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The Cloud Computing Platforms Handbook - Everything you need to know about Cloud Computing Platforms

The Cloud Computing Platforms Handbook - Everything you need to know about Cloud Computing Platforms

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.

This book is your ultimate resource for Cloud Computing Platforms. Here you will find the most up-to-date information and much more.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Cloud Computing Platforms right away: Amazon Relational Database Service, Amazon Simple Queue Service, Amazon SimpleDB, Amazon Web Services, AppScale, Azure Services Platform, Caspio, CloudControl, Cordys Process Factory, Engine Yard, Force.com, FreedomBox, Google App Engine, Heroku, Hybrid Web Cluster, OrangeScape, Platform as a service, Rackspace Cloud, Rollbase, Squarespace, Sun Cloud, Vertebra (cloud computing framework), Wolf Frameworks

Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.

This book is your ultimate resource for Cloud Computing Platforms. Here you will find the most up-to-date information and much more.

In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Cloud Computing Platforms right away: Amazon Relational Database Service, Amazon Simple Queue Service, Amazon SimpleDB, Amazon Web Services, AppScale, Azure Services Platform, Caspio, CloudControl, Cordys Process Factory, Engine Yard, Force.com, FreedomBox, Google App Engine, Heroku, Hybrid Web Cluster, OrangeScape, Platform as a service, Rackspace Cloud, Rollbase, Squarespace, Sun Cloud, Vertebra (cloud computing framework), Wolf Frameworks

Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Apr 28, 2011
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  • Cloud computing
  • Amazon Relational Database Service
  • Amazon Relational Database Service[1]
  • Amazon Simple Queue Service
  • Amazon SimpleDB
  • Amazon Web Services
  • , Amazon Web Services
  • AppScale
  • Azure Services Platform
  • Caspio
  • CloudControl
  • cloudControl
  • Cordys Process Factory
  • Cordys Process Factory [1]
  • Engine Yard
  • Force.com
  • FreedomBox
  • Google App Engine
  • Heroku
  • Hybrid Web Cluster
  • OrangeScape
  • Platform as a service
  • Open Platform as a Service
  • Rackspace Cloud
  • Rollbase
  • Squarespace
  • Sun Cloud
  • Vertebra (cloud computing framework)
  • Wolf Frameworks
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Cloud platform services or “Platform as a Service (PaaS)” deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming

cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. This book is your ultimate resource for Cloud Computing Platforms. Here you will find the most up-to-date information and much more. In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Cloud Computing Platforms right away: Amazon Relational Database Service, Amazon Simple Queue Service, Amazon SimpleDB, Amazon Web Services, AppScale, Azure Services Platform, Caspio, CloudControl, Cordys Process Factory, Engine Yard, Force.com, FreedomBox, Google App Engine, Heroku, Hybrid Web Cluster, OrangeScape, Platform as a service, Rackspace Cloud, Rollbase, Squarespace, Sun Cloud, Vertebra (cloud computing framework), Wolf Frameworks Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

Cloud Computing Platforms


Everything you need to know about Cloud Computing Platforms

Cloud Computing Platforms

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated wiki entries, typeset, printed and shipped. Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it effectively and globally. The content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. The publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need specific advice (for example, medical, legal, financial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Cloud computing Amazon Relational Database Service Amazon Simple Queue Service Amazon SimpleDB Amazon Web Services AppScale Azure Services Platform Caspio CloudControl Cordys Process Factory Engine Yard Force.com FreedomBox Google App Engine Heroku Hybrid Web Cluster OrangeScape Platform as a service Rackspace Cloud Rollbase Squarespace Sun Cloud Vertebra (cloud computing framework) Wolf Frameworks 1 17 17 19 20 23 24 29 30 31 33 34 36 38 43 45 47 49 51 56 57 60 62 63

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 65 67

Article Licenses
License 68

How it works To understand the concept of cloud computing. and store it on their property. A computer owner is responsible for keeping their machine functional. purify it. in cloud computing. Since the above scenario represents a great deal of work for the homeowner and lacks economies of scale. organizing their data. Cloud computing conceptual diagram The most common analogy to explain cloud computing is that of public utilities such as electricity. public utilities are by far the more common solution. and files. and connect a home's plumbing to a water main and a sewage line. serving as little more than a display terminal for processes occurring on a network of computers far away. in other words computing as a utility rather than a product. Public utilities allow the homeowner to simply connect a fuse box to a power grid. the user's computer may contain almost no software or data (perhaps a minimal operating system and web browser only). A common shorthand for a provider's cloud computing service (or even an aggregation of all existing cloud services) is "The Cloud". one must compare it to other utilities.). being billed for the total. pictures. or would have to run a sewage treatment plant. and keeping out viruses and hackers. In the traditional model of computing. The homeowner would have to own and maintain a generator. The power plant deals with the complexities of power generation and transport and the homeowner simply uses whatever share of the public utility's vast resources he or she needs.Cloud computing 1 Cloud computing Cloud computing refers to the provision of computational resources on demand via a computer network. and would have to collect their sewage in a tank and transport it to a place where it could be disposed of. a typical home or work computer is an extraordinarily complex device and its inner workings are out of the reach of most users. and water. a homeowner would be responsible for all aspects of these concerns. and sewers. The principle behind the cloud is that any computer connected to the internet is connected to the same pool of computing power. By way of comparison. Those who use web-based email such as Gmail or Hotmail instead of receiving mail on their computer with Outlook or Entourage are the most common examples of such users. or . water. etc. keeping it fueled and operational and its failure would mean a power outage. Without public utilities such as electricity. cloud computing frees users from certain hardware and software installation and maintenance tasks through the use of simpler hardware that accesses a vast network of computing resources (processors. The sharing of resources reduces the cost to individuals. hard drives. Users can store and access personal files such as music. When computing power is contained at a specialized data center. gas. Almost all users of the internet may be using a form of cloud computing though few realize it. videos. both data and software are fully contained on the user's computer. and bookmarks or play games or use productivity applications on a remote server rather than physically carrying around a storage medium such as a DVD or thumb drive. applications. The homeowner would have to pump water from a well. Just as centralized and standardized utilities free individuals from the difficulties of generating electricity or pumping water. The phrase “cloud computing” originated from the cloud symbol that is usually used by flow charts and diagrams to symbolize the internet.

Users do not log in to a server. and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Some heavy users of cloud computing have seen storage costs fall by 20% and networking costs reduced by 50%. reduce the necessity and frequency of upgrades. The data across the multiple servers is synchronised around the world for rapid global access. Parallels to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid. Companies can use cloud computing to effectively request and use time-distributed computing resources on the fly. cloud computing can allow the company to meet the overload requirements without needing to pay for hosting a traditional infrastructure for the rest of the year. for example. a cookie) which is stored in their browser.[3] Cloud computing provides computation. For example.[8] . Commercial offerings are generally expected to meet quality of service (QoS) requirements of customers. The web servers run user interface software which collects commands from the user (mouse clicks. consumption. The user's IP address.g. and typically include service level agreements (SLAs). Information is then stored on or retrieved from the database servers or file servers and an updated page is displayed to the user. where end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service. and delivery model for IT services based on Internet protocols. save energy.) and interprets them. etc. can be used to establish where the user is located (geolocation).[2] 2 Technical description The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides a concise and specific definition: Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. software. networks. the responsibility for performing these complicated maintenance tasks is lifted from the user. Most cloud computing infrastructures consist of services delivered through common centers and built-on servers. and lessen maintenance costs.[6] This frequently takes the form of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through a web browser as if they were programs installed locally on their own computers. on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.. When a user accesses the cloud for a popular website. and it typically involves provisioning of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources[4] [5] It is a byproduct and consequence of the ease-of-access to remote computing sites provided by the Internet. but they log in to the service they are using by obtaining a session id (e. many things can happen.[1] The benefits of cloud computing include that it can minimize infrastructure costs.Cloud computing "in the cloud". The user becomes responsible only for maintaining a very simple computer whose purpose is only to connect to the internet and allow these cloud services to take care of the rest. Clouds often appear as single points of access for consumers' computing needs. if a company has unanticipated usage spikes above the usual workload. Cloud computing describes a new supplement. servers. uploads. applications. data access.[7] Typical cloud computing providers deliver common business applications online that are accessed from another Web service or software like a Web browser. key presses.g. storage. What the user sees in their browser usually comes from a cluster of web servers. DNS services can then direct the user to a cluster of servers that are close to the user so the site can be accessed rapidly and in the user's local language. while the software and data are stored on servers.

with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model)."[12] 6." 4. in a reciprocal manner. that is. Mainframe computer — powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications.[14] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. enterprise resource planning. service-oriented computing consists of the computing techniques that operate on software-as-a-service. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. All the other concepts mentioned are supplementary or complementary to this concept."[9] 2. Peer-to-peer – distributed architecture without the need for central coordination.Cloud computing 3 Overview Comparisons Cloud computing shares characteristics with: 1. Cloud computing sample architecture The two most significant components of cloud computing architecture are known as the front end and the back end. known or static place(s). typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces. and financial transaction processing. Grid computing — "a form of distributed computing and parallel computing. the processing (and the related data) is not in a specified. This includes the client’ network (or computer) s . Architecture Cloud architecture. the computer user. This is in contrast to a model in which the processing takes place in one or more specific servers that are known. loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks. Service-oriented computing – Cloud computing provides services related to computing while. such as electricity. usually web services and 3-tier architecture. i. Utility computing — the "packaging of computing resources. This resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs each doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility.[13] Characteristics The key characteristic of cloud computing is that the computing is "in the cloud". 7. industry and consumer statistics. Autonomic computing — "computer systems capable of self-management. such as computation and storage.e. Client–server model – client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients). The front end is the part seen by the client.[10] 3. typically bulk data processing such as census.[11] 5. whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked.

and launched Amazon Web Service (AWS) on a utility computing basis in 2006. the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book. efforts were focused on providing QoS guarantees (as required by real-time interactive applications) to cloud-based infrastructures. service-oriented architecture.[18] The first scholarly use of the term “cloud computing” was in a 1997 lecture by Ramnath Chellappa. based on the cloud drawing used in the past to represent the telephone network. comprising various computers. and that which was the responsibility of the user. After the dot-com bubble. they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. fast-moving "two-pizza teams" could add new features faster and more easily. AWS API-compatible platform for deploying private clouds.[16] Cloud computing is a natural evolution of the widespread adoption of virtualization. IBM and a number of universities embarked on a large-scale cloud computing research project. In early 2008. The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies.[17] The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s. the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public. illusion of infinite supply). when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility.[21] In early 2008. or control over.Cloud computing and the applications used to access the cloud via a user interface such as a web browser.[23] By mid-2008. were using as little as 10% of their capacity at any one time. and for the federation of clouds. private. servers and data storage devices. Eucalyptus became the first open-source. began offering Virtual Private Network (VPN) services with comparable quality of service but at a much lower cost. which. will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and significant reductions in other areas. Gartner saw an opportunity for cloud computing "to shape the relationship among consumers of IT services. autonomic and utility computing. The cloud symbol was used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of the provider.. Having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements whereby small. Cloud computing extends this boundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.[15] and later to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the ‘ cloud’itself. Google. who until the 1990s primarily offered dedicated point-to-point data circuits. OpenNebula. provided as a utility. online.[22] In the same year. like most computer networks. became the first open-source software for deploying private and hybrid clouds. The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Amazon initiated a new product development effort to provide cloud computing to external customers. just to leave room for occasional spikes. government and community forms.[19] [20] In 2007. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. in the framework of the IRMOS European Commission-funded project."[25] . enhanced in the RESERVOIR European Commission-funded project. who no longer have need for expertise in. Amazon played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers.. Details are abstracted from end-users." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision. 4 History The term "cloud" is used as a metaphor for the Internet. those who use IT services and those who sell them"[24] and observed that "[o]rganisations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" so that the "projected shift to cloud computing .

[27] This ostensibly lowers barriers to entry. self-service basis near real-time.[33] However. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). mobile phone). • Performance is monitored. without users having to engineer for peak loads.[30] • Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained.[26] • Application Programming Interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. .[28] • Security could improve due to centralization of data. etc. because they do not need to be installed on each user's computer. PC. the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems which are being shared by unrelated users. but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data.. • Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users' desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security.Cloud computing 5 Key characteristics • Agility improves with users' ability to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. as the changes reach the clients instantly. etc.. and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface.[19] • Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used.[31] increased security-focused resources. and the lack of security for stored kernels. • Cost is claimed to be greatly reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. They are easier to support and to improve. users can connect from anywhere.g. which makes well designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. In addition. user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet.[28] • Device and location independence[29] enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e. electricity.[32] Security is often as good as or better than under traditional systems.[28] • Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: • Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.) • Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) • Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilized. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks.

clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. IaaS evolved from virtual private server offerings. including architecture. data-center space or network equipment. which obviates the need for downloadable patches and upgrades Platform Cloud platform services or "Platform as a Service (PaaS)" deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service. enabling customers to access applications remotely via the Web • Application delivery that typically is closer to a one-to-many model (single instance. Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery. it is possible to share services within any one of the following layers.e. and management of.[40] It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support. assembled from hundreds of virtual machines. software. phones and other devices.[43] Cloud infrastructure often takes the form of a tier 3 data center with many tier 4 attributes. commercially available (i.Cloud computing 6 Layers Once an Internet Protocol connection is established among several computers. is essentially useless without it. Rather than purchasing servers. multi-tenant architecture) than to a one-to-one model. and management characteristics • Centralized feature updating. pricing. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis and amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity. operating systems and browsers.[41] [42] Infrastructure Cloud infrastructure services. in either case..[34] [35] [36] [37] [38] Application Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet. partnering. Key characteristics include:[39] • Network-based access to. Examples include some computers. not custom) software • Activities that are managed from central locations rather than at each customer's site. often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications. when in fact they are two different things. People tend to use the terms "SaaS" and "cloud" interchangeably. also known as "Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)". delivers computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualization environment – as a service. . or that is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and that.

[47] Hybrid cloud and hybrid IT delivery The main responsibility of the IT department is to deliver services to the business. A hybrid storage cloud uses a combination of public and private storage clouds. self-service basis over the Internet. workstations) utilized and shared in the community are already exploited and have reached their return of investment. . cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a single tenant). from an off-site third-party provider who bills on a fine-grained utility computing [28] basis. including multi-core processors.”[48] Hybrid cloud is also called hybrid delivery by the major vendors including HP. Examples of community clouds include Google's "Gov Cloud". via web applications/web services. With the proliferation of cloud computing (both private and public) and the fact that IT departments must also deliver services via traditional. security and privacy concerns that results from the mixed delivery [49] methods of IT services. Oracle and VMware who offer technology to manage the complexity in managing the performance. security and/or policy compliance. This option may offer a higher level of privacy. where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between cloud hosting and managed dedicated servers – this is most commonly achieved as part of a web cluster in which some of the nodes are running on real physical hardware and some are running on cloud server instances. the newest catch-phrase has become “hybrid cloud computing.Cloud computing 7 Server The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. Hybrid storage clouds are often useful for archiving and backup functions. allowing local data to be replicated to a public cloud.[34] [44] [45] [46] Deployment models Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense. In addition it can be economically attractive as the resources (storage. Community cloud Cloud computing types A community cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of cloud computing.[50] Another perspective on deploying a web application in the cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. in-house methods. IBM.

Private clouds have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy. i. Cloud engineering is also known as cloud service engineering. and people who require their data to be hosted buy or lease storage capacity from them and use it for their storage needs. conceptualization.e. Even within modern utility industries. Physically. commoditization.g. A combined cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers[51] "will be typical for most enterprises". as well as the study and applied research of the approach. the resource may span across multiple servers. the application of engineering to cloud.[52] essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept". Some vendors have used the terms to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. but are in fact an implementation of a technology subset: the basic concept of virtualized computing. but the concepts themselves pre-date the term cloud by 40 years. "private clouds" are not an implementation of cloud computing at all. and maintenance of cloud computing. disciplined. [56] Therefore. productization.Cloud computing 8 Combined cloud Two clouds that have been joined together are more correctly called a "combined cloud". It is a maturing and evolving discipline to facilitate the adoption. and governance of cloud solutions. which the customers can themselves manage. virtualize the resources according to the requirements of the customer and expose them as virtual servers. . generally hosted by third parties. operationalization. development. in the background. industrialization. Cloud engineering Cloud engineering is the application of a systematic. for all intents and purposes. The data center operators. strategization. build.[53] Private cloud Douglas Parkhill first described the concept of a "private computer utility" in his 1966 book The Challenge of the Computer Utility. and the ability to scale up or down depending upon demand.[54] [55] Enterprise IT organizations use their own private cloud(s) for mission critical and other operational systems to protect critical infrastructures. and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. Cloud storage Cloud storage is a model of networked computer data storage where data is stored on multiple virtual servers. and interdisciplinary approach to the ideation. hybrid models still exist despite the formation of reasonably well-functioning markets and the ability to combine multiple providers.. the ability to recover from failure. "Private cloud" and "internal cloud" have been described as neologisms. operation. These provide the benefits of utility computing – shared hardware costs. leading towards a cloud ecosystem. the electricity industry) and the extensive use of hybrid supply models to balance and mitigate risks. These (typically virtualization automation) products offer the ability to host applications or virtual machines in a company's own set of hosts. quantifiable. standardization. The idea was based upon direct comparison with other industries (e. rather than being hosted on dedicated servers.[52] By integrating multiple cloud services users may be able to ease the transition to public cloud services while avoiding issues such as PCI compliance. Hosting companies operate large data centers.

