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System Dynamics
Fourth Edition
Katsuhiko Ogata
University of Minnesota

------PEARSON

Pnmticc

Hid I

Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PubUcation Data on me.

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ISBN D-13-1424b2-9
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Contents
PREFACE 1 INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM DYNAMICS vii

1

1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4
2

Introduction 1 Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems 3 Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems 5 Summary 6
8

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM

2-1 Introduction 8 2-2 Complex Numbers, Complex Variables, and Complex Functions 8 2-3 Laplace Transformation 14 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 29 2-5 Solving Linear, TIlDe-Invariant Differential Equations 34 Example Problems and Solutions 36 Problems 49
3 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

53

3-1 Introduction 53 3-2 Mechanical Elements 57 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 61 3-4 Work, Energy, and Power 73 Example Problems and Solutions 81 Problems 100

iii

iv

Contents

4

TRANSFER-FUNCTION APPROACH TO MODELING DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
4-1 Introduction 106 4-2 Block Diagrams 109 4-3 Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB 112 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 119 Example Problems and Solutions 135 Problems 162

106

5

STATE-SPACE APPROACH TO MODELING DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
Introduction 169 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems in State-Space Form with MATLAB 174 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with No Input Derivatives 181 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 187 5-5 "fransformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 202 Example Problems and Solutions 209 Problems 239 5-1 5-2

169

6

ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS
6-1 Introduction 251 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 254 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 261 6-4 Analogous Systems 270 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 274 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 281 Example Problems and Solutions 288 Problems 312

251

7

FLUID SYSTEMS AND THERMAL SYSTEMS
7-1 Introduction 323 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 324 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 332 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 337 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 340 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 348 Example Problems and Solutions 352 Problems 375

323

Contents

v

B

TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
8-1 Introduction 383 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 384 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 388 8-4 Transient-Response Analysis of Higher Order Systems 399 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 400 Example Problems and Solutions 409 Problems 424

383

9

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS
9-1 Introduction 431 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 432 9-3 Vibrations in Rotating Mechanical Systems 438 9-4 Vibration Isolation 441 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 447 9-6 Free Vibrations in Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems 453 Example Problems and Solutions 458 Problems 484

431

10

TIME-DOMAIN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS

491

10-1 Introduction 491 10-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 494 10-3 Automatic Controllers 501 10-4 Thansient-Response Analysis 506 10-5 Thansient-Response Specifications 513 10-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 522 10-7 Stability Analysis 538 10-8 Root-Locus Analysis 545 10-9 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 562 10-10 Thning Rules for PID Controllers 566 Example Problems and Solutions 576 Problems 600

11

FREQUENCY-DOMAIN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
11-1 11-2 11-3 11-4 Introduction 608 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 609 Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATLAB 629 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 630

60B

11-5 Drawing Nyquist Plots with MATLAB 640 11-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain Example Problems and Solutions 668 Problems 690
APPENDIX A APPENDIXB APPENDIXC APPENDIXD REFERENCES INDEX
SYSTEMS OF UNITS CONVERSION TABLES VECTOR-MATRIX ALGEBRA INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

643

695
700 705 720

757 759

Preface
A course in system dynamics that deals with mathematical modeling and response analyses of dynamic systems is required in most mechanical and other engineering curricula. This book is written as a textbook for such a course. It is written at the junior level and presents a comprehensive treatment of modeling and analyses of dynamic systems and an introduction to control systems. Prerequisites for studying this book are first courses in linear algebra, introductory differential equations, introductory vector-matrix analysis, mechanics, circuit analysis, and thermodynamics. Thermodynamics may be studied simultaneously. Main revisions made in this edition are to shift the state space approach to modeling dynamic systems to Chapter 5, right next to the transfer function approach to modeling dynamic systems, and to add numerous examples for modeling and response analyses of dynamic systems. All plottings of response curves are done with MATLAB. Detailed MATLAB programs are provided for MATLAB works presented in this book. This text is organized into 11 chapters and four appendixes. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to system dynamics. Chapter 2 deals with Laplace transforms of commonly encountered time functions and some theorems on Laplace transform that are useful in analyzing dynamic systems. Chapter 3 discusses details of mechanical elements and simple mechanical systems. This chapter includes introductory discussions of work, energy, and power. Chapter 4 discusses the transfer function approach to modeling dynamic systems. 'lransient responses of various mechanical systems are studied and MATLAB is used to obtain response curves. Chapter 5 presents state space modeling of dynamic systems. Numerous examples are considered. Responses of systems in the state space form are discussed in detail and response curves are obtained with MATLAB. Chapter 6 treats electrical systems and electromechanical systems. Here we included mechanical-electrical analogies and operational amplifier systems. Chapter 7
vii

viii

Preface

deals with mathematical modeling of fluid systems (such as liquid-level systems, pneumatic systems, and hydraulic systems) and thermal systems. A linearization technique for nonlinear systems is presented in this chapter. Chapter 8 deals with the time-domain analysis of dynamic systems. Transientresponse analysis of first-order systems, second-order systems, and higher order systems is discussed in detail. This chapter includes analytical solutions of state-space equations. Chapter 9 treats the frequency-domain analysis of dynamic systems. We first present the sinusoidal transfer function, followed by vibration analysis of mechanical systems and discussions on dynamic vibration absorbers. Then we discuss modes of vibration in two or more degrees-of-freedom systems. Chapter 10 presents the analysis and design of control systems in the time domain. After giving introductory materials on control systems, this chapter discusses transient-response analysis of control systems, followed by stability analysis, root-locus analysis, and design of control systems. Fmally, we conclude this chapter by giving tuning rules for PID controllers. Chapter 11 treats the analysis and design of control systems in the frequency domain. Bode diagrams, Nyquist plots, and the Nyquist stability criterion are discussed in detail. Several design problems using Bode diagrams are treated in detail. MATLAB is used to obtain Bode diagrams and Nyquist plots. Appendix A summarizes systems of units used in engineering analyses. Appendix B provides useful conversion tables. Appendix C reviews briefly a basic vector-matrix algebra. Appendix D gives introductory materials on MATLAB. If the reader has no prior experience with MATLAB, it is recommended that he/she study Appendix D before attempting to write MATLAB programs. Throughout the book, examples are presented at strategic points so that the reader will have a better understanding of the subject matter discussed. In addition, a number of solved problems (A problems) are provided at the end of each chapter, except Chapter 1. These problems constitute an integral part of the text. It is suggested that the reader study all these problems carefully to obtain a deeper understanding of the topics discussed. Many unsolved problems (B problems) are also provided for use as homework or quiz problems. An instructor using this text for hislher system dynamics course may obtain a complete solutions manual for B problems from the publisher. Most of the materials presented in this book have been class tested in courses in the field of system dynamics and control systems in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota over many years. If this book is used as a text for a quarter-length course (with approximately 30 lecture hours and 18 recitation hours), Chapters 1 through 7 may be covered. After studying these chapters, the student should be able to derive mathematical models for many dynamic systems with reasonable simplicity in the forms of transfer function or state-space equation. Also, he/she will be able to obtain computer solutions of system responses with MATLAB. If the book is used as a text for a semesterlength course (with approximately 40 lecture hours and 26 recitation hours), then the first nine chapters may be covered or, alternatively, the first seven chapters plus Chapters 10 and 11 may be covered. If the course devotes 50 to 60 hours to lectures, then the entire book may be covered in a semester.

Preface

ix

Fmally, I wish to acknowledge deep appreciation to the following professors who reviewed the third edition of this book prior to the preparation of this new edition: R. Gordon Kirk (Vrrginia Institute of Technology), Perry Y. Li (University of Minnesota), Sherif Noah (Texas A & M University), Mark L. Psiaki (Cornell University), and William Singhose (Georgia Institute of Technology). Their candid, insightful, and constructive comments are reflected in this new edition.
KATSUHIKO OGATA

Introduction to System Dynamics

1-1 INTRODUCTION

System dynamics deals with the mathematical modeling of dynamic systems and response analyses of such systems with a view toward understanding the dynamic nature of each system and improving the system's performance. Response analyses are frequently made through computer simulations of dynamic systems. Because many physical systems involve various types of components, a wide variety of different types of dynamic systems will be examined in this book. The analysis and design methods presented can be applied to mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, and hydraulic systems, as well as nonengineering systems, such as economic systems and biological systems. It is important that the mechanical engineering student be able to determine dynamic responses of such systems. We shall begin this chapter by defining several terms that must be understood in discussing system dynamics.
Systems. A system is a combination of components acting together to perform a specific objective. A component is a single functioning unit of a system. By no means limited to the realm of the physical phenomena, the concept of a system can be extended to abstract dynamic phenomena, such as those encountered in economics, transportation, population growth, and biology.
1

2

Introduction to System Dynamics

Chap. 1

A system is called dynamic if its present output depends on past input; if its current output depends only on current input, the system is known as static. The output of a static system remains constant if the input does not change. The output changes only when the input changes. In a dynamic system, the output changes with time if the system is not in a state of equilibrium. In this book, we are concerned mostly with dynamic systems.
Mathematical models. Any attempt to design a system must begin with a prediction of its performance before the system itself can be designed in detail or actually built. Such prediction is based on a mathematical description of the system's dynamic characteristics. This mathematical description is called a mathematical model. For many physical systems, useful mathematical models are described in terms of differential equations. Linear and nonlinear differential equations. Linear differential equations may be classified as linear, time-invariant differential equations and linear, timevarying differential equations. A linear, time-invariant differential equation is an equation in which a dependent variable and its derivatives appear as linear combinations. An example of such an equation is

- 2 + 5 - + lOx dt dt

d 2x

dx

=0

Since the coefficients of all terms are constant, a linear, time-invariant differential equation is also called a linear, constant-coefficient differential equation. In the case of a linear, time-varying differential equation, the dependent variable and its derivatives appear as linear combinations, but a coefficient or coefficients of terms may involve the independent variable. An example of this type of differential equation is

d2x - 2 + (1 - cos 2t)x
dt

= 0

It is important to remember that, in order to be linear, the equation must contain no powers or other functions or products of the dependent variables or its derivatives. A differential equation is called nonlinear if it is not linear. Two examples of nonlinear differential equations are

and

Sec. 1-2

Mathematical Modeling of Dynamic Systems

3

Linear systems and nonlinear systems. For linear systems, the equations that constitute the model are linear. In this book, we shall deal mostly with linear systems that can be represented by linear, time-invariant ordinary differential equations. The most important property of linear systems is that the principle of superposition is applicable. This principle states that the response produced by simultaneous applications of two different forcing functions or inputs is the sum of two individual responses. Consequently, for linear systems, the response to several inputs can be calculated by dealing with one input at a time and then adding the results. As a result of superposition, complicated solutions to linear differential equations can be derived as a sum of simple solutions. In an experimental investigation of a dynamic system, if cause and effect are proportional, thereby implying that the principle of superposition holds, the system can be considered linear. Although physical relationships are often represented by linear equations, in many instances the actual relationships may not be quite linear. In fact, a careful study of physical systems reveals that so-called linear systems are actually linear only within limited operating ranges. For instance, many hydraulic systems and pneumatic systems involve nonlinear relationships among their variables, but they are frequently represented by linear equations within limited operating ranges. For nonlinear systems, the most important characteristic is that the principle of superposition is not applicable. In general, procedures for finding the solutions of problems involving such systems are extremely complicated. Because of the mathematical difficulty involved, it is frequently necessary to linearize a nonlinear system near the operating condition. Once a nonlinear system is approximated by a linear mathematical model, a number of linear techniques may be used for analysis and design purposes. Continuous-time systems and discrete-time systems. Continuous-time systems are systems in which the signals involved are continuous in time. These systems may be described by differential equations. Discrete-time systems are systems in which one or more variables can change only at discrete instants of time. (These instants may specify the times at which some physical measurement is performed or the times at which the memory of a digital computer is read out.) Discrete-time systems that involve digital signals and, possibly, continuous-time signals as well may be described by difference equations after the appropriate discretization of the continuous-time signals. The materials presented in this text apply to continuous-time systems; discretetime systems are not discussed.
1-2 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

Mathematical modeling. Mathematical modeling involves descriptions of important system characteristics by sets of equations. By applying physical laws to a specific system, it may be possible to develop a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of the system. Such a model may include unknown parameters, which

4

Introduction to System Dynamics

Chap. 1

must then be evaluated through actual tests. Sometimes, however, the physical laws governing the behavior of a system are not completely defined, and formulating a mathematical model may be impossible. If so, an experimental modeling process can be used. In this process, the system is subjected to a set of known inputs, and its outputs are measured. Then a mathematical model is derived from the input-output relationships obtained.

Simplicity of mathematical model versus accuracy of results of analysis. In attempting to build a mathematical model, a compromise must be made between the simplicity of the model and the accuracy of the results of the analysis. It is important to note that the results obtained from the analysis are valid only to the extent that the model approximates a given physical system. In determining a reasonably simplified model, we must decide which physical variables and relationships are negligible and which are crucial to the accuracy of the model. To obtain a model in the form of linear differential equations, any distributed parameters and nonlinearities that may be present in the physical system must be ignored. If the effects that these ignored properties have on the response are small, then the results of the analysis of a mathematical model and the results of the experimental study of the physical system will be in good agreement. Whether any particular features are important may be obvious in some cases, but may, in other instances, require physical insight and intuition. Experience is an important factor in this connection. Usually, in solving a new problem, it is desirable first to build a simplified model to obtain a general idea about the solution. Afterward, a more detailed mathematical model can be built and used for a more complete analysis. Remarks on mathematical models. The engineer must always keep in mind that the model he or she is analyzing is an approximate mathematical description of the physical system; it is not the physical system itself In reality, no mathematical model can represent any physical component or system precisely. Approximations and assumptions are always involved. Such approximations and assumptions restrict the range of validity of the mathematical model. (The degree of approximation can be determined only by experiments.) So, in making a prediction about a system's performance, any approximations and assumptions involved in the model must be kept in mind. Mathematical modeling procedure. The procedure for obtaining a mathematical model for a system can be summarized as follows:
L Draw a schematic diagram of the system, and define variables. 2. Using physical laws, write equations for each component, combine them according to the system diagram, and obtain a mathematical model. 3. To verify the validity of the model, its predicted performance, obtained by solving the equations of the model, is compared with experimental results. (The question of the validity of any mathematical model can be answered only by experiment.) If the experimental results deviate from the prediction

electrical. In general. various analytical and computer techniques can be used to analyze it. we mean the use of an explicit procedure to find a system that will perform in a specified way. a synthesis of linear systems is possible. Once the latter model is obtained. The first step in analyzing a dynamic system is to derive its mathematical model. however. such a procedure is completely mathematical from the start to the end of the design process. Theoretically. In practice. Frequently. analysis must start by developing a mathematical model for each component and combining all the models in order to build a model of the complete system. The manner in which analysis is carried out is independent of the type of physical system involved-mechanical. 1-3 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF DYNAMIC SYSTEMS This section briefly explains what is involved in the analysis and design of dynamic systems. under specified conditions.Sec. H should always be remembered that deriving a reasonable model for the complete system is the most important part of the entire analysis. Here the desired system characteristics are postulated at the outset. and the engineer can systematically determine the components necessary to realize the system's objective. the design of a system proceeds as follows: The engineer begins the design procedure knowing the specifications to be met and . Once such a model is available. and then various mathematical techniques are used to synthesize a system having those characteristics. Synthesis. the design procedure is not straightforward and will require trial and error. Since any system is made up of components. Analysis. Generally. Basic approach to system design. System analysis means the investigation. 1-3 Analysis and Design of Dynamic Systems 5 to a great extent. By synthesis. in such cases. Design. System design refers to the process of finding a system that accomplishes a given task. hydraulic. and so on. the system may be subject to many constraints or may be nonlinear. trial-and-error techniques are almost always needed. The process is repeated until satisfactory agreement is obtained between the predictions and the experimental results. of the performance of a system whose mathematical model is known. The basic approach to the design of any dynamic system necessarily involves trial-and-error procedures. no synthesis methods are currently applicable. A new model is then derived and a new prediction compared with experimental results. Moreover. Design procedures. The engineer then compares these solutions and interprets and applies the results of his or her analysis to the basic task. the model must be modified. the analysis may be formulated in such a way that system parameters in the model are varied to produce a number of solutions. Thus. the features of the components may not be precisely known.

) It is important to note that the specifications may be changed as the design progresses. Chapter 5 examines the state-space approach to modeling dynamic systems. Then a prototype physical system can be constructed. weight. Several useful theorems are derived. (The validity of a prediction depends to a great extent on the validity of the mathematical model used in making the prediction. a successful engineer must be able to obtain a mathematical model of a given system and predict its performance. The process continues until a satisfactory prototype is obtained. This process of design and analysis is repeated until a satisfactory system is found. the design of the prototype is complete. space. reliability. Once the design problem is formulated in terms of a model. the engineer simulates the model on a computer to test the effects of various inputs and disturbances on the behavior of the resulting system. The objective of this book is to enable the reader (1) to build mathematical models that closely represent behaviors of physical systems and (2) to develop system responses to various inputs so that he or she can effectively analyze and design dynamic systems. the prototype must be modified and retested. 1-4 SUMMARY From the point of view of analysis. Chapter 2 treats Laplace transforms. Chapter 6 treats electrical systems and electromechanical systems. If it is. The prototype is a physical system that represents the mathematical model with reasonable accuracy. to build a mathematical model of the system. Chapter 7 deals with fluid systems. Various types of mechanical systems are considered. The chapter discusses various types of mechanical systems. (Engineering specifications normally include statements on such factors as cost. including operational-amplifier systems. The specification may be given in terms of both precise numerical values and vague qualitative descriptions.6 Introduction to System Dynamics Chap. the engineer will apply any applicable synthesis techniques. 1 the dynamics of the components. Once the prototype has been built. the engineer carries out a mathematical design that yields a solution to the mathematical version of the design problem. Chapter 4 presents the transfer-function approach to modeling dynamic systems. the engineer tests it to see whether it is satisfactory. for detailed analysis may reveal that certain requirements are impossible to meet. the system must be redesigned and the corresponding analysis completed. as well as other methods. Chapter 3 deals with basic accounts of mechanical systems. Outline of the text. If the initial system configuration is not satisfactory. With the mathematical design completed. We begin with Laplace transformation of simple time functions and then discuss inverse Laplace transformation. Chapter 1 has presented an introduction to system dynamics. and ease of maintenance.) From the design standpoint. the engineer must be able to carry out a thorough performance analysis of the system before a prototype is constructed. If not. the latter of which involve design parameters. . Next. Note that the process of constructing a prototype is the reverse of mathematical modeling.

pneumatic systems. 1-4 Summary 7 such as liquid-level systems. The chapter also presents the analytical solution of the state equation. Chapter 8 presents time-domain analyses of dynamic systems-specifically. Appendix A treats systems of units. transient-response analyses of dynamic systems. Also discussed are tuning rules for PID controllers. A linearization technique for nonlinear systems is explored. and hydraulic systems. Chapter 11 deals with the analysis and design of control systems in the frequency domain. including transientresponse analysis. followed by detailed design procedures for lead. . Also discussed are vibrations in multidegrees-of-freedom systems and modes of vibrations.Sec. Readers who have no previous knowledge of MATLAB may read Appendix D before solving any MATLAB problems presented in this text. Chapter 9 treats frequency-domain analyses of dynamic systems. Throughout the book. lag. Appendix B summarizes conversion tables. and Appendix C gives a brief summary of vector-matrix algebra. stability analysis. as well as thermal systems. Appendix D presents introductory materials for MATLAB. Among the topics discussed are vibrations of rotating mechanical systems and vibration isolation problems. The chapter begins with Bode diagrams and then presents the Nyquist stability criterion. and lag-lead compensators. and root-locus analysis and design. MATLAB is used for the solution of most computational problems. Chapter 10 presents the basic theory of control systems.

complex algebra. Section 2-5 presents the Laplace transform approach to the solution of the linear. time-invariant differential equation. Also examined are some of the most important Laplace transform theorems that apply to linear systems analysis. Section 2-3 defines the Laplace transformation and gives Laplace transforms of several common functions of time. complex variables. Since most of the material covered is generally included in the basic mathematics courses required of engineering students. complex variables. and complex functions. Section 2-4 deals with the inverse Laplace transformation. AND COMPLEX FUNCTIONS This section reviews complex numbers. 2-2 COMPLEX NUMBERS. the section can be omitted entirely or used simply for personal reference. Since the Laplace transform method must be studied in any system dynamics course. The remaining sections of this chapter are outlined as follows: Section 2-2 reviews complex numbers. and complex functions. COMPLEX VARIABLES. Finally. we present the subject at the beginning of this text so that the student can use the method throughout his or her study of system dynamics.The Laplace Transform 2-1 INTRODUCTION The Laplace transform is one of the most important mathematical tools available for modeling and analyzing linear systems. S .

Mathematically. 8 = tan-II The complex conjugate of z = x + j y is defined as Z = x .jy .) A complex number z can be considered a point in the complex plane or a directed line segment to the point. y = Izl sin 8 Izl = Vx 2 + y2. The complex plane representation of z is shown in Figure 2-1. Using the notation j = v=I. both interpretations are useful. (Note also that the real axis and the imaginary axis define the complex plane and that the combination of a real number and an imaginary number defines a point in that plane. respectively. Complex conjugate. 2-2 Complex Numbers. and Complex Functions 1m 9 o Re Figure 2-1 Complex plane representation of a complex number z. Complex Variables. The angle of z is the angle that the directed line segment makes with the positive real axis.Sec. we can express all numbers in engineering calculations as z = x + jy where z is called a complex number and x and jy are its real and imaginary parts. x A complex number can be written in rectangular form or in polar form as follows: z = x + jy z = Izl(cos 9 + j sin 9) }rectangular fonns }polar forms z= z= Izl~ Izl eifJ In converting complex numbers to polar form from rectangular. Complex numbers. The magnitude. we employ x = IzI cos 8. or absolute value. A counterclockwise rotation is defined as the positive direction for the measurement of angles. Note that both x and y are real and that j is the only imaginary quantity in the expression. magnitude of z = Izl = Vx 2 + j. we use x To convert complex numbers to rectangular form from polar. angle of z = 9 = tan-1l:'. of z is defined as the length of the directed line segment shown in Figure 2-1.

cos 8 and . Noting that e-jB is the complex conjugate of ei6 and that eiB = cos 8 + j sin 8 e-jB = cos 8 . Note that z = x + jy = Izl il = Izi (cos 8 + j sin 8) z =x- jy = Izi /-8 = Izi (cas 8 .. 2.+ -'. cos 8 Since =1 =8 - fi2 - 2! £t 86 +. Figure 2-2 shows both z and Z. = 1 + ('8) + -'.sm 8 ' .+ -'. we can express the sine and cosine in complex form.j sin 8 ... sm8 Thus.. 4'. Using Euler's theorem. respectively.+ 5! 7! + . Re The complex conjugate of z thus has the same real part as Z and an imaginary part that is the negative of the imaginary part of z.. 2 o Figure 2-2 Complex number z and its complex conjugate Z.jsin8) Euler's theorem.+ 4! 6! 85 87 83 - 3! +.10 The Laplace Transform 1m Chap. ( '8)2 ('8)3 ('8)4 it follows that cos 8 + j sin 8 = ejB This is known as Euler's theorem. The power series expansions of cos 8 and sin 8 are. 3'.+ .

So if two complex numbers are written z = Izl~. multiplication. 2-2 Complex Numbers. Multiplication.w = (x + jy) . 1\vo complex numbers in rectangular form can be added by adding the real parts and the imaginary parts separately: z +w = (x + jy) + (u + jv) = (x + u) + j(y + v) Subtraction. If the complex numbers are written in a suitable form.u) + j(y .yv) + j(xv + yu) In polar form. Subtracting one complex number from another can be considered as adding the negative of the former: z . If a complex number is multiplied by a real number. ej8 . and the angle of the product is the sum of the two angles. the result is a complex number whose real and imaginary parts are multiplied by that real number: az = a(x + jy) = ax + jay (a = real number) If two complex numbers appear in rectangular form and we want the product in rectangular form. multiplication is accomplished by using the fact that = -1. multiplication of two complex numbers can be done easily. operations like addition. w = u + jv then z= w if and only if x = u and y = v.e-j8 sm8 = 2j Complex algebra. w = u + jv + jxv + lyv then zw = (x + j y)( u + jv) = xu + j yu = (xu . Addition. then zw = w = Iwl~ Izllwl/8 + cP .(u + jv) = (x .v) Note that addition and subtraction can be done easily on the rectangular plane. subtraction. and Complex Functions 11 we find that cos 8 = ej8 + e-j8 2 . Complex Variables. 1\vo complex numbers z and ware said to be equal if and only if their real parts are equal and their imaginary parts are equal. if two complex numbers are written P z= x + jy. and division can be performed easily. Equality of complex numbers.Sec. So if two complex numbers are written z = x + jy. The magnitude of the product is the product of the two magnitudes. Thus.

jv) w u + jv xu + yv = u2 + v 2 (u + jv) (u + . H a complex number z number w = Iw I il. Division in rectangular form is inconvenient. For instance. if z = x + jy then jz = j(x + jy) = jx + py = -y + jx z = Izl il or...xv J u2 + v 2 = (xu + yv)2 + j(yu 2 u . x + jy -z = . if then jz = 1/90° Izl il = Izl/8 + 90° Figure 2-3 illustrates the multiplication of a complex number z by j... 2 Multiplication by J. For example. noting that j = 1/90°. . It is important to note that multiplication by j is equivalent to counterclockwise rotation by 90°.12 The Laplace Transform Chap..~--.jv) .~ That is.yu . = M 18 ..!2. but can be done by mUltiplying the denominator and numerator by the complex conjugate of the denominator. then = Iz Iil is divided by another complex z w Izi il Izi = Iwl L. Figure 2-4 Division of a complex number z by j.... Division. the result consists of the quotient of the magnitudes and the difference of the angles. This procedure converts the denominator to a real number and thus simplifies division. +v 1m o Re o Re Figure 2-3 Multiplication of a complex number z by j...xv) ~--~--.= (x + jy)(u .

The complex conjugate of F(s) is pes) = Fx . the complex number is called a complex variable. a function of s. or z Izl L. both of which are constant.12 - = (10 /-30°)3 = 1000 /-90° = 0 j2.5° It is important to note that j 1000 = -j 1000 Comments.12)112 = (9 / -45°)112 = 3 / -22. or A complex function F(s). and Complex Functions 13 Division by j. The magnitude of F(s) is Fi + F~. Complex Variables.j5)3 (2.P. and Izwl = Izllwl Izi + Iwl Iz + wi #: Complex variable. = Izl /8 - 90° Figure 2-4 illustrates the division of a complex number z by j.jFyComplex functions commonly encountered in linear systems analysis are singlevalued functions of s and are uniquely determined for a given value of s. has a real part F(s) = Fx + jFy where Fx and Fy are real quantities. 2-2 Complex Numbers. j = 1 /90° Powers and roots. and the 1 angle 8 of F(s) is tan. Note that division by j is equivalent to clockwise rotation by 90°.Sec. For example. A complex number has a real part and an imaginary part. s = u + jw where u is the real part and jw is the imaginary part. then -=--= z j x + jy j (x + jy)j jj =--=y-]X jx .y -1 . In the Laplace transformation.P. if z = x + jy. we obtain zn = (Izl L. that is.(FylFx )' The angle is measured counterclockwise from the positive real axis. (8. (Note that both u and ware real. Multiplying z by itself n times. and an imaginary part.1}rpically.66 .) Complex function. we use the notation s to denote a complex variable. V . If the real part or the imaginary part (or both) are variables.)n = Izln / n8 Extracting the nth root of a complex number is equivalent to raising the number to the 1/nth power: For instance.

s = -Zm are zeros of F(s). If the denominator of F(s) involves k-multiple factors (s + Pl.. Another advantage of the Laplace transform method is that.Pn are poles of F(s). (s + Pn) Points at which F(s) equals zero are called zeros. simple poles at s = 0. = s = a complex variable an operational symbol indicating that the quantity upon which it operates is to be transformed by the Laplace integral 1 00 e-st dt F(s) = Laplace transform off(t) .-. time-invariant differential equations. Since... Note that G(s) becomes zero at s = 00.14 The Laplace Transform Chap. and a double pole (multiple pole of order 2) at s = -15. s = -15. That is. the initial conditions are automatically taken care of.---. 2 such functions have the form F(s) - ---:. Let us define /(t) = a time function such that /(t) = ° for t < 0 9!.-------~ . s = 00) and five poles (s = 0. s = -1.. s = 00. The solution of the differential equation can then be found by using a Laplace transform table or the partial-fraction expansion technique.. If points at infinity are included. s = -10. s = -PI. the pole is called a simple pole... . s = -Zh S = -Z2. G(s) has five zeros (s = -2. 2-3 LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION The Laplace transform method is an operational method that can be used advantageously in solving linear... To summarize. (s + Zm) (s + PI)(S + P2) . That is.s(s + l)(s + 5)(s + 15)2 G(s) has zeros at s = -2 and s = -10. S = . see the illustrative example that follows. As an illustrative example. s = 00. . s = -1...] Points at which F(s) equals infinity are called poles.. and s = -5. s = -15).. for large values of s. [Note that F(s) may have additional zeros at infinity.1f k = 1. G(s) K *3 s it follows that G(s) possesses a triple zero (multiple zero of order 3) at s = 00. consider the complex function JC(s + 2)(s + 10) G(s) .~----- K(s + ZI)(S + Z2) . . and thus the differential equations in time become algebraic equations in s.. in solving the differential equation.P2. s = -5. Laplace transformation. . G(s) has the same number of poles as zeros. and both the particular solution and the complementary solution can be obtained simultaneously. Its main advantage is that differentiation of the time function corresponds to multiplication of the transform by a complex variable s. then s = -pis called a multiple pole of order k or repeated pole of order k. s = ..

T < for t < 0.e[f1(t)] + . A function f(t) is said to be of exponential order if a real. such functions as il and ter do not possess Laplace transforms. The notation for inverse Laplace transformation is . Note that the signals that can be physically generated always have corresponding Laplace transforms. In the case of functions that increase faster than the exponential function. it is impossible to find suitable values of the abscissa of convergence. The Laplace transform of a function f(t) exists if the Laplace integral converges.s+a . then the Laplace transform of 11 (t) + h( t) is given by . T < t 00 does.e[fl(t) Exponential function. the abscissa of convergence is equal to zero. sin wt. .rl[F(s)] = /(t) Existence of Laplace transform. For functions like e-ct. Nevertheless. since / (t) = er for only a limited time interval 0 S t !5 T and not for o S t S 00.e[f2(t)] Consider the exponential function / (t) =0 = Ae-at for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A and a are constants. positive constant u exists such that the function e-atl/(t) I approaches zero as t approaches infinity. it should be noted that.e[Ae-at ] = 00 o 1 Ae-ate-st dt = A 100 0 e-(a+s)t A dt = . although er for 0 s t S 00 does not possess a Laplace transform.Sec. The Laplace transform of this exponential function can be obtained as follows: . If the limit of the function e-utl/(t) I approaches zero for u greater than u c and the limit approaches infinity for u less than u C' the value u c is called the abscissa 0/ convergence. the time function defined by /(t) = er =0 for 0 :s. the abscissa of convergence is equal to -c.r1. Thus. If functions 11(t) and h(t) are both Laplace transformable. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 15 Then the Laplace transform off(t) is given by ~[f(t)] = F(s) = l"'e-n dt[f(t)] = l"'f(t)e-n dt The reverse process of finding the time function f(t) from the Laplace transform F(s) is called inverse Laplace trans/ormation. and e-ct sin wt. Consequently. and t sin wt. The integral will converge iff(t) is piecewise continuous in every finite interval in the range t > 0 and if I(t) is of exponential order as t approaches infinity. It can be seen that. Such a signal can be physically generated. te-ct . + h(t)] = . t :s. for such functions as t.

The Laplace transform F(s} of any Laplace transformable functionf(t) obtained in this way is valid throughout the entire s plane. The Laplace transform of this ramp function is !'eIAt] = A ["'te- Sf dt To evaluate the integral. where a = O. 2 In performing this integration. Consider the ramp function f(t) = 0 = At for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A is a constant. The unitstep function that occurs at t = to is frequently written l(t . The preceding step function whose height is A can thus be writtenA1(t}. except at the poles of F(s). a notation that will be used in this book.[bVdU . The step function is undefined at t = O. (Although we do not present a proof of this statement.16 The Laplace Transform Chap. Note that this is a special case of the exponential function Ae-at.to). Consider the step function f (t) = 0 = A for t < 0 fort> 0 where A is a constant. a step function occurring at t = to corresponds to a constant signal suddenly applied to the system at time t equals to. ) Step function. it can be proved by use of the theory of complex variables. we use the formula for integration by parts: [budv = Uvl: . we assume that the real part of s is greater than -a (the abscissa of convergence). so that the integral converges. or ~[l(t)] = ! s Physically. The Laplace transform of the unit-step function that is defined by l(t) = 0 =1 for t < 0 for t > 0 is lis. Ramp function.£[A] = 1 o 00 Ae-st dt = - A s The step function whose height is unity is called a unit-step function. Its Laplace transform is given by .

a)1(t .] Hence.aV" dl .a)l(t . however.a)t(1 . the Laplace transform of J(t . Translated function. Laplace transform tables can conveniently be used to find the transform of a given function f(t). .e[At] = A 1 10 -sl te-sr dt = A ( t ~ o -s 00 I 1 00 00 - 0 -Sf ~dt ) o-s = A fooe-sr dt = A s s2 Sinusoidal function. the properties of Laplace transforms are given. Let us obtain the Laplace transform of the translated function f(t .Sec. Once we know the method of obtaining the Laplace transform. where a ~ O. The Laplace transform of any Laplace transformable function f(t) can be found by multiplying f(t) by e-st and then integrating the product from t = 0 to t = 00.e-Jwt)e-st dt 2J 0 Al A1 Aw =-------= 2j s .a)l(t . In Table 2-2. The Laplace transform of the sinusoidal function J(t) = 0 = A sin wt for t < 0 for t ~ 0 where A and ware constants.j sin wt we can write Hence. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 17 In this case.jw 2j s + jw s2 + w2 Al OO Similarly.a) is ~1f(1 - a)t(t . U = t and dv = e-st dt. [Note that v = e-SII( -s).erA cos wt] = S As 2 +w 2 Comments.oJ(1 . it is not necessary to derive the Laplace transform of I(t) each time.a). This function is zero for t < a. Table 2-1 shows Laplace transforms of time functions that will frequently appear in linear systems analysis.a) are shown in Figure 2-5. is obtained as follows: Noting that ejw1 = cos wt + j sin wt and e-jwt = cos wt . the Laplace transform of A cos wt can be derived as follows: . ~[A • • sin wt] = --: (e Jwt .a)] = [. The functionsf(t)l(t) and f(t . By definition.

2.2.1)! tn (n=1.at b-a e-at ) _ e-bt ) _1_(be.3.w2 1 s(s + a) 1 (s + a)(s + b) s (s + a)(s + b) 1 s(s + a)(s + b) !(1 a _1_ (e. ) -1 sn .b at - ae-bt ) ] ..2.ae-at ) b-a ~[1 + _1_(beab a. . 2 TABLE 2-1 Laplace Transform Pairs f(t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Unit impulse cS{t) Unit step 1(t) F(s) 1 1 s 1 s2 t t n. ... ) e-at te-at 1 n-l -at (n ..1 (n .bt .(J)2 $ .3. ) (n=1. ) sin wt 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 + w2 coswt sinh wt cosh wt S s2 + w2 w S2 . . ..2.n! sn+l -1s+a 1 (s + a)2 1 (s + a)n n! (s + a)n+l w $2 (n=1.. 3...1)! t e tne-at (n = 1.3.18 The Laplace Transform Chap. .

2 - cos wt ...wt cos wt 2w I sin wI 1 - t cos wt 30 I _ 1 ~ _:I (cos WIt 1 cos i»2t) (s2 + wI)(s2 + ~) 31 L. - 21 l.2 - 23 1 cJ> = tan- 1YI.2 =e ~ (Wnl' ( n~ / -cJ» smw 1-..w 2 s2(s2 + ( ) 3 ...TABLE 2-1 (continued) r 1-- I f(t) I pes) ate 01) l - 18 19 '--- 1 a 2 (1 e 01 1 s(s + a)2 1 a 2 (at 1 + e-al ) 01 1 s2(s + a) 20 ~ e e sin wt cos wt - w (s + a)2 + .sin wt sin wt .w w2) S(S2 + 3 .w2 (s2 + ( 2)2 (WI ¢~) S 2 - 26 27 28 29 wt .wn s + w2 n 1 24 _ 1 _e(wnt· ( n~ / +cJ» ~ smw 1-.2w (s2 + w2)2 s (s2 + w2)2 s2 .- 01 s+a (s + a)2 + -. w2 n 2 s + 2.wn s + w1) cJ> = tan-l 1 !l - 25 '- ' . .2- _s S2 + 2.wns + w2 n 22 _ Wn ~ e(wnt· n~ t smw 1-.2 w2 n S(S2 + 2. 2w (sin wt + wt cos wt) - S2 (s2 + (2)2 19 ..

a)l(t .ds 2 d ~[t2f(t)] = .3. ..2.!.TABLE 2-2 Properties of Laplace Transforms 1 2 3 ~[Af(t)] :::: AF(s) ~[fl(t) ± 12(t)] :::: P1(s) ± F2(S) sF(s) .a)] = e-asF(s) dP(s) !:e[tf(t)] = .2 F(s) ds dn = (-l)n-F(s) n ds n 14 15 16 17 ~[tnf(t)] = 1.~sn-k f(O±) (k-l) 5 (k-l) dk. f(t) exists I-ot ~[f(~)] = aF(as) 20 ...1 where f(t) :::: dtk-1f(t) 6 ~± [Jf(t)dt ] = -2 = - F(s) + s If[(I) dll/eD< s 7 8 ~± [f!f(t) dt dt ] F(s) + S If[(I) 2 dll/eD< Iff[(I) dl dll/eD< + S s ~±[/··· 1 f(t)(dt)n] = F(:) + k=l S n_ k+l s ± 1 [/···1 f(t)(dt)k ] I=O± 9 f£[!o'[(I) dl] = F~S) ["'[(I) dl = lim F(s) o s-O ~[e-a'f(t)] 10 11 if 1.i(O±) n [ dn] = snp(s) .sf(O±) .""[(I) dl exists a~O = F(s + a) 12 13 !:e[f(t . f£[7[(I)] = 1""F(S) ds if lim.f(O±) ~±[:tf(t) ] = !:e±[:~f(t)] = ~± dtnf(t) 4 s2p(s) .

Sec.a)I(1 . namely.a. we can change the lower limit of integration from -a to O. l where °O -a f (T)l(T)e.DC) 21 f(t) l(t) o Figure 2-S o DC Functionf(t)l(t) and translated function f(t .a)] = e-aSF(s) This last equation states that the translation of the time functionf(t)l(t) by a (where a ~ 0) corresponds to the multiplication of the transform F(s) bye-as. A f(t) = to for 0 < t < to for t < 0.a). Consider the pulse function shown in Figure 2-6. By changing the independent variable from t to 7. 2-3 Laplace Transformation f(1 . where 7 = t .DC) l(t . Pulse function. The pulse function here may be considered a step function of height Alto that begins at t = 0 and that is superimposed by a negative step function of height Alto . to < t =0 where A and to are constants.S(T+a> dT = f f (7) 1(T)e-S(T+a) dT 10 OO = ["'j(T)e-STe-as dT = e-as 1 00 j( T)e-ST dT = e-asp(s) P(s) Hence. we obtain 10 foof(t .£1')l(t .a)l(t . = ~(f(t)] = 1°Oj (tv" dl a~O .Eff(t . Thus.£1')e-st dt = l°Of (7) 1(T)e-S(T+a) dT -a Noting that f(T)1(7) = 0 for T < 0.

-e-SI0 to) ] tos tos = -(1 .to) to to Then the Laplace transform off(t) is obtained as f(t) = -1(t) A A ~[J(t)l = ~[~ 1(t) ] . Figure 2-7 Impulse function. It is a limiting case of the pulse function shown in Figure 2-6 as to approaches zero. . As the duration to approaches zero.e-S1o )] =hm 10-0 . Since the height of the impulse function is Alto and the duration is to.-1(t .0 [~(1 tos dto . the Laplace transform of this impulse function is shown to be :Eff(t)] = lim . beginning at t = to. Consider the impulse function f (t) = lim A to = 0 to-O for 0 < t < to for t < 0.22 1(1) A The Laplace Transform Chap.tos dto d () =-=A As s . that is.e A _ stO) tos (2-1) Impulse function. the height Alto approaches infinity. 2 to 4_ 00 to o Figure 2-6 Pulse function. 10. The impulse function is a special limiting case of the pulse function. Note that the magnitude of the impulse is measured by its area. the area under the impulse is equal to A.e- sto )] ~[A(l . From Equation (2-1).~[~ 1(t A = -A . but the area under the impulse remains equal to A. to < t Figure 2-7 depicts the impulse function defined here.

The impulse function whose area is equal to unity is called the unit-impulse function or the Dirac delta function. The unit-impulse function occurring at t = to is usually denoted by eS(t . which satisfies the following conditions: eS(t . Conversely. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 23 Thus. where the magnitude of f(t) is sufficiently large so that f(t) dt is not negligible. however. For instance. then this input can be considered an impulse input.to) Conversely. or J.to) can be considered the derivative of the unit-step function l(t . when we describe the impulse input. the area or magnitude of the impulse is most important. giving impulses.to) is integrated. The unit-impulse function eS(t . (Note that a may be real or complex. the magnitude of a pulse input to a system is very large and its duration very short compared with the system time constants. but the exact shape of the impulse is usually immaterial. the magnitudes of which are equal to the magnitude of each corresponding discontinuity. if the unit-impulse function eS(t .to) at the point of discontinuity t = to. the result is the unitstep function l(t .to). If f(t) is Laplace transformable and its Laplace transform is F(s). Multiplication of fIt) bye-at. since ~[sin wt] = s +w 2 W 2 = F(s) and ~[cos wt] = s s +w 2 2 = G(s) . For instance. if a force or torque input f(t) is applied to a system for a very short time duration 0 < t < to.to) = dt l(t . The concept of the impulse function is highly useful in differentiating discontinuous-time functions.to) = 00 for t to for t = to * J~ 6(1 - '0) dl =1 An impulse that has an infinite magnitude and zero duration is mathematical fiction and does not occur in physical systems.to).Sec. we can differentiate a function containing discontinuities. the Laplace transform of the impulse function is equal to the area under the impulse. then we can approximate the pulse input by an impulse function. If. With the concept of the impulse function. then the Laplace transform of e-at f(t) is obtained as ~[e"""f(l)l = [X> e-alf(t)e-st dl = F(s + a) (2-2) We see that the multiplication of f(t) bye-at has the effect of replacing s by (s + a) in the Laplace transform.) The impulse input supplies energy to the system in an infInitesimal time.to) = 0 eS(t .) The relationship given by Equation (2-2) is useful in finding the Laplace transforms of such functions as e-at sin wt and e-at cos wt. changing s to (s + a) is equivalent to mUltiplyingf(t) bye-at.o d eS(t . (Note that.

then !e+[f(t)] = !e_[f(t)] Differentiation theorem.f(t).or 0+. by !e[e-al sin wt] = F(s and + a) = ----2 w (s + a)2 + w !e[e-al cos wt] s+a = G(s + a) = -----::(s + a)2 + w2 Comments on the lower limit of the Laplace integral.24 The Laplace Transform Chap.:£+[f(t)] + IfJtt) involves an impulse function at t = 0.:£[:/(t)] = sF(s) . For a given function . respectively. we use the notations and .f(t) has a discontinuity at t = 0..and t = 0+).:£_[f(t)] = ["'[(t)e-n dt = . dJtt)/dt will . evaluated at t = O. The distinction between 1(0+) and 1(0-) is important when. 2 it follows from Equation (2-2) that the Laplace transforms of e-at sin wt and e-at cos wt are given. because.st dt . Then the lower limit of the Laplace integral must be clearly specified as to whether it is 0. ifJtt) does not possess an impulse function at t = 0 (i. function/(t) is given by The Laplace transform of the derivative of a . If such a distinction of the lower limit of the Laplace integral is necessary.Jtt) possesses an impulse function at t = O. in such a case. then [0+ [(t)e-st dt since [[(t)e. In some cases.[(0) (2-3) where . Obviously.f(0) is the initial value of . 0 for such a case. as illustrated in Figure 2-8..f(t). the values of /(0+) and 1(0-) may be the same or different. Equation (2-3) is called the differentiation theorem. since the Laplace transforms ofJtt) differ for these two lower limits.e. if the function to be transformed is finite between t = 0.

[(0) Similarly. define = g(t) . involve an impulse function at t modified to = O. To derive this equation. Equation (2-3) must be ~+[:.£ -/(t) 1 F(s) = s s dt It follows that ] ~[:t[(t) ] = sF(s) . we proceed as follows: Integrating the Laplace integral by parts gives 10 I(t)e.and 1 = 0+.t(t) ] = [(0+) sF(s) .t(t)] = sF(s) ~-[:.:[(t) ] = h(s) dtl(t) d s/(O) .dt = I(t) ~s st roo -st I 00 0 . we obtain the relationship ~[./(0-) To prove the differentiation theorem. for the second derivative of I(t).Sec.j(O) where 1(0) is the value of dl(t)ldt evaluated at t = O.10 [d (:JO[ d ] dtl(t) ~s dt -sf Hence. If 1(0+) ::F 1(0-). 1(0) + -. 2-3 Laplace Transformation /(/) /(0 +) /(/) 25 Flgure 2-8 Step function and sine function indicating initial values at 1 = 0.

1(0) = s-o sP(s) lim . Note that.1(0) . The final-value theorem may be stated as follows: If f(t) and df(t)ldt are Laplace transformable.. The theorem._oof(t) exists.f(t) will contain oscillating or exponentially increasing time functions._oo f( t) exists. 2 Then !'£[:I:/(/)] = !'£[:lg(/) ] = s!'£[g(t)] = S!'£[:. if P(s) is the Laplace transform of f(t). Therefore. .1(0)] = 1. Note also that.f(t)1 dt n. If all poles of sF(s) lie in the left half s plane.dt s-o}o t Since lims_oe-s. ..£_ is necessary. then the Laplace transform of the nth derivative off(t) is given by snF(s). for the nth derivative of f(t). respectively. f(O). . = lim [sP(s) s-o . depending on whether we take .into I(t).. 2.sl(O) . we substitute t = 0+ or t = 0. we obtain !'£[:/:t</)] = s"F(s) . .. respectively. evaluated at t = O.£+ or . df(t)ldt. however. dn-1f(t)ldtn-1.. . f(O) represent the values of f(t).. for Laplace transforms of derivatives of f(t) to exist.. • (n-l) 1 Final-value theorem. .26 The Laplace Transform Chap. then lim ._00 f(t) = s-o sF(s) lim To prove the theorem. and if lim. but if sF(s) has poles on the imaginary axis or in the right half s plane.1(/) ] dl = 1(/) r = I( 00) . If the distinction between :£+ and . and lim. s. if lim. ) must be Laplace transformable. then we obtain ['[:. .1.. the theorem is not applicable to such a function.i(O) Similarly. if all the initial values of f(t) and its derivatives are equal to zero.t(/) ] . d n. 3. For instance.-+oo I (t) will not exist..s"-2j(0) . applies if and only if lim/-+oof(t) exists [which means thatf(t) settles down to a definite value as t --+ 00]. ~fW) where f(O). if f(t) is a sinusoidal function sin wt. then lim. dl(t)ldt..j(O) g(O) = l-P(s) .._oo f(t) exists. The final-value theorem does not apply to such cases.E_. or lim (oo[dd f(t)]e. The final-value theorem relates the steady-state behavior off(t) to the behavior of sF(s) in the neighborhood of s = O. then sF(s) has poles at s = ±jw. and lim/-+oo f(t) does not exist.r'/(O) . dnf(t)ldrn (n = 1. we let s approach zero in the equation for the Laplace transform of the derivative off(t).

The initial-value theorem may be stated as follows: Iff(t) and df(t)/dt are both Laplace transformable and if lim s_ oo sF(s) exists. = s-OO [sF(s) lim . we are able to find the value of f(t) at t = 0+ directly from the Laplace transform of /(t). we are not limited as to the locations of the poles of sF(s). Thus. (Note that we must use ~+ rather than ~_ for this condition. since they enable us to predict the system behavior in the time domain without actually transforming functions in s back to time functions. as s approaches infinity. I~ -1f(t) ~. the theorem is valid for the sinusoidal function. we use the equation for the ~+ transform of df(t)ldt: ~+[:. Note that the initial-value theorem and the final-value theorem provide a convenient check on the solution. Equation (2-4) is called the integration theorem. Integration theorem. s_oo lim [OO[dd /(t)]e-sl dt Jo+ t. The initial-value theorem is the counterpart of the final-value theorem. 2-3 Laplace Transformation 27 from which it follows that /(00) = 1_00 /(t) = s-o sF(s) lim lim Initial-value theorem. The integration theorem can be proven as follows: Integration by parts yields ~[JJet) dt ] = = f' [f Jet) dt ]e-" dt 00 [J Jet) dt] e~.) Hence./(0+)] =0 or /(0+) = s_oo sF(s) lim In applying the initial-value theorem. dt .Sec. then /(0+) = lim sF(s) s-OO To prove this theorem.t(t) ] = sF(s) - /(0+) For the time interval 0+ ~ t ~ 00. Iff(t) is of exponential order. The theorem does not give the value of I(t) at exactly t = 0. Using the initial-value theorem. evaluated at t = o. but rather gives it at a time slightly greater than zero. then the Laplace transform of J/(t) dt exists and is given by ~[fJet) dt] = F~S) + r~(o) J (2-4) where F(s) = ~[f(t)] and /-1(0) = /(t) dt. e-SI approaches zero.

:0 +! S st roo Jo I(t)e. If the initial value of the integral is zero. Note that.28 The Laplace Transform Chap. The integration theorem can be modified slightly to deal with the definite integral off!.. and is a constant.£ff-l(O)] = 1-1(0) S ~[rl(O)l Referring to Equation (2-4) and noting that [-1(0) is a constant. so that we obtain . the Laplace transform of the integral off(t) is given by F(s)ls. evaluated at t = 0. Iff(t) is of exponential order.rl(O) where rl(O) is equal to Jf(t) dt. the Laplace transform of the definite integral Jof(t) dt can be given by ~[[f(t) dt] = F~S) To prove Equation (2-5). if f(t) involves an impulse function at t = 0. we must modify Equation (2-4) as follows: ~+[J f(t) dt] = F~S) + rl~o+) ~-[J f(t) dt] = F~S) + rl~O-) We see that integration in the time domain is converted into division in the s domain. 2 = !jl(t) dti s 1.t). then rl(O+)~ / . first note that (2-5) [f(t) dt = j f(t) dt . So if f(t) involves an impulse function at t = 0. Hence.1(0-).dt =--+-s s 1-1(0) F(s) and the theorem is proven. rl(O) ] - ~[[f(t) dt] = ~[Jf(t) dt = ~[J f(t) dt] .

F2(S). + . however... F2(s). then . Several methods are available for finding inverse Laplace transforms. then J/ 0+ f(t) dt ¢ J/ 0- f(t) dt."'.. Fn(s) are readily available.h(t). it is not necessary to refer to a Laplace transform table if we memorize several simple Laplace transform pairs. H F(s).. We shall discuss the MATLAB approach to the partial-fraction expansion in Chapter 4. is broken up into components.rt[Fl(S)] + ..e--l[Fn(s)] = ft(t) + h(t) + . that in applying the partial-fraction expansion technique in the search for the . [Note that MATLAB is quite useful in obtaining the partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of two polynomials.rt[F2(S)] + .. For problems in systems analysis. F(s) frequently occurs in the form B(s) F(s) = A(s) where A(s) and B(s) are polynomials in s and the degree of B(s) is not higher than that of A (s). . the time function f(t) and its Laplace transform F(s) have a one-to-one correspondence. . + fn(t) where ft(t). In this section. The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) thus obtained is unique. . B(s)IA(s).] Partial-fraction expansion method for finding inverse Laplace transforms. 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 29 Note that.. the Laplace transform ofJtt).. Fn(s). Whenever the time function is continuous. Note. The simplest of these methods are (1) to use tables of Laplace transforms to find the time function Jtt) corresponding to a given Laplace transform F(s) and (2) to use the partial-fraction expansion method. consequently.Lf(t) dt] = ~-~(t)l 2-4 INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMATION The inverse Laplace transformation refers to the process of finding the time functionJtt) from the corresponding Laplace transform F(s).rl[F(s)] = . + Fn(s) and if the inverse Laplace transforms of Ft(s). ifJtt) involves an impulse function at t and the following distinction must be observed: = 0. The advantage of the partial-fraction expansion approach is that the individual terms of F(s) resulting from the expansion into partial-fraction form are very simple functions of s. ~{£ f(t) dt] = ~+~(t)] ~-[. or F(s) = Ft(s) + F2(S) + .fn(t) are the inverse Laplace transforms of F1(s)..Sec.. respectively. . except possibly at points where the time function is discontinuous. we present the latter technique.

it is important that the highest power of s in A (s) be greater than the highest power of s in B(s) because if that is not the case. see Example 2-2. + ane-Pllt t ::: 0 . the highest power of sin A(s) is assumed to be higher than that in B(s).( s + Pk) + . n) are constants. but for each complex Pi or Zi. there will occur the complex conjugate of Pi or Zi.. Z2. (For details.( s + Pk) s + Pk S + Pn S=-Pk = ak We see that all the expanded terms drop out. the roots of the denominator polynomial A(s) must be known in advance. giving = [_a_t_(S + Pk) + [ (S + Pk) B(S)] A(s) s=-p" s + PI ~(s + Pk) + .. That is... In this case. if PI and P2 are complex conjugates. . S + P2 ak an] + . P2. then the residues al and a2 are also complex conjugates.. Here.Pk.+ .. Only one of the conjugates.. Since f(t) is obtained as f(t) = ~-I[F(s)] = ale-PIt + a2e-P2t + . F(s) can always be expanded into a sum of simple partial fractions. Consider F(s) written in the factored form B(s) K(s + Zt)(s + zz)'" (s + Zm) F(s) = A(s) = (s + Pt)(s + P2)'" (s + Pn) where Pt. this method does not apply until the denominator polynomial has been factored.. The coefficient ak is called the residue at the pole at s = . Pn and ZI. that is.A(s) s + PI S + P2 s + Pn (2-6) where ak( k = 1. with the exception of ak' Thus. ... .) Partial-fraction expansion when F(s) involves distinct poles only. respectively.. need be evaluated. 2 inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = B(s)/A(s). because the other is known automatically. al or a2.30 The Laplace Transform Chap.+ ... B(s) at a2 an F(s) = . + . .. In the expansion of B(s)/A(s) into partial-fraction form. then the numerator B(s) must be divided by the denominator A(s) in order to produce a polynomial in s plus a remainder (a ratio of polynomials in s whose numerator is of lower degree than the denominator)... 2. the residue ak is found from ak B(s) = [(s + Pk) A() 1_ S S--Pk (2-7) Note that since f(t) is a real function of time. .Pk' The value of ak can be found by multiplying both sides of Equation (2-6) by (s + Pk) and letting s = . . Zm are either real or complex quantities.= .. + ..

in order to avoid complex numbers. The third term on the right-hand side of this last equation is F(s) in Example 2-1. f(t) = ~1[F(s)] = ~1[s = 2e-t - ! 1] + Tl[S ~12] e-2t t .!!. 2-4 Inverse laplace Transformation 31 Example 2-1 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ . then it is better not to factor the quadratic. if F(s) is given as F(s) = s(s2 + as + b) pes) .. we must divide the numerator by the denominator: G(s) = s + 2 + (s + l)(s + 2) s+3 Note that the Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function ~(t) is unity and that the Laplace transform of dS(t)ldt is s.:: 0- Comment.-S(t) + dt 2~(t) + 2e-t - e-2t t . So the inverse Laplace transform of G(s) is given as get) = .(s + l)(s + 2) s+3 The partial-fraction expansion of F(s) is F( ) s = (s + l)(s + 2) = s + 1 + s + 2 s+3 ] =[S+3] =2 (s + l)(s + 2) s=-1 s + 2 s=-1 s+3 ] (s + l)(s + 2) s=-2 s +3 al a2 where al and a2 are found by using Equation (2-7): a1 =[(s+1) a2 = [(S + 2) = [~] s+1 s=-2 = -1 Thus. s2 Consider a function F(s) that involves a quadratic factor + as + b in the denominator. For example.Sec. since the degree of the numerator polynomial is higher than that of the denominator polynomial..:: 0 Example 2-2 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of G + 5s 2 + 9s + 7 (s) = (s + l)(s + 2) S3 Here. If this quadratic expression has a pair of complex- conjugate roots..

rewritten as and _ .) Consider F (s) = s2 + 2s + 3 (s + 1)3 .21+ 22 ] + 2e-1 cos 2t t ~ 0 Partial-fraction expansion when F(s) involves multiple poles.s2 + 2s + S =S It follows that 10 + 2(s + 1) (s + 1)2 + 22 2 +2 s+1 (s + 1)2 + 22 (s + 1)2 + 22 f(t) = .'i[e at cos Cdt] = s+a (s + a) + w 2 2 we can write the given F(s) as a sum of a damped sine and a damped cosine function: 2s + 12 F(s) . A-2-16. 2 where a ~ 0 and b > 0.) ExampJe2-3 Find the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = 2s + 12 s2 + 2s + 5 Notice that the denominator polynomial can be factored as s2 + 2s + S = (s + 1 + j2)(s + 1 . we expand F(s) into the sum of a damped sine and a damped cosine function.32 The Laplace Transform Chap.. Noting that.j2) The two roots of the denominator are complex conjugates. then expand F(s) into the following partial-fraction expansion form: ds + e c F( s) = -. Instead of discussing the general case. (See also Problems A-2-17 and A-2-19. and A-2-19. we shall use an example to show how to obtain the partial-fraction expansion of F(s)..[(S + = Se-1 sin 2t 1 1~2 + 22] + 2!C1[(S +S 1..'i-I[F(s)] = SX. and if s2 + as + b = 0 has a pair of complex-conjugate roots. + -s2-+-. Hence.-+-b as (See Example 2-3 and Problems A-2-15.. + 2s + S = (s + 1)2 + 22 and referring to the Laplace transforms of e-al sin wt and e-al cos Cdt.

[ d 2(s2 + 2s + 2. it can be seen that the values of ~.(2) = 1 . ~. 2-4 Inverse Laplace Transformation 33 The partial-fraction expansion of this F(s) involves three terms: F( s) = A(s) = (s + 1? + B(s) ~ ~ b1 S (s + 1)2 + +1 where b3.(s + 1) + b1(s + 1)2 Then. and b1 are determined as follows: Multiplying both sides of this last equation by (s + 1?. differentiating both sides of Equation (2-8) with respect to s yields :s [(s + 1)3 !~:~] H we let s = -1 in Equation (2-9). we have B(s) (s + 1)3 A(s) = ~ + b.Sec. b2. ds 2 =1.. and b1 are found systematically as follows: ~ = [(s + 1)3!~:~ =2 L-I 3)] s=-1 = (s2 + 2s + 3)S=-1 ~ = {:s [(s + 1)3 !~:~ ]L-I = [~(S2 + 2s + ds = (2s + 2)s=-1 =0 b1= ~ 2! ds 2 2 {if. we find that Equation (2-8) gives (2-8) B (S)] [ (s + 1)3 A(s) s=-1 = ~ Also. we obtain ~[(S + 1)3 B (S)] 2 ds A(s) = 2b 1 From the preceding analysis. then = ~ + 2bt(s + 1) = s=-1 (2-9) !£[(S + 1?B(S)] ds A(s) ~ Differentiating both sides of Equation (2-9) with respect to s. [(S + 1)3 A(s) s=-1 B(S)]} 3)] s=-1 = J. letting s = -1.

TIME-INVARIANT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS In this section. In the discussion that follows. d 21dt2 with s2. In the case of the Laplace transform method. By taking the Laplace transform of each term in the given differential equation.e-l[_1_] +1 S 0 2-5 SOLVING LINEAR. If all initial conditions are zero. time-invariant differential equations. two steps are followed: 1. The Laplace transform method yields the complete solution (complementary solution and particular solution) of linear.e[x(t)] = Xes) we obtain !e[x] = sX(s) . x(O) = b where a and b are constants. two examples are used to demonstrate the solution of linear.x(O) !e[:i] = s2 Xes) . Writing the Laplace transform of x(t) as Xes). time-invariant differential equations.34 The Laplace Transform Chap.sx(O) . Classical methods for finding the complete solution of a differential equation require the evaluation of the integration constants from the initial conditions. x(O) = a. this requirement is unnecessary because the initial conditions are automatically included in the Laplace transform of the differential equation. 2 We thus obtain f(t) = ~-l[F(s)] = t 2e-t = _. 2. or .e-l[ (s +2 1)3 ] + :e+ 0 + e-t 2 + 1 )e-t (t t ~ 1[ 0 ] + (s + 1)2 . however. and so on. time-invariant differential equations by the Laplace transform method. In solving linear. The time solution of the differential equation is obtained by rmding the inverse Laplace transform of the dependent variable. Example 2-4 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation :i + 3x + 2x = 0. time-invariant differential equations by the Laplace transform method.x(O) . then the Laplace transform of the differential equation is obtained simply by replacing dldt with s. convert the differential equation into an algebraic equation in s and obtain the expression for the Laplace transform of the dependent variable by rearranging the algebraic equation. we are concerned with the use of the Laplace transform method in solving linear.

Example 2-5 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + 2X + 5x = 3.x(O)] + 2X(s) [s2 X(s) . x(O) = 0 Noting that . we obtain =- 3 s 3 X(s) = s(S2 + 2s + 5) =-. 2-5 Solving Linear.as .e-I cos 2t 3 5 t~O which is the solution of the given differential equation.~.£[3] = 3/s.£-l[X(s)) . x(O) = 0.a] + 2X(s) or =0 Substituting the given initial conditions into the preceding equation yields =0 (S2 + 3s + 2)X(s) Solving this last equation for X(s). the inverse Laplace transform becomes x(t) = .x(O)] + 3[sX(s) .5 10 3 = .-3 e 5 10 -I 2 1)2 + 22 ]_ ~.b] + 3[sX(s) .x(t) has no undetermined constants. x(O) = 0. .sx(O) . and X(O) = 0. lime-Invariant Differential Equations 35 The Laplace transform of the given differential equation becomes [s2 X(s) .£-1[!]_ ~~-1[ (s + s .Sec.£-1[ 5 S + 1 ] (s + 1)2 + 22 SID • 2t .. Notice that the initial conditions a and b appear in the solution.- 31 5s 31 5s 3 s+2 5 s2 + 2s + 5 3 2 3 s +1 5(s+I)2+22 Hence.. Thus. we have = as + b + 3a X (s) = as + b + 3a = as + b + 3a = _2o_+_b _ _ _+_b a s2 + 3s + 2 (s + 1) (s + 2) s+1 s+2 The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) produces x(t) = ~-l[X(S)] = - ~-1[2a + b]_ . we see that the Laplace transform of the differential equation becomes S2 X(s) + 2sX(s) + 5X(s) Solving this equation for X(s).£-I[a + b] s+1 (a + b)e-2t = (20 + b)e-I s+2 t ~ 0 which is the solution of the given differential equation.

5' nnagmary part ..= -1 tan.447 = tan-1. 2 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-2-1 Obtain the real and imaginary parts of 2 + j1 3 + j4 Also.j4) .12 = -26.'5" 2 real part = - 2 Hence. Solution 2 + j1 (2 --= 3 + j4 (3 + j1)(3 + j4)(3 .36 The Laplace Transform Chap.565° Problem A-2-2 Find the Laplace transform of f(l) Solution Since =0 = te.j5 25 9 + 16 = 5" . we obtain F(s) = .3r 1<0 t ~ 0 1 ~[t] = G(s) =: - s2 referring to Equation (2-2).1 .5 The magnitude and angle of this complex quantity are obtained as follows: magnitude = angle ~n)' + (~1)' = -115 215 & = ~ = 0..j4) 6+j3-j8+4 10 .e[te-3r ] = G(s + 3) = (s + 3)2 1 Problem A-2-3 What is the Laplace transform of f(t) = 0 = sin(wl 1<0 + 8) I == 0 where 8 is a constant? Solution Noting that sin(wt + 8) = sin wI cos 8 + cos wI sin 8 .1 = -. . obtain the magnitude and angle of this complex quantity.

-1(t .2 !e[l(t . Solution The functionj(t) can be written 1 2 1 [(t) = -1(t) .f 2as a-O = lime a-O -as -2as -e a f(/} -..!..Z 1 I Figure 2-9 Functionf(/}.+ sm 8-2. find the limiting value of F(s) as a approaches zero.a) + -1(t .2e-as + e-2as ) = Iim-a------a--O d Ql da ( s) ~ (1 d = lim 2se-as _ 2se-2a.2 !e[l(t .2 !e[1(t)) ...Example Problems and Solutions 37 we have !£[sin(wt + 8)] = cos 8 ~[sin wt] + sin 8 !e[cos wt] .." " ' I 1 2a o a -..2e-as limF(s) a-O = lim + -2as e a--O Qls .2e-as + e-2aS ) a2s As a approaches zero.2a) a2 a2 a2 Then F(s) = !eff(t)) 1 2 1 = . t . . we have 1 .2 2 s+w w cos 8 + s sin 8 s2 + w 2 s+w Problem A-2-4 Find the Laplace transform F(s) of the functionj(t) shown in Figure 2-9.. s = cos 8-2 w .2a)] a a a 1 1 1 1 .(1 ...a)] + . Also...-1 -as +--e-2as 2 e =2 a s a2 s a2 s = .

Hence. Solution The given functionj(t) can be defined as follows: 1(1) = 0 b = -t a O<tSa a<t =0 Notice that j(t) can be considered a sum of the three functions 'I(t).e-as -e-2os) -(a) d 20 S 0-0 1 = -s + 2s = da s Problem A-2-S Obtain the Laplace transform of the functionj(t) shown in Figure 2-10. /2(t).38 The Laplace Transform Chap.b 'l(t ..j(I) can be written as 1(1) = fl(t) + /2(1) + /3(t) b b = -t ·1(t) .a) Figure 2-10 Function f(t). and !J(t). f(t) o a b II(t) = b Ii t· l(t) o~ __ ~~ _____________ 12(t) = .E.a) . 2 = lim _d_a_ _ _ _ = lim -se-os + 2seo -0 d ( .-(I . and /3(t) shown in Figure 2-11.a) '1(1 a a I(t) b a) . (t-a) • l(t a a) -b Figure 2-11 Functions II(t). 12(t). " 13(t) =-b· l(t .

1) -s as 2 =-1- o J. .OOf(t)eds 0 dl = .Jo Sl (OO f(l) ds (e.-d J.e-as . .:s G(s) = d2 d2 1 = (-1)2 ds2F (S) = ds2F (S) Repeating the same process. be obtained by performing the following Laplace integration: ~[f(I)] = b e-st la . of course. by defining If(l) = g(I). Solution ~[lf(l)] = Jo {OO If(l)e-SI dl = .-d ds Similarly.e-as ) .!.J.. . then. .!._(e-as .2.b!e-as 2 ai as s .3.a . n = 1.£e-as as = ~(1 2 s The same F(s) can.Sl ) dl F(s) d = .. except at poles of F(s).~ ..:s[ .. the result is . ~[lf(I)] = - d ds F(s) d2 ~[12f(I)] = ds 2 F(s) and in general.e-as ) 2 as - £e-as s Problem A-2-6 Prove that if the Laplace transform off(l) is F(s). we obtain n = 1.:sF(s) ~[12f(I)] = ~[lg(I)] = .2.3.. a ab -Ie-st dl + 100Oea st dl = ~(1 .d l b e-sl a -s 0 0 a -s e-as b e-sll a =b-+--s as -s 0 b e-as = b_..Example Problems and Solutions 39 Then the Laplace transform of f(1) becomes F(s) = ~.

Solution Note that roof(t) dl = s-O F(s) lim Jo roof(t) dt = .) 1= [I(. we have :£[f(t)] Problem A-2-8 = :£[t2 sin wt] = ._00 ' l 0 f(t) dt = lim s-O F(s) sS or roo lim Jo f(t) dt = s-O F(s) . we have Since ftf(t) dt exists. 2 Problem A-~7 Find the Laplace transform of f(t) Solution Since = 0 = t 2 sin wt t < 0 t20 ~[sin wt] = S 2 W + 2 Cd referring to Problem A-2-6.2 -2--2 = S d ds 2 [ w +w 1 -2w (2 + 6ws 2)3 s +w 3 2 Prove that if the Laplace transform off(t) is F(s). by applying the final-value theorem to this case.) 1= aF(as) Solution If we define tla a>0 = 'T and as = SJ. then ~[f(. then 0 Prove that if f(t) is of exponential order and if fooof(/) dl exists [which means that Jo where F(s) = !e[f(/)].40 The Laplace Transform Chap.-ooJo dl lim tf(/) ~[[I(t) dt 1= F~S) Referring to Equation (2-5).) = aF(as) 100f(t) dl assumes a definite value].00/ (T)e-'" dT = aF(s. we obtain lim .)e-" dt = [1(T)e-na dT = a Problem A-~9 1. then ~[/(.

00['(1 .oofl(T)"(1 . = !e[/.00"p. Problem A-2-11 Determine the Laplace transform of 11(1)*12(1).T)l(1 T)e-" dl Changing the order of integration is valid here.T)l(1 . If we substitute A = 1 .ooe-'r[/. then :£[/"/l(T)h(1 .(1) h(t) Solution Note that = h(t) = 0 =t = 1 .T)l(1 . since II (t) and h( I) are both Laplace transformable.h(l) = [fl(T)h(1 - T) dT = [11(1 - T)h(T) dT Show that if 11(t) and 12(1) are both Laplace transformable.T) dT A commonly used notation for the convolution is 11(1)*/2(1). which is defined as f.00f..(1 .T) = 0 for t < T.T) dT] = /.(TV" dT /.V'A d)' = FI(S)F2(S) or :£[f.(I).T) dT] = /.Example Problems and Solutions 41 Problem A-2-10 The convolution of two time functions is defmed by [fI(T)[. giving convergent integrals.(1 .e-' for t < 0 for 1 ~ 0 for 1 ~ 0 . we have !e[[fl(T)"(1 .oofl(T).(I)*!2(t)] = Fl(S)F2(S) Thus.T) dT] Solution Noting that 1(t .T) dT] dl = /.(T) dT /.T into this last equation. where II(t) 1.oof. the Laplace transform of the convolution of two time functions is the product of their Laplace transforms.T) dT] = Fl(S)F2(S) where FI(S) = :e[ft(t)] and F2(S) = :£[f2(1)]. the result is !e[[fl(T)"(1 .

sr dt = ~ n=O 00 l<n+ nT l )T f(t)e. .s! 1) =---+---s3 s2 S S+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 s2(s + 1) To verify that the expression after the rightmost equal sign is indeed the Laplace transform of the convolution integral. Problem A-2-12 Prove that if /(t) is a periodic function with period T. we obtain d" n=O .42 The Laplace Transform Chap..sr dt By changing the independent variable from t to" 00 . let us frrst integrate the convolution integral and then take the Laplace transform of the result. then .£[f(I)] Solution 00 1 = T f(t)e-" dl 0 1 _ e-Ts .£[f(t)] = ~e-nTs 1Tf(" + nT)e-ST 0 =t .nT. 2 The Laplace transform of the convolution integral is given by !£[fl(t)*!2(t)] = Fl(S)F2(S) = =-s3 :2 (.e[J(t)] = 10 o f(t)e. We have fl(t)*!2(t) = 1'''[1 - e-('-T)] d" = [(I = T)(l T - e~) dT 1'(1 - le~ + Te~)dT Noting that we have Thus.

.s = ! [e-Ts .T f( 1')e-SI d1' 0 Noting that Le-nTs n=O CXl = 1 + e-Ts + e-2Ts + = 1 + e-TS (1 + e-Ts + e-2Ts + .--s . f( l' + nT) = f( 1').e-(1I2)Tsj2 f(t) 1 o -1 u Figure 2-12 Periodic function (square wave).. Hence. = J.e-Ts It follows that J.I ..Tf2 e-sl dt + 0 = e.+ ..Tf(t)e-" dt ~[f(t)] Problem A-2-13 = 01 -e -Ts What is the Laplace transform of the periodic function shown in Figure 2-12? Solution Note that Tf(t)e-SI dt o J.Example Problems and Solutions Since f(t) is a periodic function with period T. ~[f(t)] = ~e-nTs CXl 43 J.2e-(1f2)Ts + 1] s = _ e-SII -s 0 -s Tf2 e-(lf2)Ts _ 1 e-Ts _ e-(lf2)Ts U Tf2 [T (-1 )e-SI dt JTf2 T ! s [1 .. . ) n=O = 1 + e-TS ( ~e-nTs) we obtain CXl 1 Le-nTs = ---=n=O 1 .

