, derive an expression for the force required to hold
the nozzle in position at the end of a pipeline of cross sectional area A.
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
65
Problems
• Air of density 1.22 kg/m
3
flows in a duct of internal diameter
600 mm and is discharged to the atmosphere. At the outlet
end of the duct, and coaxial with it, is a cone with a base
diameter greater than 600 mm and a vertex angle of 90°.
The flow through the duct is controlled by moving the
cone into the duct, the air then escaping along the sloping
sides of the cone. The mean velocity in the duct upstream of the cone is 15 m/s and the air
leaves the cone with a mean velocity of 60 m/s parallel to the sides. Neglecting viscous
effects, calculate the force exerted by the air on the cone. (Ans: 441N)
• In the system shown, air is drawn from the
atmosphere into a 250 mm diameter duct by a
fan and flows out past a 200 mm diameter obstacle
with a speed of 30 m/s. If the air is stationary in
the atmosphere and there are no losses in the duct,
calculate: (i) the speed of the air in the duct
(ii) the pressure in the duct upstream of the fan
(iii) the force F required to hold the obstacle in position (iv) the power delivered to the air
by the fan (Ans: (i)10.8 m/s; (ii) 71.7 N/m
2
gauge; (iii) 11.1 N; (iv) 293 W)
Conservation Principles
Fluid Mechanics I
66
Viscosity
• It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how
fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately the same
value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.
• There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the “fluidity” of
the fluid.
• From the definition of fluid, deforms continuously when subjected to shear forces, if a
fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces.
• Shear stresses develop if the particles of moving fluid move relative to one another.
• At all solid boundaries the flow particles have
zero relative velocity to the boundaries and it
will increase as we move toward the centre
• Since we are concerned with flow past solid
boundaries; cars, aeroplanes, pipes and
channels, shear forces will be present
Real Fluid
Fluid Mechanics I
67
Viscosity in Gasses
• The molecules of gasses are only weakly kept in position by molecular cohesion (as they
are so far apart). As adjacent layers move by each other there is a continuous exchange
of molecules. Molecules of a slower layer move to faster layers causing a drag, while
molecules moving the other way exert an acceleration force. Mathematical considerations
of this momentum exchange can lead to Newton law of viscosity.
• If temperature of a gas increases the momentum exchange between layers will increase
thus increasing viscosity.
• Viscosity will also change with pressure  but under normal conditions this change is
negligible in gasses.
Viscosity in Liquids
• There is some molecular interchange between adjacent layers. The molecules are much
closer than in gasses, hence, the cohesive forces hold the molecules in place more rigidly.
• Increasing the temperature of a fluid reduces the cohesive forces and increases the
molecular interchange.
• Reducing cohesive forces reduces shear stress, while increasing molecular interchange
increases shear stress.
• High pressure can also change the viscosity of a liquid. As pressure increases the relative
movement of molecules requires more energy hence viscosity increases.
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
68
Newton’s Law of Viscosity
• For a 3d rectangular element of fluid
• The shear stress, τ ττ τ, is
• The deformation caused by τ ττ τ is
the shear strain and it is the angle φ φφ φ
• For a particle at point E which moves under the shear stress to E’ in time t
• The shear strain is and the rate of shear strain is
• It has been experimentally confirmed that the shear stress is directly proportional to the
rate of shear strain
• The proportionality constant is known as the dynamic viscosity, µ µµ µ, Hence
Newton’s law of Viscosity is
A
F
= τ
dy
dx
= φ
dy
dV
tdy
dx
t
= =
φ
dy
dV
Constant * = τ
dy
dV
µ τ =
Fluids Properties
d
d
Fluid Mechanics I
69
• For a solid the strain is a function of the applied stress (providing that the elastic limit has not been
reached). For a fluid, the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress.
• The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and (if the elastic limit
is not reached) the deformation disappears when the force is removed. A fluid continues to flow for as
long as the force is applied and will not recover its original form when the force is removed.
• Newtonian Fluids:
Fluids obeying Newton’s law
where the value of µ is constant
• NonNewtonian Fluids:
Fluids in which the value
of µ is not constant
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
70
• Viscosity, µ, is the property of a fluid, due to cohesion and interaction between molecules,
which offers resistance to sheer deformation.
• Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear stress. Fluid with a high
viscosity such as syrup, deforms more slowly than fluid with a low viscosity such as water.
• All fluids are viscous, “Newtonian Fluids” obey the linear relationship given by Newton’s law
of viscosity.
• Where
τ, is the shear stress, its dimensions ML
1
T
2
and its Units N m
2
or kg m
1
s
2
is the velocity gradient or rate of shear strain, its Dimension t
–1
and Units radians s
1
µ is the “coefficient of dynamic viscosity”
dy
dV
µ τ =
dy
dV
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
71
Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity
• The Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity, µ, is defined as the shear force, per unit area, (or
shear stress τ), required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity past another layer a
unit distance away.
• Units: N s m
2
or kg m
1
s
1
. (Although µ is often expressed in Poise, P, where 10 P = 1
kg m
1
s
1
)
• Typical values: Water =1.14 x 10
3
kg m
1
s
1
1 , Air =1.78 x 10
5
kg m
1
s
1
, Mercury
=1.552 kg m
1
s
1
, Paraffin Oil =1.9 kg m
1
s
1
.
Time Length
Mass
Area
Time Force
Distance
Velocity
Area
Force
dy
dV
×
=
×
= = = / / τ µ
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
72
Kinematic Viscosity
• Kinematic Viscosity, ν, is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density.
• Dimensions: L
2
T
1
and Units: m
2
s
–1
(Although ν is often expressed in Stokes, St, where
10
4
St = 1 m
2
s
–1
.)
• Typical values: Water =1.14 x 10
6
m
2
s
–1
 , Air =1.46 x 10
5
m
2
s
–1
, Mercury =1.145 x
10
4
m
2
s
–1
, Paraffin Oil =2.375 x 10
3
m
2
s
–1
.
ρ
µ
ν =
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
73
Examples
• A dimensionless combination of variables that is important in the study of viscous flow
through pipes is called the Reynolds number, Re, defined as ρVD/µ where ρ is the fluid
density, V the mean fluid velocity, D the pipe diameter, and µ the fluid viscosity. A
Newtonian fluid having a viscosity 0.38 N.s/m
2
of and a specific gravity of 0.91 flows
through a 25mmdiameter pipe with a velocity of 2.6 m/s. Determine the value of the
Reynolds number
• The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide, parallel plates
is given by the equation
where V
m
is the mean velocity. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.2 N.s/m
2
. When V
m
=0.6 m/s
and h=0.5 cm. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall, and (b) the
shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline
(midplane).
Fluids Properties

¹

\

− =
2
1
2
3
h
y V
V
m
Fluid Mechanics I
74
Examples
• A large plate moves with speed v
o
over a stationary plate on a layer of oil of thickness d
and viscosity µ. If the velocity profile is that of a parabola, with the oil at the plates having
the same velocity as the plates, what is the shear stress on the moving plate from the oil?
If a linear profile is assumed, what is the shear stress on the moving plate? (Ans: µv
o
/(2d),
µv
o
/d )
• A 250 mm square block weighing 1.1.kN slide down an
incline on a film of oil 0.006 mm thick. Assuming a linear
velocity profile in the oil, what is the terminal speed of
the block? The viscosity of the oil is 7 mPa.s.
(Ans: 5.16 m/s)
Fluids Properties
Fluid Mechanics I
75
Characteristic of Pipe Flow
• Most of conduits used to transport fluid are round in cross section
• They are designed to withstand a considerable pressure difference across their walls
• Most of the basic principles involved are independent of the crosssectional shape
• For all flows involved in this section, we assume that the pipe is completely filled with the
fluid being transported
• The difference between openchannel flow and the pipe flow is in the fundamental
mechanism that drives the flow
» For openchannel flow, gravity alone is the driving force
» For pipe flow, gravity may be important, but the main driving force is likely to be a pressure
gradient along the pipe
• If the pipe is not full, it is not possible to maintain this pressure difference
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
76
• The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect, that is they tend to .stick. to solid surfaces
and have stresses within their body
• You might remember from earlier in the course Newtons law of viscosity:
• This tells us that the shear stress, τ, in a fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient  the
rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. For a Newtonian fluid we can write:
• The constant of proportionality, µ, is known as the viscosity.
• In this part we shall look at how the forces due to momentum changes on the fluid and
viscous forces compare and what changes take place.
Viscous Flow in Pipes
dy
dV
∝ τ
dy
dV
µ τ =
Fluid Mechanics I
77
Laminar and Turbulent Flow
• If we were to take a pipe of free flowing water and inject a dye into the middle of the
stream, what would we expect to happen?
• This phenomenon was first investigated in the 1880s by Osbourne Reynolds in an
experiment which has become a classic in fluid mechanics
• Reynolds discovered that dependent on the speed of the flow the dye will flow smoothly, in
a wavy manner or in a vigorous eddying motion where it mixed completely with the water
• In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is
very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines
parallel to the pipe walls
• In transitional the flow comprises short burst of
turbulence embedded in a laminar flow
• In turbulent the flow incorporate an eddying or mixing action. The motion of the fluid
particle is complex and involve fluctuations in velocity and direction
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
78
• Reynolds’ experiments revealed that the onset of turbulence was a function of
» Fluid velocity
» Fluid viscosity
» Typical dimension
• This led to the formation of the dimensionless Reynolds Number
Where: L is a representative length
V is mean velocity
ρ is density of fluid
µ is absolute viscosity
ν is kinematic viscosity
• It can be shown that
The Reynolds Number = Inertia force / viscous force
• For commercial pipe flow
» for Re < 2000 laminar flow
» for 2000 < Re < 4000 flow is transitional
» for Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent
Viscous Flow in Pipes
ν µ
ρ VL VL
= = Re
Fluid Mechanics I
79
Examples:
Are the flows laminar or turbulent:
• A flow of water trough a pipe of square cross section. The section is 500x500mm and the
mean velocity of flow is 3m/s. take viscosity to be 1.2*10
3
kg/m s.