Cloud computing 9 The Intercloud The Intercloud[57] is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds"[58] [59] and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based. trust. under non-disclosure agreement.[60] The term was first used in the context of cloud computing in 2007 when Kevin Kelly stated that "eventually we'll have the intercloud. Instances such as the secret NSA program. and the greater powers it gives to telecommunication companies to monitor user activity. users may have to adopt community or hybrid deployment modes which are typically more expensive and may offer restricted benefits. which recorded over 10 million phone calls between American citizens. each cloud can use the computational and storage resources of the virtualization infrastructures of other clouds. and thus. monitoring and billing. it could not be able to satisfy further requests for service allocations sent from its clients. causes uncertainty among privacy advocates. HIPAA and SOX in the United States. Issues Privacy The cloud model has been criticized by privacy advocates for the greater ease in which the companies hosting the cloud services control.g. but this has been criticised on the grounds that the hand-picked set of goals and standards determined by the auditor and the auditee are often not disclosed and can vary widely. This concept has been subsequently used many times over the last 40 years and is identical to the Intercloud. security. The concept of a competitive utility computing market which combined many computer utilities together was originally described by Douglas Parkhill in his 1966 book.[73] Providers typically make this information available on request."[64] Compliance In order to obtain compliance with regulations including FISMA. lawfully or unlawfully. Nevertheless. legal issues. and Verizon. working with AT&T. interoperability.[70] Google[71] and Microsoft[72] ). can monitor at will.[63] While there have been efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to "harmonize" the legal environment. This Intercloud will have the dimensions of one machine comprising all servers and attendant cloudbooks on the planet. the cloud of clouds. vendor's lock-ins. the "Challenge of the Computer Utility". Customers in the EU contracting with cloud providers established outside the EU/EEA have to adhere to the EU regulations on export of personal data. The Intercloud scenario aims to address such situation.". quality of service.[69] Salesforce.com. providers such as Amazon still cater to major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability zones. the communication and data stored between the user and the host company.[74] .[58] It became popular in 2009[61] and has also been used to describe the datacenter of the future. This is how Google is able [65] [66] and Rackspace Cloud are to "manage and meet additional government policy requirements beyond FISMA" [67] able to claim PCI compliance. Such form of pay-for-use may introduce new business opportunities among cloud providers if they manage to go beyond theoretical framework.[62] The Intercloud scenario is based on the key concept that each single cloud does not have infinite physical resources. the Intercloud raises many more challenges than solutions concerning cloud federation. If a cloud saturates the computational and storage resources of its virtualization infrastructure. the Data Protection Directive in the EU and the credit card industry's PCI DSS. and in theory.[68] Many providers also obtain SAS 70 Type II certification (e. Amazon.

Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U.[78] Open source Open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations. 2010. Since 2007. The Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)[83] is working to develop consensus on early cloud computing standards and practices. private or public. On October 29."[77] Scholars have pointed out that. the number of trademark filings covering cloud computing brands. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License.[76] Other legal cases may shape the use of cloud computing by the public sector. that promote external management of provided services. goods and services has increased at an almost exponential rate. 116 cloud computing trademarks were filed. the prevalence of open standards and open source may have an impact on the way that public entities choose to select vendors. One organization in particular. Some vendors have adopted others' APIs[82] and there are a number of open standards under development. calling the requirement "unduly restrictive of competition.S. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later.[80] Open standards Most cloud providers expose APIs which are typically well-documented (often under a Creative Commons license[81] ) but also unique to their implementation and thus not interoperable. including the OGF's Open Cloud Computing Interface.[84] Issues barring the adoption of cloud computing are due in large part to the private and public sectors unease surrounding the external management of security based services. a version of GPLv3 intended to close a perceived legal loophole associated with free software designed to be run over a network. Google sued. As companies sought to better position themselves for cloud computing branding and marketing efforts. Trademark 77139082 [75]) in the United States. and trademark analysts predict that over 500 such marks could be filed during 2010.Cloud computing 10 Legal In March 2007.[79] In November 2007. which opened up a bid for software that required that bidders use Microsoft's Business Productivity Online Suite. This delivers great incentive amongst cloud computing service providers in producing a priority in building and maintaining strong management of secure services.S.[85] Organizations have been formed in order to provide standards for a better future in cloud computing services. The "Notice of Allowance" the company received in July 2008 was canceled in August. cloud computing trademark filings increased by 483% between 2008 and 2009. In 2009. Security The relative security of cloud computing services is a contentious issue which may be delaying its adoption. It is the very nature of cloud computing based services. Google filed a lawsuit against the U. the Cloud Security Alliance is a non-profit organization formed to promote the use of best practices for providing security assurance within cloud computing. beginning in 2005. Department of Interior.[86] .

University of Washington. businesses are also worried about acceptable levels of availability and performance of applications hosted in the cloud. University of Maryland. Georgia [100] [101] Tech's Center for Experimental Research in Computer Systems (CERCS) and China Telecom. multi-data center. the environmental effects will be more moderate. University of Wisconsin–Madison. the Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI) in Korea. Carnegie Mellon.[103] The demonstration facility highlights high-security.Cloud computing 11 Availability and performance In addition to concerns about security.[93] Academic institutions include University of Melbourne (Australia). England. Intel Corporation and Yahoo! announced the creation of a global. 2010.[88] Sustainability and siting Although cloud computing is often assumed to be a form of "green computing".[94] Joint government. IIT Bombay. HP Labs India announced a new cloud-based technology designed to simplify taking content and making it mobile-enabled.[87] There are also concerns about a cloud provider shutting down for financial or legal reasons. service and data center management. the Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore.university project designed to enhance students' technical knowledge to address the challenges of cloud computing. an emerging approach to shared infrastructure in which large pools of systems are linked together to provide IT services. University of Utah. [92] Research A number of universities. HP formally opened its Government Cloud Theatre. called Open Cirrus. Indiana University. In November 2010. located at the HP Labs site in Bristol. Yale. and the Institute for System Programming at the Russian Academy of Sciences (ISPRAS).[97] designed to encourage research into all aspects of cloud computing. Wayne State.[99] In Sept. highly flexible cloud computing based on intellectual property developed at HP Labs. HP. even from low-end devices. Purdue University. Spain's Supercomputing Center of Galicia (CESGA by its Spanish acronym). such as Finland. academic and vendor collaborative research projects include the IBM/Google Academic Cloud Computing Initiative (ACCI). there is as of yet no published study to substantiate this assumption.[102] Called SiteonMobile. marine research infrastructure of sensors and computational technology.[90] Sweden and Switzerland. the Malaysian Institute for Microelectronic Systems(MIMOS). is being developed using cloud computing.[91] are trying to attract cloud computing data centers.[98] Open Cirrus partners include the NSF. SmartBay. University of California. among others. University of Virginia. University of Minnesota.[95] In April 2009. The aim of the facility is to lessen fears about the security of the cloud. Thus countries with favorable conditions. the new technology is designed for emerging markets where people are more likely to access the internet via mobile phones rather than computers. In July 2010. which has happened in a number of cases.[89] Siting the servers affects the environmental effects of cloud computing. Georgia Tech. vendors and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing. MIT. the National Science Foundation joined the ACCI and awarded approximately $5 million in grants to 14 academic institutions. open source . Virginia Tech. In October 2007 IBM and Google announced the multi.[96] test bed. HP Labs Bristol is HP’ second-largest central research location and currently is responsible for researching cloud s computing and security. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The new researchers are China Mobile Research Institute (CMRI). more researchers joined the HP/Intel/Yahoo Open Cirrus project for cloud computing research. In areas where climate favors natural cooling and renewable electricity is readily available. the University of Illinois (UIUC).[104] In July 2008. University of Massachusetts. North Carolina State University.

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(http:/ / www. uk/ news/ cloud/ 2010/ 11/ 17/ hp-labs-unveils-g-cloud-demo-facility-40090895/ ?s_cid=938) [104] “HP Lifts Curtain on G-Cloud Theatre.com. hp. “More join HP. scribd. networkcomputing. cloudbook. “HP Labs unveils G-Cloud demo facility. gov/ news/ news_summ. Informationweek. [103] ZDNet UK. com/ d/ cloud-computing/ what-do-if-your-cloud-provider-disappears-508). com/ blog/ eucalyptus-completes-amazon-web-services-specs-with-latest-release). 2010" (http:/ / insidetrademarks. 2008-07-29. Networkworld. Redmonk. [99] "Open Cirrus: the Open Cloud Computing Research Testbed. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 2009).. nsf.gov. com/ doc/ 40513712/ Google-v-US-Complaint) [78] Casson and Ryan.com." Retrieved 2010-03-01" (http:/ / www.” HP News Release.” (http:/ / www. EcoSeed. Retrieved 2010-08-22.” Perez. Cloudbook. Nsf. Retrieved 2010-08-22. php)." May 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-22.com. [88] Scheier.com. 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DTL#ixzz10oru3Xj0) [101] Open Cirrus Video (http:/ / www. . com/ news/ 2008/ 072808-open-source-cloud-computing. 15 . .gov – National Science Foundation (NSF) News – National Science Foundation Awards Millions to Fourteen Universities for Cloud Computing Research – US National Science Foun. .com. [81] GoGrid Moves API Specification to Creative Commons (http:/ / www. 2010 (http:/ / www8. Retrieved November 10.org. [84] "Are security issues delaying adoption of cloud computing?" (http:/ / www." July 2008" (http:/ / www. . InfoWorld. the United States (http:/ / www. (http:/ / www. in/ Mobile/ 10-07-09/ HP_Labs_India_offers_SiteonMobile_for_emerging_markets. com/ ). gov/ servlet/ tarr?regser=serial& entry=77139082 [76] "Inside Trademarks March 24.there is some significant evidence that the cloud is encouraging more compute consumption" [90] Finland – First Choice for Siting Your Cloud Computing Data Center. Hp. com/ 2010/ 03/ 24/ cloud-computing-trademark-trends/ ). cfm?abstract_id=1656616) [79] "Open source fuels growth of cloud computing. Intel and Yahoo! Attract Leading Research Organizations to Collaborative Cloud Computing Test Bed. cgi?f=/ g/ a/ 2010/ 09/ 27/ urnidgns002570F3005978D8002577AB00480C4E. "SmartBay is being developed using Cloud computing. datacenterknowledge. Networkworld. com/ company/ press-releases/ gogrid-moves-api-specification-to-creativecommons. hp. [98] "HP News Release. com/ cgi-bin/ article. com/ cloud-computing/ cloud-minuses-outweigh-pluses-for-businesses.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. . Open Standards. org/ ). [85] "Security of virtualization. . cloud computing divides IT and security pros" (http:/ / www. Ostatic. Network Computing. gogrid. com/ archives/ 2008/ 05/ 02/ ibm-google-team-on-an-enterprise-cloud/ ). cloudsecurityalliance. hp. [86] "Cloud Security Alliance Official web page" (http:/ / www. html). . co. 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au. Retrieved 2010-08-22.academicroom. com/ news/ article/ 0. co.” Noyes. . "Cloud Computing is Hyped and Overblown" (http:/ / www.com. [112] By James Rogers (2009-12-18).Cloud Computing: Fact versus Fog (http://www.289142.grailresearch. Retrieved 2010-08-22. computing. au/ article/ 335674/ oracle_launches_worldwide_cloud-computing_tour/ ).com. Thestreet. uk/ technology/ 2008/ sep/ 29/ cloud. richard.Cloud computing [106] "IEEE International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD)" (http:/ / www. html).org. computerworld.com. News. "Oracle's Ellison Issues Cloud Challenge" (http:/ / www. "Oracle's Ellison nails cloud computing" (http:/ / news. html). 2010-02-16. 2011. [110] Farber. 2011. com/ 8301-13953_3-10052188-80. Retrieved 2010-08-22. . thestreet. [111] "Oracle launches worldwide cloud-computing tour" (http:/ / www. html). techtarget. Searchcloudcomputing. Retrieved 2010-08-22.cnet. org/ wp/ 2011/ 03/ open-networking-foundation-formed-to-speed-network-innovation/ ) [108] ComputerWorld: “Google and other titans form Open Networking Foundation. com/ watch?v=f7wv1i8ubng).pdf) . Youtube. .com/discipline/ 385837) • Grail Research . Retrieved 2010-08-22. warns GNU founder Richard Stallman (http:/ / www. "Larry Ellison – What The Hell Is Cloud Computing?" (http:/ / www. com. [113] "Oracle desperately seeking cloud cred" (http:/ / searchcloudcomputing. [114] “” (2008-09-29). com. beet.com. au/ article/ 380663/ google_other_titans_form_open_networking_foundation/ ?fp=4& fpid=78268965) [109] “”. [116] Cloud computing is a trap. . .com. computerworld. guardian. stallman) The Guardian.sid201_gci1384202. . . html). [107] Open Networking Foundation News Release. (http:/ / www. .00. March 23. Youtube. youtube. [115] "Cloud Computing is Hyped and Overblown. Forrester's Frank Gillett Big Tech Companies Have "Cloud Envy"" (http:/ / www.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/ 2010_Grail_Research_Cloud_Computing. thecloudcomputing. cnet. Monday 29 September 2008 14. Dan (2008-09-26). Retrieved 2010-08-22. com/ story/ 10649557/ 1/ oracles-ellison-issues-cloud-challenge.com. youtube.tv. org). Thecloudcomputing. March 21. Computerworld.techtarget. openflow. (http:/ / www.11 BST 16 External links • Cloud Computing Dashboard and Resources on Academic Room (http://www. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2010-08-22. Beet. tv/ 2008/ 09/ cloud-computing. Retrieved 2010-08-22. com/ watch?v=0FacYAI6DY0).

com/ rds/ #functionality Amazon Simple Queue Service Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS) is a distributed queue messaging service introduced by Amazon. to an AWS enabled account to perform identification. It supports programmatic sending of messages via web service applications as a way to communicate over the internet. AWS uses the Access Key ID provided in a service request to look up an account's Secret Access Key. and the data contained within is not restricted. Authentication Amazon SQS provides authentication procedures to allow for secure handling of data. This key is included in an AWS service request to identify the user.Amazon Relational Database Service 17 Amazon Relational Database Service Amazon Relational Database Service[1] or Amazon RDS is a distributed relational database service by Amazon. Amazon RDS works on lines similar to MySQL. users would have to maintain their own server. com. As of 2007. as of 2007. Messages can be of any type. Messages are stored on multiple servers for redundancy and to ensure availability. If the user is not using SOAP (protocol) with WS-Security. requiring users to have an AWS enabled account with Amazon. .com. Well-known examples of messaging service technologies include Java Message Service and Microsoft Message Queuing. this can be created at http:/ / aws. The intent of SQS is to provide a highly scalable hosted message queue that resolves issues arising from the common producer-consumer problem or connectivity between producer and consumer. com/ rds/ [2] http:/ / developer.com. was 2-10 seconds. amazon. amazonwebservices. Amazon SQS does it for them and sells the service at a per-use rate. Expected message latency.com in April of 2006. The Secret Access Key is a 40-character private identifier. which means that code/infrastructure built on top of MySQL will blend in seamlessly[3] . amazon. It was first released on 22 October 2009[2] . The first identifier is a public 20-character Access Key. If they match then the user is considered authentic.com then calculates a digital signature with the key. If message ordering is important it is required that the application place sequencing information within the messages to allow for reordering after delivery. the user has a few options to get around this limitation. jspa?externalID=2942& categoryID=291 [3] http:/ / aws. If a message is delivered while a server is not available it may not be removed from that server's queue and may be resent. your AWS access keys. Amazon SQS does NOT guarantee reception of messages by the recipient in the order they were sent by the sender. Message Delivery Amazon SQS guarantees At-Least-Once delivery. It is a web service running "in the cloud" and provides users a relational database for use in their applications. if not then the authentication fails and the request is not processed. a digital signature is calculated using the Secret Access Key. AWS assigns a pair of related identifiers. The only regulation is that messages are limited in size to 8 kilobytes or smaller. amazon. com/ connect/ entry. For larger messages. References [1] http:/ / aws. Amazon uses its Amazon Web Services (AWS) identification to do this. Amazon. for instance. Amazon SQS can be described as commoditization of the messaging service. Whereas with Java Message Service.