= 2(s (s + 0. notice that F(s) Hence..s1 cos 0.Tf{t )e-" dt s[1 + e-(ll2)T'1 s 4 Problem A-2-14 Find the initial value of df(I)/dl.= ..tanh- J.2 + s+1 1-0+ = s-OO lims[sF(s) .-0+ lim /(1) = lim sF(s) = lim $-00 s(2s 2 s-oo S + 1) = +s+1 2 Since the ~+ transform of d/(I)ldl = g(l) is given by ~+[g(I)] = sF(s) .= g(O+) t _ 2= S2 -s . and d are real and a is positive.866t] /(1) = 2e-o.44 The Laplace Transform Consequently. where the Laplace transform off(l) is given by F(s) = ~[f(I)] = s2 2s +s+1 +1 Solution Using the initial-value theorem.866 sin 0.5) + 0./(0+)] To verify this result.8661 i(o) = -1 + 0 Thus.8661 + 2e-o·5IO.866)2 = ~[2e-o.866t and i(t) = _e-o·51 cos 0. = -1 Problem A-2-lS Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = (s2 + 2as + a2) + b2 cs +d where a.. Chap. we obtain ./(0+) = s(2s + 1) s2 + s + 1 the initial value of df(t)/dt is obtained as d/(I) lim -d. 51 cos 0. c. .e-(II2)Ts 1 Ts ..5)2 + (0. 2 F(s) = (lis )[1 _ e-(ll2)T'l' 1 -e-Ts 1 -e-Ts 1 . b.

jl) it follows that F(s) involves a pair of complex-conjugate poles.ca (s + a)2 + b2 --~-"'7 d .2 (s + 1)2 + 12 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is I() I ::: 1 1 2 .ca b c(s + a) + . s. . and sO terms on both sides of this last equation respectively.--~-"'7 (s + a)2 + b2 b (s + a)2 + b2 we obtain I(t) = ce-at cos bl +d ..Example Problems and Solutions 45 Solution Since F(s) can be written as F(s) _ c(s + a) + d . and a3 are determined from 1 = at(s2 + 2s + 2) + (a2s + a3)s By comparing corresponding coefficients of the S2.2e -I sm I - • 1 2e -I cos I t~O . so we expand F(s) into the form where ah a2.ca e-al sin bt b Problem A-2-16 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of 1 F(s) = -s(-s2=--+-2-s-+-2-) Solution Since S2 + 2s + 2 = (s + 1 + jl) (s + 1 .2 (s + 1)2 + 12 . . we obtain from which it follows that Therefore.2: s2 + 2s + 2 11 1 1 1 s+1 11 1 s+2 ::: 2: -. F(s) ::: 2: -.

.e .+ s + 1 + s + 3 where 5(s + 2) I 5 at = s2(s + 3) s=-t = 2: 5(s + 2) a2 = S2(S + 1) s=-3 I 5 = 18 ~ = (s + 1) (s + 3) bl 5(s + 2) 5(s I s=O =3 10 d[ = ds (s + l)(s + 3) s=O = 5(s + l)(s + 3) .3t 2 18 t 25 1 5 1 5 1 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is f(t) = 10 t . F(s) = 3 9" -.25 3 9 Problem A-2-18 Fmd the inverse Laplace transform of ~0 F (s) = S4 + 2s3 + 3s 2 + 4s + 5 s(s + 1) Solution Since the numerator polynomial is of higher degree than the denominator polynomial.a2 s + 1 s=o S = 5 = -3 = 2s + 51 s ..+ .s(s + 1) s s +1 2s + 51 at = .46 Problem A-2-17 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap. 2 5(s + 2) F( s) = -S2-(s--=-+-I-)(-s":""'+-3-) Solution 5(s + 2) ~ bl at a2 F(s) = s2(s + l)(s + 3) = s2 + -.5(s + 2)(2s + 4) I (s + 1)2(s + 3)2 s=O 10 1 s2 - + 2) 1 = _ 25 9 Thus. -I . we obtain F( s) = s + s + 2 + where 2 2s + 5 at a2 = S2 + s + 2 + . + 2: s + 1 + 18 s + 3 + ~e-t + 2. by dividing the numerator by the denominator until the remainder is a fraction.

respectively..28 S b = -0.. we obtain a2 + b = 0 0. we obtain 0..s2 S (s + 1)2 + 3 S2 +- The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) gives f(t) = 0.28 .6 a2 bs + c F() = . Hence.28(s + 1) + (1.28.84 = -O.28.6t + 0.84 + ---:----s2 + 2s + 10 -0.2 + 10a2 :=: 4 from which we get a2 = 0.2 + 10a2)s + 6 s2(s2 + 2s + 10) (2-11) By equating corresponding coefficients in the numerators of Equations (2-10) and (2-11)..28e-1 cos 3t + 1~2 e-1 sin 3t ..-2 .Example Problems and Solutions It follows that 47 F(s) = s2 + s + 2 + .+ .12/3) x 3 0..+ ..6 + 20 2 + c)s2 + (1.s s+1 The inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is d2 dt 5 3 f(t) = ~-t[F(s)] = -2eS(t) + -d eS(t) + 2eS(t) + 5 . we expand F(s) into the following partial-fraction form: at a2 bs + c s F() :=::-+-+---s2 S S2 + 2s + 10 The coefficient al can be obtained as al - _ 2s2 + 4s + s2 + 2s + 10 61 -. 0.s s2 s s2 + 2s + 10 (a2 + b )s3 + (0.6 + 2a2 + c = 2 1.6 0.3e-1 Problem A-2-19 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of d t t ~ 0- F (s) = 2s2 + 4s + 6 s2(s2 + 2s + 10) (2-10) Solution Since the quadratic term in the denominator involves a pair of complexconjugate roots. c = 0.0.0 6 s=O • Hence..28 ++ .6 s F() = 0.28s + 0..

the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is obtained as f(t) = Problem A-2-21 ~-l[F(s)] = ~(1 (J) .a2 + w2 s2 + (Ii The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) then gives x(t) = ~-l[X(S)] = (b + a AW)e +(J) 2 2 -aJ + Aa.i) (J)2 s 1 lIs = (J)2 ~ . x(O) = b Laplace transforming both sides of this differential equation.s2s + w2) + . we obtain X(s) = A(J) (s + a) (s2 + ( 2) Aw +-S b S+ a = a2 + (J)2 = ( (1 a .2 + (J)2 s or (s + a)X(s) = -2--2 + b s + (J) A(J) Solving this last equation for X(s).48 Problem A-2-20 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap. Aw 2 2 sm (J)t 2 2 cos wt a +w a +w t~O .w 2 s2 + (J)2 = 1 =- 1(1 .s2 (J)2 ~0 Thus.x(O)] + aX(s) = A-.cos wt) t Obtain the solution of the differential equation x + ax Solution = A sin (J)t.-+s) . 2 F(s) Solution = -s(-s2-+-(J)2-) 1 F(s) S(s2 + c.a s+ AW) 1 Aa +a w Aw s b b + a2 + w2 s + a + a2 + w2 s2 + w2 . we have (J) [sX(s) .

03(1 . f(t) f(1) c bl------~ ----- o a a+b o Figure 2-14 a Pulse function.Problems 49 PROBLEMS Problem 8-2-1 Derive the Laplace transform of the function f(t) = 0 = te-21 t < 0 t 2 0 Problem 8-2-2 Fmd the Laplace transforms of the following functions: (8) (b) ft(t) = 0 = 3sin(51 + 45°) h(t) = 0 = 0.cos 2t) t < 0 t 2 0 t < 0 1 2 0 Problem 8-2-3 Obtain the Laplace transform of the function defined by f(t) = 0 = t 2e-or 1 <0 0 1~ Problem B-2-4 Obtain the Laplace transform of the function f(t) = 0 = cos 2w1 • cos 3(1)1 1 <0 2 t 0 Problem 8-2-5 What is the Laplace transform of the function f(1) shown in Figure 2-131 Problem 8-2-6 Obtain the Laplace transform of the pulse functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-14. b Figure 2-13 Function f(1). .

oo . what is the limiting value of . 10 . Show that x(O+) = slim [s2X(s) .5 5 a I 12 -... a" a I 2. 2 . Problem 8-2-9 Given 5($ + 2) F(s) = s(s + 1) obtain f( 00). find the limiting value of . Figure 2-16 Function f(t). Use the initial-value theorem.e[f(t)] as a approaches zero. 2(s + 2) Problem 8-2-11 Consider a function x(t).50 f(t) The Laplace Transform f(t) Chap. Problem 8-2-7 What is the Laplace transform of the functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-15? Also... Problem 8-2-10 Given F(s)-----..sx(O+)] . 12 o 0 --:. Use the final-value theorem.. Figure 2-15 Function f(1). Also.s(s + 1)(s + 3) obtain f(O+).e(f(t)] as a approaches zero? Problem 8-2-8 Find the Laplace transform of the functionf(t) shown in Figure 2-16..

- r'()_6s+3 s2 (b) F s _ 2( ) . Problem B-2-13 What are the inverse Laplace transforms of the following functions? (a) (b) F (s) _ 1 - s+5 (s + l)(s + 3) F2( s) = -s(-s-+":-I-)(-s-=-+-2-) 3(s + 4) Problem B-2-14 Fmd the inverse Laplace transforms of the following functions: (0) qS .(s + 1)2(s + 4) .Problems 51 Problem B-2-12 Derive the Laplace transform of the third derivative of f(t)..s2 + 2s + 10 Problem B-2-18 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) Problem B-2-19 = s2 + 2s + 5 S2(S + 1) Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ 2s + 10 .(s + l)(s + 2)2 5s +2 Problem B-2-15 Find the inverse Laplace transform of F (s) = 2s2 + 4s + 5 s(s + 1) Problem B-2-16 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) = s2 + 2s + 4 s2 Problem B-2-17 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of F(s) _ s .

2 Problem 8-2-21 Obtain the inverse Laplace transform of c _ F(s) = -(1 . x(O) =0 Determine the solution x(t) of the differential equation 2x + 2x + x = 1. Problem 8-2-22 Find the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + 4x = 0. x(O) =0 . x( 0) = 0. x(O) =2 Obtain the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + x = sin 3t. x(O) =0 Obtain the solution x(t) of the differential equation x + w~x = t.52 Problem 8-2-20 Derive the inverse Laplace transform of The Laplace Transform Chap.e as) s2 - b _ -e as S where a> O. Problem 8-2-25 x(O) = 0. Problem 8-2-24 x(O) = 0. Problem 8-2-23 x(O) = 5.

The International System is a modified metric system. (The table presents only those units necessary to describe the behavior of mechanical systems. In the IThis "backward" abbreviation is for the French Systeme International. as such. 8.Mechanical Systems 3-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is an introductory account of mechanical systems. Most engineering calculations in the United States are based on the International System (abbreviated SI)1 of units and the British engineering system (BES) of measurement. Table 3-1 lists some units of measure from each of the International System. and 9. Details of mathematical modeling and response analyses of various mechanical systems are given in Chapters 4. conventional metric systems. Units used in describing the behaviors of electrical systems are given in Chapter 6.) The chief difference between "absolute" systems of units and "gravitational" systems of units lies in the choice of mass or force as a primary dimension. Systems of units. and. a clear understanding of which is necessary for the quantitative study of system dynamics. 5. refer to Appendix A. For additional details on systems of units. and British systems of units. 7. We begin with a review of systems of units. it differs from conventional metric absolute or metric gravitational systems of units. 53 .

mass is chosen as a primary dimension and force is a derived quantity. mass is the property of a body that gives it inertia. which is assumed to be constant. 3 ~ Quantity Length Mass TIme Force of units SI m kg s N kg-m =-s2 J = N-m Absolute systems Metric mks m kg s N kg-m =-s2 J = N-m Gravitational systems British ft lb s poundal lb-ft =-S2 ft-poundal ft-poundal s Metric engineering m kg s2 -rm s British engineering cgs em g s dyn g-cm =-s2 erg = dyn-cm dyn-cm s it Ibr s2 slug = . and the magnitude of the force that the earth exerts on the body is called its weight.54 TABLE 3-1 Systems of Units Mechanical Systems Chap. (Thus.7 cm/s2 = 32. In practical situations. As a result. . but its mass remains constant. resistance to starting and stopping. but not the mass m. in gravitational systems (metric engineering and British engineering systems) of units. g = 9. Conversely. we know the weight w of a body.174 ft/S2 = 386. force is a primary dimension and mass is a derived quantity. a body becomes weightless.807 m1s2 = 980. We calculate mass m from w m=g where g is the gravitational acceleration constant. that is. In gravitational systems.ls2 Far out in space. the dimension of mass is force/acceleration. so the body possesses inertia.1 in. A body is attracted by the earth. Yet its mass remains constant. The value of g varies slightly from point to point on the earth's surface.) Mass.ft s kg[ lb[ Energy kgrm kgrm s ft-Ib[ or Btu Power N-m w=s N-m w=s -s orhp ft-lb[ absolute systems (SI and the metric and British absolute systems). the mass of a body is defined as the ratio of the magnitude of the force to that of acceleration. the weight of a body varies slightly at different points on the earth's surface. Physically. The mass of a body is the quantity of matter in it. For engineering purposes.

calculations are often made in SI units. and those for the BES units are the pound force (lb. Hence. Contact forces are those which come into direct contact with a body. as shown in Table 3-1. mass. it accelerates at 32.174 ftls2 g Force.) . conventional metric units. lb. The units of force are the newton (N). The force unit in the cgs system (a metric absolute system) is the dyne. and meter (m). and slug. Comments. or m = w = 32. mass. dyne (dyn).174 lbr = 1 slu g 32.174-pound force. slug.174 ftls2 (= g). a I-slug mass accelerates at 1 ftls2 (slug = Ibr s2/ft).807 N will give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 9. The mks units of force. at the earth's surface is 1 slug. In other words. In examples and problems. such as gravitational force and magnetic force. To move a body.. Similarly. when acted on by a I-pound force. whereas field forces. for instance. poundal. Force can be defined as the cause which tends to produce a change in motion of a body on which it acts. which is termed kilogram force (or pound force). Table 3-2 shows some convenient conversion factors among different systems of units. Each system of units is consistent in that the unit of force accelerates the unit of mass 1 unit of length per second per second. kgr s2/m. A slug is a unit of mass such that. g. Similarly.807 m/s2• Since the gravitational acceleration constant is g = 9. if a mass of 1 slug is acted on by a 32. force must be applied to it. (Other detailed conversion tables are given in Appendix B. One newton is the force that will give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. and length are the same as the SI units. kg" and lb. A special effort has been made in this book to familiarize the reader with the various systems of measurement. or 1 dyn = I g-Cm/S2 The force unit in the metric engineering (gravitational) system is kg" which is a primary dimension in the system. the force unit is lb" a primary dimension in this system of units. the mass of a body weighing 32. kilogram mass (kg). In this book. In SI units and the mks system (a metric absolute system) of units. 3-1 Introduction 55 The units of mass are kg. mass. which will give a 1-g mass an acceleration of 1 cm/s2. and length are the dyne (dyn). in order to illustrate how to convert from one system to another.174Ib. The SI units of force. and centimeter (em). a mass of 1 kg will produce a force of 9.1\vo types of forces are capable of acting on a body: contact forces and field forces. kg is used to denote a kilogram mass and kg.807 m/s2. and foot (ft). a pound force. and BES units. the force unit is the newton. The cgs units for force.807 N on its support. If mass is expressed in units of kilograms (or pounds). and length are the newton (N). a kilogram force. act on a body. or IN = 1 kg-m/s2 This implies that 9. gram (g). but do not come into contact with it. lb denotes a pound mass and lb. we call it kilogram mass (or pound mass) to distinguish it from the unit of force. in the British engineering system.).Sec.

4536 kg. 3 1 Length 2 3 4 5 Mass 6 7 8 9 Moment of inertia 10 11 12 13 14 Force 15 16 17 18 19 Energy 20 21 22 23 Power 24 25 = 100cm 1 ft = 12 in.389 X 10-4 keal 1 Btu = 778 ft-Ibf 1W 1 hp 1 hp = 2.4482 N lib.10197 kg. energy. Section 3-1 has presented a review of systems of units necessary in the discussions of dynamics of mechanical systems. = 2.031081bf 1 J = 0. Section 3-2 treats mechanical elements. 1 kg.594 kg 1 slug = 32.54 em 1 ft = 0. = 4.281 ft 1 kg = 2.7376 slug-ft2 1 kgr s2-m = 7. 1 N = 7.7376 ft-Ib f 1m 1 J = 2. Section 3-3 discusses mathematical modeling of mechanical systems and analyzes simple mechanical systems.488 kgr s2/m 1 slug-ft2 = 1.341 Outline of the chapter. Section 3-4 reviews the concept of work.174 poundals 1 N-m = 1 J = 1 W-s 1 dyn-em = 1 erg = 10-7 J 1 N-m = 0.03108 slug 1 kgr s2/m = 0.1741b 1 slug = 1. 1 ft-Ibtls 1W = 1 J/s = 550 ft-lbfls = 1.807 N-m 1 ft-lb f = 1.2046Ib.3557 N-m 1 keal = 4186 J 1 ft-lbf = 1. and power and then presents energy methods for deriving mathematical models of conservative systems (systems that do not dissipate energy).10197 kgrm 1 kgrm = 9. 1lbf = 32.06852 slug 1 lb = 0.2046 lb 1 kg = 0.233 s}ug-ft2 11b-ft2 = 0. = 0.2248 lb.1383 N lib.356 kg-m2 1 slug-ft2 = 0.4536 kg 1 kgr s2/m = 9. = 0.10197 kgr s2/m 1 slug = 14.818 X 10-3 hp X 10-3 hp = 745.6720 slug 1 in.03108 slug-tt2 1 kg-m2 = 9.1383 kgr s2-m 1 slug-ft2 = 32. 1 m = 3.3048 m 1 lb = 0. .7W = 1.233 poundals 1 N = 0.56 TABLE 3-2 Conversion Table Mechanical Systems Chap.807 N 1 poundal = 0.174Ib-tt2 1 N = 105 dyn 1 N = 0.807 kg 1 kg = 0. 1 poundal = 0.285 X 10-3 Btu 1 kg.

Suppose that the natural length of the spring is X. Inertia may be defined as the change in force (torque) required to make a unit change in acceleration (angular acceleration). . mertla (mass) = F = kx (3-1) where k is a proportionality constant called the spring constant. .Sec. 3-2 Mechanical Elements 57 3-2 MECHANICAL ELEMENTS Any mechanical system consists of mechanical elements. Consider the spring shown in Figure 3-1(a). Here. . Then. Figure 3-1(b) shows the case where both ends (denoted by points P and Q) of the spring are deflected due to the forces f applied at each end. Inertia elements. The force that arises in the spring is proportional to x and is given by . (The forces at each /J---x-j p \ . we consider translational motion only..) . That is. At point P.or kg-m2 change m angular acceleratlon rad/s2 Spring Elements. The dimension of the spring constant k is force/displacement. A linear spring is a mechanical element that can be deformed by an external force or torque such that the deformation is directly proportional to the force or torque applied to the element. when a force fis applied at the free end. the spring is fixed at one end. we mean masses and moments of inertia.. There are three types of basic elements in mechanical systems: inertia elements. I ' --2 or kg c ange m acce eratIOn mls change in torque N-m inertia (moment of inertia) = . r . change in force N h . (X is the natural length of the spring. The elongation of the spring is x. . and damper elements. spring elements. the spring is stretched.-_ _ 1 /A-----x+x~ (a) 1- X2~ Q P X+X1J + X. By inertia elements. /---x X'-! (b) -I Figure 3-1 (a) One end of the spring is deflected. this spring force F acts opposite to the direction of the force f applied at point P. and the other end is free. (b) both ends of the spring are deflected.

but opposite in direction. torques equal in magnitude. The net elongation of the spring is x I .) The natural length of the spring is X. Figure 3-3 shows the force-displacement characteristic curves for linear and nonlinear springs.X2.58 Mechanical Systems Chap. When a linear spring is stretched. and a torque T. where one end is fixed and a torque T is applied to the other end. . where angular displacement is measured in radians. F acts to the right. the spring constant k may be defined as follows: spring constant k (for translational spring) = change in displacement of spring e change in force N m ~~--+-r-r. the spring torque acts in the direction opposite that of the applied torque at that end. therefore. At point Q. a point is reached in which the force per unit displacement begins to change and the spring becomes a nonlinear spring. (Note that the displacements X + Xl and X2 of the ends of the spring are measured relative to the same frame of reference. consider the torsional spring shown in Figure 3-2(a). are applied to the ends of the spring. is applied at the other end. For linear springs. a point is reached at which the material will either break or yield. ~// C9 (a) C T (b) Flgure 3-2 (a) A torque T is applied at one end of torsional spring. The angular displacement of the free end is 8. If the spring is stretched farther. The dimension of the torsional spring constant k is torque/angular displacement.) Next. For practical springs. the torque T acting in the torsional spring is (3-4) At each end. Then the torque Tthat arises in the torsional spring is T = k8 (3-3) At the free end. (b) a torque T is applied at one end. For the torsional spring shown in Figure 3-2(b). 3 end of the spring are on the same line and are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. this torque acts in the torsional spring in the direction opposite that of the applied torque T. In this case. and the other end is ftxed. The force acting in the spring is then (3-2) At point P.. the assumption of linearity may be good only for relatively small net displacements. in the opposite direction. the spring force F acts to the left.

The reciprocal of the spring constant k is called compliance or mechanical capacitance C. All practical springs have inertia and damping. It consists of a piston and an oil-filled cylinder. in comparison to a practical spring. (b) torsional (or rotational) damper. Damper elements. a large value of k corresponds to a hard spring. An ideal linear spring. A damper is a mechanical element that dissipates energy in the form of heat instead of storing it. 3-2 F Mechanical Elements 59 Nonlinear spring o x Figure 3-3 Force-displacement characteristic curves for linear and nonlinear springs.Sec. Thus. that is. . C = 11k. will have neither mass nor damping and will obey the linear force-displacement law as given by Equations (3-1) and (3-2) or the linear torque-angular displacement law as given by Equations (3-3) and (3-4). we assume that the damping effect of the spring is negligibly small. we assume that the effect of the mass of a spring is negligibly small. Compliance or mechanical capacitance indicates the softness of a spring. In our analysis in this book. spring constant k (for torsional spring) =------------~----~--------- change in torque N-m change in angular displacement of spring rad Spring constants indicate stiffness. or dashpot. Practical spring versus ideal spring. Also. Figure 3-4(a) shows a schematic diagram of a translational damper. a small value of k to a soft spring. however. the inertia force due to acceleration of the spring is negligibly small compared with the spring force. Any relative motion between the piston rod and the cylinder is resisted by oil (a) (b) Figure 3-4 (a) Translational damper.

its effect on the dynamic behavior of a mechanical system is similar to that of an electrical resistor on the dynamic behavior of an electrical system. Friction that obeys a linear law is called linear friction. Figure 3-5 shows a characteristic curve for square-law friction. dissipates all energy. and square-law friction. however. In the damper. magnitude. and obeys the linear force-velocity law or linear torque-angular velocity law as given by Equation (3-5) or Equation (3-6). or (3-5) where X = Xl . the damping force F that arises in it is proportional to the velocity difference Xl . Nonlinear friction.X2 and the proportionality constant b relating the damping force F to the velocity difference X is called the viscous friction coefficient or viscous friction constant. The angular velocities of the ends are 81 and 82 and they are taken relative to the same frame of reference. In Figure 3-4(a).8 and the proportio~ality con2 1 stant b relating the damping torque T to the angular velocity difference 8 is called the viscous friction coefficient or viscous friction constant. or r (3-6) where. respectively. and the absorbed energy is dissipated as heat that flows away to the surroundings. the damper absorbs energy. 8 = 8 . a damper is often referred to as a mechanical resistance element and the viscous friction coefficient as the mechanical resistance.X2 of the ends. sliding friction. 3 because oil must flow around the piston (or through orifices provided in the piston) from one side to the other. Essentially. The dimension of b is force/velocity. but opposite in direction. The dimension of b is torque/angular velocity.82 of the ends. For the torsional damper shown in Figure 3-4(b). and. . Square-law friction occurs when a solid body moves in a fluid medium. The damping tor~ue that arises in the damper is proportional to the angular velocity difference 81 . we shall not discuss nonlinear friction any further. In this book. A damper is an element that provides resistance in mechanical motion. Consequently. In this book. Note that the initial positions of both ends of the damper do not appear in the equation. An ideal damper is massless and springless. Note that the initial angular positions of both ends of the damper do not appear in the equation. The velocities of the ends of the damper are Xl and X2' Velocities Xl and X2 are taken relative to the same frame of reference. All practical dampers produce inertia and spring effects. Practical damper versus ideal damper. whereas friction that does not is described as nonlinear. as such. Examples of nonlinear friction include static friction. the forces f applied at the ends of the translational damper are on the same line and are of equal magnitude. we assume that these effects are negligible.60 Mechanical Systems Chap. analogous to the translational case. but opposite in direction. the torques 'T applied to the ends of the damper are of equal.

The third law concerns action and reaction and. the body is called a rigid body. For rotational motion.Sec. Rigid body.7. Momentum is the product of mass m and velocity v. for translational or linear motion. In this section. Thus.8. and is called angular momentum. More on deriving mathematical models of various mechanical systems and response analyses is presented in Chapters 4. When any real body is accelerated. 3-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF SIMPLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS A mathematical model of any mechanical system can be developed by applying Newton's laws to the system.5. which concerns the conservation of momentum. we shall deal with the problem of deriving mathematical models of simple mechanical systems. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems Force 61 Velocity Figure 3-S Characteristic curve for square-law friction. If these internal deflections are negligibly small relative to the gross motion of the entire body. internal elastic deflections are always present. a rigid body does not deform. Newton's second law (for translational motion). and 9. or J lJJ. in effect. Newton's second law gives the force-acceleration relationship of a rigid translating body or the torque-angular acceleration relationship of a rigid rotating body. For translational motion. states that every action is always opposed by an equal reaction. Newton's second law says that if a force is acting on a rigid body through the center of mass in a given direction. Newton's first law. There are three well-known laws called Newton's laws. momentum is the product of moment of inertia J and angular velocity lJJ. Newton's laws. states that the total momentum of a mechanical system is constant in the absence of external forces. or mv. the acceleration of the rigid body in the same .

rotational motion will also be involved. Newton's second law states that (moment of inertia) (angular acceleration) or Ja = torque = ~T (3-8) where I. Physically. r is distance from the axis to dm.F is the sum of all forces acting on mass m through the center of mass in a given direction. such as N-m. The line of action of the force acting on a body must pass through the center of mass of the body. we assume that the rotating body is perfectly rigid. In considering moments of inertia. If I. Torque or moment of force. or moment of force. 3 direction is directly proportional to the force acting on it and is inversely proportional to the mass of the body. That is. The units of torque are force times length. and lbrft. then ma= ~F (3-7) force = -mass where a is the resulting absolute acceleration in that direction. Torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance from a point of rotation to the line of action of the force. For a rigid body in pure rotation about a fixed axis. the moment of inertia of a body is a measure of the resistance of the body to angular acceleration. Rotational motion is not defined by Equation (3-7).J is the moment of inertia of a body about that axis. dyn-cm. The moment of inertia J of a rigid body about an axis is defined by J = J r dm 2 where dm is an element of mass. is defined as any cause that tends to produce a change in the rotational motion of a body on which it acts. and integration is performed over the body. .T is the sum of all torques acting about a given axis. . and a is the angular acceleration of the body. Torque. kgrm. Newton's second law (for rotational motion). Table 3-3 gives the moments of inertia of rigid bodies with common shapes. acceleration or (mass) ( acceleration) = force Suppose that forces are acting on a body of mass m. Otherwise. Moments of inertia.62 Mechanical Systems Chap.

!. The mass of this ring-shaped element is 2'TrrLp dr.mR2 2 x~1L-j }xExampJe3-1 m = mass of hollow cylinder Jx = tm(R2 + . . A' Figure 3-6 Homogeneous cylinder. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 63 TABLE 3-3 Moments of Inertia t~R x ~ m x' t = mass of disk = .mR2 2 Jx x (~L-j }x- m = mass of solid cylinder J x = .Sec.. Thus.!. dm = 2'Trr Lp dr A-+-H. The moment of inertia J of this cylinder about axis AA' can be obtained as follows: Consider a ringshaped mass element of infinitesimal width dr at radius r. where p is the density of the cylinder..2) Figure 3-6 shows a homogeneous cylinder of radius R and length L..

If the axes are parallel. we obtain Moment of inertia about an axis other than the geometrical axis. Sometimes it is necessary to calculate the moment of inertia of a homogeneous rigid body about an axis other than its geometrical axis. Find the moment of inertia. the moment of inertia lx of the cylinder about axis xx' is 1 x 1 3 = 1. After the response has become negligibly small. where a homogeneous cylinder of mass m and radius R rolls on a flat surface.64 Consequently. . Example 3-2 Consider the system shown in Figure 3-7. The moment of inertia of the cylinder about axis CC' is lc = ZmR 1 2 The moment of inertia of the cylinder about axis xx' when mass m is considered concentrated at the center of gravity is mR2. Thus. of the cylinder about its line of contact (axis xx') with the surface. the calculation can be done easily. conditions are said to have reached a steady state. The behavior determined by a forcing function is called a forced response.c + mR2 = -mR2 + mR2 = -mR2 2 2 Forced response and natural response. Mechanical Systems Chap. The moment of inertia about an axis that is a distance x from the geometrical axis passing through the center of gravity of the body is the sum of the moment of inertia about the geometrical axis and the moment of inertia about the new axis when the mass of the body is considered concentrated at the center of gravity. 3 1 = J.R r22'1f'rLp 1 = !mR2 2 'lTLpR =-- 4 Since the entire mass m of the cylinder body is m = R2 Lp. The period between the initiation of a response and the ending is referred to as the transient period. lx. Figure ~7 Homogeneous cylinder rolling on a flat surface. r3 dr 0 0 2 'If' R dr = 2'ITLp J. and that due to initial conditions (initial energy storages) is called a natural response.

Equation (3--8). Ji» = -bw. Then the only torque acting on the rotor is the friction torque bw in the bearings. we obtain (Js + b)n(s) = Jw(O) = Jwo . . Simplifying. or w(O) = wo Jw + bw = 0 (3-9) Equation (3-9) is a mathematical model of the system. we obtain the equation of motion.Sec. is called the characteristic polynomial. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 65 F1gure 3-8 Rotor mounted in bearings. we take the Laplace transform of Equation (3-9). the output of the system is considered to be the angular velocity w. and s +- b J = 0 is called the characteristic equation. (Here. Rotational system. not the angular displacement.e[w(t)]. s + (blJ).a(s) Hence. =~ b s +J (3-10) The denominator. that is.) To find w( t). Applying Newton's second law. J[sn(s) . The moment of inertia of the rotor about the axis of rotation is J. A schematic diagram of a rotor mounted in bearings is shown in Figure 3--8.w(O)] where n(s) + bn(s) = 0 = . Let us assume that at t = 0 the rotor is rotating at the angular velocity w(O) = woo We also assume that the friction in the bearings is viscous friction and that no external torque is applied to the rotor.

two ~ y=x+o T 1 1 " o = Static deflection m - 1 - _I _o~_--.66 Mechanical Systems 00 Chap. In dealing with such an exponentially decaying response. mathematically the response lasts forever. is w(t) = woe-(blJ)1 The angular velocity decreases exponentially. the value of the exponential factor is e-TIT = e-1 = 0.368000 Figure 3-9 Curve of angular velocity w versus time t for the rotor system shown in Figure 3-8. For this system. the mass is suspended by the spring. . I . as shown in Figure 3-9.368 In other words. when the time t in seconds is equal to the time constant. Since the exponential factor e-(bIJ)r approaches zero as t increases without limit. Spring-mass system.8% of its initial value.-_--. 3 0. o T The inverse Laplace transform of . the solution of the differential equation given by Equation (3-9). as shown in Figure 3-9. When t = T. t x Before mass m is attached to the spring Aftermassm is attached to the spring Figure 3-10 Spring-mass system. Here. the expo- nential factor is reduced to approximately 36. it is convenient to depict the response in terms of a time constant: that value of time which makes the exponent equal to -1. Figure 3-10 depicts a system consisting of a mass and a spring._----.a(s). the time constant Tis equal to Jib. or T = JIb. For the vertical motion.

by applying Newton's second law to this system. By taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of that equation. To find the mathematical form of the periodic motion.sx(O) . (In the diagram. we obtain the equation of motion my =L forces = -ky + mg = mg (3-11) or my + ky The gravitational force is opposed statically by the equilibrium spring deflection S.) If the mass is pulled downward by an external force and then released. X(s) = x(O) sx(O) k + k s2 + s2 +- m m . Equa(3-13) =0 which is a mathematical model of the system.) The periodic motion that is observed as the system is displaced from its static eqUilibrium position is called free vibration. In this book. So. we have mx + k(x + S) = mg (3-12) Since the spring force kS and the gravitational force mg balance. suppose that the mass is pulled downward and then released with arbitrary initial conditions x(O) and X(O). If we measure the displacement from this equilibrium position. Free vibration. we measure the displacement of the mass from the eqUilibrium position in order to eliminate the term mg and simplify the mathematical model. the mass will oscillate and the motion will be periodic.x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 or (ms 2 + k)X(s) = mx(O) + msx(O) Hence. let us solve Equation (3-13).Sec. It is a natural response due to the initial condition. For the spring-mass system of Figure 3-10. then the term mg can be dropped from the equation of motion. unless otherwise stated. or kS tion (3-12) simplifies to mx + kx = mg. the spring force acts upward and tends to pull the mass upward. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 67 forces are acting on the mass: the spring force ky and the gravitational force mg. In this case. when writing equations of motion for systems involving the gravitational force. By substituting y = x + S into Equation (3-11) and noting that S = constant. (We assume that the magnitude of the displacement is such that the spring remains a linear spring. the positive direction of displacement y is defined downward. The gravitational force pulls the mass downward. we obtain m[s2X(s) .

or undamped natural frequency. 21T Hz The natural frequency. If it is measured in radians per second (rad/s).68 Mechanical Systems Chap. 3 This last equation may be rewritten so that the inverse Laplace transform of each term can be easily identified: X( ) s Noting that = "Vk x fm . (0) s2 + (Vkj. If the natural frequency is measured in Hz or cps. rad/s . (0) X s2 + (Vkj.J!.)2 s :£[S1O vklmt] . In the present case.. 1 Hz is 1 cps.t (3-14) Periodic motion such as that described by Equation (3-14) is called simple harmonic motion. ~ = Vkj. it is denoted by In. period T = ~ seconds The frequency I of periodic motion is the number of cycles per second (cps). t] = ~ klm)2 we obtain the inverse Laplace transform of X(s) as x(t) = ~X(O) sin . W n = 21T~ In = {k "V.t + x(O) cos .. frequency I =T = 1.t The period and frequency of simple harmonic motion can now be defined as follows: The period T is the time required for a periodic motion to repeat itself. is the frequency in the free vibration of a system having no damping.J!.)2 + Vkj. it is denoted by W n • In the present system.J!. ~ s2 + (v klm)2 s2 + ( :£[cos Vkj.. If the initial conditions were given as x(O) = Xo and X(O) = 0. and the standard unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). then. by substituting these initial conditions into Equation (3-14). In the present case of harmonic motion.J!.. that is. the displacement of the mass would be given by x(t) = Xo cos . .

= 0 () + -() J k = 0 the natural frequency is W n = f! 'Ii and the period of vibration is T = 21T = 2".. calculated values may not be accurate. The moment of inertia is then determined as l kT2 J=4". and the period of the resulting simple harmonic motion is measured. w. (See Figure 3-11. However. Next.Sec. when Equation (3-13) is written in the form .. for rigid bodies with complicated shapes or those consisting of materials of various densities. It is possible to calculate moments of inertia for homogeneous bodies having geometrically simple shapes. Experimental determination of moment of inertia. experimental determination of moments of inertia is preferable. The process is as follows: We mount a rigid body in frictionless bearings so that it can rotate freely about the axis of rotation around which the moment of inertia is to be determined. moreover. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 69 It is important to remember that. Since the equation of motion for this system is iiJ + k8 or . . we attach a torsional spring with known spring constant k to the rigid body. k x+-x= 0 m where the coefficient of the x term is unity. the square root of the coefficient of the x term is the natural frequency W n • This means that a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 3-10 can be put in the form x + w~x = 0 wherewn = ~.) The spring is then twisted slightly and released.2 Figure 3-11 Setup for the experimental determination of moment of inertia. In these instances. such calculation may be difficult or even impossible.

Note that a typical viscous damping element is a damper or dashpot. (The system is then said to be overdamped. then the mass m can be calculated from Spring-mass-damper system. or critically damped. the damping force. In the system shown in Figure 3-12. for the vertical motion. in the spring-mass system of Figure 3-10. mx = ~ forces = -kx or hi mx + hi + kx = 0 (3-15) Equation (3-15). overdamped. This free vibration is called transient motion. So. x . but also causes the motion to stop eventually. If the damping is light. if we measure the displacement of the mass from a static equilibrium position (so that the gravitational force is balanced by the eqUilibrium spring deflection). the gravitational force will not enter into the equation of motion. and so on. Figure 3-12 is a schematic diagram of a spring-mass-damper system. Most physical systems involve some type of damping-viscous damping. three forces are acting on the mass: the spring force. vibratory motion will occur. Figure 3-12 Spring-mass-<iamper system. In the discussion that follows. Suppose that the mass is pulled downward and then released. (The system is then said to be underdamped. Such damping not only slows the motion of (a part of) the system.70 Mechanical Systems Chap. vibratory motion will not occur. by measuring the displacement x from the static eqUilibrium position. As noted earlier. Regardless of whether a system is underdamped. magnetic damping. if the spring constant k is known and the period T of the free vibration is measured. the free vibration or free motion will diminish with time because of the presence of damper.) A critically damped system is a system in which the degree of damping is such that the resultant motion is on the borderline between the underdamped and overdamped cases. which describes the motion of the system. 3 Similarly. we obtain the equation of motion. and the gravitational force. is a mathematical model of the system.) If the damping is heavy. we shall consider a simple mechanical system involving viscous damping.

Hence. or x(O) = O. we obtain [s2 Xes) .x(O)] + 4[sX(s) . (We assume that the magnitude of the downward displacement is such that the system remains a linear system. b = 0. Then Equation (3-15) becomes O. overdamped.Sec. and is released with zero velocity.) Taking the Laplace transform of Equation (3-16). Suppose that m = 0.1 slug. and critically damped cases is given in Chapter 8.lx + O.) Let us solve Equation (3-15) for a particular case. and k = 4 lbtlft.4 lbrs/ft.4x + 4x or =0 (3-16) x + 4x + 40x = 0 Let us obtain the motion x(t) when the mass is pulled downward at t = 0. s +2 2 ( s+2 ) +6 2 - _ :i[e -2t cos 6t] we can obtain the inverse Laplace transform of X(s) as x(t) = kxoe-2I sin 6t + xoe-2t cos 6t = e-2t(~ sin 61 + cos 61 )xo (3-18) .x(O)] + 40X(s) = 0 Simplifying this last equation and noting that x(O) = Xo and x(O) = 0. This implies that the inverse Laplace transform of Xes) is a damped sinusoidal function. (A more complete analysis of this system for the underdamped. we may rewrite Xes) in Equation (3-17) as a sum of the Laplace transforms of a damped sine function and a damped cosine function: X ( s) 2xo (s + 2)xo + --:----s2 + 4s + 40 s2 + 4s + 40 1 6 s +2 = 3" xo(s + 2)2 + 62 + xO(s + 2)2 + 62 = Noting that (s + 2) + 6 62 2 - _ cL e-21 sm 6] CD[ • t.sx(O) . we get (s2 + 4s + 4O)X(s) or = sxo + 4xo (3-17) (s + 4)xo X (s) = s2 + 4s + 40 The characteristic equation for the system s2 + 4s + 40 = 0 has a pair of complex-conjugate roots. 3-3 Mathematical Modeling of Simple Mechanical Systems 71 Only the underdamped case is considered in our present analysis. so that x(O) = Xo.

Let us convert these values into units of other systems.3048 N-s/m = 5.4lb.459x + 5.-s/ft = 0.-s2/m b = O. 3 Xo Figure 3-13 Free vibration of the spring-mass-damper system described by x + 4x + 40x = 0 with initial conditions x(O) = Xo and x(O) = O. is the same as Equation (3-16).1 slug = 1.37 N/m Hence.448/0. as shown in Figure 3-13. The numerical values in the preceding problem were stated in BES units. Chap.448/0. Equation (3-15) becomes 1.953x or =0 x + 4i + 40x = 0 which.5953i + 5.3048 kg. Metric engineering (gravitational) units (refer to Tables 3-1 and 3-2): m = 0.953 kglm Therefore.3048 kgtlm = 5.1488x + 0.4lb.4 X 0.37 x = 0 x + 4i + 40x = 0 which is the same as Equation (3-16). again. The free vibration here is a damped sinusoidal vibration.4536/0.5 t (sec) Equation (3-18) depicts the free vibration of the spring-mass-damper system with the given numerical values. 2 2.837 N-s/m k = 4lbtlft = 4 X 4.5953 kg.4 X 4.837i or + 58. 2.1488 kg.72 x Mechanical Systems.-s/m k = 4lbtlft = 4 X 0.459 kg b = O. .453610. Equation (3-15) becomes O. SI units (refer to Tables 3-1 and 3-2): m = 0.3048 N/m = 58. Comments.1 slug = 0.-s/m = 0. 1.-s/ft = 0.

285 X 10-3 Btu 1 Btu = 778 ft-Ib. if a body is pushed with a horizontal force of F newtons along a horizontal floor for a distance of x meters. or erg. Energy. the concept of power must be introduced.807 J = 0. ENERGY. Thus. then work is a measure of accomplishment and energy is the ability to do work. an electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. Force is measured in newtons and distance in meters. The concept of work makes no allowance for a time factor. with both force and distance measured in the same direction.807 X 107 dyn-cm = 9. cgs (metric absolute) system of units. When a time factor is considered.Sec. In this system. and power. In a general way. the unit of work is the ft-Ib" and 1 ft-Ib. metric engineering system is the kgrm. A system is said to possess energy when it can do work. a battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy. the work done in pushing the body is W = FxN-m Units of work. Different systems have different units of work. force is measured in pounds and distance in feet. we discuss work. the unit of work is the N-m. 3-4 WORK. and so forth. energy. Note that 107 erg = 107 dyn-cm = 1 J The unit of work in the Metric engineering (gravitational) system of units. and Power 73 Note that as long as we use consistent units. AND POWER In this section. energy can be defined as the capacity or ability to do work. = 1. Energy is found in many different forms and can be converted from one form into another. the system's energy decreases by the amount equal to the energy . Here. Note that 1J 1 kgrm = 9. 3-4 Work. If force is considered a measure of effort. Note that 1 N-m = 1 joule = 1 J British engineering system of units. The work done in a mechanical system is the product of a force and the distance (or a torque and the angular displacement) through which the force is exerted.3557 J = 1. Power is work per unit time. We also discuss energy methods for deriving equations of motion or undamped natural frequencies of certain conservative systems. When a system does mechanical work. Hence. For instance. Work. For instance. the differential equation (mathematical model) of the system remains the same.10197 kgrm Energy. SI units and mks (metric absolute) system of units. the unit of work is the dyn-cm.

the potential energy decreases. whereas a moment of inertia J in pure rotation with angular velocity 8 . So if there is no energy input. The energy that a body possesses because of its position is called potential energy. k8 d8 = 2" k8~ .2" ket 1 1 Kinetic energy. A mass m in pure translation with velocity v has kinetic energY. T = "2mv2. kcal. and so on. the total energy stored is U = x lx l F dx = 00 1 kx dx = .) Once the body is released. the potential energy U measured from some reference level is mg times the altitude h measured from the same reference level.74 Mechanical Systems Chap. energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Since the spring force F is equal to kx. Units of energy are the same as units for work. if dropped. the potential energy U is equal to the net work done on the spring by the forces acting on its ends as it is compressed or stretched.2" kxt Xl Note that the potential energy stored in a spring does not depend on whether it is compressed or stretched. only mass and spring elements can store potential energy. For a body of mass m in the gravitational field of the earth. 6. 3 required for the work done. has the capacity to do work. Potential energy is always measured with reference to some chosen level and is relative to that level. joule. Only inertial elements can store kinetic energy in mechanical srstems. Btu. The change in the potential energy stored in a system equals the work required to change the system's configuration. respectively.kx 2 2 H the initial and final values of x are Xl and change in potential energy AU = X2. since the weight mg of the body causes it to travel a distance h when released. Potential energy. Potential energy is the work done by an external force. whereas the energy that a body has as a result of its velocity is called kinetic energy. For a translational spring. (The weight is a force. then 1 ~ F dx = 1~ XI kx dx = 1 1 2" kx~ . for a torsional spring. Similarly. that is. newton-meter. change in potential energy AU = 2 8 182 1 T d8 = 6. The lost potential energy is converted into kinetic energy. or U = lhmgdX = mgh Notice that the body. where x is the net displacement of the ends of the spring. In a mechanical system. there is no change in total energy of the system. According to the law of conservation of energy. This means that the increase in the total energy within a system is equal to the net energy input to the system.

the change in kinetic energy T of a mass m moving in a straight line is change in kinetic energy = AT = AW = = 1 11 12 Fvdt = 112mirvdt = 1\ l X2 F dx = 112F d : 1\ x\ t dt 1~ VI mvdv = -mv2 . The change in kinetic energy of the mass is equal to the work done on it by an applied force as the mass accelerates or decelerates. Power is the time rate of doing work.. . 3-4 Work. 82 = 8(12)' Dissipated energy. dW power=P=dt /. Notice that the kinetic energy stored in the mass does not depend on the sign of the velocity v. That is. Consider the damper shown in Figure 3-14.Sec. and ~her~ J is the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation. Power. in which one end is fixed and the other end is moved from Xl to X2' The dissipated energy AW of the damper is equal to the net work done on it: The energy of the damper element is always dissipated.mv l 121 2 2 2 where X(tl) = Xh X(t2) = X2. The change in kinetic energy of a moment of inertia in pure rotation at angular velocity 8is change in kinetic energy AT = ~ J iPz . Energy. Thus.t-----X2----I ~-F1gure ~14 Damper. regardless of the sign of x. and Power 75 has kinetic energy T = iJiP. V(tl) = Vh and V(t2) = 'V2.~ J iff 81 = 8(tl).

76

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

where dW denotes work done during time interval dt. The average power during a duration of t2 - tl seconds can be determined by measuring the work done in t2 - tl seconds, or average power

=

work done in

(t2

-

) d tl secon s

(t2 - (1)

seconds

In SI units or the mks (metric absolute) system of units, the work done is measured in newton-meters and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the newtonmeter per second, or watt: 1 N-mls

=1W

In the British engineering system of units, the work done is measured in ft-Ibt and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the ft-Ibls. The power 550 ft-Ibls is called 1 horsepower (hp). Thus, 1 hp

= 550 ft-Ibls = 33000 ft-Ihlmin = 745.7 W
1 kgrm/s = 9.807 W 1W

In the metric engineering system of units, the work done is measured in kgrm and the time in seconds. The unit of power is the kgrm/s, where

= 1 Jls = 0.10197 kgrm/s

Example 3-3 Find the power required to raise a body of mass 500 kg at a rate of 20 mlmin. Let us define displacement per second as x. Then 20 kg-m2 work done in 1 second = mgx = 500 x 9.807 x 60 ~ = 1635 N-m and ower = work done in 1 second P 1 second Thus, the power required is 1635 W.

= 1635 N-m
1s

= 1635 W

An energy method for deriving equations of motion. Earlier in this chapter, we presented Newton's method for deriving equations of motion of mechanical systems. Several other approaches for obtaining equations of motion are available, one of which is based on the law of conservation of energy. Here we derive such equations from the fact that the total energy of a system remains the same if no energy enters or leaves the system. In mechanical systems, friction dissipates energy as heat. Systems that do not involve friction are called conservative systems. Consider a conservative system in which the energy is in the form of kinetic or potential energy (or both). Since energy enters and leaves the conservative system in the form of mechanical work, we obtain

iJJ.(T + U)

= iJJ.W

Sec. 3-4

Work, Energy, and Power

77

Figure 3-15 Mechanical system.

where A(T + U) is the change in the total energy and AW is the net work done on the system by an external force. If no external energy enters the system, then

A(T + U)
which results in
T

=0

+U

= constant

If we assume no friction, then the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-15 can be considered conservative. The kinetic energy T and potential energy U are given by

T = !.mx 2

2'

U = !.kx2

2

Consequently, in the absence of any external energy input,
T

+ U = kmx2 + kkx2 = constant

The equation of motion for the system can be obtained by differentiating the total energy with respect to t:

:1 (T + U) = mix + kxx = (mx + kx)i = 0
Since i is not always zero, we have

mx + kx = 0
which is the equation of motion for the system. Let us look next at the mechanical system of Figure 3-16. Here, no damping is involved; therefore, the system is conservative. In this case, since the mass is suspended by a spring, the potential energy includes that due to the position of the mass element. At the eqUilibrium position, the potential energy of the system is
Uo = mgxo

+ "2 kS

1

2

where Xo is the equilibrium position of the mass element above an arbitrary datum line and S is the static deflection of the spring when the system is in the equilibrium position, or kS = mg. (For the definition of S, see Figure 3-10.)

78

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

Equilibrium__ position

---,
~

Xo
Datum line

x

1

Figure 3-16 Mechanical system.

The instantaneous potential energy U is the instantaneous potential energy of the weight of the mass element, plus the instantaneous elastic energy stored in the spring. Thus,

U

= mg(xo -

1 x) + 2k(~ + x)2

= mgxo - mgx

+ 2k~2 + k~x + 2kx2
1 (mg - k~)x + 2kx2

1

1

= mgxo + 2k~2 Since mg =
k~,

1

it follows that

1 2 U = Uo + 2kx
Note that the increase in the total potential energy of the system is due to the increase in the elastic energy of the spring that results from its deformation from the equilibrium position. Note also that, since Xo is the displacement measured from an arbitrary datum line, it is possible to choose the datum line such that Uo = O. Finally, note that an increase (decrease) in the potential energy is offset by a decrease (increase) in the kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of the system is T = ~ mx2• Since the total energy is constant, we obtain
T

+U

= kmx2

+ Uo + kkx2

= constant

By differentiating the total energy with respect to t and noting that Uo is a constant, we have

:t
or

(T + U)

= mix + kxi = 0

(mx + kx)x = 0

Sec. 3-4

Work, Energy, and Power

79

Since

xis not always zero, it follows that mx + kx = 0

This is the equation of motion for the system.
Example 3-4 Figure 3-17 shows a homogeneous cylinder of radius R and mass m that is free to rotate about its axis of rotation and that is connected to the wall through a spring. Assuming that the cylinder rolls on a rough surface without sliding, obtain the kinetic energy and potential energy of the system. Then derive the equations of motion from the fact that the total energy is constant. Assume that x and 0 are measured from respective equilibrium positions. The kinetic energy of the cylinder is the sum of the translational kinetic energy of the center of mass and the rotational kinetic energy about the axis of rotation:
1 . k· · energy = T = 2: mx 2 metlc 1 0 + 2: J'2

The potential energy of the system is due to the deflection of the spring: potential energy = U =

~ kx 2

Since the total energy T + U is constant in this conservation system (which means that the loss in potential energy equals the gain in kinetic energy), it follows that
T

+ U = !. mx 2 + !: J iJ2 + !: kx 2 = constant
2 2 2

(3-19)

The cylinder rolls without sliding, which means that x = RO. Rewriting Equation (3-19) and noting that the moment of inertia J is equal to ~mR2, we have

~ mx2 + ~ kx 2 =
3 ... 2:mxx + k ' xx
or

constant

Differentiating both sides of this last equation with respect to t yields
=

0

Flgure 3-17 Homogeneous cylinder connected to a wall through a spring.

80
Note that x is not always zero, so rrii

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

+ ~ kx must be identically zero. Therefore,

.. 2k mx+- x=O 3
or

.. 2k x+-x= 0 3m This equation describes the horizontal motion of the cylinder. For the rotational motion, we substitute x = RO to get 2k o =O 3m In either of the equations of motion, the natural frequency of vibration is the same, ClJn ;: Y2kl(3m) rad/s.

8+

An energy method for determining natural frequencies. The natural frequency of a conservative system can be obtained from a consideration of the kinetic energy and the potential energy of the system. Let us assume that we choose the datum line so that the potential energy at the equilibrium state is zero. Then, in such a conservative system, the maximum kinetic energy equals the maximum potential energy, or

Tmax

= Umax

Using this relationship, we are able to determine the natural frequency of a conservative system, as presented in Example 3-5.
ExampJe3-S Consider the system shown in Figure 3-18. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position. The kinetic energy of this system is
T

= .!mx2
2

If we choose the datum line so that the potential energy Vo at the eqUilibrium state is zero, then the potential energy of the system is given by
V

= .!kX2
2

Flgure 3-18 Conservative mechanical system.

x

Example Problems and Solutions

81

Let us assume that the system is vibrating about the equilibrium position. Then the displacement is given by

x = Asinwt
where A is the amplitude of vibration. Consequently,

T U

= .!.m,i2 = .!.mA2~l(cos wt)2
2 2 2

= .!.kx2 = .!.kA2(sin iJJt)2
2

Hence, the maximum values of T and U are given by

T.max = -mA2w2' 2
Since Tmax ::::: Umax , we have

112
Umax

= -2 kA

from which we get

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Problem A-3-1 Calculate the moment of inertia about axis xx' of the hollow cylinder shown in Figure 3-19. Solution The moment of inertia about axis xx' of the solid cylinder of radius R is

1 2 JR = Zm}R
where

(p

= density)

The moment of inertia about axis xx' of the solid cylinder of radius r is
J.r

=.!.m2,2 2

x

X'

I---L---I

Flgure 3-19 Hollow cylinder.

82
where

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

m2

= 'TT',2Lp

Then the moment of inertia about axis xx' of the hollow cylinder shown in the figure is

J

= JR -

Jr

1 1 = 2. m)R2 - 2. m2'2

= k[('TT'R2LP)R 2 - ('TT',2Lp),2]
= k'TT'Lp (R4 - ,4)

1 = 2'TT'Lp (R2 + ,2) (R 2 The mass of the hollow cylinder is

,2)

m = 'TT'(R2 - ,2)Lp
Hence,

1 J = 2(R 2 + ,2)'TT'(R2 - ,2)Lp
1 = 2.m(R2

+ ,2)

(See the third item of Table 3-3.) Problem A-3-2 A rotating body whose mass is m is suspended by two vertical wires, each of length h, a distance 2a apart. The center of gravity is on the vertical line that passes through the midpoint between the points of attachment of the wires. (See Figure 3-20.) Assume that the body is turned through a small angle about the vertical axis through the center of gravity and is then released. Define the period of oscillation as T. Show that moment of inertia J of the body about the vertical axis that passes through the center of gravity is

J =

(~)2a2mg
2'TT' h

Solution Let us assume that, when the body rotates a small angle 8 from the equilibrium position, the force in each wire is F. Then, from Figure 3-20, the angle f/J that each wire makes with the vertical is small. Angles 8 and f/J are related by

a8
Thus,

= hf/J

Notice that the vertical component of force Fin each wire is equal to mg/2. The horizontal component of F is mgf/Jl2. The horizontal components of F of both wires produce a torque mgf/Ja to rotate the body. Thus, the equation of motion for the oscillation is

J8

..

= -mgf/Ja = -mg-

a28 h

Example Problems and Solutions

83

....- - 2 a

Flgure 3-20 Experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body.

or

.. a2mg

8 + --8 Jh

=0

from which the period of the oscillation is found to be

T =

~a2mg
Jh

21T

Solving this last equation for J gives
} =

(l)2a mg
21T

2

h

Problem A-3-3 A brake is applied to a car traveling at a constant speed of 90 kmlh.lf the deceleration ex caused by the braking action is 5 mls2, find the time and distance before the car stops. Solution Note that 90 kmJh The equation of motion for the car is

= 25 mls

mx = -ma

84

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

where m is the mass of the car and x is the displacement of the car, measured from the point where the brake is first applied. Integrating this last equation, we have
X(/)

= -al + v(O)
1

and

X(/)

= - ia/2 + V(O)I + x(O)
11. Then

where x(O) = 0 and v(O) = 25 mls. Assume that the car stops at I = from

x(/d

= O. The value of 11 is determined = 0

x(tt) =
or
I}

-all

+ v(O)
25

= -a- = -5 = 5s
52 + 25 x 5

v(O)

The distance traveled before the car stops is

1 1 x(/d :: - -aIr + V(O)/} = - - x 5 2 2 :: 62.5 m
Problem A-3-4

X

Consider a homogeneous cylinder with radius 1 m. The mass of the cylinder is 100 kg. What will be the angular acceleration of the cylinder if it is acted on by an external torque of 10 N-m about its axis? Assume no friction in the system. Solution The moment of inertia is
J = -mR2

1

2

1 =-

2

X

100

X

12

= 50kg-m2

The equation of motion for this system is

/8

= T

where 8 is the angular acceleration. Therefore,
.. T lON-m 2 8= - = = 0.2 radls J 50 kg-m2

(Note that, in examining the units of this last equation, we see that the unit of 8 is not s-2, but rad/s2. This usage occurs because writing rad/s 2 indicates that the angle 8 is measured in radians. The radian is the ratio of a length of arc to the radius of a circle. That is, in radian measure, the angle is a pure number. In the algebraic handling of units, the radian is added as necessary.) Problem A-3-S Suppose that a disk is rotated at a constant speed of 100 radls and we wish to stop it in 2 min. Assuming that the moment of inertia J of the disk is 6 kg-m2, determine the torque T necessary to stop the rotation. Assume no friction in the system.

Example Problems and Solutions

85

Solution The necessary torque T must act so as to reduce the speed of the disk. Thus, the equation of motion is

Ii»

=

-T,

w(O)

=

100

Noting that the torque T is a constant and taking the Laplace transform of this last equation, we obtain

l[sfl(s) - w(O))

= --

T s

Substituting I = 6 and w(O) = 100 into this equation and solving for fl(s), we get

fl(s)

= 100
S

_

I...2
6s
-t
T 6

The inverse Laplace transform of fl(s) gives

wet)
At t

= 100 -

= 2 min:::

120 s, we want to stop, so w(120) must equal zero. Therefore, w(120) ::: 0

= 100 - 6"

T

X

120

Solving for T, we get
T

=-

600 120

= SN-m

Problem A-3-6
Obtain the equivalent spring constant for the system shown in Figure 3-21. Solution For the springs in parallel, the equivalent spring constant from
keq

is obtained

or

Figure 3-21 System consisting of two springs in parallel.

Problem A-~7
Fmd the equivalent spring constant for the system shown in Figure 3-22(a), and show that it can also be obtained graphically as in Figure 3-22(b). Solution For the springs in series, the force in each spring is the same. Thus,

kty

= F,

86

Mechanical Systems
y
x

Chap. 3

(a)

c

Figure 3-22 (a) System consisting of two springs in series; (b) diagram showing the equivalent spring constant.

A

p
(b)

B

Eliminating y from these two equations yields

k2( x - :.) = F
or

k 2x

k2 = F + -F
kl

= ---F kl

kl

+ k2

The equivalent spring constant for this case is then found to be
k
eq

=f=~=
x

kl + k2

-+-

1 kl

1

1 k2

For the graphical solution, notice that
AC AB PQ:::: PB'

from which it follows that

_
PB::::

"Ali.JiQ
AC '

AB·PQ AP=--.....;,.;;;.. BD

Since AP

+ PB :::: AB, we have

---=- +

AB·PQ BD

AB·PQ = AB AC

Example Problems and Solutions

87

or

=+==1
BD AC

PQ

PQ

Solving for PQ, we obtain
1

PQ =

1 AC

1

+

BD

So if lengths AC and BD represent the spring constants kl and k2' respectively, then length PQ represents the equivalent spring constant k eq . That is,
PQ

=

1
kl

1

1 = keq
k2

-+Problem A-3-8
In Figure 3-23, the simple pendulum shown consists of a sphere of mass m suspended by a string of negligible mass. Neglecting the elongation of the string, find a mathematical model of the pendulum. In addition, find the natural frequency of the system when 8 is small. Assume no friction.
Solution The gravitational force mg has the tangential component mg sin 8 and the normal component mg cos 8. The torque due to the tangential component is -mgl sin 8, so the equation of motion is

iii =
where
J = m1 2• Therefore,

-mgl sin 8

mP'8 + mgl sin 8

=0

For small 8, sin 8 ::i= 8, and the equation of motion simplifies to

..

8 + -8 = 0 I

g

mg

Figure 3-23 Simple pendulum.

88

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency is then obtained as
(J)

n

= '/i f!

Problem A-3-9 Consider the spring-loaded pendulum system shown in Figure 3-24. Assume that the spring force acting on the pendulum is zero when the pendulum is vertical (8 = 0). Assume also that the friction involved is negligible and the angle of oscillation, 8, is small. Obtain a mathematical model of the system. Solution 1\vo torques are acting on this system, one due to the gravitational force and the other due to the spring force. Applying Newton's second law, we find that the equation of motion for the system becomes

/8

= -mgt sin 8 - 2(ka sin 8) (a cos 8)

where J = m/ 2• Rewriting this last equation, we obtain

mp(j + mgt sin 8 + 2 ka 2 sin 8 cos 8
For small 8, we have sin 8 fied to

=

0

= 8 and cos 8 =

1. So the equation of motion can be simpli-

or

.8 + (8 + 2 - 8 ka 2 )

I

m/2

= 0

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency of the system is g ka 2 (J) = - + 2n I m/2

Figure ~24 Spring-loaded pendulum system.

mg

Example Problems and Solutions

89

Problem A-3-10 Consider the rolling motion of the ship shown in Figure 3-25. The force due to buoyan-

cy is -wand that due to gravity is w. These two forces produce a couple that causes
rolling motion of the ship. The point where the vertical line through the center of buoyancy, C, intersects the symmetrical line through the center of gravity, which is in the ship's centerline plane, is called the metacenter (point M). Define
R = distance of the metacenter to the center of gravity of the ship = MG J = moment of inertia of the ship about its longitudinal centroidal axis

Derive the equation of rolling motion of the ship when the roIling angle 8 is small. Solution From Figure 3-25, we obtain

iiJ
or

= -wR sin 8

iiJ + w R sin 8 =
For small 8, we have sin 8

0

* 8. Hence, the equation of rolling motion of the ship is
iiJ + wR8
= 0

The natural frequency of the rolling motion is v' wRIl. Note that the distance R( = MG) is considered positive when the couple of weight and buoyancy tends to rotate the ship toward the upright position. That is, R is positive if point M is above point G, and R is negative if point M is below point G.
-w

w

Figure 3-25 Rolling motion of a ship.

Problem A-3-11
In Figure 3-26, a homogeneous disk of radius R and mass m that can rotate about the center of mass of the disk is hung from the ceiling and is spring preloaded. (1\vo springs are connected by a wire that passes over a pulley as shown.) Each spring is prestretched by an amount x. Assuming that the disk is initially rotated by a small angle 8 and then released, obtain both a mathematical model of the system and the natural frequency of the system.

Solution If the disk is rotated by an angle 8 as shown in Figure 3-26, then the right spring is stretched by x + R8 and the left spring is stretched by x - R8. So, applying Newton's second law to the rotational motion of the disk gives

iiJ

= -k(x

+ R8)R + k(x - R8)R

90

Mechanical Systems

Chap. 3

(Prestretched)

Flgure 3-26 Spring-pulley system.

where the moment of inertia J is mR2. Simplifying the equation of motion, we have

!

.. 8

+ -8 = 0
m

4k

This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency of the system is
lI)

n

=

\j-;;;

f4k

Problem A-3-U For the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-27, the moment of inertia of the pulley about the axis of rotation is J and the radius is R. Assume that the system is initially at equilibrium. The gravitational force of mass m causes a static deflection of the spring such that k5 = mg. Assuming that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position, obtain a mathematical model of the system. In addition, find the natural frequency of the system. Solution Applying Newton's second law, we obtain, for mass m,

mx= -T

(3-20)

where T is the tension in the wire. (Note that since x is measured from the static equilibrium position the term mg does not enter into the equation.) For the rotational motion of the pulley,

iiJ iiJ
(J
or

= TR - kxR
kxR

(3-21)

If we eliminate the tension T from Equations (3-20) and (3-21), the result is

= -mxR -

(3-22)

Noting that x = R8, we can simplify Equation (3-22) to

+ mR2fiJ + kR 28 = 0
..
8

+

kR2
J + mR
28 = 0

. for small displacement x. This is a mathematical model of the system. The natural frequency is W n - ~ R2 J + mR2 Problem A-3-13 In the mechanical system of Figure 3-28. Derive a mathematical model of the system. and a force F is applied to the other end of the lever. Figure 3-28 Lever system. one end of the lever is connected to a spring and a damper. Assume that the displacement x is small and the lever is rigid and massless.(bx + kx)/2 = 0 11 12 or • bx + kx =-F which is a mathematical model of the system. Solution From Newton's second law. the rotational motion about pivot P is given by Fit .Example Problems and Solutions 91 Figure 3-27 Spring-Mass-pulley system.

3 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-29(a).01 A' ~ o (a) Figure 3-29 (a) Mechanical system. we have b[sX(s) . The time-response curve when the force is abruptly released at t = 0 is shown in Figure 3-29(b).04 0.02 0. the equation of motion becomes bi + kx = 0 t > 0 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. so.x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 Substituting x(O) = 0. Determine the numerical values of band k. we get Xes) = 0. the equation of motion is kx = F t s 0 Note that the effect of the force F is to give the initial condition x(O) = Since x(O) k F = 0. (b) response curve.92 Problem A-3-14 Mechanical Systems Chap. F is abruptly released.05 and solving the resulting equation for Xes).05 m. we have F 100 k == x(O) = 0.05 0. Solution Since the system is at rest before the force is abruptly released.03 0. for t > 0. The massless bar AA' is displaced 0. 6 10 (seconds) (b) 20 30 . Suppose that the system is at rest before the force is abruptly released.05 k s+b x (m) F= lOON A t x 0.05 = 2000 N/m At t = 0.05 m by a constant force of 100 N.

000 N-s/m In the rotating system shown in Figure 3-30. £tJ(O-) = 0 Let us define the impulsive torque of magnitude 1 N-m as a(t). at t = time constant = b12000 the response becomes X(2~) = 0. Solution The equation of motion for the system is Ji» + b£tJ = T. Assume also that initially the angular velocity is zero. by substituting the given numerical values into this last equation. x = 0. J ill b . is x(t) = O.368 = 0. but large amplitude.Example Problems and Solutions The inverse Laplace transform of X(s).1 s.1 = 30 N-m.0184m From Figure 3-29(b). w ~ ~ Figure 3-30 Mechanical rotating system. we obtain 10i» + 2w = 30a(t) Taking the ~_ transform of this last equation. assume that the torque T applied to the rotor is of short duration. Show that the effect of an impulse input on a first-order system that is at rest is to generate a nonzero initial condition at t = 0+. b 2000 = 6 from which it follows that b Problem A-3-lS = 12. using the value of k 93 = 2000 just obtained. or £tJ(0-) = O.OSe-(2000lb)t Since the solution is an exponential function.05 x 0.£tJ(O-)] + 2fl(s) = 30 m ~ ~ T ~ ~ Rotor . Given the numerical values J = 10kg-m2 and b = 2N-s/m find the response £tJ( t) of the system. Assume that the amplitude of torque Tis 300 Nmls and that the duration of Tis 0. so that it can be considered an impulse input. Hence. that is. we have 10[sfl(s) .0184 m occurs at t = 6 s. the magnitude of the impulse input is 300 x 0. Then.

When a mass m = 2 kg is gently placed on the top of mass M. Assuming that the displacement x of the masses is measured from the equilibrium position before mass m is placed on mass M. as shown in Figure 3-31. then the equation of motion becomes lOa. The angular velocity of the rotor is thus changed instantaneously from w(O-) = 0 to w(O+) = 3 radls.2 The inverse Laplace transform of !l( s) gives w(t) = 3e-o·21 which is identical to Equation (3-23). . lithe system is subjected only to the initial condition w(O) = 3 radls and there is no external torque (T = 0). the system exhibits vibrations.w(O)] + 2!l(s) = 0 or !l(s) - 10w(0) 30 3 =--lOs + 2 lOs + 2 s + 0.94 Mechanical Systems Chap. 3 or 30 3 !l(s) = lOs + 2 = -s-+-0. m M x Figure 3-31 Mechanical system. + 2w = 0. we obtain 10[s!l(s) . Assume that x(O) = 0 and X(O) = O. Determine also the static deflection c5-the deflection of the spring when the transient response died out. w(O) = 3 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. determine the response x(t) of the system. From the preceding analysis. That is. Problem A-3-16 A mass M = 8 kg is supported by a spring with spring constant k = 400 N/m and a damper with b = 40 N-s/m. we see that the response of a first-order system that is initially at rest to an impulse input is identical to the motion from the initial condition at t = 0+.-2 The inverse Laplace transform of !l( s) is w(t) = 3e-o·21 (3-23) Note that w(O+) = 3 radls. the effect of the impulse input on a first-order system that is initially at rest is to generate a nonzero initial condition at t = 0+.

and k are given in the SI system of units.807 or x+ 4i + 40x = 1. and k given in the SI system of units to BES units.04904 m. The system is at rest before t = 0. To obtain the response x(t). s 2 6 _ s + 2 6 (s + 2)2 + 62 (s + 2)2 + 62 1 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = 0.13704 slug x = 4. m. and at t = 0+ the masses start to move up and down. is (M + m)x + bi + kx = mg where M + m = 10 kg. If we change the numerical values of M. The input to the system is a constant force mg that acts as a step input to the system.s2 + 4s + 40 = 0 04904[! .9614 (s2 + 4s + 40)s 1. b = 40 N-s/m. or equation of motion.74063Ibr s/ft = 400 N/m = 27. If the units are changed to BES units. k = 400 N/m.40911bf 32.4091 slug-ft/s2 .s Solving for X(s) yields X(s) = 1.54816 slug = 2 kg = 0. we take the Laplace transform of Equation (3-24) and substitute the initial conditions x(O) = 0 and i(O) = 0 into the Laplace-transformed equation as follows: 1.4063Ibf /ft mg = 0. we obtain M m k = 8 kg = 0. . b.174 ft/s 2 = 4.13704 slug b = 40 N-s/m = 2. The static deflection 8 is 0. A mathematical model.9614 s2X(s) + 4sX(s) + 40X(s) = . and g = 9. we shall solve the same problem using BES units. how does the mathematical model change? How will the solution be changed? Solution We shall first solve this problem using SI units. m.9614(1 s+4 ) = ~ -.04904 ( 1 - ~e-21 sin 6t - e- 21 cos 6t) m This solution gives the up-and-down motion of the total mass (M + m).9614 (3-24) Equation (3-24) is a mathematical model for the system when the units used are SI units. Next. we find that lOx + 40i + 400x = 2 X 9.Example Problems and Solutions 95 Notice that the numerical values of M.807 m/s1• Substituting the numerical values into the equation of motion. b.

the equation of motion of the system for small 8 is m12(j = mgl8 . the results carry the same information. the left-hand side spring is stretched by h8 and the right-hand side spring is compressed by h8. we notice that the left-hand sides of the equations are the same. whenever consistent systems of units are used. . Comparing Equations (3-24) and (3-25). Hence. which acts in the clockwise direction. The moment of inertia of the pendulum is m12• Thus. when sin 8 8 and cos 8 =? 1.1609 ft = 0. Then. which means that the characteristic equation remains the same. the torque acting on the pendulum in the counterclockwise direction is 2kh28.) Notice that. for small 8 such that sin 8 8 and cos 8 ~ 1.6852:i which can be simplified to :i + 4i + 40x = 6. cos 6t) ft The static deflection 8 is 0. Problem A-3-17 Consider the spring-loaded inverted pendulum shown in Figure 3-32. (Note that 0.4348 Chap. Obtain a mathematical model of the system when the angle 8 is small. Assume that the spring force acting on the pendulum is zero when the pendulum is vertical (8 = 0).4091 (3-25) Equation (3-25) is a mathematical model for the system. Also.96 Mechanical Systems Then the equation of motion for the system becomes 0.1609 (1 - ~e-2' sin 6t - e-2. that is.4063x = 4.2kh28 * Figure 3-32 Spring-loaded inverted pendulum. The torque due to the gravitational force is mgl8.1609 ft. 3 + 2.04904 m.74063i + 27. * Solution Suppose that the inverted pendulum is given an initial angular displacement 8(0) and released with zero initial angular velocity. from Figure 3-32. obtain the natural frequency Wn of the system. The solution of Equation (3-25) is x(t) = 0. Assume also that the friction involved is negligible.

Obtain the natural frequency of the system by applying the law of conservation of energy.y = y. The vibration will not occur. The undamped natural frequency of the system is Ct)n = If. then. the angle 8 increases and the pendulum will fall down or hit the vertical wall and stop. Note that x = 2y. however. . 2kh2 < mgt. Problem A-3-18 Consider the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-33(a). If 2kh2 > mgt. and 8 as the displacement of mass m. R8 = x . 1 x x mg (a) (b) Figure 3-33 (a) Spring-mass-puUey system. it will vibrate. and the angle of rotation of the pulley. the displacement of the pulley. the torques acting in the system cause it to vibrate. If the mass m is pulled downward a short distance and released. measured respectively from their corresponding eqUilibrium positions. y. (b) diagram for figuring out potential energy of the system. starting with a small disturbance. Solution Define x.Example Problems and Solutions or 97 8 + (2kJil mP -!) 8 / = 0 This is a mathematical model of the system for small 8. and J = M R2.

