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Gender and Slum Poverty in Manila in the Context of Climate Change

Gender and Slum Poverty in Manila in the Context of Climate Change

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Published by ADBGAD
ADB Environments of the Poor Seminar Series, 27 April 2011, ADB HQ
ADB Environments of the Poor Seminar Series, 27 April 2011, ADB HQ

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Published by: ADBGAD on Apr 28, 2011
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05/16/2012

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Gender and Slum Poverty in Manila in the Context of Climate Change

ADB Environments of the Poor Seminar Series 27 April 2011
Samantha Hung - RSDD Marife Ballesteros - PIDS

The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Philippines among countries in Asia with large population of urban slum dwellers
Metro Manila has the largest slum population; 37% of population live in slums

Caloocan Cit

Caloocan Cit

Valenzuela

Valenzuela

Quezon City Navotas Malabon Marikina Cit Navotas

Quezon City Malabon Marikina Cit

City of Mani

San Juan Mandaluyong

City of Mani

San Juan Mandaluyong

Pasig City

Pasig City

Makati City Pateros Pasay City Taguig

Makati City Pateros Pasay City Taguig

Parañaque Ci

Parañaque Ci

Las Piñas Ci

Las Piñas Ci

Slum Population ('000) 1000 - 1500 750 - 1000 500 - 750 250 - 500 100 - 250 75 - 100 50 - 75 25 - 50 0 - 25 Proportion slum to total population

Metro Manila
Muntinlupa C

Muntinlupa C

2000

2020

Objectives & Methodology
• Rapid gender analysis in 5 Manila slums to examine: - gender issues particular to slum environments - gender dimensions of climate change impacts & coping strategies, particularly post recent typhoons - provide gender-responsive recommendations

Research Sites
• • • • • Manggahan Floodway - riverside Pier 18 - dumpsite Baseco - congested National Government Center - congested Trece Martires, Cavite - resettlement site

DUMPSITE

RIVERLINES

COASTAL

ALONG MAIN ROADS

Research Sites
Pier 18 (Dumpsite)

Major Environmental Problem
Congestion Flooding/Mud Poor Sanitation Pollution

Manggahan Floodway (Riverlines) BASECO (Coastal) National Gov’t Center (Along main roads) Trece Martires (Resettlement site)


  


 

 

Objectives & Methodology
• Focus Group Discussions
Number of FGD participants by area & sex

PROJECT AREA Baseco Floodway NGC Pier 18

MALE 7 12 6 3

FEMALE 23 39 19 19

TOTAL 30 51 25 22

Southville
Total 51

23
125

25
176

48

• 90 household questionnaires • Key informant interviews • Local ‘barangay’ government data

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Limited sexual & reproductive health rights • Population growth fuelled by high fertility rate, especially among young women (not in-migration)
Slum Area Number of Households Baseline year Coastal (BASECO) Pier 18 NGC Floodway 6,060 (2001) 400 (2000) 20,000 (2000) 15,920 (2000) Current year 10,000 (2010) 800 (2009) 24,959(2010) 32,250 (2007) 5.6 8.7 2.2 10.1 Annual Growth Rate (in percent)

Source: Socio-Economic Profiles of the Sites

• High fertility directly exacerbates slum congestion & places greater population pressure on already deteriorating environments

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Limited economic opportunities for women

• Women as primary caregivers – high fertility limits ability to engage in economic activity
Employment rate in the 4 slum areas Male employment rate Female employment rate 73 % 34%

• Women’s economic contribution undervalued • Resettlement areas limit women’s employment & leisure - improved housing at the expense of livelihoods. Men continue to travel to/from work and are often not at home during the week

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Disproportionate health risks for women due to prevailing gender roles & unsanitary conditions • Lack of sanitation facilities:
– 9% informal settlers have no access to sanitary toilets; – Very few toilets in Baseco & Pier 18; – Floodway toilets flow into river

• Unlike men, women have to control their bowel movement until they can secure privacy in an overcrowded environment. This causes abdominal pain and may have long-term adverse effects. • Women more exposed to air, water & noise pollution because they are more often at home