• A flow of air through a pipe of diameter 35mm. The air velocity is 0.1 m/s and viscosity is
1.7*10
5
kg /m s
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
80
Energy Losses Due to Friction
• In the derivation of the Conservation of energy equation we have assumed ideal fluid
• The friction which results from the the
shear stress in real fluid will absorb
some of the energy available, hence
» h
f
is often know as the
head loss due to friction
• To determine the h
f
we consider the
Freebody diagram of a cylinder of fluid
• Using Newton’s second law and noting that
the fluid is flowing at a constant velocity
Viscous Flow in Pipes
f
h h
2g
V
g
p
h
2g
V
g
p
+ + + = + +
2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
ρ ρ
V
1
g
V
2
2
1
g
P
ρ
1
1 Z
2 Z
g
P
ρ
2
g
V
2
2
2
V
2
L h
Energy Line
P
i
e
z
o
m
e
t
r
i
c
h
e
a
d
P
i
e
z
o
m
e
t
r
i
c
h
e
a
d
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e
h
e
a
d
Velocity
head
Head
loss
Datum
1 2
r L
p
rL r p p r p
τ
π τ π π
2
0 2 ) (
2
1 1
2
1
=
∆
= − ∆ − −
Fluid Mechanics I
81
• Assuming laminar flow and using Newton’s law of viscosity
• Thus,
• Integrating will give
This is represent a parabolic velocity distribution
• At r = D/2 we have V = 0 this will give , hence
• The discharge is
• Using the Energy equation
Viscous Flow in Pipes
dr
dV
µ τ − =
dr r
L
p
dV r
L
p
dr
dV
∫ ∫
∆
− = ⇒ 
¹

\
 ∆
− =
µ µ 2 2
1
2
4
C r
L
p
V +
∆
− =
µ
L
pD
C
µ 16
2
1
∆
=

¹

\

−
∆
=
2
2
2
1
16 D
r
L
pD
V
µ
L
p D
rdr
D
r
L
pD
dA V Q
D r
r
µ
π
π
µ 128
2
2
1
16
4 2 /
0
2
2
∆
=

¹

\

−
∆
= =
∫ ∫
=
=
f f
gh p h
g
p
g
p
ρ
ρ ρ
= ∆ ⇒ = −
2 1
g D
LQ
h
L
gh D
Q
f
f
ρ π
µ
µ
ρ π
4
4
128
128
= ⇒ =
Fluid Mechanics I
82
• Using the mean velocity V
mean
=Q/A will give . We will drop the mean.
• However, therefore,
• For Turbulent flow, Newton’s law of viscosity does not apply,
here semi imperical formula are used to determine the
velocity profile and hence the turbulent shear stress
• Following the experiments of Reynolds and Darcy and Wiesbach, the shear stress was
proportional to V
2
.
• Following the same analogy as above we get
• The various experiments showed that the friction is dependent of the Re and the relative
roughness of the pipe k/D or ε/D
• Moody produced plots of the friction f as a function of Re and ε/D for commercial pipes
Viscous Flow in Pipes
2
32
gD
LV
h
mean
f
ρ
µ
=
µ
ρVd
= Re
g
V
D
L
f
g
V
D
L
h
f
2 2 Re
64
2 2
= =
g
V
D
L
f h
f
2
2
=
Fluid Mechanics I
83
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
84
Energy Losses Due to Friction
• General theoretical treatment for local losses is not
available.
• It is usual to assume rough turbulence which lead to
the simple equation
Here, K is the loss coefficient
• The losses can be due to :
» Pipe expansions
» Pipe contractions: depend on A
1
/A
2
» Elbow and junctions
» Pipe Entrance and exit
» Valves
Viscous Flow in Pipes
g
V
K h
L L
2
2
=
h
L
Energy Line
K
L
= 0.8
K
L
= 0.5
K
L
= 0.04 K
L
= 0.2
2
2
1
) 1 (
A
A
K
L
− =
Fluid Mechanics I
85
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
86
Example
• Determine the head lost to friction when water flows through 300m of 150mm diameter
galvanised steel pipe at 50 litres/s.
• Calculate the steady rate at which oil (ν =10
5
m
2
/s) will flow through a castiron pipe
100mm diameter and 120 m long under a head difference of 5 m.
• Determine the size of galvanised steel pipe needed to carry water a distance of 180 m at
85 litres/s with a head loss of 9 m.
• Determine the discharge for the flow situation
shown in the figure. The loss coefficient for a
fully opened valve, a standard elbow and a
flush entrance can be taken as 10., 0.9 and
0.5 respectively. The pipe is 150mm diameter
and made of castiron. The water temperature
is 15
o
c.
30m 60m
12m
10m
Fully Open valve
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
87
Examples
• Oil of viscosity 0.048 Pa s and density 930 kglm
3
flows through a horizontal 25 mm
diameter pipe with an average speed of 0.3 m/s.
(i) Check that the flow is laminar
(ii) Calculate the pressure drop in a 30 m length of pipe
(iii) Find the speed of the fluid at a distance of 6 mm from the wall of the pipe.
(Ans: Re = 145; (ii) 2.21 x 10
4
N/m
2
; (iii) 0.438 m/s)
• Calculate the power required to pump 50,000 kg of oil per hour along a horizontal pipeline
100 mm diameter and 1.6 km long if the density and kinematic viscosity of the oil are 915
kglm
3
and 1.86 1O
3
m
2
/s. (Ans: 257 kw)
• Calculate the pressure drop and power required per 100 m length of horizontal 250 mm
diameter cast iron pipe to pump water (ν = 1.14 X 10
6
m
2
/s) at the rate of 2.0 litres per
second. (Ans: 11.1 N/m
2
; 2.22 x 10
2
W)
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
88
Problems
• A pipeline connecting two water reservoirs having a difference of level of 6 m is 720 m long
and rises to a height of 3 m above the upper reservoir, at a distance of 240 m from it,
before descending to the lower reservoir. If the pipe diameter is 1.2 m and the friction
factor is 0.04, estimate the volume flow and the gauge pressure at the highest point in the
pipeline. Assume losses are those due to friction only. (Ans: 2.51 m
3
/s; 51.6x10
3
N/m
2
)
• Water from a large reservoir is discharged to atmosphere through a pipe 450 m long. The
outlet is 12 m below the surface level in the reservoir. Taking the friction factor as .04,
calculate the diameter of pipe necessary if the discharge is to be 9 x 1O
3
m
3
/s. Assume
that the loss at the inlet to the pipe and the kinetic energy in the water at the pipe outlet
are negligible and then justify this assumption. (Ans: 100mm)
• A pipe 50 mm diameter and 45 m long is connected to a large tank, the inlet to the pipe
being 3 m below the surface. The lower end of the pipe, which is 6 m below the upper
end, is connected to a 100 mm diameter horizontal pipe 75 m long which discharges to
atmosphere. If the friction factor is 0.036 calculate the discharge, taking into account the
entry loss and the sudden enlargement between the two pipes. (Ans: 4.66 x 10
3
m
3
/s)
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
89
Problems
• A 200 mm diameter commercial steel pipeline 500 m long is to convey 4 m
3
of water per
minute from a reservoir to a storage tank whose free surface level is 20 m above that of
the reservoir. If there are four standard elbow bends (loss coefficient 0.9 per elbow) and
two gate valves (loss coefficient 0.3 per valve) in the line, calculate the power required,
assuming the efficiency of the pump is 80%. (Ans: 24.9 kW)
•
• In the water system shown in Fig 9, a turbine is
situated in a 150 m length of 150 mm diameter
galvanised steel pipe, containing four 90° elbow
bends, which discharges to atmosphere. If the
turbine absorbs 10 kW from the water, estimate
the depth H required in the reservoir to give a
flow rate of 0.1 m
3
/s. (Ans: 51.25 m)
Viscous Flow in Pipes
Fluid Mechanics I
Introduction
What is a fluid? What is the difference between a solid and a fluid?
• A solid is “hard” and not easily deformed, whereas a fluid is “soft” and is easily deformed • A closer look at the molecular structure a solid (steel, concrete, etc.)
» densely spaced molecules » large intermolecular cohesive forces
• However, for matter that we normally think of as a liquid (water, oil,etc.)
» the molecules are spaced farther apart » the intermolecular forces are smaller than for solids,
• Gases (air, oxygen, etc.) have
» greater molecular spacing and freedom of motion » negligible cohesive intermolecular forces
• A more specific distinction is based on how they deform under the action of an external load. Specifically, a fluid is defined as a substance that deforms continuously when acted
on by a shearing stress of any magnitude.