At the equilibrium state..y) + mg(l .xo) . or kY8 = Mg Therefore. mxx 3 .98 The kinetic energy of the system is Mechanical Systems Chap.. Applying the law of conservation of energy to this conservative system gives T + V = ~mx2 + :6Mx2 + Vo + ~kx2 = constant and differentiating this last equation with respect to t yields .mgx Again from Figure 3-33(b).Mgy .xo .Yo) + mg{l ..Yo) .mgx 1 = Vo + iky2 + kY8Y . the potential energy is Vo = i krl + Mg{l . respectively. 3 The potential energy V of the system can be obtained from Figure 3-33(b). + 2mg kY8Y and = Mgy + 2mgy = Mgy + mgx U = Vo + -ki = Vo + -kx2 2 8 1 1 where Vo is the potential energy at the equilibrium state. the instantaneous potential energy can be obtained as 1 V = ik(Y8 1 = ikY~ 1 + y)2 + Mg(l 1 Yo .xo) where Y8 is the static deflection of the spring due to the hanging masses M and m.x) + kY8Y + iky2 + Mg(/ . lk' + 8" M xx + 4" xx = 0 .Mgy + mg(l. When masses m and M are displaced by x and y.. the spring force kYa must balance with Mg + 2mg.

. Then the displacement of a point in the spring at a distance from the top is given by (g/l)A cos wt. the displacement can be written as x = A cos wt Since the mass of the spring is comparatively small. is Wn = Jsm ~ 3M Problem A-~19 If. the mass ms of the spring is small. but not negligibly small. for the spring-mass system of Figure 3-34. . where x = 0 and the velocity of mass m is maximum. we must have ( m + ~M or )X + ~kx = 0 = 0 . In the mean position. therefore. we can assume that the spring is stretched uniformly. Solution Consider the free vibration of the system. 2k x + Sm + 3M x The natural frequency of the system. In free vibration. compared with the suspended mass m.Example Problems and Solutions 99 or [( m + ~ M + ~ kx ]X = 0 )X Since x is not always zero. the velocity of the suspended mass is Aw and that of the spring at the distance g from the e x Figure 3-34 Spring-mass system. show that the inertia of the spring can be allowed for by adding one-third of its mass ms to the suspended mass m and then treating the spring as a massless spring. The displacement x of the mass is measured from the static equilibrium position.

. provided that ms is small compared with m. h Figure 3-35 Experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body.~2) ~/3 ~(m + ~s)A2w2 Note that the mass of the spring does not affect the change in the potential energy of the system and that. Obtain the moment of inertia of the disk about the axis perpendicular to the disk and passing through its center. Describe a method to determine the moment of inertia of any rotating body. using this experimental setup. if the spring were massless. Unknown moment of inertia Known moment of inertia . 3 top is (~Il)Aw. we conclude that the inertia of the spring can be allowed for simply by adding one-third of mass ms to the suspended mass m and then treating the spring as a massless spring. The maximum kinetic energy is Tm . Suppose that the moment of inertia of a rotating body about axis AA' is known.100 Mechanical Systems Chap. the maximum kinetic energy would have been ~ mA2w 2• Therefore. PROBLEMS Problem 8-3-1 A homogeneous disk has a diameter of 1 m and mass of 100 kg. = i (Aw)2 m + f.'H~')(fAW)' dt = ~mA2w2 + ~(~s = )( A. Problem 8-3-2 Figure 3-35 shows an experimental setup for measuring the moment of inertia of a rotating body.

/ Figure 3-37 System consisting of three springs. find (a) the deceleration produced by the brake and (b) the total angle the flywheel rotates in the 15-s period. (b) diagram showing the equivalent spring constant. Referring to Figure 3-36(b). Problem 8-3-6 Consider the series-connected springs shown in Figure 3-36(a). If the angular velocity reduces to 20 radls in 15 s. Problem 8-3-S A brake is applied to a flywheel rotating at an angular velocity of 100 radls.Problems 101 Problem 8-3-3 A ball is dropped from a point 100 m above the ground with zero initial velocity. If the angular velocity reaches 20 Hz in 5 S. show that the equivalent spring constant keq can be graphically obtained as the length OC if lengths 0 A and 0 B represent k 1 and k2' respectively. \ B (a) (b) FJgUre 3-36 (a) System consisting of two springs in series. find the torque given to the flywheel. . Problem B-3-7 Obtain the equivalent spring constant keq for the system shown in Figure 3-37. How long will it take until the ball hits the ground? What is the velocity when the ball hits the ground? Problem 8-3-4 A flywheel of J = 50 kg-m2 initially standing still is subjected to a constant torque.

Problem 8-3-11 Consider the V-shaped manometer shown in Figure 3-41. The liquid partially fills the V-shaped glass tube. [ Figure 3-39 Damper system. (b) two dampers connected in series. Problem 8-3-9 Obtain the equivalent viscous-friction coefficient beq of the system shown in Figure 3-39. x Figure 3-40 Mechanical system.102 Mechanical Systems Chap. x y x y (a) (b) Figure 3-38 (a) Two dampers connected in parallel. Assuming that the total mass of the liquid in the tube is m. 3 Problem 8-3-8 Obtain the equivalent viscous-friction coefficient beq for each of the systems shown in Figure 3-38 (a) and (b). x y Problem 8-3-10 Find the natural frequency of the system shown in Figure 3-40. the .

° J b Figure 3-43 Mechanical system. Assume that x(O) = 0. perfectly rigid. that the weight mg at the end of the rod is 5 N. The input to the system is the angle OJ and the output is the angle 0 . Problem 8-3-13 Obtain a mathematical model of the system shown in Figure 3--43. what is the equation of motion of the liquid? Fmd the frequency of oscillation. where m = 2 kg. [The displacement x(t) is measured from the equilibrium position. b = 4 N-s/m. Problem 8-3-U In the mechanical system shown in Figure 3-42. and pivoted at point P. --~--------~ ------~ mg Figure 3-42 Mechanical system. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. Problem 8-3-14 Obtain a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 3-44. and that the spring constant k is 400 N/m. Problem B-3-15 Consider the system shown in Figure 3-45. total length of liquid in the tube is L. and k = 20 N/m. Assuming that x is small. assume that the rod is massless. find the natural frequency of the system.Problems 103 Figure 3-41 V-shaped manometersystem.] .1 m and X(O) = O. and the viscosity of the liquid is negligible.

. Assume that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position. Also. 1\vo springs (denoted by k 2 ) are connected by a wire that passes over the small pulley as shown in the figure. Each of the two springs is prestretched by an amount y. The gravitational force mg causes static deflection of the spring such that k 18 = mg. the radius. respectively. Derive a mathematical model of the system. obtain the motion of mass m when it is pulled down a short distance and then released. Problem 8-3-16 By applying Newton's second law to the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 3-33(a). 3 Figure 3-44 Mechanical system. The displacement x of a hanging mass m is measured from the equilibrium position. are bolted together and act as one piece. (The mass. Figure 3-45 Mechanical system. The total moment of inertia of the pulleys is J. Obtain a mathematical model of the system. small and large. R.104 Mechanical Systems Chap.5 m is subjected to a tangential force of 50 N at its periphery and is rotating at an angular velocity of 100 rad/s. Two pulleys. Problem B-3-18 A disk of radius 0. and J = ~ M R2. and the moment of inertia of the pulley are M. ) Problem 8-3-17 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 3~6. Then find x(t) as a function of time t. obtain the natural frequency of the system. Calculate the torque and power of the disk shaft. The mass m is connected to the spring k 1 by a wire wrapped around the large pulley.

) \ Figure 3-47 Pendulum system.) Problem 8-3-20 Assuming that mass m of the rod of the pendulum shown in Figure 3-47 is small. obtain the natural frequency Wn of the system. Problem 8-3-19 Referring to the spring-loaded inverted pendulum system shown in Figure 3-32. find the natural frequency of the pendulum when the angle 9 is small. . compared with mass M.Problems 105 Figure 3-46 Mechanical system. but not negligible. using the energy method that equates the maximum kinetic energy Tmax and the maximum potential energy Umax • (Choose the potential energy at the equilibrium state to be zero. (Include the effect of m in the expression of the natural frequency.

and others. 106 . In the field of system dynamics. The transfer function of a linear. or the weighting function. time-invariant differential equations. Then we discuss the impulse response function. transfer functions are frequently used to characterize the input--output relationships of components or systems that can be described by linear. impulse. We first define the transfer function and then introduce block diagrams. Transfer Function. we present a detailed introduction to writing MATLAB programs to obtain response curves for time-domain inputs such as the step. Since MATLAB plays an important role in obtaining computational solutions of transient response problems. time-invariant differential-equation system is defined as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output (response function) to the Laplace transform of the input (driving function) under the assumption that all initial conditions are zero. we present the transfer-function approach to modeling and analyzing dynamic systems. ramp. We begin this section by derming the transfer function and deriving the transfer function of a mechanical system.Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 4-1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter. of the system.

In this system. the output or response can be studied for various forms of inputs with a view toward understanding the nature of the system. + an-IY + anY = bo x + bi (m) (m-I) X + . S.) 4.. (The transfer functions of many physically different systems can be identical. it may be established experimentally by introducing known inputs and studying the output of the system. The displacement x of the mass m is measured from the eqUilibrium position. the external force f(t) is the input and x is the output. The following list gives some important comments concerning the transfer function of a system described by a linear.. time-invariant differential equation: L The transfer function of a system is a mathematical model of that system. If the transfer function of a system is known.. however..-.. it does not provide any information concerning the physical structure of the system. Once established. in that it is an operational method of expressing the differential equation that relates the output variable to the input variable. .. or . The transfer function of this system is the ratio of the Laplace-transformed output to the Laplace-transformed input when all initial conditions are zero. time-invariant differential-equation systems. as distinct from its physical description. + an-IS + an (4-1) By using the concept of a transfer function.. The transfer function includes the units necessary to relate the input to the output. + bm-1s + bm aOs n + alS n. Still.. it is possible to represent system dynamics by algebraic equations in s. If the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function is equal to n.. the transfer-function approach is used extensively in the analysis and design of such systems. unrelated to the magnitude and nature of the input or driving function. Comments on the Transfer Function. The applicability of the concept of the transfer function is limited to linear.1 + . .1 + . 4-1 Introduction 107 Consider the linear time-invariant system defined by the differential equation (n) (n-I) aoY +aIY + .. a transfer function gives a full description of the dynamic characteristics of the system.e[mput] Y(S) = X(S) m I zero initial conditions = bos + bls m .Sec. 3.~~ . If the transfer function of a system is unknown.. The transfer function is a property of a system itself. 2. Example 4-1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-1.e[output] Transfer functIOn = G( s) = ---.. + bm-1x + bmx (n ~ m) where Y is the output of the system and x is the input. the system is called an nth-order system.

108

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Figure 4-1 Mechanical system.

x

The equation of motion for the system is

mx + bi + kx = f(t)
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of this equation and assuming that all initial conditions are zero yields (ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s) where X(s) = !:e[x(t)) and F(s) = !£(f(t)]. From Equation (4-1), the transfer function for the system is X(s) 1 F (s) = ms2 + bs + k

Impulse-Response Function.

The transfer function of a linear, time-invariant

system is

Y(s) G(s) = X(s)
where X(s) is the Laplace transform of the input and Y(s) is the Laplace transform of the output and where we assume that all initial conditions involved are zero. It follows that the output Y(s) can be written as the product of G(s) and X(s), or

Yes) = G(s)X(s)

(4-2)

Now, consider the output (response) of the system to a unit-impulse input when the initial conditions are zero. Since the Laplace transform of the unit-impulse function is unity, or X (s) = 1, the Laplace transform of the output of the system is

Yes) = G(s)

(4-3)

The inverse Laplace transform of the output given by Equation (4-3) yields the impulse response of the system. The inverse Laplace transform of G(s), or

;e -l[G(s)]

= g(t)

is called the impulse-response function, or the weighting function, of the system. The impulse-response function g(t) is thus the response of a linear system to a unit-impulse input when the initial conditions are zero. The Laplace transform of g(t) gives the transfer function. Therefore, the transfer function and impulse-response

Sec. 4-2

Block Diagrams

109

function of a linear, time-invariant system contain the same information about the system dynamics. It is hence possible to obtain complete information about the dynamic characteristics of a system by exciting it with an impulse input and measuring the response. (In practice, a large pulse input with a very short duration compared with the significant time constants of the system may be considered an impulse.)

Outline of the Chapter. Section 4-1 has presented the concept of the transfer function and impulse-response function. Section 4-2 discusses the block diagram. Section 4-3 sets forth the MATLAB approach to the partial-fraction expansion of a ratio of two polynomials, B(s)IA(s). Section 4-4 details the MATLAB approach to the transient response analysis of transfer-function systems. 4-2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS Block diagrams of dynamic systems. A block diagram of a dynamic system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component of the system and of the flow of signals within the system. Such a diagram depicts the interrelationships that exist among the various components. Differing from a purely abstract mathematical representation, a block diagram has the advantage of indicating the signal flows of the actual system more realistically. In a block diagram, all system variables are linked to each other through functional blocks. The functional block, or simply block, is a symbol for the mathematical operation on the input signal to the block that produces the output. The transfer functions of the components are usually entered in the corresponding blocks, which are connected by arrows to indicate the direction of the flow of signals. Note that a signal can pass only in the direction of the arrows. Thus, a block diagram of a dynamic system explicitly shows a unilateral property. Figure 4-2 shows an element of a block diagram. The arrowhead pointing toward the block indicates the input to the block, and the arrowhead leading away from the block represents the output of the block. As mentioned, such arrows represent signals. Note that the dimension of the output signal from a block is the dimension of the input signal multiplied by the dimension of the transfer function in the block. The advantages of the block diagram representation of a system lie in the fact that it is easy to form the overall block diagram for the entire system merely by connecting the blocks of the components according to the signal flow and that it is possible to evaluate the contribution of each component to the overall performance of the system. In general, the functional operation of a system can be visualized more readily by examining a block diagram of the system than by examining the physical system itself. A block diagram contains information concerning dynamic behavior, but it

Transfer function
G(s)

Figure 4-2 Element of a block diagram.

110

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

does not include any information about the physical construction of the system. Consequently, many dissimilar and unrelated systems can be represented by the same block diagram. Note that in a block diagram the main source of energy is not explicitly shown and that the block diagram of a given system is not unique. A number of different block diagrams can be drawn for a system, depending on the point of view of the analysis. (See Example 4-2.) Summing point. Figure 4-3 shows a circle with a cross, the symbol that stands for a summing operation. The plus or minus sign at each arrowhead indicates whether the associated signal is to be added or subtracted. It is important that the quantities being added or subtracted have the same dimensions and the same units. Branch point. A branch point is a point from which the signal from a block goes concurrently to other blocks or summing points. Block diagram of a closed-loop system. Figure 4-4 is a block diagram of a closed-loop system. The output C(s) is fed back to the summing point, where it is compared with the input R(s). The closed-loop nature of the system is indicated clearly by the figure. The output C(s) of the block is obtained by multiplying the transfer function G(s) by the input to the block, E(s). Any linear system can be represented by a block diagram consisting of blocks, summing points, and branch points. When the output is fed back to the summing point for comparison with the input, it is necessary to convert the form of the output signal to that of the input signal. This conversion is accomplished by the feedback element whose transfer function is H(s), as shown in Figure 4-5. Another important role of the feedback element is to modify the output before it is compared with the input. In the figure, the feedback signal that is fed back to the summing point for comparison with the input is B(s) = H(s)C(s).
a

Figure 4-3 Summing point.

· l._____
b
Branch point

~

a-b

R(s)

!

C(s)

Figure 4-4 Block diagram of a closedloop system.

Sec. 4-2
R(s)

Block Diagrams
C(s)

111

B(s)

Flgure ~s Block diagram of a closed-loop system with feedback element.

Simplifying complex block diagrams and obtaining overall transfer functions from such block diagrams are discussed in Chapter 5.
ExampJe4-2 Consider again the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-1. The transfer function of this system (see Example 4-1) is
X(s) 1 F( s) = ms 2 + bs + k

(4-4)

A block diagram representation of the system is shown in Figure 4-6(a). Notice that Equation (4-4) can be written as
(ms 2 + bs + k)X(s) = F(s)
F(s)
(a)
(mr

(4-5)
Xes) .,

+ bs) Xes)

Xes)

k~------'"
(b)

F(s)

Xes)

'--_ _ _

~

.Ii.
m
(c)

~

_____....

Figure 4-6 Block diagrams of the system shown in Figure 4-1. (a) Block diagram based on Equation (4-4); (b) block diagram based on Equation (4-6); (c) block diagram based on Equation (4-7).

112

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Rewriting the latter equation as

Chap. 4

(ms 2 + bs)X(s)

= F(s) - kX(s)

(4-6)

we can obtain a different block diagram for the same system, as shown in Figure 4-6(b). Equation (4-5) can also be rewritten as

F(s) - [kX(s) + bsX(s)] = ms2X(s)
or
1 k b

-F(s) - -X(s) - -sX(s) = s2X(s) m m m

(4-7)

A block diagram for the system based on Equation (4-7) is shown in Figure 4-6(c). Figures 4-6(a), (b), and (c) are thus block diagrams for the same system-that shown in Figure 4-1. (Many different block diagrams are possible for any given system.)

4-3 PARTIAL-FRACTION EXPANSION WITH MATLAB

We begin this section, with an examination of the partial-fraction expansion of the transfer function B(s)/A(s) with MATLAB. Then we discuss how to obtain the system response analytically. Computational solutions (response curves) for the system responses to time-domain inputs are given in Section 4-4.

MATLAB representation of transfer functions. The transfer function of a system is represented by two arrays of numbers. For example, consider a system defined by

Y(s) U (s)

=

25 s2 + 4s + 25

This system is represented as two arrays, each containing the coefficients of the polynomials in decreasing powers of s as follows:
nurn = [25] den = [1 4 25J

Partial-fraction expansion with MATLAB. MATLAB allows us to obtain the partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of two polynomials,

B(s) A(s)

=

num b(l)sh + b(2)sh-l + + b(h) den = a(l)sn + a(2)sn-l + ... + a(n)

where a(l) :I: 0, some of a(i) and b(j) may be zero, and num and den are row vectors that specify the coefficients of the numerator and denominator of B(s)/A(s). That is,
nurn = [b(1) den = [a(1) b(2) a(2) b(h)} a(n)]

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

113

The command
[r,p,k] = residue(nurn,den)

finds the residues, poles, and direct terms of a partial-fraction expansion of the ratio of the two polynomials B(s) and A(s). The partial-fraction expansion of B(s)/A(s) is given by -

B(s) r(l) r(2) = k(s) + + + A(s) s - p(l) s - p(2)

+-~-

r(n)

s - p(n)

As an example, consider the function

B(s) s4 + 8s3 + 16~ + 9s + 6 -- = --------A(s) s3 + 6s 2 + lIs + 6
For this function,
nurn den

= [1

= [1

8 16 9 6] 6 11 6)

Entering the command
[r,p,k]

= residue(num,den)

as shown in MATLAB Program 4-1, we obtain the residues (r), poles (P), and direct terms (k).

MATLAR Program 4-1

» num = [1 8 16 9 6); » den = [1 6 11 6]; » [r,p,k] = residue(num,den)
r=

-6.0000 -4.0000 3.0000
p=

-3.0000 -2.0000 -1.0000
k=

2

114

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

MATLAB Program 4-1 is the MATLAB representation of the partial-fraction expansion of B(s)/A(s):

B(s) A(s)

S4

+ 8s3 + 16s2 + 9s + 6

= s3 + 6s2 + 11s + 6 = s + 2 + _-_6_ + _-_4_ + _3_
s+3 s+2 s+l

Note that MATLAB first divides the numerator by the denominator and produces a polynomial in s (denoted as row vector k) plus a remainder (a ratio of polynomials in s, where the numerator is of lower degree than the denominator). Then MATLAB expands this remainder into partial fractions and returns the residues as column vector r and the pole locations as column vector p. The command
[num,den) = residue(r,p,k)

where r, p, and k are outputs in MATLAB Program 4-1, converts the partial-fraction expansion back to the polynomial ratio B(s)/A(s), as shown in MATLAB Program 4-2.
MATLAB Program 4-2 » r = [-6 -4 3); »p=[-3 -2 -1); » k = [1 2); » [nurn, den) = residue(r,p,k) nurn

=
8
16

9

6

den =

6
Example 4-3

11

6

Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a massless cart as shown in Figure 4-7. A dashpot is a device that provides viscous friction, or damping. It consists of a piston and oil-filled cylinder. Any relative motion between the piston rod and the cylinder is resisted by the oil because the oil must flow around the piston (or through orifices provided in the piston) from one side of the piston to the other. The dashpot essentially absorbs energy, which is dissipated as heat. The dashpot, also called a damper, does not store any kinetic or potential energy. Let us obtain a mathematical model of this system by assuming that both the cart and the spring-mass-dashpot system on it are standing still for t < O. In this system, u(t) is the displacement of the cart and the input to the system. The displacement y(t) of the mass relative to the ground is the output. Also, m denotes the mass, b denotes the viscous friction coefficient, and k denotes the spring constant. We assume that the friction force of the dashpot is proportional to y - it and that the spring is linear; that is, the spring force is proportional to y - u. After a mathematical model of the system is obtained, we determine the output y(t) analytically when m = 10 kg, b = 20 N-s/m, and k = 100 N/m. The input is assumed to be a unit-step input.

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

115

Figure 4-7 Spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart.

For translational systems, Newton's second law states that

ma= ~F
where m is a mass, a is the acceleration of the mass, and I.F is the sum of the forces acting on the mass in the direction of the acceleration. Applying Newton's second law to the present system and noting that the cart is massless, we obtain

d y m - = -b(d 2 dt
or

2

Y dU) - key - u) - dt dt

m dt 2 + b"dt + ky = b"dt + ku
The latter equation represents a mathematical model of the system under consideration. Taking the Laplace transform of the equation, assuming zero initial conditions, gives

d 2y

dy

du

(ms 2 + bs + k)Y(s) = (bs + k)U(s)
Taking the ratio of Y(s) to U(s), we find the transfer function of the system to be Transfer function

= U(s) =

Yes)

bs
2

+k

ms + bs + k

(4-8)

Next, we shall obtain an analytical solution of the response to the unit-step input. Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-8) gives

yes) 20s + 100 U(s) = 10s2 + 20s + 100
Since the input u is a unit-step function,

2s + 10 S2 + 2s + 10

U(s)
Then the output Y(s) becomes

=-

1 s

yes) =

2s + 10 ! = 2s + 10 s2 + 2s + 10 s s3 + 2S2 + lOs

116

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

To obtain the inverse Laplace transform of Y(s), we need to expand Y(s) into partial fractions. Applying MATLAB and noting that num and den of the system are num = [2 den = [1

10] 2 10

0]

we may use the residue command

[r,p,k] = residue(num,den)
to find the residues (r), poles (p),and direct term (k) as shown in MATLAB Program 4-3. MATLAB Program 4-3 is the MATLAB representation of the partial-fraction expansion of Y(s):
Y(s) =

-0.5 - jO.1667 -0.5 + jO.I667 + s+l-j3 s+l+j3

+-

1 s

MATLAB Program 4-3
»num = [2 10]; » den = [1 2 10 0]; » [r,p,k] residue(num,den)

=

r=
-0.5000 - 0.1667i -0.5000 + 0.1667i 1.0000

p=
-1 .0000 + 3.000Oi -1.0000 - 3.000Oi

o
k=
[]

Since Y(s) involves complex-conjugate poles, it is convenient to combine two complexconjugate terms into one as follows:

----- + S + 1 - j3
Then Y(s) can be expanded as
1 Y(s) = -; - (s

-0.5 - jO.1667

-0.5 + jO.1667 -s = ----""7 s + 1 + j3 (s + 1)2 + 32

s

1
s

+ 1)2 + 32 S + 1 - 1 (s + 1)2 + 32

- - S

1

s+l 1 3 + -----""7 (s + 1)2 + 32 3 (s + 1)2 + 32

Sec. 4-3

Partial-Fraction Expansion with MATLAB

117

The inverse Laplace transform of Y(s) is obtained as

y(t) = 1 - e-t cos 3t

+ ~e-t sin 3t

where y(t) is measured in meters and t in seconds. This equation is an analytical solution to the problem. Note that a plot of y(t) versus t can be obtained easily with MATLAB from the information on num, den, and u(t) without using the partial-fraction expansion. (See Example 4-5.)

ExampJe4-4
Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-8. The system is at rest initially. The displacements x and yare measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Assuming that p(t) is a step force input and the displacement x(t) is the output, obtain the transfer function of the system. Then, assuming that m = 0.1 kg, b2 = 0.4 N-s/m, kl = 6 N/m, k2 = 4 N/m, and p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N, obtain an analytical solution x(t). The equations of motion for the system are

mx + k1x

+ k 2(x

- y) = p k 2(x - y) = ~y

Laplace transforming these two equations, assuming zero initial conditions, we obtain (ms 2 + kl + k2)X(S) = k2Y(S) + P(s) (4-9) k2X(S) = (k2 + b2s)Y(s) (4-10) Solving Equation (4-10) for Y(s) and substituting the result into Equation (4-9), we get k 2 (m~ + kl + k2)X(s) = k 2 b X(s) + P(s) 2 + 2s or [(ms 2 + kl + k2)(k2 + ~s) - k2~X(S) = (k2 + ~s)P(s) from which we obtain the transfer function

X(s) P(s) =

m~s3 + mk2s2 +

~s

+ k2 (k 1 +

k2)~S + klk2

(4-11)

p

x

Figure 4-8 Mechanical system.

118

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Substituting the given numerical values for m, kh k2' and b2 into Equation (4-11), we have X(s) P( s) = 0.04s3
S3

O.4s + 4 + 0.4s2 + 4s + 24 lOs + 100 + 10s2 + 100s + 600

(4-12)

Since P{s) is a step force of magnitude 10 N,

10 P(s) = s
Then, from Equation (4--12),X{s) can be written as X(s) _ - s3

lOs + 100 10 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 s

To find an analytical solution, we need to expand X{s) into partial fractions. For this purpose, we may use MATLAB Program 4-4, which produces the residues, poles, and direct term.

MATLAB Program

~

» num = [100 1000}; »den = [1 10 100 600 0]; » [r,p,k] = residue(num, den)
r=

-0.6845 + 0.2233i -0.6845 - 0.2233i -0.2977 1.6667

p=
-1.2898 + 8.8991 i -1.2898 - 8.8991 i -7.4204

o

k=
[)

On the basis of the MATLAB output, X(s) can be written as X (s) = s

-0.6845 + jO.2233 -0.6845 - jO.2233 + 1.2898 - j8.8991 + s + 1.2898 + j8.8991 -0.2977 1.6667 + +-s + 7.4204 s -1.3690(s + 1.2898) - 3.9743 0.2977 1.6667 -----.,;...---~---+-2 (s + 1.2898)2 + 8.8991 S + 7.4204 s

Sec. 4-4

Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB

119

The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives

x(t) = -1.3690e-1.2898t cos(8.8991t) - O.4466e-1. 2898t sin(8.8991t) - O.2977e-7.42041 + 1.6667
where x(t) is measured in meters and time 1 in seconds. This is the analytical solution to the problem. [For the response curvex(/) versus I, see Example 4-6.]

From the preceding examples, we have seen that once the transfer function X(s)/U(s) = G(s) of a system is obtained, the response of the system to any input can be determined by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Xes), or
~-l[X(s)]

= ;e-l[G(s)U(s)]

Fmding the inverse Laplace transform of G(s) U(s) may be time consuming if the transfer function G(s) of the system is complicated, even though the input U(s) may be a simple function of time. Unless, for some reason, an analytical solution is needed, we should use a computer to get a numerical solution. Throughout this book, we use MATLAB to obtain numerical solutions to many problems. Obtaining numerical solutions and presenting them in the form of response curves is the subject discussed in the next section.

4-4 TRANSIENT·RESPONSE ANALYSIS WITH MATLAB
This section presents the MATLAB approach to obtaining system responses when the inputs are time-domain inputs such as the step, impUlse, and ramp functions. The system response to the frequency-domain input (e.g., a sinusoidal input) is presented in Chapters 9 and 11.

MATLAB representation of transfer-function systems. Figure 4-9 shows a block with a transfer function. Such a block represents a system or an element of a system. To simplify our presentation, we shall call the block with a transfer function a system. MATLAB uses sys to represent such a system. The statement

sys = tf(num, den)
represents the system. For example, consider the system
--=----X (s ) s2 + 4s + 25

(4-13)

Yes)

2s + 25

----~·~I__G_(_s)_=_n_~_~ ~----~.__

Figure 4-9 Block diagram of transferfunction system.

120

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

This system can be represented as two arrays, each containing the coefficients of the polynomials in decreasing powers of s as follows:
nurn = [2 den [1

=

251

4

25]

Entering MATLAB Program 4-5 into a computer produces the transfer function of the system.
MATLAB Program 4-5

» num = [2 25]; » den = [1 4 251; » sys =tf(num,den)
Transfer function: 2 s + 25

sl\2 + 4 s + 25
In this book, we shall use Equation (4-13) to represent the transfer function system.

Step response. If num and den (the numerator and denominator of a transfer function) are known, we may define the system by
sys = tf(num,den)

Then, a command such as
step(sys) or step(num,den)

will generate a plot of a unit-step response and will display a response curve on the screen. The computation interval at and the time span of the response are determined by MATLAB. If we wish MATLAB to compute the response every at seconds and plot the response curve for 0 :S t ::::;; T (where T is an integer multiple of at), we enter the statement t
step(sys, t)

= 0: at: T;
or step(nurn,den,t)

in the program and use the command

where t is the user-specified time. If step commands have left-hand arguments, such as
y

=step(sys,t)

or

y

=step(nurn,den,t)
=step(num,den,t)

and
ly,t] = step(sys,t)

or

[y,t1

MATLAB produces the unit-step response of the system, but displays no plot on the screen. It is necessary to use a plot command to see response curves. The next two examples demonstrate the use of step commands.

Sec. 4-4
Example 4-5

Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB

121

Consider again the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart as shown in Figure 4-7. (See Example 4-3.) The transfer function of the system is

Y(s) U (s)

bs + k

= ms2 + bs + k

Assuming that m = 10 kg, b = 20 N-s/m, k = 100 N/m, and the input u(t) is a unitstep input (a step input of 1 m), obtain the response curve y(t). Substituting the given numerical values into the transfer function, we have

Y(s) 20$ + 100 U(s) = 10s2 + 20s + 100

2s + 10 s2 + 2s + 10

MATLAB Program 4-6 will produce the unit-step response y(t). The resulting unitstep response curve is shown in Figure 4-10.

MATLAB Program 4-6

»nurn = [2 10]; »den = [1 2 10]; » sys = tf(nurn,den); » step(sys) » grid
In this plot, the duration of the response is automatically determined by MATLAB. The title and axis labels are also automatically determined by MATLAB. If we wish to compute and plot the curve every 0.01 sec over the interval o s t S 8, we need to enter the following statement in the MATLAB program:
t

= 0:0.01 :8;

1.5

r----,r---~--__.,..-----r----r---...,

Step Response

II)

"0

Q.

.~

~

0.5

2

3 Tune (sec)

4

5

6

Figure 4-10 Unit-step response curve.

122

Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems

Chap. 4

Also, if we wish to change the title and axis labels, we enter the desired title and desired labels as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7.

MATLAB Program 4-7

» t = 0:0.01 :8; »nurn = [2 10J; »den=[1 2 10]; » sys = tf(num,den); >> step (sys, t) » grid »title('Unit-Step Response', 'Fontsize',20') » xlabe/{'t', 'Fontsize',20') » ylabel ('Output yl, 'Fontsize ',20')
Note that if we did not enter the desired title and desired axis labels in the program, the title, x-axis label, and y-axis label on the plot would have been "Step Response", "Tune (sec)", and "Amplitude", respectively. (This statement applies to MATLAB version 6 and not to versions 3,4, and 5.) When we enter the desired title and axis labels as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7, MATLAB erases the predetermined title and axis labels, except "(sec)" in the x-axis label, and replaces them with the ones we have specified. If the font sizes are too small, they can be made larger. For example, entering

'Fontsize ',20
in the title, xlabel, and ylabel variables as shown in MATLAB Program 4-7 results in that size text appearing in those places. Figure 4-11 is a plot of the response curve obtained with MATLAB Program 4-7.

Unit-Step Response
1.5
..---r---~-~---r---"--..---r-----'

o

~ ..... ::s 0.. ..... ::s

0.5

Figure 4-11 Unit-step response curve. Font sizes for title, xlabel, and ylabel are enlarged.

1

2

345

6

7

8

t (sec)

~. and p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N. (Step commands assume that the input is the unit-step input. k2 :.4i + 4s + 24 100 S3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 (4-17) Since p(t) is a step force of magnitude 10 N.: s3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 -------- (4-16) and Y(s) 4 P(s) = 0.Sec.y) .4 N-s/m. we obtain X(s) O. (See Example 4-4.: 0. kh and k2 into the transfer functions given by Equations (4-14) and (4-15).1 kg. ~ :.x(t) and y(t) can be obtained from Equations (4-18) and (4-19) with the use of a step command. Then Equations (4-16) and (4-17) can be written as X(s) 100s + 1000 U(s) = S3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 and (4-18) Y(s) 1000 U(s) = s3 + 10s2 + 100s + 600 (4-19) Since u(t) is a unit-step input. Y(s) Y(s) X(s) P(s) = X(s) P(s) = k2 ~s3 + mk2s2 + (k 1 + k2)~S + klk2 (4-15) Assuming that m = 0. we shall demonstrate the use of the commands y = step(sys.) The transfer function X(s)IP(s) was found to be X(s) P(s) = ~s + k2 m~s3 + mk2s2 + (k 1 + k2)~S + klk2 (4-14) The transfer function Y(s)IX(s) is obtained from Equation (4-10): Y(s) k2 X(s) = ~s + k2 Hence. kl = 6 N/m.4s + 4 P( s) = 0. we may define p(t) = 10u(t). Substituting the numerical values for m. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 123 Example 4-6 Consider again the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-8.4s 2 + 4s + 24 lOs + 100 :. obtain the responses x(t) and y(t). where u(t) is a unit-step input of magnitude 1 N.04s3 + O.) In this example.04s3 + 0.: 4 N/m. t) and plot(t.

'x(t)') Impulse response.den).. 1 0. L-~ _____~~_____~_____~~_____~_____~~~ o 0.5 4 4.'y(t)') The response curves x(t} and y(t} are shown in Figure 4-12. »den =[1 10 100 600). we use the command text(O.124 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Unit-Step Responses Chap.::: '"0 2 .5 t (sec) 3 3.01 :5.5 2 2.lx(t)l) » text(0. Writing text on the graph..den). »yl = step(sysl . » sys2 = tf(num2.5 5 MATLAB Program 4-8 produces the responses x(t) and y(t) of the system on one diagram. For example.t). we may need to write text on the graph to distinguish the curves. beginning at the point (0. » y2 =step(sys2.y2) » grid » title ('Unit-Step Responses l) » xlabel ('t (sec)') » ylabel ex(t) and y(t)l) » text(0.-~-----~-----~~~ .07.2.5 1 1. 1.07.--r-----~~-----~-----. » plot(t. MATLAR Program 4-8 » t = 0:0.8.5 .t).5 o Figure 4-U Step-response curves x(t) and y(t).8) on the graph.5 .07. » num2 = [1000).7.2.2. The unit-impulse response of a dynamic system defined in the form of the transfer function may be obtained by use of one of the following .t. When we plot two or more curves on one diagram.y1.8. » sysl = tf(num1 . to write the text 'x(t}' horizontally.3S. 4 3 2. » numl = [100 1000].2.

The impulse function is a mathematical function without any actual physical counterpart. Before discussing computational solutions of problems involving impulse inputs. when the mass of a spring-mass-dashpot system is hit by a hammer or a bullet. If the command has a lefthand argument.Sec. The impulse input is usually denoted by a vertical arrow. which is useful in determining the impulse responses of mechanical systems.den) impulse(sys) or impulse(num. as long as at approaches zero and hat is finite.den.t) = The command impuIse(sys) will generate a plot of the unit-impulse response and will display the impulse-response curve on the screen. such as y = impulse(sys).den) y = impulse(sys) or or [y.tl = impulse (sys. as shown in Figure 4-13(b).t) [y. its actual shape is immaterial. so that the area (hat) in a time plot is not negligible. only the magnitude (or area) of the function is important. it can be approximated by an impulse function. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 125 MATLAB commands: impulse(num.den. for instance. In handling impulse functions. if the actual input lasts for a short time (at s) but has a large amplitude (h).tl = impulse(num. no plot is shown on the screen. In other words. . The impulse response of a mechanical system can be observed when the system is subjected to a very large force for a very short time. such an impulse input can be expressed by an impulse function. Mathematically.t) or y impulse(num. However. we present some necessary background material. to indicate that it has a very short duration and a very large height. Area not negligible x x 1 h 0 ~~ 41 0 (a) (b) Figure 4-13 Impulse inputs.t) impulse(sys. an impUlse of amplitude 2h and duration atl2 can be considered the same as an impulse of amplitUde hand duration at. as shown in Figure 4-13(a). We next briefly discuss a review of the law of conservation of momentum. Impulse input. It is then necessary to use a plot command to see the response curve on the screen.

If we consider the bullet and wood block as constituting a system. is equal to zero. we have j'I '2 p dt = lv. (1)zd(mv) = m~ - mVl (4-21) where VI = V(tl) and'V2 = V(t2)' Equation (4-21) states that a change in momentum equals the time integral of force between t = tl and t = t2' Momentum is a vector quantity. In the absence of any external force. where J is the moment of inertia of a body and Cd is the angular velocity of the body. If the mass ml of the bullet is 0. = d(mv) (4-20) Integrating both sides of Equation (4-20). 4 Law of conservation of momentum. provided that no external force is acting on the system. F = ma = m dt = dt (mv) Pdt dv d Hence.) . Consequently. Thus. (Velocities and V are in the same direction. frictionless surface. direction. Also. The angular momentum of a rotating system is J Cd. The direction of the change in momentum is the direction of the force. momentum after impact = (ml + m2)v VI where V is the velocity of the wood block after the bullet is embedded. with magnitude. the total momentum of a system remains unchanged by any action that may take place within the system. and sense. no external force is acting on the system. what is the velocity of the wood block after the bullet is embedded in it? Assume that the wood block has a mass m2 of 50 kg. Equation (4-20) becomes d(mv) = 0 or mv = constant Thus. Example 4-7 A bullet is fired horizontally into a wood block resting on a horizontal. we have momentum before impact = mivi + m2~ where Vi' the velocity of the bullet before the impact. This principle is the law of conservation of angular momentum. the velocity of the wood block before the impact.126 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. The momentum of a mass m moving at a velocity v is mv. This principle is called the law of conservation of momentum.02 kg and the velocity is 600 mls. is equal to 600 mls and 'V2. In the absence of an external torque. According to Newton's second law. the angular momentum of a body remains unchanged. its total momentum remains unchanged.

the wood block after the bullet is embedded will move at the velocity of 0. The input to the system in this case can be considered an impulse.02 + SO)v = 0.] From Figure 4-1S(b}. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 127 The law of conservation of momentum states that mtVI + m2~ + SO v = (ml + m2)v Substituting the given numerical values into this last equation.t 8{t) k . b = 100 N-s/m. is equal to [Note that is positive. Example 4-8 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-14.--c::::> v(o-) m M Figure 4-14 Mechanical system subjected to an impulse input. . [See Figure 4-1S(a).Sec. b. has the form of an impulse.24m1s Hence. since the bullet is assumed to be embedded in it.1 Since the change in the velocity of the bullet occurs instantaneously. the velocity of the bullet becomes the same as that of the block. As a result. v(O-) = 800 mls k = 2500N/m. The equation of motion for the system is v v (M + m):i + bi + kx = F(t) (4-22) where F(t}. -mv F{t) x = -mv = A 6.02 X 600 or X 0 = (0. m. there is a sudden change in the velocity of the bullet. we obtain 0. Determine the response (displacement x) of the block after it is hit by the bullet. A bullet of mass m is shot into a block of mass M (where M lB> m).01 kg.) For t > 0. k. Assume that when the bullet hits the block. an impulse force.24 mls in the same direction as the original velocity VI of the bullet. Assuming the following numerical values for M.). draw a curve x(t) versus t: M = SO kg. the impulse force can be written as -mv. the impulse force F(t) is in the positive direction of x. (Note that is negative. it becomes embedded there. m = 0. the magnitude of which is equal to the rate of change of momentum of the bullet.and that the initial velocity of the bullet is v(O-). and v(O. The displacement x of the block is measured from the equilibrium position before the bullet hits it. the block and the bullet move as a combined mass M + m. Suppose that the bullet is shot at t = 0. At the instant the bullet hits the block.

sx(O-) .mi(O+ )]8(t) Taking the ~ _ transform of both sides of this last equation. Thus. we see that (M + m)[s2 Xes) .) to mv(O+ ). Since v(O+) = x(O+) = initial velocity of combined mass M + m A At = mv(O-) .x(O-)] + kX(s) = mv(O-) . 4 ------l v(O-) v(O+) o I1t (a) o Figure 4-15 (a) Change in velocity of the bullet when it hits the block.mv(O+) (4-23) The momentum of the bullet is changed from mv(O.128 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems v Chap. (b) change in acceleration of the bullet when it hits the block.mx(O+) we can write Equation (4-23) as Then Equation (4-22) becomes (M + m)x + bi + kx = F(t) = [mv(O-) . -A (b) where A At is the magnitude of the impulse input. Joor fO+ A At 8(t) dt = -m Jo- fO+ vdt A At = mv(O-) .mx(O+) .x(O-)] + b[sX(s) .

mx(O+) = (M + m)x(O+) = m(M + m) M + 2m v(O-) . obtain the impulse response of the system shown in Figure 4-14 with MATLAB.9993)2 Taking the inverse Laplace transform of this last equation yields = 0. Example 4-9 Referring to Example 4-8.01 x 800 s = 50.mx(O+) M+m from which we get mv(O-) .. k. Note that the magnitude of the impulse input is mv(O-) . Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-25).mx(O+ )]8(t). and v(O-) as in Example 4-8. + bs + k To determine the value of x(O+)..9998)2 + (6.[mv(O-) . b.02 7.02285 x(t) 6.mx(O+) = (M + m)x(O+) or x(O+) = M So Equation (4-24) becomes = 2m v(O-) x (s) (M + m)x(O+) = (M + m )S2 + bs + k 1 (M+m)mv(O-) (4-25) (M + m)s2 + bs + k M + 2m The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (4-25) gives the impulse response x(t).01s2 + 100s + 2500 50.02285e-o·99981 sin 6.. we have mv(O-) . we apply the initial-value theorem: x(O+) = lim x(t) = lim s[sX(s)] 1-0+ $-00 (4-24) = lim . the response x(t) is a damped sinusoidal motion.. m..9993t Thus. The response Xes) was obtained in Example 4-8. noting that x(O-) = 0 and x(O-) = 0.9984 50.mx(O+)] $-00 (M + m)s2 + bs + k mv(O-) . as given by Equation (4-25).9993 (s + 0. Use the same numerical values for M.01 x 0. we obtain X( ) 1 50.Sec.(M + m).. 'This is the response to the impulse input [mv(O-) . 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 129 Also.mx(O+) Xes) .01s2 + 100s + 2500 = 0..

01s2 + 100s + 2500 If we defme nurn = [7. then the command will produce the unit-impulse response of the system defined by Equation (4-27).01 ~ ~ III tU 0.( tU O -0.01 kg.01 -0..015 0 curve of the system shown in Figure 4-14 with M = 50 kg.----r-----r---. m = 0.005 C III c- 0 r..02 .den) irnpulse(sys) 2500]. which is the same as the response of the system of Equation (4-26) to the impulse input F(t) = 7.99846(t).. MATLAB Program 4-9 produces the response of the system subjected to the impulse input F(t)..01 100 sys = tf(nurn. 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Hence.:. den = [50.9984].. k = 2500 N/m.130 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. the impulse input can be written as F(t) = m(M + m) M + 2m v(O. 0..99846(1) )(s) 1 F (s) = (M + m )s2 + bs + k so that (4-26) To find the response of the system to F(t) (which is an impulse input whose magnitude is not unity).015 0. The impulse response obtained is shown in Figure 4-16. we modify Equation (4-26) to the following form: X(s) :f[6(t)] = (M 1 m(M + m)..005 Figure 4-16 Impulse-response -0.9984 50..)6(t) = 7.-----r--. . + bs + k + m) v(O-) M + 2m (4-27) 7. and v(O-) = 800 mls.r----.9984 6(t) The system equation is (M + m):i + bi + kx = F(t) = 7. b = 100 N-s/m.. 4 Impulse Response of System Shown in Figure 4-14 0.

t) produces the response of the system to the input u. use the state-space approach presented in Section 5-2. by using lsim commands. sys2. Note that the command Isim(sysl. Note also that.u. Obtaining response to arbitrary input.u.u. and any other time functions that we can generate with MATLAB.01 » sys tf(num.u.u.u.. then any of the commands y = Isim(sys.Sec.den. Here.t) and [y.t] =ISim(sys. t) where u = t. on a single diagram. an example of how t is specified is t = 0: 0..sys2. 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 131 MATlAR Program 4-9 » num = [7. To plot the response curve.t] = Isim(num. (The response time span and the time increment are stated in t.01: 10).den.. it is necessary to use the command plot(t. . » impulse (sys) » grid »title ('Impulse Response of System Shown in Figure 4-141) » xlabel('t ') » ylabel('Response X(t)l) = 100 2500).t) plots the responses of systems sysl. No plot is drawn..den).t) or [y. acceleration inputs. .t) or Isim(num. we are able to obtain the response of the system to ramp inputs.y). If the initial conditions of the system are zero. . .t) returns the output response y. u is the input and t represents the times at which responses to u are to be computed. then Isim(sys. time-invariant systems to arbitrary inputs. » den = [50. u. The next example plots the unit-ramp response curve with the use of the Isim command lsi m(sys. If the initial conditions of the system are zero. If the initial conditions are nonzero. Ramp response.t) or y = Isim(num.den. The command Isim produces the response of linear.u.9984).

.) Assume that m == 10 kg.8..O. . MATlAR Program 4-10 » xlabel('t ' ) »num = [2 10]..5 0. . den)..s 2...'u') .... (See Example 4-3. and u(t) is a unit-ramp input-that is...01 :4. .u. »den=[l 2 10]. is Y(s) 2s + 10 U(s) == s2 + 2s + 10 MATLAB Program 4-10 produces the unit-ramp response. .5 2 t (sec) 2. » Isim(sys.. or u = at.. ~ .. 2 '>: E 1. » sys = tf(num...5 1. ii 3..132 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Unit-Ramp Response Chap..' y ') » text(0.5 0.5 "0 C ~ 3 :l I. derived in Example 4-3..5 0- 8 Figure 4-17 Plots of unit-ramp response curve yet) and input ramp function u(t).u... We shall obtain the unit-ramp response using the command Isim(sys..25.15.t) » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Response ') » ylabel('Output yet) and Input u(t) = tl} » text(0. k == 100 N/m... The reSUlting response curve y(t) versus t and the input ramp function u(t) versus t are shown in FIgure 4-17.8..t) The transfer function of the system.5 4 '::' r---r--~---r----r---r--r---~---.5 3 3.. b = 20 N-s/m.. where ex = 1.. » t = 0:0.5 4 Example 4-10 Consider once again the system shown in Figure 4-7.O... the displacement u increases linearly.. :. 4 4.. 1 0... »u = t.

The resulting plots are shown in Figure 4-18.y.) .5 4 Flgure 4-18 Plots of unit-ramp response curve y(t) and input ramp function u(t).u) to plot a curve y(t) versus t and a line u(t) versus t.yl. Iyl) » text(0.Sec.u.yn) MATLAB Program 4-11 uses the command plot(t.'u ' ) = =tl) Unit-Ramp Response 4. » sys tf(nurn.t. t. c.t).5 '0 . » plot(t. c:: ii 3.y.0. ~ 2 :.----.] In some cases it is desired to plot multiple curves on one graph. » y = Isirn(sys. » u = t.5 3 = .5 :.y2. t. MATLAR Program 4-11 »nurn = [2 101. .----. 4 ! -::::c. for example.-----r-----r"---.5 0. plot(t.85.5 3 3.. (Plots are obtained with the use of the command plot(t.u.5 2 t (sec) 2.t..y.25.8.O.t) produces plots ofbothy(t) versus t and u(t) versus I.t. 1.u) » grid » title{'Unit-Rarnp Response ') » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabelCOutput y(t) and Input u(t) » text(0.5 1.s 2.. »den = [1 2 10).15.5 .---r----r----.. » t = 0:0.den).u). 4-4 Transient-Response Analysis with MATLAB 133 [Note that the command lsim(sys.01 :4. o 1 0. . This can be done by using a plot command with mUltiple arguments.

. Obtain the motion of the mass subjected to the initial condition.is2 + 0.35 s2 + 3s + 2 This equation can be written as X () s = 0. b = 3 N-s/m.05 mls. Example 4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-19.sx(O) .1 m and X(O) = 0. x .. (Assume no external forcing function. The next example obtains the response of a transfer-function system subjected to an initial condition. 4 Response to initial condition (transfer-function approach).......x(O)] =0 or (ms2 + bs + k)X(s) = mx(O)s + mx(O) + bx(O) Solving this last equation for X(s) and substituting the given numerical values into x(O) and x(O). and k = 2 N/m.05 mls. The Laplace transform of + b[sX(s) .is + 0.134 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Flgure ~19 Mechanical system.s2 + bs + k O..-----m.. The plot is shown in Figure 4-20.x(O)] + kX(s) m[s2X(s) .35s S2 + 3s + 2 MATLAB Program 4-12 produces a plot of the motion of the mass when the system is subjected to the initial condition.35s 1 s2 + 3s + 2 s Hence.) The system equation is mx + bi + kx = 0 with the initial conditions x(O) the system equation gives = 0.. Assume that the displacement x of mass m is measured from the equilibrium position and that at t:::: 0 the mass m is pulled downward such that x(O) = 0. we obtain mx(O)s + mx(O) + bx(O) X(s) . the motion of the mass m is the unit-step response of the following system: G( s) = 0.-. where m = 1 kg...1 m and X(O) = 0..ls2 + 0.

.02 0 0 1 2 I 3 (sec) 4 5 6 Flgure 4-20 Response of system subjected to initial condition.04 0.. .Example Problems and Solutions Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition 0..08 135 S 0 :. 0.. so the torque can be written as T(t)..) Small jets apply reaction forces to rotate the satellite body into the desired attitude. MATLAB Program 4-12 » % -----------. den = [1 3 2]. The moment of inertia about the axis of rotation at the center of mass is 1...35 0].1 0. Assume that each jet thrust is FI2 and a torque T = FI is applied to the system. . The diagram shows the control of only the yaw angle 8...r . 0. » » » » » » » » » num [0. . ... .1 0.. The two skew symmetrically placed jets denoted by A and B operate in pairs.den)... .r .06 ~ t 0... step(sys) grid title('Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition') xlabe/('t') ylabel('Output x(t)') = = EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-4-1 Consider the satellite attitude control system depicted in Figure 4-21...Response to initial condition ------------» » % System response to initial condition is converted to a » % unit-step response by modifying the numerator polynomial.. The jets are turned on for a certain length of time.. there are controls about three axes.12 .r . . sys tf(num. (In the actual system.

(O-) we have = 0 and xo(O-) = 0. - xo) + kl(Xi .. 4 Figure 4-21 Schematic diagram of a satellite attitude control system. The transfer function of the system is thus 8(s) 1 Transfer function = .(s) = (bl + b2 )s + kl . F 2 '.xo) = bzxo Taking the :£ _ transform of this equation and noting that x..136 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. (We consider the motion only in the plane of the page. (bls + kl)X.(S) The transfer function Xo( s)/ X. Assume that xo(O-) = O. Then obtain the response Xo (t) when input Xi (t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = O.= . Derive the transfer function of the system wherein Xi is the input and Xo is the output. Solution The equation of motion for the system is bl(. we have Jd 6 == T dt 2 Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of this last equation and assuming that all initial conditions are zero yields 2 1S2@(S) = T(s) where @(s) = ~[6(t)] and T(s) = ~[T(t)]. Displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.'~8 ____\.( s) is = (bls + kl + bzs)Xo(s) b1s + kl (4-28) Xo(s) X.) Solution Applying Newton's second law to this system and noting that there is no friction in the environment of the satellite. and the angular displacement 6{ t) of the satellite is the output.x.2 T(s) Js Problem A-4-2 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-22.>0--\ ' ________ Reference Obtain the transfer function of this system by assuming that the torque T(t) is the input.

The response xo( t) when the input x. i(O+ ).Example Problems and Solutions 137 Figure 4-22 Mechanical system. Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx + b(x or y) + kx = 0 m'i + bi + kx = by ( U~t-step) Input x y b m t----oA Figure 4-23 system.!. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. _~ s + [k}/(b 1 hI + b S 2 z + b2») }x. and k = 50 N/m. First we have X (s) o = (hI bis + kl Xi + hz)s + k} s = {. At t = 0. H m = 1 kg. b = 10 N-s/m. a unit-step displacement input is applied to point A. I Notice that xo(O+) = [bl/(b l + hz)]Xi• Problem A-4-3 The mechanical system shown in Figure 4-23 is initially at rest. I Then the inverse Laplace transform of Xo(s) gives x (t) o = [1 . Mechanical . and x( 00). Assume that the system remains linear throughout the response period._hz hz __ b + I e-klll(bl+b2>]X. find the response x(t) as well as the values of x(O+ ).( t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = 0 can be obtained from Equation (4-28).

and y(O-) = 0.138 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. and k2 are as follows: b l = SN-slm. x(O-) = 0. Obtain the response xo(t) when the input Xj(t) is a step displacement of magnitude X j occurring at t = O. we take the ~_ transform of this last equation and obtain (ms 2 Thus. x(oo) =0 Thus. Assume also that Xj and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Problem A-4-4 Find the transfer function Xo(s)IXj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-24. bz = 20 N-s/m. and x( 00) are found from the preceding equation and are x(O+) = 0. k2 = 10N/m Figure 4-24 Mechanical system. b. bs X(s) = ms + bs + 2 1 b . Assume that the system is initially at rest [xo(O-) = 0 and y(O-) = 0]. Y(s) +k = lis. 4 Noting that x(O-) = 0. . x(O+) = 10. kJ. and k into this last equation. we get X(s) . Consequently. x(O+ ). the mass m returns to the original position as time elapses..k s ms + bs + k Substituting the given numerical values for m. kl = SN/m. The numerical values of bh hz.= -2. + bs + k)X(s) = bsY(s) X(s) bs Y (s) = ms2 + bs Since the input y is a unit step.s2 + lOs + 50 10 = (s + 5f + S2 10 The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) is x(t) = 2e-51 sin St The values of x(O+ ).

l 492t + l)X.(s) == (s + 1)(15 + 1) + 4s For an input Xi( I) S2 + 1.£ _ transform of these two equations. 1(I).s + 0.5s + 0.(s) .xj .5s + 0. we find that Xo(t) == (0. we get = 0.. .0.(O-) xo(O-) == 0 and y(O-) = 0.6247 1 == ( s + 3.sY{s)] = k2Y(S) If we eliminate Y(s) from the last two equations.6247e-3. where u is the force input. bt[sX. x Figure 4-25 Mechanical system.j) = k 2y Taking the .5 = X. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.Xo) = b2(xo .1492 + -. Problem A-4-S Obtain the transfer function X{s)/U{s) of the system shown in Figure 4-25. with the initial conditions x.j) hz(xo . the response xo( t) can be obtained as follows: Since Xo(s) == s2 + 1.Xo(s)] == b2[sXo(s) .sXo(s)] + kt[X.(s) becomes (:: s + 1) (~ s + 1) Substitution of the given numerical values into the transfer function yields Xo(s) (s + 1)(2s + 1) X.xo) + kt(Xi .5s + 0.6247e-o. )x..(s) .Example Problems and Solutions Solution The equations of motion for the mechanical system are 139 bt(.5 s2 + 3. the transfer function X()(s)/X. Notice that xo(O+) == X.3508 .5s + 0.6247 0.5 s 0.sY(s)] hz[sXo{s) .5 Xi s2 + 3.3508t .

whose motion consists of a translational motion of the center of mass and a rotational motion about the center of mass. 4 Solution The equations of motion for the system are mx b1(x - = -k2x - ~(x .b}2s2]X(S) = (bls + kl)V(S) from which we get the transfer function X(s)/V(s) as Xes) V(s) = mbl~ + mkls2 + bl(k l + k2)S + klk2 bls + kl Problem A-4-6 Figure 4-26(a) shows a schematic diagram of an automobile suspension system. Mathematical modeling of the complete system is quite complicated. we obtain ms2Xes) = -k2X(S) .blsY(s) = kIY(S) Eliminating Yes) from the last two equations yields (ms2 + bIs + k2)X(s) = bIs b bls IS + } k Xes) + U(s) Simplifying. we obtain [(ms 2 + bIs + k2)(b}s + k}) .140 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.~sX(s) + b1sY(s) + U(s) blsX(s) . . the vertical displacements at the tires excite the automobile suspension system.y) +u y) = k1y Laplace transforming these two equations and assuming initial conditions equal to zero. As the car moves along the road. (b) simplified suspension system. y Center of mass • Auto body u (a) (b) Figure 4-26 (a) Automobile suspension system.

i) + kt(u . respectively.x) . ml and kl represent the wheel mass and tire stiffness. we get mtx = k2(y .) The displacement y is measured from the eqUilibrium position in the absence of the input u. assuming zero initial conditions. (Consider the motion of the body only in the vertical direction. obtain the transfer function Y(s)/U(s).) Assume that the displacements x and yare measured from their respective equilibrium positions in the absence of the input u.Example Problems and Solutions 141 A highly simplified version of the suspension system is shown in Figure 4-26(b). this system is also a simplified version of an automobile or motorcycle suspension system. In Figure 4-27.bey . Solution Applying Newton's second law to the system.x) . we obtain (ms 2 + bs + k)Y(s) = (bs + k)U(s) Yes) bs + k U (s) = mil + bs + k Hence.i) m2Y = -k2(y y x u F1gure 4-27 Suspension system. .x) + b(Y . Solution The equation of motion for the system shown in Figure 4-26(b) is my + bey or it) + key .u) =0 my + by + ky = bit + ku Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. The vertical motion u at point P is the input. (Similar to the system of Problem A-4-6. Assuming that the motion u at point P is the input to the system and the vertical motion y of the body is the output. the transfer function Y (s )IU (s) is Problem A-4-7 Obtain the transfer function Y(s)/U(s) of the system shown in Figure 4-27.

we have 2 (mls + bs + kl + k 2) which yields m2. Solution A MATLAB program for obtaining the partial-fraction expansion is given in MATLAB Program 4-13.0741 -0. we have Chap. k] = residue(num.0000 -1.1852 p= -10.0741 -0. MATLAR Program 4-13 »num = [3 5 10 40]. p.2675 + 10 -2.1934 1.2675 -2.0000 -4.1852 + 1)2 .0000 k= [] From the results of the program. we get the following expression: --=--+ s B(s) A(s) 5. » [r. » den = [1 16 69 94 40].1934 + s+4 s+1 +--~ (s 1. assuming zero initial conditions.den) r= 5. + bs + k2 b k Y(s) = (bs + k2)Y(S) + klU(s) s+ 2 Y(s) U(s) ProblemA~ kl(bs + k 2) = mlm2s4 + (ml + m2)bs3 + [k1m2 + (ml + m2)k2]s2 + k1bs + klk2 Expand the function B(s) A(s) 3s3 + 5s2 + lOs + 40 = s4 + 16s3 + 69s 2 + 94s + 40 into partial fractions with MATLAB.142 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Hence. 4 mIx + bi + (k 1 + k 2)x = by + k 2y + k1u m2Y + by + k 2y = bi + k2x Taking the Laplace transforms of these two equations.0000 -1. we obtain [mls 2 + bs + (k l + k2)]X(S) = (bs + k2)Y(S) + k1U(s) [m2s2 + bs + k2]Y(S) = (bs + k2)X(S) Eliminating X(s) from the last two equations.

j2){s + 1 + j2) s+2 1 = +-s2 + 2s + 5 s + 1 0. .5 .Example Problems and Solutions 143 Note that the row vector k is zero.jO. Problem A-4-10 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-28. p. there is no constant term in this partial-fraction expansion. k] =residue(nurn.2.j2 s + 1 + j2 s+1 (0. » [r. we get the following expression: --= B( s) A(s) + jO. Assume that m = 1 kg. because the degree of the numerator is lower than that of the denominator.2S)(s + 1 + j2) + (0.2S)(s + 1 = (s + 1 .den) r= 0.2S + 0. b = 12 N-s/m.2500i 1.2500i 0.jO. because the row vector k is zero.2S 1 +-s + 1 . plot a response curve with the use of MATLAB.0000 p= -1 .0000 + 2. » den = [1 3 7 5]. Also. MATLAR Program 4-14 » nurn = [2 5 7].0000i -1.5 .0000 k= [] From the MATLAB output.5000 + 0.0. Solution A MATLAB program for obtaining the partial-fraction expansion is shown in MATLAB Program 4-14.5000 . and the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.5 + jO.5 .0000i -1 . The system is initially at rest.0000 . Obtain the response of the system when 10 N of force (a step input) is applied to the mass m. and k = 100 N/m. Problem A-4-9 Expand the function B{s) 2s2 + Ss + 7 A( s) = s3 + 3s2 + 7s + 5 into partial fractions with MATLAB.j2) +-s+1 1 Note that.

Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx + bi + kx = x + 12i + 100x = P Substituting the numerical values into this last equation. MATLAB Program 4-15 » » » » » » » » » t = 0:0.1 0..2 S s2 + 12s + 100 0. A MATLAB program to plot the response curve is given in MATLAB Program 4-15.0. The resulting response curve is shown in Figure 4-29.1(s + 6) = --.01 :2. sys = tf(nurn.0.1 O. step(sys.t) grid title ('Step Response ' ) xlabelCt ' ) ylabelCOutput X(t)l) / ..le-61 cos 8t .(s + 6)2 + 82 - (0.1 . we get 10 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation and substituting the initial conditions [x(O) = 0 and X(O) = 0] yields 10 (s2 + 12s + 100)X(s) = - s Solving for X(s).144 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.s(S2 + 12s + 100) 0.den).075e-61 sin 8t The response exhibits damped vibration. 4 P (10 N offorce) x Figure 4-28 Mechanical system.ts + 1. nurn = [10]. den = [1 12 100]. we obtain X(s) _ 10 .6) (s + 6)2 + 82 "8 8 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = 0.

.08 0......8 2 Figure 4-29 Step response of mechanical system. 0.. Obtain the response xo(t) when x. the transfer function Xo(s)/X.4 0.(s) is Xo(s) --=--~---""'---- Xj(S) (!: + 1 + 1) )(~ (!: + 1 + 1) + ~ )(~ s s s S S Figure 4-30 Mechanical system. ~ = 1 N-sfm.r----r--r--.04 0. Problem A-4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-30. Solution From Problem A-4-4.8 I 1 1.---.1 Step Response r-----"T-"""T""-.06 0. 145 ~ 0. and k2 = 2 N/m. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions..4 1.1 m.. where bi = 0.6 1.2 0.02 -= -= 0 Q.-----.---r--..{t) is a step input of magnitude 0. ..Example Problems and Solutions 0. Assume that the system is initially at rest.6 0.12 0.2 (sec) 1.5 N-s/m. kl = 1 N/m.

1 0.1 sA2 xlabel{'t (sec)') ylabel('x_o(t)') + O.4s + 0. » num = [0.065 0.W + 0. plot(t.l)l(t).x_o) grid title('Step Response of (0. Hence.1 =-.t] = step(sys.085 0.05 0 Figure 4-31 Step response of system shown in Figure 4-30.075 0.4].(s) 0.095 0.Ss + 1) -.Ss + 1) + s 0.09 0.t).(t) = (O. MATLAR Program 4-16 » t = 0:0. sys = tf(num.08 1 -::- 0. » » » » » » » » den = [1 8 4]. 4 Substitution of the given numerical values yields Xo(s) (O.02:12.2Ss2 + 2s + 1 s2+4s+4 s2+8s+4 Since x.25s2 + s + 1 0.1 0.den).4) / (sA2 + 8s + 4)') Step Response of (o.Ss + l)(O.1 S2 + 8s + 4 S 0. which is shown in Figure 4-31.4s + 0.= -------Xj(s) (O.055 0.Ss + l)(O.4)/(.1s 2 + O.146 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.07 0.4s + 0. [x_o. + 8s + 4) 0. Xo(s) = S2 + 4s + 4 0.06 0. 2 4 6 t (sec) 8 10 12 . we have X.4 0.4 1 s2+8s+4 s MATLAB Program 4-16 is used to obtain the step response.

12].4s + 0.Example Problems and Solutions 147 Figure 4-31 shows the response curve from t ::: 0+ to t = 12.06 0. axis(v) to the program.s2 + 8s + 4) S ~ : : : : : These two\lines are manually drawn. -2 o 2 4 t 6 (sec) 8 10 12 Figure 4-32 Step response of system.02:12. Problem A-4-12 Plot the unit-step response curves of the two systems defined by the transfer functions Jr(s) 25 U (s) = s2 + 5s + 25 and Y(s) 5s + 25 U (s) = s2 + 5s + 25 in one diagram. Then plot each curve in a separate diagram.4 0.12. 0.4].12.4s + 0.02 t = 0:0.04 0. -0. using the subplot command. axis(v) grid titieCStep Response of (0. [x_o.12]. as shown in MATLAB Program 4-17.1 0. If we wish to plot the curve from xo(O-) = 0 to xo(12) = 0.02 0.1 sl\2 + O.02 s y s 0. shown in the region -2 s x s 12. -0.02 S Y S 0. we may add the axis command xo(O+) v = [-2 12 -0. plot(t.den).s2 + O.4)/(.007.t). 'These two lines are manually drawn. sys = tf(num. The plot of the response curve produced by MATLAB Program 4-17 is shown in Figure 4-32.1.5. MATLAB Program 4-17 » » » » » » » » » » » » 0.x_o) v [-2 12 -0. num = [0. tJ = step(sys.') = Step Response of (0.02 0.4) / (s1\2 + 8s + 4)1) xlabelCt (sec)l) ylabeICx_o(t)l) text (1. Then the xy domain of the plot becomes -2 S x S 12.02 0 -0. Note that = 0. .1 0.12 0.1.1. den = [1 8 4].08 0.

one curve per subwindow. The curves are shown in Figure 4-33.t). [1 5 25]).. MATLAB Program 4-19 uses the subplot command to plot two curves in two subwindows..25.3. [1 5 25]).t). Suppose that the cart is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity.5 3 Problem A-4-13 Consider the system shown in Figure 4-35.t.2 Figure 4-33 1\vo unit-step response curves shown in one diagram.:: "0 1 ~ 0.148 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.x.5 t (sec) 2 2.4 .--____r-------r-----r-----r---.6 S:.. 0.25. 4 Solution MATLAB Program 4-18 produces the unit-step response curves of the two systems. t) = step(sys1.t. 0.. MATLAB Program 4-18 » » » » » » » » » » » » t = 0:0. 1.05:3..2 -=:- '.. the system equation becomes m'i + kx = 8(t) . Can it be stopped by another such impulsive force? Solution When the mass m is set into motion by a unit-impulse force. 'y') 1. Multiple curves on one diagram can be split into multiple windows with the use of the sUbplot command. 0... [y. The system is initially at rest. 'x'} text(1. Figure 4-34 shows the resulting plot.y.y. [x.'o') grid title('Unit-Step Responses') xlabel{'t (sec)') ylabel('Outputs x(t) and y(t)') text(1.8 S ~ o ...15.4 0.5 1. sys2 =tf([5 25).---__ Unit-Step Responses 1.l. t1 =step(sys2. sys1 = tf([25]. plot(t.

4 1. » [y.8 :.. where A is the undetermined magnitude of the impulse force and t = T is the undetermined instant that this impulse is to be given to the system to stop the motion.05:3... grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output x(t)') » subplot(122).::: 0.2 Unit-Step Response r-----.Example Problems and Solutions 149 MATlAR Program 4-19 » t = 0:0.. » [x. We define another impulse force to stop the motion as AcS(t .T).··········· 0.r-----. Unit-Step Response 1.y). » subplot(121)..r-----. » sys2 = tf([5 25). .2 1--1-········. x(O-) = 0.6 0..t)..x).2 1 .2 ~. Figure 4-34 Plots of two unit-step response curves in two subwindows. .T).. 1 2 t (sec) 3 1 t 2 (sec) 3 x Impulsive force 6(t) m Figure 4-35 Mechanical system.:::- -.t).4 0.4 r-----. Then..r------.... tl = step(sys2.4 0. one in each subwindow.. the equation for the system when the two impulse forces are given is mx + kx = cS(t) + AcS(t ... SO0. tl =step(sys1 .. plot(t. grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output yet)') 1.. [1 5 25]).r------. [1 5 25]). plot(t. »sys1 = tf([25]. x(O-) = 0 . 1.

Assuming that M = 1 kg. Assume that the system is initially at rest.. Define the downward velocity to be positive. the ball hits mass M. then x(t) must be identically zero for t ~ T. The ball hits mass M at t = O.. Assume that the impact is perfectly elastic. m m The inverse Laplace transform of X(s) is ~ A ~e-ST x(t) = ~Sin~t + ~ [Sin~(t - T)] 1(t . Since the change in velocity of the ball occurs instantaneously. k = 50 N/m. as shown in Figure 4-37(b). The equation of motion for the system is M'i + bi + kx = F(t) (4-29) . 4 (ms 2 + k)X(s) Solving for X(s). the magnitude of which is equal to the change in momentum of the steel ball.!!. and d = 1. the ball bounces back with velocity v(O+). b = 2 N-s/m. we obtain = 1 + Ae-sT sT X(s) = + Aems 2 + k ms 2 + k 1 1 =-----+----~S2+. Since the impact is assumed to be perfectly elastic. such as Problem A-4-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-36. a condition we can achieve if we choose A = 1. T=~ ~' Thus. plot the response curve with MATLAB. Suppose that a person drops a steel ball of mass m onto the center of mass M from a height d and catches the ball on the fust bounce. ~ s2+. At t = 0. The displacement x of mass M is measured from the equilibrium position before the ball hits it.45 m. Figure 4-37(a) shows a sudden change in the velocity of the ball. At t = 0. The initial conditions are x(O-) = 0 and i(O-) = O. Obtain the motion of mass M for 0 < t. m = 0. the motion of the mass m can be stopped by another impulse force.T) If the motion of the mass m is to be stopped at t = T.150 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems The :£ _ transform of this last equation with x(O-) = 0 and x(O-) = 0 gives Chap. Solution The input to the system can be taken to be an impulse. Note that iJ(O+) is negative.015 kg.Assume that the initial velocity of the ball is v(O-). v(O+) = -v(O-). iJ has the form of an impulse.!!.

where F(t). the impulse force F(t) is in the positive direction of x. an impulse force.t o -A Figure 4-37 (a) Sudden change in the velocity v of steel ball. =A -mv . [Note that -mv is positive. Thus.] From Figure 4--37(b). (b) plot of v versus t. the impulse force can be written as F(t) F(t) = A !!it 8(t) !!it 8(t) = where A !!it is the magnitude of the impulse input. v (a) o v(O+) -~--- (b) fl.Example Problems and Solutions 151 k x Figure 4-36 Mechanical system subjected to an impulse input. is equal to -mv.

i(O-)] Noting that x(O-) = 0 and i(O-) = 0.x(O-)] + kX(s) = 2mv(0-) M[S2 X(s) . Since v(O+) = -v(O-).15999 7 (5 + 1)2 + 72 The inverse Laplace transform of X(5) gives x(t) = 0.sx(O-) .45 S2 + 25 + 50 0. The resulting curve is shown in Figure 4-38. A MATLAB program to produce the response curve is given in MATLAB Program 4-20. 4 Joor rO+ A at 8(t)dt = -m Lv 0+ dt Aat = mv(O-) . the response of the mass M is a damped sinusoidal motion. Equation (4-30) can be written as A at = 2mv(0-) Then Equation (4-29) becomes M'i Taking the + bi + kx = F(t) = 2mv(0-) 8(t) = 2mv(0-) :e _transforms of both sides of this last equation. we have v(O-) It follows that = V2id X (5 ) = M 52 + bs 2mV2id +k (4-31) Substituting the given numerical values into Equation (4-31).152 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems from which we can get Chap.015V2 x 9.807 X 1.02286e-1 sin 7t m Thus.mv(O+) (4-30) The momentum of the steel ball is changed from mv( 0-) (downward at t = 0-) to mv(O+) (upward at t = 0+).15999 52 + 2s + 50 7 0. we obtain X () 5 = ----:-------- 2 X 0. we get + b[5X(S) . . we obtain 2mv(0-) X (s) = M s2 + bs + k Since the velocity of the steel ball after falling a distance dis V2id. we have (MS2 + bs + k)X(s) Solving for X(s).

if the car decelerates rapidly in a collision or sudden stop.01 S 0 :. Q. the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the pivot is J = mP.Example Problems and Solutions MATLAB Program 4-20 153 » num = [0.. (Although 8 = 20° is not quite small.05 m. the passenger is restrained in place. assume that the car is moving at a speed of 10 mls before a sudden stop.015 0 1 2 t 3 (sec) 4 5 6 Figure 4-38 Response of mass M subjected to impulse input. locking the reel and safety belt.02 0. However. allowing the passenger to move forward even with the belt fastened. Then the torque that acts on the pendulum due to the force F(t) is F(t)l cos 8.015 0. The angle of rotation of the pendulum is 8 rad. Define the force that acts on the pendulum at the instant the car stops suddenly as F(t). The equation for the pendulum system is ml28 = F(t)l cos 8 - mgl sin 8 (4-32) We linearize this nonlinear equation by assuming that the angle 8 is small. the pendulum is subjected to an impulsive torque that causes it to swing forward and also causes the bar to engage the ratchet. Under normal operating conditions. Find the time needed for the pendulum to swing forward by 20°.3 s. » sys = tf(num. Problem A-4-lS Figure 4-39 shows a mechanism used for a safety seat belt system. Thus.den). The pendulum length is 0. the reel rotates freely and it is possible to let out more slack in the belt. ~ 0.15999]. The stopping time At is 0. » den = [1 2 50].005 0 -0.005 -0. » impulse(sys) » grid »title('lmpulse Response of Mechanical System ') » xlabelCt') » ylabelCOutput X(t)l) Impulse Response of Mechanical System 0. Solution From Figure 4-41. Referring to Figure 4-40. :. the resulting linearized equation will give an .01 -0.

v(o-) (b) ~Autobody Figure 4-40 Pendulum attached to auto body. Figure 4-41 Pendulum system.. (a) Normal operating condition. 4 ® Pendulum (a) Ratchet Figure ~39 Mechanism used for a safety seat belt system. mg l . (b) emergency condition...154 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Seat belt Chap. x ------f-----.

e The inverse Laplace transform of 6( s) gives = 3. the average deceleration is 33. 8 + [8 = -1-[I(t) 33.3) = 0 for 0 :S t < 0.14)6(s) = 666(.3)]I(t .is 10 mls and the car stops in 0.0326 s .3)] Then.0 . Then.Example Problems and Solutions 155 approximate solution.148 = (s2 666[1(t) . Equation (4-33) may be written as ml8 + mg8 g = 33.3)] Taking 9'" _ transforms of both sides of the preceding equation..l(t .3.3491 rad. 8(t) 1 + 196.l(t .3)] or .3m[1(t) .8972 and the solution is tl = 0.0. 8 = 200 = 0.[cos 14(t .0.0.14) S2 666 (1 _ e. Now assume that at t = tt.0.3m[1(t) . Solving Equation (4-34) for 6( s) yields 6(s) = s(s2 + 196.3s ) 666 (1 -0.05 m.0. F(t) may be given by F(t) = m'i = 33.l(t .3)} (4-35) Note that l(t .3 mls2• Under the assumption that a constant acceleration of magnitude 33.3s) = ( -. tentatively assuming that I} occurs before t = 0.3) . we obtain + 196.3955{1(t .3 rnIs2 acts on the pendulum mass for 0.) Approximating cos 8 =P 1 and sin 8 =P 8.3 sec.e- O3S .3 .14 196. we seek to solve the following equation for 1}: 0.3. ) (4-34) where we used the initial conditions that 8(0-) = 0 and 8(0-) = O.3955(1 .14 s) .cos 14t) . this last equation becomes 8 + 196.cos 141t) Simplifying yields cos 14tl = 0.3 s. - .0. we can write Equation (4-32) as m/28 = F(t)1 .l(t .3)] Since I = 0.mglB or ml8 + mg8 = F(t) (4-33) Since the velocity of the car at t = 0.0.3491 = 3.0.3.3955(1 .