the default time being 30 seconds. a message may be sent more than once. 18 Message Deletion SQS does not automatically delete messages once they are sent.Amazon Simple Queue Service A large message can be split into multiple segments that are sent separately. In this case the most recent receipt handle is needed to delete the message. References • "Amazon Simple Queue Service (API Version 2008-01-01)" (http://docs.com/Simple-Queue-Service-home-page/ b?node=13584001) . They are required to delete the message from the queue. 2008-01-01.amazonwebservices. There is a Visibility timeout placed on messages once they are delivered to prevent other components from consuming already delivered. or the message data can be stored using Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) or Amazon SimpleDB with just a pointer to the data transmitted in the SQS message. The service supports both unlimited queues and message traffic. Amazon reserves the right to delete an entire queue without notification if it has not been accessed for 30 consecutive days. If the queue is not told to delete the message. before the timeout is over. These receipts are not sent with the message but in addition to it. Because of the systems distributed nature. This feature is new as of 2008 where only the message ID was required for message deletion.amazon. The "clock" for the visibility timeout starts once a message is sent.com/ AWSSimpleQueueService/2008-01-01/SQSGettingStartedGuide/). the message becomes visible again and able to be resent. SQS automatically purges messages residing in queues for longer than 4 days. When a message is delivered a receipt handle is generated for that delivery and sent to the recipient. External links • Amazon Simple Queue Service homepage (http://www. using the receipt handle.

com/ SimpleDB-AWS-Service-Pricing/ b?node=342335011& no=553872011& me=A36L942TSJ2AJA) [3] SimpleDB . sdbexplorer.000 attributes per item size per attribute 256 attributes 1024 bytes Query limitations Attribute items returned in a query response seconds a query may run Maximum 2500 items 5 seconds attribute names per query predicate 1 attribute name comparisons per predicate predicates per query expression 20 operators 20 predicates References [1] What You Need To Know About Amazon SimpleDB (http:/ / www. amazon. On December 1st 2008.Limited Beta (http:/ / www. org/ archives/ 2007/ 12/ 13/ amazon-simpledb/ ) [2] Amazon SimpleDB. satine. amazonwebservices. com/ 2008/ 12/ simpledb-2000000-free-requests-for-next-six-months/ ) [4] Amazon SimpleDB official home page (http:/ / www. and throughput over the Internet. Amazon introduced a new pricing with free tier[3] for 1 GB of data & 25 machine hours. Amazon charges fees for SimpleDB storage.[2] As with EC2 and S3. It is used as a web service in concert with Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) and Amazon S3 and is part of Amazon Web Services. com/ AmazonSimpleDB/ latest/ DeveloperGuide/ ''Amazon) .Amazon SimpleDB 19 Amazon SimpleDB Amazon SimpleDB is a distributed database written in Erlang[1] by Amazon. amazon. com/ b?node=342335011) [5] SimpleDB Limits.com. Transfer to other Amazon Web Services is free of charge.A shift in AWS pricing (http:/ / blog.000.[4] Limitations Published limitations[5] : Store limitations Attribute domains size of domains Maximum 100 active domains 10GB attributes per domain 1. 2007.Free Tier .000. transfer. It was announced on December 13. Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide (API Latest version) (http:/ / docs.

A Java client for SimpleDB and other Amazon Web Services (http://code. It uses a hosted Hadoop framework running on the web-scale infrastructure of EC2 . (http://code. • Amazon Elastic Beanstalk provides quick deployment and management of applications in the cloud. • Amazon CloudWatch.000 developers had signed up to use Amazon Web Services. starting with EC2. List of AWS services • Amazon Associates Web Service (A2S.com/p/typica/) • SimpleJPA . (http:// simplesavant. the authentication infrastructure used to authenticate access to the various services. • Amazon CloudFront. provides monitoring for AWS cloud resources. • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) provides scalable virtual private servers using Xen. Amazon claimed that more than 330. but how usage is measured for billing varies from service to service. formerly Amazon E-Commerce Service or ECS) provides access to Amazon's product data and electronic commerce functionality. (http://www. The most central and well-known of these services are Amazon EC2 and Amazon S3.com/mdb.com/) Amazon Web Services Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a collection of remote computing services (also called web services) that together make up a cloud computing platform. Most of these services are not exposed directly to end users. an implicit service. • Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS) provides persistent block-level storage volumes for EC2. In June 2007.Amazon SimpleDB 20 External links • Amazon SimpleDB official home page (http://aws. offered over the Internet by Amazon.a Java Persistence API (JPA) implementation for Amazon's SimpleDB.Open-source .a Free Open Source API-compatible alternative to SimpleDB that can be used as a local or cloud database (http://www. All services are billed on usage.amazon. • Amazon Elastic MapReduce allows businesses. Amazon Web Services Amazon Web Services logo provide online services for other web sites or client-side applications. can also be used as a proxy for SimpleDB (http://code.Open source C# implementation of the SimpleDB data model for the desktop.sdbexplorer.codeplex.Tool to explore Amazon SimpleDB service.com.html) • Simple Savant .mgateway. • Amazon AWS Authentication. • Amazon DevPay. researchers.com/simpledb/) • NSimpleDB .com/) • typica .[2] Amazon Web Services’offerings are accessed over HTTP. data analysts. is a billing and account management system for applications that developers have built atop Amazon Web Services. using Representational State Transfer (REST) and SOAP protocols.com/ p/simplejpa/) • SDB Explorer .google. but instead offer functionality that other developers can use.google.NET object-persistence framework for Amazon SimpleDB written in C#. a content delivery network (CDN) for distributing objects stored in S3 to so-called "edge locations" near the requester.com/p/nsimpledb/) • M/DB . and developers to easily and cheaply process vast amounts of data.google. currently in limited beta version. Launched in July 2002[1] .

corporate-ir. com/ rds/ oracle/ ) Amazon SimpleDB home page (http:/ / www. (It appears that this service has been discontinued.. amazon. Amazon Fulfillment Web Service provides a programmatic web service for sellers to ship items to and from Amazon using Fulfillment by Amazon.[6] t References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Media Kit: Timeline and History (http:/ / phx. Amazon Historical Pricing provides access to Amazon's historical sales data from its affiliates. msnbc. org/ deeplinks/ 2010/ 12/ amazon-and-wikileaks-first-amendment-only-strong) [9] WikiLeaks' Amazon Servers Go Offline (http:/ / www. com/ message/ 65348/ ) Comment By Wilson Rothman (http:/ / technolog."[4] Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC). Amazon has also announced plans to offer Oracle on the RDS infrastructure in the second quarter of 2011. com/ calc5. Amazon Flexible Payments Service (FPS) provides an interface for micropayments. It operates in concert with EC2 and S3 to provide "the core functionality of a database. huffingtonpost. amazonaws. com/ b/ ?node=342335011) http:/ / calculator.) Amazon Mechanical Turk (Mturk) manages small units of work distributed among many humans.' It’ clear s that WikiLeaks doesn’ own or otherwise control all the rights to this classified content.[3] Amazon Route 53 provides a highly available and scalable Domain Name System (DNS) web service.000 classified documents that WikiLeaks is publishing could have been carefully redacted in such a way as to ensure that they weren’ putting innocent people in jeopardy". html) . Amazon Simple Queue Service (SQS) provides a hosted message queue for web applications.com-News Release (http:/ / phx. corporate-ir. com/ 2010/ 12/ 01/ wikileaks-amazon-servers-_n_790652. eff. zhtml?c=176060& p=irol-corporateTimeline) Amazon. EBS. zhtml?c=176060& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=1012590& highlight=) (http:/ / aws.[6] [7] Many news outlets including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Huffington Post suggested that Amazon's actions demonstrated censorship. Amazon Simple Email Service (SES) provides bulk and transactional email sending. Amazon SimpleDB. and Amazon CloudFront. Amazon Elastic MapReduce. s3. com/ _news/ 2010/ 12/ 02/ 5570297-amazon-booted-wikileaks-due-to-copyright-ownership-violation) [8] Amazon and WikiLeaks . net/ phoenix. AWS Management Console (AWS Console). in limited beta. 2010 announced it would stop hosting the website of WikiLeaks. AWS Simple Monthly Calculator [5] helps you estimate your AWS monthly costs 21 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • WikiLeaks dispute Amazon Web Services on December 1. net/ phoenix. it is not credible that t the extraordinary volume of 250. that use of the content you supply does not violate this policy and will not cause injury to any person or entity.[8] [9] Amazon's statement on the matter is as follows: "our terms of service state that 'you represent and warrant that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content. amazon. Amazon Simple Notification Service (SNS) provides a hosted multiprotocol "push" messaging for web applications. Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) provides Web Service based storage. html Amazon's statement on the copyright ownership violation (http:/ / aws.. Amazon stated in a statement the reason was that Wikileaks had violated Amazon's Terms of Service by hosting copyrighted content. Further. allows developers to run queries on structured data.Amazon Web Services and Amazon S3. Amazon Relational Database Service (RDS) provides a scalable MySQL compatible database server. creates a logically isolated set of Amazon EC2 instances to be connected to an existing network using a VPN connection. amazon.Online Speech is Only as Strong as the Weakest Intermediary (http:/ / www. A web-based point and click interface to manage and monitor the Amazon infrastructure suite including EC2. msn.

2021468.uk/technology/2009/mar/26/ amazon-adam-selipsky) in The Guardian newspaper.amazon.infoq.com/) main page • Amazon Web Services Events (http://aws.com/about-aws/events/) • Presentation about Amazon Web Services (http://www.co.com/presentations/amazon-web-services) by Amazon Evangelist Jeff Barr.htm?) . asp?kc=EWRSS03119TX1K0000594) • Jeff Bezos' Risky Bet (http://www.businessweek.guardian.Amazon Web Services 22 External links • Amazon Web Services (http://aws.com/magazine/content/06_46/b4009001. by Mark Harris • Bezos Opens Web-Services Sharing for Profits (http://www. from QCon London 2008 • Interview with Amazon VP Adam Selipsky (http://www.1759. 26 March 2009.amazon. from QCon London 2008 • Interview about Amazon Web Services (http://www.com/interviews/barr-amazon-web-services) with Amazon Evangelist Jeff Barr.eweek.00.com/article2/0.infoq.

net/shatteredNirvana/appscale-at-cloudcomp-09) IEEE Cloud 2010 Database Comparison Paper (http://www. supporting Xen. com/ 8301-19413_3-10270365-240. ucsb. cnet. It is an implementation of a cloud computing platform (Platform-as-a-Service).4 2010-09-07 Python.ucsb. External links • • • • • • • Official site (http://appscale.cs. KVM.cs. edu AppScale is an open-source framework for running Google App Engine applications. Amazon EC2 and Eucalyptus. 1.ucsb.edu/~ckrintz/abstracts/appscale.google. Ruby Operating system Linux Type License Website Cloud computing BSD License http:/ / appscale. Navraj Chohan.facebook.slideshare. Hypertable.com/p/appscale/) Technical Report (http://www. edu/~ckrintz/abstracts/cloud10. It has support for both Python and Java applications.net/appscale/) CloudComp09 Paper (http://www. taking the open source SDK provided by Google App Engine and implementing scalable services such as the datastore.ucsb. Chris Bunch et al.[1] AppScale allows users to upload multiple App Engine applications to a cloud.cs. blobstore.com/pages/AppScale/104715764502) . .0 2009-03-07 1. user's API. html).edu) Code Site (http://code.edu/~ckrintz/papers/cloudcomp09. memcache. It has been developed and is maintained by the RACELab at UC Santa Barbara. and MySQL Cluster. CBS Interactive Inc.ucsb.cs. "The new generation of cloud-development platforms" (http:/ / news.AppScale 23 AppScale AppScale Developer(s) Initial release Stable release Written in Chandra Krintz. and channel API. Cassandra. James (22 June 2009). It supports multiple distributed backends such as HBase. Retrieved 2009-09-23.com/url?sa=D&q=http://www.pdf) Presentation at CloudComp09 (http://www. cs. References [1] Urquhart. cnet News.html) Development Site (http://launchpad.google.html&usg=AFQjCNEvubM3qxwRHxRc6d_PIopzd65JGA) • Fan Page (http://www.

The Windows Azure Platform provides an API built on REST.Azure Services Platform 24 Azure Services Platform Windows Azure Part of the Windows family Windows Azure Developer Microsoft Website Official website Releases Release date 1 February 2010 [2] [1] Source model Closed source / Shared source The Windows Azure Platform[3] is a Microsoft cloud platform used to build. It also provides high-level application models for intelligently managing the complete application lifecycle. Dell. Queue. health monitoring. and switches. Drives) for large-scale needs. the repetitive pattern of nodes and connections suggests a woven or fabric-like nature. Windows Azure has three core components: Compute. providing scheduling. such as HP. which can be hosted in non-Microsoft data centers. Fabric (Windows Azure Fabric) makes up the physical underpinnings of the Windows Azure platform as the network of interconnected nodes consisting of servers. along with their software as a service offering. These are Windows Azure[4] (an operating system providing scalable compute and storage facilities). This will enable resellers. Storage and Fabric. The platform consists of various on-demand services hosted in Microsoft data centers and commoditized through three product brands. resource allocation. It acts as the kernel of the Windows Azure distributed cloud operating system. to offer cloud services based on the Microsoft Azure Platform. Compute and Storage components are part of the Fabric. Conceptually. Tables. high-speed connections. upgrades. management and hosting of applications off-premises. As the names suggest. Microsoft Online Services.[5] Overview The Windows Azure Platform is an application platform in the cloud that allows Microsoft datacenters to host and run applications. host and scale web applications through Microsoft datacenters. Windows Azure Platform is thus classified as platform as a service and forms part of Microsoft's cloud computing strategy. Compute provides a computation environment with Web Role and Worker Role while Storage focuses on providing scalable storage (Blobs. and de-activation.[6] All Azure Services and applications built using them run on top of Windows Azure. and fault tolerance for the nodes in the Fabric. Microsoft has also published plans to offer the Windows Azure Platform Appliance. including deployment. Fujitsu and eBay. Microsoft also provides a client-side managed class library which . scale-out version of SQL Server) and Windows Azure AppFabric (a collection of services supporting applications both in the cloud and on premise). Fabric resources and applications and services running on those resources are managed by the Windows Azure Fabric Controller service. SQL Azure (a cloud-based. It provides a cloud operating system called Windows Azure that serves as a runtime for the applications and provides a set of services that allows development. HTTP and XML that allows a developer to interact with the services provided by Windows Azure. device management.

known as the Windows Azure Hypervisor[9] to provide virtualization of services. Windows Azure became commercially available on 1 Feb 2010. Pricing and SLAs Project “Dallas” CTP February 2010 • Windows Azure Platform commercially available June 2010 • Windows Azure Update • . to run its "fabric layer" — a cluster hosted at Microsoft's datacenters that manages computing and storage resources of the computers and provisions the resources (or a subset of them) to applications running on top of Windows Azure. CDN CTP and more Announced VM Role.[10] The platform includes five services — Live Services.com/azure website.[7] 25 Implementation The Windows Azure platform uses a specialized operating system. in managed code. and associated tools are also provided for developing cloud applications in Visual Studio. Two SDKs have been made available for interoperability with the Azure Services Platform: The Java SDK for AppFabric and the Ruby SDK for AppFabric. which use Windows Server 2008 and a customized version of Hyper-V[8] .Azure Services Platform encapsulates the functions of interacting with the services. Windows Azure has been described as a "cloud layer" on top of a number of Windows Server systems.NET Framework applications compiled for the CLR. Users can purchase Windows Azure service time from the http://www.NET Framework 4 . called Windows Azure. Project Sidney. A client library. Windows Azure also offers Content Delivery (CDN) services as an option. As of 2010 in no-cost "Community Technology Preview" the Azure CDN enables worldwide low-latency delivery of static content from Azure Storage to end-users from 18 data centers worldwide. AppFabric (formerly . These enable Java and Ruby developers to integrate with AppFabric Internet services. SQL Azure (formerly SQL Services). Java.NET Services). Scaling and reliability are controlled by the Windows Azure Fabric Controller so the services and environment do not crash if one of the servers crashes within the Microsoft datacenter and provides the management of the user's web application like memory resources and load balancing. PHP.microsoft.NET application framework and associated deployment methods to deploy the applications onto the cloud platform. SharePoint Services and Dynamics CRM Services[11] — which the developers can use to build the applications that will run in the cloud. while supporting the ASP. The Azure Services Platform can currently run . History October 2008 (PDC LA) • Announced the Windows Azure Platform • First CTP of Windows Azure March 2009 • Announced SQL Azure Relational Database November 2009 • • • • Updated Windows Azure CTP Enabled full trust. It also integrates with Microsoft Visual Studio so that it can be used as the IDE to develop and publish Azure-hosted applications. It can also support PHP websites.

IL • South-central US .Amsterdam.Hong Kong • South East Asia . [13] [14] The location of the data centers are: • North America • North-central US . TX • Asia • East Asia . • Full-IIS support • Extra Small Instances • Windows Azure Connect • Access to on-premise resource for cross-premise apps • Support for Domain-joining VMs • Direct role-instance connectivity for easier development • Use your existing remote administration tools • Improved Dev / IT Pro Experience • • • • • • New Windows Azure Platform Management Portal Multiple users & roles for management Remote Desktop Enhanced Dev Tools PHP Development Marketplace 26 Datacenters Some datacenters have servers grouped inside containers .each containing 1800-2500 servers.Chicago. Startup tasks.Dublin.San Antonio. Ireland The CDN nodes are located in 17 countries.Azure Services Platform • OS Versioning • CDN • SQL Azure Update (Service Update 3[12] ) • 50GB databases • Spatial data support • DAC support October 2010 (PDC) • Platform Enhancements • Windows Azure Virtual Machine Role • Role enhancements • Admin mode. Netherlands • North Europe .Singapore • Europe • West Europe . [15] [16] .