• Common fluids such as water, oil, and air satisfy the definition of a fluid • Some materials, such as slurries, tar, putty, toothpaste, and so on, are not easily classified since they will behave as a solid if the applied shearing stress is small, but if the stress exceeds some critical value, the substance will flow. The study of such materials is called rheology
3
Fluid Mechanics I
Introduction
• The study of fluid mechanics involves the same fundamental laws you have encountered in physics and other mechanics courses. These laws include Newton’s laws of motion, conservation of mass, and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. • The broad subject of fluid mechanics can be generally subdivided into fluid statics, in which the fluid is at rest, and fluid dynamics, in which the fluid is moving.
4
Fluid Mechanics I
Famous Names
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
ARCHIMEDES 287–212 B.C. Established elementary principles of buoyancy and flotation. SEXTUS JULIUS FRONTINUS A.D. 40–103. Wrote treatise on Roman methods of water distribution. LEONARDO da VINCI 1452–1519. Expressed elementary principle of continuity; observed and sketched many basic flow phenomena; suggested designs for hydraulic machinery. GALILEO GALILEI 1564–164. Indirectly stimulated experimental hydraulics; revised Aristotelian concept of vacuum. EVANGELISTA TORRICELLI 1608–164. Related barometric height to weight of atmosphere, and form of liquid jet to trajectory of free fall. BLAISE PASCAL 1623–1662. Finally clarified principles of barometer, hydraulic press, and pressure transmissibility. ISAAC NEWTON 1642–1727. Explored various aspects of fluid resistance–inertial, viscous, and wave; discovered jet contraction. HENRI de PITOT 1695–1771. Constructed doubletube device to indicate water velocity through differential head. DANIEL BERNOULLI 1700–1782. Experimented and wrote on many phases of fluid motion, coining name “hydrodynamics”; devised manometry technique and adapted primitive energy principle to explain velocity head indication; proposed jet propulsion. LEONHARD EULER 1707–1783. First explained role of pressure in fluid flow; formulated basic equations of motion and socalled Bernoulli theorem; introduced concept of cavitation and principle of centrifugal machinery. JEAN le ROND d’ALEMBERT 1717–1783. Originated notion of velocity and acceleration components, differential expression of continuity, and paradox of zero resistance to steady nonuniform motion. ANTOINE CHEZY 1718–1798. Formulated similarity parameter for predicting flow characteristics of one channel from measurements on another. GIOVANNI BATTISTA VENTURI 1746–1822. Performed tests on various forms of mouthpieces–in particular, conical contractions and expansions. LOUIS MARIE HENRI NAVIER 1785–1836. Extended equations of motion to include “molecular” forces. AUGUSTIN LOUIS de CAUCHY 1789–1857. Contributed to the general field of theoretical hydrodynamics and to the study of wave motion. GOTTHILF HEINRICH LUDWIG HAGEN 1797–1884. Conducted original studies of resistance in and transition between laminar and turbulent flow. JEAN LOUIS POISEUILLE 1799–1869. Performed meticulous tests on resistance of flow through capillary tubes.
5
Fluid Mechanics I
Famous Names
• • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
HENRI PHILIBERT GASPARD DARCY 1803–1858. Performed extensive tests on filtration and pipe resistance; initiated openchannel studies carried out by Bazin. JULIUS WEISBACH 1806–1871. Incorporated hydraulics in treatise on engineering mechanics, based on original experiments; noteworthy for flow patterns, nondimensional coefficients, weir, and resistance equations. WILLIAM FROUDE 1810–1879. Developed many towingtank techniques, in particular the conversion of wave and boundary layer resistance from model to prototype scale. ROBERT MANNING 1816–1897. Proposed several formulas for openchannel resistance. GEORGE GABRIEL STOKES 1819–1903. Derived analytically various flow relationships ranging from wave mechanics to viscous resistance—particularly that for the settling of spheres. ERNST MACH 1838–1916. One of the pioneers in the field of supersonic aerodynamics. OSBORNE REYNOLDS 1842–1912. Described original experiments in many fields, cavitation, river model similarity, pipe resistance—and devised two parameters for viscous flow; adapted equations of motion of a viscous fluid to mean conditions of turbulent flow. JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT,LORD RAYLEIGH 1842–1919. Investigated hydrodynamics of bubble collapse, wave motion, jet instability, laminar flow analogies, and dynamic similarity. VINCENZ STROUHAL 1850–1922. Investigated the phenomenon of “singing wires.” EDGAR BUCKINGHAM 1867–1940. Stimulated interest in the United States in the use of dimensional analysis. MORITZ WEBER 1871–1951. Emphasized the use of the principles of similitude in fluid flow studies and formulated a capillarity similarity parameter. LUDWIG PRANDTL 1875–1953. Introduced concept of the boundary layer and is generally considered to be the father of present day fluid mechanics. LEWIS FERRY MOODY 1880–1953. Provided many innovations in the field of hydraulic machinery. Proposed a method of correlating pipe resistance data which is widely used. THEODOR VON KÁRMÁN 1881–1963. One of the recognized leaders of twentieth century fluid mechanics. Provided major contributions to our understanding of surface resistance, turbulence, and wake phenomena. PAUL RICHARD HEINRICH BLASIUS 1883–1970. One of Prandtl’s students who provided an analytical solution to the boundary layer equations. Also, demonstrated that pipe resistance was related to the Reynolds number.
6
Fluid Mechanics I
Units
Primary Units
• The four primary units of the SI system are shown in the table below:
• Notice how the term ’Dimension’ of a unit has been introduced in this table. This is not a property of the individual units, rather it tells what the unit represents. For example a metre is a length which has a dimension L but also, an inch, a mile or a kilometre are all lengths so have dimension of L. • The above notation uses the MLT system of dimensions, there are other ways of writing dimensions
7
Fluid Mechanics I
Units
Derived Units
• There are many derived units all obtained from combination of the above primary units. Those most used are shown in the table below: • The above units should be used at all times. Values in other units should NOT be used without first converting them into the appropriate SI unit. • If you do not know what a particular unit means, find out else your guess will probably be wrong. • One very useful tip is to write down the units of any equation you are using. If at the end the units do not match you know you have made a mistake. • For example is you have at the end of a calculation, 30 kg/m s = 30 m you have certainly made a mistake
8
however. Density is typically used to characterize the mass of a fluid system. g the acceleration of gravity. and µ a fluid property having dimensions of FL2T determine the dimensions of (a) VLW/µ. L a length. (c) Vµ /L and (d) VL2µ /W 9 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties • Before we can proceed. variations in pressure and temperature generally have only a small effect on the value of density » For gas.Fluid Mechanics I Units Examples • During a study of a certain flow system the following equation relating the pressure p1 and p2 at two points was developed p2 = p1 + fLV Dg In this equation V is a velocity. it will be necessary to define and discuss certain fluid properties Measures of Fluid Mass and Weight Density • The density of a fluid. is defined as its mass per unit volume. the density is strongly influenced by both pressure and temperature Specific Volume • The specific volume. is the volume per unit mass and is therefore the reciprocal of the density v= 1 ρ 10 . designated by the Greek symbol ρ. . D a diameter. Is the equation dimensionally consistent? • If V is a velocity. L the distance between the two points. In the in SI the units are kg/m3 • The value of density can vary widely between different fluids » For liquids. W a weight. and f a dimensionless coefficient. (b)WLµ.
79. the specific weight is used to characterize the weight of the system. specific weight. is defined as the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature. Usually the specified temperature is taken as 4oC and at this temperature the density of water is 1000 kg/m3 SG = ρ / 1000 • and since it is the ratio of densities. is defined as its weight per unit volume.73 kN/m3. 1. There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the “fluidity” of the fluid which we will see later in the course.26) • The specific gravity of ethyl alcohol is 0. designated by the Greek symbol γ. what is its mass density (Ans: 836 kg/m3) 12 . In the SI the units are N/m3 Specific Gravity • The specific gravity of a fluid. and from a knowledge of any one of the three the others can be calculated. specific weight and specific gravity (Ans: 11.2 kN/m3.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Specific Weight • The specific weight of a fluid. the value of SG does not depend on the system of units used. specific weight is related to density through the equation γ = gρ where g is the local acceleration of gravity • Just as density is used to characterize the mass of a fluid system. 12.952 m3. mass density. 790 kg/m3) • The specific weight of a substance is 8.55 • A reservoir of glycerine has a mass of 1200 kg and a volume of 0. Calculate its specific weight and mass density (Ans: 7. 1261 kg/m3. designated as SG. Examples • Find the density of mercury if its specific gravity is 13. Find the glycerine's weight. It is clear that density. and specific gravity are all interrelated.77kN.36 kN/m3. Thus. 11 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately the same value of density but behave quite differently when flowing.
pressure has the dimension FL2 and in SI units is expressed as N/m2. In SI.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Pressure • Pressure in a fluid at rest is defined as the normal force per unit area exerted on a plane surface (real or imaginary) immersed in a fluid and is created by the bombardment of the surface with the fluid molecules. and pressures are commonly specified in pascals • The equations of motion (Newton’s second law) F = ma in the y and z directions are ∑ Fy = p yδxδz − psδxδs sin θ = ρ ay 2 δxδyδz δxδyδz =ρ az ∑ Fz = p zδxδy − psδxδs cos θ − γ 2 2 13 δxδyδz Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties • Note that • Hence. 1N/m2 is defined as a pascal. abbreviated as Pa. This important result is known as Pascal’s law named in honour of Blaise Pascal 14 . we take the limit as δx. δy = δs cos θ δz = δs sin θ p y − p s = ρa y δy 2 p z − p s = ( ρa z + γ ) δz 2 • Since we are interested in the pressure at a point.δy and δz tend to zero and it follows that p z = p y = ps • we can conclude that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest. or in motion. is independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present. • From the definition.