Assume that the wheels have negligible masses and there is no friction involved in the system.t). we define u1 u2 < t. U ::: 5 N. Problem A-4-16 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-42(a). depending on which interval u is in. Then the input force u(t) for 0 :S t :S 30 can be given by the MATLAB array u = [ul u2] MATLAR Program 4-21 » t =0:0. » x = Isirn(sys.5*[0: 0.156 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.02:0. » u = [ul u2]. The force u(t) applied to the cart is increased linearly from 0 to 5 N for the period o :s. Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx = u Hence. axis (v) » grid » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabel('lnput Force u(t) newton ') . » u2 = 0*[10.den).02:30] for 0 :s.5*[0:0. » ul =0. the force u(t) is disengaged.02:10]. 10 and is zero for 10 Figure 4-42(b). our assumption was correct. Att = 10+. 4 Since tl = 0. 10.02: 10] = 0*[10.02:0. 30 where u is either u1 or u2.0. t :s. 30 with MATLAB. and the displacement x is measured from the rest position. den = [100 0 0].x) » grid » ylabel('Output X(t)l) » subplot (212).02:30]. The cart is at rest for t < 0. the transfer function of the system is Jr(s) 1 1 U(s) = ms2 = 100s2 The input u(t) is a ramp function for 0 :s. t :s. 10 for 10 <t :s. t :s. plot(t. (At t = 10.u) »v = [0 30 -1 6]. in MATLAB. or u(t) =0 for 10 < t Assuming that m = 100 kg.02:30.) Thus.0326 < 0.u. » sys = tf(nurn. as shown in = 0. t :s. as shown in Figure 4-42(b). »nurn = [1].3) in Equation (4-35) do not affect the value of t l' It thus takes approximately 33 milliseconds for the pendulum to swing 20°. The cart has the mass of m kg.plot(t. » subplot(211 ). obtain the displacement x(t) of the cart for 0 :s. The terms involving l(t .3.

generate a triangular wave as shown in Figure 4-44. The curves of x(t) versus t and the input force u(t) versus t are shown in Figure 4-43. 6 ~----~~----~------~------~------~----~ S >< O .e- :. Solution There are many ways to generate the given triangular wave. we present one simple way to do so. (b) force u(t) applied to the cart. 5 4 3 2 1 o ~----~~----~------~------~------~----~ 6 ~------~----~------~------~------~----~ 5 4 3 2 1 o 5 10 15 t (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 4-43 Response curve x(t) versus t and input curve u(t) versus t. x u(t) 5N o (a) Flgore 4-42 10 20 (b) 30 (a) Mechanical system. Problem A-4-17 Using MATLAB.Example Problems and Solutions 157 MATLAB Program 4-21 produces the response curve. . The resulting wave is shown in Figure 4-45. In MATLAB Program 4-22.

158 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.u) v = [-2 10 -1.5 0 0.5:0.5 8 cc e -1 -1.5 -2 0 2 t 4 (sec) 6 8 10 Flgure4-45 1fiangular wave generated with MATLAB. en ~ -0.5:-1]. 4 MATLAB Program 4-22 » » » » » » » » » » » t = 0:1:8.5:1]. u1 = [0:0. u3 = [-0.5:0]. plot(t.5]. u2 = [0. 1. axis(v) grid title('Triangular Wave I) xlabelCt (sec)') ylabelCOisplacement U(t)l) u Figure 4-44 Triangular wave. .5:-0. u = [u1 u2 u3].5 1 Triangular Wave 'S' C ~ ~ 0.5 1.

02:-1). b. Assume also that the input u(t) is a small bump. Solution From Problem A-4-6. the input U(/) can be generated by first defining. as shown in Figure 4-46(b). u1 = [0:0. 4 and is zero for 4 < 1 ::. see Problem A-4-17.02:0.Example Problems and Solutions 159 Problem A-4-18 Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system shown in Figure 4-46(a). (b) input U(/) versus I.02:8]. To obtain the response curve. y U 1 o U -1 (a) (b) Figure 4-46 (a) Spring-mass-dashpot system. we obtain Y(s) U(s) 400s + BOO = loos2 + 400s + BOO +B s2 + 4s + B 4s The input U(/) is a triangular wave for 0 ::.) As in Problem A-4-17.02:0). in MATLAB. u4 = 0*[4.98:0. Obtain the response Y(/) of the mass m. b = 400 N-s/m. .02:1]. u2 = [0. the transfer function of the system is Y(s) bs + k 2 + bs + k U (s) = ms Substituting the given numerical values for m. assume that m ::: 100 kg. B. (For the generation of a triangular wave. u3 = [-0. and k into this transfer function. and k = BooN/m.98:-0. and then defining u = [u1 u2 u3 u4] MATLAB Program 4-23 produces the response Y(/) of the system. Assume that the displacement U of point P is the input to the system. The response curve Y(/) versus 1 and the input curve U(/) versus 1 are shown in Figure 4-47. t ::. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the input u(t).

t). » num = [4 8].5 0 '>: :..02:8]. -0.02:-1).02:0. The system is initially at rest.1 m [i....02:1]. cU 0 Figure 4-47 Response of spring-mass-dashpot system subjected to the input shown in Figure 4-46(b).72. Iyl) » text(1..1) and released with the initial velocity of 0.e.02:0). » u3 = [-0. » y = Isim(sys. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.. 1 S ::s ~ :. Obtain the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB.160 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems MATLAR Program 4-23 Chap.u. 0.2.0.. » plot(t.1. >> den = [1 4 8]. x(O) = 0. Assume that m = 1 kg and k = 9 N/m. 4 » t = 0:0..5 .. . lUi) Response of Spring-Mass-Dashpot System and Input u(t) 1.5 c. :...y. »u2 = [0.05.5 mls [i. X(O) = 0. » u = [u1 u2 u3 u4].t.den).0.---.98:0.98:-0. -1 -1.---.. "0 = = c...5 0 2 345 t (sec) 6 7 8 Problem A-4-19 Consider the spring-mass system shown in Figure 4-48.---r---.u) » grid »titieCResponse of Spring-Mass-Dashpot System and Input U(t)l) » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Output y(t) and Input U(t)I) >> text(2 .. » u4 = 0*[4.5]. Assume that at t = 0 the mass is pulled downward by 0.-----. » sys = tf(num. » u1 = [0:0.02:8.---r----r---.e.

1 0. we obtain m[s2X(s) .4]. we have S2X(S) -O. axis(v) » grid » title ('Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition I) » » xlabelCt (sec)') ylabel('x(t) meter ' ) .001 :4.ls .ls2 + 0.t). Solution The equation of motion for the system is mx = -kx Taking the Laplace transform of the preceding equation. » sys = tf(nurn.5s . k.1s + 0. MATlAR Program 4-24 » t = 0:0. » den = [1 0 9].! s2 + 9 s 2 Hence.5s s2 + 9 MATLAB Program 4-24 produces the response curve x(t) versus t.4 0. and X(O) into this last equation. » plot(t. the response X{I) can be obtained as the unit-step response of G(s) = 0.5 s2 + 9 = 0.5 + 9X(s) Solving for X(s).x) » v = [-1 4 -0. » num = [0.ls + 0. we get =0 Xes) = O.5 0].SX(O) . The curve is shown in Figure 4-49.X(O)] = -kX(s) Substituting the given numerical values for m.Example Problems and Solutions 161 x Flgure 4-48 Spring-mass system. » x =step(sys. x(O).den).0.

. 1 -1 -0.3 Flgure 4-49 Response of spring-mass system subjected to the initial condition x(O) = 0. .( t) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at t = O....( s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-50.3 0.2 -0.5 mls. -0.5 0 0.1 _ .5 3 3. e 0. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. The displacements Xi and Xo are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.1 -0. Obtain the displacement xo( t) when the input x..4 0.---'-_-'--_.162 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 0.4 '----'-_--'-_-'-----11._ . Obtain the response xo(t) when the input Xj(t) is the pulse o< t Assume that xo(O-) < tl elsewhere = O.. 4 Response of System Subjected to Initial Condition >:( ~ .1 0 -0.5 t (sec) 2 2.5 1 1.... Figure 4-50 Mechanical system. Assume that xo(O-) = O.... Problem B-4-2 Derive the transfer function Xo( s)/X j ( s) ofthe mechanical system shown in Figure 4-51. ...2 S G) Chap...1 m and X(O) = 0.5 4 PROBLEMS Problem 8-4-1 Find the transfer function Xo( s)/X.' .

measured from the equilibrium position. At t = 0. a force u is applied to the system. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s) of the system.Problems 163 Figure 4-51 Mechanical system. x Figure 4-53 Mechanical system. Problem B-4-S The system shown in Figure 4-54 is initially at rest. which is initially at rest. ProblemB+3 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-52. Problem B-4-4 In the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-53. x (Output) Figure 4-52 Mechanical system. Assume that u(t) is the force applied to the cart and is the input to the system. is the output of the system. the force u is the input to the system and the displacement x. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position and is the output of the system. . and the displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s). If u is the input to the system and x is the output. obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s).

---Figure 4-56 Mechanical system. or x(O-) = 0 and 8(0-) = O. The input force u is given at t = O. Then obtain the response 8(/) when x(t) is a unit-step input. Problem B-4-6 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-55. therefore. The displacement x is the output of the system and is measured from the equilibrium position. Show that this system is a differentiating element. Assume that the masses involved are negligibly small and that all motions are restricted to be small. The system is at rest for t < O. ~---L----.164 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. the system can be considered linear. 4 Figure 4-54 Mechanical system. Problem B-t-7 In the system of Figure 4-56.x(t) is the input displacement and 8(t) is the output angular displacement.. Obtain the transfer function X(s)/U(s). Figure 4-55 Mechanical system. The initial conditions for x and 8 are zeros. No friction .

The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before m is pulled downward. Draw four different block diagrams for the system. and released at t = O. Assume that m = 1 kg. and k2 = 10 N/m. . / x Figure 4-58 Mechanical system. obtain the partial-fraction expansion of B(s) 5(s + 2) Jl(s) = s5 + 5s 4 + 19s3 + 12s2 Problem B-4-11 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-58. x u p Figure 4-57 Mechanical system. generating the initial conditions x(O) = 0. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position when u = O. Problem 8-4-9 Using MATLAB. The system is initially at rest. obtain the partial-fraction expansion of B(s) Jl(s) Problem B-4-10 1 = s4 + s3 + 81s2 + 81s Using MATLAB. Plot the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB when the mass m is pulled slightly downward. bi = 4 N-s/m.05 m and x(O) = 1 mis.Problems 165 Problem B-4-8 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-57. Assume that u is the displacement of point P and x is the displacement of mass m. kl = 6 N/m.

Find the response x(t) when the system is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. Obtain the transfer function of the system.166 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. ~ = 10 N-s/m. Problem 8-4-13 Figure 4-60 shows a mechanical system that consists of a mass and a damper. The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before the input u is applied. . Figure 4-59 Mechanical system. Determine the initial velocity of mass m. Suppose that the system is initially at rest [x(O-) = 0. Problem B-4-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-61. The system is initially at rest. Then obtain an analytical solution x(t). kl = 4 N/m. What is the initial velocity X(O+) after the unit-impulse force is given to the cart? x Impulsive force O(t) m Figure 4-61 Mechanical system. and k2 = 20 N/m. 4 Problem B-4-12 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-59. Obtain the displacement X2(t) when u is a step force input of 2 N. x 0(1)- m Figure 4-60 Mechanical system. x(O-) = 0] and at t = 0 it is set into motion by a unit-impulse force. Plot the response curve X2( t) versus t with MATLAB. The system is initially at rest. Assume that b l = 1 N-s/m. Plot the response curve x(t) versus t when m = 100 kg and b = 200 N-s/m.

mass m is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. kI = 400 N/m. b = 20 N-s/m. the cart is given initial conditions x(O) = Xo and x(O) = Vo' Obtain the output motion x(t). Using MATLAB. At t = 0. x Figure 4-63 Mechanical system. Assume that the displacement x is the output of the system and is measured from the equilibrium position. The displacement x(t) is measured from the eqUilibrium position in the absence of the excitation force. we hit the mass with an impulsive force p(t) whose strength is 10 N. The displacement x of mass m is measured from the rest position. and k2 = 600 N/m. Assume that m = 10 kg.Assuming that the spring constant k is 100 N/m. Problem 11-4-16 A mass m of 1 kg is vibrating initially in the mechanical system shown in Figure 4-63. find the displacement x(t) as a function of time t. and that x(O-) = 1 mis. At t = 0. 6(1) Figure 4-62 Mechanical system. bI = 50 N-s/m. that x(O-) = 0. x Figure 4-64 Mechanical system. At t = 0.1 m. Problem 11-4-17 Consider the system shown in Figure 4-64. and k = 50 N/m. b2 = 70 N-s/m.Problems Problem 11-4-15 167 The mechanical system shown in Figure 4-62 is initially at rest. plot the response curve x(t) versus t when m = 10 kg. The system is at rest for t < O. .

Obtain the response curve x(t) versus t with MATLAB. kl = 200 N/m. 4 Problem B-4-18 Referring to Problem 8-4-17. and k2 = 300 N/m. The initial conditions are x(O) = 0 m and x(O) = 0.168 Transfer-Function Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. bz =80 N-s/m. bi = 120 N-slm. assume that m = 100 kg. .5 m/s.

based on the concept of state. Such systems may be linear or nonlinear and may be time invariant or time varying.) If the dynamic system is formulated in the state space. due mainly to the twin requirements of complex tasks and high accuracy. it has been in existence for a long time in the field of classical dynamics and in other fields. is not new.State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems 5-1 INTRODUCTION The modern trend in dynamic systems is toward greater complexity. by itself. time-invariant systems in this chapter. What is new is the combination of the concept of state and the capability of high-speed solution of differential equations with the use of the digital computer. This concept. it is very easy to simulate it on the computer and find the computer solution of the system's differential equations. This chapter presents an introductory account of modeling dynamic systems in state space and analyzing simple dynamic systems with MATLAB. A very powerful approach to treating such systems is the state-space approach. 169 . (More on the state-space analysis of dynamic systems is given in Chapter 8. Complex systems may have multiple inputs and multiple outputs. Although we treat only linear. the state-space approach can be applied to both linear and nonlinear systems and to both timeinvariant and time-varying systems. because the state-space formulation is developed precisely with such computer solution in mind.

+ C2n X n + d21 U l + d 22U2 + and the output equation will have the form Yl = CllXl + C12 X 2 + C21 Xl Y2 = . State-space equations. the state-space representation for a given system is not unique.. the state of a dynamic system at time t is uniquely determined by the state at time to and the input t ~ to and is independent of the state and input before to. . we usually choose the reference time to to be zero. The state variables of a dynamic system are the variables making up the smallest set of variables that determines the state of the dynamic system.. Xn are needed to completely describe the behavior of a dynamic system (so that. The n-dimensional space whose coordinate axes consist of the Xl-axis. completely determines the behavior of the system for any time t ~ to. A state vector is thus a vector that uniquely determines the system state x(t) for any time t ~ to. As we shall see later. then the state equation will have the form Xl = allxl + X2 = a2l Xl = anlxl + + alnxn + b ll U l + b 12U2 + + a22 x 2 + . together with knowledge of the input for t ~ to. the future state of the system is completely determined). In state-space analysis.170 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. + a2nx n + ~l Ul + bnU 2 + a12 x 2 Xn + a n2x 2 + . and state space. and state variables.State vector. xn-axis is called a state space. If a system is linear and time invariant and if it is described by n state variables. It is important to note that variables that do not represent physical quantities can be chosen as state variables. and m output variables. once the state at t = to is given and the input u(t) for t ~ to is specified. Any state can be represented by a point in the state space. The state of a dynamic system is the smallest set of variables (called state variables) such that knowledge of these variables at t = to. In dealing with linear time-invariant systems. . State variables. 5 In what follows. If n state variables are needed to completely describe the behavior of a given system.. then those state variables can be considered the n components of a vector x called a state vector.. state variables.. then those n variables are a set of state variables. State... . ••• . we shall first give definitions of state. statevector.. we are concerned with three types of variables that are involved in the modeling of dynamic systems: input variables. except that the number of state variables is the same for any of the different state-space representations of the same system. Then we shall present the outline of the chapter. Thus. + annxn + bn1Ul + b n2U2 + + ClnXn + dllUl + d 12U2 + + C22 X2 + . once the input is given for t ~ to and the initial state at t = to is specified. xraxis. r input variables. State space. If at least n variables Xh X2. output variables.

(The system may involve one or more output variables. D. double-line arrows are used to indicate that the signals are vector quantities. these equations can be written as i = Ax + Du y=Cx+Du where (5-1) (5-2) x = [Xl] ~2 Xn . and Equation (5-2) is called the output equation. the input matrix B and input vector u are called the control matrix and control vector. The elements of the input vector u are the input variables. some of which may be zero. respectively. and direct transmission matrix.) The elements of the state vector are the state variables. ~] =[::] . and yare the state vector. Cij' and dij are constants. u. respectively.Sec. (If the system involves only one input variable. If we use vector-matrix expressions.] A block diagram representation of Equations (5-1) and (5-2) is shown in Figure 5-1. output matrix. : . Vectors x.) The elements of the output vector yare the output variables. then u is a scalar. and D are called the state matrix. (In the figure. 5-1 Introduction 171 where the coefficients aij' bij . afl al2 a22 an2 Cl2 a~] .D [b a~ ~l .D [dU = dfl d22 dm2 do d ] dmr dml Matrices A. [In this book. = U bl2 ~ . respectively. continuous-time system represented in state space. input vector. bnr lr U anI ann bn1 bn2 d l2 r y= [ Y2 ] Ym ~. . :' C = [CU C21 Cml C22 C2 m CI. they are described by Equations (5-1) and (5-2).) Figure 5-1 Block diagram of the linear. (In control systems analysis and design.u : . A = [au : .) Equation (5-1) is called the state equation. whenever we discuss state-space equations. input matrix. and output vector. C. ] C~n C mn .

u k b 1 m m m (5-5) The output equation is y = Xl (5-6) In vector-matrix form. = X2 (5-4) X2=--XI--X2+.m J+ [ 1 X2 m 0] u (5-7) The output equation.b') +-u y m Xl . (This means that the system involves two integrators. . Since y(O). or define Then we obtain Xl . Equation (5-6). From the diagram.) Thus. Obtain a state-space representation of the system.y(O).172 ExampJe5-1 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the external force..S Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-2. Equations (5-4) and (5-5) can be written as ~1 'J [X2 = [0 1][ k b - Xl m . we need two state variables to describe the system dynamics. The displacement y of the mass is the output of the system. = Y = -1 (k y m 1 . X2 or = X2 . the system equation is my + by + ky = u (5-3) This system is of second order. we choose y(t) and y(t) as state variables. and the external force u is the input to the system. can be written as (5-8) u Figure 5-2 Mechanical system. and u(t) ~ 0 completely determine the system behavior for t ~ 0.

In this representation. Section 5-4 presents two methods for obtaining state-space models of systems in which derivative . Section 5-2 gives a transient-response analysis of systems in state-space form with MATLAB. In a state-space representation. but the internal structure is put in a black box. we can draw the block diagram shown in Figure 5-3. Notice that the outputs of the integrators are state variables. m .Sec.mY=Y or On the basis of this last equation. and Equation (5-8) is an output equation for the system. Equations (5-7) and (5-8) are in the standard form i Ax + Bu Y = ex + Du where = B= [II c= [1 0].. Outline of the chapter. Section 5-1 has defined some terms that are necessary for the modeling of dynamic systems in state space and has derived a state-space model of a simple dynamic system. Section 5-3 discusses the state-space modeling of systems wherein derivative terms of the input function do not appear in the system differential equations.. Equation (5-7) is a state equation. a system is represented by a state equation and an output equation. 5-1 Introduction u XI 173 =y Figure 5-3 Block diagram of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-2.m Y . D =0 Note that Equation (5-3) can be modified to u k b. This fact indicates that the state-space representation is fundamentally different from the transferfunction representation. the internal structure of the system is described by a first-order vector-matrix differential equation. Numerical response analysis is done with MATLAB. in which the dynamics of the system are described by the input and the output.

Note that when step commands have left-hand arguments.C. ••• . We first define the system with sys = ss(A. it is necessary to use a plot command to see the response curves.iu. (Matrix y has as many columns as outputs and one row for each element in t.B. [y.D.iu).t).174 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. evaluated at the computation time points t. 5 terms of the input function appear explicitly in the system differential equations.t) no plot is shown on the screen. . consider a multiple-input-multiple-output system. Matrix x has as many columns as states and one row for each element in t.) Note also that the scalar iu is an index into the inputs of the system and specifies which input is to be used for the response. respectively. Assume that there are r inputs Uh U2. t is the user-specified time.D) will generate plots of unit-step responses.B.C.B. [y. one for each input and output combination of x=Ax+Bu y=Cx+Du (For details.C.C. Ym' Define .D.t] = step(A. If the system involves multiple inputs and multiple outputs.B. Step response. the step commands produces a series of step response plots.t).t) = step(A. The section also examines the transformation of one state-space representation to another.x. Hence.t. such as y = step(sys. The matrices y and x contain the output and state response of the system.) Transfer matrix. Next. Section 5-5 treats the transformation of system models from transfer-function representation to state-space representation and vice versa. u" and m outputs Yh Y2. the MATLAB command step(sys) or step(A.x] =step(sys. . The time vector is automatically determined when t is not explicitly included in the step commands. see Example 5-2.. [y.. 5-2 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS IN STATE-SPACE FORM WITH MATLAB This section presents the MATLAB approach to obtaining transient-response curves of systems that are written in state-space form.x.D) For a unit-step input.

Then.5 -1][XI] + [1 1][U1 ] 0 X2 1 0 U2 [~] = [~ ~t:] + [~ ~][::l Obtain the unit-step response curves. sX(s) .Ar1B + D]U(s) +D Upon comparing this last equation with Equation (5-10).ArID The transfer matrix G(s) for the given system becomes G(s) = C(sI . 175 The transfer matrix G(s) relates the output Y(s) to the input U(s).~ !rl~ ~] . from Equation (5-11).A)-lB + D (5-9) [The derivation of Equation (5-9) is given in Example 5-2. we obtain (5-10) (5-11) + DU(s) (5-12) + DU(s) In deriving the transfer matrix. 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems . we shall derive such an expression for reference purposes. we assume that x(O) = O. we see that G(s) = C(sI . the transfer matrix G(s) is an m X r matrix. For the system defined by i = Ax + Bu y=Cx+Du the transfer matrix G(s) is a matrix that relates Y(s) and U(s) through the formula Yes) = G(s)U(s) Taking Laplace transforms of the state-space equations. ExampleS-2 Consider the following system: Xl] [X2 = [-1 6. to follow..Sec.x(O) = AX(s) Yes) = CX(s) we get Xes) = (sI - ArIBU(s) Substituting this equation into Equation (5-12) yields Yes) = [C(sI . or Y(s) = G(s)U(s) where G(s) = C(sI .. Although it is not necessary to obtain the transfer-function expression for the system in order to obtain the unit-step response curves with MATLAB.] Since the input vector u is r dimensional and the output vector y is m dimensional.A)-lB = [~ ~][s_:.

C.6.1 0]. MATLAB Program 5-1 » » » » » » » » » »A = [-1 -1.5' Y2(s) s + 7. step(sys) MATLAB Program 5-1 produces four individual unit-step response curves.2) .D). we assume that signal U2 is zero. 5 = S2 + S + 6.5 6.5 Yt(S)] [ Y2(S) = s2 + S + 6.5 6.B.5 s] 6.5 S2 + S + 6.l ) and step(A.5 --= VI(s) s2 + S + 6.5 S + 1 1 1 [s -1 ][1 01] 1 = s2 + S + 6.0 1]. depending on which signals are considered as input and output. step(sys) grid title('Unit-Step Responses ') xlabel('t') ylabel('Outputs ') To plot two step-response curves for the input Ul in one diagram and two stepresponse curves for the input U2 in another diagram. Note that. s-l [S-l s + 7.B.5' --= --= U2(s) s2 Yt(s) S + S + 6.B. we may use the commands step(A.C.5 6.D.5 Hence.B. four transfer functions can be defined. D = [0 0.5 [ S2 + S + 6.C. C = [1 0. when considering the signal Ul as the input. shown in Figure 54.5 + s + 6.5 }2(s) U2(s) = s2 The four individual step-response curves can be plotted with the use of the command step (A. D) or sys = ss(A.5 S + 7. and vice versa. sys = ss(A.D). The four transfer functions are Yt(S) S -1 UI(s) s2 + S + 6. B.5 0].C.5 S2 + S + 6.D.5 S 1 [U 1(S)] U2(s) Since this system involves two inputs and two outputs. B = [1 1.0 0].176 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.C.

.4 L.C.D...Sec..------.6.-.In this program.--'-_. MATLAB Program 5-2 does just that. »C = [1 0.--.+~~~"""'""'=--~---I -0.--'--.. Figures 5-5 and 5-6 show the two diagrams produced. each consisting of two unit-step response curves..B. -0.. MATlAR Program 5-2 » % ----... »D = [0 0. c. ----»A = [-1 » -1 . u_2 = Unit-Step Input)') respectively.5 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (sec) o 2 4 6 8 10 12 Figure 5-4 Unit-step response curves.0 0].2 0..D.I o :..L..0 1].. ..1 -0...1) » grid »titieCStep-Response Plots (u_' = Unit-Step Input.. 0. 2 ~ 1.------.1 0 -0.1 0]. » step(A.--..4 . 0 ~ 0.3 . we first plot step-response curves »0/0 when the input is u1.L. ~ ~ 0.------.5 0].3 0.. u_2 = 0)') » xlabel('t').---'-_..2 I---I....2) grid title('Step-Response Plots (u_1 xlabeICt').----.C.B. ylabel('Outputs') = 0.5 1 :. Then we plot response curves when » % the input is u2.. 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems ... Unit-Step Responses From: In(1) From: In(2) 177 e o :.. » » B = [1 1.-. ylabel('Outputs') » » » » » step(A..

1 0 -0. 0 (:) f-t :.5 ~ 0.1 -0.3 -0 -. Step-Response Plots (Ul =0.2 0.2 -0. 0.1 ~ !!3 0 ~ = E :.3 0.1 0 -0.5 0 :. U2 == Unit-Step Input) 0. c.3 -0. ~ 0.2 :.178 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Step-Response Plots (Ul = Unit-Step Input. 0 -0.5 2 4 6 t (sec) 8 10 12 Figure S-6 Unit-step response curves when U2 is the input and Ul = o. 5 -. 0 ~ rIl 0. ~ :.5 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (sec) Figure S-S Unit-step response curves when Ul is the input and U2 = o. u2 = 0) Chap.-4 0. 1. Impulse response.2 2 1. :. .4 2 -. The unit-impulse response of a dynamic system defined in a state space may be obtained with the use of one of the following MATLAB commands: .4 0.

t) produces the response of the system to an arbitrary input u with user-specified time t. the command returns the output and state responses of the system and the time vector t. impulse(A.xo) Here.t.B. If MATLAB is invoked with the left-hand argument [y.C.u.y). y = impulse(sys.B. subject to the input u and the initial condition Xo.t.t). one for each input-output combination of the system i = Ax + Bu y=Cx+Du with the time vector automatically determined.Sec.t) The command impulse(sys) or impulse(A. The command lsim produces the response of linear time-invariant systems to arbitrary inputs. 179 sys =ss(A. The command [y.u.B. then that scalar specifies which input to use for the impulse response. it is necessary to use the command plot(t.) Response to arbitrary input.iu.C. [y. Response to initial condition.t] = impulse(A.B.D.xo) where Xo is the initial state.u. then u can be any input having length size(t). t). [y.t.t] = impulse(A.C.B. D).u.t. if we choose B = 0 and D = 0. 5-2 Transient-Response Analysis of Systems .xo) returns the output response y.D) produces a series of unit-impulse response plots. evaluated at the time points t.D.t] = impulse(A. Matrix x has as many columns as state variables and one row for each element in t.B.x.x] = impulse(sys. To find the response to the initial condition Xo given to a system in a state-space form. Alternatively.C..t.C.x]. [y. produces the response of the system. Note that if a command includes t. u is a vector consisting of zeros having length size(t).iu). If the initial conditions are nonzero in a state-space model. [y. the following command may be used: [y. The matrices y and x contain the output and state responses of the system. which specifies the times at which the impulse response is to be computed. [y. it is the user-supplied time vector. To plot the response curves. No plot is drawn. No plot is drawn on the screen.x] = impulse(sys.t. then Isim(sys.D).x] = impulse(sys}.tl = Isim(sys. the command Isim(sys.D). (Matrix y has as many columns as outputs and one row for each element in t. as in the case of [y.x. If the right-hand side of a command includes the scalar iu (an index into the inputs of the system).C.t). .tl = Isim(sys. impulse(sys). If the initial conditions of the system in state-space form are zero.t..x.

xo. and k yields x + 3i + 2x = 0 and the output variables as then the state equation becomes The output equation is [~l = [~ ~l[::l + [~lu Thus.C.t) D = [~].05 mls.D. A = [_~ _!].180 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Assuming that m = 1 kg.1 m and i(O) = 0.B.D.B.S Another way to obtain the response to the initial condition given to a system in a state-space form is to use the command initial(A. The system is at rest for t < O.C.t) Example 5-3 is illustrative. Xo = [ 0. the mass is pulled downward by 0. At t = 0.1 1 Using the command Figure ~7 Mechanical system. b = 3 N-s/m. b. There is no external input to this system. obtain the response curves x(t) versus t and i(t) versus twith MATLAB. The displacement x is measured from the eqUilibrium position. x(O) = 0. B = [~l. . and k = 2 N/m. initial(A.05 0.05 mls.1 m and is released with an initial velocity of 0. Use the command initial. The system equation is mx + bi + kx = If we define the state variables as 0 Substituting the given numerical values for m. That is.xo. Example 5-3 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-7.

-O. » D = [0.06 ::-. t] = initial(A. »y1 = [1 0] *yl. '0 N 0. O.Sec.08 0.y1 . MATLAB Program 5-3 produces the response curves.04 -0.06 0 1 2 c: ca ~ 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure S-8 Response curves to initial condition.1. we .1 0.y2) » grid » title{'Response to Initial Condition ' ) » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabel(' y_1 and y_21) »text(1. In each example. Response to Initial Condition 0. MATlAR Program 5-3 » t = 0:0. The systems used are limited to the case where derivatives of the input functions do not appear explicitly in the equations of motion. » C = [1 0.0.OS. » B = [0.D.[0..'y_11) »text(1. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 181 we can obtain the responses x(t) = Yt(t) versus t and x(t) = Y2(t) versus t.6. which are shown in Figure 5--8.0].C.02 0 -0.01 :6.026.04 0.12 0..t. we present two examples of the modeling of dynamic systems in statespace form. » plot(t. » [y.6.0].'y_21) 5-3 STATE-SPACE MODELING OF SYSTEMS WITH NO INPUT DERIVATIVES In this section.-2 -3].B.t).02 -0.0 1]. »A = [0 1.OS]. x. »y2 = [0 1] *yl.

The system equation is mx + bx + kx = u The response of such a system depends on the initial conditions and the forcing function u. . which is the input to the system. we choose the variables that specify the initial conditions as state variables Xl and X2' Thus. The variables that provide the initial conditions qualify as state variables. and k = 100 N/m. Hence.-k Xl m - -b X2 m 1 + -u m For the output variables. given the numerical values of all of the variables and the details of the input functions. a unit-impulse force. we obtain and x Figure 5-9 Mechanical system. The state equation then becomes Xl = . b = 20 N-s/m. is applied to the mass. ExampleS-4 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-9.S first derive state-space models and then find the response curves with MATLAB. The system is at rest for t < O. we choose Yl = X Yl = X Rewriting the state equation and output equation. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the mass m is hit by the unit-impulse force. obtain the response curves x(t) versus t and x(t) versus t with MATLAB.182 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Assuming that m = 5 kg. X2 X2 = -1 (U m - kX - b') X = . At t = 0.

MATLAB Program 5-4 » t = 0:0.15 0. >> subplot(211). shown in Figure 5-10.01 0 -0.03 0. » C = [1 0.05 -0. b. plot(t. y1 ).y2). grid » title('lmpulse Response') » ylabel{'x') »subplot(212).01 :3.D).C. »A = [0 1. »y1 = [1 0] *y'. -20 -4]. » sys = ss(A. Impulse Response 0. » [y.1 0..5 1 1. t1 = impulse(sys. D = [~] MATLAB Program ~ produces the impulse-response curves x(t) versus t and x( t) versus t.t).Sec. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 183 Substituting the given numerical values for m. » B = [0..01 0.1 0 0. Figure 5-10 Impulse-response curves. »D = [0. = c = [~ ~].2 0.5 t (sec) 2 2. and k into the state space equations yields A [-2~ -!J. »y2 = [0 11 *y'. plot(t.2].01.0 11.5 3 '0 ~ 0 . grid » xlabel('t (sec)').05 -0.0. ylabel{'x dot') .B.25 0.02 ~ 0.

] The displacements Zl and Z2 are measured from the respective equilibrium positions of the carts before f is applied.Zt) + au (5-13) (5-14) In the absence of a forcing function. where u is a step force of 1 newton. hence. and Zl(t) . k2 = 60 N/m. Z2(0).-+ X l ml = X4 .Z2) Zl) .b(Zt . the initial conditions of any system determine the response of the system. .-X2 b ml + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k2 b X3 · X4 = -Xl ~ m2 + -b 2 X m2 - -X3 - ~ m2 -X4 b m2 1 + -au m2 Note that Zl and Z2 are the outputs of the system. m2 = 20 kg. The system is at rest for t < O. The equations of motion for this system are t = mlZI = -ktZ t - m2Z2 = -k2(Z2 - k 2(ZI . The initial conditions for this system are Zt (0). Hence. 5 Example 5-5 Consider the mechanical system shown in Hgure 5-11. and a = 10. b = 20 N-s/m. kl = 30 N/m. the output equations are YI = Zt Y2 = Z2 Figure 5-11 Mechanical system.Z2) . and Z2(0). At 0. Zl (0).184 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Derive a state-space representation of the system. [The force f = au. Z2(t) versus t. Assuming that ml = 10 kg.. a step force f of a newtons is applied to mass m2. and Z2 as state variables for the system and thus define Xl X2 = Zl = Zl Z2 X3 = X4 = Z2 Then Equation (5-13) can be rewritten as ----"-xl - kl + k2 ml -X2 b ml + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k2 b and Equation (5-14) can be rewritten as X4 = -Xl · ~ m2 + -b 2 X m2 - -X3 - ~ m2 -X4 b m2 1 + -au m2 The state equation now becomes Xl X2 · = X2 kl k2 = . obtain Zl(oo) and Z2(oo).Also.Z2(t) versus twith MATLAB. we choose Zit Zit Z2.b(Z2 . obtain the response curves Zl(t) versus t.

zl).:] = X4 [-~ -~ ~ ~][::] [~ ]u 3 1 -3 -1 X4 (5-17) 0.5 ]. »y1 = [1 O)*yl. » [y. plot(t. grid » title{.O).0.t). ylabel(' z_l . and z_l . grid » ylabel('Output Z_21) » subplot(313). »zl = yl. subplot(311).z2).1 :200. we have = -9 [ 0 0 -2 1 6 0 0 0] 2 A 0 l' B = 3 1 -3 -1 [~ 0. we have 0 [~~] kl + k2 ml = 0 k2 m2 1 b ml 0 b m2 0 k2 ml 0 k2 m2 0 b ml 1 b m2 [~~] 0 0 o + -a u (5-15) m2 [~] = [~ 0 0 0 1 ~][~. plot(t. plot(t.0.0. subplot(312).Sec.t) = step(sys. »A= [0 1 0 0.0 0 0 1.C.z2). b.Z_21) . we substitute the given numerical values for mit m2.] [~]u + + (5-16) Equations (5-15) and (5-16) represent the system in state-space form.z_2 Versus tl) » ylabel{'Output z_ll) » z2 = y2. The result is [ .0 0 1 0). » B = [0. »0 = [0. Z2(t) versus t. » C = [1 0 0 0.Responses z_l Versus t.-9 -2 6 2.3 1 -3 -1].5).Z2(t) versus t. c= [ 0 0 1 0' 1 0 0 0] D = [~] MATLAB Program 5-5 produces the response curves Zl(t) versus t. kh and k2 into Equation (5-15). » y2 = [0 1J*yl. z_2 Versus t. 5-3 State-Space Modeling of Systems with no Input Derivatives 185 In terms of vector-matrix equations.5 From Equations (5-17) and (5-16). Next. grid » xlabel('t (sec)I). The curves are shown in Figure 5-12. » sys = ss(A. MATLAR Program 5-5 » t = 0:0.zl .0).B. and Zl(t) .

... . .~. I' I' 1 I 200 -O... . from Equation (5-14).. .=kl 306 3 and Z2(00) = .Zt(oo) = k2 =- 10 1 = 60 6 From Equation (5-13). 5 i 0: N o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 iI II 160 180 200 ~ ~ . o .Zl(OO)] = .~ · ~· · · · r ~~:!~~ -0.. .Zt(oo)] Hence. because all derivative terms must approach zero at steady state in the system. .+ Zt(oo) 6 1 = - 1 2 . k2 60 1 1 Zt(oo) = -[Z2(00) . we have ktzt(oo) = k 2[Z2(00) . .. ..1 . we get k 2[Z2( 00) . Then...~ . To obtain Zt ( 00) and Z2( 00).4~--~--~----~--~--~--~~--~--~--~~~ o 20 40 60 80 t (sec) 100 120 140 160 180 Figure 5-12 Step-response curves.. . we set all derivatives of Zt and Z2 in Equations (5-13) and (5-14) equal to zero.Zt( 00)] = au from which it follows that au Z2(00) ... . .186 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. ..

etc. 5-4 STATE-SPACE MODELING OF SYSTEMS WITH INPUT DERIVATIVES In this section. consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-13.. y b u m \ Figure 5-13 Mechanical system. of course. but not any higher order impulse functions. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 187 The final values of Zt(t) and Z2(t) obtained with MATLAB (see the response curves in Figure 5-12) agree. = X2 k b b. b . j . y = --y . k b. m m m X2=--XI--X2+.) \ Sec. with the result obtained here. the variables that specify the initial conditions do not qualify as state variables. such as d8(t)/dt.U (5-18) The right-hand side of Equation (5-18) involves the derivative term it. The displacements y and u are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.-y +-u m m m If we choose the state variables then we get Xl . For example. The main problem in defining the state variables is that they must be chosen such that they will eliminate the derivatives of the input function u in the state equation. we constrain the input function to be any function of time of order up to the impulse function. in formulating state-space representations of dynamic systems. The equation of motion for this system is my or = -ky - bey - it) . d 28(t)/dt2 . we take up the case where the equations of motion of a system involve one or more derivatives of the input function. In such a case. Note that.

suppose that u is the unit-impulse function 8(t). X2 = Y --u m k = --y m = --Xl - . Suppose that we try to eliminate the term involving from Equation (5-18).188 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Then the integral of Equation (5-18) becomes X2 = . which is not acceptable as a state variable. b X2 = Y --u m Then . b. We consider the case where the input function u is a scalar. (That is.m kJ ydt . etc. u.-u m m m b b -(X2 + -u) m m = -~XI . b. In what follows we shall present two systematic methods for eliminating derivatives of the input function from the state equations. This means that X2(O) = 00. One possible way to accomplish this is to define Xl =Y . -y + -u . there are systematic methods for choosing state variables for a general case of equations of motion that involve derivatives of the input function u.) . only one input function u is involved in the system.(~)2u m m m u. [-(iy} If equations of motion involve u. b . we have eliminated the term that involves can now be given by [~:] [_o! = _1!][::] + u.) State-space representation of dynamic systems in which derivatives of the input function appear in the system differential equations. (See Section 5-5... We should choose the state variables such that the state equation will not include the derivative of u. The acceptable state equation Thus.-b + -8(t) k y m m u Notice that X2 includes the term (kIm) cS(t). Fortunately. Note that MATLAB can also be used to obtain state-space representations of systems involving derivatives of the input function u. the choice of state variables becomes more complicated. k m b . 5 To explain why the right-hand side of the state equation should not involve the derivative of the input function u.~X2 .

we have Y= Xl + f30u Substituting this last equation into Equation (5-20)... from Equation (5-21).alf30 Then. = 2..l + . we obtain the state equation: [ Xl] = -a2 X2 [0 -al1][XI] + [f31]U x2 f32 (5-30) . 2. we obtain X2 (5-27) + f3lu + al(x2 + f3IU) + a2x I = f3IU + (~ - a2f30)u which can be simplified to (5-28) where f32 = ~ . it is necessary that the system be written as a differential equation in the form of Equation (5-19) or its equivalent transfer function Yes) bos n + bls n . we have Xl = x2 + f3lu Substituting Equation (5-27) into Equation (5-26).f30u X2 = Xl .f3IU where f30 = bo f31 = bl . + bn-Iu + bnu (n) (n-l) (5-19) To apply the methods presented in this section.alf31 - a2f3o (5-29) From Equations (5-27) and (5-28).l + .a2f30)u (5-26) From Equation (5-22). .Sec. for an arbitrary n = 1.. suppose that we choose Xl = Y ... we obtain Xl + f30il + al(xi + f3ou) + a2(xl + f3ou) = boil + blu + ~u Noting that f30 = bo and f31 = bl .. we can simplify the preceding equation to Xl + alxl + a2x I = f3IU + (~ . see (5-20) (5-21) (5-22) (5-23) (5-24) (5-25) Method 1. . + bn-ls + bn U(s) = sn + als n.. 3. + an-IS + an We examine two methods when n Problems A-5-12 and A-5-13. Consider the second-order system y + alY + a2Y = boil + bl U + ~u As a set of state variables.. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 189 The differential equation of a system that involves derivatives of the input function has the general form (n) y + alY (n-l) + . + an-IY + anY = bou + blu + ..alf3o.

we get the output equation: y ot:] = [1 (n) + f30u (5-31) Equations (5-30) and (5-31) represent the system in a state space.S2 1 bos2 + bis + ~ = s2 + als + a2 Yes) _ 2 Z(s) .alf3n-1 . y + alY + a2Y = bou + biu + ~u or its equivalent transfer function Yes) lIes) Z(s) _ lIes) . for the case of the nth-order differential-equation system y + at Y +. then the state variable Xl is the output signal y."" f3n are determined from f30 = bo f31 = bt .. .an-If31 .alf30 f32 = ~ .a2f3o f33 = ~ ..anf30 Consider the second-order system Method 2.bos (5-32) Equation (5-32) can be split into two equations as follows: + als + a2' + bis + ~ . which can be measured. and.alf31 . Note that. in this case... + bn-tu + bnu (n-l) the state equation and output equation can be given by Xl X2 Xn-t xn 0 0 0 -an 1 0 0 -an-l 0 1 0 -a n-2 0 0 1 -at Xl f31 f32 X2 + Xn-t Xn f3n-t f3n u and y = [1 0 o{~:l + f30u where f3o. the state variable X2 is the output velocity Yminus blu. 5 From Equation (5-25).a3f3o f3n = bn . + an-tY + anY (n-I) (n) = bo u + b l u + ..a2f3I .190 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap... Note that if f30 = bo = 0. f3b f32.atf32 .

I + ..Sec. + bn-ts + bn sn + atSn-I + .... we get Xt = X2 x2 = -a2 Xt .atX2 + u These two equations can be combined into the vector-matrix differential equation (5-38) Equation (5-37) can be rewritten as (5-39) Equations (5-38) and (5-39) are the state equation and output equation. Note that the state variables Xl and X2 in this case may not correspond to any physical signals that can be measured. + an-tY + anY (n-t) (n) = bo u + bI u + . we obtain bo{ -a2 Xt . 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 191 We then have z + alZ + a2Z = u boz + btZ + ~z = Y If we define Xl x2 (5-33) (5-34) =Z = Z . respectively.at X2 + u) which can be rewritten as + btX2 + b2Xt at bO )X2 = Y Y = (b 2 - a2 bO)Xt + (b t - + bou (5-37) From Equations (5-35) and (5-36). + bn-1u + bnu (n-t) or its equivalent transfer function --=---'---~-------- Yes) U(s) bos n + bIs n. + an-Is + an .. If the system equation is given by (n) Y + al Y + ...atX2 (5-35) then Equation (5-33) can be written as X2 = -a2Xt +u (5-36) and Equation (5-34) can be written as bOX2 + bt X2 + ~Xt = Y Substituting Equation (5-36) into this last equation..

192 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. ExampJeS-6 Consider the spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart as shown in Figure 5-14. (y is measured u y k m Figure 5-14 Spring-mass-dashpot system mounted on a cart. In this system. At t =: 0. or u = constant. Assume that the cart is standing still for 1 < O. the cart is moved at a constant speed. 5 then the state equation and the output equation obtained with the use of Method 2 are given by Xl X2 0 0 = 1 0 0 1 0 0 Xl X2 0 0 + 0 -an . 0 u (5-40) Xn-l Xn 0 -an-l 0 -a n -2 1 -al Xn-l Xn 1 and Xl X2 bl - albo] + bou Xn (5-41) Examples 5-6 and 5-7 illustrate the use of the preceding two analytical methods for obtaining state-space representations of a differential-equation system involving derivatives of the input signal. U(/) is the displacement of the cart and is the input to the system. The displacement y of the mass is the output. .

b = 20 N-s/m.alf30 b m = ~ . We assume that the entire system is a linear system. k = -u + -u m m with the standard form and identify a1 = . We first compare the differential equation of the system. (5-24). Y + -y + -y .Sec. b -u m (5-43) From Equations (5-43) and (5-28). = X2 + {3IU = X2 + -u m b (5-44) (5-45) . Applying Newton's second law. m ~=- k m From Equations (5-23). we shall obtain the system equation. k m bo = 0..+ ku du dt (5-42) Equation (5-42) is the differential equation (mathematical model) of the system. and k is the spring constant. Assuming that m = 10 kg. and the input is a ramp function such that u = 1 mis. b. = Xl f3lu = .u) . k m m b.k(y .alf31 Xl = a2f3o = ~ _ (!)2 From Equations (5-21) and (5-22). b bi =-. we define Y . obtain the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB.f30u - = y Xl - X2 . 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 193 from the rest position and is relative to the ground. We shall obtain a state-space model of this system based on Method 1.. The transfer function is Y(s) bs + k 2 + bs + k U (s) = ms Method 1.dt m2 d 2y dt + b . b m a2 =-. Obtain a state-space representations of the system based on methods 1 and 2 just presented. we obtain d y mdt 2 or 2 = -b (d Y dt dy dt dU) . m denotes the mass of the small cart on the large cart (assume that the large cart is massless). FIrSt.+ ky = b . b denotes the viscous-friction coefficient.) In this system. and (5-29). k = 100 N/m. we obtain Xl . we have f30 = bo = = bl 0 = - f3I f32 .

The response curve y(t) versus t and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure 5-15.8.O.85.01 :4. »0 = 0. »C = [1 0].-10 -2]. »u =t. and from Equation (5-46). we obtain and the output equation is MATLAB Program 5--6 produces the response y(t) of the system to the ramp input U = 1 mls.t) » grid » titieCUnit-Ramp Response (Method 1)1) » xlabelCt l) » ylabel('Output y and Unit-Ramp Input ul) » text(0. we shall obtain the response curve y(t) versus t for the unit-ramp input U = 1 mls.lyl) » text(0. we get the output equation: [::l [_o! _l!][~:l [! -1!)} = + y = [1 O][~~l These two equations give a state-space representation of the system. MATLAB Program 5-6 » % ----. 5 y = Xl (5-46) Combining Equations (5-44) and (5-45) yields the state equation. and k into the state equation.C. Next.6]. » sys = ss(A.O).u. b. 0. » Isim(sys.25. Substituting the given numerical values for m. lUi) .8.15. ----» » t = 0:0.The response y(t) is obtained by use of the »% state-space equation obtained by Method 1. »A = [0 1. » 8 = [2.194 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems and the output equation is Chap.

s ~ 3 = 2...---r----r------r-----. Method 2.. b. ..~ .. 3. ·S "0 C .5 :..X0 m k == k m b m from Equations (5-38) and (5-39)..5 I 2 (sec) 2.. .- X 0 m b .. 195 4.. . =' o 2 g.5 3 3.......5 4 Figure 5-15 Unit-ramp response obtained with the use of Method 1.r-----r------r-----r-----.1 0. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives Unit-Ramp Response (Method 1) .5 4 ::! I...5 '! :> :.5 1 1..5 B. Since b2 bl - bo = 0 k a2bo = albo - = m b m ..5 0.Sec.. Substituting the given numerical values for m. we obtain [::] = [_o! _l!J~J + [~]u !][~~] y = [~ The last two equations give another state-space representation of the same system. 1... and k into the state equation. we get and the output equation is ..

5 0 0 0. 1. ----- » t =0:0.196 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.e::I 0.-10 -2].5 t 2 (sec) 2.0. Point P is the contact point with the ground.01 :4. 5 MATLAB Program 5-7 produces the response y(t) to the unit-ramp input = 1 mis.C.5 ::> "'0 'a 2 c:: :. MATlAR Program 5-7 » » % % ----- The response y(t) is obtained by use of the state-space equation obtained by Method 2. The displacements x and y are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before the input u is given to the system.0. The resulting response curve y(t) versus t and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure 5-16.1]. »A = [0 1.S 1 0 -= . »C = [10 2].25.5 4 u Q.85. » sys = ss(A. »u = t.t) » grid » titieCUnit-Ramp Response (Method 2)1) » xlabeICt') » ylabel('Output y and Unit-Ramp Input u l ) » text(0. »D =0.5 c ~ 3 ::s '! 2. » B = [0.' y ') » text(0.D).15.5 3 3. lUi) ExampleS-7 Consider the front suspension system of a motorcycle.5 1 1.8.B. Unit-Ramp Response (Method 2) 4. The vertical displacement u of point P is the input to the system. » Isim(sys. Notice that the response curve here is identical to that shown in Figure 5-15. A simplified version is shown in Figure 5-17(a).u.5 4 Figure 5-16 Unit-ramp response obtained with the use of Method 2. Assume that » . 8. 3.

) Obtain a state-space representation of the system. b l = 50 N-s/m.. bh and kl represent the front tire and shock absorber assembly and m2. kl = 50 N/m.. ~ = 100 N-s/m.x) mix = -k1(x which can be rewritten as m2Y + b1x + k1x = b1u + k1u + b. Plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB. we get (s2 + 5s + 5)(s2 + s + 2)Y(s) = 5(s + l)(s + 2)U(s) . Applying Newton's second law to the system.Y + k 2y = b2x + k 2x mh If we substitute the given numerical values for m2.. b. we obtain mh mIx .k .(Y . (b) triangular bump input u. and k2 represent half of the body of the vehicle. m2 = 100 kg. and k2 = 200 N/m. Point P moves only in the vertical direction.Sec. assuming the zero initial conditions. Assume also that the system is at rest for t < O. Assume that ml = 10 kg.b. we obtain (S2 + 5s + 5)X(s) = (5s + 5)U(s) (s2 + s + 2)Y(s) = (s + 2)X(s) Eliminating X(s) from these two equations. At t = 0..u) . kit and k2' the equations of motion become lOx + SOx + SOx 100y + 100y + 200y which can be simplified to = SOu + SOu = 100x + 200x (S-47) (S-48) x + Sx + 5x = + Su y + y + 2y = x + 2x 5u Laplace transforming Equations (5-47) and (S-48).x) . Method 1.. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives y 197 u x u P ~_-----l (a) (b) Figure 5-17 (a) Mechanical system.bl(. bit b. P is given a triangular bump input as shown in Figure 5-17(b)..u) m2Y = -k2(y . (These numerical values are chosen to simplify the computations involved.

bi = 0.15x2 .a2(32 .a2 x 3 . Xl a3 = 15.yl + ISs + 10)Y(s) = (5s 2 + ISs + 10)U(s) + 15u + lOu (5-49) Equation (5-49) corresponds to the differential equation .at X4 + f34 U = -10XI . bo = 0.12 X 5 . we define the state variables as follows: = YX2 = Xl X3 = X2 X4 = X3 - (3ou 13IU 132U 133U where (30 = bo = 0 (3t = bt . 5 + 6~ + 12. = X2 X2 = X3 + 5u X3 = X4 .198 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems or (S4 Chap.12x3 .6X4 + f34u where (34 = b4 . a2 = 12.15x2 .V + 12y + 15y + lOy = 5u Comparing this last equation with the standard fourth-order differential equation 'y' + al''v + a2Y + a3Y + a4Y = bo'ii' + bt'it' + ~u + b3u + b4u we find that at = 6.at(3t .a2/31 .a3f31 . y' + 6.12x3 .10 X 0 = 40 Thus. X4 = -10XI .6X4 and the state equation and output equation become + 40u [~:l [~ ~ ! ~l[::l [-l~lu = + X4 -10 -15 -12 -6 X4 40 Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l ~ + .15 X 0 . Next. b2 = 5.15u X4 = -a4x I .atf33 .a2/30 = 5 (33 =~Xt al(32 .a3f30 = 15 - 6 X 5 = -15 Hence.a4f30 = 10 + 6 X 15 .a3 x 2 .at(3o = 0 (32 = ~ .

B.t.l ~ 0. »0 = 0. » u2 = [0.. » plot(t.01:1]. » u = [ul u2 u3 u4].5 .. » u3 = [-0.01 :16. = . MATLAR Program 5-8 » t = 0:0. » y = Isim(sys. Response to Triangular Bump (Method 1) 1.t).-15.D). axis(v) » grid » title('Response to Triangular Bump (Method 1)1) » xlabel('t (sec)') »ylabel('Triangular Bump and Response') -15 -12 -6].l ~ a:: "0 fI.u.01 :16]. » ul = [0:0. .5 c ~ e I:Q ~ ~ c.C. »A=[O 1 0 0.01 :0]. » sys = ss(A..0 0 1 0.u) »v = [0 16 -1. ~ c E5 -1 -1. fI.40].----r----r----.99:-0. 5-4 State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 199 MATLAB Program 5-8 produces the response Y(/) to the triangular bump input shown in Figure 5-17(b).---.y.-----r--. » C = [1 0 0 0].01 :0.Sec.5].5 1. The resulting response curve y(t) versus I. » u4 = 0*[4.5 0 -0..0 0 0 1.-10 »B = [0.01 :-1].5 0 2 4 6 8 t (sec) 10 12 14 16 Flgure 5-18 Response curve y(t) and triangular bump input U(I)..99:0.----r-----. as well as the input u(t) versus t. C 0 C.5. is shown in Figure 5--18.

we obtain Similarly. then Z(s) = U(s) 1 S4 + 6s 3 + 12s2 + ISs + 10 1 and Yes) 2 Z(s) = 5s + ISs + 10 from which we get al = bos + bls + b2s + b3s + b4 4 3 2 = 6. and = 10. the transfer function of the system is given by yes) U(s) s4 5s2 + ISs + 10 + 6s 3 + 12s2 + ISs + 10 Figure 5-19 shows a block diagram in which the transfer function is split into two parts.-t 5s2 + ISs + 10 ...200 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap... noting that al = 6. If we define the output of the first block as Z(s). 3 s -__t- Figure 5-19 Block diagram of Y(s)/U(s). ~ = Next.. 5 Method 2. we define the state variables as follows: Xl X2 X3 = Z = Xl = X2 = X3 a4 X4 From Equation (5-40). a2 = 12. a3 = 15. we have Y(s) U(s) --~-l -s4""--+-6s-:--+-1-2=-s2-+-IS--+-1-0 ~--. a2 = 12. 5.. bo = 0. bl = 0. From Equation (5-49). . a3 = 15... from the output equation given by Equation (5-41).

5-4 or State-Space Modeling of Systems with Input Derivatives 201 y = [10 15 5 o{~il ~ + MATLAB Program 5-9 produces the response y(t) to the triangular bump input.99:-0.u. til CI) C 0 ~ "'0 C 0.Sec. » sys = ss(A... -15 -12 -6}.) MATlAR Program 5-9 » t = 0:0. co Q.0. » 0 = 0.01 :0]. » plot(t.C.5].. » u2 = [0. » ul = [0:0. (This response curve is identical to that shown in Figure 5-19. 1...01 :-1].01 :16.t). » u4 = 0*[4.5 co c co e = ~ . . » u3 = [-0.0 0 1 0..--.t.y.B.1].0 0 0 1. The response curve is shown in Figure 5-20.5 CI) til Q.r----.5 0 co '3 -0.r---.u) » v = [0 16 -1.0. »A=[O 1 0 0. axis(v) » grid » title(IResponse to Triangular Bump (Method 2)1) » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabel(ITriangular Bump and Response') Response to Triangular Bump (Method 2) .. E5 -1 -1.01 :0.01:1]. » u = [ul u2 u3 u4]..01 :16].--r---r---r---r---.99:0. » C = [10 15 5 0].5 0 2 4 6 8 t (sec) 10 12 14 16 Figure 5-20 Response y(t) to the triangular bump input u(t).5 1.D). » y = Isim(sys.-10 » B = [0.

.den) Once we have this transfer-function expression. 5 5-5 TRANSFORMATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS WITH MATLAB MATLAB is quite useful in transforming a system model from transfer function to state space and vice versa.. Note that the command can be used when the system equation involves one or more derivatives of the input function.) It is important to note that the state-space representation of any system is not unique.. (In such a case. We shall begin our discussion with the transformation from transfer function to state space.. Transformation from transfer function to state space. The MATLAB command gives one possible such representation. the MATLAB command will give a state-space representation. B.. There are many (indeed.= . C.-+ 160 -U(s) S3 + 14s2 + 56s is Y(s) s (5-50) Of the infinitely many possible state-space representations of this system.202 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Let us write the transfer function Y(s}/U(s} as Y(s) U(s) numerator polynomial in s num = denominator polynomial in s = -d-en[A. infinitely many) state-space representations of the same system. one [Xl] = [ ° X2 X3 1 0 0 -160 1 -14 0][ XI] + [ 0] X2 X3 1 U -56 -14 Y = [1 0 O{::] + [Oju -56 0 Another is [~1]_[-14 1 X2 X3 -160][XI] + [1] o X2 X3 0 Y 1 o 0 0 U (5-51) = [0 1 O{::] + [Oju (5-52) . transfer function system Consider the . 0] = tf2ss(num. the transfer function of the system involves a numerator polynomial in s.

C.iu) To obtain the Note that iu must be specified for systems with more than one input. B. u3). use the command [num. and D.O. u2.Sec. where 1 implies u1. For the system considered here.C. if the system has three inputs (u1. and 3 implies u3. transfer function from state-space equations. then either [num. (For the case where the system has mUltiple inputs and multiple outputs. % ----- Enter the following transformation command ----- [A. 0.) . C.den) -14 1 0 B= -56 0 1 160 o o 1 0 0 C= 0 0= o 0 Transformation from state space to transfer function. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 203 MATLAB transforms the transfer function given by Equation (5-50) into the statespace representation given by Equations (5-51) and (5-52). 1) may be used. MATLAB Program 5-10 will produce matrices A.C.2. 0] = tf2ss(num.den] = ss2tf(A. or 3. MATLAB Program 5-10 » » » » » » » » » A= % % ----- Transforming transfer-function model to state-space model ----- num = [0 0 1 0]. den = [1 14 56 160]. For example.den] = ss2tf(A. B.D) or [num.den] = ss2tf(A. H the system has only one input. then iu must be either 1.B. see Example 5-9. B. 2 implies u2.C.B.

5.40].204 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.C.0 »B [0.-15. namely.0000 Example 5-9 Consider a system with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. o den = 0 6.0000 12.0000 1.B.0000 15.D) num= =0. » C = [1 0 0 0].C.B.) Let the system be defined by .0 0 0 1. When the system has more than one output.0000 10.0000 15. the command [NUM. (The numerator coefficients are returned to matrix NUM with as many rows as there are outputs.0000 5. = 0 1 0.0000 10. Y(s) U(s) MATLAB Program 5-11 = S4 + + 10 » » » % ----- % Transforming state-space model to transfer function model----- »A= [0 1 0 0.iu) produces transfer functions for all outputs to each input.D. 5 Example 5-8 Obtain the transfer function of the system defined by the following state-space equations: [~:l [~ ~ ~ ~l[::l [-l~lu = ~ -w -~ -u + -6 ~ ~ Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l + ~ 5s2 + 15s + 10 6s 3 + 12s2 + 15s MATLAB Program 5-11 produces the transfer function of the system.den] = ss2tf(A.den] = ss2tf(A.-10 -15 -12 -6]. »0 » » % ----.Enter the following transformation command » » [num.

Sec. ••• . Then we may take as another set of state variables any set of functions Xl = Xl(Xb X2. for every set of values Xb X2' .0000 5. there corresponds a unique set of values Xb X2.C. Y1(S)/U2(s). and vice versa.0000 Nonuniqueness of a set of state variables. and }2(s)/U2(s). »B=[1 1. then xm i = Px . Xn are a set of state variables.0000 4.0000 1.den] = ss2tf(A.0 1].D.B.0 1]. Four transfer functions are involved: Y1(S)/U1(s).den] = ss2tf(A.) MATLAB Program 5-12 produces representations of the following four transfer functions: --= Yt(s) U1(s) Y2(s) Ut(s) s+4 s2+4s+25' -25 = s2 + 4s + 25' Yt(s) s+5 U2(s) s2 + 4s + 25 }2(s) s .•. A set of state variables is not unique for a given system. (When considering input UJ."" X2 xn) xn) = X 2(Xh X2."" provided that.B.0000 1.0000 -25. if x is a state vector. » [NUM. Suppose that Xb X2.0000 NUM= 4.0 0]. }2(s)/Ut (s).0000 » [NUM. » D = [0 0. Thus.C.25 --= U2(s) s2+4s+25 --= MATLAB Program 5-12 »A = [0 1.0000 -25. 1) NUM= o o den = 1. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 205 This system involves two inputs and two outputs.-25 -4]. Xm and vice versa.0000 1. » C = [1 0. ••• .0000 25.0000 o 4.D.0000 25.2) o den = o 1. . we assume that input U2 is zero.

for example. Since infinitely many n X n nonsingular matrices can be used as a transformation matrix P. Consider. Eigenvalues of an n x n matrix A.AI = 0 X n matrix A (5-57) The eigenvalues are also called the characteristic roots.AI = 0 6 A 11 -1 A+ 6 3 = A + 6A2 + 11A + 6 = (A + 1)(A + 2)(A + 3) = 0 The eigenvalues of A are the roots of the characteristic equation. or -1. -2. 5 is also a state vector. The eigenvalues of an n are the roots of the characteristic equation IAI .206 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Then Equations (5-53) and (5-54) can be written as Pi = or APi + Du y=CPi+Du i = P-1APi + P-1Du y=CPi+Du (5-55) (5-56) Equations (5-55) and (5-56) represent another state-space model of the same system. the matrix A = [ ~ -6 -1 1 o -11 The characteristic equation is A 0 IAI .) Different state vectors convey the same information about the system behavior. there are infinitely many state-space models for a given system. and -3. (Note that a square matrix P is nonsingular if the determinant Ipi is nonzero. provided that the matrix P is nonsingular. Transformation of a state-space model into another state-space model. A state-space model i = Ax + Du y=Cx+Du (5-53) (5-54) can be transformed into another state-space model by transforming the state vector x into state vector i by means of the transformation x = pi where Pis nonsingular. .

••• . and An are n distinct eigenvalues of A. but matrix A can be transformed into a Jordan canonical form. we shall discuss the diagonalization of a state matrix. In this case. then p-1AP becomes a diagonal matrix. For example. (See Problem A-S-18 for details. 5-5 Transformation of Mathematical Models with MATLAB 207 It is sometimes desirable to transform the state matrix into a diagonal matrix. diagonalization is not possible. In what follows. or o (5-60) o Note that each column of the transformation matrix P in Equation (5-59) is an eigenvector of the matrix A given by Equation (5-58). Consider an n X n state matrix 0 0 1 0 0 -an-l 0 1 0 -a n-2 0 0 (5-58) A= 0 -an 1 -al We first consider the case where matrix A has distinct eigenvalues only.) Next. If the state vector x is transformed into another state vector z with the use of a transformation matrix P.1 n (5-59) Aq-l in which Ah A2 . This may be done by choosing an appropriate transformation matrix P.Sec. Diagonalization of state matrix A. or x = pz where 1 P= 1 1 An Al AI Aq-l A2 A~ A~ n A. consider the case where matrix A involves multiple eigenvalues. consider the 3 X 3 matrix 1 o .

and -3. D= 0 The eigenvalues of the state matrix A are -1. 5 Assume that A has eigenvalues Ah Ah and A3. -2. In this case. = -2. and Z3 by the transformation or x = pz (5-64) . A3 = -3 We shall show that Equation (5-63) is not the only possible state equation for the system. Suppose we define a set of new state variables Zit Z2. Example 5-10 Consider a system with the state-space representation Xl] [0 0 [~2 = -6 X3 y = [1 0 or x =Ax + Bu y = Cx + Du where (5-63) A =~ [ -6 1 0 -11 -6 ~l B=Ul A2 C = [1 0 0].208 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems ¢ Chap. the trans- (5-61) will yield (5-62) This matrix is in Jordan canonical form. where A3. or Al = -1. where A1 formation x = Sz.

Notice also that the diagonal elements of the matrix p-1AP in Equation (5-66) are identical to the three eigenvalues of A.5 -4 1.:] Notice that the transformation matrix P defined by Equation (5-65) changes the coefficient matrix of z into the diagonal matrix. we obtain Pi = APz + Bu (5-66) 1 Premultiplying both sides of this last equation by P -I. The output equation is modified to y = [1 0 o{ -~ -! -:][.5 -4 1.5 2.5][0] Equation (5-67) is a state equation that describes the system defined by Equation (5-63).5][ 0 0 -6 0 u 6 1 0 -11 -2 4 -~][~:] (5-67) 0.) EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-S-l Consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 5-21. .5 -1 0.5 -1 0. substituting Equation (5-64) into Equation (5-63). (For a proof. the three separate state equations are uncoupled. see Problem A-S-20.5 0.:] (5-68) = [1 11{. obtain a state-space representation of the system.Example Problems and Solutions 209 where p = [-~ -~ -!] ~][ -~1 -6 (5-65) Then. Assuming angle 8 to be the output of the system. As is clearly seen from Equation (5-67). we get i = p-1APz + P-1Bu or [i'] [3 !: -~ + [-~ = 2.

(There is no input u to this system. mg l Solution The equation for the pendulum system is ml2e = -mgt sin 8 or 8 . completely describe the system dynamics. we need two state variables. we have sin 8 = sin Xl Xl and (sin XI)!XI 1. y = 8 = Xl A state-space representation of the system is . If we define and X2. accordingly. then the system can be linearized. If the angle 8 is limited to be small.210 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. to then we get Xl = . X2 X2 = -ism Xl g . For small angle 8. + -sin8 I g = 0 Xl This is a second-order system. A state-space representation * * .) The output y is angle 8. 5 Figure S-Zl Pendulum system. gsmxl 1][XI] [XI]_ [~ 0 X2 ---- t X2 Xl Y = [1 O][~~] Note that the state equation just obtained is a nonlinear differential equation.. Thus.

z) + k1(y .b1X2 + k l X3 + blX4 + u k t X3 .b1X4 Also. from Equation (5-70).Example Problems and Solutions 211 of the linearized model is then given by [!:] [_Of ~ ]r~:] = Y = [1 O][~:] Problem A-S-2 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-22. Solution Applying Newton's second law to this system. we get m2 x 2 = -(kl + k 2 )Xl . we obtain mlx4 = k1XI + bl X2 - Figure 5-22 Mechanical system. . we obtain m2Y + blU .z) + k 2y = u mlZ + b1(z .y) = 0 Xl (5-69) (5-70) If we define the state variables X2 = X3 =Y Y =Z X4 = Z then.y) + kl(z . The displacements Y and z are measured from their respective equilibrium positions and are the outputs of the system. from Equation (5-69). The external force u(t) applied to mass m2 is the input to the system.

the state equation is 0 Chap. . y(t)..) Let us define y Xn = (II-I) Y .212 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Hence. .. we may take y(t}. (n l) (t) as a set of n state variables.l then we have kl + k2 m2 0 1 hl m2 0 hI 0 kl m2 0 = kl ml ml kl ml 0 hI m2 1 hI ml [~~l +[ {2U (5-71) The outputs of the system are Y and as z. Problem A-S-3 Obtain a state-space representation of the system defined by (n) (n-l) at Y Y + +. . such a choice of state variables is quite convenient. (n yl) (0). because higher order derivative terms are inaccurate due to the noise effects that are inherent in any practical system.. (Mathematically. . Practically.~l 0 1 0 X3 (5-72) X4 Equations (5-71) and (5-72) give a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-22. + an-I. 5 [~. however. . Consequently.. determines completely the future behavior of the system. together with the input u(t} for t ~ 0. Solution Since the initial conditions y(O).V + anY = u (5-73) where u is the input and Y is the output of the system. if we define the output variables Yl = Y Y2 = z YI = Y2 = Xl X3 The output equation can now be put in the form [Yl] = 0 Y2 [1 0 0 o][. this choice of state variables may not be desirable. Y(O)..

. Y(s) 1 sn U(s) = + atSn-1 + . Problem A-5-4 Consider a system described by the state equation i=Ax+Bu and output equation y = Cx + Du where -0.Example Problems and Solutions Then Equation (5-73) can be written as 213 Xn-l Xn = = Xn -anXl .. C = [1 0]. + an-IS + an is also given by Equations (5-74) and (5-75). Note that the state-space representation of the transfer function of the system.34375 ' Obtain the transfer function of this system.25] B = [ 0.•. D = 1 . alxn +u (5-74) or i where = Ax + Bu 1 x= [j:J 0 0 A= 0 1 o o B= 1 0 0 -an-l o o o 1 0 -an 0 -a n -2 The output can be given by y = [1 0 or y where = Cx 0 0] (5-75) C = [1 Equation (5-74) is the state equation and Equation (5-75) is the output equation.