Over time. com/ azure/ faq. Retrieved 16 April 2009. aspx). Examples of companies using Windows Azure in Ireland are Aer Lingus and HR Locker.815 hectares). . Microsoft. microsoft. aspx?blog=2956). Microsoft. [5] "Windows Azure Platform Appliance" (http:/ / www. which began operations on July 1. Retrieved 15 January 2011. [11] Microsoft Azure Services Platform (http:/ / www. com/ technology/ software/ 2010/ 06/ 28/ windows-azure-inside-microsofts-cloud-computing-strategy-39745857/ ) . Microsoft. Microsoft. mspx#azure). . is using Azure to create an interactive web application that integrates route maps with their reservation and booking process”[18] . com/ windowsazure/ appliance). neowin. datacenterknowledge. microsoft. microsoft. com/ windowsazure/ windowsazure). “Aer Lingus. [10] Cesar de la Torre (2 November 2008).000 installations by 2011[17] . microsoft. . msdn. com/ windowsazure). The $500 million facility[20] is one of the largest construction projects in Ireland over last 12 months and has generated approximately 1 million man-hours of work with a peak workforce of around 2. 2009. . backup. com/ archives/ 2010/ 03/ 23/ video-building-microsofts-itpac-container/ [15] http:/ / blogs. com/ b/ windowsazure/ archive/ 2009/ 10/ 29/ windows-azure-platform-launch-update. msdn. Virtualization Info. info/ 2008/ 11/ s windows-azure-uses-hypervisor-but-its. net/ news/ main/ 09/ 11/ 02/ inside-windows-azures-data-center-one-of-worlds-largest [14] http:/ / www. Retrieved 15 January 2011. “Microsoft had completed 6. com/ blogs/ weblog. . The facility. [8] Keith Ward. msdn. aspx [17] Sunday Business Post (http:/ / archives. [4] "Windows Azure" (http:/ / www. asp) [18] Silicon: Microsoft Azure (http:/ / www. Retrieved 16 April 2009. Retrieved 15 January 2011. HR Locker chose to build their application on Windows Azure with the intention of improving scalability. msdn. msdn. com/ azure/ services. Virtualization Review. com/ b/ sqlazure/ archive/ 2010/ 06/ 25/ 10030461. aspx [13] http:/ / www. Microsoft. aspx [16] http:/ / blogs. security and the various other issues associated with hosting[19] .4 mega watts of critical power available to deliver services to consumers and business customers.000 square feet (2. Executives at Microsoft are hoping that this figure will rise to 100. The data center will also provide approximately 35-50 jobs in the Dublin area. com/ b/ windowsazure/ archive/ 2010/ 08/ 09/ 20-nodes-available-globally-for-the-windows-azure-cdn. html).Azure Services Platform 27 Microsoft Azure in Ireland As of July 2010. com/ windowsazure/ archive/ 2009/ 11/ 05/ introducing-the-windows-azure-content-delivery-network. . "Windows Azure uses a hypervisor but it’ not Hyper-V" (http:/ / www. com/ windowsazure/ [2] "Windows Azure Platform Launch schedule" (http:/ / blogs. aspx).0 provider of HR solutions to small to medium size companies was built on Window’ Azure cloud s based computing platform. Microsoft.com Skytap VMware GoGrid References [1] http:/ / www. microsoft. ie/ businesspost/ 2010/ 07/ 04/ story50200. com/ cesardelatorre/ archive/ 2008/ 11/ 02/ microsoft-azure-services-platform. [9] Alessandro Perilli. . Retrieved 16 April 2009. aspx). microsoft. . Whereas HR Locker. [7] "Windows Azure CDN Announcement" (http:/ / blogs. com/ b/ windowsazure/ archive/ 2010/ 09/ 02/ two-new-nodes-for-the-windows-azure-cdn-enhance-service-across-asia. mspx) [12] http:/ / blogs.2 mega watts of critical power to support future growth. . tcm. "More Azure Hypervisor Details" (http:/ / virtualizationreview. with 5. Microsoft. the data center can expand to a total of 22. silicon. Retrieved 15 January 2011. [6] "Windows Azure FAQ" (http:/ / www.100 workers. msdn. currently covers 303. Competitors • • • • • • • • Amazon Web Services Engine Yard Google App Engine Heroku Force. a Web 2. virtualization. [3] "Windows Azure Platform" (http:/ / www. "Microsoft Azure Services Platform" (http:/ / blogs.000 Irish installations of its cloud-based Windows Azure platform”[17] . Retrieved 18 November 2008.

aspx) Official downloads • Windows Azure Virtual Lab .com/ Directory/Description.msdev. com/warnov/archive/2009/11/19/stairway-to-azure-3.com/casestudies/ Case_Study_Detail.NET Services) SDK (http://go.com/) • Cloud Computing Tools Blog (http://blogs.com) • Restaurant Chain Outback Steakhouse Boosts Guest Loyalty with Facebook and Cloud Computing (http://www.com/windowsazure/) • Introducing the Azure Services Platform.Azure Services Platform [19] Microsoft Ireland (http:/ / www.NET Services) (http://www. microsoft.aspx?casestudyid=4000007519) • AzureSupport.com . Chappell & Associates (http://download.jdotnetservices.microsoft.com) • PHP SDK for AppFabric (http://www.com/fwlink/?LinkID=129449) • Java SDK for AppFabric (formerly . a Java API for Azure Storage (http://jazure.Azure Tutorials and News (http://azuresupport. David Chappell.microsoft.pdf) • "Tribune Transforms Business with Windows Azure" (http://www.microsoft.org) • Conceptual View of Windows Azure in Spanish. com/ s presspass/ emea/ presscentre/ pressreleases/ DublinDataCentrePR_240909.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=128752) • Microsoft AppFabric (formerly .follow along at your own pace with the instructor (http://www. mspx).com) • Ruby SDK for AppFabric (http://www.microsoft." (http:/ / www.aspx?casestudyid=4000005861) .com/fwlink/?LinkID=129448) • Microsoft SQL Data Services SDK (http://go.microsoft.com/industry/government/guides/ cloud_computing/default. microsoft. . 28 External links • MSDN UK Windows Azure Platform (http://msdn.dotnetservicesphp.aspx) • The Official Home Page of the Windows Azure platform (http://www. Made by Microsoft Developer Evangelist (http://blogs.com/cloud/) • JAzure.com/casestudies/Case_Study_Detail.aspx?eventId=1626) • Windows Azure SDK (http://go.msdn. com/ ireland/ smarteconomy/ case_studies/ HR_LOCKER/ ) [20] "Microsoft’ new Dublin Data Centre to support demand for online services for business and consumers.microsoft.aspx) • Microsoft Cloud Computing for Government (http://www.com/fwlink/?LinkID=130232) • Windows Azure Tools for Microsoft Visual Studio (http://go.msdn. microsoft.microsoft.microsoft.com/en-gb/ee514245. com/download/e/4/3/e43bb484-3b52-4fa8-a9f9-ec60a32954bc/Azure_Services_Platform.dotnetservicesruby.

com [1] Caspio. non-profits.Caspio 29 Caspio Caspio.[2] The cloud platform utilizes point-and-click wizards and does not require programming or hardware. membership management. small businesses. mobile applications. The database platform is designed to allow business users and IT professionals to create web forms. Inc. government agencies. and lead generation. Caspio Bridge Caspio's primary service. is a provider of a web database application building platform called Caspio Bridge. password protection. educational institutions.Caspio. who is currently its President and CEO. Caspio Bridge's back-end is built on Microsoft's . and email triggers. USA Key people Products Website Frank Zamani. digital media companies. The web-based software guides users through building custom applications by combining web forms. task management.[3] Caspio Bridge users also have access to ready-made applications such website automation. . California. database searches. Caspio. Corporate headquarters are located in Mountain View. CEO. CA. The company also develops pre-built web applications. is a privately-held corporation. The company released the first version of Caspio Bridge in 2001. widgets. is a cloud database platform that allows users to create interactive web applications without the need for programming. databases. and enterprise management applications. Inc. and individual entrepreneurs. including Fortune-500 corporations. The company has a wide array of customers. Founder Caspio Bridge www. It is classified as both a Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) provider. CA. Inc. Caspio was founded in 2000 by Frank Zamani.NET framework and Microsoft SQL Server. reports. USA (2000) Headquarters Mountain View. The company also builds specialized applications. Caspio Bridge. Type Industry Founded Private Software Technology Mountain View.

[1] The company was founded by Philipp Strube. Retrieved 2008-11-25. html). . 2010 (http:/ / www. com/eandp/departments/online/article_display. In 2009 the company won Germany's Hosting Innovation award.html) • New York Times: A Web–based app builder with a Microsoft Twist (http://www.0 Has the Lime Light.nytimes. Python and Ruby are announced without a specific date.Caspio 30 References [1] http:/ / www. cio-today. 19. The company's platform is largely based on open source components like Apache or Varnish.com/archive/2007/09/caspio-expressdb-rocks-while-web-20-has. [2] [3] Development environment The platform offers hosting of PHP projects. The PaaS provider is based in Potsdam. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 2009 (http:/ / www.html) • eWeek: Caspio to Give SMBs a Break From Database Coding (http://www.com/ newsletters/web/2006/1106web1.120678.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003885983) • Smallbiztechnology.com/external/idg/ 2008/10/23/23idg-A-Web-based-app. deutsche-startups. de/ news/ die-aussichten-sind-heiter-bis-wolkig-seed-finanzierungsrunde-bei-cloudcontrol) [3] (German): Financing for cloudControl.networkworld. de/ newsticker/ meldung/ eco-Verband-zeichnet-Justizministerin-Zypries-als-Internet-Politikerin-des-Jahres-aus-183648.html) 2008-10-22 • NetworkWorld: Caspio: A SaaS Provider with a different approach (http://www.pcmag. Tobias Wilken and Thomas Ruland.eweek. References [1] (German): eco Association award for cloudControl. "Creating Do–It–Yourself Databases with Caspio" (http:/ / www. Mark. com/ news/ Create-DIY-Databases-with-Caspio/ story.com/c/a/Database/ Caspio-to-Give-SMBs-a-Break-from-Database-Coding/) • PC Magazine: Getting to First Database – PC Magazine Reviews Caspio Bridge (http://www. caspio. Web Forms are the Rage (http://smallbiztechnology. [3] Gibbs. Jun. cloudControl is the only provider of a native PHP PaaS with Servers in Europe. Barbara.00.asp) CloudControl cloudControl cloudControl is a European PHP Cloud Hosting platform.editorandpublisher. de/ 2010/ 01/ 08/ cloudcontrol-sahnt-sechsstellige-finanzierungssumme-ab/ ) .com: Caspio ExpressDB Rocks: While Web 2. Germany and shares the same name as the platform. 6. Jan. networkworld. 8. It got business angel seed financing. gruenderszene. Jan. .com/ article2/0.nytimes.html) • Editor & Publisher: Caspio Offers Turnkey Recipe Guide for Web Site Visitors (http://www. xhtml?story_id=11000DAKB5DI& full_skip=1). com/ newsletters/ web/ 2006/ 1106web1. com/ ?s=243 [2] Brynko. "Caspio: A SaaS provider with a different approach" (http:/ / www. thereby abiding the strict EU data privacy laws. heise.4149.com/external/ readwriteweb/2008/10/22/22readwriteweb-caspio_gritty_profitable_in_a.bazaar and GIT are available. html) [2] (German): Financing for cloudControl. 2010 (http:/ / www. The platform features an integrated version control system . enabling a usage without lock-in. Java. External links • New York Times: "Gritty and Profitable In a Tough Market" (http://www.

process-centric Cloud Applications. an online modeling environment built on top of the Cordys Business Operations Platform.com/company/cloudcontrol) Cordys Process Factory Cordys Process Factory Developer(s) Cordys Operating system runs on all OS. called MashApps. or Mini-browsers of handheld devices License Website Proprietary Cordys Process Factory [1] Cordys Process Factory is a Platform as a Service to create business processes and.com) • cloudControl in CrunchBase (http://www. Safari. Next to that. Chrome.[4] With the MashApps Composer. combining standard business applications like Google Apps and commercially available services. . business users can create applications. The MashApps Composer allows the user to use the different features and graphical modeling.[2] Users of Cordys Process Factory can create these customized Mashup Applications.[3] MashApps Composer Cordys Process Factory contains a MashApps Composer. with Web services from anywhere. ISVs (Independent Software Vendors) can create and sell applications in the cloud marketplace of Cordys Process Factory. requires a browser like Internet Explorer.crunchbase. Firefox. From the MashApps Composer.CloudControl 31 External links • cloudControl Official site (http://cloudcontrol. Cordys Process Factory enables business users to develop and use applications in the Cloud. a business user can start with Cloud Application Development.

By subscribing to Cordys Process Factory. com/ cloud-applications/ mashup-applications) Benefits of Cloud Apps (http:/ / www. Some of the MashApps are paid while some of them are free.com/) . com What are Mashup Applications (http:/ / www. cordysprocessfactory. Partnerships Cordys Process Factory is an official Google Enterprise Partner.Cordys Process Factory 32 Cloud Marketplace Cordys Process Factory provides a online Marketplace for different categories of ready to use MashApps. built by Cordys Process Factory and their selected partners. and combine this with other web services. Spreadsheets or Agenda.com/) • Cordys (http://www. where users can share their MashApps and exchange ideas.cordys. Cordys Process Factory MashApps are also available there.[5] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. cordysprocessfactory. com/ cloud-applications/ benefits-cloud-apps) Simplifying Cloud Application Development (http:/ / www. cordysprocessfactory.cordysprocessfactory. Cordys Process Factory offers a community portal. google. Cordys Process Factory enables users of Google Apps to add workflow capabilities to Google Docs.to Medium-sized Enterprises can start using ready to use cloud applications. Small. cordysprocessfactory. com/ blogs/ cloud-application-development) [5] Google Apps Marketplace (http:/ / www. com/ enterprise/ marketplace/ viewVendorListings?vendorId=2191) External links • Cordys Process Factory (http://www. With the launch of Google Apps Marketplace.

[14] for a total of $37.[12] Funding In January 2008. Mongrel+Erb . Some industry monitors interpreted this as an investment in Ruby on Rails. and the company continued supporting the project by hiring Yehuda Katz to work on the project full time. Engine Yard was recognized as one of the “2010 Hottest San Francisco Companies” by Lead411. Engine Yard received Cloud Computing World Series Awards 2010. thewhir. "Merb. [2] "Ezra Zygmuntowicz on Engine Yard and Rails Deployment" (http:/ / www. infoq.[7] Engine Yard also sponsors a number of other open-source projects.com. California based company focused on Ruby on Rails deployment and management. osdir. sdtimes. org/ merb [6] http:/ / yehudakatz. aspx?ArticleID=34383) [13] http:/ / www. mongrel." (http:/ / www.Engine Yard 33 Engine Yard Engine Yard is a San Francisco. [4] http:/ / brainspl. References [1] "Engine Yard. Ezra Zygmuntowicz. com/ blog/ 2009/ engine-yard-raises-19m-for-expansion/ . Engine Yard was named to SD Times 100 List.msg#00105" (http:/ / osdir.[11] In July 2010. html). Engine Yard received an investment of $3.5 million from Benchmark Capital. com/ 2008/ 12/ 23/ rails-and-merb-merge/ [7] http:/ / rubyonrails. com/ interviews/ Ezra-Zygmuntowicz-Rails-deployment). Amazon.[10] In June 2010.[4] In December 2008. Retrieved 2011-04-10. Engine Yard'.[9] Awards & recognitions In May 2010. In October 2009 Engine Yard announced an additional $19 million in funding from a combination of Benchmark Capital. html) [11] Cloud Computing World Series Awards Announces Short List (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 2010: A Noble Gathering of Leaders (http:/ / www. . 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2011-04-10. the Merb and Ruby on Rails projects merged [5] [6] and Katz was added to the Rails Core Team. com/ web-hosting-news/ 061610_Cloud_Computing_World_Series_Awards_Announces_Short_List) [12] The SD Times 100. com/ ml/ lang. lead411. New Enterprise Associates.5 million in funding. com/ content/ article. including Rubinius (an alternate implementation of the Ruby runtime)[8] and JRuby. Inc. at/ articles/ 2008/ 01/ 14/ on-the-road-to-merb-1-0 [5] http:/ / rubyonrails. techcrunch. Engine Yard secured an additional $15 million from a combination of Benchmark Capital. com/ company/ ). infoq. ruby.com. Bay Partners. Engine Yard Cloud (launched in February 2009) provides Ruby on Rails in a Platform as a Service environment. . Presidio Ventures and DAG Ventures. com/ news/ 2007/ 12/ engine-yard-bets-big-rubinius [9] http:/ / www. and Amazon. computerworld. com/ s/ article/ 9135958/ Sun_s_JRuby_team_jumps_ship_to_Engine_Yard [10] Lead411 launches "Hottest Companies in San Francisco" awards (http:/ / www. New Enterprise Associates. engineyard. engineyard. com/ 2008/ 01/ 11/ benchmark-bets-on-ruby-on-rails-with-35-million-investment-in-engine-yard/ [14] http:/ / www.[13] In July of the same year. general/ 2006-10/ msg00105. was the creator of the Merb project[2] [3] . org/ core [8] http:/ / www. .[1] Software development One of Engine Yard's four founders. infoq. com/ san-francisco-companies. [3] Ezra Zygmuntowicz (October 2006).