horizontal).2 GPa. A property that is commonly used to characterize compressibility is the bulk modulus.so dp dp dp = = =0 ds dx dy or in homogenous domain. What is its bulk modulus of elasticity? • If the bulk modulus of elasticity for water is 2.2 Mpa) 15 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Basic Equation for Pressure Field • Consider a cylindrical element of fluid inclined at an angle θ to the vertical. Pressure in the horizontal direction is constant.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Compressibility of Fluids • This measure how easily can the volume (and thus the density) of a given mass of the fluid be changed when there is a change in pressure .6 precent? (Ans: 13. defined as Ev = − dp dp = dV V dρ ρ • The bulk modulus (or the bulk modulus of elasticity) has dimensions of pressure. The pressure at the end with height z is p and at the end of height z+δz is p+δp • Resolving the forces in the direction along the central axis gives pA − ( p + δp ) A − ρgAδs cos θ = 0 δp = − ρgδs cos θ ⇒ δp = − ρg cos θ δs dp = − ρg cos θ ds • Or in differential form • If θ=90ο then s is in the x or y directions. • Large values for the bulk modulus indicate that the fluid is relatively incompressible Examples • A liquid compressed in a cylinder has a volume of 1000 cm3 at 1MN/m2 and volume of 995 cm3 at 2MN/m2. what pressure is required to reduce a volume by 0. (i. 16 .e.
ρ=1000kg/m3 . ρ=13600 kg/m3 . and in terms of Mercury. pressure quotes in this condition is called the Gauge pressure p guage = ρgh = γh • Since g is constant. pressure decreases with increase in height dp dp = = − ρg ds dz p = − ρgz + constant p2 − p1 = − ρg ( z2 − z1 ) Pressure and Head • In a liquid with a free surface the pressure at any depth z is normally measured from the free surface so that z = h. it is convenient to take the atmospheric pressure as datum. Pressure measured above this datum is known as absolute pressure • Since everything is under this pressure. this vertical height is know as head of fluid.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics • If θ=0ο then s is in the z directions. vertical).so • Integrating the above equation gives • Integrating between z1 znd z2 will lead to • Thus in a fluid under gravity. 18 . the gauge pressure can be given by stating the vertical height of any fluid of density ρ which is equal to the this pressure. patmospheric p = ρgh + patmospheric p = γh + patmospheric 17 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics • The lower limit of any pressure is zero. Example What is the pressure of 500 KN/m2 in terms of the height of water.that is pressure in Vacuum.e. This gives: p = ρgh + constant • At the surface the pressure is the atmospheric pressure. hence. (i.
determine the pressure at the gasolinewater interface and at the bottom of the tank. hence it is gauge pressure p A = p1 = ρgh1 = γh1 • This method can only be used for liquids.8 N/m3. 20 . 0.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Examples • Because of a leak in a buried gasoline storage tank. The Piezometer Tube Manometer • A tube which is attached to the top of a vessel containing fluid at a pressure higher than atmospheric • The pressure measured is relative to atmospheric. water has seeped in to the depth shown.9kPa) • The reading of an automobile fuel gauge is proportional to the gauge pressure at the bottom of the tank. If the tank is 32cm deep and is contaminated with 3cm of water.0m.68. • For the open tank. (Ans: 1. 18.82m. how many cm of air remains at the top when the gauge indicates full? Use γgasoline = 6670 N/m3 and γair = 11. containing two different immiscible liquids. liquid gauge. with piezometers attached on the side. And must not be too small or too large. Find (a) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer A (b) the elevation of the liquid surface in piezometer B (c) Total pressure at te bottom of the tank (Ans:2.4cm) 5m 1m 19 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Pressure Measurement • The relation between pressure and head is used to measure pressure with manometer. If the specific gravity of the gasoline is SG= 0.
p A = p1 and p2 = p3 p2 = p A + γh1 p3 = γ man h2 • Since we are measuring gauge pressure • Hence.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics The “U” Tube Manometer • The “U” tube measure the pressure of both liquids and gases • The “U” tube is filled with a fluid called the Manometric fluid • The density of the fluid whose pressure to be measured must be less than that of the manomatric fluid • We know that. p A = γ man h2 − γh1 • If the fluid to be measure is gas. the ρ man >> ρ . and the gauge pressure p A = γ man h2 21 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Measurement of pressure difference using the “U” Tube Manometer • The “U” tube is connected at the two points where the pressure difference is to be measured • Using the figure • And p A = p1 and pB = p5 p2 = p3 p A + γ 1h1 = pB + γ man h2 + γ 3h3 p A − pB = γ man h2 − γ 1h1 + γ 3h3 p A − pB = γ man h2 + γ 1 ( h3 − h1 ) • If the fluid is the same at the two points then • Again if the fluid is gas then p A − pB = γ man h2 22 . • However.
Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Inclined Tube Manometer • If the pressure difference to be measured is small. γ1 the specific weight of the gage fluid. through a pipe can be determined by means of a flow nozzle located in the pipe as illustrated.8 kN/m3. h2= 15cm and h3=22. along the pipe which is related to the flow through the equation Q = K p A − pB where K is a constant depending on the pipe and nozzle size. For column heights h1=90cm. A Utube manometer using mercury is connected to the tank. pA – pB ? 24 . For γ1 = 9.9). γ2 = 15.0m and h2 = 0.6 kN/m3 . 0. γ2 and the various heights indicated. The pressure drop is frequently measured with a differential Utube manometer. Determine an equation for pA – pB in terms of the specific weight of the flowing fluid.5m what is the value of the pressure drop. Q. The nozzle creates a pressure drop.h1 = 1. • the volume rate of flow.5cm determine the pressure reading of the gage. one leg of the tube is inclined at an angle θ • In this case p A − pB = γ manl2 sin θ − γ 1h1 + γ 3h3 p A − pB = γ manl2 sin θ + γ 1 ( h3 − h1 ) • If the fluid is the same at the two points then • Again if the fluid is gas then p A − pB = γ manl2 sin θ 23 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Examples • A closed tank contains compressed air and oil (SG.
SGOil = 0. find the absolute pressure at A in meters of waters.89 and SGTetrachloride = 1. (Ans:37kN/m2) • Calculate the level h of the oil in the right hand tube (Ans: 0. the resultant force is due to the liquid in the tank. dams.9m) 25 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Forces on Submerged Surfaces in Static Fluids We have seen that: • Hydrostatic vertical pressure distribution. h1 = 300mm. • Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed over the bottom. the resultant acts through the centroid of the area 26 .59.6. the pressure varies linearly with depth • Pressures at any equal depth in a continuous fluid are equal • Pressure at a point acts equally in all directions (Pascal’s law) • Forces from a fluid on a boundary acts at right angles to that boundary • Pressure is defined as force per unit area Fluid Pressure on a Surface • The determination of the forces developed on the surface due to the fluid is important in the design of storage tanks. ships.37kPa. and other hydraulic structures.18m) • The liquid at A and B is water and the manometer liquid is oil with SG = 0. (a) determine pApB. the magnitude of the resultant force is FR=p A • where p = γh is the uniform pressure on the bottom • If atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the surface. (b) If pB = 50 kPa and the barometer reading is 730 mmHg. • For a horizontal surface. (Ans:1. Calculate the pressure difference between chambers A and B.8. Take SGMercury = 13. 14. h2 = 200mm and h3 = 600mm.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Problems • A Differential manometer is attached to two tanks.
Thus. h. the force acting on dA is dF = γhdA and is perpendicular to the surface. the magnitude of the resultant FR = ∫A γhdA = ∫A γy sin θdA = γ sin θ ∫A ydA • The integral is the first moment of the area • yc is the y coordinate of the centroid. Using the parallel axis theorem 2 I x = I xc + Ayc • Ixc is the second moment of the area with respect to an axis passing through the centroid and parallel to the x axis. Ix. thus ∫A ydA = yc A FR = γAyc sin θ = γAhc • The resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid multiplied by the total area 27 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics • Since all differential forces are perpendicular to the surface . and magnitude of the resultant force acting on one side of this area due to the liquid.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics • For a general case. • At any given depth. the resultant force must also be perpendicular to the surface • To find the location of the resultant force we consider the moment around the x axis FR y R = ∫A ydF = ∫A γy 2 sin θdA • Since FR = γAyc sin θ 2 ∫A y dA yR = yc A • The numerator is the second moment of the area. • We wish to determine the direction. location. yR = I xc + yc yc A 28 . assuming that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere and using the x–y coordinate system shown. • Thus.
G=0. When the pressure gage on the top of the tank reads 50 kPa. what is the magnitude and location of the resultant force on the attached plate? 30 . 0.9) and has a square.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics • It is clear that the resultant force does not pass through the centroid but always below it • Similarly the x coordinate of the resultant force can be obtained by summing moment about the y axis xR = ∫A xydA = I xy = I xyc + x c yc A yc A yc A • Ixy is the product of inertia with respect to the x and y axes. • A pressurized tank contains oil (S. For a water depth of 10 m above the shaft determine: (a) the magnitude and location of the resultant force exerted on the gate by the water. and (b) the moment that would have to be applied to the shaft to open the gate.6m plate bolted to its side.6m by 0.80 kN/m3The gate is mounted on a shaft along its horizontal diameter. Ixyc is the product of inertia with respect to an orthogonal system passing through the centroid 29 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Examples • The 4mdiameter circular gate is located in the inclined wall of a large reservoir containing water γ = 9.
Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surfaces • Integration method can be used. FV = F1 + W ⇒ FR = ( FH ) 2 + ( FV ) 2 • The location of the resultant force is found by Summing moment about an appropriate axis 31 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Examples • The 3m long cylinder floats in oil and rest against a wall Determine the horizontal force the cylinder exerts on the wall at the point of contact. 1m 960N/m3 • The 2mdiameter drainage conduit is half full of water at rest. 1m C 32 . however. Determine the magnitude and line of action of the resultant force that the water exerts on a 1m length of the curved section BC of the conduit wall. it can be tedious • The easiest way is to consider the fluid volume enclosed by the curved surface • The magnitude and location of the forces on the horizontal and vertical surfaces can be determined from the relationship of planer surfaces • In order for force system to be in equilibrium the horizontal components must be equal and collinear and the vertical components must be equal and collinear FH = F2 .
0kN. (Ans: 658 kN. (Ans: 22. The gate is a circular plate of diameter 0.5 kN) • Determine the pivot locaion y of the square gate so that it will rotate open when the liquid surface is shown. (Ans: 115. 289kN) • Compute the hydrostatic force and its line of action on semicylindrical indentation ABC per meter of width into the paper.833m) • Compute the air pressure required to keep the gate closed.8m and weight 2. neglecting the weight of the gate. what is the cable tension. Compute the horizontal force P at point B for equilibrium. Determine the magnitude of the hydrostatic force acting on the curve portion AB per meter width of the dam and the moment of this force about A. φ = 10.1 kN. (Ans: 308kN. (Ans: 88.47 kN) • The triangular channel is hinged at A and held together by cable BC at the top. 2470kNm) 34 .(Ans: 43 kPa) 33 Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Problems • Compute the horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic force on the quartercircle face of the tank.6o) • The face of the dam retaining water to depth 10m is shaped as shown.Fluid Mechanics I Hydrostatics Problems • Isosceles triangular gate AB is hinged at A. (Ans: 0. If cable spacing is 1m into the paper.
and useful . but if the average values are constant. However if the size and shape of the of the crosssection of the stream of fluid is constant the flow is considered uniform) • steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity. The following terms describe the states which are used to classify fluid flow: • uniform flow: If the flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every point in the fluid it is said to be uniform • nonuniform: If at a given instant. (In practice. by this definition. usually zero.Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Fluid Dynamics This section discusses the analysis of fluid in motion . the conditions change with time. The motion of fluids can be predicted in the same way as the motion of solids are predicted using the fundamental laws of physics together with the physical properties of the fluid Objectives • Introduce concepts necessary to analyse fluids in motion • Identify differences between Steady/unsteady uniform/nonuniform compressible/incompressible flow • Demonstrate streamlines and stream tubes • Introduce the Continuity principle through conservation of mass and control volumes • Derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation • Demonstrate practical uses of the Bernoulli and continuity equation in the analysis of flow • Introduce the momentum equation for a fluid • Demonstrate how the momentum equation and principle of conservation of momentum is used to predict forces induced by flowing fluids. the flow is described as unsteady.to classify the type of flow which is being examined into small number of groups. every fluid that flows near a solid boundary will be nonuniform – as the fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary. (In practise there is always slight variations in velocity and pressure.fluid dynamics. the velocity is not the same at every point the flow is nonuniform. pressure and crosssection) may differ from point to point but DO NOT change with time • unsteady: If at any point in the fluid. 35 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Flow Classification It is possible . the flow is considered steady 36 .
You will then be pleased to hear that this course is restricted to only this class of flow 37 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Threedimensional flow • Although in general all fluids flow threedimensionally. in many cases the greatest changes only occur in two directions or even only in one. An example of onedimensional flow is the ideal flow in a pipe. but will change with time. 38 . • Flow is twodimensional if it can be assumed that the flow parameters vary in the direction of flow and in one direction at right angles to this direction. • Unsteady uniform flow. steady flow is by far the most simple of the four. For example waves in a channel. Conditions change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time. • Steady nonuniform flow. • Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as velocity. An example is a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a constant rate which is then switched off • Unsteady nonuniform flow.yet nonzero in the centre – there is a difference of parameters across the crosssection. Conditions do not change with position in the stream or with time. • Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall .Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Combining the above we can classify any flow in to one of four type: • Steady uniform flow. depth etc. At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same. An example is the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity. pressure.) at a given instant in time only vary in the direction of flow and not across the crosssection. An example is flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet velocity will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit. Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at every point. Which is only necessary if very high accuracy is required.
and its velocity vector is everywhere tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called streamlines • Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to that boundary • The fluid is moving in the same direction as the streamlines. (It is also commonly. The symbol normally used for discharge is Q. • In practice there are no inviscid fluid. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the x–z plane. but inaccurately. Multiplying this by the density of the fluid gives us the mass flow rate Mean Velocity: • This is the discharge divided by the area cross section. However. • For steady flows each particle slides along its path. 40 . each successive particle that passes through a given point will follow the same path.Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Streamlines and Streamtubes • The motion of each fluid particle is described in terms of its velocity vector. V • If it is steady flow. for many flow situation the viscous effect is small compared to other forces such as pressure gradient and gravitation. • This does not imply that the velocity is constant across the cross section Inviscid Flow: • That is the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity. simply called flow rate). hence. fluid can not cross it • Streamlines can not cross each other • Any particle starting on one streamline will stay on the same streamline • Streamlines are two dimension while streamtubes are three dimensions 39 Fluid Mechanics I Fluid Dynamics Flow rate • Mass flow rate: is the mass of fluid flowing per unit time • Volume flow rate – Discharge: is the volume of fluid flowing per unit time.
003 m2 respectively • For the pipe expansion shown. determine the velocity of water at section 1 if the velocity at section 2 is 3. determine the values of discharge and the mean velocity in each pipe 42 .1 m/s and the surface area of section 1 and section 2 are 0.The principle is applied to fixed volumes.01 m2 and 0. known as control volumes (or surfaces) Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time + Increase of mass in the control volume/unit time • For steady state Mass entering / unit time = Mass leaving / unit time ρ1 A1Vm1 = ρ 2 A2Vm 2 = constant • For incompressible flow ρ = constant.0 m/s and the diameters of section 1 and section 2 are 30 mm and 40 mm respectively • If the mean velocity in pipe 1 is 2 m/s and its diameter is 50mm and pipe 2 diameter is 40 mm and takes 30% of the total discharge and pipe 3 diameter is 60mm.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Continuity • Matter cannot be created or destroyed. determine the velocity of water at section 2 if the velocity at section 1 is 2. hence A1Vm1 = A2Vm 2 = Q 41 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Examples • For the pipe contraction shown. This principle is know as the conservation of mass.
Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation • Mass passing in 1 sec = ρAV • Weight passing in 1 sec = V A ρgAV mV 2 1 = (ρAV )V 2 2 2 Datum • Kinetic Energy passing in 1 sec = • KE per unit weight = h V2 2g • Potential Energy passing in 1 sec = • PE per unit weight = h mgh = ( ρAV )gh • Work done by pressure in 1 sec = force * Distance = • Work done per unit weight = • Energy per unit weight = ( pA)V p V2 +h+ ρg 2g p ρg • Along a streamtube If there is no energy dissipation p V2 +h+ = Constant 2g ρg 43 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation • In the direction of the streamtube we have the following forces » Pressure force at upstream end = pA − ( p + δp ) A » Pressure force at downstream end = » Pressure forces around the circumference = zero » Weight force = − mg cos θ = − ρAδLg cos θ = − ρAδhg • Using Newton 2nd Law » deviding by F = ma ⇒ pA − ( p + δp ) A − ρAδhg = ρAδL( dV / dt ) ρgAδL ⇒ » Noting that dV dV dL dV d (V 2 / 2 ) = =V = dt dL dt dL dL 1 dp 1 dV dh + + =0 ρg dL g dt dL gives 1 dp 1 dV 2 dh + + =0 ρg dL 2 g dL dL » This is known as the Euler’s Equation. for incompressible fluid this can be integrated to yield p V2 + + h = Constant ρg 2g 44 .
goes to the tip of the blunt body and stops.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Energy – The Bernoulli’s Equation • Note that all the individual terms in the Bernoulli’s equation have units of length • The term h is know as potential head V2 • The term is know as velocity head 2g p • The term is know as pressure head ρg • The term H = p V2 +h+ is know as total head ρg 2g Example • A fluid of constant density of 960 kg/m3 is flowing steadily through the tube shown. in the centre. Determine the pressure at section 2. some move to the left and some to the right. This point is known as the stagnation point • Applying the Bernoulli’s equation between point 1 and 2 gives 1 p2 = p1 + ρV12 2 • The term 1 ρV12 is called dynamic pressure 2 • Knowledge of the static and stagnation pressure will enable the calculation of the velocity of the fluid • This is the principle on which the Pitotstatic tube is based • Two concentric tubes are attached to two pressure gauges 46 . The diameter at section 1 is 100 mm and at section 2 is 80 mm. But one. The pressure gauge at section 1 indicated a pressure of 200 kN/m2 and the velocity was 5 m/s. 45 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Application of the Energy Equation Pitot Tube • If a stream of uniform velocity flows into a blunt body.