.AtlB + D Since sI . When both unit-impulse inputs Ul(l) and U2(/) are given at the same time 1 = 0.B. are given at the same time (i.125 8s 2 + 9s + 1 8s 2 + Us + 1 [1 0] 1][ -0. Obtain the impulse-response curves of the four combinations.e. and D as G(s) = C(sI .125 Therefore. Solution The command sys = ss(A. C.125 +1 s2 + 1. 5 Solution From Equation (5-9).34375 = s2 + 1.125s + 0.375) + 0.375s + 0.34375 + 1 Problem A-5-S Consider the following state equation and output equation: The system involves two inputs and two outputs. the responses are Yt(t) = Yu(l) + Yzt(t) Yz(I) = Y12(1) + )22(1) .375s + 0.375 s2 + 1.t) produces the impUlse-response curves for the four input-output combinations. B.375s + 0. we assume that U2 = 0.. and vice versa. Ul = U2 = unit-impulse function occurring at the same time 1 = 0).A ) -t = .125 s + 1. find the outputs Yl and Yz when both inputs.125 -0. when Ul is a unit-impulse function.) The resulting curves are shown in Figure 5-23..25 ] s 0.) Next.A we have ( sI =[ s 0.125 -0. (When Ul is a unit-impulse input.125 -0. Ul and U2.. we assume that U2 = 0.C. the transfer function G(s) can be given in terms of matrices A... so there are four input-output combinations.. impulse(sys.[s + 1.375 s2 + 1.214 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.375 -1] s1] 1 .Dl).375s + 0.25(s + 1. and vice versa.125 s2 + 1. the transfer function of the system is G() s = 1 [s + 1. (See MATLAB Program 5-13.

U2 = ~(t) when U1 = 0.D). The right column corresponds to Ul = 0 and U2 = unit-impulse input. -= 0 3 2 N'-' ~ 1 0 ~ I (sec) o 2 4 6 8 10 Ul Figure 5-23 Unit-impulse response curves.0 0]. 1. ylabel('Outputs ' ) » B = [1 »A= [-1 Impulse-Response Curves From:U(l) 1 From: U(2) ' -' 05 0 ~ ~ -0. »sys = ss(A. U2 = 0 when Ul = 0. -1.6.C. » impulse(sys.B. » D = [0 0.5 n ::l -1 Q. U2 = 0 when Ul = 8(t).Example Problems and Solutions 215 MATLAR Program 5-13 » t =0:0.) where Yll = Yl = Y2 when UI = 8(t).1 0]. U2 = 8(t) Y12 >'21 = YI fu = Y2 .t) » grid » title{'lmpulse-Response Curves ') » xlabel{'t '). (The left column corresponds to = unit-impulse input and U2 = o.0 1].01:10.5 0]. » C = [1 0.

yll +y21). » subplot(211).:. plot(t. plot(t. 5 MATLAB Program 5-14 produces the responses Yl(t) = Yn(t) + Y2t(t) and )2{t) = Y12(t) + )22{t). ylabelCy_21) Impulse Response when Both uland U2 are given at t =0 2 1.l )1. » y12 = [0 l)*y(:.x] = impulse(sys.:.:.5 1 0. [Both UI(t) and U2(t) are unit-impulse inputs occurring at t = 0.C.:. » sys = ss(A.y12+y22). » B = [1 1.0 0]. » y21 = [1 0]*y(:.5 6 4 2 ~ 0 -2 2 3 456 t (sec) 7 8 9 10 Figure 5-24 Response curves Yl (t) versus t and Y2( t) versus t when Ul (t) and U2( t) are given at the same time.5 -1 -1.1 0]. grid » title('lmpulse Response when Both u_1 and u_2 are given at t = 0 1) » ylabel(.B.l)'.] . grid » xlabel('t (sec)I). » y11 = [1 O]*y(:.y_1 1 ) » subplot(212).5 0]. » y22 = [0 1]*y(:.216 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. »A= [-1 -1. » D = [0 0.2)'. »C=[l 0.t.5 >: 0 -0.0 1]. The resulting response curves are shown in Figure 5-24.01:10. » [y.6.D). MATLAB Program 5-14 » t = 0:0.2)'.t).

1 0 1 0 -0.Example Problems and Solutions 217 Problem A-S-6 Obtain the unit-step response and unit-impulse response of the following system with MATLAB: [i'] [ X2 _ X3 X4 0 0 0 -0. x. S.05 0 ~ E c. C.15 0.05 ::s 0 0 E 10 20 30 t (sec) 40 50 60 70 Flgure 5-25 Unit-step response curve and unit-impulse response curve.04 ][x'] + [-0. the following command may be used: [y.x2 versus t will give the unit-impulse response. t] Since the unit-impulse response is the derivative of the unit-step response. D) = [0 1 0 OJ*x' The initial conditions are zeros.8 0. Solution To obtain the unit-step response of this system. From the state equation.:J B 50 -0.0121 0 X2 X3 u X4 0.5 0. Unit-Step Response 1.4 0. a> fI) "3 c. . ~ '8 .5 0 o 1 -1. the derivative of the output (y = xl) will give the unit-impulse response.2 0 Unit-Impulse Response 0. The resulting unit-step response curve and unit-impulse curve are shown in Figure 5-25. we see that the derivative of y is x2 Hence.2 1 0.6 0.008 Y = [1 0 0 o{~~l = step(A.4 ~ 50 ::s 0 = ~ 1.1 0.01 1 0 0 -0. MATLAB Program 5-15 produces both the unit-step and unit-impulse responses.

5 -1. (Note that x_l dot = x_2 in this system.008].B. the unit-impulse response of this system is given by ydot = x_2.C.0.y). plot(t. derive a state-space representation of the system. Also.-0. as shown in Figure 5-26.0. obtain the relative motion between ml and m2' Define )2 . m2 = 100 kg. x_2') Problem A-S-7 '!\vo masses ml and m2 are connected by a spring with spring constant k. Solution Let us define a step force input of magnitude 1 N as u.01 -0.218 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. enter the following command: % » »x2 = [0 1 0 O]*x'. enter.x.x2). plot(t. which is at rest for t < O.t] =step(A. » » » % % To get the step response. 5 MATLAR Program 5-15 »A = [0 1 0 0.04. grid » title('Unit-lmpulse Response') » xlabel('t (sec)I).) Hence. grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » ylabel('Output y') % % % % » » » » » » The unit-impulse response of the system is the same as the derivative of the unit-step response. Assuming no friction. ylabel('Output to Unit-Impulse Input.Yl = x and plot the curve x(t) versus t. The displacements Yl and )2 are the outputs of the system and are measured from their rest positions relative to the ground. .5].1 -0. »D =0. Then the equations of motion for the system are mlYl + k(Yl .0 0 » B = [0.0 0 1 0. Assuming that ml = 40 kg. » C = [1 0 0 0].-0. To plot the unitimpulse response curve. for example.012. and/is a step force input of magnitude of 10 N. subplot(212). obtain the response curves Yl (t) versus t and )2( t) versus t with MATLAB.)2) m2Y2 + k()2 . k = 40 N/m. the following command: » » [y.D). 0 1. Assume that we are interested in the period 0 ~ t ~ 20.Yl) Xl = =0 =/ We choose the state variables for the system as follows: Yl X2 = Yl Yl ~f k Figure 5-26 Mechanical system. » subplot(211).

4 0 » B = [OiOiO.Xl)' The resulting response curves Yl(t) versus t.1 The output equation is [ Yl] = 0 Y2 [1 0 0 0][. we obtain the state equation [~:] X3 X4 = [-~0 0 0 1 0]u ~ ~ ~][::] ~ 0. MATLAR Program 5-16 » t = 0:0.4 0 X3 X4 +[ 0.X l + -X3 ml ml .0.y2). »A=[O 1 0 0. » C = [1 0 0 0. Notice that the vibration between ml and m2 continues forever.-X3 k m2 + -1 f m2 Noting that f = lOu and substituting the given numerical values for mh m2. and x(t) versus t are shown in Figure 5-27. » y2 = [0 1J*y'.02:20. »D = 0. » sys = ss(A.y2 . »y1 = [1 O]*y'.:] + 0 1 0 X3 X4 Ou MATLAB Program 5-16 produces the outputs Yl and Y2 and the relative motion x( = Y2 .Y2(t) versus t.Yl = X3 .0 0 1 0]. .Example Problems and Solutions 219 Then we obtain Xl X2 X3 X4 = X2 = . grid » ylabel('Output y_2') » subplot(313). and k. ylabel('x =y_2 . grid »xlabel('t (sec)'). plot(t..-1 0 1 0.t). y1). k k = X4 . grid »title('Step Response') » ylabel('Output y_1') » subplot(312).0 0 0 1.B.4 0]. plot(t.C. » [y.y_1') -0. » subplot(311).t. plot(t.4 0 -0. = -k l X m2 .1].D).x] = step(sys.0.y1).

"........Y2(I) versus I. ·. ::: 2 4 6 ~ ~ : : : ~ o 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 O'2~A~AiJF1 ~o...............220 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap... :. '" .. ·.... .. ···· . ......L ...... ·.... ill (sec) o 2 4 6 8 U M M U W I Figure 5-27 Response curves Yt(l) versus I.... ~ ...... .. .~==±==i± ~ 0. . : .. . ·...... ... Problem A-S-8 Obtain the unit-ramp response of the following system: [~~] = [ _~ -~... ~:uTur= :... 5 ~ :: I' ' ' ' ' ' ! ' ' ' ' !~' ..... t) as shown in MATLAB ProgramS-17.... · .. andx(I) versus t.....4 ][...:] + [O]u =t Isim(sys. !...... The unit-ramp response curve and the unit-ramp input are shown in Figure S-28... ·i-. .. • . : ..... (0 ::.... ~·" ... t) The system is initially at rest. " ... t ......:...· ..15 .... ~ 01 . Solution Noting that the unit-ramp input is defined by u we may use the command U........... ·i ....~] + [~]u y = [1 0][.....

.. as shown in Figure 5-29...6.10 =' c... Problem A-5-9 A mass M (where M = 8 kg) is supported by a spring (where k = 400 N/m) and a damper (where b = 40 N-s/m).-1 » 8 = [0....01 :18..4].:.. -: o :.:.Example Problems and Solutions 221 MArLAR Program 5-17 » t = 0:0. » Isim(sys. »D = 0. together with unitramp input. (For an analytical solution.. » u = t. -0..D). Then plot the response curve x(t) versus t.u. 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 t (sec) Flgore 5-28 Plot of unit-ramp response curve. At t = 0. a mass m = 2 kg is gently placed on the top of mass M... »C = [1 0].: . see Problem A-3-16..1].) Solution The equation of motion for the system is (M + m)x + bi + kx = mg (0 < t) .'u ') Unit-Ramp Response '-~~~--~--~---r--~--~--'-~ 14 12 .. Assuming that the displacement x of the combined mass is measured from the equilibrium position before m is placed on M... » sys = ss(A.t) » » » » » » 18 16 grid title('Unit-Ramp Response') xlabeICt ' ) ylabel('Output yl) text(3. obtain a state-space representation of the system.C...' y ') text(0...0.8.5. causing the system to exhibit vibrations. "....3.. 1.....5.2. »A = [0 1.........

807 x + 4x + 40x = 1. b = 20 N-s/m. m. Z2(t) . Z2( I) versus t. and Z2 as state variables. we obtain lOx + or 40x + 400x = 2 X 9.4X2 The state equation is + 1.9614u If we now choose state variables then we obtain Xl == X2 X2 = -40XI .ZI(t) versus I.ZI' zt.~l + Ou MATLAB Program 5-18 produces the response curve y( t) [= x( t)] versus t. Substituting the given numerical values for M. obtain the steady-state values of Zh Z2. . derive a state-space representation of the system. Notice that the static deflection x( 00) = y( 00) y( 6(0) is 0.ZI(t) versus t. Then we have x + 4x + 40x = 1.S M x Figure 5-29 Mechanical system. m2 = 20 kg. k.9614 N.222 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems m Chap. k = 60 N/m.807 rnls2 into this last equation.9614 The input here is a step force of magnitude 1. Let us define a step force input of magnitude 1 N as u.96l4u and the output equation is y = [1 O][. * Problem A-5-10 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-31. and Z2(t) . plot the response curves Zl (I) versus t. Also. The system is at rest for t < O. and g = 9.049035 m. b. Assuming that ml = 10 kg. The displacements ZI and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions relative to the ground. and Z2 . Choosing Zit Z2. shown in Figure 5-30. and tis a step force input of magnitude 10 N.

9614].-40 » B = [0.C.:.Example Problems and Solutions 223 MATlAR Program 5-18 » t = 0:0.02 0.777. plot(t.B. -4).01 1 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure ~30 Step~response curve.05 ::.t] == step(sys.01 :6. .y) grid title('Step Response') xlabel{'t (sec)').1. :. b -t-f 77.D).06 0.04903515818520 Step Response 0.77i>17.. [y. Figure ~31 Mechanical system. » y(600) ans = 0.77?77J77J7. » C = [1 0). » » » » » sys == ss(A.~'?h. » A = [0 1. 0.07 0.04 c.t). 0 0.t7fi~~77h~.03 0. » » 0= 0. ylabel{'Output y') » » format long.

k X4 = .224 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.X l m2 + -X2 m2 b . or . and Z2 .Zl) .Zl(t) approaches a constant value.Xl) + b(X4 . The resulting curves are shown in Figure 5-32.b(X4 . Note that at steady state Zl(t) and Z2(t) approach a constant value.Zl) + / Xl (5-76) (5-77) Since we chose state variables as = Zl X2 = ZI X3 = Z2 X4 = Z2 Equations (5-76) and (5-77) can be written as mlx2 = k(X3 .-k l X ml -X2 ml b + -X3 + -X4 ml ml k b X3 = X4 .b(Z2 .Zl) + b(Z2 . 5 Solution The equations of motion for the system are mizi = k(Z2 . or Zl(oo) - Zl = Z2(oo) = a Also.-X3 .Xl) . at steady state the value of Z2(t) . Z2 versus t. = .X2) m2x4 = -k(X3 .Zl) m2z2 = -k(Z2 . Then Y1 = Zl Y2 = Xl = Z2 = X3 After substitution of the given numerical values and / = lOu (where u is a step force input of magnitude 1 N occurring at t = 0).Zt versus t. the state equation becomes The output equation is MATLAB Program 5-19 produces the response curves Zl versus t.-X4 m2 m2 k b + -/ m2 1 Let us define Zl and Z2 as the system outputs.X2) +/ We thus have Xl = X2 X2 - . Z2 versus t.

02 0 . » xl = [1 0 0 OJ*XI. » x3 = [0 0 1 OJ*XI.x3 . »C = [1 0 0 0. plot(t. -= -= 0 ~ ~ 0 0.C.06 N 0. t).3 1 -3 -1]. ylabel('z_2dot .0 0 0 » B = [0.xl).x] = step(sys. grid » xlabeH't (sec)I). -= -= 0 ~ 40 30 N 20 10 0 Q.0.02 0.1 0.x3).. » sys =ss(A. and Z2 Zt versus I.-6 -2 6 2.t. ylabelCOutput z_ll) » subplot(222). . ylabel('Output z_2 . »A= [0 1 0 0. 40 30 N 0.z_l dot ' ) 1. grid » xlabelCt (sec)I).z_ll) » subplot(224). -= -= 0 20 10 0 5 t (sec) 10 15 5 I (sec) 10 15 0.0. Z2 versus It Z2 - Zt versus I. » subplot(221). plot(t.06 N I 0.5].0 0 0].D).08 '0 "0 0. grid » xlabelCt (sec)I).0. plot(t.07 0.01 0 Q.05 I N ~ 0.01 :15.0].x4 . » D= [0.03 0.Example Problems and Solutions 225 MATlAB Program 5-19 » t = 0:0. »x4 = [0 0 0 lJ*x'. plot(t.02 15 0 5 I (sec) - 10 15 F1gure5-3Z Response curves ZI versus I.04 0.x2).B.04 0. » [y. grid » xlabel('t (sec)I). 0 5 I (sec) 10 -0. » x2 = [0 1 0 OJ*XI.xl). ylabelCOutput Z_21) » subplot(223).

:- I 30 10 30 1 3 and lOa 1 1 1 (3=-=-x-=60 6 3 18 Thus.226 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems The steady-state value of Z2(/) .u -u 11 + h 11 + h (5-78) .11.Zt(oo)} + b[Z2(00) . The displacement y is measured from the rest position before the input u is given.b[Z2(00) . kt II + h kl = . Equation (5-77) becomes = k(3 + b X 0 m2Z2(00) or = -k[Z2(00) 20a . The system is initially at rest.Zl(OO) For I = 00.Zt(/) is zero.ZI(oo)] or lOa Also.Z1(00)) .y) + kt(u . we obtain or Y + --y ..y) = hy Rewriting. or Chap. Solution The equation of motion for the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-33 is II(u .b x 0 +I f = -k(3 Hence.:-=-. lOa = 60(3 20a = -60(3 + I from which we get a. 5 Z2(00) . Problem A-S-U Obtain two state-space representations of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-33 where u is the input displacement and y is the output displacement. =0 Equation (5-76) becomes mIZI(oo) = k[Z2(oo) .ZI(oo)] + . + .

kl II + h (5-80) The output equation is 11 y=x+--u 11 + 12 Equations (5-80) and (5-81) give a state-space representation of the system.al/3o = (II + 12)2 11 Define the state variable x by X == Y - f30u = Y .x + . Comparing this last equation with y + aIY = boit + btU we get kl al (5-79) == II + 12' II bo == II + 12' We shall obtain two state-space representations of the system. based on Methods 1 and 2 presented in Section 5-4.. First calculate f30 and f31: {3t == b1 .II + 12 U klh U (II + 12)2 Then the state equation can be obtained from Equation (5-78) as follows: x == . From Equation (5-79). Method 1. Method 2. we have (5-81) yes) bas + b t U(s) = s + al ..Example Problems and Solutions 227 y Figure 5-33 Mechanical system.

f31U .= bos Z(s) Y(s) + bt z + alZ = u boz + btZ = Y (5-82) (5-83) Next. It + 12 (5-85) Substituting Equation (5-84) into Equation (5-85). 5 Z(s) 1 U(s) = s + aI' then we get .f3t U f30u .. Problem A-5-U Show that. = ---x kl II +12 and Equation (5-83) becomes or y=--x+--x kl 11 + h II.f32 u = X2 . for the differential-equation system 'y + alY + a2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + btU + ~u + b3u (5-87) state and output equations can be given. by (5-88) and (5-89) where the state variables are defined by Xt =Y Y- X2 = X3 = Y- f30u f30u . respectively.228 If we define State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. we get y =:: ktf2 X (fl + 12)2 +~u /1 + 12 (5-86) Equations (5-84) and (5-86) give a state-space representation of the system. we define the state variable x by x=Z Then Equation (5-82) can be written as x= or X -alx +U +U (5-84) .f3t U = Xt .f32 U .

/3ou .Ql/32 .Q3/3ou + bo'u' + blu + ~u + b3u .a2/3t ./3o'u' ./32U = (-alY ./3ou) .Ql/31 U .Q3/30)U = -a)x3 ..Ql/30 /32 = ~ ./3ou ./32 .Ql/3t /33 = b3 .at/3ou .a2(./32U) .Q2 X 2 .V - Hence.al/32 . Also.v + QIY + Q2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + blu + ~u + b3u or Y(s) bos3 + b1s2 + b2s + b3 U(s) = s3 + QIS2 + Q2S + a3 state and output equations may be given. (5-91). respectively. from the definition of state variable Xh we get the output equation given by Equation (5-89).Q3Y) + bo'u' + btU + ~u + b3u . Problem A-5-13 Show that.Q2/30)U + (~ . we obtain Equation (5-88)./32u = -QI X 3 .Example Problems and Solutions The constants.Q3(Y ./3t U .Ql/31 . and 229 /33 are defined by /30 = bo /31 = b t .Q2 X 2 .Q3/30)U = -a1 x 3 ./3I U .Y . /32.Q3/30 Solution From the definition of the state variables X2 and X3.Q2Y . Note that the derivation presented here can be easily extended to the general case of an nth-order system.v = Since -alY ./31 ./3o'u' .Q3 X I + (bo .a2/3ou .a3xI + /33u = '. we have = X2 + /31 u + /32 u X2 = X3 (5-90) (5-91) To derive the equation for X3' we note that '. by 1 o ./3I U . we get (5-92) Combining Equations (5-90)./31U) ./3o)'u' + (b l .Q2Y .Q2/3t U . and (5-92) into a vector-matrix differential equation.Q3Y + bo'it' + btU + b2u + b3u we have X3 /3o'u' .Q2 X 2 . for the system .Ql/30)U + (~ ./32 U = -at(Y .Q3 X I + (~ .Ql/32u .Qt/32 Xl Q2/30 Q2/31 .Q2/31 ./31U . /31. /30.

1 a. Note that the derivation presented here can be easily extended to the general case of an nth-order system. we get y = [11. and z are measured from their respective rest positions. - a3bo : b.azZ . - a3bo : b.al bO)X3 + bou (5-96) From Equations (5-93). we obtain X3 = -a3Z .S and y = [11.azbo : b. y.azbo : b. noting that X3 = X2 = 'x't = .bo{~:] + bou + bl s + ~s + b3 2 Solution Let us define ~(s) U(s) = S3 + aIs2 + a2s + a3' Y(s) 3 ~ (s) = bos Then we obtain . and (5-95). - a.230 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. we obtain [ ~~] [~ ~ ~][:~] + [~]u = X3 -a3 -a2 -al X3 1 which is the state equation.alZ or (5-95) Also. y = boo z' + bl Z + bzz + ~z = bOX3 + bl X 3 + bzX 2 + ~XI = boH -Q3 Xl - Q2 X2 . . Problem A-5-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-34.z'.Qt X3) = (b3 - Q3bO)XI + (bz - a2bO)x2 + u] + b1X3 + ~X2 + ~XI + (bl . From Equation (5-96). . (5-94). . The displacements u. The system is initially at rest.bo{~:] + bou which is the output equation. z' boo z' + bIZ + Now we define Xl + alZ + a2z + a3Z = u ~z + ~z = y = Z X2 X3 = Xl = X2 +u (5-93) (5-94) Then..

obtain the transfer function Y(s)lU(s) of the system. we obtain b1[sU(s) . Then obtain a state-space representation of the system.z) = k 2z .Y(s)] = ~[sY(s) .sZ(s)] .sZ(s)] = k2Z(S) Laplace transforming these two equations.1+2+2.Example Problems and Solutions 231 Figure 5-34 Mechanical system. Assuming that u is the input and y is the output.sY(s)] + kl[U(s) ~[sY(s) Eliminating Z(s) from the last two equations yields (bls + kl)U(s) = (blS + kl + b.+12 = u (k 1+2. we shall obtain a state-space representation of the system..) u -u bl bl bl bl~ bl bz b1bz . assuming zero initial conditions.:2 Jy(S) k Multiplying both sides of this last equation by (~s + k2 ).y) = ~(y .s .y) + kt(u .+1k z y (k .) y -k .z) ~(y .b. Solution The equations of motion for the system are bt(u . we get (bis + kd(~s + k2)U(S) = [(bls + kl)(~S + k2) + ~k2S]Y(S) The transfer function of the system then becomes Y(s) (bls + kl)(bls + k z) U(s) = (bts + kl)(~S + k2) + ~kzs :r + -. The differential equation corresponding to Equation (5-97) is k k k y "+ k k "+ .2 (kl k2) klk2 b1 + bz s + b1bz (5-97) Next.

and (5-29). kl k2 bz + b.4 N-s/m. Assume that force u is the input to the system. in which m = 0. k2 X2 = Xl .f30u = Y . we have f30 = bo = 1 - /31 = bi f32 = aIf30 = -b l k2 bz . Considering that displacement y is the output. . 0 klk2 blbz _(kl bl 1 + k2 + k2)] bz bl [xJ + Xl bl k2 klk2 kl kl u [ b 2 + bliJz + bt2 l -- 1 (5-98) The output equation is given by Equation (5-31) as Y = [1 or Y = [1 O][~~] + f30u O][~J + u (5-99) Equations (5-98) and (5-99) constitute a state-space representation of the system. obtain the transfer function Y(s)IU(s).' k2 klk2 a2 = blbz k t k2 bo =l kl k2 bl = .u . Also. and k2 = 4 N/m. namely. b = = 6 N/m. (5-24).232 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.1 kg. we define the state variables Xl and X2 as Xl = Y . The displacements Y and z are measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions. 5 Comparing this equation with the standard second-order differential equation given by Equation (5-20).2 b klk2 l +- kl blbz +2 k22 bl From Equations (5-21) and (5-22). y + aIY + a2Y = boii + btU + bzu we find that al = bl + . kl . obtain a state-space representation of the system. Problem A-5-lS Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-35.+ bl hz' bz = b1bz From Equations (5-23).f3lU = XI + -u bl The state equation is given by Equation (5-30) as [Xl] = -a2 X2 or [0 -al ][XI] + [131] 1 X2 /32 U [xJ = [Xl . 0.alf3l - Q2/30 = .

Next. bo = 0.z) = u = bi (5-100) (5-101) Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (5-100) and (5-101).Y' + lOy + 100y + 600y = lOu + 100u Comparing this equation with the standard third-order differential equation. kh and k2 into this last equation results in Y(s) U(s) = lOs + 100 ~ + lOr + loos + 600 (5-102) This is the transfer function of the system. we obtain . = 100 .Example Problems and Solutions 233 y Figure 5-35 Mechanical system.z) k2(y . we shall obtain a state-space representation of the system using Method 1 presented in Section 5~. 'Y' + atY + a2Y + a3Y = bo'u' + btU + bzu + b3u we find that at = 10. namely. From Equation (5-102). assuming zero initial conditions. Solution The equations of motion for the system are my + k1y + k2(y . b. a3 = 600 b3 bz = 10. we obtain [ms 2 + (k + k2)]Y(S) = k2Z(S) + U(s) 1 k2Y(S) Y(s) U(s) = (k2 + bs)Z(s) Eliminating Z(s) from these two equations yields k2 + bs = mbs 3 + mk2s2 + (k} + k2)bs + klk2 m mb =---------3 k2 2 k} + k2 klk2 S 1 k2 -s+m + -s + b s +-mb Substituting numerical values for m.

lU(s) + --2U(s) + --3U(s) s+ s+ s+ Let us define 3 (5-106) XI(s) X2(S) = --1 U(s) s+ = --2U(s) s+ 3 -6 X3(S) = --3U(s) s+ .Q2f31 .Q3f3o = 100 - 10 X 10 =0 Then the state equation for the system becomes Xl] [ X2 X3 = [0 1 0 -600 0 -100 O][Xl] + 1 X2 -10 X3 [0] 10 0 U (5-103) and the output equation becomes y Problem A-5-16 Consider the system defined by = [1 0 o{:~] (5-104) Equations (5-103) and (5-104) give a state-space representation of the system..234 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap.Qlf31 =0 - Q2f3o = 10 Also. '.f32 u Xl - where f31 f30 = bo = 0 = bi . note that f33 = b3 - Qlf32 .v + 6y + 11y + 6y = 6u Solution Frrst.f30u X2 = f3IU X3 = X2 . define Xl = Y .Qlf30 f32 = ~ . we get --=--+--+-U(s) s+1 s+2 s+3 from which we obtain -6 3 -6 3 3 Yes) = . 5 Referring to Problem A-S-12. expanding this transfer function into partial fractions. Y(s) U(s) = 6 S3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6 Y(s) 3 6 (s + l)(s + 2)(s + 3) Next. rewrite Equation (5-105) in the form of a transfer function: (5-105) Obtain a state-space representation of the system by the partial-fraction expansion technique.

we have sXI(s) = -Xl(S) + 3U(s) sX2(s) = -2X2(s) . rewriting these three equations.) Problem A-5-17 Show that the 2 x 2 matrix A ~] has two distinct eigenvalues and that the eigenvectors are linearly independent of each other. (5-108). obtained from IAI . (Note that this representation is the same as that obtained in Example 5-10. respectively.6U(s) SX3(S) = -3X3(S) + 3U(s) The inverse Laplace transforms of the last three equations give Xl X2 = -Xl = -2x2 - + 3u 6u X3 = -3X3 + 3u (5-107) (5-108) (5-109) Since Equation (5-106) can be written as Y(s) we obtain Y = Xl(S) + X2(S) + X3(S) = Xl + X2 + X3 (5-110) Combining Equations (5-107).1 I o A-2 -1 1 = (A .1)(A . If = [xu].AI = are A. Solution The eigenvalues.2) =0 and Thus.Example Problems and Solutions 235 Then. we get the following output equation: y = [1 11{~:] = [~ (5-112) Equations (5-111) and (5-112) constitute a state-space representation of the system given by Equation (5-105). matrix A has two distinct eigenvalues. There are two eigenvectors Xl and X2 associated with we define Xl Al and A2. X21 . and (5-109) into a vector-matrix differential equation yields the following state equation: (5-111) From Equation (5-110).

for the eigenvector X2. we have [1-1 -1 ][xu] = [0] ° X21 ° 1. 5 = 1. Similarly. the eigenvector associated with A2 = 2 may be selected as C2 where C2 ::..2 and Xl which gives Xu = arbitrary constant Hence. we have Ax2 or ° [~] = A2X2 Noting that.2 [0] ° X22 = ° [C2] Thus.: is an arbitrary constant.236 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems then the eigenvector Xl can be found from Axl = AIXI or Noting that Al Chap. we obtain [2-1 -1 ° from which we get Xl2 X2 ][XI2] = X22 2 .: is an arbitrary constant. eigenvector x I may be written as = [:::] = where CI ::. The two eigenvectors are therefore given by = [X12] ° x22 = and That eigenvectors Xl and X2 are linearly independent can be seen from the fact that the determinant of the matrix [Xl X2] is nonzero: I~ Problem A-5-18 Obtain the eigenvectors of the matrix 1 o -a~] .\2 = 2.

because Equation (5-113) can be written as a(Axj) = a(AjXj) or A(axj) = Aj(axj) Thus.AI)(A . 0) is also an eigenvector.'2 -al Xj3 Xj3 X.'2 -a3x il Thus.AI = A 0 -1 A 0 -1 a2 A + ai 3 + aIA2 + a2 A + a3 =A = (A . then ax. and A3 are distinct. we obtain These are also a set of eigenvectors. - a2 x i2 - at x j3 = AjX i3 Hence. and A3.Example Problems and Solutions 237 Assume that the eigenvalues are Ah A2. we obtain o ][Xil] = Aj[XiI] 1 Xj2 x. that is. Solution The eigenvector Xj associated with an eigenvalue the equation Aj is a vector that satisfies Axj = AjXj which can be written as (5-113) 1 o Simplifying this last equation.A2)(A . by dividing the eigenvectors given by (5-114) by Xlh X2h and X3h respectively. (where a = scalar:¢:.A3) a3 Assume also that Ah A2. IAI . . the eigenvectors are (5-114) Note that if x/ is an eigenvector.'2 XiJ = = AjXil AjX.

they satisfy the characteristic equation. A2' and A3 are eigenvalues. Equation (5-115) can be written as (5-116) Next.alA~ = A~ Consequently. -a3 .a2A2 .238 Problem A-S-19 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. A~ Since AJ. At then Solution First note that A2 A~ -a3 .a2Al . and A3 are distinct eigenvalues of matrix A. + alAr + a2Ai + a3 = 0 Hence.a.a2A2 .alA~ = A~ -a3 . or (5-115) At Thus.. define AI D = [ ~ .a2 A3 .alAI = At -a3 . Show that if a transformation matrix P is defined by P = [. 5 Consider a matrix 1 o Assume that AJ. A2.

AI Noting that the product of the determinants Ip-II and Ipi is the determinant of the product Ip-lpl.Ailpi = Ip-lllpllAI .p-lAPI = IAP-Ip .p-lAPI are identical. Assume that the system is initially in equilibrium.AI and IAI . Since the determinant of a product is the product of the determinants. Assuming that the displacement y of mass m is measured from the equilibrium position.AI AI Thus.A)PI = Ip-liIAI . the moment of inertia of the pulley about the axis of rotation is J and the radius is R. The gravitational force of mass m causes a static deflection of the spring such that kS = mg.p-IAPI = Ip-l('\1 . we obtain IAI . we have proven that the eigenvalues of A are invariant under a linear transformation. we have shown that AI p-lAP = D = Problem A-5-20 [ ~ Prove that the eigenvalues of a square matrix A are invariant under a linear transformation. Solution To prove the invariance of the eigenvalues under a linear transformation. we have AP=PD Thus. obtain a state-space representation of the system. . PROBLEMS Problem B-5-1 Obtain state-space representations of the mechanical systems shown in Figures 5-36(a) and (b). Problem B-5-2 For the spring-mass-pulley system of Figure 5-37.Problems Then 239 (5-117) Comparing Equations (5-116) and (5-117).p-lAPI = Ip-lpllAI = IAI . we must show that the characteristic polynomials IAI . we obtain IAI . The external force u applied to mass m is the input and the displacement y is the output of the system.

The displacements y and z are the outputs of the system. 5 x (Output) k (a) x (Output) Figure 5-36 (a) and (b) Mechanical systems. '/ Problem 8-5-3 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-38. Problem 8-5-4 Obtain a state-space representation of the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-39. The force u(t) applied to mass ml is the input to the system. . The displacements Yt and Y2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions.240 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. (b) Figure 5-37 Spring-mass-pulley system. Assume that y and z are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. where Ul and U2 are the inputs and Yt and Y2 are the outputs.

Problem B-S-S Given the state equation Xl] [ ~2 = x3 and output equation [0 1O][XI] [1] 0 1 0 -3 1 3 X2 + 1 U X3 1 obtain the corresponding scalar differential equation in terms of y and u. Yl Y2 Figure 5-39 Mechanical system.Problems U(I) 241 y Figure 5-38 Mechanical system. .

v + 6y + 11y + 6y = 6u where y is the output and u is the input of the system. C :::: [1 0 0].242 Problem 8-5-6 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Obtain a state-space representation for the system. . Problem 8-S-7 Consider the system described by [~~] = [-: =~ ][~~] + [~]u y = [1 O][~~] Obtain the transfer function of the system. Problem 8-5-10 Consider the following system: Obtain the unit-step response curves with MATLAB. C = [1 0]. Problem 8-S-9 Consider the system i=Ax+Bu y = Cx + Du where A:::: [ ~ -600 1 o -100 -10 0] B=[~l 1 . Problem B-S-8 Consider a system described by the state equation i = Ax + Bu + Du and the output equation y:::: Cx where B :::: [~].S Consider the system defined by '. D:::: 0 Obtain the transfer function of the system. D = 1 Obtain the transfer function of the system.

C.] Derive a state-space representation of the system. Plot the response curve Y(I) versus 1 (where 0 < 1 < 10) with MATLAB. b = 8 N-s/m. The system is at rest for < o. The displacement y is measured from the equilibrium position for 1 < O. Problem 8-5-14 1 1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-40(a). D =0 Obtain the response to the initial condition Xo = [~] Use MATLAB command initial(A.y. an input force U(I) = 1N =0 forO S I S 5 for 5 < 1 is given to the system.Problems Problem 8-5-11 243 Obtain the unit-step response curve and unit-impulse response curve of the following system with MATLAB: [ Problem 8-5-12 ~l] X2 - _ X3 [-5 1 0 -25 0 1 Y = [0 25 S{. y = ex + Du where B x(O) = Xo = [~]. At = 0. + 8y + 17j + lOy = 0 subjected to the initial condition y(O) = 2.[initial condition].D. .t). Assume that m = 5 kg. and k = 20 N/m.) Obtain the response curve y(l) to the given initial condition with MATLAB. Problem 8-5-13 Consider the system . c= [1 0].5 (No external forcing function is present. Use command Isim. j(O) = 1. [See Figure 5-40(b). y(O) = 0.B.:] + [Olu Consider the system defined by i = Ax + Bu.

Assume that at t = 0 mass m is placed on the massless bar AA'. Assume that m = 10 kg. [See Figure 5-41(b). measured from the rest positions. and the spring constant k = 40 N/m. A A' y t<O 1>0 (b) (a) Figure 5-41 (a) Mechanical device. The input u is a step displacement input of 0. Obtain a state-space representation of the system.] Neglecting the mass of the spring-damper device. the viscous-friction coefficient b = 4 N-s/m. b = 20 N-s/m. and plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB. Assume that m = 1 kg. and k = 40 N/m. respectively. 5 o (a) 5 10 (b) Figure S-4O (a) Mechanical system. Problem 8-5-16 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-42. Plot the response curve y(t) versus t with MATLAB. . Problem 8-5-15 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-41 (a). Derive a state-space representation of the system. (b) input force u. Assume also that the system remains linear throughout the transient period.244 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. (b) vibration caused by placement of mass m on bar AA'. what is the subsequent motion y(t) of the bar AA'? The displacement y(t) is measured from the equilibrium position before the mass is placed on the bar AA'. The system is at rest for t < O.2 m. Assume that the input and output are the displacements u and y.

and fis a step force input of magnitude 10 N.Zt = z. Derive a state-space equation when z. Zit and it are chosen as state variables. and z(t) versus t. The displacements Zl and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions relative to the ground. Problem B-5-18 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-43(a). m2 = 20 kg. Z2(t) versus I. The displacements Zt and Z2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions before the input force f = tN =0 (0 < t ~ 10) (10 < t) (a) f 10N o 10 (b) Figure S-43 (a) Mechanical system. The system is at rest for t < O. Z.Problems 245 y u b m Figure 5-42 Mechanical system. plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t. Define Z2 . consider the system shown in Figure 5-31. (b) input force f . b = 20 N-s/m. k = 60 N/m. The system is at rest for t < O. Assuming that mt = 10 kg. Problem B-5-17 Referring to Problem A-S-I0.

obtain a state-space representation for the following system: Y(s) 5 U(s) = (s + 1)2(s + 2) Problem 8-5-22 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-44. and k2 = 60 N/m. Assume that ml Chap. Obtain a state-space representation of the system. Z2(t) versus t. measured from the equilibrium position before u is given at t = 0. + an-I] + anY (n) = bou + btU + . Problem 8-5-21 Using the partial-fraction expansion approach. The system is at rest for t < O. k t = 30 N/m. derive the state equation [Xn ? Xl] = [0 0 ~ 0 0 0 o 0 -a..Zt(t) versus t. The displacements Yl and Y2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions before the input force u is given at t = O.. and derive a state-space representation of the system.n-l ][XI] + [bb. obtain two state-space representations of the system. The force u is the input to the system and the displacement y. is the output of the system. + bn-1u + bnu (n-l) By choosing appropriate state variables.n1 --. Then plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t. Obtain a statespace representation of the system. Problem 8-5-19 Consider the system equation given by (n) Y + alY (n-l) + . The system is at rest for t < O..246 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems [see Figure 5-43(b») is given to the system. m2 = 20 kg. and Z2(t) . 5 = 10 kg.. b = 20 N-s/m. an-Ibn] u -an anb n 0 ? 1 -al (5-118) Xn bi - a1bo and output equation Xl X2 Y = [0 0 0 1] Xn-l Xn + bou (5-119) Problem 8-5-20 Consider the system defined by the following transfer function: Y(s) U(s) = 160(s S3 + 4) + 18s2 + 192s + 640 Using Methods 1 and 2 presented in Section 5-4. . Problem 8-5-23 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-45.

m2 = 5 kg. measured Figure 5-46 Mechanical system. b = 10 N-s/m.Problems 247 Figure S-44 Mechanical system. The displacement u is the input to the system.Y2(t) versus t with MATLAB. and the displacements y and z. The system is initially at rest. Plot the response curves Yt(t) versus t and . and k2 = 20 N/m and that input force u is a constant force of 5 N. Assuming that m} = 10 kg. Problem B-5-24 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-46. k} = 40 N/m. Fagure S-45 Mechanical system. obtain the response of the system. .

The force u is the input to the system and the displacements Zt and Z2. The force u is the input to the system and the displacements Zt and Z2. Obtain a state-space representation of the system. . Figure 5-48 Mechanical system. b = 25 N-s/m. Problem B-S-27 Consider the system Y(s) 25s + 5 U (s) = s3 + 5s 2 + 25s + 5 Obtain a state-space representation of the system with MATLAB. The system is at rest for t < O. The system is at rest for t < O.248 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. Problem B-S-26 Consider the system shown in Figure 5-48. Assume that ml = 100 kg. kl = 50 N/m. and k2= 100 N/m. Problem B-S-25 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 5-47. Plot the response curves Zl(t) versus t. The input force u is a step force of magnitude 10 N. Obtain a state-space representation of the system. m2 = 200 kg. are the outputs of the system. are the outputs of the system. 5 from their respective rest positions before the input displacement u is given to the system. Z2(t) versus t. and Z2(t) . Problem B-S-28 Consider the system Y(s) s3 + 2s2 + 15s + 10 U (s) = S3 + 4s 2 + 8s + 10 Obtain a state-space representation of the system with MATLAB. are the outputs of the system. Figure 5-47 Mechanical system. Obtain a state-space representation of the system.Zt(t) versus t. measured from their respective equilibrium positions before u is applied at t = 0. measured from their respective eqUilibrium positions before u is applied at t = 0.

) Obtain the transfer matrix (consisting of the preceding four transfer functions) of the system. and ~(S)/U2(S). [~ Each of the three matrices has the same characteristic equation (A . ~(S)/UI(S). Problem 8-5-30 Obtain the transfer matrix of the system defined by [f~] U2 ~4 ~J[~~] [~ !J[::] = + [~] [~ ~ ~][~:J = Problem 8-5-31 Consider a 3 X 3 matrix having a triple eigenvalue of Al' Then anyone of the following Jordan canonical forms is possible: [~ That is.Problems 249 Problem 8-5-29 Consider the system defined by Xl] [X2 = [ -25 0 -4 X2 + [10 l][XI] 1] 1 U2 1][U [~] = [~ ~t:] + [~ ~][::] This system involves two inputs and two outputs. (When considering input Uh we assume that input U2 is zero. This fact can be seen by denoting the first matrix by A and solving the following equation for x: [~ which can be rewritten as AtXl + X2 = AIXI At X2 + X3 = A\X2 AtX3 = A\X3 .Al)3 = O. Yt(s)/U2(s). and vice versa. The first corresponds to the case where there exists only one linearly independent eigenvector. Four transfer functions are involved: Yt(s)/UJ(s).

Thus. 5 which. in tum. x=GJ where a is a nonzero constant. there is only one linearly independent eigenvector. respectively. . gives xl = arbitrary constant.250 State-Space Approach to Modeling Dynamic Systems Chap. two and three linearly independent eigenvectors. Show that the second and third of the three matrices have. Hence.

(These elements are passive elements.) Then we briefly discuss voltage and current sources. Therefore.Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems 6-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter is concerned with mathematical modeling and the response analysis of electrical systems and electromechanical systems. In this section. (These are active elements. where volt ohm=--ampere 251 . we provide an outline of the chapter. and inductance elements. they cannot introduce additional energy into the circuit. capacitance. we present brief discussions on analogous systems in the chapter. The resistance R of a linear resistor is given by R = eR i where eR is the voltage across the resistor and i is the current through the resistor. Electrical systems and mechanical systems (as well as other systems. because they can introduce energy into the circuit. The unit of resistance is the ohm (n). because. we first review three types of basic elements of electrical systems: resistance. Resistance elements. although they can store or dissipate energy that is already present in the circuit.) Fmally. such as fluid systems) are very often described by analogous mathematical models.

Self-inductance. which is the ratio of the energy lost per cycle of ac voltage to the energy stored per cycle.252 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. 6 Resistors do not store electric energy in any form. '!\vo conductors separated by a nonconducting medium form a capacitor. is the proportionality constant between the induced voltage eL volts and the rate of change of current (or change in current per second) dildt amperes per second. ee(t) = C 10 1 (t i dt + ee(O) Although a pure capacitor stores energy and can release all of it. The capacitance C is a measure of the quantity of charge that can be stored for a given voltage across the plates. Note that real resistors may not be linear and may also exhibit some capacitance and inductance effects. The inductive effects can be classified as self-inductance and mutual inductance. since i = dqldt and ee = qlC. Inductance elements.idt C Therefore. The unit of capacitance is the farad (F). or simply inductance. that is. so two metallic plates separated by a very thin dielectric material form a capacitor. If the circuit does not contain ferromagnetic elements (such as an iron core). The capacitance C of a capacitor can thus be given by C =!L ee where q is the quantity of charge stored and ee is the voltage across the capacitor. Thus. where farad = ampere-second 1 vo t dec i=Cdt = coulomb volt Note that. the rate of change of flux is proportional to dildt. eL L = dildt . Self-inductance is that property of a single coil that appears when the magnetic field set up by the current in the coilllnks to the coil itself. These energy losses are indicated by a power factor. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of change of flux linking the circuit. an electromotive force is induced in the circuit. real capacitors exhibit various losses. Capacitance elements. If a circuit lies in a time-varying magnetic field. a small-valued power factor is desirable. L. but instead dissipate it as heat. we have or dec = l.

Figure 6-1(b) shows a voltage source that has a constant value for an indefinite time. A high value of Q generally means that the inductor contains small resistance. A voltage source is a device that causes a specified voltage to exist between two points in a circuit. When a change in current of 1 ampere per second in either of the two inductors induces an electromotive force of 1 volt in the other inductor.) Voltage and current sources. their mutual inductance Mis 1 henry. Often the voltage is denoted by E. each may come under the influence of the magnetic field of the other inductor. 6-1 Introduction 253 The unit of inductance is the henry (H). . Then the voltage drop in the first inductor is related to the current flowing through the first inductor. The voltage may be time varying or time invariant (for a sufficiently long time). Figure 6-1(c) is a schematic diagram of a current source. Figure 6-1(a) is a schematic diagram of a voltage source. Mutual inductance refers to the influence between inductors that results from the interaction of their fields. to distinguish it from self-inductance L.Sec. The complex-impedance approach is included. whose magnetic field influences the first. A current source causes a specified current to flow through a wire containing this source. Section 6-6 treats operational-amplifier systems. Finally. Section 6-2 reviews the fundamentals of electrical circuits that are presented in college physics courses. Section 6-5 offers brief discussions of electromechanical systems. Section 6-3 deals with mathematical modeling and the response analysis of electrical systems. they have considerable resistance. (Note that it is customary to use the symbol M to denote mutual inductance. which denotes the ratio of stored to dissipated energy. If two inductors are involved in an electrical circuit. Section 6-1 has presented introductory material. The current idt) can thus be given by idt) = ~lt eLdt + iL(O) Because most inductors are coils of wire. Outline of the chapter. Section 6-4 discusses analogous systems. The second inductor is also influenced by the first in exactly the same manner. as well as to the current flowing through the second inductor. An electrical circuit has an inductance of 1 henry when a rate of change of 1 ampere per second will induce an emf of 1 volt: h enry volt ampere/second weber ampere The voltage eL across the inductor L is given by eL = Ldi" diL where iL is the current through the inductor. A battery is an example of this type of voltage source. The energy loss due to the presence of resistance is indicated by the quality factor Q.

6-2 FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS In this section. e is the emf (volts). The voltage between points A and B is Figure 6-2 Series circuit. and Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws. series and parallel circuits.254 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Figure 6-2 shows a simple series circuit. (c) current source. Ohm's law can be expressed as . Ohm's law states that the current in a circuit is proportional to the total electromotive force (emf) acting in the circuit and inversely proportional to the total resistance of the circuit. Series circuits. . l =R e where i is the current (amperes). The combined resistance of series-connected resistors is the sum of the separate resistances. we review Ohm's law. and R is the resistance (ohms). (b) constant voltage source. 6 e(t) Circuit E Circuit (a) (b) Circuit (c) Figure 6-1 (a) Voltage source. Ohm's law.

e R3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 6-3. = Rl + R z + . The combined resistance is then given by R Parallel circuits. e e e e where R is the combined resistance. . it follows that 1=-+-+-=R1 R2 R3 R . The combined resistance between points Band Cis RBC = R2 + R3 R zR 3 . -=-+-+R Rl R z R3 or 1 1 1 1 Resistance of combined series and parallel resistors.Sec. 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 255 Figure 6-3 Parallel circuit. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-4(a). 11 e = R 1 ' IZ = R ' 2 Since i = i 1 + i2 + i3. Hence. where Thus.

S R2 A B C (a) A R} B C R} R} A (b) RBe R2 R4 B R3 Aa-1 R} A £R' ~B R3+ R4 R2 B (c) A Figure 6-4 Combined series and parallel resistors.256 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Rl and R3 are parallel and R2 and R4 are parallel. The combined resistance R between points A and C is R = Rl + RBe = Rl + R 2 R2 R 3 R + 3 The circuit shown in Figure 6-4(b) can be considered a parallel circuit consisting of resistances (Rl + R2 ) and (R3 + R4)' So the combined resistance R between points A and B is or R = (RI + R2 )(R3 + R4) Rl + R2 + R3 + R4 Next. and the two parallel pairs of resistances are connected in . consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-4(c). Here.

i5 = o. Figure 6-7 shows a circuit that consists of a battery and an external resistance. .&-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 257 series. Kirchhoffs current law states that i1 + i2 + i3 . and i is the current. In applying the law to circuit problems. R is the external resistance. i. of which there are two: the current law (node law) and the voltage law (loop law). therefore.i4 . or in going through a resistance in the direction of the current flow.is =0 Kirchhoff's voltage law (loop law). the following rules should be observed: Currents going toward a node should be preceded by a plus sign. This law can also be stated as follows: The sum of the voltage drops is equal to the sum of the voltage rises around a loop. we obtain RAP = RIR3 R1 + R3' R2R4 R pB R1 R3 = R2 + R4 R2R4 R As a result. E is the electromotive force. capacitances. Kirchhoffs current law (node law) states that the algebraic sum of all currents entering and leaving a node is zero. As applied to Figure 6-5. A node in an electrical circuit is a point where three or more wires are joined together. A drop in voltage [which occurs in going through a source of electromotive force from the positive to the negative terminal. resistances. Kirchhoff's current law (node law). or in going through a resistance in opposition to the current flow. (This law can also be stated as follows: The sum of all the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all the currents leaving the same node. If we follow the loop in the clockwise direction Figure 6-5 Node.Sec. as shown in Figure 6--6(b)] should be preceded by a plus sign. as shown in Figure 6--6(a). the following rules should be observed: A rise in voltage [which occurs in going through a source of electromotive force from the negative to the positive terminal. and so on. it is often necessary to use Kirchhoff's laws. inductances. r is the internal resistance of the battery. + i2 + i3 . as shown in Figure 6-6 (c). the combined resistance R becomes R = RAP + R pB = R1+ R3 + R2+ 4 Kirchhoff's laws. Redrawing this circuit as shown in Figure 6-4(c). Kirchhoff's voltage law states that at any given instant of time the algebraic sum of the voltages around any loop in an electrical circuit is zero. In solving circuit problems that involve many electromotive forces.) In applying the law to circuit problems. currents going away from a node should be preceded by a minus sign.i4 . as shown in Figure 6--6(d)] should be preceded by a minus sign. Here.

C Figure 6-7 Electrical circuit..E2 ..i'2 . respectively..-...258 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap..iR ...-----+-----. E} .iR .ir} = 0 or 1=---'---- . we obtain E} .E2 . + eit + ec:t or =0 E . (A ~ B ~ C ~ A) as shown. then we have e.} + r2 + R (6-1) ...S (a) (c) E1e J E1e J eAB= +E (b) R:~ R:~ i i eAB= +Ri eAB= -E (d) eAB = -Ri Figure 6-6 Diagrams showing voltage rises and voltage drops in circuits. and R is the external resistance.. B ' .. where E} and r} (E2 and '2) are the electromotive force and internal resistance of battery 1 (battery 2). E R+r A circuit consisting of two batteries and an external resistance appears in Figure 6-8(a).) ... By assuming the direction of the current i as shown and following the loop clockwise as shown.. (Note: Each circular arrow shows the direction one follows in analyzing the respective circuit.ir = 0 from which it follows that l=-- .

Sec. Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-9. yields i < 0. if we assume that the current flows to the right and if the value of i is calculated and found to be positive. Here. That is. we obtain E} or i = + iR . the final result is the same in either case. which means that the current i flows opposite to the assumed direction. For the circuits shown in Figure 6-8. however. which means that the current i flows in the direction assumed. by following the loop clockwise. Circuits with two or more loops. Equation (6-2). suppose that El > E2• Then Equation (6-1) gives i > 0. Let us find the current in each wire. both Kirchhoff's current law and voltage law may be applied. Note that the direction used to follow the loop is arbitrary.E2 + iT2 + iTt = ~ . which has two loops.El Tl ° + T2 + R (6-2) Note that. The second is to determine the directions that we follow in each loop. then the current i actually flows to the right. in solving circuit problems. the current i actually flows to the left. (Note that these directions are arbitrary and could differ from those shown i1 A i3 i2 E1 n E'n R2 R3 B Figure 6-9 Electrical circuit. 6-2 Fundamentals of Electrical Circuits 259 (a) Figure 6-8 Electrical circuits. If the value of i is found to be negative. just as the direction of current flow can be assumed to be arbitrary. we can assume the directions of currents as shown in the diagram. The first step in writing the circuit equations is to define the directions of the currents in each wire. (b) If we assume that the direction of the current i is reversed [Figure 6-8(b )]. For circuits with two or more loops. the direction used in following the loop can be clockwise or counterclockwise. . then.

E2 R 3 .i2) .i3R2 = 0 Eliminating i2 from the preceding three equations and then solving for il and i 3 .i 1) = 0 Note that the net current through resistance R2 is the difference between i1 and i2.i1 in Figure 6-10.) Figure 6-10 Electrical circuit.E2 . in Figure 6-10. . verify that i3 in Figure 6-9 is equal to i2 . 6 in the diagram. Writing equations for loops by using cyclic currents. of the circuit.) Suppose that we follow the loops clockwise.R2{il . we assume that clockwise cyclic currents i1 and i2 exist in the left and right loops.i2 = 0 El . we find that Hence. 11 3 1 = RIR2 2 R2R3 + R3 R l + E (R + R ) . as is shown in the figure. 12 = EIR2 + E2R1 RIR2 + R2 R 3 + R3 R l (By comparing the circuits shown in Figures 6-9 and 6-10.R1i1 = 0 E2 . respectively. For instance. In this approach. the directions could be either clockwise or counterclockwise.ilRI = 0 E2 .R3i2 .260 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Solving for i1 and i2 gives For left loop: For right loop: .R2( i2 .E2 + i3R2 . (Again. Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the circuit results in the following equations: E1 .) Then we obtain the following equations: At point A: For the left loop: For the right loop: il + i3 . we assume that a cyclic current exists in each loop.i2R3 .

The variables of interest in the circuit analysis are voltages and currents at various points along the circuit. because the current in the inductor cannot change from zero to a finite value instantaneously. . Note that at the instant switch S is closed the current i(O) is zero.) A mathematical model may consist of algebraic equations. By arbitrarily choosing the direction of the current around the loop as shown in the figure. we obtain L[sl(s) .Sec. we first present the mathematical modeling of electrical circuits and obtain solutions of simple circuit problems. Let us solve Equation (6-3) for the current i(t). we have (Ls + R)/(s) E =- s E G L ( ) i R Figure 6-11 Electrical circuit. differential equations. Example 6-1 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-11. Thus.i(O)] + RI(s) = E s Noting that i(O) = 0.+ R' E 1= dt (6-3) This is a mathematical model for the given circuit. integrodifferential equations. followed by derivations of mathematical models of electrical circuits.L di .Ri = 0 dt or di L . (Although the terms circuit and network are sometimes used interchangeably. Such a model may be obtained by applying one or both of Kirchhoff's laws to a given circuit. Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 261 6-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS The first step in analyzing circuit problems is to obtain mathematical models for the circuits. Assume that the switch S is open for 1 < 0 and closed at 1 = O. and similar ones. Obtain a mathematical model for the circuit and obtain an equation for the current i(I). Then we review the concept of complex impedances. network implies a more complicated interconnection than circuit. In this section. i(O) = O. we obtain E .

. with t == tl the initial time..S Ii ----. gives L[sJ(s) . and (6-8) constitute a mathematical model for the system. Obtain a mathematical model for the system. . the solution of Equation (6-5) is t ~ 0 (6-5) i(t) == E [1 R At t = tIt e-(RIL)/] tl > t . it is closed at t = 0. Assume that switch S is open for t < 0. . . The Laplace transform of Equation (6-7).----0. Figure 6-12 Plot of i(t) versus I for the circuit shown in Figure 6-11 when switch S is closed at t = O..s + (RlL) 1] (6-4) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives i(t) == E [1 _ R ExampJe6-Z e-(RIL)t] A typical plot of i(t) versus t appears in Figure 6-12. Now we shall obtain the solution of Equation (6-7) with the initial condition given by Equation (6-8).632 Ii E ..-------.. (6-7).262 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems .(tl)] + RI(s) == 0 .. The equation for the circuit for t dt where the initial condition at t == di 1= L -+ R' 0 t} is given by i(tt> == E [1 - R e-(RIL)/I] (6-8) (Note that the instantaneous value of the current at the switching instant t == tl serves as the initial condition for the transient response for t . . and is open again at t = tl > O. Consider again the circuit shown in Figure 6-11. The equation for the circuit is L di + Ri = E .(0) = 0 tl > dt From Equation (6-4).:: 0 ~ tl (6-6) is (6-7) the switch is opened. and find the current i(t) for t ~ O.(1) Chap. o Ii L or E I(s) == s(Ls + R) =R E [1 -.:: tl') Equations (6-5).-J- E ...

the current i{t) for written 0 can be i{l) = E [1 R _ _ e-(RIL)/] 11 > t ?! 0 = E [1 R e-(RlL)/I]e-(RlL)(t-tt) A typical plot of i(l) versus I for this case is given in Figure 6-13. Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)IE. 6-3 i(t) Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 263 R E -------------::-~~~~~---­ (1.e-f/l)j . we obtain the following equations: Ri + iJi . or (Ls + R)/(s) = Li(td Hence. from Equations (6-6) and (6-10).. Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the system. we get 1 1 RI{s) + C-. I(s) = Li(tl) Ls + R = E [1 R _ e-(RIL)t l ] 1 s + (RIL) (6-9) The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (6-9) gives i{t) = ~[1 R e-(RIL)tl]e-(RlL)(t-t d (6-10) 1 ?! Consequently.(s)../(s) = Ej(s) C-. assuming zero initial conditions. obtain a state-space representation of the system. Also. - Figure 6-13 Plot of i(l) versus 1 for the circuit shown in Figure 6-12 when switch S is closed at t = 0 and opened at 1 = I).Ji C dt = e.Sec. Example 6-3 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-14. /(s) = Eo{s) 1 1 . dt (6-11) (6-12) =e Q The transfer-function model of the circuit can be obtained as follows: Taking the Laplace transfonns of Equations (6-11) and (6-12). The circuit consists of a resistance R(in ohms) and a capacitance C (in farads).!.

) Figure 6-15 Electrical circuit. a resistance R (in ohms). Obtain the transfer function Eis)IE. Also. The circuit consists of an inductance L (in henrys).. we obtain the following equations: L di dt + Ri + C .!. Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the system.!i L dt = e· I (6-14) (6-15) R e. .(s). J(s) 11) 1 RCs + 1 (6-13) This system is a first-order system. A state-space model of the system may be obtained as follows: First. 1 y = eo = x 1 then we obtain x=--x+-u RC RC y=x These two equations give a state-space representation of the system. and a capacitance C (in farads).264 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. the transfer function of the system is Eo(s) Ej(s) = ( R 11 c. from Equation (6-13). obtain a state-space representation of the system. J(s) + c-. Example 6-4 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-15. 6 Figure 6-14 RC circuit Assuming that the input is ei and the output is eo. note that. the differential equation for the circuit is RCeo + eo = ej If we defIne the state variable and the input and output variables u = ej. o~------------------~----o .

. we get 1 1 Ls/(s) + R/(s) + C-. from Equation (6-16). +!i. by defining state variables 1 _ 1 LC eo . note that. Then the transfer function of the whole system becomes G(s) = )(l(S) = )(1(S))(2(S) = G1(S)G2(s) )(3(S) )(2(S))(3(S) . The transfer function of a system consisting of two nonloading cascaded elements can be obtained by eliminating the intermediate input and output.(s) becomes 1 1 Eo(s) Eo(s) Ej(s) = Lcil 1 + RCs +1 (6-16) A state-space model of the system may be obtained as follows: FITSt.(s) = C-.Sec. 1= [01 LC Xl X2 -- -- 1][ 1 [0] R Xl + 1 U L X2 - LC and These two equations give a mathematical model of the system in state space. For example. /(s) = E. The transfer functions of the elements are )(2(S) )(3(S) and G2(s) = )(2(S) Gt(s) = )(l(S) If the input impedance of the second element is infinite. + eo Leo Then. consider the system shown in Figure 6-16(a). assuming zero initial conditions. the differential equation for the system is . the output of the first ele- ment is not affected by connecting it to the second element. Transfer Functions of Nonloading Cascaded Elements. /(s) Then the transfer function Eo(s)/E. and the input and output variables we obtain [.LC e. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 265 The transfer-function model of the circuit can be obtained as follows: Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-14) and (6-15).

(s) . Many feedback systems have components that load each other. consider the system shown in Figure 6-17. The insertion of an isolating amplifier between the circuits to obtain nonloading characteristics is frequently used in combining circuits. Eo(s) _ ( 1 E. . and the transfer function of the entire circuit equals the product of the individual transfer functions.. This is shown in Figure 6-16(b). have negligible loading effects... Consider the system shown in Figure 6-18. in this case. Since amplifiers have very high input impedances.-. (b) an equivalent system. As an example.. The capacitances C l and C2 are not charged initially. The transfer function of the whole system is thus the product of the transfer functions of the individual elements. 6 • I Gt(S) G2(S) . The two simple RC circuits. Thus.(b) I Figure 6-16 (a) System consisting of two nonloading cascaded elements. is the input and eo is the output.266 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Xt(S) (a) Chap..RlClS + 1 )(K)( 1 ) R2C2s + 1 K Transfer functions of cascaded elements. Assume that e. Let us show that the second stage of the circuit (the R2C2 portion) produces a loading effect on the first stage (the RlCl portion).. The equations for the system are ~lJ (it - i2) dt + Rtit = ei =0 (6-17) ~t J (i2 - ill dt + R2i2 + ~2 J i2dt (6-18) (6-19) ~2Ji2dt = eo ej Isolating amplifier (gainK) Figure 6-17 Electrical system.. isolated by an amplifier as shown in Figure 6-17. an isolation amplifier inserted between the two circuits justifies the nonloading assumption.

In this system. The complex impedance . we obtain (6-20) (6-21) (6--22) Eliminating II(S) from Equations (6--20) and (6-21) and writing E. Consider the system shown in Figure 6--19.(s) in terms of 12(s).(s) = (RICIS 1 + 1)(R2C2S + 1) + RI C2S 1 RICIR2C2S2 + (RICI + R2C2 + R I C2)S + 1 (6-23) The term R1C2S in the denominator of the transfer function represents the interaction of two simple RC circuits. if the transfer function of this system is obtained under the assumption of no loading. In other words. 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 267 Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-17) through (6-19). we implicitly assume that the output is unloaded. which means that no power is being withdrawn at the output. and thus the assumption of no loading is violated. however. when we derive the transfer function for an isolated circuit. Since (RICI + R2C2 + RI C2)2 > 4R I CI R2C2. In deriving transfer functions for electrical circuits. the load impedance is assumed to be infinite. Complex impedances. The analysis just presented shows that. we frequently find it convenient to write the Laplace-transformed equations directly.(s) to be Eo(s) E.Sec. without writing the differential equations. a certain amount of power is withdrawn. the two roots of the denominator of Equation (6-23) are real. When the second circuit is connected to the output of the first. we find the transfer function between Eo(s) and E. assuming zero initial conditions. if two RC circuits are connected in cascade so that the output from the first circuit is the input to the second. the overall transfer function is not the product of 1/(R1C1S + 1) and 1I(R2C2 s + 1). respectively. The degree of the loading effect determines the amount of modification of the transfer function. Zl and Z2 represent complex impedances. The reason for this is that. Therefore. then it is not valid.

6 Figure 6-19 Electrical circuit. respectively. assume that the voltages ei and eo are the input and output of the circuit. Figure 6-20 Electrical circuit. under the assumption that the initial conditions are zero. lICs. to /(s). The general relationship E(s) = Z(s)/(s) corresponds to Ohm's law for purely resistive circuits. Then the transfer function of this circuit can be obtained as Eo(s) 22(s)I(s) E. or Ls. (Note that.(s) = Zl(S)/(S) + 22(s)/(s) Z2(S) = Zl(S) + Z2(s) where /(s) is the Laplace transform of the current i(t) in the circuit. . respectively. For the circuit shown in Figure 6-20. a capacitance C. The transfer function of an electrical circuit can be obtained as a ratio of complex impedances. the Laplace transform of the current through the element. then the complex impedance is given by R. impedances can be combined in series and in parallel. If the two-terminal element is a resistance R. so that Z(s) = E(s)II(s). ~----------e----------~ Z(s) of a two-terminal circuit is the ratio of E(s). If complex impedances are connected in series. the Laplace transform of the voltage across the terminals. Deriving transfer functions of electrical circuits with the use of complex impedances. the total impedance is the sum of the individual complex impedances. This approach greatly simplifies the derivation of transfer functions of electrical circuits. Since the transfer function requires zero initial conditions.) Remember that the impedance approach is valid only if the initial conditions involved are all zero. like resistances. or an inductance L. the impedance approach can be applied to obtain the transfer function of the electrical circuit.268 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.

Sec. the current I is divided into two currents I} and h.) The circuit shown in Figure 6-22 can be redrawn as that shown in Figure 6-23(a). . Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E.( s) by the complex-impedance approach. the transfer function Eo( s )/Ei ( s) is Eo(s) E. (Capacitances C1 and C2 are not charged initially. which can be further modified to Figure 6-23 (b). Noting that we obtain Figure 6-22 Electrical circuit. = Ls + R. Zl Figure 6-21 Electrical circuit. 1 Z2=- 1 Cs Hence.(s) = Cs 1 Ls + R + Cs 1 = LCs2 + RCs + 1 Example 6-5 Consider the system shown in Figure 6-22. In the system shown in Figure 6-23(b). 6-3 Mathematical Modeling of Electrical Systems 269 """""""'-t---r---O 01-----------""'---_0 For the circuit shown in Figure 6-21.

] 6-4 ANALOGOUS SYSTEMS Systems that can be represented by the same mathematical model.(s) = Z1(Z2 + Z3 + Z4) + ~(Z3 + Z4) Substituting ZI = R. Observing that we get Eo(s) Z2Z4 E. (b) equivalent circuit diagram. [Notice that it is the same as that given by Equation (6-23). The concept of analogous systems is useful in practice. Thus. for the following reasons: 1.. analogous systems are described by the same differential or integrodifferential equations or transfer functions.270 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems I Chap. Z2 = 1I(C1s). and Z4 = 1I(C2s) into this last equation yields 1 1 Eo(s) = Ej(s) CIS C2s R{c~s + R2 + C~s) + ~s (R2 + C~s) 1 which is the transfer function of the system. are called analogous systems. Z3 = R2. . but that are physically different. 6 Ej(s) Ej(s) (a) (b) Figure 6-23 (a) The circuit of Figure 6-22 shown in terms of impedances. The solution of the equation describing one physical system can be directly applied to analogous systems in any other field.

This section presents analogies between mechanical and electrical systems. Consider the mechanical system of Figure 6-24(a) and the electrical system of Figure 6-24(b). we see that the differential equations for the two systems are of identical form. 0. measured from the equilibrium position. . In the mechanical system p is the external force. for electrical or electronic systems are. 6-4 Analogous Systems 271 2. which may be more easily constructed than models of the corresponding mechanical systems. Mechanical systems can be studied through their electrical analogs. Force-voltage analogy. much easier to deal with experimentally.Sec. L p R e x J (b) c (a) Figure ~24 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. There are two electrical analogies for mechanical systems: the force-voltage analogy and the force--current analogy. The equation for the mechanical system is d 2x dx m-+ b-+ kx = P dt 2 dt (6-24) where x is the displacement of mass m. this last equation becomes dq 1 d 2q L-+ R-+-q = e 2 dt dt C (6-25) Comparing Equations (6-24) and (6-25). and in the electrical system e is the voltage source. or the like). Mechanical-electrical analogies. pneumatic system. we can build and study its electrical analog. Thus. The equation for the electrical system is di L -+ R' +lJ'dt=e Z l dt C In terms of the electric charge q. in general. these two systems are analogous systems. instead of building and studying a mechanical system (or a hydraulic system. Since one type of system may be easier to handle experimentally than another.

The analogy here is called the force-voltage analogy (or mass-inductance analogy). Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-25(a). where p is the external force. Consider next the electrical system shown in Figure 6-25 (b) .272 TABLE 6-1 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Force-Voltage Analogy Chap. lR e = R' i C = C de dt /. a list of which appears in Table 6-1. Another analogy between mechanical and electrical systems is based on the force-current analogy. where is is the current source. IJ L edt. . measured from the eqUilibrium position. Force-current analogy. Applying Kirchhoff's current law gives (6-27) where lL = . 6 Mechanical Systems Force p (torque Mass m (moment of inertia 1) Viscous-friction coefficient b Spring constant k Displacement x (angular displacement 8) Velocity i (angular velocity 8) Electrical Systems Voltagee Inductance L Resistance R Reciprocal of capacitance. . The system equation is m dt 2 d 2x + bdi + kx = p dx (6-26) where x is the displacement of mass m. lie Charge q Current i n The terms that occupy corresponding positions in the differential equations are called analogous quantities. iL iR ic C L R I e ~ (a) (b) Figure 6-25 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems.

For any given physical system. 1 C dt 2 + R dt + L Y. The analogy here is called the force-current analogy (or mass-capacitance analogy). It proves particularly useful when a given physical system (mechanical. Voltage e x . even if the operating region of a given mechanical system is wide. the mathematical response can be given a physical interpretation. The concept of analogy is useful in applying well-known results in one field to another. Comments. In other words. Equation (6-27) can be written as I i- -1 L J d= l e dt + -e + C. we find that the two systems are analogous. it can be divided into two or more subregions. since the mathematical models on which the analogies are based are only approximations to the dynamic characteristics of physical systems. Systems having an identical transfer function (or identical mathematical model) are analogous systems. dt Equation (6-28) can be written in terms of y.e . so that analyzing an analogous electrical circuit first is advantageous. 1 dy. but includes any physical or nonphysical system. The analogous quantities are listed in Table 6-2. as d2y. = is (6-29) Comparing Equations (6-26) and (6-29). is not limited to mechanical-electrical analogy. the analogy may break down if the operating region of one system is very wide. TABLE 6-2 Force-Current Analogy Mechanical Systems Force p (torque 1) Mass m (moment of inertia 1) Viscous-friction coefficient b Spring constant k Displacement x (angular displacement 8) Velocity (angular velocity 8) Electrical Systems Current i Capacitance C Reciprocal of resistance. Such an analogous electrical circuit can be built physically or can be simulated on the digital computer. and so on) is complicated. 11L Magnetic flux linkage y. 11R Reciprocal of inductance. pneumatic. 6-4 Analogous Systems 273 ·1 I Thus.) Analogous systems exhibit the same output in response to the same input. hydraulic. is related to the voltage e by the equation -=e dy. Analogies between two systems break down if the regions of operation are extended too far. (The transfer function is one of the simplest and most concise forms of mathematical models available today. Nevertheless.Sec. R dt S (6-28) Since the magnetic flux linkage y. of course. and analogous electrical systems can be built for each subregion. Analogy.

For the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-26(a). we obtain mathematical models of dc servomotors.xo) = kxo or bx.274 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. (b) analogous electrical system.(s) RCs = Res + 1 Comparing the transfer functions obtained. we obtain bsXj(s) = (k + bs)Xo(s) Hence. 6 Example 6-(i Obtain the transfer functions of the systems shown in Figures 6-26(a) and (b). we have Eo(s) E. (Note that both b/k and RC have the dimension of time and are time constants of the respective systems. = kxo + bxo Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. we see that the two systems are analogous. J (b) R eo Figure 6-26 (a) Mechanical system. we control the field current or armature current or we use a servodriver as a motor-driver combination.(s) = bs + k = ~1 is + For the electrical system shown in Figure 6-26(b). the equation of motion is ~ I I b(x. assuming zero initial conditions. To control the motion or speed of dc servomotors. .) c 0 I e. (a) 6-5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS In this section. and show that these systems are analogous. There are many different . the transfer function between Xo(s) and Xj(s) is b Xo(s) bs is X.

the flux becomes constant and the torque becomes directly proportional to the armature current. which improves the efficiency of operating servomotors. Here. we shall discuss only armature control of a dc servomotor and obtain its mathematical model in the form of a transfer function. V 8 = angular displacement of the motor shaft.N-m J = moment of inertia of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. so T = Kia where K is a motor-torque constant. if = constant Figure 6-27 Armature-controlled de servomotor. n La = armature inductance. rad T = torque developed by the motor. A if = field current. which will result in a reversal of the direction of rotor rotation. or !/I T = Kfif where Kf is a constant. Armature control of dc servomotors. V eb = back emf. H ia = armature current. the sign of the torque T will be reversed. N-mJradis The torque T developed by the motor is proportional to the product of the armature current ia and the air gap flux !/I. however. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 275 types of servodrivers. Ra = armature resistance. The torque T can therefore be written as = KfifKtia where K 1 is a constant. kg-m2 b = viscous-friction coefficient of the motor and load referred to the motor shaft. where the field current is held constant. In this system. Notice that if the sign of the current ia is reversed. which in tum is proportional to the field current.A ea = applied armature voltage. Consider the armature-controlled dc servomotor shown in Figure 6-27. Most are designed to control the speed of dc servomotors. .Sec. For a constant field current.

we obtain the following equations: KbSB(S) = Eb(S) (Las + Ra)IaCs) + Eb(S) = Ea(s) (Js + bs)B(s) = T(s) = KIa(s) 2 (6-33) (6-34) (6-35) Considering Ea( s) as the input and B( s) as the output and eliminating la( s) and Eb(S) from Equations (6-33). hence.276 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. the induced voltage eb is directly proportional to the angular velocity dO/dt. (6-34). If La is neglected. J -2+ b-= T = Kl dt dt a (6-32) Assuming that all initial conditions are zero and taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-30). or (6-30) where eb is the back emf and Kb is a back-emf constant. 6 When the armature is rotating. the back emf increases the effective damping of the system. For a constant flux. then the transfer function given by Equation (6-36) reduces to K --=--------=------Rab + KKb) S( S B(s) K Raj (6-37) + Raj Notice that the term (Rab + KKb)/(RaJ) in Equation (6-37) corresponds to the damping term. and (6-32). Lad! + Ra1a + eb = ea (6-31) The armature current produces the torque that is applied to the inertia and friction. we obtain the transfer function for the dc servomotor: (6-36) The inductance La in the armature circuit is usually small and may be neglected. The speed of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is controlled by the armature voltage ea' The differential equation for the armature circuit is dia . Equation (6-37) may be rewritten as B(s) Km Ea(s) = s(Tms + 1) (6-38) . Thus. and (6-35). (6-31). a voltage proportional to the product of the flux and angular velocity is induced in the armature. d 20 de .