com Force. Other vendors use the phrase. . 2009 Gartner Group report.com customers who want to extend Salesforce.com [1] Force.com Site Developer(s) Operating system Type License Website Salesforce n/a Web productivity tools Proprietary force.com.[2] that developers use to build multi tenant applications hosted on their servers as a service.000 customer accounts. and a failure to properly separate Salesforce.[3] The company pushes the "development as a service" phrase. in addition to tens of thousands that use Force.com's IDE and developer friendliness have been made.com platform runs across eight data centers. but it has not gained acceptance outside the context of their offering.[4] Force.Engine Yard 34 External links • Official site (http://engineyard. including lack of support for multiple developers. speed problems with developing on the cloud.com.com in conjunction with Salesforce.com is a cloud computing platform as a service system from Salesforce. The Force." According to a September. with each customer fully contained in a single data center that is replicated for availability.com has over 1. The platform has been described as having potential but currently only appropriate for Salesforce.com. not for independent developers who want to use Force.com as a standalone platform.com) Force. "platform as a service.com from Force.com Force. Several criticisms of force.

force.com/) . html) [3] Salesforce. gartner.com 35 References [1] http:/ / www. com/ idg/ IDG_002570DE00740E180025742400363509. eweek.com Unveils Force.com Cloud Computing Architecture (http:/ / www. com/ [2] What Cloud Computing Really Means (http:/ / www.Force. com/ c/ a/ Enterprise-Apps/ Salesforcecom-Unveils-Forcecom-Cloud-Computing-Architecture/ ) [4] Who's Who In Application Platforms for Cloud Computing (http:/ / www.com official web page (http://developer.force. nytimes. com/ DisplayDocument?id=1180217) External links • Force.

org/ news/ 2010/ feb/ 10/ highlights-eben-moglens-freedom-cloud-talk/ ). [5] "Why Political Liberty Depends on Software Freedom More Than Ever" (http:/ / www.000 in 30 days on the crowdfunding service. "What will Freedom Boxes do?" (http:/ / www.. 2010. FreedomBox Foundation."[8] External links • The FreedomBox Foundation website [1] • freedombox-discuss mailing list [9] • "Decentralizing the Internet So Big Brother Can’ Find You" [10]. freedomboxfoundation. .007 backers. . freedomboxfoundation. Moglen formed the FreedomBox Foundation to become the organizational headquarters of the project.org [1] FreedomBox is a community project to develop. and safe communications for people seeking to preserve their freedom in oppressive regimes. . By promoting a decentralized deployment of hardware. org/ FreedomBox/ Roadmap). "Highlights of Eben Moglen's Freedom in the Cloud Talk" (http:/ / www. html). . we formed the FreedomBox Foundation. Kickstarter. Debian Wiki...[4] On February 4.724 from 1. 2011. with free applications designed to create and preserve personal privacy. which I plan to use as the [. design and promote[2] personal servers running Free Software for distributed social networking.FreedomBox 36 FreedomBox FreedomBox Type Personal web server Website freedomboxfoundation.. org/ events/ 2011/ fosdem/ moglen-fosdem-keynote. Software Freedom Law Center.[7] and on March 19.[6] FreedomBox Definition and Scope The project currently describes a FreedomBox as “ a personal server running a free software operating system. the project hopes that FreedomBoxes will "provide privacy in normal life.[3] The project was announced by Eben Moglen at the New York ISOC meeting on February 2.[6] The goal was met on February 22. softwarefreedom. softwarefreedom. org/ "FreedomBox/Roadmap" (http:/ / wiki.] organizational headquarters [. "Yesterday in the United States. Retrieved 2011-02-20. email and audio/video communications. Software Freedom Law Center. debian. 2011. ” The project aims to develop a software stack that can run on plug computers that can easily be located in individual residences or offices. t References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-02-20.]" . 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2011-02-20. org/ goals/ ).[5] and on February 18. The New York Times story on the project. the foundation started a campaign to raise $60. the campaign ended after collecting $86.

org/ ). kickstarter. Retrieved 2011-02-23. freedomboxfoundation. debian. Retrieved 2011-02-20. . freedomboxfoundation. . The Freedom Foundation. . [9] http:/ / lists.FreedomBox [6] "Push the FreedomBox Foundation from 0 to 60 in 30 days" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 02/ 16/ nyregion/ 16about. html?_r=1 37 . alioth. Retrieved 2011-02-20. org/ news/ Thank_you_Kickstarters/ ). [7] "Thank you Kickstarters" (http:/ / www. nytimes. Kickstarter. [8] "FreedomBox Foundation" (http:/ / www. org/ mailman/ listinfo/ freedombox-discuss [10] https:/ / www. com/ projects/ 721744279/ push-the-freedombox-foundation-from-0-to-60-in-30).

[9] The open source Python projects gaebar.[6] Google has said that it plans to support more languages in the future. . Scala. It was first released as a beta version in April 2008. Restrictions • Developers have read-only access to the filesystem on App Engine. • App Engine can only execute code called from an HTTP request (scheduled background tasks allow for self calling HTTP requests). CherryPy. in that AWS is Infrastructure as a Service while App Engine is Platform as a Service. Python web frameworks that run on Google App Engine include GAE framework [5]. bandwidth. like gae-filestore [13].[7] [8] Bulk downloading SDK version 1.[10] approcket. Any Python framework that supports the WSGI using the CGI adapter can be used to create an application. the supported programming languages are Python and Java (and. C and Pyrex modules are not supported.[3] Supported features/restrictions Currently.Google App Engine 38 Google App Engine Google App Engine Developer(s) Initial release Google April 7. No method for bulk downloading data from GAE using Java currently exists. and web2py.[2] Other "cloud"-based platforms include offerings such as Amazon Web Services and Microsoft's Azure Services Platform. though. but only if they are pure-Python. App Engine differs from services like Amazon Web Services.2. Google App Engine is cloud computing technology. Jython.2 adds support for bulk downloads of data using Python. Your application can use only virtual filesystems. and special version of Quercus) [4].[11] and gawsh[12] also allow users to download and backup App Engine data. Third-party libraries written in pure Python may also be uploaded. Fees are charged for additional storage. by extension. • Users may upload arbitrary Python modules. 2008 Operating system Every (Web-based application) Type Website Web development [1] Google App Engine (also used by the acronym GAE) is a platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers. It virtualizes applications across multiple servers. JRuby. and that the Google App Engine has been written to be language independent. Google App Engine is free up to a certain level of used resources. Pylons. other JVM languages such as Groovy. Clojure. or CPU cycles required by the application. as well as a custom Google-written webapp framework and several others designed specifically for the platform that emerged since the release. the framework can be uploaded with the developed application.

Google App Engine • Java applications may only use a subset (The JRE Class White List [14]) of the classes from the JRE standard edition. failover. number of requests served. and calls to the various APIs. App Engine provides more infrastructure to make it easy to write scalable applications.com domains and not via Google Apps Domains. only replicated sessions are supported including limitation of the amount of data being serialized and time for session serialization.[18] • A process started on the server to answer a request can't last more than 30 seconds. and caching.com DNS zone. and frameworks. "www. This shared-nothing approach allows disks to fail without the system failing. Select statements in GQL can be performed on one table only. This . e.4. [23] interface.0 release.com. Unlike a relational database the Datastore API is not relational in the SQL sense. The Java version supports asynchronous non-blocking queries using the Twig Object Datastore offers an alternative to using threads for parallel data processing. monitoring. 39 Major differences Differences from other application hosting Compared to other scalable hosting services such as Amazon EC2. (with the 1.The required alias to ghs. this restriction does not apply to background jobs anymore) • Does not support sticky sessions (a. • Does not support 'naked' domains (without www) like http://example.[17] • Datastore cannot use inequality filters on more than one entity property per query. Most existing Web applications can't run on App Engine without modification. While other services let users install and configure nearly any *NIX compatible software. Per-day and per-minute quotas restrict bandwidth and CPU use.g.com". manipulating images. number of concurrent requests. RFC 1912 section 2. [21] using ReferenceProperty().[19] Google handles deploying code to a cluster.[22] Switching from a relational database to the Datastore requires a paradigm shift for developers when modelling their data.google.a. Suggested workaround is to use the domain registrar HTTP redirection to a subdomain. and launching application instances as necessary. GQL intentionally does not support the Join statement. sending e-mail. because it seems to be inefficient when [20] Instead. making HTTP requests. Differences between SQL and GQL Google App Engine's datastore has a SQL-like syntax called "GQL".6. and individual requests are terminated if they take more than 30 seconds or return more than 10MB of data.appspot. but can only run a limited range of applications designed for that infrastructure. Current APIs allow storing and retrieving data from a BigTable non-relational database. session affinity).com is implemented with a DNS CNAME record in order for changes in Google server IP addresses not to impact the service.example. including the required Start of Authority for the example. [16] • SSL/HTTPS is only available via *.4). This record cannot be used with other DNS records (RFC 1034 section 3. one-to-many and many-to-many relationships can be accomplished queries span more than one machine.[15] • Java applications cannot create new threads.2. App Engine requires developers to use only its supported languages. APIs. because they require a relational database. App Engine's infrastructure removes many of the system administration and development challenges of building applications to scale to hundreds of requests per second and beyond.k.

[26] The Django web framework and applications running on it can be used on App Engine with modification. especially the datastore. storage. Free quotas were reduced on May 25. Limits marked with * are increased for application authors who enable billing.5 servlet specification.Google App Engine 40 Portability concerns Developers worry that the applications will not be portable from App Engine and fear being locked into the technology. even if their application never uses enough resources to incur charges.[30] an open source project that implements the 2. bandwidth. however it doesn't support several App Engine-specific features such as transactions and namespaces. Usage quotas App Engine defines usage quotas for free applications. 2009. none of them is at the point where installing and running an App Engine app is as simple as it is on Google's service.[24] In response. and application authors can pay for additional resources.[28] Applications developed for the Grails web application framework may be modified and deployed to Google App Engine with very little effort using the App Engine Plugin [29]. there are a number of projects to create open-source back-ends for the various proprietary/closed APIs of app engine.[33] . Although these projects are at various levels of maturity.[25] Web2py web framework offers migration between SQL Databases and Google App Engine. Extensions to these quotas can be requested. Django-nonrel [27] aims to allow Django to work with non-relation databases and the project includes support for App Engine. The GAE Java servlet container uses the Jetty Web Server. and e-mails used in excess of the free quotas.[31] Hard limits Quota Apps per developer Time per request Limit 10 30 sec Blobstore size (total file size per app) 2 GB HTTP response size Datastore item size Application code size 10 MB 1 MB 150 MB Free quotas Application creators who enable billing pay only for CPU. 2009[32] and were reduced again on June 22.

youtube. google.000. net/ 2009/ 11/ 28/ google-app-engine-datastore-gotchas/ ) [19] "Python Runtime Environment . AppScale is an open-source framework for running Google App Engine applications. google. com/ appengine/ articles/ modeling. com/ appengine/ docs/ java/ jrewhitelist. html#caucho [5] http:/ / www. com/ appengine/ docs/ quotas. Salesforce. google. com/ book/ default/ section/ 11/ 13 . com/ appengine/ docs/ java/ jrewhitelist. gaeframework. google.Google App Engine 41 Quota Emails per day Bandwidth in per day Bandwidth out per day CPU time per day HTTP Requests per Day Datastore API calls per day Data stored 2. ars [25] A blog post that lists such efforts as it announces another one. google. google. google.com's Sina App Engine (Chinese) and Heroku. html [4] http:/ / code. google."[34] Other competitors include Microsoft's Azure Services Platform. [20] Introducing Google App Engine part 3 (http:/ / www. html [9] http:/ / code. com/ old/ content/ 2008/ 04/ analysis-google-app-engine-alluring-will-be-hard-to-escape.000* 1 GB URLFetch API calls per day. a set of application services that enable web sites to host files and execute code on Amazon's servers.5 hours per day 1. com/ p/ gawsh/ [13] http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ tipfy/ wiki/ AppEngineFrameworks [7] http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ gae-filestore/ [14] http:/ / code. com/ appengine/ docs/ whatisgoogleappengine. (http:/ / blog. google. html [3] http:/ / code. com [6] http:/ / code. References [1] http:/ / code. com/ p/ approcket/ [12] http:/ / code. html) [16] Officially Support Naked Domains for GAE Apps (http:/ / code. Sina. the more innovative and creative solutions we're going to start to see.com's Force. Many tech analysts have been predicting Google's entry into this field for years. com/ p/ googleappengine/ issues/ detail?id=777) [17] Issue 792 (http:/ / code. com/ aral/ gaebar/ tree/ master [11] http:/ / code. google. com/ appengine/ casestudies. com/ appengine/ docs/ python/ tools/ uploadingdata. google. 2009-11-10.000 1 GB 1 GB Limit 6. google." Techdirt publisher Mike Masnick wrote. html#Downloading_Data_from_App_Engine [10] http:/ / github.300. 657.Google App Engine" (http:/ / code. html#Quotas_and_Limits). clientsideweb.084* Competition The service competes with Amazon Web Services.000* 10.. html [8] http:/ / code. google. google. google. com/ p/ googleappengine/ issues/ detail?id=792) [18] Google App Engine Datastore Gotchas (http:/ / aleatory. html [22] http:/ / highscalability. net/ 2009/ 04/ Announcing-BDBDatastore-a-replacement-datastore-for-App-Engine) [26] http:/ / web2py. notdot. html [15] The JRE Class White List (http:/ / code. com/ watch?v=oG6Ac7d-Nx8) [21] http:/ / code. Retrieved 2009-11-10. com/ appengine/ docs/ python/ tools/ webapp/ overview. "Google finally realizes it needs to be the web platform. com/ appengine/ docs/ python/ runtime.com Platform. . com/ appengine/ docs/ python/ runtime. com/ appengine/ [2] http:/ / code. com/ google-architecture [23] http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ twig-persist/ [24] http:/ / arstechnica. "The easier it is to develop and deploy highly scalable web applications.

O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly Media. Douglas. Beginning Java Google App Engine (http://www.html) .packtpub.). allbuttonspressed.).wiley. 375.. 2009). Retrieved 2010-04-16. 2010). Professional Google App Engine Programming with Java (http:/ /eu. html). org/ plugin/ app-engine [30] http:/ / www. Inc.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470464933. ( online video archive (http://stanford-online. Using Google App Engine (http://oreilly. html#Free_Changes).com/catalog/ 9780596522735) (1st ed. com/ appengine/ docs/ quotas. Daniel. ISBN 059680069X • Ciurana.google. Jeff (December 31.). Amy (November 24.edu/class/ ee380/Abstracts/081105.).com/book/ default/section/11/13) .com) . ISBN 1430218312 External links • Official website (http://http://code. google. pp.com/appengine/) • GAE framework (http://www. com/ appengine/ docs/ quotas. com/ projects/ django-nonrel [28] http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2009/ 08/ google-chose-jetty [31] "Understanding Application Quotas with Google App Engine" (http:/ / code. ISBN 0470464933 • Roche. 2009).. 262.com/ pub?key=pRJ_0hajVrhacLjp3HqD5ew) • Web2py book -.apress. com/ appengine/ articles/ quotas. Developing with Google App Engine (http://www. 480. Upcoming Changes to the Free Quotas (http:/ / code. 2009). infoq. Ikai (December 1.Run your web applications on Google's infrastructure (http://www. 400.com/book/ view/1430218312) (1st ed. shtml). [32] Google. ISBN 1849690448 • Goodwill. html#Free_Changes).com/ book/view/143022553X) (1st ed. Inc.apress. (http:/ / code. Apress.com/google-app-engine-java-and-gwt-application-development/book) (1st ed. allbuttonspressed. 2009). Programming Google App Engine (http://oreilly. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 2009 [33] Google. pp. Packt Publishing. Eugene (February 2.html) (1st ed. Google App Engine Java and GWT Application Development (https://www. . pp.gaeframework. James.stanford. ISBN 059652272X • Severance. Wrox. 2009). Lan. 164. Unruh. com/ articles/ 20080407/ 225749782. 450.online documentation -.a technical talk by Google engineer Guido van Rossum at Stanford University. com/ projects/ djangoappengine [29] http:/ / grails. 2009 [34] "Google Finally Realizes It Needs To Be The Web Platform" (http:/ / techdirt.asx)) • Java Frameworks and libraries supported (http://spreadsheets.Google App Engine deployment recipe (http://web2py. pp. pp. pp. . 2008-04-07.Google App Engine [27] http:/ / www. Kyle. google. Dan (November 23.com/catalog/9780596800697) (1st ed. accessed June 17.stanford.stack of applications to work with Google App Engine written on Python • Google App Engine . google.). accessed February 26.).google. ISBN 143022553X • Sanderson.edu/courses/ee380/081105-ee380-300. Charles (May 22. 42 Bibliography • Guermeur. Apress.