V1 A1 A2 h B p1 + ρgz1 = p2 + ρg ( z2 − h) + ρ man gh • Hence. show that the relation between the fluid velocity and the manometer reading h V1 = Venturi Meter 2 gh(ρ man − ρ ) h ρ • The Venturi meter is a device for measuring discharge in a pipe. h 47 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles • Using the Bernoulli’s equation between 1 and 2 p1 V12 p V2 + + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2 ρg 2 g ρg 2 g • Using the continuity equation Q = V1 A1 = V2 A2 ⇒ V2 = • However. • It consists of a rapidly converging section which increases the velocity of flow and hence reduces the pressure.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Example • For the Pitot tube shown. ρ −ρ 2 gh man ρ V1 = 2 A1 −1 A 2 Qideal = V1 A1 Qactual = Cd Qideal A • The theoretical discharge is • To get the actual discharge we account for losses due to friction. we include a coefficient of discharge 48 . • By measuring the pressure differences the discharge can be calculated.
99) • The actual area of the jet is the area of the vena contracta not the area of the orifice. V22 h= ⇒ V2 = 2 gh 2g Vactual = CvVtheoretical • This is the theoretical value of velocity.0.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Flow Through a Small orifice • At the surface velocity is negligible and the pressure atmospheric. • Hence.97 . • To incorporate friction we use the coefficient of velocity • Each orifice has its own coefficient of velocity. We obtain this area by using a coefficient of contraction for the orifice Aactual = Cc Atheoretical 49 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles • So the discharge through the orifice is given by Qactual = AactualVactual = CcCv AorificeVtheoretical Qactual = Cd Aorifice gh 50 . • At the orifice the jet is open to the air so again the pressure is atmospheric • If we take the datum line through the orifice then z1 = h and z2 =0. they usually lie in the range (0.
b. but for flows where the velocity approaching the weir is substantial the kinetic energy must be taken into account 51 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles • To determine the theoretical discharge over a weir we will consider a strip of thickness δh. hence Qactual = Cd 8 tan (θ / 2 ) 2 g H 5 / 2 15 52 . Hence 2 Q = b 2 g ∫ h1/ 2 dh = b 2 g H 3 / 2 3 0 H • To obtain the actual discharge we introduce the coefficient of discharge 2 Qactual = Cd b 2 g H 3 / 2 3 Triangular Weir • The width b at depth h is b = 2( H − h) tan (θ / 2 ) . • We will also assume that the velocity through any elemental strip depends only on the depth below the free surface.usually found in rivers. • We will assume that the velocity of the fluid approaching the weir is small so that kinetic energy can be neglected. • Weir can be sharp crested but also may have a substantial width in the direction of flow .Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Flow Over Notches and Weirs • A notch is an opening in the side of a tank or reservoir which extends above the surface of the liquid. • These are acceptable assumptions for tanks with notches or reservoirs with weirs.it is used as both a flow measuring device and a device to raise water levels. • It is usually a device for measuring discharge. • A weir is a notch on a larger scale . width l and at depth h • Velocity through the strip V = 2 gh • Discharge through the strip δQ = AV = lδh 2 gh H • Integrating from the free surface to the weir crest Q = 2 g ∫ lh1/ 2 dh 0 Rectangular Weir • The width is constant.
5) 54 . The apex of the orifice is at a height d above the base and is located at a depth d below the liquid surface level. connecting the inlet and the throat. estimate the pressure at B.98.45 hr) • A triangular orifice is cut in the vertical side of a tank containing a liquid.02. The base of the orifice is horizontal and of breadth b. obtain an expression for the air speed in m/s. shows a difference in mercury levels of 55 mm. How long will it take for the water to drain from the tank through a 0. (Ans: 3. for measuring the flow of water. containing water over mercury (specific gravity 13. (Ans: 0. 53 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Problems • A pitotstatic tube used to measure the air speed in a wind tunnel is coupled to a water manometer. (Ans: 2. If the dynamic pressure is h mm of water. If the differential Utube manometer.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Examples • Water flows along a circular duct from A to B where conditions are those shown.6).99h0. Assuming no losses.5) • Water collects in the bottom of a rectangular oil tank as shown. tapers from 300 mm diameter at the inlet to 100 mm diameter at the throat and has a discharge coefficient of 0.mdiameter drain hole in the bottom of the tank? Assume quasisteady flow. determine the volume flow. • A horizontal venturi tube. • If the velocity of the water jet at point A is 20 m/s.91b(gd3)0. derive an expression for the volume flow rate. If the coefficient of • discharge is unity. what is the pressure at point B? Neglect all losses due to viscous effects and assume that the nozzle outlet is at the same height as point B.
D2.2m difference in manometer level. and takes place in the direction of the force F= d ( mV ) dt Note 1 represent inflow 2 represent outflow • We start by assuming that we have steady flow • In time δt » momentum of fluid entering stream tube » momentum of fluid leaving stream tube » Applying Newton’s Second Law ρ1 A1V1δtV1 ρ 2 A2V2δtV2 F= ρ 2 A2V2δtV2 − ρ1 A1V1δtV1 δt 56 .0688 m) 55 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles The Momentum Equation • Moving fluids exerting forces on whatever it hits • In fluid mechanics the analysis of motion is performed in the same way as in solid mechanics by the use of Newton’ s Second Law of motion • The momentum equation is a statement of Newton’s Second Law and relates the sum of the forces acting on an element of fluid to its acceleration or rate of change of momentum. Determine the diameter of the pipe at section (2). respectively. determine the flowrate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe.0156 m3/s) • Water flows steadily through the pipe shown such that the pressures at sections (1) and (2) are 300 kPa and 100 kPa. D. • Newton’s 2nd Law can be written: The Rate of change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on the body.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Problems • Water flows through the pipe contraction shown. (Ans: 0. if the velocity at section 1 is 20 m/s and viscous effects are negligible. For the given 0. (Ans: 0.
it is more convenient to consider each direction separately Fx = ρ (Q2Vx 2 − Q1Vx1 ) Fy = ρ (Q2V y 2 − Q1V y1 ) Fz = ρ (Q2Vz 2 − Q1Vz1 ) • The force F is made up of following components: » FR = Force exerted on the fluid by any solid body touching the control volume » FB = Force exerted on the fluid body (e. y.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles » Assuming fluid with a constant density and using the continuity equation Q1 = A1V1 Q2 = A2V2 F = ρ (Q2 V2 − Q1V1 ) » Since the velocity have components in the x. gravity) » FP = Force exerted on the fluid by fluid pressure outside the control volume • When using the momentum equation. • Calculate the total force: FTx = ρQ (Vx 2 − Vx1 ) = ρQ (V2 cosθ − V1 ) FTy = ρQ (Vy 2 − Vy1 ) = ρQ (V2 sin θ − 0) FPx = p1 A1 − p2 A2 cos θ FPy = 0 − p2 A2 sin θ • Calculate the pressure force: • Calculate the body force: The only body force is that exerted by gravity and have not component in the x and y directions 58 . and z direction. the following steps need to be considered: » » » » » » Draw a control volume Decide on coordinate axis system Calculate the total force Calculate the pressure force Calculate the body force Calculate the resultant force 57 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Application of the Momentum Equation The Force Due to the Flow Around a Pipe Bend • Consider a pipe bend with a constant cross section lying in the horizontal plane and turning through an angle of θ • Control Volume : The control volume include the faces at the inlet and outlet of the bend and the pipe walls • Coordinate system It is convenient to choose the coordinate axis so that one is pointing in the direction of the inlet velocity.g.
Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles • Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx FTy = FRy + FPy + FBy FRx = ρQ (V2 cosθ − V1 ) − p1 A1 + p2 A2 cosθ FRy = ρQV2 sin θ + p2 A2 sin θ FRx FR » Hence 2 2 FR = FRx + FRy φ = tan −1 FRy FRx Φ FRx » the force on the bend is the same magnitude but in the opposite direction V5_5.mov 59 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Force on a Pipe Nozzle • Because the fluid is contracted at the nozzle forces are induced in the nozzle • Control Volume and Coordinate system are shown • Calculate the total force: FT = FTx = ρQ (Vx 2 − Vx1 ) Q = A1V1 = A2V2 ⇒ 1 1 FT = ρQ 2 − A A 2 1 » Using the continuity equation • Calculate the pressure force: FPx = p1 A1 − p2 A2 ρQ 2 1 1 2 − 2 A 2 2 A1 » We use the Bernoulli equation and noting that the pressure outside is atmospheric p1 = • Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x direction • Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx 1 1 1 ρQ 2 1 FRx = ρQ ( − ) − ( 2 − 2 ) A1 A2 A1 2 A2 A1 2 60 .
Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Force Due to an Inclined Jet Hitting a Plate V2 • Control Volume and Coordinate system are shown • Calculate the total force: FTx = ρ ((Q2Vx 2 + Q3Vx 3 ) − Q1Vx1 ) = − ρQ1V1 cosθ FTy = ρ ((Q2V y 2 + Q3Vy 3 ) − Q1V y1 ) = ρ ((Q2V2 − Q3V3 ) − Q1V1 sin θ ) V1 V3 » Using the energy equation and noting that z1=z2=z3 and the pressure is all atmospheric we can prove that v1 = v2 = v3 = v • Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric • Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions • Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx FTy = FRy + FPy + FBy ⇒ FRx = − ρQ1V cosθ ⇒ FRy = − ρV (Q3 − Q2 + Q1 sin θ ) 61 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Force on a Pelton Wheel Blade • The above analysis of impact of jets be extended and applied to analysis of turbine blades • One clear demonstration of this is with the blade of a turbine called the Pelton wheel • A narrow jet is fired at blades which stick out around the periphery of a large metal disk • The jet is deflected by the blade and the change of its momentum transfer a force to the blade and hence a torque to the drive shaft • Calculate the total force: Q Q FTx = ρ (( Vx 2 + Vx 2 ) − Q Vx1 ) 2 2 = ρQ (V2 cos β + V1 ) • Calculate the pressure force: all zero as the pressure is everywhere atmospheric • Calculate the body force: gravity have no component in the x and y directions • Calculate the resultant force: FTx = FRx + FPx + FBx ⇒ FRx = ρQ (V2 cos β + V1 ) 62 .