Figure 6-28 illustrates a simple gear train system in which the gear train transmits motion and torque from the input member to the output member. to magnify torque. and that the number of teeth on each gear is . respectively. Gear trains are frequently used in mechanical systems to reduce speed. where Km = KI(Rab + KKb ) = motor gain constant Tm = RaJ1(Rab + KKb ) = motor time constant Equation (6-38) is the transfer function of the dc servomotor when the armature voltage ei t) is the input and the angular displacement 8( t) is the output. we have 'lWl = '2W2 '1 where WI and ~ are the angular velocities of gear 1 and gear 2. and the numbers of teeth on gear 1 and gear 2 are nl and n2. this system possesses an integrating property. a load is driven by a motor through the gear train. that there is neither backlash nor elastic deformation. Therefore. then ExampJe6-7 Consider the system shown in Figure 6-29. if the torque applied to the input shaft is Tl and the torque transmitted to the output shaft is T2. Here. If the radii of gear 1 and gear 2 are '1 and '2.) Gear train.Sec. (Notice that the time constant Tm of the motor becomes smaller as the resistance Ra is reduced and the moment of inertia J is made smaller. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 277 Input Output Figure 6-28 Gear train system. then -='2 n2 '1 nl Because the surface speeds at the point of contact of the two gears must be identical. In other words. the gear train transmits the power unchanged. Assuming that the stiffness of the shafts of the gear train is infmite. Since the transfer function involves the term 1/s. or to obtain the most efficient power transfer by matching the driving member to the given load. -=-=W1 ~ nl '2 n2 If we neglect friction loss. respectively. respectively.

the following two equations can be derived: For the motor shaft (shaft 1). Since the gear train transmits the power unchanged. respectively. ~. find the equivalent inertia and equivalent friction referred to the motor shaft (shaft 1) and those referred to the load shaft (shaft 2).278 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Motor shaft (shaft 1) Gear 1 Chap. WI hI (6-39) where Tm is the torque developed by the motor and TI is the load torque on gear 1 due to the rest of the gear train. For the load shaft (shaft 2). we have TIWt = T2~ or Tt = T2 -W2 = T2 -nl Wl n2 If nI/n2 < 1. respectively. respectively.S Input torque from motor Load torque TL Gear 2 Load shaft (shaft 2) Figure 6-29 Gear train system. and the angular velocities of shaft 1 and shaft 2 are and ~. The inertia and viscous friction coefficient of each gear train component are denoted by lit and 12 . (6-40) where T2 is the torque transmitted to gear 2 and TL is the load torque. By applying Newton's second law to this system. the gear ratio reduces the speed in addition to magnifying the torque. Eliminating TI and T2 from Equations (6-39) and (6-40) yields (6-41) Since W2 = (nI/n2)wh eliminating ClJ2 from Equation (6-41) gives [II + (::YJ2 ]WI + [hI + (::)2~ ]WI + (::) TL = Tm (6-42) . proportional to the radius of the gear. The numbers of teeth on gear 1 and gear 2 are ni and n2.

Obtain the transfer function between the output 82 and the input ea. the equivalent inertia and equivalent viscous friction coefficient of the gear train referred to shaft 1 are given by The effect of 12 on the equivalent inertia II cq is determined by the gear ratio nI1n2. 6-5 Mathematical Modeling of Electromechanical Systems 279 Thus. Similar comments apply to the equivalent friction of the gear train. In the diagram.Sec. then the effect of 12 on the equivalent inertia II eq is negligible. If nl1n2 ~ 1. The equivalent inertia and equivalent viscous friction coefficient of the gear train referred to shaft 2 are 1 2eq = 12 + (::)2Ilt So the relationship between II eq and 12 eq is and that between bl eq and bz eq is bl eq = (:~) b2 eq 2 and Equation (6-42) can be modified to give 12eqWz + bzeqWz + TL = !Tm n ExampJe6-8 Consider the dc servomotor system shown in Figure 6-30. J 'a e. n ia = armature current. A '. In terms of the equivalent inertia II eq and equivalent viscous friction coefficient b 1 eq' Equation (6-42) can be simplified to give II eqWl + bi eqWI + nTL = Tn! where n = nlln2. For speed-reducing gear trains. The armature inductance is negligible and is not shown in the circuit. Figure 6-30 DC servomotor system. . Ra = armature resistance. the ratio nl/n2 is much smaller than unity.

V eb = back emf. we obtain KKb ) ( Jt eqs2 + R. The induced voltage angular velocity 81.280 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems if = field current. V 81 = angular displacement of the motor shaft. (6-44). we obtain Eb(s) = KbS@t(s) RaIa(s) + Eb(s) = Ea(s) 1} eqs2@}(s) = KIa(s) (6-46) (6-47) (6-48) Eliminating Eb(s) and la(s) from Equations (6-46). Thus. kg-m2 2 12 = moment of inertia of the load. and (6-48). 6 ea = applied armature voltage. A Chap. (6-47). N-m 1) = moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor. rad 82 = angular displacement of the load element.S n1 8z (s) = Ra Ea(s) KKb )n2 K . or d(h eb eb is proportional to the = KbTt (6-43) where Kb is the back-emf constant. The equation for the armature circuit is (6-44) The equivalent moment of inertia of the motor rotor plus the load inertia referred to the motor shaft is 1 = 11 + (:~)212 1eq The armature current produces the torque that is applied to the equivalent moment of inertia eq. rad T = torque developed by the motor. 11 (6-45) Assuming that all initial conditions are zero and taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (6-43).1otor torque constant. kg-m nl = number of teeth on gear 1 n2 = number of teeth on gear 2 The torque T developed by the dc servomotor is T = Kia where K is the I1.s @t(s) K = Ra Ea(s) Noting that @1(s)/@2(S) = n21nh we can write this last equation as ( J t eqS 2 + R. and (6-45).

To stabilize it. . the input e2 to the plus terminal is not inverted. the transfer function ~(s)IEa(s) is given by ~(s) nl K n2 1 Ea( s) = { [ J Ra + :~ ()2 1 + KKb} s J2 S 6-6 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER SYSTEMS In this section.) The total input to the amplifier is e2 . the input impedance is infinity and the output impedance is zero. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 281 Hence. Consider the operational amplifier shown in Figure 6-31. Operational amplifiers. (The differential gain K decreases with the frequency of the signal and becomes about unity for frequencies of 1 MHz to about 50 MHz. called the inverting and non inverting terminals. we briefly discuss operational amplifiers.el' The ideal operational amplifier has the characteristic eo = K(e2 . In other words.) Note that the operational amplifier amplifies the difference in voltages el and e2' Such an amplifier is commonly called a differential amplifier. often called op-amps. are important building blocks in modem electronic systems. it is necessary to have negative feedback from the output to the input (feedback from the output to the inverted input). The magnitUde of K is approximately 105 to 106 for dc signals and ac signals with frequencies less than approximately 10 Hz.e2) where the inputs el and e2 may be dc or ac signals and K is the differential gain or voltage gain. one with a minus sign and the other with a plus sign. the device is inherently unstable. Since the gain of the operational amplifier is very high. respectively.Sec. There are two terminals on the input side. They are used in filters in control systems and to amplify signals in sensor circuits. (The input el to the minus terminal of the amplifier is inverted. In :: :_____b>>-------oo o o Figure ~31 Operational amplifier. In the ideal operational amplifier.el) = -K(el . no current flows into the input terminals and the output voltage is not affected by the load connected to the output terminal. We present several examples of operational-amplifier systems and obtain their mathematical models. We choose the ground as 0 volts and measure the input voltages el and e2 relative to the ground.

In the derivation. eo = -Ke' Eliminating e' from Equations (6-49) and (6-50).. Assume that the magnitudes of the resistances R1 and R2 are of comparable order. we have -'--+ Rl e· . Let us obtain the voltage ratio eolei. we assume the voltage gain to be K » 1.. we make the assumption that the operational amplifiers are ideal. Ignoring the current flowing into the amplifier. (6-49) Also.-) ( -KRI -KR2 -R2 . we obtain (6-50) or e o ei 1 1 1 . Inverting amplifier. an actual operational amplifier. a very small (almost negligible) current flows into an input terminal and the output cannot be loaded too much. In our analysis here.. 6 Figure 6-32 Operational-amplifier system.e' eo .Rl - . however.282 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Consider the operational-amplifier system shown in Figure 6-32. Let us derme the voltage at the minus terminal as e'.e' R2 =0 from which we get Thus.

the current i1 must be equal to the current i2• Thus. the ratio eole.. --= Rl e. as the following analysis shows: Consider again the amplifier system shown in Figure 6-32.Sec. From Equations (6-49) and (6-51) we have e' = Rl -+R2 1 1 -+Rl R2 e. Hence. can be obtained much more quickly than the way we just found it. the voltage at the minus terminal becomes equal to the voltage at the plus terminal. -eo or eo =- R2 Rl ej This is a mathematical model relating voltages eo and e. the voltage at the minus terminal and the voltage at the plus terminal become equal. eo =0 In an operational-amplifier circuit.eo R2 Because the output signal is fed back to the minus terminal. or e' = O. ej . but much more quickly. If we use the concept of an imaginary short. eo R2 Rl 1 + R2 Rl 1+ K Since K » 1 + (R2IR 1 ).eo Since only a negligible current flows into the amplifier. we have -=- e. We obtained the same result as we got in the previous analysis [see Equation (6-51)]. -=---e. . 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 283 Hence. when the output signal is fed back to the minus terminal. . This is called an imaginary short. we have (6-51) Equation (6-51) gives the relationship between the output voltage eo and the input voltage ej.e' ll=~' i2 = --R2 e' .e' e' . and define .

Obtaining mathematical models of physical operational-amplifier systems by means of equations for idealized operational-amplifier systems. In designing active filters. The derived transfer functions are. the differential input voltage becomes zero. 6 Note that the sign of the output voltage eo is the negative of that of the input voltage ei. eo = K(e2 . resistors. Example 6-9 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-33. then the circuit is a sign inverter.el) where K is infinite. Hence. the output voltage eo is the differential input voltage (e2 . but are approximations that are sufficiently accurate. From Figure 6-31. e' i' Figure 6-33 Operational-amplifier circuit. not exact. and capacitors. and we have Voltage at negative terminal = Voltage at positive terminal 2. In the remaining part of this section. using the following three conditions that apply to idealized operationalamplifier systems: 1. we shall derive the characteristics of circuits consisting of operational amplifiers. . Obtain the relationship between eo and ej. That is. 3. we derive mathematical models of operational-amplifier systems. this operational amplifier is called an inverted amplifier. As a result. of course. If Rl = R 2.el) multiplied by the differential gain K. In what follows.284 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. The input impedance is infinite. The use of these three conditions simplifies the derivation of transfer functions of operational-amplifier systems. we construct the circuit such that the negative feedback appears in the operational amplifier like the system shown in Figure 6-32. The output impedance is zero.

. and Equation (6-52) becomes el ez e3 eo -+-+-+-= 0 Rl Rz R3 R4 or Rl e} R2 R4 e2 e' R3 e3 eo Figure 6-34 Operational-amplifier circuit. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 285 If the operational amplifier is an ideal one. I This operational-amplifier circuit is a noninverting circuit. Thus.Sec. and e3' We define ll=~' • el - e' 13=~' . Obtain the relationship between the output eo and the inputs eh ez. If we choose R} eo = e. R} from which it follows that e = o (1 + Rl RZ)e.e' R3 eo .) and voltage e".e' R4 (6-52) Since the amplifier involves negative feedback. which is equal to [Rl/(Rl + Rz)]eo are equal. e3 . Example 6-10 = 00. Thus. .e' Rz e3 . e' = 0. and the circuit is called a voltage follower. or voltage e' (= e. the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal.e' Noting that the current flowing into the amplifier is negligible. then Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-34. then the output voltage eo is limited and the differential input voltage becomes zero. we have --+--+--+--=0 R) el - e' ez .

the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal. we have which can be written as Eo(s) Ej(s) =- R2 1 Rl R 2Cs + 1 (6-54) Equation (6-54) is the transfer function for the system.eo) dt ' .. we have i1 Hence.(t) be the input and eo ( t) be the output of the system.e' _.S If we choose R1 = R2 = R3 = R4. Hence. . = -(e1 + e2 + e3) Example 6-11 Consider the operational-amplifier system shown in Figure 6-35. then eo The circuit is an inverting adder.eo Noting that the current flowing into the amplifier is negligible. Then obtain the response of the system to a step input of a small magnitude. Substituting e' = 0 into Equation (6-53).e0 ) Rl dt Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback. = -c deo Rl dt _ !!2R2 Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation. = i2 + i3 e' . '2 = C dee' . which is a first-order lag system. '3 = ~ e' . we obtain !!._ _ = C d(e' .e' ~' . 'I = ej .286 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. e' = O. assuming a zero initial condition. obtain the transfer function for the system.. Letting e. Let us define . e' Figure 6-35 First-order lag circuit using an operational amplifier.e0 + ___ R2 (6-53) e· .

.(s) R2 1 E The inverse Laplace transform of Eo( s) gives eo(t) ::: - R~~ [1 .(s) R2 + Cs 1 Cs = R Cs + 1 E.( t) is a step function of E volts.Sec. 6-6 Mathematical Modeling of Operational-Amplifier Systems 287 Next.(s) 2 1 O--------------~--------------~O Figure 6-36 Operational-amplifier circuit. Example 6-12 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-36. we shall find the response of the system to a step input. that is.(t) = 0 =E fort < 0 for t > 0 where we assume 0 < (R2IR 1)E < 10 V. . Suppose that the input e. The voltage at point A is eA = 2(e.(s) + Eo(s)] En(s) = . Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/Ej ( s) of the circuit. e.1 . + eo) 1 The Laplace-transformed version of this last equation is EA(S) The voltage at point B is 1 = 2[E.E. The output eo(t) can be determined from R2 1 Rl R2Cs + 1 E.e-II(R2C)] The output voltage reaches -(R2IRl)E volts as t increases to infinity.

the voltage at the minus terminal and that at the plus terminal become equal... EA(S) and it follows that =: EB(S) or EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-6-1 Obtain the resistance between points A and B of the circuit shown in Figure 6-37. R2 :::: R3 :::: 200 Rs:::: 1000 Figure 6-37 Electrical circuit. . it may be removed from the circuit.288 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.. Since Rl = ~ = 10 nand R2 = R3 = 20 fi.... as shown in Figure 6-38(b}.. Thus.----D Rl = R4 = 100. and there is no current flowing through Rs. 6 Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback. Then -= RAB Rl 1 1 + 14 + 1 R2 + R3 =-+-=- 1 20 1 40 3 40 and RAB =: 3" = 13. Solution This circuit is equivalent to the one shown in Figure 6-38(a).3 n 40 Bo--'---JVvw\l\t--. the voltages at points C and D are equal.. Because resistance Rs does not affect the value of the total resistance between points A and B.

2 flows is R = 100 + 1 1 1 + 50 10 = 158 n + 40 The combined resistance Ro as seen from the battery is 1 Ro or 1 1 = 40 + 158 Ro Consequently.3' Solution The circuit can be redrawn as shown in Figure 6-40.Example Problems and Solutions Rl 289 (a) Ao--oor--Y\I\Ah-~ c (b) A -----.= .= 0.. 12 12 = .92 n . .92 12V 400 400 100 500 Figure 6-39 Electrical circuit.. 'I = 31.376 A Ro 31. + '2 . calculate currents i lt i2. The combined resistance R of the path in which current . >---oB D Figure 6-38 Equivalent circuits to the one shown in Figure 6-37. and . ProblemA+2 Given the circuit of Figure 6-39.

- Noting that 4O. . and Ro. the removal of the first three resistors does not affect the combined resistance value.290 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. [See Figure 6-42(a). let us separate the first three resistors from the rest.] Since the circuit con~ sists of an infinite number of resistors. i2 = 0.300 A.t = 158i2. can be obtained as Ro = 2R + 1 1 -+R Ro RRo 1 = 2R + Ro + R R R R R Figure 6-41 Electrical circuit consisting of an infinite number of resistors connected in the form of a ladder.2 ~> c~ 500 :: Figure 6-40 Equivalent circuit to the one shown in Figure 6-39. Then the circuit shown in Figure 6-41 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 6-42(b). Solution We define the combined resistance between points A and BasRa. 6 i2 it .: ::- 400:= .076 A To determine i3 . note that Then Problem A-6-3 Obtain the combined resistance between points A and B of the circuit shown in Figure 6-41. the resistance between points A and B.> > :~ 1000 12V •• ~ i3 400. the combined resistance between points C and D is the same as Ro. which consists of an infinite number of resistors connected in the form of a ladder. we obtain il = 0. . Now. Therefore.

Example Problems and Solutions R 291 Ao---~NV----~~ R R (a) R R B~--~~----~----~ R (b) Figure 6-42 Equivalent circuits to the one shown in Figure 6-41. we find that =0 Ro Ro = R = R ± V3R + Finally.5i3 = 0 8 . and i3 for the circuit shown in Figure 6-43. we have 12 .1 + i2 .3 = 0 Ion 12V lsn 50 8V Figure 6-43 Electrical circuit. we obtain V3R = 2.3 = 0 . we get Rij .2RRo . neglecting the negative value for resistance.10i1 .15.732R Problem A-+-4 Find currents i h i 2. Solution Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law and current law to the circuit.2R2 Solving for Ro. Rewriting.2 . .5..

values are found to be positive.i 2) dt =E = (i2 - id dt ° L These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the circuit. II = 11 SA ' . Solution Applying Kirchhoffs voltage law gives R1i 1 + L ~: + R2i2 + J ~J ~ (il . Problem A-6-6 In the circuit of Figure 6-45. currents il and . 13 ' = 55 A 52 Since all . Problem A-6-S Given the circuit shown in Figure 6-44. 6 . Here. S disconnects the voltage source and simultaneously short-circuits the coil. E Figure 6-44 Electrical circuit. and the current in coil L is in a steady state. switch S is connected to voltage source E. for I < 0. .2 are cyclic currents. '2 = 55 12A . obtain a mathematical model. assume that. the equation for the circuit is Ldt di + Rl = 0 . the currents actually flow in the directions shown in the diagram. ' i(O) =E R Figure 6-4S Electrical circuit. What is the current i(t) for t > 01 Solution For t > 0. At t = 0.292 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.

28 radls = 1256 radls L Figure 6-46 Electrical circuit. the current in the coil cannot be changed instantaneously.!i C 1 dt =0 or. switch S is disconnected from the battery and simultaneously connected to inductor L. Solution The equation for the circuit for t > 0 is L di dt + . Hence.(0)] + R/(s) = 0 or (Ls + R)/(s) Thus. The frequency of oscillation is d 2q Wn=Hc Since 200 Hz = 200 cps = 200 x 6. Calculate the value of the inductance L that will make the oscillation occur at a frequency of 200 Hz.] Taking the Laplace transform of the system equation. L dt 2 + Cq = 0 where q(O) = qo and q(O) = O. i(O+) = i(O-) = i(O) = EIR. The capacitance has a value of 50 /LF.Example Problems and Solutions 293 [Note that there is a nonzero initial current . and assume that capacitor C is initially charged to qo. by substituting. = Li(O) = LE R /(s) =R E Ls + R L The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives i(t) = E e-(RIL)r R Problem A-6-7 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-46. At t ::: 0.!.(0-) = EIR. . = dqldt into this last equation. Since inductance L stores energy.. we obtain L[s/(s) .

----- E s o (a) Ri (b) L Figure 6-47 (a) Electrical circuit. Solution Notice that.i(O)] + RII(s) = E s i(t) L E Ri ----. Fmd the current i(t) for t ~ O. (b) plot of i(t) versus t of the circuit when switch S is closed at t = O.294 we obtain Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.--=-. we obtain L[sI(s) . the circuit resistance becomes R I' Because of the presence of inductance L. the equation for the circuit for t RI + R2 ~ E = i(O) 0 is (6-55) di L dt + R' I' where =E i(O) = E Rl + R2 Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (6-55). suppose that switch S is open for t < 0 and that the system is in a steady state.f£ == ~ L X 501 X 10-6 Thus. L = 1 == 0. . 6 lIJn = 1256 = . there is no instantaneous change in the current in the circuit when switch S is closed...-:=-. the circuit resistance is Rl + R2• There is a nonzero initial current i(O-) = E Rl + R2 For t ~ 0.0127H 12562 X 50 X 10-6 Problem A-6-8 In Figure 6-47(a). for t < 0. Hence. Switch S is closed at t = O. i(O+) == i(O-) = Therefore.:.

Example Problems and Solutions 295 Substituting the initial condition i(O) into this last equation and simplifying. we get (Ls + Rl)/(s) Hence. we obtain . Solution The equation for the circuit when switch S is closed is Ri + ~jidt = + E Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation yields RI(s) + Since 1 l(s) ji(t) dtl s 1=0 C =- E s we obtain RI(s) + - 1 I(s) + qo s C =- E s Figure 6-48 Electrical circuit.+ E s R LE 1 + R 2 I(s) = (1 . =. = Rl E . .. E(1 = Rl . there is an initial charge qo on the capacitor just before switch S is closed at t = O. Rl [1 _Rl R2 R2 + A typical plot of .(t) versus t is shown in Figure 6-47(b). Problem A-6-9 In the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-48.(t) = E + E L s(Ls + R t ) Rl + R2 Ls + Rl L) E L Ls + Rl + Rl + R2 Ls + Rl R2 Rl + R2 Ls + Rl L) e-(R1/L)I] Taking the inverse Laplace transform of this equation. Find the current i(t)..E.

+ Cs Ls R l/(Cs) Ls R E(s) Z(s) = l(s) =---1 1 -+-+ C's Ls R 1 L R WW [.(t) in the circuit.I. l(s) Consequently..+ .296 or Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.I. IJ C e r L R C ec (b) Figure 6-49 Electrical circuits. the complex impedance is Z(s) =-.qo (E 1(s) = RCs + 1 = Ii - qo ) RC 1 s + RC 1 The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives . =- E(s) E(s) E(s) ( 1 1 ) ++ . eR (a) . 6 RCsl{s) + l{s) + qo = CE Solving for l(s).(I) = (E _~)e-rIRC R RC Problem A-6-10 Obtain the impedances of the circuits shown in Figures 6-49(a) and (b). we have CE . Solution Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-49(a).= l(s) E(s) 1 Ls + R + Cs For the circuit shown in Figure 6-49(b) .= E(s) . . From E(s) = Eds) + ER(S) + Ec(s) = ( Ls +R+ ~s)I(S) where l(s) is the Laplace transform of the current .

Problem A-6-U Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E. occurring at t = O. ·l(t). Obtain the voltage eo(t) when the input voltage ej(t) is a step change of voltage E.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-50.I(C1 + C2 )· Cl o IJ--_--.5 C1 and RICI = 1 s. Assume that ej(O-) = O. eo(O-) = 0. we have Eo(s) = R 2(C1 + C2 )s + 1 -.t/[R2(C t +C2)] C1 + C2 from which it follows that eo(O+) = C1E.. Assume also that the initial charges in the capacitors are zero. 'e. . The input voltage is a pulse signal given by ej(t) = 10 V =0 0:::t:::5 elsewhere Obtain the output eo(t). For the input ej(t) = E. the transfer function Eo(s)IE.--Cl Figure 6-50 Electrical circuit.] Solution With the complex-impedance method.Example Problems and Solutions 297 Problem A-6-11 Find the transfer function Eo(s)/E.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-51. we determine eo(t). [Thus.(s) can be obtained as 1 Next. we get e (t) = o C1£. Inverse Laplace transforming Eo( s). Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors C1 and C2 are zero. Assume also that C2 = 1. R2C1Ei R2(C 1 + C2)S + 1 R2C1S E.

(s) = -. we have 10 E.6 e-o·4(1-5)] l(t .[10 .5 s + 1 The inverse Laplace transform of Eo( s) gives eo(t) = (10 . Solution The bridged T networks shown can both be represented by the network of Figure 6-54(a). the transfer function Eo( S )1Ei ( s) can be obtained as 1 s+1 2.5 S + 1 s S = (10 _ 15 ) (1 _ e-5s) 2. 6 Figure 6-51 Electrical circuit.5) Figure 6-52 shows a possible response curve eo(t) versus t.6 e-O•41 ) . the response Eo( s) can be given by Eo(s) = S + 1 10 (1 _ e-5s) 2.298 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Problem A-6-13 Obtain the transfer functions Eo( s)1Ei ( s) of the bridged T networks shown in Figures 6-53(a) and (b). This network may be modified to that shown in Figure 6-54(b). o o Solution By the use of the complex-impedance method.e-5s ) Thus.(1 . .5 s + 1 For the given input ei(t). in which Hence. which uses complex impedances.

._----------- 4 O~----~----~~------------------~ ..5 ~ -10 --------~~~--------- "" Figure 6-52 Response curve eo{t) versus t.. . 0 ej I c II : .:1 R2 c Rl eo (b) Figure 6-53 Bridged T networks.Example Problems and Solutions 299 10 ::.

6 (a) Ej(s) Figure 6-54 (a) Bridged Tnetwork in terms of complex impedances. (b) Thus. ~ = -. 1 CIS Z3 = R. the transfer function of the network shown in Figure 6-54(a) is Eo(s) Z3 Z1 + Z2(ZI == E. Then we obtain the transfer function Eo(s) R2 + _1_ (R + R + ~) CIS Ej{s) == _1_(R CIS +R+ _1_) + R2 + R_1_ C2s C2s C2s RCI RC2s 2 RC}RC2S 2 1 Z} = Cs' + 2RC2s + 1 + (2RCz + RCt)s + 1 1 Z3 = Cs' Similarly. for the bridged T network shown in Figure 6-S3(b). (b) equivalent network. we substitute Z2 = Rh Z4 = R2 . Z4 = - into Equation (6-56).{s) ~(ZI + Z3 + Z4) + Z3 + Z4) + Z1Z3 + Z1 Z4 1 C2s (6-56) For the bridged T network shown in Figure 6-53 ( a).300 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. we substitute ZI = R.

. Solution The transfer function for the system is RI C2 + (RtCls S + 1)(R2C2S + 1) RtCIR2C2S2 + (RICI + R2 2)S + 1 C (6-57) Hence. + Cs + ) 1 1 1 R2 ) 1 E.--oo Figure 6-55 Electrical circuit. + Rt Cs 11 RI (1 C.(s) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives Rt CI R2Cieo + (R1CI + R2C2 + RI C2)eo + eo = R1C1R2Ciej + (R1C I + R2C2)ej + ej Gi 0-0_ _ _ _ _ _ _ r L-.. Derive a state equation and an output equation. we have [RICtR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + RI C2)S + 1]Eis) = [RICIR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2)S + 1]E. Then we obtain the transfer function 301 Eo(s) C.( s) = (1 + Cs + R2 + Cs Cs + R2 Cs 1 RICR2CS2 + 2R ICs +1 Problem A-6-14 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-55.C. Assume that voltage ej is the input and voltage eo is the output of the circuit.Example Problems and Solutions into Equation (6-56).

1] 2 R 1C1R2C2 . bo. we obtain " (1.+ -R 2C2 R2C1 1 a2==--R I CI R2C2 bo = 1 a1 = . (5-24). bJ. we have 130 = bo = 1 If we define state variables x I and X2 as Xl = Y . and (5-29). we first compare Equation (6-58) with the following standard secondorder equation: y + alY + a2Y = bou + blu + b2u We then identify aJ. from Equations (5-30) and (5-31). 6 By dividing each term of the preceding equation by R I C I R2C2 and defining eo = yand ej = u. and ~ as follows: 111 + -.- RICI bl =--+-R1C1R2C2 1 1 RICI 1 R2C2 ~ == From Equations (5-23).+ -1 + -1). the state-space representation for the system can be given by [~~'] [0 = 1 _ __ _ __ _ _ 1 1 1_ RICI R2CZ R2C1 1 ][.302 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.f30u X2 = Xl - f3Iu then. a2.y+ 1 y+ U (_1_ + _l_)u + 1 + RIC I R2C2 R2C1 = R 1C I R2C2 U Y RICI R2C2 R1C1R2C2 (6-58) To derive a state equation and an output equation based on Method 1 given in Section 5~.

they satisfy the force-voltage analogy)..Example Problems and Solutions 303 Problem A-6-lS Show that the mechanical and electrical systems illustrated in Figure 6-56 are analogous. by substituting i = dqldt = q into this last equation. Assume also that in the electrical system the capacitor has the initial charge q(O) = qo and that the switch is closed at t = O. . Solution The equation of motion for the mechanical system is mx + kx = 0 For the electrical system. The solution of Equation (6-59) with the initial condition x(O) = Xo. or x(O) . . the solution of Equation (6--60) with the initial condition q(O) = qo.I t= 0 dt C or. q(O) = 0 is q(t) = qo cos ~t L c x Figure 6-56 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems.e.. the two systems are analogous (i. Lq 1 + -q C = 0 (6-60) Since Equations (6-59) and (6-60) are of the same form. (6-59) di 1/'d L -+. Assume that the displacement x in the mechanical system is measured from the equilibrium position and that mass m is released from the initial displacement x(O) = Xo with zero initial velocity.:: O. x(O) = 0 is a simple harmonic motion given by x(t) = xocos~t Similarly. Obtain x(t) and q(t). Note that q(O) = i(O) = O.

Comparing the two mathematical models.q2) = 0 lql I 2 R 2q2 + ~2 (q2 .ql) = 0 These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the electrical system.S Problem A-6-16 Obtain mathematical models for the systems shown in Figures 6-57(a) and (b).. we see that the two systems are analogous. the loop-voltage equations are LI ~: + ~2f(i1 - i2) dt + R1i l + R2i2 + ~lfildt = 0 id dt = 0 ~2 f (i2 - Let us write il = III and i2 = lI2' Then. For the electrical system shown in Figure 6-S7(b). Solution For the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-57(a). they satisfy the force-voltage analogy). (b) . and show that they are analogous systems. the preceding two equations can be written '· 1 1( L lq) + R' + C ql + C ql . displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. In the mechanical system. (a) Figure 6-57 Analogous mechanical and electrical systems. in terms of ql and q2. the equations of motion are mlXI + btxI + klXI + k 2(XI bzX2 + k2(X2 - X2) Xl) = 0 = 0 These two equations constitute a mathematical model for the mechanical system.304 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. (Le.

from Equation (6-62).i2) dt = 0 i l ) dt = 0 (6-61) (6-62) ~: + R2(i2 - ~21 (i2 - These two equations are loop-voltage equations.X2) . we obtain the diagram shown in Figure 6-59(a).Xl) + k2(Xl + k2(X2 . Flgure ~S8 Mechanical system. obtain an electrical analog of the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-58. From Equation (6-61). Assume that the displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Solution The equations of motion for the mechanical system are mtXl + blXl + klXl + ~(Xl m2 x + ~(X2 2 .Example Problems and Solutions 305 Problem A+17 Using the force-voltage analogy.qI) + + ~2 (ql . the equations for an analogous electrical system may be written Llql + Rlql + ~I ql + R2(ql Lzq2 .q2) .Xl) = 0 With the use of the force-voltage analogy. .q2) qt) =0 =0 + R2(q2 ~2 (q2 - Substituting qI LI = il and q2 = i2 into the last two equations gives i2) il ) ~: + Rlil + ~1 IiI dt + R2(il Lz + + ~21 (il . Similarly. we obtain the one given in Figure 6-59(b).X2) = 0 . Combining these two diagrams produces the desired analogous electrical system (Figure 6-60).

Assume that there is no slippage between the belt and the pulleys. Jeq. Problem A-6-18 Figure 6-61 shows an inertia load driven by a de servomotor by means of pulleys and a belt. 6 (a) (b) Figure 6-59 (a) Electrical circuit corresponding to Equation (6-61). Pulley 2 Pulley 1 Load DC servomotor Figure 6-61 Inertia load driven by a de servomotor by means of pulleys and belt. Obtain the equivalent moment of intertia. (b) electrical circuit corresponding to Equation (6-62). Figure 6-60 Electrical system analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-58 (force-voltage analogy). .306 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. of the system with respect to the motor shaft axis.

and that of the load element is JL. Neglect the moment of inertia of the belt. respectively. (6-65) (it + J2 )62 From Equations (6-63) and (6--64). and 82 is the angular displacement of pulley 2. For the load shaft. Note that (6-64) For the servomotor system. d1 .. the work done by the belt and pulley 1(TI 81 ) is equal to that done by the belt and pulley 2 (T282 )..) + (h + J2)(~:rlii. 81 is the angular displacement of pulley 1. respectively. (11 + Jr)(lt + d (it + J2 )82 2 = Tm Since 82 = (d 1Id2)flt.. The moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor is J. or (6-63) where T} is the load torque on the motor shaft. or [(J.)8 1 + d . T2 is the torque transmitted to the load shaft. The moments of inertia of pulleys 1 and 2 are J1 and J2. this last equation can be written as (Jl + J.. Since we assume no slippage between the belt and pulleys. we obtain .Example Problems and Solutions 307 Assume also that the diameters of pulleys 1 and 2 are d 1 and d2 . + J. (11 + Jr)61 + Tl = Tm where Tm is the torque developed by the motor. we have = T2 (6-66) 81 d2 T2 =T1-=T182 d1 Then Equation (6-66) becomes (JL + 12 )82 = Tl d From Equations (6-65) and (6-67). = Tm The equivalent moment of inertia of the system with respect to the motor shaft axis is thus given by . Solution The given system uses a belt and two pulleys as a drive device. The system acts similarly to a gear train system. (d 1)2 2 (JL + J2 )81 = Tm .. d2 t (6-67) .

Thus. the differential input voltage becomes zero.(s) = R2 + R3 R1Cs R3 R1Cs + 1 c o 11----. Solution Define the voltage at point A as eA.S Problem A-6-19 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-62.----4 B Figure &-62 Operational-amplifier circuit. Hence.Eo(s) Z2 Since the operational amplifier involves negative feedback.308 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Then EA(S) R} Ej(s) = 1 Cs + R} R}Cs R}Cs + 1 Define the voltage at point B as eB. Obtain the transfer function of this circuit by the complex-impedance approach. Solution For the circuit shown. Then R3 R1Cs R3 EA(S) = R1Cs + 1E.Z}(s) . Problem A-6-20 Consider the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-63. we have Ej(s) .E'(s) Z} E'(s) . Eis) ~(s) Ej(s) = .(s) = EB(S) = R2 + R3 Eo(s) from which we obtain Eo(s) E. E'(s) = O.

Problem A-'-21 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E.(s) obtained here is.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-64 by the complex-impedance approach. Solution The complex impedances for this circuit are and Z2(S) = 1 1 Cs+R2 From Problem A-'-20.(s) Flgure 6-63 Operational-amplifier circuit. . the transfer function Eo(s)/E. ---------- c I Flgure 6-64 Operational-amplifier circuit. the transfer function of the system is R2Cs + 1 Notice that the circuit considered here is the same as that discussed in Example 6-11. the same as the one obtained in that example.Example Problems and Solutions 309 1(s) E. of course. Accordingly.

we get eA -deo = C2dt R2 Rewriting Equation (6-68). i3. Then we shall use the node equation at nodes A and B. 6 Problem A-6-22 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E. we have (6-69) de A C1 dt + ( -1 + -1 + -1 ) eA Rl R2 R3 = Rl ej + -eo R3 (6-70) From Equation (6-69). and no current flows into the amplifier.310 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Thus. Solution We shall first obtain currents i1> i 2. The currents are (6-68) At node B. we have i4 = is. we get (6-71) iz il R1 A i4 R2 ej C1 Figure 6-65 Operational. . amplifier circuit. and is. i 4. or eB = 0.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-65.

(s) = Z4Z2 .(s) = . obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. Using the equation derived.Z3 Z 1]E.( s) of the op-amp circuit shown in Figure 6-36. and Z4. we have EA(S) EA(S) = E8(S) = Z + Z E. we find that E.(s) .(S) Z4(ZI + Z2) Eo(s) E.(s): 1 Eo(s) E.(s) - (1 + ~:)EA(S) = .R Eo(s) = 3 li: from which we get the transfer function Eo(s)/E..( S ) RI + R2 + R3 (-R2C2)sEo(s) .~: Eo(s) = E8(S). Z2.Z3Z1 Z3(ZI + Z2) = _ Z3 Eo(s) Z4 from which we get the transfer function (6-74) ej Figure 6-66 Operational-amplifier circuit. Solution From Figure 6-66.RIC1R2C2S2 + [R 2C2 + R IC2 + (R 1/R 3)R2C2]S + (RI/R3) Problem A-6-23 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E.EA(S) Z3 EA(S) . or ZI 1 (6-72) Since the system involves negative feedback.(s) 2 (6-73) By substituting Equation (6-73) into Equation (6-72). yields -C1C2R2s Eo(s) + 2 ( 1 1 1) 1 E.(s) of the op-amp circuit shown in Figure 6-66 in terms of the complex impedances Z . we obtain [ Z4Z1 + Z4 Z 2 . assuming zero initial conditions.Eo(s) Z4 or E. Z3.Example Problems and Solutions 311 Laplace transforming this last equation. .Z4 Z 1 .

B~------~~--~~~----~ Problem 8-6-2 Calculate the resistance between points A and B for the circuit shown in Figure 6-68. The result is RIR2 . Obtain the resistance between points A and B.. A 0--------_ Flgure 6-(.. i becomes equal to 2io• Fmd the value of the resistance R. 1 R{~s + R2) which is. assume that a voltage E is applied between points A and B and that the current i is io when switch S is open. 100 A O--..D Flgure 6-68 Electrical circuit... Z3 = Rh Z4 = Rl into Equation (6-74). as a matter of course.:---~I\NW'v---~--.. C B~-~--~~~---~-. 100 Problem B-6-3 In the circuit of Figure 6-69.. PROBLEMS Problem 8-6-1 Three resistors Rh R2.7 Three resistors connected in a triangular shape. the same as that obtained in Example 6-12. .. and R3 are connected in a triangular shape (Figure 6-67).Rrc. 6 To find the transfer function Eo( S )/Ei ( s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-36.312 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. When switch S is closed. we substitute 1 Zl = Cs' Z2 = R 2..

Obtain i(t}. ProblemB+5 Consider the circuit shown in Figure 6-71..Problems 313 lOon t-----oB 60n R I---------------E--------------~ Figure 6-69 Electrical circuit. Switch Sis then opened at t = O.. s Figure 6-71 Electrical circuit. Problem B-6-4 Obtain a mathematical model of the circuit shown in Figure 6-70. Problem~ The circuit shown in Figure 6-72 is in a steady state with switch S closed. Assume that switch S is open for t < 0 and that capacitor C is initially charged so that the initial voltage q(O)/C = eo appears on the capacitor.. Calculate cyclic currents i1 and i2 when switch S is closed at t = O. . L e(t) c Figure 6-70 Electrical circuit. .....

1'1'1'1' . - Problem B-6-8 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the system shown in Figure 6-74.314 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.. . Problem 8-6-7 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-73 . R e.S Figure ~72 Electrical circuit. Figure ~73 Electrical circuit. Problem 8-6-9 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-75.{t) L c Figure ~75 Electrical circuit. Figure ~74 Electrical circuit.

Problems 315 Problem 11-6-10 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-76. I e. Rl R2 ej ) ) C eo Figure 6-76 Electrical circuit. Use the complex-impedance method.-' Figure 6-77 Electrical circuit. .- ' I . Zl . L. Use the complex-impedance method..---------. Problem 11-6-11 Determine the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-77.- c . Problem 8-6-12 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the circuit shown in Figure 6-78.. . Zl r-----' O-~'-J I L ~~'------~-------Q I Figure 6-78 Electrical circuit.

Draw a schematic diagram of an analogous mechanical system. define i l = ql and i2 = q2' where ql and q2 are charges in capacitors Cl and C2. and X3 as follows: Xl = ql = ql X3 = q2 X2 Figure 6-80 Electrical circuit.316 Problem 8-6-13 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. Problem 8-6-14 In the circuit shown in Figure 6--80. Figure 6-79 Electrical circuit. respectively. 6 Obtain a state-space representation for the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-79. . Problem 8-6-15 Show that the mechanical system illustrated in Figure 6-81(a) is analogous to the electrical system depicted in Figure 6-81(b). Write equations for the circuit. Assume that voltage ei is the input and voltage eo is the output of the system. Problem 8-6-17 Obtain a mechanical system analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 6-83. Problem 8-6-16 Derive the transfer function of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 6-82. Then obtain a state equation for the system by choosing state variables Xh X2.

Assume that the input of the system is the applied armature voltage ea and the output is the load shaft position 82' Assume also the following numerical values for the constants: Ra = armature winding resistance = 0. (b) analogous electrical system. Problem B-6-18 Determine an electrical system analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 6-84. Problem B-6-19 Consider the dc servomotor shown in Figure 6-85. where p(t) is the force input to the system. Rl <>-----WIv----R2 ei eo C 0 2T 0 Flgure 6-82 Electrical circuit.2 n La = armature winding inductance = negligible Kb = back-emf constant = 5.Problems 317 C Xj 0 I ej Xo J (b) Cl R eo (a) Figure 6-81 (a) Mechanical system.5 X 10-2 V-s/rad . The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. Flgure 6-83 Electrical system.

1 x 10-2 lbr ftlradls Obtain the transfer function €h(s)/Ea(s). 6 K Jr br = h lO-slbrftlA moment of inertia of the rotor of the motor = 1 x 10-s lbr ft-s2 = viscous-friction coefficient of the rotor of the motor = negligible 2 = moment of inertia of the load = 4. Problem 8-6-21 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. if = constant Problem 8-6-20 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E.4 X 10-3 Ibr ft-s = motor-torque constant = 6 x b L = viscous-friction coefficient of the load = 4 n = gear ratio = Nl/N2 = 0.318 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-86. Figure 6-84 Mechanical system. Figure 6-8S DC servomotor. .( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-87.

Problem 8-6-22 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)1E. .( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-90.( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-88. Problem 8-6-24 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)1E.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-91. Problem 8-6-23 Obtain a state-space representation of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-89. Problem 8-6-25 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)IE. Figure 6-88 Operational-amplifier circuit. R Figure 6-87 Operational-amplifier circuit.Problems 319 R Figure 6-86 Operational-amplifier circuit.

( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-93. R C o----------------------------=±:~------------------~o Figure 6-90 Operational-amplifier circuit. Problem 8-6-28 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. T Figure 6-91 Operational-amplifier circuit.(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-92. 6 c Figure 6-89 Operational-amplifier circuit. .( s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-94.320 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. I r1 Problem B-6-27 Obtain the transfer function Eo( s)/E. Problem B-6-26 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/E.

. Problem 8-6-29 Obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-95.Problems 321 C Flgure 6-92 Operational-amplifier circuit. ej o~--------------------+-----------------------o C -1 : Flgure 6-93 Operational-amplifier circuit. obtain the transfer function Eo(s)/Ej(s) of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-96. ej FIgure 6-94 Operational-amplifier circuit. Problem 8-6-30 Using the impedance approach.

6 Figure 6-95 Operational-amplifier circuit.322 Electrical Systems and Electromechanical Systems Chap. ej Figure 6-96 Operational-amplifier circuit. Problem 8-6-31 Obtain the output voltage eo of the operational-amplifier circuit shown in Figure 6-97 in terms of the input voltages el and e2' Figure ~97 Operational-amplifier circuit. .

323 . Thermal systems generally have distributed parameters. so that approximate mathematical models may be obtained in terms of ordinary differential equations or transfer functions. fluids-liquids or gases-have wide usage in industry. we assume that thermal systems have lumped parameters. Liquids and gases can be distinguished from each other by their relative incompressibilities and from the fact that a liquid may have a free surface whereas a gas expands to fill its vessel. Such simplified models provide fairly good approximations to actual systems near their normal operating points. then the system can be linearized near the operating point. however.Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems 7-1 INTRODUCTION As the most versatile medium for transmitting signals and power. However. and the mathematical model can be made linear. In this chapter. Mathematical models of fluid systems are generally nonlinear. if we assume that the operation of a nonlinear system is near a normal operating point. Mathematical models of fluid systems obtained in this chapter are linearized models near normal operating points. Mathematical models of thermal systems normally involve partial differential equations. In the engineering field. the term hydraulic describes fluid systems that use liquids and pneumatic applies to those using air or gases.

Units of pressure. and turbulent flow.0133 X 105 N/m2 abs X 105 N/m2 = 14. however. or other flow-restricting devices. Often. Note that 1Ibt'in. Note that. It is the pressure indicated by a gage above atmospheric pressure. Section 7-4 presents a useful linearization method: Linearized models are obtained for nonlinear systems near their respective operating points. gage pressure.7 Ibt'in. The dynamic behavior can be predicted once mathematical models of the systems are known. 7-2 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF LIQUID-LEVEL SYSTEMS Industrial processes often involve systems consisting of liquid-filled tanks connected by pipes having orifices. laminar flow. the unit of pressure is N/m 2• The name pascal (abbreviated Pa) has been given to this unit. In the SI system. Ibt'in. The standard barometer reading at sea level is 760 mm of mercury at O°C (29. In this section. We shall see . Finally. The units of pressure include N/m2. Gage pressure refers to the pressure that is measured with respect to atmospheric pressure. 7 Since fluid systems inevitably involve pressure signals. we first review the Reynolds number.0133 = 1.7Ibt'in. Section 7-5 deals with hydraulic systems and derives mathematical models of such systems.2.0332 kgt'cm2 = 1. of mercury at 32°F).22Ibt'in.09807 MPa Gage pressure and absolute pressure.9807 X lOS N/m2 = 0.2 oN/m2 gage okgt'cm2 gage = 1. absolute pressure must be used. Section 7-1 has presented introductory material for the chapter. kgt'cm2.2 = 0. Absolute pressure is the sum of the gage and barometer pressures. valves.2 1 kgt'cm 2 = 6895 Pa = 14.2 gage = 0 psig = 14.7 psia Outline of the chapter. it is important to know the dynamic behavior of such systems. we shall briefly review units of pressure. Section 7-2 discusses liquid-level systems and obtains their mathematical models. so 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 = MPa) may be used in Kilopascals (103 Pa = kPa) and megapascals (106 Pa expressing hydraulic pressure.324 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Section 7-3 treats pneumatic systems and derives·a mathematical model for a pressure system.0332 kglcm2 abs oIbt'in. and so on.2 abs = 14.92 in. Note also that 760 mm Hg = 1. We then derive mathematical models of liquid-level systems. and absolute pressure. pressure is expressed in gage pressure. In theoretical calculations. Pressure is defined as force per unit area. in engineering measurement. Section 7-6 discusses the mathematical modeling of thermal systems.

the flow is called turbulent flow and is characterized by an irregular and eddylike motion of the fluid.L is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid. by introducing the concept of resistance and capacitance. Otherwise. 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 325 that. For a Reynolds number below 2000 (R < 2000).Sec. v is the average velocity of flow. Figure 7-1(b) shows a velocity profile in a pipe for turbulent flow. Since the average velocity v for flow in a pipe is v=-=-A 11'D2 Q 4Q where Q is the volumetric flow rate. For flow in pipes. In capillary tubes. the flow is usually turbulent. viscosity. parallel-line motion of the fluid.L 4pQ 11'f. flow is laminar.) For laminar flow. and D is a characteristic length. flow in pipes of relatively large diameter may also result in laminar flow. A is the area of the pipe and D is the inside diameter of the pipe. The dimensionless ratio of inertia force to viscous force is called the Reynolds number. Consider the flow through a short pipe with a valve connecting two tanks. fluid inertia. (Note that laminar flow is temperature sensitive. In general. for it depends on viscosity. bouyancy. For a Reynolds number above 4000 (R > 4000). The properties of such flow through small passages depend on the Reynolds number of flow involved in each situation. fluid flows in many important situations are dominated by either inertia or viscosity of the fluid. the characteristic length is the inside pipe diameter. turbulent flow results. The forces that affect fluid flow are due to gravity. the velocity profile in a pipe becomes parabolic. Resistance and capacitance of liquid-level systems. it is possible to describe the dynamic characteristics of such systems in simple forms. In many flow situations. the forces resulting from fluid inertia and viscosity are most significant. and similar factors. If velocities are kept very low or viscosities are very high. except in special cases. such as flow between spool and bore and between piston and cylinder. Thus. In hydraulic control systems. Flow dominated by viscosity forces is called laminar flow and is characterized by a smooth. f. Industrial processes often involve the flow of liquids through connecting pipes and tanks.L where p is the mass density of the fluid. The . When inertia forces dominate. the flow is always laminar. Reynolds number. a large Reynolds number indicates the dominance of inertia force and a small number the dominance of viscosity.LD Laminar flow and turbulent flow. The Reynolds number R is given by R = pvD f. In fact. flow in a pipe is laminar if the cross section of the passage is comparatively small or the pipe length is relatively long. as shown in Figure 7-2. there are many cases of flow through small passages. as shown in Figure 7-1(a). the Reynolds number for flow in pipes can be given by R = pvD = f. surface tension.

!) .) ~ '? Figure 7-1 (a) Velocity profile for laminar flow. see Problem A-7-1. (The laminar-flow resistance of the flow in a capillary tube is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula.. Turbulent flow in pipe (b) 1 Figure 7-2 1\vo tanks connected by a short pipe with a valve. If the flow through the valve is laminar. m3/s K/ = constant. -Q resistance R for liquid flow in such a pipe or restriction is defined as the change in the level difference (the difference of the liquid levels of the two tanks) necessary to cause a unit change in flow rate.326 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.. m For laminar flow. (b) velocity profile for turbulent flow. the relationship between the steady-state flow rate and the steadystate head at the level of the restriction is given by Q= K/H where Q = steady-state liquid flow rate. m 2/s H = steady-state head. we shall consider both cases in what follows.3 change in flow rate m /s Since the relationship between the flow rate and the level difference differs for laminar flow and turbulent flow.!) ~ /. change in level difference m R= ..!) ~ ~ i I ~ ~ (. 7 Laminar flow in pipe (a) '-.) . In this system.!) . the liquid spouts through the load valve in the side of the tank.. Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). that is. the resistance RJ is dH 1 H R/=-=-=- dQ KJ Q The laminar-flow resistance is constant and is analogous to the electrical resistance.

Sec. \ ReslStance R Capacitance C -H Slope = 2!! :.:: . we have -=--= dQ Kt dH 2YH 2YHYH = 2H Q Q Thus. we obtain dQ=~dH 2YH Consequently. m2. m The resistance R t for turbulent flow is obtained from dH Rt = dQ From Equation (7-1). The value of Rt . 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems Head 327 Control valve ~I~ Load valve L-~--+---~~DK~=--' H Flow rate . may be considered constant if the changes in head and flow rate are small. . Q q (a) (b) Figure 7-3 (a) Liquid-level system.5/s H = steady-state head. R _ 2H t Q (7-2) The value of the turbulent-flow resistance Rt depends on the flow rate and the head. If the flow through the restriction is turbulent. m3/s Kt = constant. however.. the steady-state flow rate is given by Q = KtYH (7-1) where Q = steady-state liquid flow rate. (b) curve of head versus flow rate.b.

or . or inductance to liquid flow gives Inertance I = N/m2 N-s2 change in pressure -3. the capacitance is constant for any head. then. the resistance Rt is the slope of the curve at the operating point. The terms inertance. 7 If the changes in the head and flow rate from their respective steady-state values are small. or change in current per second]. Then the slope of the curve at point P is given by h 2H R . Applying the preceding general definition of inertance. sIope 0 f curve at pomt P = = Q = t q The capacitance C of a tank is defined to be the change in quantity of stored liquid necessary to cause a unit change in the potential. or Inertance (inertia or inductance) change in potential change in flow rate (velocity or current) per second For the inertia effect of liquid flow in pipes. from Equation (7-2). and the change in flow rate per second may be the volumetric liquid-flow acceleration (m3/s2).328 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. point P is the steady-state operating point. The capacitance of the tank is equal to its cross-sectional area. In the figure.) Thus. If this is constant. the slope of this tangent line is 2H IQ. and inductance refer to the change in potential required to make a unit rate of change in flow rate. or head. inertia. the value of the constant K t in Equation (7-1) is not known.change in flow rate per second m /s2 mS . or current [change in flow rate per second. An example of such a plot is shown in Figure 7-3(b). Since the resistance Rt at the operating point P"is given by 2HIQ. the potential may be either pressure (N/m2) or head (m). the relationship between Q and H is given by Q= 2H Rt In many practical cases. and similar devices. Then the resistance may be determined by plotting the curve of head versus flow rate based on experimental data and measuring the slope of the curve at the operating condition. C = change in liquid stored m3 2 . Thus. tubes. The tangent line to the curve at point P intersects the ordinate at the point (Head = -H). (The potential is the quantity that indicates the energy level of the system. Now define a small deviation of the head from the steady-state value as hand the corresponding small change in the flow rate as q. Inertance. -orm change m head m Note that the capacity (m3) and the capacitance (m2 ) are different. velocity. change in velocity per second (acceleration). inertia.

. valves. a mathematical model can easily be found in terms of resistance and capacitance. we characterize liquid-level systems in terms of resistance and capacitance. and the effects of liquid-flow inertance may be negligible. respectively. Note that this vibration or wave propagation results from inertance-capacitance effects of hydraulic circuits-comparable to free vibration in a mechanical spring-mass system or free oscillation in an electrical LC circuit. In the mathematical modeling of liquid-level systems. If the operating condition as to the head and flow rate varies little for the period considered. so (7-3) where C is the capacitance of the tank.2 3/s2 change in flow rate per second m m (For the computation of inertance. In the present system. in deriving mathematical models of liquid-filled tanks connected by pipes with orifices. m3/s = small The change in the liquid stored in the tank during dt seconds is equal to the net inflow to the tank during the same dt seconds. and so on.or . we defined hand qo as small deviations from steadystate head and steady-state outflow rate. then the resistance R may be considered constant during the entire period of operation. such as water hammer. However. Thus. Let us define H h Q = steady-state head (before any change has occurred). Note that if the operating condition varies little (i. Instead. we do not take inertance into consideration. m = steady-state flow rate (before any change has occurred). 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 329 or Inertance I = change in head m s2 . Mathematical modeling of liquid-level systems. m3/s qi = small deviation of inflow rate from its steady-state value. . if the changes in head and flow rate are small during the period of operation considered). Let us now obtain a mathematical model of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). only resistance and capacitance are important. see Problem A-7-2.Sec. it plays a dominant role in vibration transmitted through water. Such liquid-flow inertance becomes important only in special cases.. we assume that the liquid outflow from the valve is turbulent. because it is negligible. dH = h. In the present analysis. m3/s qo = small deviation of outflow rate from its steady-state value. m deviation of head from its steady-state value. For instance. which results from both the inertia effects and the elastic or capacitance effects of water flow in pipes.e.) Inertia elements in mechanical systems and inductance elements in electrical systems are important in describing system dynamics.

o (a) (b) . then another mathematical model may be obtained. qo Substituting qo = hlR into Equation (7-3). Equation (7-4) is a linearized mathematical model for the system when h is considered the system output. and (7-7) are of the same form. (7-5) which is also a linearized mathematical model for the system. the electrical system shown R k b Figure 7-4 Systems analogous to the liquidlevel system shown in Figure 7-3(a). The liquid-level system considered here is analogous to the electrical system shown in figure 7-4(a). 7 and the resistance R may be written as R = dH dQ =!!.. . rather than h (the change in head). provided that changes in the head and flow rate from their respective steady-state values are small. Such a linearized mathematical model is valid. we obtain dh h C dt = q. the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a). they are analogous. a mathematical model is o --+ x k dt 0 = x· I (7-7) Equations (7-5). a mathematical model is RC. Analogous systems. (a) Electrical system.1t is also analogous to the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b).+ e0 dt b dx deo = e· I (7-6) For the mechanical system. thus.330 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap..+ h dt dh = Rq· I (7-4) Note that RC has the dimension of time and is the time constant of the system. (7-6). (b) mechanical system. For the electrical system. Substituting h = Rqo into Equation (7-4) gives dqo RC dt + qo = q. If qo (the change in the outflow rate). is considered the system output.R or RC. Hence.

Hence.) If the variations of the variables from their respective steady-state values are small. the two tanks interact. the resistance R I stays constant.H2 Rl +--Rl hi . In this system.q2 (7-12) . 7-2 Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Level Systems 331 Tank! Tank 2 figure 7-5 Liquid-level system with interaction. we obtain hi . using the symbols as defined in Figure 7-5. at steady state.ql (7-9) (7-10) (7-11) -h2 = q2 R2 dh2 C2 dt = ql .h2 Substituting Equation (7-8) into this last equation. we assume that variations of the variables from their respective steady-state values are small. [Note that there are many other electrical and mechanical systems that are analogous to the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a).(H2 + h2) RI HI .h2 = ql Rl dh l C1dt = q . Then.H2 Rl (7-8) After small changes have occurred. and the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b) are analogous systems. in Figure 7-4(a).h2 Rl In the analysis that follows. Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-5.] Liquid-level system with interaction. we can obtain the following four equations for the system: ql = hI . (Note that the transfer function for such a case is not the product of two individual first-order transfer functions.Sec. - Q = HI . we have Q + ql = = - HI + hi .

42 0.156 0. For instance. we assume that the flow condition is subsonic.33 0.7 psia 273 K = 32°P = 492°R TABLE 7-1 Properties of Gases Gas constant Gas Molecular weight N-mlkgK Air Hydrogen (H 2) Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (02 ) Water vapor(H20) 29.0 32.332 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.0332 kglcm2 abs = 14.) Pneumatic systems are used extensively in the automation of production machinery and in the field of automatic controllers.444 Cv Specific heat ratio.0 18.248 0. Physical properties of air and other gases.0 2. If the speed of air in the pneumatic system is below the velocity of sound. then. the transfer function of the system can be obtained by eliminating qh hh and h2 from Equations (7-9) through (7-12). we examine some physical properties of air and other gases.171 2.334 .3 85.8 cp 0. we derive a mathematical model of a pneumatic system in terms of resistance and capacitance. In our discussions of pneumatic systems here.240 3. The result is Q2(S) 1 (7-13) Q(s) = RlClR2C2S2 + (RICl + R2C2 + R2Ct )s + 1 (See Problem A-7-5 for the derivation of this transfer function.40 1.02 28. (Although the most common fluid in these systems is air. c/cv 1. and various types of pneumatic controllers are found in industry.41 1. Some physical properties of air and other gases at standard pressure and temperature are shown in Table 7-l. see Problem A-7-13.2 48.0133 = O°C = x lOS N/m2 abs 2 = 1. like liquid-level systems. such pneumatic systems can be described in terms of resistance and capacitance.3 766 55. other gases can be used as well. pneumatic circuits that convert the energy of compressed air into mechanical energy enjoy wide usage. Fmally.218 0. kcal/kgK or Btu/lb OR ft-Ib"lb OR 53.) 7-3 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS Pneumatic systems are fluid systems that use air as the medium for transmitting signals and power. Then we define the resistance and capacitance of pneumatic systems.) Before we derive a mathematical model of a pneumatic system.0 287 4121 297 260 462 Rgas Specific heat. abs = 14.40 1.40 0. Standard pressure p and temperature t are defined as p t = 1. 7 If q is considered the input and q2 the output. (For numerical values of the velocity of sound.177 0.40 1.7Iblin.

where Po is also a small quantity compared with P. Under the condition that the flow is subsonic.. A theoretical determination of the value of the airflow resistance R is very time consuming. Airflow resistance in pipes. change m mass flow rate kg/s kg-m2 Therefore.Sec. change in differential pressure N/m2 N-s . resistance R can be expressed as R = d(l1p) dq where d ( 11 p) is a change in the differential pressure and dq is a change in the mass flow rate.Po' Such a pneumatic system may be characterized in terms of a resistance and a capacitance. Consider the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7--6(a). and Ipi » Ipil.293 kg/m3 v = 0. then the pressure downstream (the pressure in the vessel) changes to P + Po. where Pi is a small quantity compared with P.68 N/m3 Resistance and capacitance of pneumatic systems. and any other flow-restricting devices can be defined as the change in differential pressure (existing between upstream and downstream of a flow-restricting device) (N/m2) required to make a unit change in the mass flow rate (kg/s). it can be easily determined from a plot of Slope = R Capacitance C (a) o (b) q F1gure 7-6 (a) Pneumatic system. Experimentally.or . specific volume v.resistance R = .Assume that at steady state the pressure in the system is P. orifices.7733 m3Jkg 'Y = 12. H the pressure upstream changes to P + Pi. however. and specific weight 'Y of air at standard pressure and temperature are p = 1. (b) curve of pressure difference versus flow rate. or . the airflow rate through the restriction becomes proportional to V Pi . Many industrial processes and pneumatic controllers involve the flow of air (or some other gas) through connected pipelines and pressure vessels. Ipi » IPol. valves. 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 333 The density p. .

. Notice that the airflow resistance R is not constant. T p p R M atr (7-15) where p = absolute pressure of air. kglm3 Such a capacitance C may be calculated with the use of the perfect-gas law. N/m2 v = specific volume of air. change in mass of air (or gas) kg kg-m2 capacitance C = . or . m 3 p = mass density of air (or other gas). m3/kg M = molecular weight of air per mole. N-mlkg K T = absolute temperature of air. N/m2 V = volume of vessel. we have pv = . kglkg-mole R = universal gas constant.2 change in pressure N/m N which may be expressed as c= where dm =V dp ~ dp dp N/m2 (7-14) m = mass of air (or other gas) in vessel. N-mIkg-mole K Rair = gas constant of air. kg p = absolute pressure of air (or other gas). then the expansion process can be expressed as polytropic and can be given by n p where n = polytropic exponent p = constant (7-16) Since dpldp can be obtained from Equation (7-16) as dp dp p = np .334 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.or . K If the change of state of air is between isothermal and adiabatic. as shown in Figure 7-6(b). 7 the pressure difference Ap versus flow rate q by calculating the slope of the curve at a given operating condition. capacitance can be defined as the change in the mass of air (kg) [or other gas (kg)] in the vessel required to make a unit change in pressure (N/m2). For air.= -T = R . but varies with the change in the operating condition. For a pneumatic pressure vessel.

but depends on the expansion process involved. and n = 2 2 4121 X 323 = 1. the capacitance C is given by C= V nRgasT N/m2 ~ (7-19) where Rgas is the gas constant for the particular gas involved. RHz Equation (7-19). or n = 1. the capacitance C of a vessel is C=_V_~ nRairT N/m2 (7-18) Note that if a gas other than air is used in a pressure vessel. T = 273 + 50 == 323 K. it is clear that the capacitance of a pressure vessel is not constant. N2. H 2. the nature of the gas (air. and n = 1 into Equation (7-18) as follows: C Example 7-2 = n~T = 1 x 28~ x 323 = 2. T = 273 + 50 = 323 K. The gas constant for hydrogen is RH2 = 4121 N-mlkg K Substituting V = 2 m3. from Equations (7-14) and (7-17).16 x 10.50 X 10-6 kg-m /N 1 into C = nRH2T = 1 x V Mathematical modeling of a pneumatic system. From the preceding analysis.2) for gases in uninsulated metal vessels. if hydrogen (H2 ). Rair = 287 N-mlkg K. what is the capacitance? Assume that the temperature of the gas is 50°C and that the expansion process is isothermal.kg-m /N 5 2 In Example 7-1. Example 7-1 Fmd the capacitance C of a 2-m3 pressure vessel that contains air at 50°c' Assume that the expansion and compression of air occur slowly and that there is sufficient time for heat to transfer to and from the vessel so that the expansion process may be considered isothermal. The pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-7(a) consists of a pressure vessel and connecting pipe with . 7-3 Mathematical Modeling of Pneumatic Systems 335 by substituting Equation (7-15) into this last equation. The capacitance C is found by substituting V = 2 m 3. The value of the polytropic exponent n is approximately constant (n = 1. is used to fill the same pressure vessel. rather than air. we have dp 1 -=-dp nRairT (7-17) Then.0 to 1. or n = 1. and so on) and the temperature of the gas in the vessel./ ( Sec. we have = 4121 N-mlkg K.

is equal to the mass flow during dt seconds. the change in the mass of air in the vessel (during dt seconds). We define P = steady-state pressure of the system. Assume also that the flow is subsonic for the entire range of operation of the system. Let us obtain a mathematical model of this pneumatic pressure system. m 3 = mass of air in vessel. From Figure 7-7(b). or q dt. hence. the average resistance of the valve may be written as R = Pi . (b) curve of pressure difference versus mass flow rate. dm.336 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. the normal operating condition corresponds to Pi .Po = 0. Assume that the system operates in such a way that the average flow through the valve is zero (i. for the present system. As noted earlier. Hence. Cdpo = qdt . Now. kg = mass flow rate. a valve. we shall use an average resistance in the region of its operation. If we assume only small deviations in the variables from their respective steady-state values. the change in mass. kgls = small change in inflow pressure.. then this system may be considered linear.e. the capacitance of the pressure vessel can be written C = dm dpo or Cdpo = dm This last equation states that the capacitance C times the pressure change dpo (during dt seconds) is equal to dm. the resistance R is not constant. q = 0). N/m2 = volume of vessel.Po q From Equation (7-14). N/m2 Pi Po V m q N/m2 = small change in air pressure in vessel. 7 Pressure difference Capacitance C P+Po q Mass flow rate (a) (b) Figure 7-7 (a) Pneumatic pressure system.

The process of linearizing nonlinear systems is important. z = If the variation x . it is possible to apply numerous linear analysis methods that will produce information on the behavior of those systems.. the derivatives dfldx. ••• are evaluated at the operating point. we can neglect the higher order terms in x-x. we have Cd Rewriting yields Po = Pi . 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 337 Substituting q = (Pi .Po)IR into this last equation. we can write Equation (7-22) as z.. for by linearizing nonlinear equations. Equation (7-20) is a mathematical model for the system shown in Figure 7-7(a).Po dt R dpo RCTt + Po = Pi (7-20) where RC has the dimension of time and is the time constant of the system. z = z. Noting that = f(x). The relationship between z and x may be written z= f(x) (7-21) If the normal operating condition corresponds to a point (x. The linearization procedure presented here is based on the expansion of the nonlinear function into a Taylor series about the operating point and the retention of only the linear term. z . Linearization of z = f(x) about a point (x. Because we neglect higher order terms of the Taylor series expansion. df (7-22) Here.x) + . The equation is a linear mathematical model for the nonlinear system given by Equation (7-21) near the operating point x = x.It is also analogous to the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-3(a).x) + 2! dx 2 (x . z). Consider a nonlinear system whose input is x and output is z.x) a = (7-23) dfl x=x dx Equation (7-23) indicates that z . d 2fldx 2. z). we present a linearization technique that is applicable to many nonlinear systems.) I I I Sec.is proportional to x-x. 7-4 LINEARIZATION OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS In this section. that is.x is small. these neglected terms must be small enough. Note that the pneumatic pressure system considered here is analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 7-4(a) and the mechanical system shown in Figure 7-4(b). z zwhere z = a(x . x = x. the variables must deviate only slightly from the operating condition. then Equation (7-21) can be expanded into a Taylor series about this point as follows: Z = 1 d 2f 2 f(x) = [(x) + dx (x .

z = z is zwhere z = a(x - x) + b(y .z = a( x .x) + ai (y . z = Z. we find that a linear mathematical model of this nonlinear system near the operating point x = x. x =::. Next. y).x)(y .x)2 + 2--(x . or = z = i(x. y = y. Find the error if the linearized equation is used to calculate the value of z when x = 5 and y = 10. y.x) + b(y . Then Equation (7-24) becomes z = i(x. y. Y ~ 12.338 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. y = y.y) (7-24) To obtain a linear mathematical model for this nonlinear system about an operating point (x. Otherwise. Expanding the nonlinear equation into a Taylor series about the point x = x. consider a nonlinear system whose output z is a function of two inputs x and y.y)] ax ay 2 ili + -1 [a i -(x . z). Near this point. the higher order terms may be neglected. Y = 11. Let us obtain a linearized equation for the nonlinear equation near a point x = 6. the procedure does not apply.10 s y s 12. z = z and neglecting the higher order terms. ExampJe7-3 Linearize the nonlinear equation z = xy in the region 5 =::. 10 =::. Then z = xy = 66. Noting that Z = i(x. Y = 11. Since the region considered is given by 5 ~ x ~ 7. y) about a point (x. y = y. Z = 66. x = x.y=y iJy It is important to remember that in the present linearization procedure. we have z. z).7.y) . y) + [ai (x . the deviations of the variables from the operating condition must be sufficiently small. choose x = 6.y) + ( P-iy)2 + -(y ] 2! ax2 ax ay ay2 where the partial derivatives are evaluated at the operating point. 7 Linearization of z f(x.y) b= ail x=x. we expand Equation (7-24) into a Taylor series about that point.

the value of z given by the linearized equation is z = 11x + 6y . That is. we have C .y=y z . and the head is H = H.Q 0 = Q. Then Q. ExampJe7-4 = xy = 50..K v H dt I 4 dH r. For this system. Q.11) llx + 6y . - dH 1 -C- KYH = f(H.y=y Hence.= Q... . At steady state.= Q +qj ----Yrk.. 7-4 Linearization of Nonlinear Systems 339 where a = a(xy) I ax = y = 11 a(xy) b=-=x=6 ay x=X. Q) = O. the outflow rate is Qo = (1. Hence. where C is the capacitance of the tank. the linearized equation is I x=x./ I I Sec. are small quantities (either positive or negative).) (7-25) Assume that the system operates near the steady-state condition (H. the error is 2%. the inflow rate is = Q.66 or = 11(x z= 6) + 6(y . where h and q. (2).66 = 55 + 60 - 66 = 49 49 The exact value of z is z centage. At steady-state operation. The error is thus 50 - = 1. f( H.66 When x = 5 and y = 10.I . = Q + q. Let us define dt = CQ. H = H + h and Q. dH Idt = O.-- U H=il+h Figure 7-8 Liquid-level system. Assume that the flow is turbulent. Q. t . In terms of per- Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-8.

Q) qj. and similar operations occurs because of such factors as dependability.H = h and Qj - dH 1 1 RC (H . we obtain the linearized equation dH . dt RC C I or RC dh dt +h = Rq· I which is the linearized equation for the liquid-level system and is the same as Equation (7-4). Let us linearize Equation (7-25) near the operating point (H.= -(H ..Q) af H) dt 'aH where + -af (Q j .Q. aircraft control systems. fast starting.H. flexibility.-Q) aQj (7-26) f(H..f(H .. ~l. These cycles-in which the piston advances rapidly on the work stroke until the work is contacted. Equation (7-27) can be written as (7-27) Q= dh 1 1 .Q = .Q) = 0 :~IH.. In many machine tool applications.H. for instance. and then retracts rapidly at the end of the .2C~ = - In 2C~ Q =- ~H = . stopping.h +-q. 7 \. (See Section 7-2.= . Using the linearization technique just presented..Q. a high horsepower-to-weight ratio. and reversal with smoothness and precision.c in which we used the resistance R defined by R=~ Also.) 7-5 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS The widespread use of hydraulic circuitry in machine tool applications. Q). advances slowly under pressure while the work is done.H) + C(Qj .Q = ~ Then Equation (7-26) can be written as dr = Since H . the traverse and feed cycles required are best handled by hydraulic circuits. accuracy.! t 340 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. and simplicity of operation.