com. a new and improved database backup solution called 'Heroku PG Backups' that is the officially supported and recommended method of backing up your PostgreSQL database on Heroku in addition to releasing the Heroku PostgreSQL Database Add-on. Ruby on Rails) cloud PaaS (Platform as a Service) run by the San Francisco. Membase. CEO Salesforce.[10] Said Mike Vernal.[2] Heroku will continue to exist as a wholly owned subsidiary of Salesforce. Developers can focus on their app. California based company with the same name. Orion Henry Headquarters San Francisco."[11] [9] . Type Founded Founder(s) subsidiary 2007 James Lindenbaum. 2010 Salesforce. Inc. com/ Heroku is an online Rack (and by extension.[7] In November 2010 alone. 2010 Salesforce. and Orion Henry founded Heroku with exclusive support of Rack-compatible projects.000 applications running on its service. industry veteran Byron Sebastian joined Heroku as CEO as the company began to build out the platform and achieve rapid growth and adoption in the market. Director of the Facebook Platform. As one of the very first cloud platform as a service providers. Heroku will continue to exist as a wholly owned subsidiary of Salesforce. "Heroku makes building and scaling Facebook applications easier than ever.[4] In October 2009.com entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Heroku for a reported $212 million.[1] On December 8. Heroku claims to offer the most NoSQL Add-on Solutions in the market today using a single click. with more technologies in the pipeline.[8] creating the Heroku Facebook App Package which enable companies—large and small—to quickly and easily create Facebook apps reliably.com http:/ / heroku. In November 2010. Heroku announced a partnership with Facebook.js and it remains in private beta to date. Adam Wiggins.[6] On December 8. Adam Wiggins. MongoDB and Redis. getting it in the hands of millions of Facebook users quickly. California Key people Parent Website Byron Sebastian. Heroku secured $3M in funding in 2008. Pioneering NoSQL companies available include Cloudant.Heroku 43 Heroku Heroku.[5] In May 2010 Heroku secured $10M in Series B funding led by Seattle's Ignition Partners and former Microsoft CIO/CFO John Connors joined the Heroku board.com entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Heroku for a reported $212 million in cash.com. History Heroku was founded by a team of engineers who thought web app development was too complicated. Heroku added a release management add-on. Platform as a Service The Heroku development team regularly adds features to Heroku. but in May 2010 expanded to include experimental support for Node. Heroku has been in development since June 2007 and the company reports over 119.[3] Initially funded by Y Combinator and Redpoint Ventures. James Lindenbaum.

com/ archives/ 2010/ 4/ 28/ node_js_support_experimental/ Ruby on Rails Startup Heroku Gets $3 Million (http:/ / www. named to the Always OnDemand Top 100 Private Companies in 2010.building43. techcrunch. heroku. and recognized as a ‘ Best Products of 2009’and as one of the 'Top 10 Cloud Computing Services for 2010' by ReadWriteWeb. com/ cloud/ heroku-serving-up-100000-apps/ / (http:/ / news.Heroku 44 Awards and Accolades Heroku was named to the "Dow Jones FASTech 50 Start-ups to Watch" list. com/venturecapital/2010/10/12/venturewires-fastech-conference-to-spotlight-most-promising-start-ups/) • Can Heroku Become the Official Cloud of Facebook Apps? | GigaOm (http://gigaom. com/ facebook [10] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2008/ 05/ 08/ ruby-on-rails-startup-heroku-gets-3-million) http:/ / venturebeat.com. com/ news_releases/ salesforcecom-signs-definitive-agreement-to-acquire-heroku) http:/ / blog.com/node/965587) • Heroku’ Ruby Cloud Platform at Building 43 | Scobleizer (http://www. techcrunch. com/ 2010/ 05/ 10/ former-microsoft-execs-lead-10-million-round-in-ruby-on-rails-startup-heroku/ ). recognized as a Gartner ‘ Cool Vendor in Application Platforms as a Service’in April 2010.com/videos/2010/04/20/ s herokus-ruby-cloud-platform/) • Venture Wire FASTech Conference Spotlights Most Promising Start-Ups | Wall Street Journal (http://blogs. com/ news_releases/ heroku-fuels-social-app-development-with-new-facebook-program External links • Heroku Official site (http://heroku.com/cloud/ can-heroku-become-the-official-cloud-of-facebook-apps/) .com) • Deploying Azure Hosted Services Should Be as Easy as Deploying a Heroku Application (http://internetvideo. [7] http:/ / blog. heroku. sys-con. com/ archives/ 2010/ 7/ 20/ nosql/ [8] http:/ / mashable. com/ 2009/ 10/ 14/ sourcelabs-byron-sebastian-joins-heroku-as-ceo/ "Former Microsoft Execs Lead $10 Million Round In Ruby On Rails Startup Heroku" (http:/ / techcrunch. heroku. com/ cloud/ can-heroku-become-the-official-cloud-of-facebook-apps/ [11] http:/ / news. Competitors • Engine Yard • Google App Engine • Microsoft Azure Services Platform References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / gigaom. com/ 2010/ 11/ 11/ heroku-facebook/ [9] http:/ / heroku. heroku.wsj. .

Scalability The upper bound on the scalability of this system is that no single website can ever utilise more than two servers at once . The software is designed to provide commodity web hosting in a distributed and fault-tolerant manner [2] on a cluster of either real physical servers or virtual cloud computing infrastructure server instances. Works on real hardware and virtualized cloud computing infrastructure. By default this number is set to 2. it is possible to scale beyond this limit via the use of multi-master database replication . Operating system FreeBSD Type License Website Cloud computing Proprietary www. the web application itself must remain static and can be served from as many nodes in the cluster as required.the database can then be live on many servers. the system acts to automatically recover its data and resume web hosting within 15 seconds.Hybrid Web Cluster 45 Hybrid Web Cluster Hybrid Web Cluster Developer(s) Hybrid Logic Ltd.under this condition all standard LAMP applications will run unmodified. Features • • • • Runs standard LAMP stack web applications. enabling existing applications to run un-modified just as they would on commodity shared web hosting.this sets the number of machines in the cluster that should hold a copy of each website or database. However.the load generated by each is monitored closely and the cluster automatically and transparently transfers websites and databases between cluster nodes such that no single node is ever overloaded. If a cluster node fails. a London..hybrid-cluster. Only one server is ever live for a particular website or database at any one time. . Redundancy It is possible to specify a redundancy invariant . this means that under normal operation all data will be held on at least two cluster nodes at any one time. Enables instant and automatic scalability. United Kingdom based company.com [1] Hybrid Web Cluster is a software product developed by Hybrid Logic Ltd. This is achieved using the filesystem snapshotting capabilities of ZFS [3] . A single website can go from having no load at all to requiring its own dedicated web and database servers within seconds.this requires that applications store all variable state information within a database . Technology This software splits each website and database into individual units of work . Has a configurable level of replication redundancy.

com/ watch?v=kauUyb63Sak) London OpenSolaris user group talk (http:/ / www. com/ #/ blog/ 2010/ 08/ press-release-beta-testing-due-to-begin-in-september/ ) External links • Official site (http://www. com/ Hybrid Web Cluster video demo (http:/ / www. org/ calendar/ show_event.hybrid-cluster.com) • Development blog (http://www. youtube.Hybrid Web Cluster 46 Release Hybrid Web Cluster is scheduled to begin beta testing in September 2010[4] .hybrid-cluster. ukoug. hybrid-cluster. References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.com/blog/) . jsp?id=5122) Press release: Beta testing due to begin in September (http:/ / www. hybrid-cluster.

com [1] OrangeScape is a Chennai based product company founded in the year 2003. the product was called as OrangeScape DimensioN. • Process design: to define how the model should move from one user to another based on the data/decision made by the previous user. with a vision of simplifying business application development.0 version allows applications developed on OrangeScape development environment to be deployed on Google App Engine. From 3.[2] OrangeScape uses a spreadsheet like development environment for creating business applications. offering a shared-everything or a shared-Processing multitenancy models.[6] . Tamilnadu.[3] Product Prior to 3. The product was rewritten to run its development environment on the browser and to support cloud-oriented datastores such as BigTable. integration etc. the product is also called as OrangeScape.[5] It provides 4 design perspectives: • Model design: spreadsheet like interface to define the data model and the business logic that captures application data. India Products Employees Website Platform as a Service 42 www.0.OrangeScape. OrangeScape Cloud uses GAE.OrangeScape 47 OrangeScape OrangeScape Technologies Type Industry Founded Privately held company Cloud Computing 2003 Headquarters Chennai. This product has three major components: OrangeScape Studio. MySQL and IBM DB2. In December 2008. Consequently. • Action design: to build composite command chain that can be used for tasks such as mail notification.0 onwards. OrangeScape Cloud. The application developed using OrangeScape Studio can be deployed as on-premise application using OrangeScape Enterprise or as SaaS application using OrangeScape Cloud. OrangeScape Enterprise runs on JEE application servers and supports standard databases including Oracle.[4] The browser based development environment is called OrangeScape Studio. the 3. OrangeScape Enterprise. Microsoft SQL Server. Shared-Processing is achieved by deploying the application into different Google app engine accounts. the company entered Platform as a Service space with its Cloud version. • Form design: to customize the look and feel of the underlying business model and make it more usable for the end users.

so that domain experts and business analysts can build applications on their own.00.products page (http:/ / www. Some of the new customers are building SaaS applications that runs on OrangeScape Cloud. com/ building-applications/ introduction) [6] Gartner: Who's Who in Application Platforms for Cloud Computing: The Cloud Specialists (http:/ / www.OrangeScape 48 Uses OrangeScape is commonly used for building process oriented business applications.com) • NASSCOM Showcase of Emerging Product Companies (http://blog.in/emerge/2008/08/ nasscom-showcase-of-emerging-product-companies/) • ‘ Clouds’catch on even as concerns stay (http://www.com • QuickBase • Wolf Frameworks References [1] http:/ / www. Most of the corporate customers of OrangeScape use its enterprise version to run custom built applications in their data-center. forrester. OrangeScape.html) • Team computers . com/ 2009/ 12/ 28/ deal-radar-2009-orangescape/ ) [8] Forrester: Platform-As-A-Service Is Here: How To Sift Through The Options (http:/ / www.00. forrester.orangescape.oneindia. html) External links • OrangeScape .48385.Building applications (http:/ / help.livemint.48385. com/ DisplayDocument?id=1180217) [7] Deal Radar 2009: Orangescape (http:/ / www.7211. com/ [2] OrangeScape. orangescape.com makes web application development a breeze (http:/ / startupstory. Team Computers team-up (http://news.in/2006/05/28/ orangescape-tech-team-computers-team-up. html) [4] OrangeScape .com/partners. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0.nasscom. com/ products) [5] OrangeScape Help .7211.official website (http://www.teambusinesssolutions. in/ 2008/ 12/ 07/ orangescapecom-makes-web-application-development-a-breeze/ ) [3] Forrester: Platform-As-A-Service Is Here: How To Sift Through The Options (http:/ / www.Partners page (http://www. com/ Research/ Document/ Excerpt/ 0. orangescape. [7] The company claims to make business application development simpler by using spreadsheet & process design interface.html) .[8] Competitors • Force. gartner.com/2009/09/22001207/ 8216Clouds8217-catch-on.asp?sname=PARTNERS& partnerId=24&n=0&move=) • OrangeScape Technologies. sramanamitra.

Platform as a service 49 Platform as a service Platform as a Service (PaaS) is the delivery of a computing platform and solution stack as a service. storage. database integration. Comprehensive PaaS should provide all service options in an integrated development environment within the actual target delivery platform. PaaS offers improved user experience by incorporating channels for real people feedback throughout creation. testing. with source code control. any database. [3] Key characteristics Services to develop.. licensing or financial dependencies on specific SaaS applications or web services. Often these require PaaS developers and their users to purchase subscriptions to the co-resident SaaS application. or Microsoft Word. Open Platform as a Service Lets the developer use any programming language. security. PaaS offerings facilitate deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software and provisioning hosting capabilities[1] . with tools that make it easy to log/single out features that annoy or frustrate either novices or experts. Flash and AIR. . design. PaaS offerings may include facilities for application design. tried out by real people (non-programmers). Application delivery-only environments Some PaaS offerings lack development. roll out and roll back with the ability to audit and track who made what changes when to accomplish what purpose Web based user interface creation tools PaaS offerings typically provide some level of support to ease the creation of user interfaces. web service integration and marshalling. application development. any operating system. multi-user environments and scenarios can be defined. test. debugging and test capabilities. and in some ways are the equivalent of macro language customization facilities provided with packaged software applications such as Lotus Notes. development. Creation tools allow interfaces to be defined for different user profiles by function or expertise.the entire life-cycle through to 'end-of-life" "reincarnation" or "next generation evolution" of the application. testing. deploy. These services may be provisioned as an integrated solution over the web. providing all of the facilities required to support the complete life cycle of building and delivering web applications and services entirely available from the Internet[2] . application versioning. host and maintain applications in the same integrated development environment Different PaaS offerings provide different combinations of services to support the application development life-cycle. scalability. persistence. either based on standards such as HTML and JavaScript or other Rich Internet Application technologies like Adobe Flex. dynamic (interactive) multiple user testing.. Types Add-on development facilities These facilities allow customization of existing SaaS applications. application instrumentation and developer community facilitation. etc. Rich. roll-out. any server. Stand alone development environments Stand-alone PaaS environments do not include technical. state management. interactive. production. and are intended to provide a generalized development environment. deployment and hosting as well as application services such as team collaboration. and provide only hosting-level services such as security and on-demand scalability. version control.

fail-over and security. updated and tracked based on access rights. Financial data collection and. and • the cost of alternative service paths such as web and cell phone just to name a couple. zdnet. • compare the value of different services. Support for keeping the user/relationships (if multiple users)/device context and profile through the mashup across web services. uk/ technology/ 2008/ apr/ 17/ google. QC) can be defined. and • track activity based costs and revenues. • the value to the user or users. Utility-grade instrumentation PaaS offerings provide developers insight into the inner workings of their applications.com (http:/ / blogs. sometimes called "mashups" as well as access databases and re-use services maintained inside private networks. interaction history. developers. access.Platform as a service Multi-tenant architecture PaaS offerings typically attempt to support use of the application by many concurrent users. Some PaaS offerings use information about user behaviour to enable pay-per-use billing. co. software) [2] Comparing Amazon’ and Google’ Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) Offerings | Enterprise Web 2.0 | ZDNet. openplatformasaservice. com/ s s Hinchcliffe/ ?p=166& tag=btxcsim) [3] Open Platform as a Service' (http:/ / www. Support for development team collaboration The ability to form and share code with ad-hoc or pre-defined or distributed teams greatly enhances the productivity of PaaS offerings. Integration with web services and databases Support for SOAP and REST interfaces allow PaaS offerings to create compositions of multiple web services. com) . forecasting. are required to determine who pays what to whom and when (how often). navigation history. guardian. The architecture enables defining the "trust relationship" between users in security. and application usage. possibly. Schedules. user (people and device) profiles. objectives. by providing concurrency management. distribution of source code. databases and networks. roles (designers. tester. Visualization tools could show usage patterns. and the behavior of their users. 50 References [1] Google angles for business users with 'platform as a service' (http:/ / www. exposing functional or correlational relationships between: • services and/or user interactions. Historical/usage evidence may help: • determine whether services are of value to users/customers. teams. scalability. owners of different areas of responsibilities. action items.