Disproportionate health risks for women
• Respiratory illness & skin diseases are top 2 causes of morbidity in the Floodway • Women suffer more from skin diseases, parasitism, genito-urinary illness due to greater exposure to dirty water • Women have high anemia rates due to poor nutrition

Disease Acute Respiratory Illness Skin Diseases Acute Watery Diarrhea Parasitism Hypertensive Vascular Disease Genito-Urinary Illness Physical Injuries Neuro/Muscular/Skeletal Anemia Diseases of the Oral Cavity Source: RHU1, Cainta

Male Female 50.3 49.7 48.1 51.9 53.7 46.3 45.3 54.7 51.9 48.1 24.0 76.0 60.2 39.8 50.6 49.4 11.1 88.9 49.3 50.7

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Lack of water poses difficulties for women as primary users & managers of household water - more time & money to secure scarce water • Urban slum dweller spend more on water than households connected to city piped water • Mud hinders women’s ability to manage household tasks & bring children to/from school • Women unable to protect themselves from health risks associated with prolonged exposure to floodwater and mud • Women often self-sacrifice consumption for other family members when food is scarce, which compromises their health status

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Women worry more than men about lack of tenure and forced eviction. They fear it will happen when men are not at home. • Women slum dwellers met are more affected by mental anxiety
Male Female Total 15.8 % 19.0 % 17.3 %

• Lack of privacy forces women to bathe in full view of neighbors & to feel embarrassed by seeing men bathing in briefs.

Key Gender Issues in Manila Slums
• Security problems – robbery of homes by children as accomplices for adults; lack of faith by women in night patrol by men • Female-headed households and solo parents most vulnerable; death or serious illness of husbands as the main income earner, leave women struggling to support the family and dependent on relatives • Climate change impacts affect women disproportionately and differently due to the above preexisting gender issues in slums

Climate change induced impacts exacerbate gender issues
For example: • Flooding – increases women’s prolonged exposure to water pollution as users and collectors of water, managers of household chores connected to home environment & primary careers of children who need protection
• Heat waves aggravated by increasing congestion – women less able to leave home to escape from heat, while men can sleep outdoors. Older women suffer in particular.

Case study: Gender impacts of Typhoons Ondoy & Pepeng in 2010
Immediate impacts: extreme severity of floods
• Floods hit rapidly in the day - many men were out

• Many women led the evacuation of their families & felt insecure about their ability to do so
• Evacuation centers had no privacy for women (e.g. breastfeeding mothers); usual family & community support systems were disrupted

• Limited or no assistance to families who were not in centers but staying with relatives & friends

Case study: Gender impacts of Typhoons Ondoy & Pepeng in 2010
Longer term impacts: • Women lost community market for small business & needed capital to rebuild; access to credit limited to informal lenders – “bumbays” • Women continued to cook, wash clothes, take children to/from school in floods • Women took on tasks of men in their absence – strengthening houses, sourcing bottled water • Women’s care burden increased as children suffered more from vomiting and diarrhea

Gender-responsive recommendations for Manila slums
• Prioritize & invest in sexual and reproductive health to curtail exponential population growth in slums • Invest in sanitation facilities with privacy for women • Promote women’s leadership in ‘non-traditional’ activities to improve slum environment e.g. patrolling communities at night, women-led clean-up campaigns • Increase targeting of women to incentivize care for slum environment information e.g. financial incentives for correct disposal, collection & recycling of waste • Promote women’s livelihoods with vocational training & support for micro-enterprise development

Gender-responsive recommendations for Manila slums
• Invest in effective early warning signals, which reach women at home in quick-time • Develop & communicate clear evacuation procedures, which reduce stress on women, especially female-headed households; maintain list of families vulnerable to rising waters at local level, including family composition • Consider gender responsive facilities in evacuation centers (e.g. privacy) & women’s support mechanisms • Extend assistance beyond those accommodated in evacuation centers; and provide wider forms of assistance • Provide credit to women to re-establish communitybased microenterprises (also applies to resettlements)

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