000 Iblin. In this section. 2). high-quality oil is required for satisfactory operation of the hydraulic system. Afterward. the operating pressure in hydraulic systems is somewhere between 106 N/m2 (1 MPa) and 35 X 106 N/m2 (35 MPa) (approximately between 10 kgtlcm2 and 350 kglcm2. high-pressure pump) and flow control devices. The SI unit is 10 times larger than the poise. a hydraulic fluid must minimize the wear of moving parts by providing satisfactory lubrication. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 341 slow tool feed stroke-are easily handled by the use of two pumps (one large-capacity. Low viscosity means an increase in leakage losses. We then model a hydraulic servo. allowable viscosities are limited by the operating characteristics of the pump. or approximately between 145 Iblin. high-pressure pump supplies hydraulic fluid for the compression stroke. Properties of hydraulic fluids.) Such an unloading valve is designed for the rapid discharge of hydraulic fluid at near atmospheric pressure after permitting the buildup of pressure to a preset value. high-pressure phase of a cycle. we first present some properties of hydraulic fluids and then introduce general concepts of hydraulic systems. The small-capacity.9 kglm-s = 47. is a measure of the internal friction or the resistance of the fluid to flow.2 and 5000 Iblin. viscosity. (The unloading valve unloads whatever is delivered by the large-capacity. which is approximately 700 kglcm2 or 10. In some special applications. Since this is a nonlinear device. The centipoise (cP) is one-hundredth of a poise. low-pressure pump is used only during the rapid advance and return of the cylinder. as well as by ambient and operating temperatures. In hydraulic systems. In practice. we obtain the transfer function of the hydraulic servo. The SI units of dynamic viscosity are N-s/m 2 and kglm-s. Besides serving as a powertransmitting medium. Fmally. motor.( Sec. The cgs unit of dynamic viscosity is the poise (P) (dyn-s/cm2 or g/cm-s). The large-capacity. petroleum-based oils with proper additives are the most commonly used hydraulic fluids. and high viscosity implies sluggish operation. or absolute. An unloading valve maintains high pressure while the low-pressure pump is unloaded to the reservoir. Generally. we derive a mathematical model of a hydraulic damper. low-pressure pump during the small-capacity. The properties of hydraulic fluids have an important effect on the performance of hydraulic systems. The resistance of a fluid to the relative motion of its parts is called dynamic. low-pressure pump and one small-capacity. The BES units of dynamic viscosity are Ibr s/fi2 and slug/ft-s.9 N-s/m2 = 100 cP = 0. the most important property of a hydraulic fluid. For the same power requirement. The viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature. It is the ratio of the shearing stress to the rate of shear deformation of the fluid. we linearize the nonlinear equation describing the dynamics of the hydraulic servo by using the linearization technique presented in Section 7-4. and valves. Vzscosity. 2). the operating pressure may go up to 70 X 106 N/m2 (70 MPa. Note that 1 sluglft-s 1P = 1lbr s/ft2 = 47.1 N-s/m2 . because they give good lubrication for the moving parts of a system and are almost imcompressible. The use of a clean. the weight and size of the hydraulic unit can be made smaller by increasing the supply pressure.

These fluids are available in several general types. the cgs unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke(St) (cm2/s). Hydraulic servomotor. For hydraulic systems located near high-temperature sources. so a large hydraulic force is established to move a load. multiply by the mass density in g/cm3. heat. a hydraulic cylinder.764 ft2/s (BES unit of kinematic viscosity) 1 St = 100 cSt = 0.or v=- IL p For petroleum-based oils. synthetic oil. Moreover. especially at high operating temperatures.59 slug/ft3 The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m 2/s. fire-resistant fluids should be used. the kinematic viscosity is about 5 to 100 centistokes (5 X 10-6 to 100 X 10-6 m2/s). Hydraulic circuits. The valve admits hydraulic fluid under high pressure into a power cylinder that contains a large piston. fluid having a viscosity that is relatively less sensitive to temperature changes must be used.342 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. If the system operates over a wide temperature range. valves. Such circuits involve four basic components: a reservoir to hold the hydraulic fluid. Assume that the spool valve is . are fundamentally the same. and an actuator or actuators to convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy to do the work. valves to control fluid pressure and flow. and water-oil emulsions. a pump or pumps to force the fluid through the circuit. Figure 7-9 shows a simple circuit that involves a reservoir. For operating temperatures above 70°C. Petroleum oils tend to become thin as the temperature increases and thick as the temperature decreases. Figure 7-10 shows a hydraulic servomotor consisting of a spool valve and a power cylinder and piston. 2. High-pressure hydraulic systems enable very large forces to be derived. these systems permit a rapid and accurate positioning of loads. and contamination. Hydraulic circuits are capable of producing many different combinations of motion and force. 7 The kinematic viscosity v is the dynamic viscosity IL divided by the mass density p. Note also that the operating temperature of the hydraulic system should be kept between 30 and 60°C. regardless of the application. Some additional remarks on hydraulic fluids are as follows: 1.2 Ib/ft3 = 1. Oxidation of hydraulic fluid is caused by air. and one-hundredth of a stoke is called a centistoke (cSt).0001 m2/s For hydraulic oils at normal operating conditions. Note that any hydraulic fluid combines with air to a certain extent. In changing from the stoke to the poise. The operating life of a hydraulic fluid depends on its oxidation resistance. Note that 1 m2/s (SI unit of kinematic viscosity) = 10. the mass density is approximately p = 820 kg/m3 = 51. All. The BES unit of kinematic viscosity is fills. a pump. and so on. oxidation is accelerated. Premium-grade fluids usually contain inhibitors to slow down oxidation. however. such as water-glycol.

and that the orifice coefficient and the pressure drop across the orifice are constant and independent of the valve position. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 343 Hydraulic cylinder Electric Directional control valve Figure 7-9 Hydraulic circuit.( Sec. Po Ps Po t 1 t X---. o-----~--~--~--~-----o y ___ 0-------:=----- Figure 7-10 Hydraulic servomotor. the inertia force of . the hydraulic fluid is incompressible. Assume also the following: The supply pressure is Ps' the return pressure Po in the return line is small and can be neglected. symmetrical and has zero overlapping. that the valve orifice areas are proportional to the valve displacement x.

P2 Then PI and P2 can be written PI = Ps + Ap 2 P2= Ps .PI X q2 = cVP2 - POX = C-v'P. ql = KIx (7-29) This is a linearized model of the spool valve near the origin. ql = 0).x where we assumed that Po = 0 and C is a proportionality constant. .Ap=Ap Ap x~0 = 0.Ap 2 The flow rate ql to the right side of the power piston is ql = CYPs . Ap=Ap Ips . we have Ps .K 2 Ap Hence. Let us derive a linearized mathematical model of the spool valve near the origin.x) . Noting that ql = q2. Ap = 0. we obtain the linearized equation near the operating point x = X.£p 2 X = I(x.PI = P2 Let us define the pressure difference across the power piston as Ap = P1 . Ap) Using the linearization technique discussed in Section 7-4. The flow rates through the valve orifices are given by qI = cVPs . Equation (7-28) becomes ql = KIx .I 344 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Ap = Ap. and the leakage flow around the spool valve from the supply pressure side to the return pressure side is negligible. /p .v s . 7 \ the power piston and the load reactive forces are negligible compared with the hydraulic force developed by the power piston.Ap) (7-28) where a b Near the origin (x where I = al I = at ax aAp = C x:::i. q1 = (it to be ql - fil = a(x + b(Ap .A P 'V 2 2VzVPs C =- x=i.PI X = C.

7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 345 Mathematical model of hydraulic servomotor. p (kg/m 3 ). The dashpot (also called a damper) shown in Figure 7-11(a) acts as a differentiating element. (7-32) where K = Kl/(Ap). we obtain dy Ap dt = K1x The Laplace transform of this last equation. The oil flowing into the power cylinder is at high pressure. In obtaining a mathematical model of the hydraulic servomotor shown in Figure 7-10. the oil will flow through the resistance R. (7-30) As given by Equation (7-29). That is. assuming a zero initial condition. we assume that the hydraulic fluid is incompressible and that the inertia force of the power piston and load is negligible compared with the hydraulic force at the power piston. the oil flow rate ql is proportional to the pilot valve displacement x. the oil on the left-hand side of the power piston is returned to the drain. Note that the rate of flow of oil. Thus. We also assume that the pilot valve is a zero-lapped valve. however. From Equations (7-30) and (7-31). the oil flowing out from the power cylinder into the drain is at low pressure. and the cylinder will come back to the original position.2) and P2 (lbt'in. the hydraulic servomotor shown in Figure 7-10 acts as an integral controller. respectively.I ( Sec. We define the pressures existing on the right-hand side and left-hand side of the piston as PI (Ibt'in. gives Aps Yes) = KIX(S) or Yes) Kl K Xes) = Aps = --. Suppose that we introduce a step displacement into the piston position x. The operation of this hydraulic servomotor is as follows: If input x moves the pilot valve to the right. Let us derive the transfer function between the displacement y and the displacement x. and high-pressure oil enters the righthand side of the power piston. Dash pots. ql (kg/s). or (7-31) where Kl is a proportionality constant. The curves of x versus t and y versus tare shown in Figure 7-11(b). the oil flow rate is proportional to the pilot valve displacement. Then the force acting on the piston must balance . Because of the spring force. As given by Equation (7-29). Suppose that the inertia force involved is negligible. port 1 is uncovered. times dt (s) is equal to the power piston displacement dy (m) times the piston area A (m2) times the density of the oil. 2). Since port 2 is connected to the drain port. The resulting difference in pressure on both sides of the power piston will cause it to move to the left. Then the displacement y becomes momentarily equal to x.

dt = Ap = or dx dy q PI .dy) (7-33) where p = (We assume that the fluid is incompressible.I 346 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. lbrs/in. dt . is given by q= PI . Thus.Pz R where R is the resistance to flow at the restriction. Ibtlin. 7 \ --~ x (a) y q R (b) Figure 7-11 (a) Dashpot.Pz RAp ky = RAzp -=-+-dt dt RAzp ky Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation. (b) step change in x and the corresponding change in y plotted against t.lb/in. The flow rate q through the restriction. assuming zero initial conditions. Since the flow through the restriction during dt seconds must equal the change in the mass of oil to the left of the piston during the same dt seconds. 3. we obtain sX(s) = sY(s) + -z-Y(s) k RAp . in.Z k = spring constant. the spring force. we obtain q dt = Ap(dx . or p = constant.z-Ib.) Equation (7-33) can be rewritten as dx dy density. where A = piston area. in IbIs.

Comparatively small hydraulic actuators can develop large forces or torques. Then Y(s) = k s+-RA2p Ts X(s) = Ts + 1 (7-34) In earlier chapters. which is equivalent to the system of Figure 7-11(a). in addition to carrying away heat generated in the system to a convenient heat exchanger. Some of the advantages to using hydraulic systems rather than electrical systems are as follows: L Hydraulic fluid acts as a lubricant.y) or Y(s) bs b k = ky -s b k X(s) = bs + k -s + 1 Ts Ts + 1 (7-35) where b/k is the time constant T. since T = RA2p/k in Equation (7-34) and T = blk in Equation (7-35). stops. Notice that. in what follows we shall list the advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic systems over comparable electrical systems.) ! Sec. 7-5 Mathematical Modeling of Hydraulic Systems 347 The transfer function of the system thus becomes Y(s) s X(s) Let us define RA2plk = T. and reversals of speed. x y Figure 7-12 Spring-dashpot system. we find the viscous-friction coefficient b to be equal to RA2p or b = RA2p Note that the resistance R depends on the viscosity of oil. with fast starts. A mathematical model of the system shown in Figure 7-12 is b(x . 2. Since hydraulic systems are used frequently in industry. Comments. 3. . Hydraulic actuators have a higher speed of response. Advantages and disadvantages of hydraulic systems. we frequently treated the spring-dashpot system as shown in Figure 7-12.

2. that substances characterized by resistance to heat flow have negligible heat capacitance. Other units of heat commonly used in engineering calculations are the kilocalorie (kcal) and Btu (British thermal unit). 4. tend to limit the use of hydraulic systems: 1. The SI unit of heat is the joule (J). Fire and explosion hazards exist. and stalled conditions without damage. 7-6 MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THERMAL SYSTEMS Thermal systems involve the transfer of heat from one substance to another. As a result of the nonlinear and other complex characteristics involved. compared with electric power. although the thermal capacitance and thermal resistance may not be represented accurately as lumped parameters. let us review units of heat. Because of low leakages in hydraulic actuators. depending on the operating condition of the circuit. Heat is energy transferred from one body to another because of a temperature difference. The following conversions are applicable: 1J 1 kcal 1 Btu = 1 N-m = 2. since they are usually distributed throughout the substance. (For precise analysis. 3. Hydraulic circuits have generally poor damping characteristics. Because it is difficult to maintain a hydraulic system that is free from leaks.480 X 10-4 Btu = 4186 J = 0. 5. and that substances characterized by heat capacitance have negligible resistance to heat flow. 7. Hydraulic power is not readily available. drops in speed when loads are applied are small. 6.163 Wh = 1055 J = 778 ft-IbJ . to simplify the analysis. The availability of both linear and rotary actuators lends flexibility to design. 5. reversing. we shall assume that a thermal system can be represented by a lumped-parameter model. The cost of a hydraulic system may be higher than that of a comparable electrical system performing a similar function. 7 4. some unstable phenomena may appear or disappear. Hydraulic actuators can be operated under continuous. Before we derive mathematical models of thermal systems. however. the design of sophisticated hydraulic systems is quite involved. Units of heat. distributed-parameter models must be used. Several disadvantages. Contaminated oil may cause failure in the proper functioning of a hydraulic system.) Here. the system tends to be messy. however. intermittent.348 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. 6.860 Wh = 1. Thermal systems may be analyzed in terms of resistance and capacitance.389 1 X 10-4 kcal = 9. unless fire-resistant fluids are used. If a hydraulic circuit is not designed properly.

the thermal resistance for conduction or convection heat transfer is given by R = d(118) = ~ dq K Since the thermal conductivity and convection coefficients are almost constant. kcallm2 soC Thermal resistance and thermal capacitance. kcallm soC A = area normal to heat flow. Most thermal processes in process control systems do not involve radiation heat transfer and may be described in terms of thermal resistance and thermal capacitance. 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 349 From an engineering point of view. The Btu can be considered as the energy required to raise 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit at some arbitrarily chosen temperature. The thermal resistance R for heat transfer between two substances may be defined as follows: R= change in temperature difference °C -change in heat flow rate kcalls Thus.) Heat transfer by conduction. The thermal . °C K = coefficient. Heat can flow from one substance to another in three different ways: conduction. the thermal resistance for either conduction or convection is constant. For conduction or convection heat transfer. convection.5 to IS. the kilocalorie can be considered to be that amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water from 14. we shall be concerned with systems that involve just conduction and convection. kcalls 118 = temperature difference. (These units give roughly the same values as those previously defined. q = KJ18 where q = heat flow rate. radiation heat transfer is appreciable only if the temperature of the emitter is very high compared with that of the receiver. kcalls °C The coefficient K is given by K = kA I1X for conduction for convection = HA where k = thermal conductivity. m H = convection coefficient. m2 I1X = thickness of conductor. and radiation. In this section.SoC. convection and radiation.I Sec.

kg e == specific heat of substance. A mathematical model for this thermal system can be derived by considering heat balance as follows: The heat entering the thermometer during dt seconds is q dt. kcaUkg °C Mathematical modeling of a thermal system: thermometer system. Thus. . 7 I \ capacitance C is defined by C== change in heat stored kcal change in temperature °C Accordingly. Therefore.walled mercury thermometer system shown in Figure 7-13. This heat is stored in the thermal capacitance C of the thermometer. thereby raising its temperature by dB. glass-walled mercury thermometer system. satisfying the condition that B( 0) == o. where Bb is the bath temperature (which may be constant or changing). measured from the am· bient temperature @. the thermal capacitance is the product of the specific heat and the mass of the material.350 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. thermal capacitance can also be written as C = me where m = mass of substance considered. Assume that the thermometer is at a uniform temperature @°C (ambient tempera· ture) and that at t == 0 it is immersed in a bath of temperature @ + Bb °C. the heat balance equation is C d8 == q dt Since the thermal resistance may be written (7-36) R == d(A8) == AB dq q Thermometer / e+8 Bath Figure 7-13 Thin. where q (kcaUs) is the heat flow rate to the thermometer. Consider the thin. The dynamics of this thermometer system can be char· acterlzed in terms of a thermal resistance R (OC/kcalls) that resists the heat flow and a thermal capacitance C (kcall°C) that stores heat. so that 8 is the change in the temperature of the thermometer. glass. Let us denote the instantaneous thermometer temperature by @ + 8°C.

which is analogous to the electrical system shown in Figure 7-4(a). let us derive a mathematical model for the system.8 =b. the inlet air temperature is suddenly changed from @. Assuming small deviations from steady-state operation. Consequently. °C slkcal C = thermal capacitance of air contained in the heating chamber == M c. == steady-state temperature of inlet air...i \ Sec..- R where B + 8b is the bath temperature and B + 8 is the thermometer temperature. To derive a mathematical model for the system. °C 8 0 = steady-state temperature of outlet air. °C G == mass flow rate of air through the heating chamber. kcaVs Let us assume that the heat input is suddenly changed from H to H + h. kg c = specific heat of air. in terms of R. we can rewrite Equation (7-36) as CdB dt or = 8b - 8 R dB RC dt + 8 = 8b where RC is the time constant. Then the outlet air temperature will be changed from 8 0 to 8 0 + 80 . This is a mathematical model of the thermometer system.. let us define 8. kcal/kg °C R = thermal resistance. the mechanical system of Figure 7-4(b). kcaYoC H = steady-state heat input. . the liquid-level system depicted in Figure 7-3(a). We shall also assume that the heat loss to the surroundings and the heat capacitance of the metal parts of the heater are negligible. and the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-7(a). 7-6 Mathematical Modeling of Thermal Systems 351 the heat flow rate q may be given. Example7-S Consider the air-heating system shown in Figure 7-14. il + h t Heater -. to @. + 8. -----------+-------+--~ Figure 7-14 Air-heating system. as q= (@ + 8b ) - (@ + 8) R 8 . and at the same time. kgls M == mass of air contained in the heating chamber.

H2 ) 2 dQ slm . either laminar or turbulent.I 352 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems The equation describing the system behavior is Chap.= h + Gc( Bj dt Noting that Bo ) 1 Gc=R we obtain 0 C . [h + Gc(Bj . change in differential head m resIstance R = . Here.. or where K is a proportionality constant.Bo)] dt or dBo c. .H 2 ) m are proportional. the flow rate Q m3/s and differential head (HI .= h + -(8.(J ) dt R'O d8 1 or (7-37) Taking the Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation and substituting the initial condition 80 (0) = 0 yields 8 0 (s) = RCs + 1 H(s) + R 1 RCs + 18.(s) (7-38) Equation (7-37) is a mathematical model of the system. EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS ProblemA-7-1 Liquid flow resistance depends on the flow condition. 7 \ C dBo :.3 change m flow rate m /s _ d(Hl . For laminar flow.(s). Equation (7-38) is also a mathematical model of the system. but one in which the Laplace transform of the output 8 0 (s) is given as a sum of the responses to the inputs H(s) and 8. Since . we consider the laminar-flow resistance.

Assuming that the temperature of the water is 20°C and that the flow is laminar. m R D So the laminar-flow resistance R for liquid flow through cylindrical pipes is given by 128vL = -dh = .H 2 ) m and the flow rate Q m3/s is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula where v = kinematic viscosity. Solution Substituting numerical values into Equation (7-39).H2) = . we obtain R = 128 X 1.X 1 = 5. the relationship between the differential head h (= HI . In considering laminar flow through a cylindrical pipe. m = diameter of pipe.I I I / Example Problems and Solutions 353 the laminar-flow resistance can be given by R = d(Bt . The liquid-flow inertance is the potential difference (either pressure difference or head difference) between two sections in the pipe required to cause a unit rate of change in flow rate (a unit volumetric flow acceleration). Now consider the flow of water through a capillary tube as shown in Figure 7-15.004 X 10-6 m2/s.15 X 104 s/m2 9. Suppose that the cross-sectional area of a pipe is constant and equal to A m 2 and that the pressure difference between two sections in the pipe is flp N/m2• Then the .. The kinetic viscosity v of water at 20°C is 1.s/m2 4 dQ g'TJ'D (7-39) h Figure 7-15 Flow of water through a capillary tube. m2/s L = length of pipe.807 X 3. fmd the resistance R of the capillary tube.004 X 10.14 X (3 X 10-3 )4 6 Problem A-7-2 Consider a liquid flow in a pipe.!s/m2 dQ K Note that the laminar flow resistance is constant.

where p kglm3 is the density and L m is the distance between the two sections considered. the liquid-flow inertance I is obtained as Ilh L s2 1=--=-dQldt Ag m2 Now consider water flow through a pipe whose cross-sectional area is 1 x 10-3 m2 and in which two sections are 15 m apart. Note that the mass M is equal to pAL.354 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. we see that Equation (7-40) becomes . Solution The liquid-flow inertance is or I = L = Ag 1 X 15 m s2 . Assuming that the differential head between two sections is 1 m..807 m2 m .5s2/m 2 10-3 X 9.= 1529. 7 force A IIp will accelerate the liquid between the two sections.. the last equation can be written dv pAL dt = A IIp Noting that Av m 3/s is the volumetric flow rate and defining Q = Av m3/s.. then. where Ilh is the differential head.-dt = IIp A pL dQ (7-40) If pressure (N/m2) is chosen as a measure of potential. we can rewrite the preceding equation as .= Ilhpg pL dQ A dt or ~ dQ Ag dt = Ilh Consequently. noting that IIp ::: Ilhpg. then the liquid-flow inertance I is obtained as If head (m) is chosen as a measure of potential. Compute the inertance 1. Therefore. or dv M dt = A IIp where M kg is the mass of liquid in the pipe between the two sections and v mls is the velocity of liquid flow. compute the volumetric water flow acceleration dQldt.

O.125 . when the inflow rate Qi is 0.25 H (-0. we 1 Qi- 1.25m The equation for the system for t > 0 is -CdH = Qdt or -. the head stays constant.005 dt Assume that H have = 1.I Problem A-7-3 dQ _ Ah _ Ah _ 1 _ 3 2 LIAg .Jt=-C= Consequently. Integrating both sides of this last equation. Find the time necessary to empty the tank to half the original head.. Assume that the outflow rate Q m3/s through the outflow valve is related to the head H m by Q = KYH = 0. the inflow rate equals the outflow rate.015 or = 0.1529. so there is no inflow for t ~ o.OIVH 2 Vii = -0. r. = V dH /.125 m at 1 = 11..01 Vii Assume also that.I I I 1 Example Problems and Solutions 355 For a differential head of 1 m between two sections that are 15 m apart. the volumetric water flow acceleration is dt . Thus. the head Ho at t = 0 is obtained from 0.11 0 2.OO0654m Is Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-16. At t = 0 the inflow valve is closed. .005) d1 = -0.005tl H Capacitance C Figure 7-16 Liquid-level system. The capacitance of the tank is 2 m2• Solution When the head is stationary.015 m3/s. dH dH Q -O.5 .01 Viio Ho = 2.

125 \ \ Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Problem A-7-4 Consider the liquid-level system of Figure 7-17(a).5 X 10-4 m3/s. 7 2YH 1 or = 2V1.02 m 2• Solution The flow rate through the outflow valve can be assumed to be Q=KYH Next. or H = 1. Also. we see that 4 X 10-4 = or K = 4 X 10-4 So if the steady-state flow rate is changed to 4. from the curve given in Figure 7-17 (b).005tl 2. (b) curve of head versus flow rate.266m Head m Ii + h c= O. the inflow valve is opened further and the inflow rate is changed to 4.5 X 10-4 m3/s. . The capacitance C of the tank is 0.25 = 175.02m2 o (a) (b) Figure 7-17 (a) Liquid-level system.25 = -0. determine the change in head as a function of time. the time necessary to empty the tank to half the original head is 175.125 tl . Determine the average resistance R of the outflow valve.I 356 It follows that 1. At t = 0.7 s. then the new steady-state head can be obtained from KVi. Assume that at steady state the liquid flow rate is 4 X 10-4 m3/s and the steady-state head is 1 m.2\1'2. The curve of head versus flow rate is shown in Figure 7-17(b).7 Thus.

The average resistance R R dB =.4s + 1) = 0. respectively.5 X 10-4 4 106. C = 0. and qj last equation yields 0.I Example Problems and Solutions This means that the change in head is 1.% R=% h it follows that or dh RC dt + h = Rq· I Substituting R = 0.266(1 .266 0.4) 1 1 The inverse Laplace transform of H(s) gives h(t) = 0. Thus. with the initial condition h(O) = 0.4 ) m This equation gives the change in head as a function of time.- 0. and h is the change in the head.e-tl106 . Cdt = Since dh qj .266 .%) dt where qj and qo are the changes in the inflow rate and outflow rate of the tank.5 .4s + 1)H(s) = .02 dh + h dt or = 0.m /s into this 4 3 = 0.= dQ 1.532 X 104s/m2 (4.1 = 0.47t + h dh = 0.266 Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation.266 m.532 X 104 51m2.s + (11106. we obtain (106.02 m2 .5 X 10.1 of the outflow valve is then 357 = 0. .4) X 10-4 Noting that the change in the liquid stored in the tank during dt seconds is equal to the net flow into the tank during the same dt seconds.266 [1 -. .532 X 10 X 0.266 .266 s or H(s) = s(106. we have C dh = (qj .532 X 104 X 0.

! Rl (7-42) Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of Equations (7-41) and (7-42). (7-41) For tank 2. The corresponding changes in the heads (h I and h2) and changes in flow rates (qi and q2) are assumed to be small as well.ql Hence.358 Problem A-7-S Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. C dh2 + h2 + h2 2 dt Rl R2 = !!. derive the transfer function for the system. 7 For the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-18. where q is small. H2(S) (7-43) (7-44) Q+q-~ Tank 1 Tank 2 Figure 7-18 Liquid-level system. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + q. At t = 0. Solution For tank 1. The capacitances of tank 1 and tank 2 are C 1 and C2. . we have ql = hi . under the initial conditions hI (0) = 0 and h2(0) = 0. we get Therefore. respectively. we obtain (c.h2 Rl dhi CIT! = q . respectively. The resistance of the valve between the tanks is R 1 and that of the outflow valve is R2• Assuming that q is the input and q2 the output.s + ~JH'(S) = Q(s) + ~. the steady-state flow rate through the tanks is Q and the steady-state heads of tank 1 and tank 2 are HI and H 2.

)R2Q2(S) Rl R2 = Q(s) + R2 Q2(S) RICIS + 1 Rl RICIS + 1 which can be simplified to [(C2R2s + I)(R ICl S + 1) + R2C1S)Q2(S) Thus. we have (R}CIs + I)Hl(S) = RIQ(S) + H2(S) or RIQ(S) + H2(s) HI () = . At t = 0.. the transfer function Q2( s)/Q( s) can be given by Q2(S) Q(s) 1 = Q(s) = R1C}R2C2s2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + R2C. Solution For tank 1. Problem A-7-6 Consider the liquid-level system of Figure 7-19. Figure 7-19 Liquid-level system_ . the flow rate between the tanks is zero. the inflow rate is changed from Qto Q + q... we have Tank 2 Q+q-~ Tank 1 "-. respectively_ The resistance of the valve between the tanks is Rl and that of the outflow valve is R2Derive the transfer function for the system when q is the input and h2 is the output.' .)s + 1 which is Equation (7-13)..S RICIS + 1 Substituting this last equation into Equation (7-44) yields Cs+ ( 2 ~ + ~)H2(S) RI R2 = 1 RIQ(S) + H2(S) RI RICIS + 1 Since H2(S) = R2Q2(S). where q is small.. and the heads of tank 1 and tank 2 are both H.. The resulting changes in the heads (hI and h2) and flow rates (ql and q2) are assumed to be small as well. we get C S+ ( 2 ~ + -l. the inflow rate and outflow rate are both Q. At steady state.Example Problems and Solutions 359 From Equation (7-43). The capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are CI and C2.

we get where It follows that dh2 R2C2Tt + RI h2 + h2 R2 = R2q + RI hI + R2q R2 (7-46) Eliminating hI from Equations (7-45) and (7-46). . Obtain a state-space representation of the system when hi and h2 are the outputs and qil and q. 7 Consequently. hh h2' qh and % are considered small.'2 are the inputs. QI and Q2 are steady-state inflow rates and H1 and H2 are steady·state heads.360 where Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. In the system. (7-45) For tank 2. Solution The equations for the system are R1C1R2s + R2 = RICIR2C2S2 + (RIC I + R2C2 + R2Ctls + 1 C1 dh 1 = (qil . The quantities qih q.'2. we have h2 dh2 dq d2 RI C1R2C2 dt 2 + (R1CI + R2C2 + R2CI )Tt + h2 = R1C1R2 dt (7-47) The transfer function H2(s)/Q(s) is then obtained from Equation (7-47) and is H2(s) Q(s) Problem A-7-7 Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-20.ql) dt (7-48) Figure 7-20 LiqUid-level system.

%) dt (7-50) (7-51) Using Equation (7-49) to eliminate ql from Equation (7-48) results in dh l _ ~ ( dt . we have which is the state equation.h2) Rl (7-52) Using Equations (7-49) and (7-51) to eliminate ql and qo from Equation (7-50) gives dt = C2 If we define state variables dh z 1 (hI RI h2 + qiZ h2) . .Example Problems and Solutions 361 hI .h2 RI = qi (7-49) C2 dh2 = (ql h2 R2 =% + qi2 . Problem A-7-8 Obtain a mechanical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21 when q is the input and qz the output.C1 q.RIC X2 .R2 (7-53) input variables UI Uz = qil = qil and output variables YI = hI = Y2 :::: hl = Xl Xl then Equations (7-52) and (7-53) can be written as . and which is the output equation.= 1 RIC l I Xl + RICI Xl + C 1 UI 1 1 Xl - (1 + 1) Rie Z RzCz X2 + C2 U2 1 In standard vector-matrix representation.l _ hI . Xl 1 = .

362 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. 7 Tank! Tank 2 iit + hI L--L~~~~==L--L~__~==~~=Q+q2 1 ~+~ t - Figure 7-21 Liquid-level system. Equations (7-54) through (7-57) can be modified to b1Xl PI =F = kl(Xl Fl .F2 F2 = k 2X 2 TABLE 7-2 Mechanical-Liquid-Level Analogy Mechanical Systems F(force) x (displacement) x (velocity) b (viscous-friction coefficient) k (spring constant) Liquid-Level Systems q (flow rate) ~ (head) h (time change of head) C (capacitance) ~ (reciprocal of resistance) .q2 h2 qz=- R2 Analogous quantities in a mechanical-liquid-level analogy are shown in Table 7-2.) Using the analogous quantities shown in the table. Solution The equations for the liquid-level system are (7-54) qi = hI .hz R} (7-55) (7-56) (7-57) dh z CzTt = qi .Xz) (7-58) (7-59) (7-60) (7-61) !Jzxz = Fl . (Note that other mechanical-liquid-level analogies are possible as well.

1 mole occupies the same volume if measured under the same conditions of pressure and temperature. Solution Substituting p = 1. we find it convenient to work in molar quantities.4 m3• This volume is called the molal volume and is denoted by v.7 T 144 X 359 = 1545 ft-Ibfllb-mole OR 492 = 1.7 psia and 492°R). Problem A-7-C) In dealing with gas systems. we obtain v= 22. pv= RT (7-62) The value of R is the same for all gases under alI conditions. we can obtain an analogous mechanical system as shown in Figure 7-22. The constant R is the universal gas constant. 32 kg of oxygen. or 28 kg of nitrogen is the same. 22. For 1 mole of gas. or 14.X2) On the basis of the last two equations.X2) = F ~X2 + k 2X2 = kt(Xl . 273 K into Equation (7-62).4 m3/kg-mole. the volume occupied by 2 kg of hydrogen. 1 kg mole of any gas is found to occupy 22. Fmd the value of the universal gas constant in S1 and BES units. R = pv = 14.0133 X 10 x 22. because 1 mole of any gas contains the same number of molecules. v = 359 ft3Ilb-mole. . we obtain bIXl + kt(Xl .Example Problems and Solutions 363 Rewriting Equations (7-58) through (7-61).985 Btullb-mole OR X Figure 7-ZZ Mechanical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21.7 x 144 Iblft2 abs.4 = 8314 N-mlkg-mole K T 273 5 This is the universal gas constant in SI units. Thus. we substitute p = 14. at standard pressure and temperature.4 m3 (or lib mole of any gas is found to occupy 359 rt3).0133 x 105 N/m 2 abs and 273 K. For instance.7 psia = 14.0133 x lOS N/m2 abs. At standard pressure and temperature (1. and T = 492°R into Equation (7-62). To obtain the universal gas constant in BES units. and T = R= pv = 1.

and that the vessel has a capacity of 0. that the temperature of the entire system is constant at T = 293 K.1 _ -6 2 .19 X 10- 6dpo + Po = 2 dt Capacitance C ~/ P+Po q(kgls) Figure 7-23 Pneumatic pressure system. Assume that the initial flow rate is q(O) = 1 X 10-4 kg/so As air flows into the vessel. the inlet pressure is suddenly changed from P to P + Ph where Pi is a step change with a magnitude equal to 2 X 10" N/m2• This change causes the air to flow into the vessel until the pressure equalizes. the pressure of the air in the vessel rises from P to P + Po. and Pi into this last equation.364 Problem A-7-10 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. At t = 0. Determine Po as a function of time. assume that the system is at steady state for t < 0 and that the steady-state pressure of the system is P = 5 X lOS N/m2 abs. Assume that the expansion process is isothermal (n = 1).Po R Thus.nRairT ._v_ _ 0.19 X 10 kg-m IN A mathematical model for this system is obtained from C dpo = qdt where q=-=-- ap R Pi .1. 7 Referring to the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-23. C. dpo RCTt + Po = Pi X 104 Substituting the values of R. we have 2 X 108 X 1.1 X 287 X 293 . .1 m3• Solution The average resistance of the valve is R = -q = 1 X ap 2 X 104 10-4 =2 X 108 N-slkg-m2 The capacitance of the vessel is C .

3 = 0. .3 ~ 9. with the initial condition Po(O) = 0.3 kg V 2 v = . the gas constant of air is Rair the compressed air is m = 287 N-mlkg K.1 N/m3 Problem A-7-12 The molecular weight of a pure substance is the weight of one molecule of the substance. Therefore. Find the mass of air in the tank.e-o·00421 ) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation is Po{t) = 2 X 104(1 which gives Po{ t) as a function of time. the molecular weight of carbon dioxide (C02) is 12 + (16 X 2) = 44. Determine the specific volume v of a mixture that consists of 100 m 3 of oxygen. That is.Example Problems and Solutions 365 or 238dt dpo + 1'0 n = 2 X 104 (7-63) Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (7-63). find the specific volume and specific weight of the compressed air. compared with the weight of one oxygen atom.0042 . ProblemA-7-11 Air is compressed into a tank of volume 2 m3• The compressed air pressure is 5 X 105 N/m2 gage and the temperature is 20°C. we get (238s + I)Po(s) = 2 X 104 ! or 2 X 104 Po(s) = s(238s + 1) = 2 X 104(! _ s s 1 ) s + 0.0133) X lOS N/m2 abs T = 273 + 20 = 293 K From Table 7-1. and 20 m3 of water vapor when the pressure and temperature 5m are 1. The molecular weights of (molecular) oxygen and water vapor are 32 and 18. 3 of carbon dioxide.0133 RairT The specific volume v is 10 X 2 287 X 293 X = 14. Solution The pressure and temperature are P = (5 + 1.. which is taken to be 16. respectively. = 14. the mass of 5 = pV = 6. Also.0133 X 105 N/m2 abs and 294 K.807 = 70.= m 14. respectively.140m3/kg The specific weight 'Y is 'Y = n.

24 = v ::: - RT Mp 8314 X 294 = 0.! I .798 m3/kg 30.0133 X 105 Problem A-7-13 Sound is a longitudinal wave phenomenon representing the propagation of compressional waves in an elastic medium. the values of k and R are constant. -V--. Solution Since the pressure and temperature changes due to the passage of a sound wave are negligible. So the speed of sound in a gas is a function only of the absolute temperature of the gas. Then ..24 X 1. 7 Solution The mean molecular weight of the mixture is M = Thus. for air. The speed e of propagation of a sound wave is given by c=~ Show that the speed e of sound can also be given by e = VkRT where k = ratio of specific heats. dp dp p =-. elev R = gas constant T = absolute temperature Fmd the speed of sound in air when the temperature is 293 K.= constant pk Therefore.1 mls = 1235 kmlh = 1126 ftls = 768 miIh VkRairT = V1. the process can be considered isentropic. k = 1.40 X . we obtain e = -Vd. Noting that.40 Rair = 287 N-mlkg K we find the speed of sound to be e :::: 287 X 293 = 343. kp Since p = pRT. 366 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. (32 X ~~) + ( 44 X 1~) + (18 X 1~) = 30. {Qp:::: fliP = VkRT For a given gas.

is zwhere z = a(x = x) a= dx dfl x=2 1.2) 3 and the linear equation given by Figure 7-24 depicts a nonlinear curve z = 0. Find the error if the linearized equation is used to calculate the value of z when x = 5.10 s y s 12.2.2 Equation (7-64).8 x=2 So the linear approximation of the given nonlinear equation is (7-64) . Solution The Thylor series expansion of f(x) about the point (2. Solution Since the region considered is given by 5 s x s 7. Note that the straight-line approximation of the cubic curve is valid near the point (2. Y = 11. . 10 s Y s 12. Z = 726. choose x = 6.2) 5 4 3 2 1 o 1 2 3 4 x Figure 7-24 Nonlinear curve z = 0.8 (x .2 = 4.3.2.3. Let us obtain a linearized equation for the nonlinear equation near a point x = 6. Then z = xy2 = 726. Problem A-7-lS Linearize the nonlinear equation z = xl in the region 5 S x S 7. z- = 4.4x 3. Z = 3.4x3 = f(x) about a point x = 2.3. Y = 10.8( x 6 z . Y = 11.4x3 and its linear approximation at point x = 2 andz = 3.Example Problems and Solutions 367 Problem A-7-14 Fmd a linearized equation for z = 0.2).2X21 = 4.2). neglecting the higher order terms.

Y = y. and a b = :~L.45 s y s 55.11) 1452 or z = 121x + 132y - When x == 5."". a linearized equation for the system is z .1452 = 473 The exact value of z is z = xl = 500..-(y . Y= 50.473 = 27.so = -~ Hence.100) .00. Solution Let us choose x = 100. z = zand neglecting the higher order terms.Y.y. The error is thus 500 ..5O = z. the error is 5.5O = .. y = 10. 100 1 1 = -(x ..6) + 132(y .y) where Expanding the nonlinear equation into a Taylor series about the point a(xl) =.y) = 100. The given function z into a Taylor series as follows: z=- = xly can be expanded x z= - y = t(x.2 Loo.50) 50 50 25 . Y = 50.z = a( x .4%.x) + bey .y) . we have z . t(x.368 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.726 = 121(x .1452 = 605 + 1320 . y) + at (x _ x) + at (y _ y) + ax ay Thus.x) + bey . the value of z given by the linearized equation is z == 121x + 132y .~Y-5O = 5~ = :.I%.L. In terms of percentage.y.- . Problem A-7-16 Linearize the nonlinear equation x Y in the region defined by 90 s x :s 110. the linearized equation is z .y = a( x where:i x = .= y2 = 121 ax x::::x.y=y I I Hence. 7 x = :i.y::::y b = a(xl) = 2xy = 132 a ay x::::x.

Since the tension is the same on the entire length of the cable.000 N 6F = 15.50z + 100 = 0 This is a linearized equation for the nonlinear system in the given region. If the piston area A is 30 X 10-4 m2 and the pressure difference PI . Neglect the friction force in the system. Problem A-7-17 A six-pulley hoist is shown in Figure 7-25.P2 is 5 X 106 N/m2. we obtain Figure 7-25 Six-pulley hoist. Solution The hydraulic force on the piston is A(PI .P2) = 30 X 10-4 X 5 X 106 = 15. . find the mass m of the maximum load that can be pulled up. Example Problems and Solutions or 369 x .OOON Note that in this system the piston pulls six cables.i.2y .

This force should be equal to mg. Derive the transfer function Y(s)IE(s). ""'---'. Hence.807 X 6 = 254. the displacement of point B is ebl( 0 + b). F=mg or m = 9. forcing it to the left.9 kg 15. The left-hand side of the pilot valve is joined to the left-hand side of the power piston by a link ABC.370 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap.a + b Yes) Oil under 0 K (7--66) Xes) = 0 + b E(s) b (7-67) A a y -- lOf----:~-- Figure 7-26 Hydraulic system.=-_-I r . Therefore.-- o+b o+b (7--65) From Equation (7-32).. port I will be uncovered and high-pressure oil will flow through that port into the right-hand side of the power piston. The system operates in the following way: If input e moves the pilot valve to the right. . As the power piston moves to the left. in moving to the left. the transfer function between displacement y and displacement xis given by Yes) Xes) Equation (7--65) can be rewritten as =-. Solution At the moment point A is moved to the right. 7 where F is the tension in the cable and also is the lifting force. The power piston. and the displacement of point B due to the motion of the power piston is yal( 0 + b). point C acts as a fixed point. The system is a hydraulic controller. This action continues until the pilot valve again covers ports I and II. the net displacement x of point B is eb ya x = -. that is.000 ProblemA-7-18 Consider the hydraulic system shown in Figure 7-26. This link is a floating link rather than one moving about a fixed pivot. thereby moving the pilot valve to the left. will carry the feedback link ABC with it.. point A acts as a fixed point.

) Problem A-7-19 Consider the thermal system shown in Figure 7-27. the gain of which is Kp.. kcal/kg °C Cold liquid ~-----'~"'77'"r7'-r7""7'"""r~ Figure 7-27 Thermal system. Assume also that there is no heat storage in the insulation and that the liquid in the tank is perfectly mixed so that it is at a uniform temperature. kgls M = mass of liquid in tank.II Example Problems and Solutions Eliminating X{s) from Equations (7-66) and (7-67). IKa/[s(a can be simplified to + b)]1 ~ 1. Equation (7-68) Y(s) £(s) =!!. Assume that the tank is insulated to eliminate heat loss to the surrounding air. bK + b)s Y(s) (a £(s) = 1 + aK (a + b)s (7-68) Under normal operations of the system.Y(s) = --£(s) K a+b a+b Hence. °C G = steady-state liquid flow rate. Let us define e.Y{s) = --£(s) . we obtain 371 .--Y(s) K a+b a+b or s b a sa ) b ( . = steady-state temperature of inflowing liquid. a single temperature is used to describe both the temperature of the liquid in the tank and that of the outflowing liquid. °C eo = steady-state temperature of outflowing liquid. = a K P Thus the transfer function between y and e becomes a constant.+ . (The adjusting mechanism is not shown in the diagram. This gain can be adjusted by effectively changing the lever ratio bla. . Thus. The hydraulic system shown in Figure 7-26 acts as a proportional controller. Thus. kg c = specific heat of liquid.

Define 8 as the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when both the heat input rate and inflow liquid temperature are changed. °C slkcal C = thermal capacitance.+ 81 dt = h· I h0 = Rh· I Next. The heat outflow rate will then change gradually from H to H + ho. In Example 7-5. kcalls Suppose that the system is subjected to changes in both the heat input rate and the temperature of the inflow liquid.) We shall first consider the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when the heat input rate is changed. If the temperature of the inflowing liquid is suddenly changed from 8. from @o to @o + 81· For this case. we consider the two inputs independently.h 0 dt I which may be rewritten RC. consider the change in the temperature of the outflowing liquid when the temperature of the inflowing liquid is changed. The temperature of the outflowing liquid will also change. then the heat outflow rate will be changed from H ~ H + ho. In the current example problem. 7 R = thermal resistance. ho Ge The differential equation for the system is d8 1 Cdt which may be rewritten as d8 1 RC.l.. kcall°C H = steady-state heat input rate.372 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. and the temperature of the outflowing liquid will be changed from @o to @o + 82• The differential equation for this case is d82 C . while the liquid flow rate is kept constant. to 8 j + 8j while the heat input rate H and the liquid flow rate G are kept constant. (This approach is valid for any linear system. Solution The system is subjected to two inputs. is small.. we considered two inputs at the same time in deriving the system equation there.+ 82 = 8· dt I where we used the relationship ho = Ge82. Obtain a differential equation in 8.= Ge8· . Assume that the temperature of the inflowing liquid is kept constant and that the heat input rate to the system (the heat supplied by the heater) is suddenly changed from H to H + hi' where h. ho = Ge8 1 C= Me R=~=. d82 .

kgls c = specific heat of liquid. where voltage eo is the output and current i is the input.where 8(s) = !f[(J(t)] and H(s) = !f[h(t)]. JIK ho = change in heat added to outflowing liquid. (J°C. the heat input rate is changed from H to H + h J/s. Determine the transfer function 8( s)1H (s ). J/kg-K M = mass of liquid in the tank. Show that the thermal system is analogous to the electrical system of Figure 7-28(b). Suppose that the change in temperature. Jls Then C =Mc Hot V77. is the input to the system. the system is at steady state and the heater supplies heat at constant at the rate H J/s. that there is no heat storage in the insulation. kg R = thermal resistance. (Thus. and that the liquid in the tank is perfectly mixed so that it is at a uniform temperature. a single temperature can be used to denote both the temperature of the liquid in the tank and that of the outflowing liquid.+ (J dt Problem A-7-20 = (J. is the output and that the change in the heat input. .Example Problems and Solutions 373 Since the present thermal system is subjected to changes in both the temperature of the inflow liquid and the heat input rate. (b) analogous electrical system. At t = 0.-'77)z/ liquid R c (a) (b) Figure 7-28 (a) Thermal system. it is assumed that the tank is insulated to eliminate heat loss to the surrounding air. Solution Define G = liquid flow rate. or (J = (Jl + (J2. Thus. h lIs.:m. K-sII C :::: thermal capacitance. the total change (J in the temperature of the outflowing liquid is the sum of the two individual changes. we obtain d(J RC. + Rh· I I In the thermal system shown in Figure 7-28(a). This change causes the outflow liquid temperature to change from @o to @o + (J°C.) It is further assumed that the flow rate of liquid into and out of the tank is constant and that the inflow temperature is For t < 0. ate.

assuming a zero initial condition. Then the equation for the circuit becomes Ri} = ~/ 1 i2 dt = eo The Laplace transform of this last equation.) So we have ho = Gc8 Note also that 8 1 R=-=ho Gc The heat balance equation is C d8 = (h . 7 = Gc(8o = Gc(Bo @j) H + ho + 8 .It(s)] or Rlt(s) = RCs + 1/(s) == Eo(s) The transfer function Eo( s)// (s) is R Eo(s) R /(s) = RCs +1 . d8 RC. respectively. we have 1 Rlt(s) = Cs [/(s) .dt R Thus.ho ) dt or 8 d8 C.B.= h . is RII(S) = Cs 12(s) = Eo(s) Substituting 12(s) = I(s) .It(s) into the preceding equation. define the currents through resistance R and capacitance C as il and i2.374 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Note that H Chap.+ 8 dt and the transfer function is = Rh R 8(s) H(s) = RCs + 1 For the electrical circuit shown in Figure 7-28(b).

Problems 375 Comparing the transfer function of the thermal system with that of the electrical system.'-. Assume that the length L of the capillary tube is 2 m and the diameter is 4 mm. Assume that the outflow rate Q m 3/s and head H m are related by Q = O.05 m3/s for t 2: O. obtain the resistance R/ of the capillary tube.5-m level. The kinematic viscosity v of water at a temperature of 20°C is 1. the laminar-flow resistance R/ for the liquid flow through cylindrical pipes is given by .sm r 1 t----y---+. we find the analogy apparent. PROBLEMS Problem 8-7-1 For laminar flow through a cylindrical pipe. The inflow valve opening is changed at t = 0.02vR The capacitance of the tank is 2 m 2 • 2. . and the inflow rate is 0. Determine the time needed to fill the tank to a 2.. the relationship between the differential head h m and flow rate Q m3/s is given by the Hagen-Poiseuille formula h where = 128vL Q g'fl'D4 v = kinematic viscosity.dh _ 128vL I 2 m R I .Q C=2m2 Figure 7-29 Liquid-level system.t = 0 -L4--L-~J:=... the head is kept at 1 m for t < O. Assuming that the temperature of the water is 20°C and that the flow is laminar.s4 dQ g'fl'D Now consider the flow of water through a capillary tube. Problem 8-7-2 In the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-29.004 X 10-6 m 2/s.. m Thus. m D = diameter of pipe. m 2/s L = length of pipe.

and 3 are HIt H 2.376 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Q+q-~ Tank! Tank 2 Figure 7-30 Liquid-level system.(s). 2. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + qi' Assuming that hit h2' and h3 are small changes. The capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are C I and C2. The resulting changes in the heads (hi and h2) and flow rates (qt and q2) are assumed to be small as well. and the heads of tanks 1 and 2 are HI and H 2. !!. where HI == H 2• At t == 0. . and respectively. the flow rate throughout the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-30 is Q. Problem 8-7-4 Consider the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-31. The resistance of the outflow valve of tank 1 is Rl and that of tank 2 is R2• Obtain the transfer function for the system when q is the input and q2 the output. obtain the transfer function Qo(s)/Q. At steady state. respectively.3. 7 Problem B-7-3 At steady state. respectively. Tank 2 Tank 3 Tank 1 Figure 7-31 Liquid-level system. the inflow rate is changed from Q to Q + q. the inflow rate and outflow rate ar~oth Q and the heads of tanks 1. where q is small. At t = 0.

where Pi is small. in kgjlcm2. assume that the steady-state values of the air pressure and the displacement of the bellows are P and X. Assume also that the input pressure is changed from P to P + Pi.oosVn where Q is the flow rate measured in m /s and H is in meters.Problems 377 Problem 8-7-5 Consider the conical water tank system shown in Figure 7-32. Problem 8-7-8 Air is compressed into a tank of volume 10 m3• The pressure is 7 X 105 N/m2 gage and the temperature is 20°C. Problem 8-7-6 Obtain an electrical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-30. Assuming that the capacitance of the bellows is C and the resistance of the valve is R. This change will cause the displacement of the bellows to change a small amount x. what is the gage pressure of air in the tank in N/m2. respectively. Suppose that the head is 2 m at t = O. What will be the head at t = 60 s? Figure 7-32 Conical water tank system. and in Ibt'in. If the temperature of the compressed air is raised to 40°C. Fmd the mass of air in the tank. The flow through the valve is turbulent and is related to the head H by Q= 3 O. Problem 8-7-7 Obtain an electrical analog of the liquid-level system shown in Figure 7-21 when q is the input and q2 the output. obtain the transfer function relating x and Pi' .2? Problem 8-7-9 For the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7-33.

V ". Assume that the expansion process is isothermal (n = 1) and that the temperature of the entire system stays constant... Determine the steady-state pressure P2 in the vessel after the inlet valve is fully opened. 7 x+x c --+- . ji + Po Figure 7-33 Pneumatic system..e.... The inlet pipe is connected to a pressure source that supplies air at a constant pressure Ph where PI = 0.. Problem B-7-11 Figure 7-35 shows a toggle joint. assuming that the inlet and outlet valves are identical (i. the inlet valve is closed.. Problem B-7-10 Consider the pneumatic pressure system shown in Figure 7-34.... and the pressure P2 in the vessel is atmospheric pressure. both valves have identical flow characteristics).-.378 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap... At t = 0.. the inlet valve is fully opened.. Show that F = 22R 12 . the outlet valve is fully opened to the atmosphere. Inlet valve Outlet valve P3 Atmospheric pressure Figure 7-34 Pneumatic pressure system.5 X 105 N/m2 gage.. For t < 0.

find the minimum area of the piston needed if the load is to be moved. The frictional force is assumed to be p.Problems R 379 t .N = p.P2)cos6 where 6 = tan. The load consists of a mass m and friction. x A ~F N Figure 7-36 Pneumatic system. and PI . The friction force ILN is acting opposite to the direction of motion or intended motion.mg. Problem 8-7-12 Consider the pneumatic system shown in Figure 7-36. and a is the angle of inclination of the plane. If the load is to be moved. = 0. R Figure 7-35 Toggle joint.3. If m = 1000 kg. 1 . a mass m is to be pushed upward along the inclined plane by the pneumatic cylinder.P2 = 5 X lOS N/m2.p. p. Problem 8-7-13 In the system of Figure 7-37. Note that the frictional force p. mg acts in the direction opposite to the intended direction of motion. show that the area A of the piston must not be smaller than mg sin(6 + a) (PI .

Problem 8-7-16 Fmd a linearized equation of about the point x :: 2.:: mg cosoc Figure 7-37 Pneumatic system.380 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. Z = 20. y D Figure 7-38 Pneumatic system. 4 s Y so 6. Problem 8-7-17 Linearize the nonlinear equation Z = x 2 + 2xy + 5y2 in the region defined by 10 s x s 12.2. causes pinion B to rotate on rack A. . Problem 8-7-15 Obtain a linear approximation of Q = 0. Q :: 0. which. Problem 8-7-14 The system shown in Figure 7-38 consists of a power cylinder and a rack-and-pinion mechanism to drive the load. in turn. Power piston D moves rack C. 7 x mg N.1YH = f{H) about the operating point H = 4. Fmd the displacement y of the output when the displacement of the power piston is x.

. Show that.tot---::----II--.... there is a corresponding (steady-state) elevator angle q. Figure 7-39 Hydraulic system. find the distance X2 m traveled by the piston on the right-hand side when the one on the left-hand side is moved by Xl m.. The input to the system is the deflection angle 8 of the control lever.Problems 381 Problem 8-7-18 Pascal's law states that the pressure at any point in a static liquid is the same in every direction and exerts equal force on equal areas. and the output is the elevator angle q.--=-- Figure 7-40 Aircraft elevator control system. Assume that angles 8 and q. for each angle 8 of the controllever. find the force P2 acting on the right-hand-side piston. Also. Oil under a I \. . are relatively small. If a force of Pl is applied to the left-hand·side piston. Problem B-7-19 Figure 7-40 is a schematic diagram of an aircraft elevator control system. Examine Figure 7-39.

respectively. For t < 0. Assume that the thermal capacitances of tanks 1 and 2 are C1 kcal/°C and C2 kcal/oC. where U is small.382 Fluid Systems and Thermal Systems Chap. respectively. Q kcal/s. obtain the transfer function ~ (s)JU(s). The steady-state heat flow rates from tanks 1 and 2 are the same. and the liquid inflow rate G kgls is also kept constant. This change will cause the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 to change from @2 to @2 + 82• Taking the change in the heat input from the heater to be the input to the system and the change in the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 to be the output. The temperature of the inflow liquid is kept constant. At t = 0. Tank 2 . the heat input is changed from U to U + u. the system is at steady state. wherein the heat input from the heater is U kcal/s and the temperature of the liquid in tank 2 is 8 2°C. and that the specific heat of the liquid is c kcal/kgOC. 7 Problem 8-7-20 Consider the thermal system shown in Figure 7-41. The changes in heat flow rates from tanks 1 and 2 are qh and Q2. Tankl~ \ Figure 7-41 Thermal system.

or ramp function.Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems 8-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals primarily with the transient-response analysis of dynamic systems and obtains analytical solutions giving the responses. d pet) IS the mput . impulse. for instance. x{t) is the dependent variable. The com- () (8-1) .(8-1) plementaIY solution le(t) 1S~o:d hJm. . (n) x + al x + (n-l) al. t and the articular solution x p( t). (8-1) has a complete solution x(t) composed of two The differential equa Ion. on.geneous differential equ~tion. :c~) uating th~ right-hand side of Equation .) Natural and forced responses. the indepe~dent v~a e. ~ • functi' + an-IX + anx . _ parts: the complementarY ~olntiO. Consider a system defined by a differential equation. tis ••• . The chapter also derives an analytical solution of the state equation when the input is a step. (The method can be extended to obtain an analytical solution for any time-domain input.P t a are constants. a.on (t) depends on so)utJ xp . . The particular to zero and solving the ass~: functional form of the input function pet). where the coefficientsbl Q2.

The beat~ut~~. or 8b is constant. Section 8-2 deals with the transient-response analysis of first-order systems subjected to step and ramp inputs. Section 8-3 begins with the transient-response analysis of secondorder systems subjected to initial conditions only. Then we point out that the mathematical results obtained can be applied to any physical or nonphysical system having the same mathematical model. a study of this type of behavior will reveal characteristics that will be useful in predicting the forced response as well. Outline of the chapter. The basic '!Ie . Section 8-4 treats higher order systems. (kcal/oc) is the thermal capacitaeof (8-2) .JISWee ~ha::l~~~e thermometer temperature satisfytemperature is constant. Step response of first-order system. Transient response refers to the process generated in going from the initial state to the final state. respectively. equatIon for the heat balance for this system is s system m Section 7-6. IS DIn terms of C d8 ::: qdt C. By steady-state response. Section 8-1 has presented introductory material. \' CIlIS) can be g. Section 8-5 presents an analytical solution of the state-space equation. Both the natural and forced responses of a dynamic system consist of two parts: the transient response and the steady-state response. glass-walled mercury thermometer system) as an example of a first-order system. glass-walled mercury then:nometer system ~own in Figure 8-1. Essentially.(8bisthedifferencebetweenthetemperatureofthebathand t e ambIent temperature.:. In the current section. Finally. Transient response and steady-state response. Although the natural behavior of a system is not itself a response to any external or input function.384 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. We shall find the system's response to step and ramp inputs. [Note that 8' th h . this section is a systematic review of the transient response analysis of first-order systems. Customarily. 8-2 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF FIRST-ORDER SYSTEMS From time to time in Chapters 2 through 7. assume that the thermometer is at the ambIent ~mperature eoc and that at t = 0 it is immersed in a water bath of temPheratur~ @+Oboe. we consider a thermal system (a thin.) Let us define th . A discussion of the transient response of such systems to step inputs then follows. " . we mean the way in which the system output behaves as t approaches infinity.~ere beat Input to the thermomctc. 8 If the complementary solution xc(t) approaches zero or a constant value as time t approaches infinity and if limt_ooX p( t) is a bounded function of time.I. he response fJ( t) when the bath presented a mathematical model of -fbi .r:nollleter iI!ld q (kcaJ/s) . e IDS antaneous thermometer temperaing the condition 8(0) = O. engineers call the complementary solution xC< t) and the particular solution x p( t) the natural and forced responses. The transient response of a dynamic system often exhibits damped vibrations before reaching a steady state. we analyzed the transient response of several first-order systems. For the thin. the system is said to be in a steady state.lve . t ture ase + BOC.

Since the mathematical analysis does not depend on the physical structure of the system. 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 387 Let us derive the ramp response 8{t). or e{oo) = rT The ramp input rt and response 8(t) versus t are shown in Figure 8-3.Sec.T + Te. e-trr approaches zero.-. the smaller is the steady-state error in following the ramp input. + s + (liT) T T] (8-7) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives 8(t) = ret . note that Substituting this equation into Equation (8-5). Thus.e. Comments. we find that B( s) = Ts + 1 s2 = r 1 r [1 s2 .8{t) = rT{l . . The error in following the ramp input is equal to rT for sufficiently large t.trr ) As t approaches infinity.trI) t ~0 The error e(t) between the actual bath temperature and the indicated thermometer temperature is e(t) = rt . the error e(t) approaches rT. The smaller the time constant T. FIrst. the preceding results for step and ramp responses can be applied to any systems having the mathematical model (8-8) 9(t) o Figure 8-3 Ramp response curve for the first-order system.

(8-8) will exhibit the following response: xo(t) = any system described by (1 . 8-3 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF SECOND-ORDER SYSTEMS Let us next consider the transient-response analysis of second-order systems such as a spring-mass system and a spring-mass-dashpot system. Instead. in Figure 8-4. The dis­ mx + kx = 0 The solution of the preceding equation gives the response x(t). Since the step response of the sec­ ond-order system is discussed fully in Chapter 10.388 where lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we shall treat only illustrative examples of the step responses of second-order systems with and without damping.e-t/T)r Similarly. Consider the spring-mass system shown downward by a distance placement X is measured from the equilibrium position . which are analogous. systems. for a ramp input rt ·l(t). any system described by Equation will exhibit the following response [see Equation (8-7)]: Xi(t) = (8-8) xo(t) = r(t . we shall not present the details of such a response here.sx(O) . All analogous systems (8-8). 8 T = time constant of the system Xi = input or forcing function Xo = output or response function From Equation Equation (8-6). We first discuss the free vibration of a spring-mass system and then treat the free vibration of a spring-mass-dashpot system. let us take Laplace transforms of both sides: m[s2X(s) .x(O)] + kX(s) = 0 which can be rewritten as (ms2 + k)X(s) = m[sx(O) + x(O)] . for a step input Xi(t) = r 'l(t).T + Te-t/T) Table Many physical systems have the mathematical model given by Equation 8-1 shows several such exhibit the same response to the same input function. To solve this differ­ ential equation. The results obtained can be applied to the response of any analogous systems. The mathematical model of the system is x(O) and released with an initial velocity x(O). We shall obtain the response of the system when the mass is displaced Free vibration without damping.

.. Solving for X(s) yields X (s ) = . sx(O) + x(O) S2 + (kIm) = -- x(O) v7d.. s2 + (v7d...:.) 2 � +--..Sec.. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems TABLE 8-1 Model of the Form T( dxo/dt) Examples of Physical Systems Having a Mathematical = 389 + Xo XI _ P+Pi 7 .: x(O)s s2 + (v7d..+ dpo dt p0 = p..-......)2 ....i • R ----'I 1 P+Po I RC . ---.�-...

If. although in some cases it may be negligibly small. If the mass is pulled downward and released. (Since the damping force opposes motion. there is a continual loss of energy in the system. t The response x(t) consists of a sine and a cosine function and depends on the values of the initial conditions x(O) and x(O). The amplitude of the resulting motion will decrease with each cycle at a rate that depends on the amount of viscous damping. x The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives x(t) = X(O) � J!. for example. t Free vibration with viscous damping. . The mechanical system shown in Figure 8-6 consists of a mass. then the motion x(t) is a simple cosine function: x(t) = x(O) cos J!.) x x(O) O�----�� ________ �________�____� Figure 8-S Free-vibration curve. and a dashpot. so that X(O) = 0. it will vibrate freely. A typical free-vibration curve is shown in Figure 8-5. sin t + x(o) cos J!. a spring.390 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. the mass is released with zero velocity. 8 Figure � Spring-mass system. Damping is always present in actu­ al mechanical systems.

-1 V -" e'(w". we define Then the response X(I) is given by Wd = W II �= damped natural frequency.� The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) _ � (w"x(O) + . s.+ 2twns +W.t(O)] sin wdl + Wd 1 . thus causing the amplitude of the harmonic motion to multiplicative factor. + Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems The Laplace transform of Equation Chap.t(O) = x(o)e'(W"{ (O) x or h ( 0. and smaller as time increases..X(s) = 0 (s + 2(w.�)' - w" _ � V 1 .sx(O) ..I I + (8-11 ) or Xes) = + (w"x(O) + � O)== ---. in the present case.) w. + (w"_ � .' Next. V 1 ..('1 w"_ V ( + x(O)e'(w"..sin Wd I +tan ' I _ _ ?. Equation (8-12) simplifies to sin wdl + cos Wdl - ) (8-13) ' t (l ) = ' . < 1).) .(.x(O)] +w.(- + x(O) (s (w.. the damping introduces the term . 1l1is factor is a decreasing exponential and becomes smaller Notice that.392 (8-10) gives elise [s'X(s) ..[sX(s) .' _ r::---7i e w stnw"v1 .)' +(w. ( � ) (8-14) e-{rIJ"r as a decrease with time.. or = e'(W'''{[hX(O) +2.)x(0) + x(O) .t(O) -( ".('I 1.t(O)] Solving for Xes).. cos w"VI . fad/s X(I) If the initial velocity is zero. Ullderdlllllped (0 < t. 8 2(w. we have X(s) = 1.�)x�(� =_ � (s � (s +?w.(' X(I) = x(O)cos w'lt} (8-12) .._ (w..

.t + kx = k = 0 (8-9) 0 The two roots of this equation are s = -b ± Vb' . the two roots are real and distinct. I f the damping coefficient b is increased further./. . When the damping has reached this value (b 2 v. a point will be reached at which b' = 411lk. x + 2. so that b' < 4111k. + where the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. it is convenient to define = w" = t and rewrite Equation (8-9) as follows: = (k \/ 7. and the critically damped case (t = 1).Sec. The natural response is then an expo­ nentially decaying sinusoid. 111e characteristic of the natural response of a second-order system like this one is determined by the roots of the characteristic equation I11S' + bs + b. ).. 11.411lk 2m If the damping coefficient b is small. 111e system is then said to be crilically damped. and the system is said to be underdamped. the overdamped case (� > 1 ) . we shall use Equation (8-10) as the system equation and derive the response X(I) for three cases: the underdamped case (0 < � < 1). 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems / 391 x Figure 8--6 Spring-rnass-dashpol system. so that b' > 4mk. If the damping coefficient b is increased.ww\- w�x = 0 (8-10) . In solving Equation (8-9) for the response X(I). rad/s = damping ratio actual damping value . = undamped natural frequency. the roots of the char­ acteristic equation are complex conjugates. the two roots of the characteristic equation become real and equal.e mathematical model of this system is 111:'. critical dampmg value + b In what follows. and the system is said to be overdamp ed .. . The response is the sum of two decaying exponentials.

of Equation d8 T. glass-walled mercury thermometer system.8 R (8-3) Substituting Equation (8-3) into Equation ( 8-2) . we have Hence.s + (liT) 8b 8(t) = (1 e-tIT)8b 1 (8-6) . . the thermal resistance R (OC/kcaVs) as 8b . = -. we first take the Laplace transform (8-4): T[s8(s) . we obtain C d8 = dt or where T = RC = time constant.Sec. for 8b = constant. Equation thermometer system. 8-2 Transient-Response Analysis of First-Order Systems 385 Bath Figure 8-1 Thin. Equation ( 8-5) becomes 8 ( s) = Ts + The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives 8b [1 1] 1 -.8(0)] + 8(s) = 8 b(s) 8 (s) = Since 8(0) = 0.+ 8 = 8b dt (8-4) is a mathematical model of the (8-4) To obtain the step response of this system. this last equation simplifies to Ts 1 + 1 8b(s) (8-5) Note that.8 q = -­ R 8b .

Assume that. In two time constants. the response 8(1) reaches 95. for t � 0.2% of its total change. The slope of the response curve 8(1) decreases monotonically from 8. As can be seen from Equation (8-6)...2% of the total change.) One important characteristic of such an exponential response curve is that at t = T the value of 8(1) is 0. for t � 4T. the response reaches 86. Another important property of the exponential response curve is that the slope of the tangent line at 1 = 0 is 8. Consider again the thermometer system shown in Figure 8-1. the response 8(t) is zero and that it finally becomes 8b' (There is no steady­ state error. or four time constants. 8 6(t) Figure 8-2 Step response curve for the first-order system. This fact can readily be seen by substituting e-1 0. since = The response would reach the final value at 1 = T if it maintained its initial speed.1T at t = 0 to zero at 1 = 00. So. both the bath temperature and the thermometer temperature are in a steady state at the ambient temperature 8°C and that. respectively. heat is added to the bath and the bath temperature changes lin­ early at the rate of rOC/s.368 into the equation. a reasonable estimate of the response time is the length of time that the response curve needs to reach the 2 % line of the final value. and 5 T. and 99. for t < 0. the steady state is reached mathematically only after an infinite time. Equation (8-6) states that.1 T . initially.6328b.2.386 lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Slope 6 =" Chap. the response remains within 2% of the final value.5% of the total change.3% of the total change. In practice. Figure 8-2 shows that in one time constant the exponential response curve has gone from zero to 63. that is. 98. At 1 = 3T . 4T. Ramp response of first-order system. or the response 8(t) has reached 63. how­ ever. o T 2T 3T 4T 5T -t The response curve 8(t) versus t is shown in Figure 8-2. d8 dt 1=0 1 _ 8b T e-1rr l _ 8b 1=0 T .

.� ]-I( ]-I( e w" . Here.t(O) 2w. ..� 2V(2 .� t + wlI Vl'=l)I � Case 3.) � =: . 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 393 _ _ x (s) = _ _ (s+(w" + = where + ------...'-.)X('0 + x(O:. the two roots of the characteristic equa­ tion are real.V-'-I) e W"w.= � .---. In reality.t(O) 2w.. The motion of the mass in this case is a gradual creeping back to the equi­ librium position.t(O) -".) I n the critically damped case.Case 2..'-'-'... (The response does not exhibit any vibration...� b= TIle inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives the following response: V V X(I) = ae-l(w"+w" !'-I)I + be-l!w"-w" ('-I)I = .�) b a = H+ �)x(O) 2� . aU systems have a damping ratio greater or less than unity. = .)2 ..1 + [ [«( ( (+ V (2 - - 1 )x(O) _ .�)(s+(w" .. So the two roots of the characteristic equation are the same and are equal to the negative of the natural frequency w" Equation (8-11) can. the damping ratio ( is equal to unity. so Equation (8-1 1 ) can be written Sec. (O) x(O) = -S +WI/ + 1lle inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) = x(O)e-W"I + [w"x(O)+ . therefore.== --0 = 2w.t(O) ([ + �)x(O) + .)x(O)+ w"x(O) +. and ( = 1 rarely occurs in practice..-. «0) 2� + �)x(O) 2� + 2w.". Overdamped (� > 1)...� .= = w. Nevertheless. the case ( = 1 is useful as a mathematical reference..'. (O)j te-W"I (s + w"f w"x(O) + .! .! _ _ '. (s+2w.= = = s+(wn+WII� I S + {WI-W/l� a ( ('--S_+ 2 w . be written . Notice that both terms on the right-hand side of this last equation decrease expo­ nentially. (s+ w. but it is the fastest among such nonvibratory motions.)'-.)x(0)+ 0) « X(s) = ' 2 + 2wlls+ w� S t (s + w. Critically damped (� = 1).

a record of decaying or damped oscillations.394 Time-Domain Analysis xC. (Such an oscillation may be recorded by giving the system any convenient initial conditions. at time t = (\ we measure the amplitude Xh and at time I = 11 + ( 11 .r(O) = o. from the rate of decay of the oscillation..) The period of oscillation. we obtain. we measure amplitudes. can be measured directly from crossing points on the zero axis. and overdamped) with initial conditions x(O) * 0 and . Since the decay in amplitude from one cycle to the next may be represented as the ratio of the exponential multiplying fac­ tors at times I. The response X(I) is similar to that found for the overdamped case. x" e-{w. I t is sometimes necessary to determine the damping ratios and damped natural frequencies of recorders and other instruments. Note that it is necessary to choose 11 large enough so that x"lx. critically damped. To determine the damping ratio. The mass.-. e(IJ-I).. when displaced and released. + T. To determine the damping ratio and damped natural frequency of a system experimentally. such as that shown in Figure 8-8. Experimental determination of damping ratio. Figure 8-7 shows the response x(l) versus I for the three cases (underdamped. and I. .w"T _ = e (u. T. is needed. 8 \>1 Figure 8-7 Typical response curves of Ihe spring-mass-dashpol system. Similarly. as shown in Figure 8-8. is not near unity.) of Dynamic Systems Chap.(I[+T) e-{wllt[ _ 1 = .{n I ) T Figure 8-8 Decaying oscillation.l)T we measure the amplitude x". will return to the equilibrium position without vibration. that is. from Equation (8-12).

The logarithm of the ratio of succeeding amplitudes is called the ment.. 1 [_ ( ) ] -n + 4. from Equation (8-13).". the undamped natural frequency Wit and the damping ratio {are respectively found to be = :i + h + 1 00x = 0 ( = 0.1=== -.2 1 In- 11 - . From the system equation.05 m and released without initial velocity. The mass is displaced 0.�- 2. Thus. I n addition. Note that this equation is valid only for the system described by Equation Example 8-1 I n the system shown in Figure 8-6.) Find the frequency observed in the vibration. So.".1 The frequency actually observed in the vibration is the damped natural frequency w(/: w" = w. assume that 111 = 1 kg. vI . the damping ratio � is found from Once the amplitudes Xl or 1 -.o"". the solu� tion can be written as x(t) = x(o)e-tw. � = 10\11 - In the present analysis.(Xl) n-l and x" are measured and the logarithmic decrement is = -= � = 'wI! -w Xl --(Xl) -1 = logarithmic decre­ �w"T 2. and k into this equation gives where the initial conditions are x(O) 0.-:---::.i: + kx = 0 Substituting the numerical values for m. 11 1 In- d = � . The equation of motion for the system is k 11IX + b.". (The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position.' (h om = 9.Sec.� X'I = Inx" 21T� � � = (Xn) Xl . 1 ::i In xI! 2 (8-15) (8-10). -':(0) is given as zero.95 radls sin w"t + cos w"t ) .===:= =i===. b = 2 N-s/m. 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 395 logarithmic decrement = In -::\: '2 calculated. and = 100 N/m. b. find the amplitude four cycles later..05 and i(O) = O.

8 It follows that at 1 = nT. . x(nT) Consequently.05e-2. The fact that the response curve X(I) is tangent to the exponential curves enables us to estimate the response time of a second-order system such as that shown in Figure 8-6 in terms of the settling time I./ The time constant T of these exponential curves is li«(wn).T x = 0. Note that such a response curve is tangent to the envelope exponentials ±[x(O)/�le-'w../.0804 0. where T = 27T/Wd. o 31 " �w" 41" I-----. The response is given by Equation (8-14). The mass of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-6 is displaced x(O) and released without initial velocity..52 = 0. the amplitude four cycles later becomes 3) x(4T ) = x(O)e-<·.·.IIIIOII'lIo.396 lime-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.00402 m Estimate of response time.6 = = x(O)e-..05 0... 'T = x(O)e-(o. -------j Figure 8-9 Typical response curve of the system shown in Figure 8-6 and its envelope exponentials. defined by XIi) 15 = 4T =- CWn 4 T= . rewritten thus: A typical response curve is shown in Figure 8-9.!.-L---.

+ 2�Wll5 + WII w. Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-10. IJIW. can be applied to any analogous systems having mathematical models of the form of Equation (8-10). .'£[1(1)] = illS ' 1 + bs + k = ----.. At 1 = 0. . for t > ls. 111e displacement x is measured from the equilibrium posi­ tion before the input force /I is applied.."1 '-=-. force /I = a '1(1) [where a is a constant and 1(1) is a step force of magnitude 1 newton] is applied to the mass m. 11. . b k s.= a ms + bs + k Q m .+ -s +III m Let us define ? Then X(s) . Assume that the system is at rest for 1 < O..J 'k b -�x () /: In () _u /: Figure 8-10 Mechanical system. the response curve remains within 2% of the final value or 2% of the total change.. since..'£[1(1)] =. as well as the results derived.e equation of motion for the system is lII:r + b. S .i: + kx = /I = Sec.j -( a = -= z y"k.The settling time Is can be considered an approximale response time of the system. b . 8-3 Transient-Response Analysis of Second-Order Systems 397 Q'l(l) The transfer function for the system is X(s) U(s) Hence X( S ) . ) (8-16) J"". The preceding analysis.-' -. Assume that the system is underdamped. . Step-response of second-order system.-. Comments.