[13] It was originally launched as Mosso CloudFS on May 5. Inc. 2008 and is similar to Amazon Simple Storage Service. d/b/a The Rackspace Cloud rather than with the Mosso LLC subsidiary.com domain) was then dropped on June 17. adopting the tagline "Mosso: The Hosting Cloud". 2006 Rackspace http:/ / www. 2008.Rackspace Cloud 51 Rackspace Cloud Rackspace Cloud Type Industry Founded Parent Website Division Cloud computing March 4.[7] History The Rackspace Cloud was originally launched as Mosso LLC on March 4.[15] API .[12] Other companies (such as EMC with its "Decho" subsidiary) also use alternative branding for their cloud computing offerings. user content) on a utility computing basis (at USD 0. 2006.[11] Since then.[3] [4] It is notable because it has won awards. "a repository of partner tools.[10] The "Mosso" The original Mosso logo branding (including the mosso. video files.15/GB/month). rackspacecloud. a wholly owned subsidiary startup billed as a utility computing offering. managed via the online control panel or RESTful API and optionally served out via Limelight Networks' Content Delivery Network.[14] Unlimited files of up to 5 GB can be uploaded. customer contracts have been executed with Rackspace US. applications and services for cloud computing". It has since branched out into cloud storage ("Cloud Files") and cloud infrastructure ("Cloud Servers") and is "already a real leader in the cloud" according to analyst Signal Hill. On August 25.com domain). Services Cloud Files Cloud files is a cloud storage service that provides "unlimited online storage and CDN" for media (examples given include backups. com [1] The Rackspace Cloud is a web application hosting/cloud platform provider ("Cloud Sites") that bills on a utility computing basis[2] . 2009 Rackspace Cloud rolled out Cloud Tools. including Performancing's editors choice for Best Blog WebHost of 2007[5] and garnered special attention for the unprecedented appointment of a Chief Uptime Officer. 2009 in favour of "The Rackspace Cloud" branding (including the rackspacecloud.[8] [9] As it pre-dated mainstream adoption of cloud computing it was "retooled" and relaunched on February 19.[6] It was also one of the first commercial cloud computing services.

serving content over content delivery networks. and Citrix XenServer for Windows instances. Gentoo. Rackspace-owned Jungle Disk allows Cloud Files to be mounted as a local drive within supported operating systems (Linux. serving images and videos (which are streamed directly to the users' browsers). Python. Deleted data is zeroed out immediately. API The Cloud Servers API launched on July 14. allowing for allocations between 256 MB and 15. which adds additional support for the operating system and common applications as well as patching and other routine services.5 GB.[19] This additional support level does come at an increased cost.NET.[15] 52 Cloud Servers Cloud Servers is a cloud infrastructure service that allows users to deploy "one to hundreds of cloud servers instantly" and create of "advanced. Various distributions of Linux are supported.[22] . 2008 acquisition of Slicehost and the servers were formerly known as "slices". developing data storage applications. Data is organised into "containers" but it is not possible to create nested folders without a translation layer. however. There are no concepts of "appending" or "locking" data within Cloud Files (which may affect some disk mirroring or backup solutions).[21] RightScale is among third-party providers to have announced support for this API. Security Redundancy is provided by replication three full copies of data across multiple computers in multiple "zones" within the same data center. The Rackspace Cloud began offering a managed service level on the Cloud Servers product. These are "much cheaper and generally easier to use than a traditional dedicated server". though it is still necessary to maintain the operating system and solution stack which is not [18] This is one of the main differentiators between the two services. The technology behind the service was purchased in Rackspace's October 22. Each quad core hardware node has between 16 and 32 GB of RAM. Red Hat and Ubuntu.Rackspace Cloud In addition to the online control panel the service can be accessed over a RESTful API with open source client code available in C#/. where "zones" are physically (though not geographically) separate and supplied separate power and Internet services. Debian. Java and Ruby.[15] Caveats There is no native operating system support for the Cloud Files API so it is not yet possible to "map" or "mount" it as a virtual drive without third-party software like JungleDisk [16] that translates to a supported standard such as WebDAV. similar to the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. 2009 under the Creative Commons Attribution 3. configure and control virtual servers. Mac OS X and Windows). [17] with disk sizes ranging from 10 GB to 620 GB. Cloud Servers includes full root access and thus allows for more customisation. Fedora. Disk and CPU allocations scale up with memory. Uploaded files can be distributed via Limelight Networks to "hundreds of endpoints across the world" which provides an additional layer of data redundancy. CentOS. where required for the Cloud Sites product. PHP. including Arch. nor support for permissions or transcoding. the Cloud Sites product is less flexible but requires less maintenance.0 license allows clients to create.[20] In addition to issuing basic management commands this "enables elastic scenarios" whereby servers are instantiated and destroyed in response to fluctuating load (one of the key characteristics of cloud computing). high availability architectures".[15] Use cases Use cases considered as "well suited" include backing up or archiving data. storing fluctuating and/or unpredictable amounts of data and reducing costs.[13] The "cloud servers" are actually virtual machines running on the Xen hypervisor for Linux-based instances. On December 14. storing secondary static web-accessible data. 2010.[15] The control panel and API are protected by SSL and the requests themselves are signed and can be safely delivered to untrusted clients.

ASP and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 application frameworks.0+. similar to traditional web hosting only built on horizontally scalable hardware infrastructure. Perl.[26] The . Should this allocation be exhausted then subsequent usage is billed on a utility computing basis.[24] It is also not possible to set up multiple top level domains to point to the same web root directory. Cloud Servers and Cloud Files services. Touted as "the fastest way to put sites on the cloud". . The control panel is also home to the billing and reporting functions and provides access to support materials including developer resources. 24x7 support) that apply to them.Rackspace Cloud 53 Cloud Sites Cloud Sites is a cloud platform offering. It also allows users to manage multiple clients and the plans and products (e.[27] [28] Control Panel The online control panel was custom built by and for the Rackspace Cloud service (as opposed to using control panel software like cPanel as is often the case with traditional web hosting providers). MySQL.NET 2. A fixed monthly credit card payment gives users access to the service with an allocation of compute.NET environment dropped support for "full trust" in favour of "modified medium trust" despite having previously announced on their blog that they had been able to work directly with Microsoft to engineer a system that could accommodate Full Trust without compromising the security. with white label branding options for messaging. forums and live chat. There was once a web based file manager. It allows an "unlimited" number of sites.[30] . but this was removed for undisclosed reasons.[29] The control panel includes management interfaces for the Cloud Sites. SSH. Tomcat. RDP. Python. The clients Rackspace Cloud online control panel themselves have access to a restricted version of the control panel that allows them [30] to conduct administrative tasks such as managing mail accounts.g. ColdFusion.[24] Compute cycles The service includes up to 10. and performance of other users.01). API access. storage and bandwidth resources.000 "compute cycles" per month which "is roughly equivalent to running a server with a 2. scalability. Microsoft Exchange or custom server-side components at this time. This non-standard unit of measurement primarily reflects CPU processing time but also includes I/O operations so pages with many database queries will consume more "compute cycles". databases and email accounts and includes reseller options such as client billing and support[23] .8 GHz modern processor for the same period of time" (with additional cycles priced at USD 0.[25] It can however be difficult to compare services between providers without standard units of measurement. databases. a knowledge base. it runs Windows or Linux applications across "hundreds of servers". Caveats Cloud Sites does not support Java.[13] Cloud Sites supports the PHP 5.

[24] "Cloud Sites: Is it a fit?" (http:/ / www. rackspacecloud. rackspacecloud. Retrieved 2009-07-30. html). [16] http:/ / www. com/ archives/ 2008/ 02/ 19/ mosso-evolves-into-the-hosting-cloud/ ) [11] Moorman. com/ blog/ ?p=1047 [32] http:/ / www. reuters. Retrieved 2009-08-21. zdnet. theregister. "Cloud Files Introduction Documentation" (http:/ / www. aspx) [20] The Rackspace Cloud Goes Open Source with APIs (http:/ / www. 23. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. . appnovation. [29] Mosso’ New Control Panel and Provisioning System (http:/ / www. RackSpace contributed the source code of its Cloud Files product to the OpenStack project under the Apache License to become the OpenStack Object Storage component. thewhir. techcrunch. betanews. rackspace. com/ files/ cf-intro-20090812. datacenterknowledge. Rackspace. com/ article/ BT-CO-20090717-707774. com/ performancing_blog_awards_2007_winners/ ) [6] Mosso Appoints Chief Uptime Officer (http:/ / www. com/ hosting-high-traffic-drupal-site-with-mosso-cloud-hosting) [27] "Overview of modified Medium Trust" (http:/ / help. com/ information/ mediacenter/ release. com/ blog/ ?cat=253 . com/ cloud_hosting_faq) [26] Hosting High Traffic Web Sites with Mosso (http:/ / www. [4] Rackspace challenges Amazon with new cloud server. Rackspace. com/ news/ 2009/ 031309-rackspace-cloud-server-storage. rackspace.Rackspace Cloud 54 OpenStack In 2010. Lew (2009-06-17). "A Sneak Peek at our Plans in the Cloud" (http:/ / www. html) [9] BusinessWeek: Mosso. LLC (http:/ / investing. Retrieved 2009-07-30. . storage services (http:/ / www. "Rackspace's Flight Into Cloud Computing Includes Turbulence" (http:/ / online. Retrieved 2009-07-29. php?id=383). php?id=205) [15] Nayak. com/ legal/ tos) [13] Puccio. html) [5] Performancing Blog Awards 2007 Winners (http:/ / performancing. wsj. Slicehost To Take On Amazon Web Services (http:/ / www. pp. rackspacecloud. Retrieved 2009-07-30. . . [12] Rackspace Cloud Terms of Service (http:/ / www. . com/ cloud_hosting_products/ sites/ pricing). com/ 2008/ 10/ 22/ rackspace-acquires-jungledisk-slicehost-to-take-on-amazon-web-services/ ) [19] (http:/ / adtmag. rackspace. [25] Rackspace Cloud Hosting FAQ (http:/ / www. Rackspace. Retrieved 2009-08-21. reuters. netcraft. com/ ) [31] http:/ / www. [14] Mosso Unveils Cloud Storage Service (http:/ / www. rackspace. Rackspace. [31] [32] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ marketwatch/ 081908_Mosso_Appoints_Chief_Uptime_Officer. . Rackspace. jungledisk. Wall Street Journal. com/ [2] The Rackspace Cloud's utility hosting turns Impressionistic (http:/ / www. com/ blog/ tag/ control-panel/ ) s [30] Rackspace Cloud Control Panel (http:/ / manage. cfm) [7] Rackspace launches cloud app partner portal (http:/ / blogs. Krisana (2009-07-14). asp?privcapId=33334866) [10] Mosso Evolves Into The Hosting Cloud (http:/ / www. Eucalyptus to its 'hybrid clouds' (http:/ / www. com/ [17] Rackspace Cloud: Cloud Servers Technical Specifications (http:/ / www. businessweek. rackspacecloud. [28] "IIS 7: How Mosso is Taking Advantage of Microsoft's New Hosting Platform" (http:/ / www. uk/ 2008/ 02/ 19/ mosso_new_pricing_feb_2008/ ) [3] Conway. Rackspace. com/ blog/ 2007/ 12/ iis-7- -how-mosso-is-taking-advantage-of-microsoft s-new-hosting-platform/ ). networkworld. co. com/ archives/ 2006/ 03/ 04/ new_reseller_service_offers_utility_computing_for_100_a_month. "businesswire The Rackspace Cloud Announces Public API for Cloud Servers" (http:/ / www. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS114233+ 14-Jul-2009+ BW20090714). com/ blog/ ?p=284). rackspacecloud. com/ news/ 2009/ 071409-rackspace-api. Retrieved 2009-07-29. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS137483+ 23-Jul-2009+ BW20090723) [21] Rackspace API gives developers greater access to cloud platform (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ 2010/ 12/ 15/ rackspace-managed-cloud-service. com/ article/ Cloud-Expo-RightScale-adds-RackSpace-Eucalyptus-to-its-hybrid-clouds/ 1238701208) [23] "Cloud Sites: Pricing" (http:/ / www. Brendan (2009-07-17). . rackspacecloud. Ranjit (2009-08-12). pdf). rackspacecloud. rackspacecloud. com/ article. com/ BTL/ ?p=23116) [8] Netcraft: New Reseller Service Offers Utility Computing for $100 a Month (http:/ / news. rackspacecloud. networkworld. . com/ cloud_hosting_products/ servers/ specifications) [18] Rackspace Acquires JungleDisk. html) [22] Cloud Expo: RightScale adds RackSpace. rackspacecloud. com/ cloud_hosting_products/ sites/ isitafit). rackspacecloud. Retrieved 2009-08-29.

com/) .official site • OpenStack (http://openstack.rackspacecloud.org/) • Rackspace Cloud Reviews (http://www.rackspacecloudreview.Rackspace Cloud 55 External links • Rackspace Cloud Computing (http://www.user reviews .com) .

It serves business users. crunchbase. techcrunch. the Rollbase platform allows users to create Software as a Service business applications using point and click. businessweek.rollbase. asp?privcapId=47080143 http:/ / www. rollbase. drag and drop tools in a standard web browser without programming. and organizations with a multitenant software as a service (SaaS) platform to use as the foundation for SaaS application development and delivery. com/ 2008/ 02/ 26/ rollbase-paas-service-to-launch-invites-for-techcrunch-readers/ http:/ / investing. com/ company/ rollbase . and Web developers. California Products Website SaaS Web-Based Business Applications www. California.Rollbase 56 Rollbase Rollbase Type Industry Founded Privately held company Cloud Computing.com [1] Rollbase is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) software vendor based in Saratoga. IT professionals.[3] [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. ISVs. [2] Product Rollbase provides software vendors. com/ research/ stocks/ private/ snapshot. Founded in 2007. Platform as a Service 2007 Headquarters Saratoga. com/ http:/ / www.

unhappy with this business model.[6] [9] Casalena's impetus for creating the software behind the company was his dissatisfaction in finding an elegant solution for publishing his personal web page. providing them the tools and assistance to create and [6] [7] maintain well-designed websites. after reaching $1 million in revenue in 2007. [1] Lower Manhattan New York City.000–30. United States Key people • • • • • Revenue Employees Website Anthony Casalena (Founder) Dane Atkinson (CEO) [2] Davin Chew (CTO) Rolando Berrios [2] (Director of Technology) Tyler Thompson [2] (Creative Director) [3] US$2. in exchange for a 5% share of the company. Casalena quickly moved to a direct commercial plan. Casalena was Squarespace's sole full-time employee. However. the cycle of investing more each year in AdWords (beginning with $500 a month) as it brought in increasingly numbers of paying customers allowed the userbase to build up organically. After 8–9 months of development and a three-hour "massive. massive fight" with his parents over the matter.[7] Feeling a lot of pressure from the online community. Casalena originally provided Squarespace's publishing services for free.000 investment. Casalena turned Squarespace into "a full-fledged business". "[Squarespace] really wouldn't be here without AdWords". As explained by Squarespace CEO Dane Atkinson.[8] During this time.[3] [8] [7] An alumnus of the University of Maryland's "Hinman CEOs" program.000 (2008) 30 [4] Squarespace [5] Official Squarespace Blog Squarespace is a web publishing (blogging/content management)[1] company that sells a software publishing platform and file server service to individuals and businesses. as were many other platforms on the Internet.200. this model freed the .Squarespace 57 Squarespace Squarespace Squarespace logo Type Founded Founder(s) Private April 2003 Anthony Casalena Headquarters Lafayette Street.[7] Casalena's father made a single US$20. AdWords implementation was instrumental for the service.[3] Company history Squarespace was founded in April 2003[1] by then 21-year-old Marylander Anthony Casalena. Squarespace powers tens of thousands of websites with billions of monthly hits.[1] For three years.

[15] Casalena says Squarespace is now moving into a new phase. and Index Ventures' Dominique Vidal. calling the interface gorgeous.[8] In July 2008.by several. Casalena opined that the secret of his company's success had been surprising the customer with more and better services than they anticipated. he did say that version 6 would be a huge departure from version 5 (moreso than 5 was from 4). despite what the CEO called their "very successful" experiences thusly. a modular architecture allowing for easier construction. integrated form building. and have been since July 2008. they noted the introduction of full site searching.[7] 2009 found Squarespace on the Inc.[11] History Casalena began developing the Squarespace software in November 2002.[7] despite the latter still having 40. Casalena remains Squarespace's largest shareholder.with varying success -. and a Google Maps component."[13] [14] Version 5 of the software also cut off support of Microsoft's Internet Explorer 6 web browser. as the 339th fastest-growing private company in the United States. TechCrunch (July 13. also includes features for general Web publishing. forums. content management. 2010) [8] In an interview with TechCrunch. as part of the deal which raised the company's value to between $80[3] to over $100 million.[12] Version 5 of the Squarespace platform was released on July 25. Casalena's product. 2008. a platform of modules that could snap together seamlessly and give the appearance of an integrated final product.[9] The original vision for the publishing software was that of "Lego bricks for the web". 2004) [9] Squarespace's infrastructure and colocation services are hosted by PEER 1. file storage and creating online message boards. more than 60 new website styles. Washington Business Journal (April 26. and more. Squarespace formed a board of directors. Squarespace annually doubled their users and revenue.[7] CMSWire reviewed version 4 of the platform's software when it was released in May 2007. which will be defined by how it improves the platform and tackles the fundamental problem of simplifying web publishing.[10] In the late 2000s. more specialized software programs.[3] [6] In July 2010. The goal for version 6 is to "create a richer.[8] 58 Software Squarespace platform The Squarespace software was written to address disparate needs previously met -. Atkinson added that company bristles when "so-called experts" tell them they should still be offering a free service.61% market share. Casalena described the goal of the upgrade "to make advanced web publishing widely accessible. FAQs. while aimed at bloggers.[8] [3] Speaking with This Week in Startups in January 2011.[7] Squarespace's SoHo (New York City) headquarters is at the corner of Broadway and Grand.[7] and as of July 2010 the company had 30 employees.Squarespace company from the pressure of advertisers and allowed them to provide 24-hour customer support. though Casalena wouldn't commit to a release date anymore (it will "be ready when it's ready")."[8] In a January 2011 interview. paid subscriptions for the service doubled overnight. the company secured its Series A round of investment capital. to add its three charter members: Getty Images CEO and founder Jonathan Klein. especially the layout system which will evolve into a more free form and flexible format. and that it would introduce native mobile versions of Squarespace sites which would work well on all mobile . after the release of software version 5. The new interface introduced a drag-and-drop interface. cleaner and more fluid experience for the designer. 500. Accel Partners' Andrew Braccia. Casalena revealed that version 6 of the in-house Squarespace publishing platform would probably premiere around April 2011.

