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The starting current of any heavy electric motor can be more than 4 times the normal load current it draws when it has gained speed and has reached its normal running output power and temperature. So, if it were started simply when connected in DELTA, the starting current would be huge and just to be able to start the motor, not to run it normally - would require:
large circuit breakers, big enough to allow the start-up surge current to pass without immediately shutting it off. (But the breakers would then be much too big to be able to protect the motor from over-current faults whilst it is running normally.) very thick 3-phase power service cables. (But the cable would then be much bigger than is necessary whilst the motor is running normally.) very large coils and contacts on the relays or contactors used to control the motor. (But they would then be much bigger than is necessary whilst the motor is running normally.)
One solution to this problem is to start the motor in STAR and then, when the motor has gained sufficient speed, change its connections to DELTA to allow the motor to run at its full speed and torque from then on. It's a bit like using the gears of an automobile. Update: Electronic motor-control systems, which offer soft-starts in DELTA configuration, are now replacing the use of manual or semi-automatic star-delta starters. Technical explanation When the windings of a 3-phase motor are connected in STAR:
the voltage applied to each winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the voltage applied to the winding when it is connected directly across two incoming power service line phases in DELTA. the current per winding is reduced to only (1 /.'/'3) [1 divided by root three] of the normal running current taken when it is connected in DELTA. so, because of the Power Law V [in volts] x I [in amps] = P [in watts], the total output power when the motor is connected in STAR is: PS = [VL x (1/.'/'3)] x [ID x (1/.'/'3 )] = PD x (1/3) [one third of the power in DELTA] where: VL is the line-to-line voltage of the incoming 3-phase power service
y a further disadvantage when the motor is connected in STAR is that the total output torque is only 1/3 of the total torque it can produce when running in DELTA. .ID is the line current drawn in DELTA PS is the total power the motor can produce when running in STAR PD is the total power it can produce when running in DELTA.
full voltage is applied to the motor through relays and contactors. In this type of starting a 3phase motor.How does a DOL three phase motor starter work \ A DOL Starter means Direct On-Line starter. The closing circuit is for applying the supply to the motor and the opening . . It has a "closing circuit" and an "opening circuit". a single phasing fault.or "tripping" circuit protects the motor by cutting-off (or "tripping") power to the motor from the supply lines if there is any overload condition. etc. Its is the most common type of 3-phase motor starter used.
This type of starting is suitable for small motors below 5 hp (3. high starting current flows through the motor.75 kW). Consequently. Hence. the motor is subjected to the full voltage of the power supply. Although DOL motor starters are available for motors less than 150 kW on 400 V and for motors less than 1 MW on 6. Reducedvoltage starters are employed with motors above 5 hp.6 kV. Supply reliability and reserve power generation dictates the use of reduced voltage or not To reduce the starting current of an induction motor the voltage across the motor need to be reduced. This can be .What is the d/f between DOL & star delta starter & automatic star delta starter? A DOL starter connects the motor terminals directly to the power supply.
star-delta starter or resistor starter. With this star delta connection we are able to reduce starting current by 1/3 of DOL starting current and starting torque also. the motor change over to delta connection.com/Presentation/Bshivanand486113-electrical-starters/ .authorstream. http://www. in dol starte the motor is directly fed from the line and in star delta starter ther motor is started initially from star and later during running from delta In case of Star Delta starter the motor intially will run in star connection and when 80% of rated speed picks. Now-a-days VVVF drive used extensively for speed control serves this purpose also.done by autotransformer starter.
Star-Delta Starter with circuit diagram .
Normally with motors beyond 5 HP. Two methods of reduced voltage starting are star delta starting and autotransformer stating. It is not desirable to start large motors direct on line (giving full voltage to the stator). To limit the starting current surge. and this in turn produces a magnetic field which revolves in space around the stator. Full voltage is only applied when the motor picks up speed. As if the magnetic poles are being rotated. Direct On Line Starter Read more: http://www. especially for the squirrel cage induction motors. when the motor reaches rated speed. a lower voltage is applied to the stator. Star Delta starters for large motors. the speed of the rotating magnetic field is given by N = 120 f /P Starting Principle The high starting current will produce severe a voltage drop and will affect the operation of other equipment. A three phase supply is given to the stator of the three phase induction motor.Introduction Most large induction motors are started directly on line. Starting methods of Induction motor include: 1. 3. starters are provided. For reduction in the starting current. but when very large motors are started that way. Direct On line (DOL) starters for less than 10 Kw motors. the contactor will be tripped automatically to disconnect the motor from the supply. large induction motors are started at reduced voltage and then have full supply voltage reconnected when they run up to near rotated speed.brighthub. 1. 2. Auto transformer. Contactors perform the switching action in the starter to connect and disconnect the power supply to the motor. The stator winding is initially connected in a star configuration and later on changed over to a Delta connection.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/74957.aspx#ixzz10SpBc5TE . If the current is above the rated current for the motor. they cause a disturbance of voltage on the supply lines due to large starting current surges.
Starting in star reduces the starting current.R enables motors of 75 Kw and above to be started direct on line. A two-position switch (manual or automatic) is provided through a timing relay. More complicated than the DOL starter. but will take 1/3 of the current from the supply when connected in star than when connected in delta. so output is reduced in the start position. 4.1. When the motor has accelerated up to speed and the current is reduced to its normal value. 4. An isolator is required to isolate the starter from the supply for maintenance. the starter is moved to run position with the windings now connected in delta. Star-Delta Starter A three phase motor will give three times the power output when the stator windings are connected in delta than if connected in star. This method is normally limited to smaller cage induction motors.brighthub. because starting current can be as high as eight times the full load current of the motor. 2. 2. Read more: http://www. Some of the safety protections are over-current protection. 3.V. 5. The starting torque developed in star is ½ that when starting in delta. Protection must be provided for the motor. 5. Use of a double cage rotor requires lower staring current( approximately four times) and use of quick acting A. Control circuit voltage is sometimes stepped down through an autotransformer. 1. The contacts close against spring action.aspx#ixzz10SpOLgLz . Switching causes a transient current which may have peak values in excess of those with DOL. short circuit protection. It is simple and cheap starter for a 3-phase induction motor. 2. a motor with a star-delta starter may not produce sufficient torque to start against full load. under-voltage protection. The motors are thus normally started under a light load condition. etc.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/74957. 3.
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