5 m upstream to 0.2 m/s. cross sectional area a and velocity U. The blades are connected to a shaft so that the point of impact between the jet and the blades is 300 mm from the centre of the shaft Mate an estimate of: (i) the loss of head in the pipe. calculate: (iii) the force now exerted on the blades.3 N.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Examples • Air flows from a 600 mm diameter pipe. connected to the pipe. determine the force required to hold the bend in position. (iv) 115 W.1 N (iii) 18. through a nozzle which is bolted on to the end of the pipe.4m3/s. The gauge pressure upstream is 2x1O5N/m2 and the volume flow is O. Neglecting losses. The outlet diameter of the nozzle is 300 mm. and (v) the overall efficiency. and discharges into the atmosphere. (Ans:R=33kN) 63 Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Problems • A nozzle providing a horizontal jet of water 25 rnm diameter at a speed of 10 m/s is supplied by a pipe from an open reservoir whose free surface is 7 m above the nozzle. shows a pressure difference of 250mm of water. If the shaft is allowed to rotate at 200 rev/min. 415 N) • A horizontal pipeline has a bend which changes the direction of the water flowing through it by 45° and at the same time changes in diameter from 0. Ignoring any viscous losses. The jet powers a simple turbine made up of flat plate blades which the jet strikes at 90°. (ii) the force exerted by the jet if the blades are stationary. (ii) 49. A Utube manometer. (v) 34%) • A horizontal streamlined nozzle issues a jet of fluid of density ρ.(iv) the power available at the shaft.9 m. 64 . estimate the speed of the air at the outlet of the nozzle and the force in the bolts required to hold the nozzle in position. derive an expression for the force required to hold the nozzle in position at the end of a pipeline of cross sectional area A.25 m downstream. (Ans: 65. taking the free surface of the reservoir as the input (Ans: (i) 1. Assuming that there are no losses.
deforms continuously when subjected to shear forces.Fluid Mechanics I Conservation Principles Problems • Air of density 1. (ii) 71. (Ans: 441N) • In the system shown. and coaxial with it. calculate: (i) the speed of the air in the duct (ii) the pressure in the duct upstream of the fan (iii) the force F required to hold the obstacle in position (iv) the power delivered to the air by the fan (Ans: (i)10. (iii) 11. • Shear stresses develop if the particles of moving fluid move relative to one another.22 kg/m3 flows in a duct of internal diameter 600 mm and is discharged to the atmosphere. At the outlet end of the duct. • From the definition of fluid. (iv) 293 W) 65 Fluid Mechanics I Real Fluid Viscosity • It is clear that the previous properties are not sufficient to uniquely characterize how fluids behave since two fluids such as water and oil can have approximately the same value of density but behave quite differently when flowing. The flow through the duct is controlled by moving the cone into the duct. if a fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces. shear forces will be present 66 . the air then escaping along the sloping sides of the cone. The mean velocity in the duct upstream of the cone is 15 m/s and the air leaves the cone with a mean velocity of 60 m/s parallel to the sides. is a cone with a base diameter greater than 600 mm and a vertex angle of 90°.7 N/m2 gauge.8 m/s. cars. air is drawn from the atmosphere into a 250 mm diameter duct by a fan and flows out past a 200 mm diameter obstacle with a speed of 30 m/s. • There is apparently some additional property that is needed to describe the “fluidity” of the fluid. If the air is stationary in the atmosphere and there are no losses in the duct. Neglecting viscous effects. pipes and channels.1 N. calculate the force exerted by the air on the cone. aeroplanes. • At all solid boundaries the flow particles have zero relative velocity to the boundaries and it will increase as we move toward the centre • Since we are concerned with flow past solid boundaries.
• Increasing the temperature of a fluid reduces the cohesive forces and increases the molecular interchange. • Viscosity will also change with pressure . Mathematical considerations of this momentum exchange can lead to Newton law of viscosity.but under normal conditions this change is negligible in gasses. The molecules are much closer than in gasses. Viscosity in Liquids • There is some molecular interchange between adjacent layers.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Viscosity in Gasses • The molecules of gasses are only weakly kept in position by molecular cohesion (as they are so far apart). τ. As pressure increases the relative movement of molecules requires more energy hence viscosity increases. while increasing molecular interchange increases shear stress. while molecules moving the other way exert an acceleration force. As adjacent layers move by each other there is a continuous exchange of molecules. • Reducing cohesive forces reduces shear stress. the cohesive forces hold the molecules in place more rigidly. • If temperature of a gas increases the momentum exchange between layers will increase thus increasing viscosity. hence. Molecules of a slower layer move to faster layers causing a drag. is τ= F A d d • The deformation caused by τ is the shear strain and it is the angle φ • For a particle at point E which moves under the shear stress to E’ in time t • The shear strain is φ= dx dy and the rate of shear strain is φ t = dx dV = tdy dy • It has been experimentally confirmed that the shear stress is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain τ = Constant * dV dy • The proportionality constant is known as the dynamic viscosity. µ. • High pressure can also change the viscosity of a liquid. Hence Newton’s law of Viscosity is τ =µ dV dy 68 . 67 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Newton’s Law of Viscosity • For a 3d rectangular element of fluid • The shear stress.
its dimensions ML1 T 2 or kg m1 s 2 dV is the velocity gradient or rate of shear strain. Fluid with a high viscosity such as syrup. its Dimension t –1 and Units radians s1 dy µ is the “coefficient of dynamic viscosity” 70 . is the shear stress. • Different fluids deform at different rates under the same shear stress. is the property of a fluid. “Newtonian Fluids” obey the linear relationship given by Newton’s law of viscosity. The strain in a solid is independent of the time over which the force is applied and (if the elastic limit is not reached) the deformation disappears when the force is removed. • • Newtonian Fluids: Fluids obeying Newton’s law where the value of µ is constant • NonNewtonian Fluids: Fluids in which the value of µ is not constant 69 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties • Viscosity. the rate of strain is proportional to the applied stress. For a fluid. τ =µ • Where dV dy and its Units N m 2 τ. deforms more slowly than fluid with a low viscosity such as water. A fluid continues to flow for as long as the force is applied and will not recover its original form when the force is removed. µ.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties • For a solid the strain is a function of the applied stress (providing that the elastic limit has not been reached). due to cohesion and interaction between molecules. • All fluids are viscous. which offers resistance to sheer deformation.
) –1 (Although • Typical values: Water =1. is defined as the shear force.9 kg m1 s1 .. where –1 • Dimensions: L2 T 1 and Units: m2 s 104 St = 1 m2 s –1 . Air =1. (Although kg m1 s1 ) • Typical values: Water =1. St.552 kg m1 s1 . Air =1. Mercury =1.14 x 106 m2 s –1 .Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity • The Coefficient of Dynamic Viscosity. 71 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Kinematic Viscosity • Kinematic Viscosity. ν. where 10 P = 1 • Units: N s m2 or kg m1 s1 . ν= µ ρ ν is often expressed in Stokes. P. required to drag one layer of fluid with unit velocity past another layer a unit distance away. µ.14 x 103 kg m1 s1 1 . per unit area.46 x 105 m2 s 104 m2 s –1 . Paraffin Oil =1. Paraffin Oil =2. µ =τ / dV Force Velocity Force × Time Mass = / = = dy Area Distance Area Length × Time µ is often expressed in Poise. (or shear stress τ).78 x 105 kg m1 s1 .375 x 103 m2 s –1 .145 x 72 . . is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density. Mercury =1.
If the velocity profile is that of a parabola.91 flows through a 25mmdiameter pipe with a velocity of 2.6 m/s and h=0.s/m2.5 cm.006 mm thick.6 m/s. and (b) the shearing stress acting on a plane parallel to the walls and passing through the centerline (midplane).16 m/s) 74 . When Vm=0. with the oil at the plates having the same velocity as the plates. what is the shear stress on the moving plate from the oil? If a linear profile is assumed. what is the terminal speed of the block? The viscosity of the oil is 7 mPa. determine: (a) the shearing stress acting on the bottom wall. V the mean fluid velocity.1. A Newtonian fluid having a viscosity 0.Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Examples • A dimensionless combination of variables that is important in the study of viscous flow through pipes is called the Reynolds number. and µ the fluid viscosity. Determine the value of the Reynolds number • The velocity distribution for the flow of a Newtonian fluid between two wide. what is the shear stress on the moving plate? (Ans: µvo/(2d). Assuming a linear velocity profile in the oil. defined as ρVD/µ where ρ is the fluid density. 73 Fluid Mechanics I Fluids Properties Examples • A large plate moves with speed vo over a stationary plate on a layer of oil of thickness d and viscosity µ. (Ans: 5.kN slide down an incline on a film of oil 0. The fluid has a viscosity of 0.2 N. D the pipe diameter.s. parallel plates is given by the equation 2 3Vm y V= 1 − 2 h where Vm is the mean velocity.38 N. µvo/d ) • A 250 mm square block weighing 1.s/m2 of and a specific gravity of 0. Re.
Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Characteristic of Pipe Flow • Most of conduits used to transport fluid are round in cross section • They are designed to withstand a considerable pressure difference across their walls • Most of the basic principles involved are independent of the crosssectional shape • For all flows involved in this section. • In this part we shall look at how the forces due to momentum changes on the fluid and viscous forces compare and what changes take place. but the main driving force is likely to be a pressure gradient along the pipe • If the pipe is not full. to solid surfaces and have stresses within their body • You might remember from earlier in the course Newtons law of viscosity: τ∝ dV dy • This tells us that the shear stress. is known as the viscosity. τ. that is they tend to . it is not possible to maintain this pressure difference 75 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes • The flow of real fluids exhibits viscous effect. we assume that the pipe is completely filled with the fluid being transported • The difference between openchannel flow and the pipe flow is in the fundamental mechanism that drives the flow » For openchannel flow.the rate of change of velocity across the fluid path. 76 . in a fluid is proportional to the velocity gradient . For a Newtonian fluid we can write: τ =µ dV dy • The constant of proportionality. gravity alone is the driving force » For pipe flow.stick. gravity may be important. µ.
Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Laminar and Turbulent Flow • If we were to take a pipe of free flowing water and inject a dye into the middle of the stream. in a wavy manner or in a vigorous eddying motion where it mixed completely with the water • In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is very orderly with all particles moving in straight lines parallel to the pipe walls • In transitional the flow comprises short burst of turbulence embedded in a laminar flow • In turbulent the flow incorporate an eddying or mixing action. what would we expect to happen? • This phenomenon was first investigated in the 1880s by Osbourne Reynolds in an experiment which has become a classic in fluid mechanics • Reynolds discovered that dependent on the speed of the flow the dye will flow smoothly. The motion of the fluid particle is complex and involve fluctuations in velocity and direction 77 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes • Reynolds’ experiments revealed that the onset of turbulence was a function of » Fluid velocity » Fluid viscosity » Typical dimension • This led to the formation of the dimensionless Reynolds Number Where: Re = L is a representative length V is mean velocity ρ is density of fluid µ is absolute viscosity ν is kinematic viscosity ρVL VL = µ ν • It can be shown that The Reynolds Number = Inertia force / viscous force • For commercial pipe flow » for Re < 2000 laminar flow » for 2000 < Re < 4000 flow is transitional » for Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent 78 .
The section is 500x500mm and the mean velocity of flow is 3m/s.1 m/s and viscosity is 1.7*105 kg /m s 79 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Energy Losses Due to Friction • In the derivation of the Conservation of energy equation we have assumed ideal fluid • The friction which results from the the shear stress in real fluid will absorb some of the energy available. hence 1 2 V12 2g Energy Line hL V22 2g P1 ρg Head loss Velocity head p V2 p1 V12 + + h1 = 2 + 2 + h2 + h f ρg 2g ρg 2g » hf is often know as the V 1 Pressure head ρg P2 Piezometric head Piezometric head Z1 head loss due to friction • To determine the hf we consider the Freebody diagram of a cylinder of fluid • Using Newton’s second law and noting that the fluid is flowing at a constant velocity Datum V 2 Z2 p1πr 2 − ( p1 − ∆p1 )πr 2 − τ 2πrL = 0 ∆p 2τ = L r 80 .2*103 kg/m s. take viscosity to be 1.Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Examples: Are the flows laminar or turbulent: • A flow of water trough a pipe of square cross section. • A flow of air through a pipe of diameter 35mm. The air velocity is 0.
τ = −µ dV ∆p = − r ⇒ dr 2 µL ∫ dV = − 2µL ∫ rdr ∆p dV dr • Integrating will give V =− ∆p 2 r + C1 4 µL 2 ∆pD 2 2r . • However. hf = 64 L V 2 L V2 = f Re D 2 g D 2g • For Turbulent flow. hence V = 1 − 16µL D This is represent a parabolic velocity distribution ∆pD 2 • At r = D/2 we have V = 0 this will give C1 = 16 µL • The discharge is Q = ∫ V dA = r=D / 2 r =0 ∫ ∆pD 2 2r 1 − 16 µL D 2 πD 4 ∆p 2πrdr = 128µL • Using the Energy equation p1 p2 − = h f ⇒ ∆p = ρgh f ρg ρg πD 4 ρgh f Q= 128µL ⇒ hf = 128µLQ πD 4 ρg 81 Fluid Mechanics I • Using the mean velocity Vmean=Q/A will give hf = 32 µLVmean ρgD 2 Viscous Flow in Pipes . • Following the same analogy as above we get L V2 hf = f D 2g • The various experiments showed that the friction is dependent of the Re and the relative roughness of the pipe k/D or ε/D • Moody produced plots of the friction f as a function of Re and ε/D for commercial pipes 82 . the shear stress was proportional to V2. Re = ρVd µ therefore. We will drop the mean.Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes • Assuming laminar flow and using Newton’s law of viscosity • Thus. Newton’s law of viscosity does not apply. here semi imperical formula are used to determine the velocity profile and hence the turbulent shear stress • Following the experiments of Reynolds and Darcy and Wiesbach.
Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes 83 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Energy Losses Due to Friction • • General theoretical treatment for local losses is not available.5 Pipe Entrance and exit Valves KL = 0. It is usual to assume rough turbulence which lead to the simple equation Energy Line hL hL = K L • V2 2 g Here.04 84 .8 KL = 0.2 KL = 0. K is the loss coefficient The losses can be due to : » » » » » Pipe expansions K L = (1 − A1 2 ) A2 Pipe contractions: depend on A1/A2 Elbow and junctions KL = 0.
• Determine the discharge for the flow situation shown in the figure.9 and 0. The loss coefficient for a fully opened valve. • Determine the size of galvanised steel pipe needed to carry water a distance of 180 m at 85 litres/s with a head loss of 9 m. a standard elbow and a flush entrance can be taken as 10.5 respectively. 0. The pipe is 150mm diameter and made of castiron. 10m Fully Open valve 12m 30m 60m 86 .Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes 85 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Example • Determine the head lost to friction when water flows through 300m of 150mm diameter galvanised steel pipe at 50 litres/s.. • Calculate the steady rate at which oil (ν =105 m2/s) will flow through a castiron pipe 100mm diameter and 120 m long under a head difference of 5 m. The water temperature is 15oc.
04.6x103 N/m2) • Water from a large reservoir is discharged to atmosphere through a pipe 450 m long. If the friction factor is 0. (iii) 0. at a distance of 240 m from it.Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Examples • Oil of viscosity 0.04. (ii) 2. 2.51 m3/s. Taking the friction factor as . (Ans: 4. (i) Check that the flow is laminar (ii) Calculate the pressure drop in a 30 m length of pipe (iii) Find the speed of the fluid at a distance of 6 mm from the wall of the pipe.3 m/s. is connected to a 100 mm diameter horizontal pipe 75 m long which discharges to atmosphere.0 litres per second. The lower end of the pipe. which is 6 m below the upper end.22 x 102 W) 87 Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Problems • A pipeline connecting two water reservoirs having a difference of level of 6 m is 720 m long and rises to a height of 3 m above the upper reservoir.14 X 106 m2/s) at the rate of 2. The outlet is 12 m below the surface level in the reservoir. the inlet to the pipe being 3 m below the surface.1 N/m2.2 m and the friction factor is 0. If the pipe diameter is 1. calculate the diameter of pipe necessary if the discharge is to be 9 x 1O3 m3/s.048 Pa s and density 930 kglm3 flows through a horizontal 25 mm diameter pipe with an average speed of 0. Assume that the loss at the inlet to the pipe and the kinetic energy in the water at the pipe outlet are negligible and then justify this assumption.86 1O3 m2/s. taking into account the entry loss and the sudden enlargement between the two pipes. 51.036 calculate the discharge.438 m/s) • Calculate the power required to pump 50. (Ans: 257 kw) • Calculate the pressure drop and power required per 100 m length of horizontal 250 mm diameter cast iron pipe to pump water (ν = 1. Assume losses are those due to friction only.000 kg of oil per hour along a horizontal pipeline 100 mm diameter and 1. before descending to the lower reservoir.21 x 104 N/m2. (Ans: 100mm) • A pipe 50 mm diameter and 45 m long is connected to a large tank. (Ans: 11.66 x 103m3/s) 88 . (Ans: Re = 145.6 km long if the density and kinematic viscosity of the oil are 915 kglm3 and 1. (Ans: 2. estimate the volume flow and the gauge pressure at the highest point in the pipeline.
(Ans: 51. If the turbine absorbs 10 kW from the water. calculate the power required.9 kW) • • In the water system shown in Fig 9.25 m) 89 .3 per valve) in the line.9 per elbow) and two gate valves (loss coefficient 0. (Ans: 24.Fluid Mechanics I Viscous Flow in Pipes Problems • A 200 mm diameter commercial steel pipeline 500 m long is to convey 4 m3 of water per minute from a reservoir to a storage tank whose free surface level is 20 m above that of the reservoir. a turbine is situated in a 150 m length of 150 mm diameter galvanised steel pipe. assuming the efficiency of the pump is 80%. estimate the depth H required in the reservoir to give a flow rate of 0. which discharges to atmosphere. If there are four standard elbow bends (loss coefficient 0.1 m3/s. containing four 90° elbow bends.
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