[9] Lohr. . Accel bet big on Squarespace" (http:/ / blogs. Retrieved 2010-11-04. TheStreet. Inc). org/ 5tzgULgxC). "The Squarespace iPhone App is Live!" (http:/ / blog. . [14] Mosher. USA. 2010-08-26. ( Interview (http:/ / thisweekin. "Squarespace Raises $38. [16] Eaton. com [6] "Two Mtech Hinman CEOs Companies. cmswire. com/ 2010/ 07/ 13/ squarespace-raises-38-5-million-from-accel-index-ventures/ ). [2] "About . Lawrence (2010-07-14). or even advanced future-facing Web tech like HTML5. United Kingdom. Retrieved 2010-11-04. Bob. United States: Squarespace. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Web Host Industry Review. Canada. webcitation. [4] http:/ / www. org/ 5w5JgVa4V). ed. Aliso Viejo. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 2009. they were pleased to have translated the experience their customers expected. USA: American City Business Journals). [18] "Squarespace" (http:/ / itunes. . Retrieved 2010-11-04. "Squarespace Brings Sexy Back to Blogging" (http:/ / www. 500 List For Second Straight Year" (http:/ / www. "University of Maryland student in a class by himself" (http:/ / www. . reuters. [12] Natividad. com/ company/ squarespace). Anthony. [7] Casalena. hitslink. Barb (2008-08-07). 2008-07-25. July 2008. [13] "Squarespace V5 Redefines Publishing for the Web" (http:/ / www. TechCrunch. Toronto. [17] Casalena. Squarespace And Lurn. com/ small-business/ 2010/ 07/ 14/ index-accel-bet-big-on-squarespace/ ). html) on 2010-11-04. .Squarespace devices. CrunchBase. "Squarespace Gets $39 Million for Mysterious Publishing Initiative" (http:/ / www. org/ 5tzzEKMV8). [15] "Top Browser Share Trend – Market Share" (http:/ / www. . html) on 2010-11-04. org/ 5tzhOfKPP). php) on 2010-11-04. com/ 1670135/ squarespace-funding-index-accel-blog-hosting-website-design). squarespace. squarespace. Angela (2007-05-10). org/ 5tniLiAPi). com/ report. 2011-01-28. Tyler Crowley. CMSWire. com/ story/ 2008072514230300002. fastcompany. Archived from the original (http:/ / marketshare. org/ 5u009F0sV). webcitation. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. (2004-04-26). News Blaze. com/ cms/ web-cms/ squarespace-brings-sexy-back-to-blogging-001275. Interview with Jason Calacanis. org/ 5u011gNuK). United States: Squarespace. ISSN 1085-9241. [11] Lee. com/ washington/ stories/ 2004/ 04/ 26/ focus3. Wendy (2009-08-20). Washington Business Journal (Washington. php?storyId=112042428) (streaming audio).com. Fast Company (United States: Fast Company. html) on 2010-11-04. pnw/ topstory. com/ web-hosting-news/ 072808_PEER_1_Supports_Squarespace) on 2010-11-04. Retrieved on 2011-01-28.[7] Fast Company magazine speculated Squarespace's plan to "redefine publishing" would involve "possibly embracing social networking. Retrieved 2010-09-24. [3] Aragon. New York City. . and that though they weren't the first blogging platform with an iPhone app. org/ templates/ story/ story. . "PEER 1 Supports Squarespace" (http:/ / www. Reuters. Greg A. . Retrieved 2011-01-28. crunchbase. New York City. thewhir. aspx?qprid=3& qpdt=1& qpct=4& qptimeframe=M& qpsp=83& qpnp=11) on 2011-01-28. Index Ventures" (http:/ / techcrunch. php) on 2010-11-04. "Index. Retrieved 2010-11-04. .C. Safian. webcitation. CMSWire. . . New York City. com/ thisweekin-startups/ this-week-in-startups-112-with-anthony-casalena-founder-of-squarespace/ ) [video]).[7] References [1] "Squarespace | CrunchBase Profile" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Apple Inc. webcitation. Squarespace released an iPhone application allowing their customers to post to and manage content within their Squarespace-hosted websites. Evelyn (2010-07-13). This Week in Startups. com/ cms/ micro-cms/ squarespace-gives-new-life-to-hosted-blogging-002981. org/ 5u02yMe44). Retrieved 2010-09-24. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 2010-08-21. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. squarespace. Named To Inc. . [8] Rusli. . webcitation. "Web Firms Find Paths To Profits: Free Vs.. Retrieved 2010-09-24. D. Fees" (http:/ / www. [10] Kaufman. . com/ about) on 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Retrieved 2010-10-27. thestreet. webcitation. Justin (2008-07-28). Retrieved 2010-11-04. Santa Monica.5 Million From Accel. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. com/ us/ app/ squarespace/ id318590874?mt=8) (itms). html) (blog). Ontario. . com/ story/ 10845465/ two-mtech-hinman-ceos-companies-squarespace-and-lurn-named-to-inc-500-list-for-second-straight-year. Archived from the original (http:/ / newsblaze. npr. "Squarespace Gives New Life to Hosted Blogging" (http:/ / www. PR Newswire. California: Net Applications. cmswire. com [5] http:/ / blog. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.Squarespace" (http:/ / www. webcitation. squarespace. apple. com/ blog/ 2009/ 11/ 3/ the-squarespace-iphone-app-is-live. Retrieved 2010-11-04.[17] [18] Casalena stated in a 2011 interview that Squarespace spent a lot of time working on the app converting the web interface experience to iPhone. Andrew (2009-11-03). bizjournals. Kit (2010-07-14)."[16] 59 iPhone On November 3. United States: National Public Radio. webcitation.

and accelerate innovation without investment in IT infrastructure. Since Sunday. researchers. 2010. and the Java platform.Squarespace 60 External links • Official website (http://http://www. enabling developers. . The Sun Cloud Compute Utility provides access to a substantial computing resource over the Internet for US$1 per CPU-hour. a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation. the network. Runs occur when the job is submitted to the Compute Utility for execution.squarespace.com) • Squarespace (http://twitter. jobs and runs Resources are collections of files that contain the user's data and executable. required arguments to the shell script. Suitable applications A typical application that can run on the Compute Utility fits the following parameters: • must be self-contained • runs on the Solaris 10 Operating System (OS) • is implemented with standard object libraries included with the Solaris 10 OS or user libraries packaged with the executable • all executable code must be available on the Compute Utility at time of execution • runs to completion under control of shell scripts (no requirement for interactive access) • has a total maximum size of applications and data that does not exceed 10 gigabytes • can be packaged for upload to Sun Cloud as one or more ZIP files of 300 megabytes or smaller Resources. March 7. Sun Grid Engine. The Sun Cloud is available worldwide. Jobs are a Compute Utility concept that define the elements of the unit of work that is submitted to the Sun Cloud Compute Utility. scientists and businesses to optimize performance. A run is a specific instantiation of a Job description submitted to the Sun Cloud Compute Utility. speed time to results. and a list of resources that must be in place for the job to run. It is based on and supports open source technologies such as Solaris 10. The major elements of a job include the name of the shell script controlling program execution. Sun Cloud delivers enterprise computing power and resources over the Internet.com web site has been inaccessible.com/squarespace) on Twitter Sun Cloud Sun Cloud is an on-demand Cloud computing service operated by Sun Microsystems.

enabling communities of scientists and academics in life sciences. uk/ projects/ festival/ External links • • • • Sun Cloud (http://www. For example. like Festival [1] Scientific applications.jsp) Sun Grid Engine Source (http://gridengine. FDS • Computer Aided Engineering . eHITS. Sun announced the launch of Application Catalog. Users can publish their own applications to a private library and access them whenever they want. READSEQ Examples of types of suitable applications include: • • • • • Bio informatics Financial domain applications.dev. The portal gives them everything they need to conduct analysis and complete complex computational tasks to help speed scientific discovery and shorten the time to market for new products. The software rounds this up to 17 hours and the job would be billed as US $17. they can also share their applications with others while retaining their data securely in their private space. The Network. an online service that allows developers and ISVs to develop and publish their applications.com Application Catalog gives users immediate online access to popular ISV and open source applications through an easy-to-use Web portal with no contractual obligation. Clustalw. like Computer simulation References [1] http:/ / www.com/solutions/cloudcomputing/index. Available Applications Applications available on the Catalog include(by category): • General .com/) Utility Computing (http://www. the Sun Cloud CPU usage is aggregated and then rounded up to the nearest whole hour. Black-Scholes option pricing models Computer Arts.sunsource.Blender. ed. The Application Catalog On March 13. upload their data.Sun Cloud 61 CPU-hour For each job one submits and runs on the Cloud.sun. fastDNAml. OFELI • Life Sciences . Impact. like Monte Carlo method. GROMACS.BLAST. and other fields to accelerate innovation and complete research projects quickly and less expensively. ac. cstr. 2007. FASTA. engineering.com enables anyone to publish applications to the Application Catalog and take advantage of the powerful Solaris 10-based Cloud platform. Elmer Solver. like Fractal landscape generation Speech synthesis applications. education. Network. it would be aggregated as 1000 CPU minutes or 16. FreeFEM.II. if a job used 1000 CPUs for one minute.net/) .network. and get results fast.net/servlets/ProjectSource) Sun Grid Module Suite for NetBeans IDE (http://sungridplugin. Users can upload and run their own applications and create a personal library of favorites or take advantage of the pre-installed and configured applications giving them instant productivity. deal. T-Coffee. They simply select the application.Calculix.67 CPU hours.java.

infoq. For its part. sdtimes.com/) . Engine Yard simply classifies it as "A Platform for the Cloud". com/ article/ 09/ 01/ 13/ Engine-Yard-powers-SOA-for-cloud_1. and an evolution in the architecture for cloud computing[6] . com/ news/ 2009/ 01/ vertebra-released http:/ / www.com) • Support Site (http://vertebra-support. com/ ENGINE_YARD_GIVES_CLOUDS_A_BACKBONE/ About_CLOUDCOMPUTING_and_OPENSOURCE_and_RUBY_and_VERTEBRA_and_ENGINEYARD/ 33195 [6] http:/ / www. html?source=rss& url=http:/ / www. com/ http:/ / www. com/ article/ 09/ 01/ 13/ Engine-Yard-powers-SOA-for-cloud_1. an application deployment platform[5] .engineyard. com/ link/ 33235 [7] http:/ / www. engineyard. 2009 Erlang and Ruby Operating system Cross-platform Type License Website Cloud computing framework LGPL license [1] Vertebra is a framework that aims to simplify writing applications in The Cloud written by Engine Yard. html [5] http:/ / www. infoworld. t1r.[7] References http:/ / vertebra. Release It was released under the GNU Lesser General Public License 3 at the end of 2008. com/ client/ view.engineyard. infoworld. sdtimes. php?rid=53605 http:/ / www. reuters. com/ article/ pressRelease/ idUS138252+ 14-Jan-2009+ PRN20090114 [1] [2] [3] [4] External links • Official Site (http://vertebra.3 beta / January 14.[3] Public reception It has been characterized as a Service-Oriented-Architecture for the cloud[4] .[2] Technologies Vertebra is written in a combination of Ruby and Erlang.Vertebra (cloud computing framework) 62 Vertebra (cloud computing framework) Vertebra Developer(s) Preview release Written in Engine Yard 0.

Export or filter data from Word. an internet connection and the knowledge of modelling business. [4] [5] [6] Product WOLF is 100% AJAX.Wolf Frameworks 63 Wolf Frameworks Wolf Frameworks Type Industry Founded Privately held company Cloud Computing. Excel.[2] Founded in 2006.[7] Features • A technical code free designing environment for creating & delivering SaaS type Business Applications on the internet[7] • Built using a late bound SOA architecture which uses XML framework • Prevents cloud lock-in by allowing users to save their application data in their own preferred database server • Provides the ability to view & extract the Business Design (Intellectual Property) of your software application in XML. Platform as a Service 2006 Headquarters Bangalore. Karnataka. the Cloud Computing Infrastructure[3] offered by the company enables users to design & deliver cross platform SaaS applications without writing technical code.com [1] Wolf Frameworks is a web application designing & development Platform as a Service based in India and United States and represented via partners worldwide.wolfframeworks. India Products Website SaaS Business Applications www. • Import. Project Management or CSV files • Accessed over a 128-bit secured SSL connection and hosted in a highly secured data center[8] Benefits • • • • • • Multi-tenant SOA Requires no coding & less technical skills [9] Built-in actions to integrate with external software systems Standards oriented Web Service technology[10] Save data in a private database server & extract Application Design in XML [11] Requires no up-front capital expenses and minimizes operational cost .NET based and enables building of mashable and interoperable web applications by using a browser. XML and .

com/ cloud-computing/ blog/ archives/ 2008/ 10/ more_cloud_star. com/ Content/ Jan142009/ cyberspace20090113112337. net/ blogs/ connectedweb/ 2009/ 02/ does_paas_need_migration_stand. com/ 2009/ 09/ 22001207/ 8216Clouds8217-catch-on. in/ emerge/ 2009/ 01/ 23/ made-in-india-featuring-wolf-platform-as-a-service/ [8] http:/ / www. com/ Blogs/ Microspark-BizSpark-Startup-of-the-Day/ Lists/ Posts/ Post. wolfframeworks. html?catid=cloud-computing [4] http:/ / archive. php [11] http:/ / blogs. php/ YRXQ516685241 [9] http:/ / www. thesmarttechie. com/ 2009/ 01/ 16/ wolf-frameworks-saas-development-platform-for-business-applications/ [6] http:/ / www. livemint. dnaindia. deccanherald.Wolf Frameworks 64 References [1] http:/ / www. microsoftstartupzone. ebizq. asp [5] http:/ / www. informationweek. aspx?List=7764cd7b-cd2b-4b11-9e28-e6caea1181ff& ID=69 [3] http:/ / www. bangaloreinc. com/ magazine/ fullstory. com/ SAAS/ ?p=691 . html?h=E [7] http:/ / blog. nasscom. com/ [2] http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ bangalore/ report_bangalore-s-cloud-cover_1336482 [10] http:/ / www.

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Fieldday-sunday. Undiscovered778. SpecMode. White 720. Silver seren. Piet Delport. A. Hutch8700. Taicl13. Jtschoonhoven. Elminster Aumar.ssss.Coward. Dannymjohnson. Shakeelrashed. Berny68. Dinferno. Epbr123. ByM4k5. FatalError. Sariman.w. Meunierd.wikipedia.gibbs. Sjri708. Surajpandey10. Avermapub. SqueakBox. FatalError. PaulQSalisbury. B Fizz. JForget. Ralfw08. Christopher Kraus. Beao. Janniscui. Mr little irish. Chrisgon. SarekOfVulcan. Xinconnu. Rich Farmbrough. Five-toed-sloth. White 720. Kmsmgill. DanStern. Jascon. OmbudsTech. Winterst. Imeson. Kronostar. JanaGanesan. Onmytoes4eva. No1can. Iamthenewno2. Ppachwadkar. 116 anonymous edits Caspio  Source: http://en. Dancter. Colonies Chris. Chininazu12.. Sebastiangarth. Chris55. Crawford. Ronz. Pointillist. Motyka. Wtmitchell. Kypr8. Patrickwooldridge. John254. Willit63. Pottersson. Devinek22. Drphilharmonic. Ummelgroup.org/w/index. Tide rolls. DeleoB. Dogsbody. Ramu50. Ctkeene. Alex5678. Plot Citizen. Nealmcb. LemonairePaides. 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MillinKilli. Vasiliy Faronov. Learn2009. Lowndesc. BrianWren. J04n. Bonadea. Linuxbabu. Recognizance. Harryboyles. Jusdafax. Njcaus. CliffC. Darkyeffectt. Tpbradbury. SteveLoughran. Rursus. Kgfleischmann. Poseurtech. Mdoraisamy. Priyo123.. Mercatus3. DuineSidhe. Julesd. Haseo9999. Ameliorate!. MrMarmite. Tkdcoach. Sweerek.gourley@comcast. Nasa-verve. Bshende. Gary King. ClamDip. Richard.php?oldid=422641582  Contributors: Ashleytate. Nyllo. Johnuniq.. Amartya71. Martin. Rickyphyllis. Balexandre. Pauli133. Luigi Baldassari. LandoSr. JamesBWatson. Bezik. Dwvisser. Quietbritishjim. Zfish118. NawlinWiki. Blaxthos.wikipedia. Melnakeeb. Marcelivan. Lavanyalava. DJ Clayworth. E Wing. Ber4444. Timneu22. Blowdart. Rsiddharth. Robert. Haakon. Malke 2010. Avoided. Jak86. Huygens 25.albing.org/w/index. Nimbus prof. Beltman R. Stephan Leeds. Reconsider the static. Jldupont. Ianlovesgolf. SamJohnston. BD2412. Zundark.php?oldid=423730151  Contributors: Alexkon. Jhoskins. Vipinhari. Barte. Sublime98. 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