! b. . 8 Hence. If the numerical values of m. Note that Equation (8-17) is an analytical solution for the step response of the system.398 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.. The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) (8-17) The response starts from x(O) = 0 and reaches x( 00 ) = II/(mw�). an exact response curve can be plotted easily with MATLAB. ---. (The response curve shown corresponds to the case where { 0. X(s) where Wd :::: w� S2 + 2(w"s + W2! S I s + 2(w" 1 1/ :::: mw� -..)2 + w� -2 I11Wn II = ( ( [1 1) ) 1 w.. Figure 8-11 Step response of second­ order system. IIIW.. .) =1 = 5 r 10 15 (sec) .�.s2 + 2(w"s + w� s + (w" II (w" = mw.(s + (w. and w" rnd/s.(s + . -'(I) a -.wI!)2 + w� .� r-----�----�--_. k. The general shape of the response curve is shown in Figure 8-11. and a are given.

. Since the factored form of the higher order characteristic equation consists of first-order and second-order terms. Equation (8-19) can be rewritten as aj ./ or. bk(s + ?kwd + CkWk V1 a q . Equation (8-18) can be wri tten as X(s) = U (s) boslll + b\sm-l + . from Equation (8-20). then it is necessary to expand X(s)/U(s) into partial (ractions. the inverse Laplace transform of X(s)._ I S + a/1 (8-18) where a.').+2: . . [If the system involves multiple poles. If an analytical expression for the transient response is desired. is X(f) = a + Laje -P.] Next.+ 2: -. . A pair of complex-conjugate poles yields a second­ order term in s. for a unit-step input U( s ) = lis. s j=1 S + Pi k=1 S" + 2�kWkS + wk 5 a +2:'i=1 S + Pi II (l. we see that the response of a higher order system is composed of a number of terms involving the simple functions found in the responses of first-order and second-order systems. . then.p. [If some of the poles of X(s-) are multiple poles. X(f) = a + 2:aje-Pi j=l q i=\ + " for t === 0 f 2:bke-l.) Unit-step response of higher order systems. . (8-19) - d (q + 2r = n) (8-20) where we assume that all poles of X(s) are distinct. 8-4 Transient-Response Analysis of Higher Order Systems 399 8-4 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS OF HIGHER ORDER SYSTEMS Consider an nth-order ( n . n. + bn 1s + bl! 1 . + (i . Let us examine the re­ sponse of the system to a unit-step input.:: 0 . X(s) = .Sec.] From this last equation. is the residue of the pole at s = . If all poles of the denominator polynomi­ als are real and distinct. consider the case where the poles of X(s) consist of real poles and pairs of complex-conjugate poles. cos Wk � for f .w" k=l ..:: 3) dynamic system defined by --= X( s ) where In :s. the un it-step response X(f). (Use MATLAB command residue for the partial-fraction expansion. then X(s) must have multiple-pole terms.n + 0jS 1 -1 + . The transient response of this system to any given time-domain input can be obtained easily by a computer simulation. then X(s) will have multiple-pole terms. From Equation (8-19).

a bo + + . After we obtain the general solution. Before we solve vector-matrix differential equations. Substituting this assumed solution into Equation ( 8-2 1 ).. Hence. .. we may assume a solution of the form 2 x(r) = bo + bll + b21 + . We first consider the homogeneous case and then the nonhomogeneous case. (For details of analytical expressions for the step response. The steady-state output is then x( 00) = a. + bkrk + . etc. and A-8-1S. . [If the poles of X(s) involve multiple poles. 8 Thus.400 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems e ha p.. = a(bo + bll . Equation ( 8-23) must hold for any I.. that occur when X(s) involves multi­ ple poles] and the damped exponential terms in X(I) will approach zero as the time I increases. equating the coefficients of equal powers of I. 8-5 SOLUTION OF THE STATE EQUATION In this section. b212 + . we shall obtain the general solution of the linear time·invariant state equation. . impulse response. . we find that bl = abo 1 1 2 b2 = a bl = ia bo i 1 1 3 b3 ="3ab2 = a bo 3 X2 1 k bk=k. let us review the solution of the scalar differential equation x = ax In solving this equation. then X(I) must have the corresponding mUltiple-pole term& 1 If all poles of X(s) lie in the left-half s-plane. + k bklk-I If the assumed solution is the true solution. ) (8-23) The value of bo is determined by substituting I = 0 into Equation (8-22). and ramp response. or X(O) = bo . we shall derive the analytical expression for the step response. the response curve of a higher order system is the sum of a number of expo­ nential curves and damped sinusoidal curves.. + bk lk + . see Problems A-8-13. then the exponential terms [including those terms multiplied by I. we obtain bl + 2 b2r + (8-21) (8-22) 3 b31 2 + . A-8-14. . ..) Solution of homogeneous state equations. 12.

the solution x(t) can be written as x(t) = . we assume that the solution is i n the form of a vec­ tor power series in t.. equating the coefficients of like powers of t on both sides of Equation (8-26). (8-26) A(bo + bit + b 2t2 + .!cA' ' A t + . Substituting this assumed solution into Equation (8-24).!c 2 2 at + 2! + -..!c ' ' a t k! + ... the solution can be written as x(t) = = e"'x(O ) x = (1 + at + -. 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 401 Hence.t ' + . . )X(O) . we obtain bl + 2b2 t + 3b3t2 = + = = 11 X 11 n-vector constant matrix . we find that . ) X(O) (8-24) We shall now solve the vector-matrix differential equation Ax where x A B y analogy with the scaJar case.. Thus. Because of its similarity to the infinite power series for a scalar exponential.t ' . ) If the assumed solution is the true solution.Sec.t' + ... b Substituting t = 0 into Equation (8-25) yields x(O) Thus.bo = bo The multiterm expression in parentheses on the right-hand side of this last equation is an n X n matrix.I + ... .. + b. + kb. = k! A: 1 . or (8-25) x(t) = bo + bit + b2t2 + . . + b. we call it the matrix exponential and write ( I + At + -. Equation (8-26) must hold for all t.!c 2 2 -... + t + k! 2! .. .

'. the solution of Equation (8-24) can be written as (8-27) Since the matrix exponential is very important in the state-space analysis of linear systems.. + = [ Aklk-1 + (k . we examine its properties next.. " " m.O". (A+R)I '* At Ul e e e . A (k I)! _ ..L -I\:.. if AB if AB #' BA BA .om! 00 00 1 ..k � ... It can be proved that the matrix exponential A e I = of an /I X /I matrix A converges absolutely for all finite I.k)! A e .. the series can be differentiated term by term to give k'O k! Ak[k 2:-00 2:�. (Hence. Since the inverse of eAI always exists.I)! I + At + -- A'I' 2! The matrix exponential has the property that e A(t+s) = + .0 . ) NI. J J This can be proved as follows: e At A' e = 00 Let k + It = m. 8 In terms of the matrix exponential. (00 Aktk )( 2:--.402 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems ehap. if s = =""N 00 k.. It is very important to remember that = = In particular. computer calcula­ tions for evaluating the elements of eAI by using the series expansion can easily be carried au!.k)! + -(I m=o m! 2: 00 - 1 A'/(l s)m = then cAle-AI eA(t+s) = ". Matrix exponential..ok!(m .Itks m-k k. the inverse of eA I is e-A1....' eA t eA( r-t) = I = H e (A+Il)t = eAte I. 00 + Ak-1tk-1 + .) Because of the convergence of the infinite series Aklklk!. 2:-k=O k! il eAreAS = eAIA = AeAI h=O h! e A Ie S · A Then Thus. L.L tksm-k k!(m . eAI is nonsingular.

3 A AB B3. we obtain X(s) = (sl . note that e(A+B)1 = (A + B) 2.2 B2. + + AB. e(A+U)1 _ The difference between e(A+B)f and eAteBt vanishes if A and B commute. + .A)X(s) = x(O ) i(.2AB2 3 .+ .) = e'''x(O) TI. .AB eAteUI = 12 2! BA2 + ABA + B2A + BAB . 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 403 To prove this. + 'I o.2 B3.+-. Let us first consider the scalar case: x = ax Taking the Laplace transform of Equation ( 8-28).Ar'x(O) .ar'x(O) s-a sX(s) - x(O) = aX(s) ) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation produces the solution: x(.+ 2! 3! 2! 3! 2t 2 ..) ( 8-30) Premultiplying both sides of this last equation by (sl .2A2B .e foregoing approach to the solution of the homogeneous scalar differential equation can be extended to the homogeneous state equation Taking the Laplace transForm of both sides of Equation ( 8-30).+ + 2! 2! 3! 2B. + .. + -. ..3 A I + (A + B). 1+ B.3 eAte"1 = I + At +-. Hence. we obtain where X(s) = ( 8-28) ( 8-29) X[x].3 I ( + (A + B). )( = - - - + -- 2! + -- 2! +--+ 3! Hence. " + ... BA .+ 3! 2! A2. we obtain where X(s) = X[x]. (A + B) 3 .+-..) = Ax(.3 2. 82(2 A3. Laplace transform approach to the solution of homogeneous state equations.A rl.x(O) = AX(s) (sl ..Sec. Solving Equation (8-29) for X(s) gives X(s) = x(O = (s .3 A3. sX(s) .

� eM (8-32) eAlx(O) The importance of Equation (8-32) lies in the fact that it provides a conve­ nient means for finding the closed solution of the matrix exponential.+ .+ . TIlis matrix contains all the information about the free motions of the system defined by Equation (8-33). 8 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives the solution X(I) � . and (8-34).e .e. we obtain <t>(I) " � . .e-l[(sl .Atl] � I + AI A212 �13 + 3! 2! (The inverse Laplace transform of a matrix is the matrix consisting of the inverse Laplace transforms of all of the elements of the matrix.. 53 S S2 + (8-31) Hence. From Equations (8-27). .Atl gives .404 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.A tl]x(O) Note that I A A2 (sl .) From Equations (8-31) and (8-32).I) From Equation (8-34).rion matrix. the unique matrix <t>(I) is called the stale­ tralls. . state equation We can write the solution of the homogeneous x � Ax (8-33) (8-34) I as X(I) � <t>(I)X(O ) <t>(0) where <t>(I) is an 11 X 11 matrix and is the unique solution of <i>(I) � A<t>(I). � To verify this.. we see that the solution of Equation (8-33) is simply a trans­ formation of the initial condition.l[(sl . the solution of Equation (8-30) is X(I) � + .l[(sl .Atl] -AI e Note that <t>-l (l) � � <t>( . State-transition matrix. note that X(O) = <t>(O)x(O) � x(O) A<t>(I)x(O) A X(I) and X(I) � <i>(I)X(O) =e � � We thus confirm that Equation (8-34) is the solution of Equation (8-33). the inverse Laplace transform of (sl .Atl � . (8-32). Hence.+ .

q.e'l(sJ - Af'l s the inverse o[ +3 -I] (sl . 8-5 EX311l1)lc 8-2 Solution of the State Equation 405 Obtain the state-transition matrix <1>(1) of the following system: Obtain also the inverse of the state-transition matrix. -- -2 +-- 2 -- -] + -- 2 <1>(1) = '" e = . l(r).Sec.A ) is given by (sJ - I A - ) -([s+ ls)I(s + 2) [s+-2 �] ((ss+l)-2((ss+2) ++ ]I)):((Ss+2) +2) +l) [21 s+1-s+21_ s+"] s+2 5+1 s+2 s+2 5+1 _ 3 = + 3 (5 (s + 2) 1 1 = Hence. The state-transition matrix is given by <1>(1) = Since e '" = . we obtain the inverse of the state-transition matrix as follows: .For this system.e 'f(sJ Af'l Noting that ¢-I(f) = ct>(-r).

({ d [e-atx(I)] = e-atbfl(l) Integrating this equation between 0 and t gives x(O) + l'e-a'bfl(T) dT or TIle first term on the right-hand side is the response to the initial condition.Ax(r) = = Writing Equation (8-35) as and premultiplying both sides of this equation bye-AI.) dT or ( 8-36) . Let us now consider the nonhomogeneous state equation defined by x = A x + Bu (8-35) where x = II-vector u = r-vector A = 11 X n constant matrix B = II X r constant matrix X(I) . we obtain e-AI[x(l) . 8 Solution of nonhomogeneous state equations. and the second term is the response to the input U(I). We shall begin by con­ sidering the scalar case .A X(I)] e-Alx(l) BU(I) d -[e-Alx(I) ] = e-AIBu(l) dl + Integrating the preceding equation between 0 and t gives = x(O) l'e-AcBU(.r .aX(I)] e-atx(t) = .r = ax + bit Let us rewrite this equation as Multiplying both sides of the latter equation bye-at.ax = bll = -. we obtain e-'Tic(l) .406 Time�Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.

. If.Af'.A)X(s) = x(O) BU(s) Premultiplying both sides of the foregoing equation by (51 . The Laplace transform of this last equation yields or sX(s) . we have assumed the initial time to be zero. then Equation (8-36). must be modified to x(t) Example 3--3 = eA('-'olx(/o) + l'eA('-'lBU(T) dT '0 (8-38) Obtain the time response of the system X2 = where l. The solution x(t) is clearly the sum of a term consisting of the transition of the initial state and a term arising from the input vector. the solution of Equation (8-35)..\2 �' + O " 1 u(t) 1(/) B= [�] . we obtain Using the relationship given by Equation (8-32) yields X(s) = X[e"']x(O) + X[eA'] BU(s) x(t) = = AX(s) + + BU(s) X(s) = (sl .. [ ] [ . or For this system. Equation (8-36) or Equation (8-37) is the solution of Equation (8-35). The solution of the nonhomogeneous state equation x 8-5 Solution of the State Equation 407 x(t) = <I>(t)x(O) + l<l>(t . _0 2 _1 = 3 ][ ] [ ] .I(f) is the uni l-slCp function occurring at 1 = O. however.Af'BU(s) The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation can be obtained with the use of the convolution integral as follows: eA'x(O) + l'eA('-'lBU(T) dT Solution in terms of xlt.T)Bu(T) dT (8-37) = Ax + Bu can also be obtained by the Laplace transform approach.x(O) (51 . Equation (8-36) can also be written as where <I>(t) = eA'.Af'x(O) + (51 .Sec. Laplace transform approach to the solution of nonhomogeneous state equations.. Thus far. the initial time is given by to instead of 0.

A/'+ 2! 3! ')j 33 we have \ .(O) io -2e-('-') 2 e-2(.I)n From Equation (8-37). the response x(t) is X(I) = x(t) when the input 11 x(t) =eA'x(O)+ l'e""-')nll(7) dT =e"' x(O)+ e"'[l'e-'\'I(T) dT]n e"'x(O)+ eA'[l'(I .+B1I eA'x(O)+ A-I(eA' .-. )n 2! 3! = = Since ...-.S TIle state·transition matrix was obtained in Example 8-2 as The response to the unit-step input is then obtained as e-('-') .-.408 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.. or simplified to x(O) = the solution x(t} can be Analytical solution for step response of system in state-space form..) + f'[ + + ][0] Itj dT 1 or 0.) -e-('-') 2 e-2(.At2+ 2. )cIT]n eA'x(O)+ e"'(It . Consider the system described by where matrix is nonsingular.. A2t3 .2. 1 e-' = I ..-.) 2e-('-') .e-2(.!A2T2 .-A/'+ 2! 3! 'J? j 33 . 1 1 e'" = I + At+ -AT + .AI+ -AT .AT + . Let us show that the response is a unit-step function 1(1) can be given by A x =A..) '(I) = e'''.e-2(. In the special case where the initial stale is zero.

and A-8-1S. Find the current . Solution The equation for the circuit when switch S is closed is Ri + I Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation yields Z. = eA<x(O) + A-I(eA' .=0 � -.. we get = A-I(I .-A3t3 + . £ Figure 8-12 Electrical circuit.I) Therefore.(r).kt3 . Assume that there is an initial charge qo on the capacitor just before switch S is closed at I = O. . .-At2 2! + .. .!i dl 5 RI(5) + 1(5) + C .Example Problems and Solutions 1 1 409 It .-A " 1 3! 1 3! 33 ) I + X(I) More on analytical solutions [or responses of systems in state-space form is given in Problems A-8-13.At -A 2t 2 .I)B = e"'x(O) + e"'A-I(1 . 1 2! + 2! 1 kr .. A-8-14.e-A<) = -A -I = -A I _ ( ( -At + I .!i(l) dll � £ .e -A') B (8-39) EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-8-1 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-12. 3! = -A-I(e-A' .

we obtain = J[sfl(s) 6 and w(O) - w(O)] 100 s Substituting J = 100 into this equation and solving for fl(s). Therefore. we have I /(s) + '10 s =- E s CE . w( 120) = 0 T = = 100 - 6 T Solving for T. = 100 - 6' T we want to stop.m2 . = -- T s T 6s- AI f = 2 min = W(I) 120 S. we get - x 120 600 = 5N-m 120 . Solution The necessary torque T must act so as to reduce the speed of the disk.410 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Assuming that the moment of inertia j of the disk is 6 kg. 8 Since we obtain II/(s) + C or IICs/(s) + /(s) Solving for I(s). we get fl(s) = - The inverse Laplace transform of the latter equation gives --. the equation of motion is Jw =-T = 1 00 w(O) Taking the Laplace transform of this last equation.'10 /(s) = IICs + I = (R E _ + '10 = CE - '10 IIC ) I s +­ IIC I The inverse Laplace transform of this equation gives the current i(t): i(l) Problem A--8-2 = (5. or w{ 120) must equal zero. II � e-"RC IIC ) Suppose that a disk is rotated at a constant speed of 100 Tad/s and we wish to stop it in 2 min. under the condition that the torque T is a constant. Thus. find the constant torque T necessary to stop the rotation.

. . The input voltage is a pulse signal given by e.CIs R.(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-14.(s) = Next. inverse Laplace transforming Eo(5). C.) + C.)S R2CtEj R. Problem A-8--4 Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E. Since eo(O-) = 0. ::. elsewhere o :$ I $ IJ .'J (I).: + . Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors C1 and C2 are zero.(I) = Eo(s) _ - CIS . . = CIE. we obtain the transfer function as I Eo(s) E. eo (O ..I(CI + C. s R.)s + 1 Then.).Example Problems and Solutions 411 Problem A-8--3 Find the transfer function Eo(s)/E.c --.(s) Using the complex·impedance method. 1 we have E.) = Solution Eo(s)/E.(O+) change in co(t) at I = O. there is a sudden " R. we determine eo(I). For the input e. we gCI from which we see that e. Figure 8-13 Electrical circuit.) zero.(CI +1 + C. [Th us.: _ ( II:R' ) _ _C._ 1 + (IIR. 0 E.(CI + C.S E.(I) = = Obtain the output ea(r). ' s c: !. Obtain the voltage eo(t) when the input voltage ei(t) is a step change of voltage Ej occurring at t = 0 [ej(O-) = 0).(s) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-13.. Assume that the initial charges in the capacitors are 0.

8 F igure 8-14 Electrical circuit.II ) A mass 111 is attached to a string that is under tension T in the mechanical system of Figure 8 1 6( a) We assume that tension Tis to remain constant for small displacement x. Solution By using the complex-impedance method. we have Thus.412 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.) Neglecting gravity. the transfer function Eo(5)/EI(S) can be obtained as 1 For the given input ej(t).(C. find the natural frequency of the vertical motion of mass m. (The displacement x is that of mass m perpendicular to the string. the vertical component of the force due to tension is -T sin 81 T sin O2 - . e-"IR. = = Solution From Figure 8-16(b).+C. e-<t-II)lfRI(CI+CzH } eo( t) versus t. C1 + Cz I c.)I E. C2 + C. the response £0(5) can be given by The inverse Laplace transform of EQ(s) gives e (r) = o Figure 8-15 shows a possible response curve Problem A-8-S - {I . What is the displacement x(r) when the mass is given initial conditions x(O) Xo and X(O) O? . } £j O l ( I .{I _ C.

- '.T n b IIlX + T or .------- Figure �15 Response curve eo(l) versus t (solid curve). Figure 8-16 (a) Mechanical vibratory system: (b) diagram showing tension forces.-.-. b x x x m:i = -T si n Ol .-./....--.-..-.+_ � -.. (a) I*! � I (I - (b) IJ ..(I) 413 E. ��� -.. and = - x n The equation of motion for the system when x is small is sm (h = tan (h = .-- I'I �" .. bI) + x = 0 .. (1. _�--�-------- o � -..Example Problems and Solutions e.. angles 01 and O2 are small..� -..T sin 02 = -T.-. For sm al l x.

(0) � O. 8 Hence.(O) � 0. Assume that x](O) 0. m. X1(O) = 0.) is given by Two masses 1111 and f1l2 are connected by a spring with spring constant k.:" IJIlnl2(:t2 If we define .1. . = Solution The equations of motion are m l xl 11l2:Y:2 Rewriting yields = = -k(xJ .X! 111 1 Mechanical system.'2 . then this last equation simplifies to . - k(x[ .Xl It follows that = + From Equations (8-40) and (8-41). and . VV' k '--' X1 Figure 8-17 \ 0 f1l2 f .<. Assuming no friction.414 Time·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.Xl ) + f = � nlj:Y:.:id + k(x.X2) Xt ) 0 f (8-40) (8-41) kml ) (X2 .x d = m J : 11I1111 2i k(m] + nI2)x = m rf (8-42) Let us define WI' Then Equation (8-42) becomes 2 = k(m] + 1112) m 1 nl2 :r + lU. the natural frequency of the vertical motion of the mass is w" � When the initial conditions are x(O) � x" and . find Xl (f) and X2 ( t ) when the external force f is constant. as shown in Figure 8-17. derive the equation of motion. we obtain + (km2 + + x . x. the solution x(.X2) -k(x2 . In addition.'X f r.« 0) x(t) Problem A-3-{j = J: G �) + Xo cos Wilt � O.

we get and Thus... we have .+ X.= = (s' + w.(f ) � m [ ml ml + 1112 2 k(m] + 1112)2 = + The step response of a second-order system may be described by w� Y(s) U(s) 52 2(wns + w� To see this..cos k (m m. we can easily integrate the right-hand side of this last equation.)X(s) or Th :! � L "'25 X(. (1 . rewritten thus: w� X(s) = mw� 52 + 2{wlIs + w� If we define mw� . we find that kf f1I j :r\ kx 11l2W. :£ I l (f) ] � U(s ) a 9.--) 52 + w2 -- inverse Laplace transform of X(s) gives X(f) � -- + 11 -- 2 fJ tI (8-43) nl2W. and the solution x2(t ) is obtained from Substituting Equations J k(m j + m2 ) m lm2 r] . From Equations (8-40 ) and (8-43). refer to Equation (8-16).) f ] .cos w f ) Now we shall determine -. + (8-44) X. (8-45) a . substituting the initial conditions x(O) 0 and X(O) O. mf 5 52 I w2 � mfw2 (Is ..(f)..X(s) � Y(s).(0) � 0..(O) � 0 and -'. the Laplace transform of this last equation.Example Problems and Solutions 415 Takiry. ( I .(f) Problem A-&-7 (8-43) and (8-44) into this last equation and simplifying yields [2 fmT [ I .cos Wilt ) " f = = Since f is a constant.) � 2 s . and noting that/is a constant.(f) � X(f) + x. Noting that x. [1(t)] .

Case 3: r.l ).3].6 2 5. for i = 1 :3. (8-46) maximum overshoot in the step response depends on { and the lime taken for the . Case 2 : (.y(:.i) = step(num. � 0.t. Then.2). (8-47) . t 0:0. 1 . ' 1 ') text(2 . 2. 1 .7. Case I : {.28. '3') = » » » » » » » » Problem A-8-8 As mentioned in Problem A-8-7. den = [1 b(i) ali)]. b = [0.35.den.(:. response to reach 2 % of the final value depends on . '0'. y = zeros(l 01 . � 0.'x'.6 2 4 1 6[ 5. ' 2 ' ) text(0. (he slep response of a second-order sys(em may be described by U(s) � Y(s) ' S1 + _�WIIS + w� 1r w . and WI!" Obtain unit-step response curves of the system defined by Equation (8-46) for the following three cases: 1.61 . MATlAB Program 8-1 » » » » » a = [1 4 1 6].3). y(:.6] In writing a MATLAB program. 1 . end p[ot(t.416 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems then Equation (8-45) can be written as The Chap. '-') grid tit[e('Unit-Step Response Curves for Three Cases') x[abe[('t (sec)') y[abe[('Outputs') text(4. 8 Y(s) U (s) s2 + 2{wlls + w� w. num = [0 0 a ti lt .).1 : 1 0.8.y(:. MATLAB Program 8-1 will produce the unit-step response curves as shown in Figure 8-18.t). a and b each have three elements as follows: a = [l b = [0.t.3.5. Solution 2lw.93. we use a "for loop. = WI) = 4 =2 a and Using vectors a and b.! = b. � 0... 0.. W/1 W/I = 1 3.5." Define w.

. Write a MATLAB program that uses a "for loop" to obtain the two-dimensional and three-dimensional plots of the system output. where I.0 . � 3 O � � � __ � � � __ -L __ -L L.8 0 0.. but the x-axis and y-axis are interchanged.2. . and 1.0.g 0.� � . Obtain the unit-step response curves of the system defined by Equation (8-48). 0 .4. Figure 8-20 is a three-dimensional plot obtained with the use of the com­ mand "mesh(y')".. we get a similar three­ dimensional plot. 0. . 0. .� � � _ _ 417 Unit-Step Response Curves for Three Cases 0 0 0·· · . = 0.6 0.4 0. 0 o o o o o o o 'b o o . 3 4 I This equation involves two parameters: { and Ww If we normalize the system equation by defining I = ( l/w/I)' and writing the system equation in terms of T. then Equation (8-47) may be modified to Y(s) U(s) s' + 21. where Solution Since s +2 - 1 1 ..s + 1 1 (sec) 5 6 7 8 9 10 F igure S-18 Unit-step response curves for three cases..Example Problems and Solutions 1. . o o 2 2 .6.:'. It is easy to see the effect of .4 1." . 0. . Figure 8-19 is a two-dimensional plot of the unit-step response curves for the specified values of [. [Note that if we use the command "mesh(y)"... (8-48 ) This normalized equation involves only one parameter: {.2 S 0- � � = _ .� � 0 o .. Solution MATLAB Program 8-2 obtains two-dimensional and three-dimensional plots. 0 c a. 0. .] Problem A-8-9 Obtain eAI.8...2 . on the unit-step response of the second-order system if it is defined by Equation (8-48).

6 :.8 1 .5.2 =. step(num.1 0 0.6') text(3. 0. 7. 0:0. 8 » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » » t . rn 2 1. 10 ° 1 1.den. '0. 1 1. 1 .t). 11 ly(1 :61 .8') text(3. 1 . mesh(y') title(. ' \zeta .05. 0') text(3.4 0. 1 :6.0') % To draw a three-dimensional plot.2 : 1 2.8.418 MATLAS Program 8-2 » » "Time-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.Three-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves') xlabel( 'Computation "Time Points') ylabel('n I\zeta .93. 1 .4 Two-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves " 0.2 den .2 Figure 8-.l9 Two-dimensional plot of unit­ step response curves.x.y) grid title('Two-Di mensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves') xlabel('t (sec)') ylabel('Outputs') text(3 . '0.1 )*0.2 ( n . for n . 2 *( n . '0.52.0. '0.1 ) 1 ' ) zlabel('Outputs') 1.2 3 .0. 1 . n). enter the command mesh(y'). ' 1 . num .6 1.8 0.2 ') text(3. 2 4 I (sec) 6 8 10 12 . end p lot(t.tl .4') text(3.

where - A t! I s(s + 2) [s + 2 0 �1 = [1 ! s(s . 0. • Q.2 s.Example Problems and Solutions Three-Dimensional Plot of Unit-Step Response Curves 419 2 1. 0. Problem A-S--I O Obtain eAl. (In the plol. 0 :.5 0 6 70 Figure 8-20 Three-dimensional plot ofunil-slcp response curves.I ) and the incremental computation lime is 0. 2) s+2 1 1 - A Solution Since - = sl A= [� 0 s [� 2 o 0 o s-2 o s-2 - ) ) ] .2(" III = - Computation Time Points (sl Hence.] C it follows that = " [( 0.5 :.2(1/ .

) Hence. we have From Equation (8-36). B d'T l 'eA1' . o Problem A-8-11 Obtain the response of the system when the input /l is a unit-step function.2) 2 0 0 (5 . Since x(O) = 0 x( t ) and lI(t) = I (t).2) 3 ( 5 . we get = e"'x(O) + l'eA1 -'lBII ( r) dr ' x(t) = i = eA1 l e-A.A) � = (5 - 1 -2 5 I 2) 3 [ (5 . From Problem A-8-9.2) 2 0 ( 5 .2 )2 5-2 0 X 0 1 ( 5 .2 )2 2) (See Appendix C to obtain the inverse of a 3 3 matrix.'lB l (7) dr . 8 we have (rl .420 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.2) ( 5 . Assume that x(O) Solution = O.2) 2 1 5-2 0 1 (5 (5 � ] .

5.51 sin 0.t5t(COS 0.5/ . (COS 0.(O) [l O where u(!) is the unit-step input occurring at ( = 0.5/ . the output Y(I} is given by Y(I ) = [I [X OI I ] = X l = e-O.Ar l = ' Since s + 1 ( sl _ A rl = [ [ = we have Since x(O) = 0 s + 0.x <P(r) = eAI can be obtained as follows: l <1>(1) e'" = 9.51 -O. we get { [e.5.0.5 (s + 0.5 ] The state transition matri. or 1 t: ] 1 1(1) ° = Solution 1(1) For Ihis system. Problem A-8-12 Obtain the response Y(I) of the system [tl ] = [ .51 sin 0.51) .5! ] Hence. A =[ -I -0.5 X ] [ I ] + [ .0.5' + -0.5' 1 -I 0 .51 1 _ e-o.5)' + 0.51) + 1 -e-{J -2 1 ][0.51 + sin 0.A). ]11. referring to Equation (8-39).5)' + 0.5 .5 1 -0.5' (s + 0.1 = .51 .5 (s + 0.-I[(sl .5 .5 [ (s + 0.5 + 0.(cos 0.1 )8 and 11 ( 1 ) = 1 (1).51) e ] = [ e-0.51 sin 0.I I = X(I) = e"'x (O) + A-I(e A' .Example Problems and Solutions 421 Thus.-I [ ( sl .5)' + 0.sin 0 .sin D.1)8 = A-I (eA' ....51 + sin 0.5/ X2 . s 1 ] s s· + s + 0.5)' 0 .5' s + 0. 0 X2 0 (O)] = 0 ] [XI [ ° x.Sf) 2e-o·51 sin 0.1 1 Xl Y= 05 -O..(cos 0.5 ] s + 1 <1>(1) = eA' = 9..5 ] e-o·sl sin 0.5 e-0.

8 Problem Consider the system defined by A-8-13 where u x = Ax + Bu (8-49) Obtain the response of the system to the input u whose r components are step func­ tions of variolls magnitudes.on (8-49).I((II)] k.1)]Bk = e"'x(O) + A-I(e'" .I)Bk A-8-14 x X(I) e"'x(O) + e'" ( II Ar2 A21) . = k ' l (t) given at = e"'x(O) + l'e "(I-'l Bk = 0 is = If This is the analytical expression of the step response of the system defined by Equal. Problem A is nonsingular. I:' = = k' I(I) ' 1 (1) d. 2! 3! - + -- - Consider the system defined by = Ax + Uo where Obtain the response of the system to the input u whose r components are impulse func· lions or various magnitudes occuring at 0. I X(I) II.422 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. or x = state vector (n-vector) u = input vector (r-vector) A = II constant matrix B = II X constant matrix X 1/ r I= u = w8(1) . then this last equation can be simplified to give = e"'x(O) + e"'[-(KI)(e-'" . or x = state vector (n-vector) = input vector (r-vector) A = 11 X n constant matrix B = II X r constant matrix 11 = Solution The response to the step input u [II ] [kk"l '.

or u = vt A = II X 1/ constant matrix B = " x r constant matrix u = x = state vector (n-vector) input vector (r-vector) u whose r components are ramp func­ I � O. the solution of the given state equation is Substituting to = 0.I) .AI)Bv . e"I<-')B7 V dT =0 is = eA1x(O) = + eAl lle-AT'T d'TBv I 2A eAt _(2 _ _ I' 2 3! + e'\/x(O) If A is nonsingular. where v is a vector whose components are magnitudes of ramp functions applied at The response to the ramp input VI given at ( X(I) � e'''x(O) + + Solution ' 1. Solution From Equation (8-38).Example Problems and Solutions 423 where w is a vector whose components are the magnitudes of r impulse functions applied at I � O. Problem A-8-15 eA1x(O-) + + eA1Bw [eA1 '-')BO(T)W dT Consider the system defined by where x = A'-I( + Bu Obtain the response of the system to the input tions of various magnitudes.into this solution. then this last equation can be simplified to X ( I) � e"'x(O ) � e"'x(O) ( + 3A' 4AJ _ I ' _ _ I' 5! 4! 1 + The latter equation gives the response to the ramp input VI. we obtain X(I) � e"'x(O-) X(I) � eA1'-" )X(lo) + ' 1 e"I<-')BU(T) dT " + [e A1'-')BU(T) dT The solution of the stale equation when the impulse input w 5(1) is given at ! = 0 is X( I ) � e"'x(O-) = This last equation gives the response to the impulse input w S(/).A-'ljBv ( A-')(e '" - . + [K'(e'" .

424 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. switch S is closed at eQ (t). o C' T e o 0 . 8 PROBLEMS Problem B-8-1 In the electrical system of Figure 8-21. Then obtain the response eo(t) when the input ei (r) is a step function of magnitude Ej. Assume that capacitor C is initially uncharged and that inductance L carries no initial current.(5) of the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-23. ' I {I) Assume that the initial charge in the capacitor is zero. Find the voltage Figure S-21 Electrical system. The voltage source E is suddenly connected by means of switch 5 at 1 = O. Problem B-8-2 Consider the electrical system shown in Figure 8-22. Figure 8-23 Electrical circuit. Problem B-8-3 Derive the transfer function Eo(s)/E. t = O. or e. What is the current i(/) for I > O? Figure 8-22 Electrical system. R. Assume that the capacitor is initially uncharged.{I) = £.

elsewhere .(/) is a pulse signal given by Assume that xo(O-) = O. Obtain the displacement xo(t) when the input Xj(c) is a step displacement of magnitude Xi occurring at 1 = O. Problem B--3-5 Derive the transfer function Xo(s)/Xj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-25. =0 0 < I < I. xj(r) = Xi = 0 0 < t < 1] elsewhere Figure 8-25 Mechanical system.(I) = E. Suppose that the input ej(t) is a pulse signal given by e. The displacement xo(r) is measured from the equilibrium position before the input xi(r) is given. Problem B-lHi Find the transfer function Eo(5)/E. Then obtain the response .(s) of (he electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-26. Figure 8-24 Mechanical system.\'"0 (/) when the input X. Assume that -"0(0-) = O.Problems Problem B-8-4 425 Find the transfer function Xo(s)/Xj(s) of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-24. 1l1C displacement xu(t) is measured from the rest position before the input Xi(t) is given.

0S) X 100 = 25% maximum overshoot corre­ sponds to I � 0. 1 s. Determine the viscous-friction coefficient b of the system if III � 1 kg and k 500 N/m. Problem 8-8-8 A mass of20 kg is supported by a spring and damper as shown in Figure 8--28(a). C'T eo = Problem 8-8-7 Obtain the output co(r). Assume that R2 = 1 .4. The angular displacement () is measured from the vertical axis passing through the pivot of the pendulum. (a) (b) Figure 8--27 (a) Mechanical system. rNote that (0. C2 = Ch and R I CI also that the initial charges in the capacitors are zero. . R. Assume A free vibration of the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-27(a) indicates that the amplitude of vibration decreases 10 25% of the value at t = to after four consecutive cycles of motion. The system vibrates as shown in Figure 8-2S(b). At f = 0. as Figure 8-27(b) shows. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position for I < O.02/0. C. The sys­ tem is at rest for I < O. The pen­ dulum "'2 is supported by mass "' I . 8 e. which vibrates because of an elastic connection. Figure 8--26 Electrical circuit. Determine the spring constant k and the viscous­ friction coefficient b. Chap. Derive the equations of motion for the system. � x . a mass of 2 kg is added to the 20-kg mass.. It is at rest for 1 < O. J Problem 8-8-9 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-29. (b) portion of a frcc-vibration curve.5RJ.426 Time-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems R.

« 0-) = 1 mis.08 m I __ _ (a) (b) Figure 8-28 (a) Mechanical system: (b) step-response curve. 8(0) = 0 rad. and { = 1 m.« 0) = 0 mis. The displacement X(/} is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of an excitation force. and e (O) = 0 rad/s. � � 0. Assume also that IIll = 10 kg.Problems 427 2 kg o x j" k � '� __ __ __ __ __ __ . Assuming that the spring constant k is 100 N/m and that x(O-) 0. At 1 = O. Problem 8-8-10 Assuming the initial conditions to be x(O) = 0. obtain the motion of the pendulum.1 m. Mass m = 1 kg is vibrating initially in the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-30. 1112 = 1 kg. we hit the mass with an impulsive force pet) whose strength is 10 N. x I \ e Figure 8--29 Mechanical system. find the displacement x(t) as a function of time t. . k = 250 N/m.1 m and . . = k x Figure 8-30 Mechanical system.

and b. initially at rest. and C. Assume that k. � 1 N-s/m. Problem B-S--13 Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 8-33. 20 N/m. � 0. The system is at rest for 1 < O.5 fLF. Assume that R. Obtain the displacement xl(r) when 1/ is a step force input of 2 N. TIle sys­ tem. Problem B-S--U () () Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 8-32. � I MO. Assume also that the capacitors are not charged initially. k. -x 8(1) � m Figure 8-31 Mechanical system. Find the response x(t) and the initial velocity of mass m. R. h. Obtain the response eo{t) when a step input ej(t) = 5 V is applied to the system. Plot the response curve eoCt ) versus [ with MATLAB. C1 � 0.5 MO .428 Problem B-S--ll Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. � Problem B-S--14 Consider a second-order system defined by Yes ) U(s ) s' + s + . is set into motion by an impulsive force whose strength is unity. 0. II � � Figure 8-32 Mechanical system. 10 N-s/m. 8 Figure 8-31 shows a mechanical system that consists of a mass and a damper. Plot the response curve x2 (r) versus ( with MATLAB. The displacements X l and X2 are measured from their respec­ tive equilibrium positions before the input u is given.1 fLF. � 4 N/m. � � I b.

4. Problem B-8-16 = 1 s' + 2.6.L Y(s) U(s) eo Figure 8-33 Electrical circuit. and 1. Problem B-8-15 1 ']. Obtain the response y(/) when the input 1/(1) is a unit acceleration input [l/(I) = Obtain the response curve with MATLAB. c. o_ _ _ >. where A = Problem B-8-18 [� -) 1 Consider the system defined by where x = Ax + Bu. Plot the six response curves in a two-dimensional diagram and a three-dimensional diagram. B= = 0 [�l . [ 0 -6 �l./ Consider a second-order system defined by Obtain the unit-impulse response curves of the system for { = 0. 0. x(O) A = Obtain the response X(/) analytically when II i s a unit-step function. 0.8.Problems 429 e.-�l 2 -) "I -3 o Problem B-8-17 Obtain eAt .0. 0. where A= 2 [ .0. .s + 1 Obtain eAt .2._ _ _ c__T---<o ' .

] [ ". x{O) = B= and Obtain the response XCI) analyticaIly. . obtain the response curves xd1) versus I and x2(r) versus t with MATLAB. = : ' I {t ) ) · ) (t ) [� : ] ] 0 For the system of Problem 8-8-19. 8 Consider the system defined by where x = Ax + Bu.430 Problem 8-8-19 Time-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Problem 8-8-20 " = [".

time-invariant dynamic system. In this regard. Section 9-6 analyzes free vibrations in multi-degrees-of-freedom systems and discusses modes of vibration. 431 . time-invariant systems to sinusoidal inputs are the major sub­ ject of this chapter. present some vibration isolation problems. Section 9-2 begins with forced vibrations of mechanical systems and then derives the sinusoidal transfer function for the linear. we deal with vibrations in multi-degrees-of­ freedom systems. First we define the sinusoidal transfer function and explain its use i n the steady-state sinusoidal response. and examine dynamic vibration absorbers. Section 9-5 presents a way to reduce vibrations caused by rotating unbalance and treats a dynamic vibra­ tion absorber commonly used in industries. Section 9-3 treats vi­ brations in rotating mechanical systems. transmissibility for force excitation and that for motion excitation are discussed. Finally. Section 9-4 examines vibration isolation problems that arise in rotating mechanical systems. Section 9-1 gives introductory material. Then we treat vibrations in rotating mechanical systems. Outline of the chapter.Freq uency-Doma in Analysis of Dynamic Systems 9-1 INTRODUCTION Responses of linear.

the equation of motion for the system becomes m�t + kx = . the system will tend to vibrate at its own natural frequency. or x + -x = . that portion of motion not sustained by the sinu­ soidal input will gradually die out.sm wt m k Note that the solution of this equation consists of the vibration at its own natural frequency (the complementary solution) and that at the forcing frequency (the par­ ticular solution). If we measure the displacement x from the equilibrium position.432 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we vary the frequency of the input signal over a wide range and study the resulting response. P sin wI (9-1) k Figure 9-1 Spring-mass system. the frequency-response characteristics of a system can be completely described by the output-input amplitude ratio and the phase angle between the out­ put and input sinusoids. Thus. Let us find the response of the system when it is initially at rest. In this method of systems analysis. the solution X(I) can be written as X(I) = complementary solution + particular solution / In P . As a result. For all frequencies from zero to in­ finity. In general. The steady-state output differs from the input only in the amplitude and phase angle. time-invariant system. time-invariant system when the input is a sinusoid. the output-input amplitude ratio and the phase angle between the output and input sinusoids are the only two parameters needed to predict the steady-state output of a linear. Frequency response. (We shall pre­ sent detailed discussions of frequency response in Chapter 1 1 . the amplitude ratio and the phase angle depend on the input frequency. as well as follow the frequency of the input. In the presence of damping.) Forced vibration without damping.. x . Figure 9-1 illustrates a spring-mass system in which the mass is subjected to a sinusoidal input force P sin wt. the response at steady state is sinusoidal at the same frequency as the input. 9 9-2 SINUSOIDAL TRANSFER FUNCTION When a sinusoidal input is applied to a linear. The term frequency response refers to the steady­ state response of a system to a sinusoidal input. Thus.

At resonance.jk V"k/. Plk is the static deflection. the amplitude of the vibration at the natural frequency vklm approaches zero and the amplitude of the vibration at the forcing frequency w approaches Plk. The first term is the complementary solution (the nat­ ural frequency vibration does not decay in this system). w = w" V"k/. we obtain = Solving for Xes) yields 1 P w -'. Pw v.e.----0. the denominator k . + . that part o[ the vibration at the forcing frequency (particular solution) is in phase with the forcing sinusoid. ' s 2 + (kim) + k .. the amplitudes of vibration (at the natural frequency and at the forcing frequency) approach zero from the negative side. the use of the sinusoidal transfer function simplifies the solution. The sillllsoidal tral1sfer flll1Cliol1 is defined as the transfer function C(s) in which 5 is replaced by jw.. this vibration becomes 1800 out of phase. As the frequency w increases from zero. the denominator k . As the forcing frequency w approaches zero. TIle sinusoidal transfer function is discussed in detail later in this section..ic(O) = 0.).. (When the sinusoidal input is applied at the natural frequency and in phase with tbe motion-that is.. 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 433 Now we shall obtain the solution of Equation (9.11lw The inverse Laplace transform of this last equation gives X(I) = - p.mwP ...1 ) under the condition that the sys­ tem is initially at rest.) As w continues to increase past resonance.. [Note that if we need only a steady-state solution (particular solution) of a stable system. the denominator k .mw2 52 + w2 k .IIlW2 becomes negative and assumes increasingly larger values.1 ) and using the initial conditions x(O) 0 and . In other words. and the second term is the particular solution. = Sinusoidal transfer function. if w is below resonance.Sec.mw2 '" k . 2 SJIl wI Sin \ -I + k .mw2. When only the steady-state solution (the particular solution) is wanted.: --0:­ X (s) = m 52 + w2 52 + (kim) = w P -P w y.ik . resonance occurs.mw2 of the solution becomes smaller and the amplitudes become larger. the sinusoidal transfer function C(jw) . This value Plk is the deflection of the mass that would result if the force P were applied steadily (at zero frequency). TIlat is. If w is above resonance. approaching negative infinity. Therefore. and the amplit ude of vibration will increase without bound. Taking the Laplace transform of Equation (9. As the frequency w is further increased and becomes equal to the natural frequency of the system (i.] Let us examine Equation (9-2).. starting at negative infinity when w = w. becomes zero. " (9-2) This is the complete solution.. in the same direction as the velocity-the input force is actually doing work on the system and is adding energy to it that will appear as an increase in amplitudes.

G (s) '----'''' '----'---''''­ -'-'-'-' X(I) = IG(jw) I P sin(wl + <1» K (s + z . . ) ' " ( s + z". time-invariant systems under steady-state conditions-that is. 9 can simplify the solution. linlC·inva ri a nl system. For the linear. . respectively. Let us limit our discussion to stable systems. 2 .+ -. The inverse Laplace transform of Equation (9-4) gives X(/) ae-jw/ + aejwl + bl e-SII + bz e -S21 + . For such systems. We shall show how the frequency-response characteristics of a stable system can be derived directly from the sinusoidal transfer function. If G(s) has only distinct poles. then the partial-fraction expansion of Equa­ tion (9-3) yields Pw Xes) = G(s) . We shall see that sinusoidal inputs produce sinusoidal outputs in the steady state. the real parts of the -s.434 Frequency·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. respectively. with the amplitude and phase angle at each frequency w determined by the magnitude and angle of G(jw). the input and output are denoted by p(l) and X(I). In the discussion that follows.+ --. b. s· + w b. .jw S + s[ S + 52 + where 0 and b. + bil e -slit = -­ S + SII b" (9-4) p(l) = P sin WI P(s) Figure 9-2 Line a r.(i = 1 .+ s + jw S . we shall consider the behav­ ior of stable linear.+ -. 11) are constants and a is the complex conjugate of o. a o = --. The steady-state response of a stable linear system to a sinu­ soidal input does not depend on the initial conditions.. Suppose that the transfer function G(s) can be written as a ratio of two poly­ nomials in s. . that is. . respectively.) (s + s . time-invariant system G(s) shown in Figure 9-2.) ' " (s + s. so they can be ignored. . Deriving steady-state output caused by sinusoidal input.) The Laplace-transformed output Xes) is Xes) = G(s)P(s) (9-3) where pes) is the Laplace transform of the input p(I). after the initial transients bave died out. ) ( s + z. G(s) x(t) X(s) . . 111e input p(l) is sinusoidal and is given by p(l) = P sin wI We shall show that the output X(I) at steady state is given by where IG(jw) 1 and cP are the magnitude and angle of G(jw). ) ( s + s. are negative.

Since the real part of the . e-S2'. CUw) o G( -jw) Figure 9-3 Complex function and its complex conjugate. since .) Similarly. . I (where h = 0. 1 .C( -jw) · 2] P = iC(jw)i (cos <I> + j sin <1» iC (jw) i cos <I> + jic(j. . k . . .u) isin <I> iC(jw ) i ej� (Note that IC(jw) It follows that = C( -jw) = iC( -jw ) le-j� lei� = <1>.. If C(s) involves k multiple poles Sj. the terms e-SI'.1 ) . 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function • • • • 435 For a stable system. . except the first two. . e-s. = iC(jw ) i e-N a = . . + jCy = = Pw (S s + w2 W 2(S + jw) jW)! ! s=-jw s =jw = = P C(jw) 2J . i C(jw) i e-i� ii = : � iC(jw) iei� -J jw . drop out at steady state.: C(s) s2 + 2 Pw ii = C(s) (Note that a is the complex conjugate of a.s [ . Regardless of whether the system involves multiple poles. the terms ( he-sl. + nejw/ ( 9-5 ) • .. Thus. as I approaches infinity. approach zero as ( approaches infinity. we can write C(jw) = C. .) Referring to Figure 9-3. -S2 . -s" have negative real parts. then xCt) will involve such terms as t"e-S. the steady-state response thus becomes x(t) ae-fw.1 approach zero. . where the constants a and ii can be evaluated from Equation (9-4): a = ::. .Sec. all terms on the right­ hand side of this last equation..Sj is negative for a stable system. .

436 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.. if all poles of G(s) lie in the left half s-plane. whereas the phase angle diners from that of the input by the amount </> � /G(jw). that is. have a sinusoidal output of the same fre­ quency as the input.l [x(s)] � Pw .+ w- . But the amplitude and phase angle of the output will. then the system is unstable and the response grows indefinitely.. 9 Then Equation (9-5) can be wrillen as X( I ) � i G(jw) i p where X � iG(jw ) i p and </> � /G(jw). the ratio of X (jw) to P(jw). the output's amplitude is given by the product of the amplitude of the input and i G(jw ) i . We see that a stable linear system subjected to a sinusoidal input will. the steady-state response characteristics of a linear system to a sinusoidal input can be found directly from G(jw). differ from the input's. In fact.e. the output X(I) may be obtained by taking the inverse Laplace transform of the equation X es) � G( s) P( s ) or X(I) � � G(s) Pw .sinusoid to the input sinusoid P(jw) _ imaginary part of G(jw) X (jw) P[f.. [ 1 . at steady state. iG( Jw) i - 2j � iG(jw ) i Psin(wr + </» � Xsin(wl + </» ei( wt+c/J) _ e -j(wt+d1) (9-6) .e. we must specify both the amplitUde ratio and the phase angle as a function of the frequency w.+ w2 Note that if one or more poles of G(s) lie in the right half s-plane. s. If a pole is at the origin and/or poles of G(s) lie on the jw-axis (any poles on the jw-axis. There is no steady state for such an unstable system. must occur as a pair of complex conjugates). we are able to derive the following important result: For sinusoidal inputs. Comments. _I X (jw) amplitude ratio of the output . Note that the sinusoidal transfer [unction G(jw) is a complex quantity that can be represented by the magnitude and phase angle with the frequency w as a parameter. � tan l real part of G(jw) phase shih of the output sinusoid _ . On the basis of the preceding analysis. . To characterize a linear system completely by its frequency-response curves.l G(s) . except that at the origin. Equation (9-6) is valid only if G(s) � X(s)IP(s) is a stable system.with respect to the input sinusoid 1_ /G(jw) � [ (9-7 ) 1 (9-8) Thus. s. in general.

for the input p(l) = ICUw ) 1 <I> = = � -tan. 9-2 Sinusoidal Transfer Function 437 Example 9-1 Consider the transfer·function system )((s) pes) = C(s) For the sinusoidal input p(t) = P sin we. assuming zero initial conditions.I Tw P sin wI. Assuming that the displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position. x . the amplitude of the output x(t) is almost equal to the amplitude of the input.t + kx = p(l) The Laplace transform of this equation. For large w. Example 9-2 Suppose that a sinusoidal force p(t) = P sin wr is applied to the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-4.tan. Gnd the sleady·slale output.I Tw) (9-9) pes) pet) = P sin WI Figure � Mechnnical system. The equation of motion for the system is m:i + b. is (ms' + bs + k ) X (s) / = + I sin(wl . we see that. the amplitude of the output is small and almost inversely proportional to w. for small w. the steady-state output X(I) can be found as VT'w' X( I) = P From this equation. The phase angle is 0° at w = 0 and approaches -900 as w increases indefinitely. what is the steady-state output X(/)? Substituting jw for s in C(s) yields = Ts 1+ I C( ' ) I }W Tjw + 1 The output-input amplitude ratio is whereas the phase angle cf> is So.Sec.

I'1lW· .. Writing the amplitude of x(I) as X. gen­ erate noise.) The transfer function between the displacement Xes) and the input force pes) is. we can use the sinusoidal trans­ fer function to obtain the steady-state solution. Thus..)' X x" is x" V(k .(w'/w. Sin w{ [ . in general. and so on. The sinusoidal transfer function is X(�I P(s) G(s) = 1 illS' + bs + k P(jwl = G{jw) .(w'/w.(w-/w.= Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. obtained as .tan-1 ( k .1 . undesirable because it may cause parts to break down.)' ') .(w'/w..mw bw 2) 1 (9-10) .nlW-) + /bw = -tan-I k -bw .438 where X(s) = :£ lx(I)1 and P(s) = :£ lp(/)]. we find that the amplitude ratio Xlxs1 is and the phase shift rI> V[ I . 1 2{wlwn 9-3 VIBRATIONS IN ROTATING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Vibration is. 2t.. . = -IIlW' From Equation (9-61_ the stead -state output x(/1 can be written x(/1 = IG(jw ) l p sin (wI + </» where y + bjw + k (k .)]' + (2t. To reduce the amount of force transmitted 10 the foundation as a result of a machine's vibration (a technique .IIlw'l + jbw I and w </> = /G(j ) X(f) = 1 = /(k .11' cb = -tan-I I + (2\w/w.w/w" where XS1 = Plk is the static deflection.w/w. Since kIm = .I1lW2 ) 2 + b2w2 P sin WI . 9 X(s) Since the input is a sinusoidal function pCt) = P sin wf.. transmit forces to foundations. (Note that the initial conditions do not affect the steady-state output and so can be taken to be zero.tan-I 1 . therefore.v(l ) � W7t and blk = 2�/w/l! the equation for x(t) can be written V[ 1 .

centripetal force. and force due to a rotating unbal· ance are described first. instruments are mounted on isolators. respectively. Aftenvard.' - \ ' A8 Figure 9-5 (n) Point mass moving in a circular path: (b) velocity vector diagram. Suppose that a point mass III is moving in a circular path with a constant speed. This means that the point mass must be sub· jected to a force that acts toward the center of rotation. machines are usually mounted on vibration isolators that consist of springs and dampers. centrifugal force. -- I llv l = hm �t -O r tlt . but the directions are different. 9-3 Vibrations in Rotating Mechanical Systems 439 Centripetal force and centrifugal force.---1 A --. I' I' 118 where I llvl and IVAI represent the magnitudes of velocity Ilv and velocity VA._o ( 1l811l1). the direction PQ becomes per· pendicular to the direction AP (the direction of the velocity vector at point A) if points A and B are close to each other. 0-= . Observing that IVAI = wI' and w = lim". if a mass is attached to the end of a cord and is rotated at an angular speed w in a horizontal plane like a conical pendulum. to reduce the amount of motion transmitted to a delicate instrument by the motion of its founda· tion (a technique called mOliol1 isolariol1). In this section. then the horizontal component of the tension in the cord is the centripetal force acting to keep the rotating configuration. Such a force is called a celllriperal force. vibrations caused by the excitatory force result­ ing from unbalance are discussed. Similarly. we obtain a = hm ut--+O tlr . The mag­ nitudes of the velocities of the mass m at point A and point B are � same. I VAII'M = w7 . Vibration isolation is examined in Section 9-4. we have = known as force iso/arion) as much as possible. Referring to Figure 9-5(b). TIle force lila acting toward the center of rotation is derived as follows: Noting that triangles OA B and APQ are similar. For example. point O.Sec. (a) (b) . as shown in Figure 9-5(a). =.

. Force inputs Ihat excite vibratory motion often arise from rotating unbalance. Assume that the rotor is ro­ tating at a constant speed w rad/s and that the unbalanced mass In is located a dis­ tance r from the center of rotation.440 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Figure 9-6 shows an unbalanced machine resting on shock mounts. we limit the motion to the vertical direction only. acts on the bearings and is thus transmitted to the foundation. Then the unbalanced mass will produce a centrifugal force of magnitude mw 2. we have (Ms' + bs + k)X(s) = P(s) . Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of Equation (9-1 1 ).. a condition that arises when the mass center of a rotating rigid body and the center of rotation do not coincide. so that the unbalance force applied to the system is mw2. S Total mass [ M Figure 9-6 Unbalanced machine resting on shock mounts. Then the equation of motion for the system becomes Mx + b_t + kx p( r) where = = p(t) (9-1 1 ) IIIw2r sin wr is the force applied to the system. and the centripetal force is l11a = IIIw2r. [Note that. Its magnitude is also mw2r. we consider only vertical motion and measure the vertical dis­ placemenl x from the equilibrium position in the absence of the forcing function. The centrifugal force is the opposing inertia force that acts outward. In the present analysis. for convenience. assuming zero initial conditions. Ihereby possibly causing Ihe machine to vibrate excessively. sin wr. Here. which includes the unbal­ anced mass IH. Vibration due to rotating unbalance. we arbitrarily choose Ihe time origin t = 0. This acceleration acts toward the center of rotation. ] Let us assume that the total mass of the system is M. even though Ihe rotating unbalance produces a horizontal component of force. The verti­ cal component of this force. I11w2r sin wr.

.1l1c function of a vibration isolator is to reduce the magnitude of force trans­ mitted from a machine to its foundation or to reduce the magnitude of motion transmitted from a vibratory foundation to a machine. SIn wt r 2 + b2w2 V(k .Mw- tan -I ) bw . the machine and the founda· lion are assumed rigid and the isolator is assumed massless. The isolator essentially consists of a resilient load-supporting means (such as a spring) and an energy·dissipating means (such as a damper). 1 Vibration isolation is a process by which vibratory effects are minimized or climi­ nated.) f + (2{wlw.. 9-4 Vibration Isolation X(s) P(s) 441 or Ms2 + bs + k 1 The sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P(jw) = G ( .=.Sec.. a single element like syn­ thetic rubber can perform the functions of both the load-supporting means and the energy-dissipating means..)2 /IIw2rlk sin wI . k . 111e isolator reduces the vibration amplitude of the machine. the steady-state output is obtained from Equation (9-6) as X(I) = Xsin(wl + cp) = IG(jw)lmw2r sin wl _ tan-I _ I n w2r . The system consists of a rigid body representing a machine connected to a foundalion by an isolator that consists of a spring and a damper.Mw2 ) ( In this last equation..Mw- ) '11[ 1 . 111e concept is illustrated in Figures 9-7(a) and (b).l1lC isolator reduces the force transmitted to the foundation. ��� = = � � <= ...) In the analysis given here. A typical vibration iso­ lator appears in Figure 9-8. (In a simple vibration isolator. if we divide the numerator and denominator of the amplitude and those of the phase angle by k and substitute kiM = w. the steady-state output is a sinusoidal motion whose amplitude becomes large when the damping ratio { is small and the forcing frequency w is close to the natural frequency Ww [ 2{wlw" 1 - (w2/w. the source of vibration is a vibrating motion of the foundation (motion excitation).(w2/w. the steady-state output becomes X(I) = ( bw .. In Figure 9-7(b).tan-I 9-4 VIBRATION ISOLATION Thus. Figure 9-7(a) illustrates the case in which the source of vibration is a vibrating force originating within the machine (force excita­ lion).w) j = 1 -Mw2 + bjw + k For the sinusoidal forcing function p(I). k .) . and blM = 2{w" into the result.

Lf the source of vibration is a vibratory motion of the foundation (motion excitation).442 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Force Chap. transmissibility is the ratio of the amplitude of the force transmitted to the foundation to the ampli­ tude of the excitatory force. S t� Machine Machine Isolator I I 000 VV Motion t Force (a) (b) � 0 1'\ 1'\ / \T V MOltOn Figure 9-7 Vibration isolation. Transmissibility is a measure of the reduction of a trans­ mitted force or of motion afforded by an isolator.= F. Let us find the transmissibility of this system in terms of the damping ratio ? and the frequency ratio {3 = wlww . If the source of vibration is a vi­ brating force due to the unbalance of the machine (force excitation). } Vibration isolator Transmissibility. TIle transmissibility in this case is the force amplitude ratio and is given by transmissibility = TR = . Transmissibility for force excitation. transmissibility is the ratio of the vibration ampli­ tude of the machine to the vibration amplitude of the foundation. Figure 9-8 Vibration isolator. (a) Force excitation: (b) motion excitation. the source of vibration is a vibrating force resulting from the unbalance of the ma­ chine. Fo amplitude of the transmitted force amplitude of the excItatory force . For the system shown in Figure 9-6.

assuming zero initial conditions. rewritten here for convenience: M:i = + b.Sec. and F(s) X(s) P(s) F(s) X(s) = bs + k ) X (s) (bs + k ) X (s) = Ms2 + 1 = P(s) F(s) 9: (f(I)].) + j(2(wlwn ) (2(wlw. sin(wl + cf» = (9-13) Taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (9-12) and (9-13). bjw k - + bjw = + k w..' and blM F(jw) P(jw) 2(w" into this last equation and simplifying. The force /(1) transmitted to the foundation is the sum of the damper and spring forces.i: + kx where M is the total mass of the machine including the unbalance mass m. gives (MS2 + where X(s) = 9: [X (I)].(w2Iw.)1' + (2(wlw.Mw2 ----. )2 + VI + (2(f3 )2 V (l .) (w'lw. we - = + (kiM) -w' + (bIM )jw + (kiM) = 1 from which it follows that where {3 I F( jw) P(jw) = w/ww I = V[1 VI 1 + j(2(wlw.) ' = . P(s) = 9: [p( I ) ] . 9-4 Vibration Isolation 443 The excitatory force (in the vertical direction) is caused by the unbalanced mass of the machine and is p(l) = mw'r sin wI = Fo sin wI The equation of motion for the system is Equation (9-1 1 ) .-- The sinusoidal transfer function is thus F(jw) P(jw) - Substituting kiM have = .{32)2 + (2({3 ) ' . or /(1) b..i: = p(l) (9-12) + kx = F. Hence..... bs + k -- bs + k Eliminating X(s) from the last two equations yields -= F(s) P(s) -+ F(s) X(s) X(s) P(s) -- = - bs + k Ms2 + bs + k (bIM)jw ..

or w > v'2 w'" increasing damping adversely affects the vibra­ tion isolation. the amplitude of the force transmitted to the foundation is F.) .4 o ) II \ � j. as ( increases. 1 6 I .2 0... 0.l ) .V-Y�. ( � 0 . we see that the transmissibility depends on both f3 and r When f3 = v'2. For f3 > v'2.8 1. We see that all of the curves pass through a critical point where TR = 1 and f3 = v'2. For f3 > v'2. 9 Noting that the amplitude of the excitatory force is Fo = I p(jw) 1 and that the amplitude of the transmitted force is F.}. as the damping ratio ? increases. I F(jw)1 I p(jw)1 (9-14) From Equation (9-14). = 1 F(jw) I. since I p(jw)1 = Fo = mw'r. For f3 < v'2.5 . regardless of the value of the damping ratio r Figure 9-9 shows some curves of transmissibility versus f3 ( = wlw.444 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. = I F(jw)1 '11( 1 . or w < v'2 w" (the forcing frequency w is smaller than v'2 times the undamped natural frequency W.= Fo F. Note that. .6 Figure 9-9 Curves of transmissibility TR versus f3( =: wlw. the transmissibility at resonance decreas­ es. for f3 < v'2.2 I k " / (�O I I r-- 1 0.4 1.. Therefore. however.f3')' + (2{f3)' mw'r V1 + (2(f3)' (9-15) 7 TR 5 3 . 0.6 1. we obtain the transmissibility: TR =. increasing damping improves the vibration isola· tion.0. the transmissibility is equal to unity.8 .v ( .2 1. the transmissibility increases.

if M = 15 kg. S ) ' -'. W/I = 20 rad/s. � '� � :=:= :=:. The motion of this system consists of a translational motion of the center of mass and a rotational motion about the ccnter of mass. what is the force transmitted to the foun­ dation? The equation of motion for the system is 15:. 75 x O. 9-4 Vibration Isolation 445 Example 9-3 In the system shown in Figure 9-6. . the vertical displacements at the tires act as motion excitation to the automobile suspension system. see Problem B-9-13.2) sin 161 Consequently. = The force transmitted to the foundation is sinusoidal with an amplitude 0(0..Sec. . As the car moves along the road. A highly simplified version appears in Figure 9-1 1 . = 0. Let us analyze this sim­ ple model when the motion input is sinusoidal. We shall derive the transmissibility for the motion excitation system.O.005 ) ( 1 6) ' (0.< + 6000x = (0. (As a related problem.2 ) Vl + ( 2 x 0.f3' ) ' + (2!:f3) ' Automobile suspension system.75 X 0 .� � ' ==.319 N. r = 0. � =c . = 0..=-= "" "' (0 .r = 16/20 = 0.005 kg. Figure 9-10(a) shows an automobile sys­ tem. From Equation (9-15).:' 'V( I .S) IIIw'rVI + (2?{3)' V( 1 . S ) + ( 2 x 0.2 m.75 and we find that f3 = w/w. b = 450 N-s/m. .00 5 ) ( 16 ) ' ( 0. + 450..-' 0":" :-: e -c . m = 0.) (a) Center of mass Auto body (b) Figure 9-10 (a) Automobile system: (b) schematic diagram of an automobile suspcnsion systcm. Figure 9-10(b) is a schematic diagram of an automobile suspension system. we have F.319 N --.-:. k = 6000 N/m. A complete analysis of the slispension system would be very in­ volved. and w = 16 fad/s.8.

i: . assuming zero initial conditions. the motion of the body is in the vertical direction only.1') = a or 111:. 1l1e displacement X(I) is measured from the equilibrium position in the ab­ sence of input p(I). 9 Figure 9-11 Simplified version of the automo­ bile suspension system of Figure 9-10. gives (l/1s2 + bs + k ) X (s) Hence. The equation of motion for the system is Ill:" + b(. I n the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-12. the vertical motion X(I) of the body is the output. p(r) = P sin Wf . We assume that 1'(1) is sinusoidal.jJ) + k ( x .0 + b.446 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.¥ + kx = bi. The motion 1'(1) at point A is the input to tbe system. Transmissibility for motion excitation. or 1'(1) = P sin wI. Figure 9-U Mechanical system. + kp The Laplace transform of this last equation. X(s) P(s) 1lle sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P(jw) = = = (bs + k ) P(s) bs + k ms2 + bs + k bjw + k -mw2 + bjw + k A >----.

=:. = =:=i V( wlw". ==<' � V( 1 .c === � =. The input amplitude is 1 P(jw) I.01 and {3 = 4 into Equation (9-16). TIlis equation is identical to Equation (9-14). VI + ( 2({3 )2 V( 1 . = ' = "'= = = � � � ". the amplitude of vibration increases to a degree that cannot be tolerated.IIIw2 � b 2w2 C:== �f + .01 x 4) ' . 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 447 The steady-state output x(t) has the amplitude I X (jw ) l . V(I . '-::---:--:: --:-:---' '--:c-'o-­ =- amplitude of the output displacement amplitude of the input displacement I X (jw) 1 I p (jw) 1 = TR Noting that kIm = w� and hIm 2{w". we have TR = ---r.0669 9-5 DYNAMIC VIBRATION ABSORBERS If a mechanical system operates near a critical frequency.4 ' ) + (2 x 0.69% of the vibra­ tory motion of the base of the isolator.o:. Assume that the mass of the rigid body is 500 kg. the damping coefficient of the isolator is vcry small «( = Om). The transmissibility TR in this case is the displacement amplitude ratio and is given by TR TI1US.{3 ' )' + (2(/3 ) ' VI + ( 2(13)' The isolator thus reduces the vibratory motion of the rigid body to 6.= .Sec. This sec­ lion discusses a way to reduce vibrations near a specified operating frequency that is . VI + (2 x 0. we see that the transmissibility is given. because the machine might break down or might transmit too much vibration to the surrounding machines. and the effective spring constant of the isolator is 12. by TR where {3 = = = V 2 w2 + k2 b � k .= 4 5 WII Substituting ( = 0.(3 2 ) 2 + ( 2({3f (9-16) Example 9-4 A rigid body is mounted on an isolator to reduce vibratory effects.01 x 4)' = 0. = -:-r: = ==:.500 N/m .500 500 =5 rad/s 20 w {3 = . in terms of the damping ratio ( and the undamped natural frequency w". = � =. Find the per­ centage of motion transmitted to the body if the frequ e ncy of the motion excitation of the base of the isolator is 20 fad/so 1l1C undamped natural frequency W.) of the system is WI! so = /2.

more than one coordinate is necessary to describe the motion of complicated systems.(number of equations of constraint) EXUIIlI)lc 9-5 Let us find the degrees of freedom of each of the systems shown in Figure 9-13. r of equations of motion) . For some simple systems. Therefore. only one coordinate may be necessary to specify the motion of the system. For instance... ) . we have number of degrees of free dom = ( numb!. However. Basically. One of the two new critical fre­ quencies will be well below the original critical frequency w" and the other will be well above w. The term used to describe the minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify this motion is degrees offreedom.e. a rigid body rotating on an axis has one degree of freedom. I f the original system is a one-degree-of-freedom system (meaning that the system has only one critical frequency w. It is important to note that.448 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. the motion of a mechanical system may be simultaneously translational and rotational in three-dimensional space. . Thus. This means that it is possible to shif1 the critical frequencies from the operating frequency. whereas a rigid body in space has six degrees of freedom-three translational and three rotational. Thus. the addition of the dynamic vibration absorber increases the number of degrees of freedom to two and thereby increases the number of critical frequencies to two. (a) We begin with the system shown in Figure 9-13(a). 9 close to the natural frequency (i. and parts of the system may have con­ straints on where they can move. operation at the given frequency (near w. In terms of the number of equations of motion and the number of constraints. Degrees of freedom. The number of degrees of freedom that a mechanical system possesses is the minimum number of independent coordinates required to specify the positions of all of the elemcnts of the systcm. If the mass m is constrained to move vertically. neither the number of masses nor any other obvious quantity will always lead to a correct assessment of the number of degrees of freedom. the dynamic vibration absorber adds one degree of freedom to the system. I n real-life situations. Before we present vibration absorbers. we shall discuss systems with two or more degrees of freedom.. only one coordinate x is required to define the location of the mass at any time. The geometrical description of such motions can become complicated. the system shown in Figure 9-13(a) has one degree of freedom.) is possible. the system has a one degree of freedom. in general. but the fundamental physical laws still apply. the critical frequency) of the system by the use of a dynamic vibration absorber. if only one in­ dependent coordinate is needed to completely specify the geometric location of the mass of a system in space. Mechanical systems with two or more degrees of freedom.

consider the system shown in Figure 9-13(b). so the number of equations of motion is two. The constraint equation for this system is = -T sin 8 mg . m:i + b.. y).t + kx and no equation of constraint. (a) y • (c) 11Ig T t We can verify this statement by counting the number of equations of motion and the number of equations of constraint. 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 449 k. then the equations of motion are degrees of freedom �2-0 � 2 m:t my = where T is the tension in the wire.t.x. (c) Finally. Therefore. the most convenient coordinate system may not be a rectangular one. The equations of mOl ion 111:\:1 + k\ xj + k2 (x\ . the number of equations of motion is two. In the pendulum system of Figure 9-13(c). The most convenient coordinate . so degree of freedom �2-1 � 1 Note that when physical constraints are present.T eas e The number of equations of constraint is one. e x Figure 9-13 Mechanical systems.X2 ) 0 k2 (x.) � b. If we define the coordinates of the pendulum mass as (x. Consequently.Sec. This system has one equation of motion. consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 9-13(c). the pendulum is constrained to move in a circular path. namely. Thus. There is no equation of constraint. degree of freedom (b) here are = = 0 1 -0 = = ext. .

III is the unbalanced mass and r is the distance of the unbalanced mass from the center of rotation. This device is usually in the form of a spring-mass system tuned to have a natural fre­ quency equal to the operating frequency w. then resonance occurs and large forces are transmitted to the foundation..) Be­ cause of this force excitation. ml-O = -mgl sin () . lllcn the only coordinate that is needed is the angle 8 through which the pendulum has swung. The unbalanced rotor is represented by mass M. Consequently. .450 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. The excitatory force is p(l) = P sin wI. where P = IIlw2r. this is a one-degree-of-freedom system. Vibratory forces may be caused by an unbalanced mass of the rotor. which includes the unbalanced mass. If the machine operates at nearly constant speed. since f is constant. the entire system becomes a two-degrees­ of-freedom system with two natural frequencies. If the excitatory frequency w is equal to or nearly equal to the un­ damped natural frequency of the rotating machine on its mounts. g 0 + . Note that only vertical motions are discussed. O. Reducing vibrations by means of a dynamic vibration absorber. a device called a dynamic vibrariol1 absorber can be attached to it to eliminate the large transmitted force. In many situations. sin 0 = x = I sin e. 0 Dynamic vibration absorber. 9 system here would be a polar coordinate system.. (Here. 1 (where I is a constant) are related by In terms of the polar coordinate system. rotating machines (such as turbines and compressors) cause vibrations and transmit large vibratory forces to the machines' foundations. y = / cos O or Note that. a sinusoidal force of amplitude mw2rVk 2 + b2w2 . Our discussion here focuses on a simple dynamic vibration absorber that will reduce the vertical force transmitted to the foundation. one of the natural frequencies is set above the operating frequency. If the mass of the rotor of a rotating machine is unbalanced. the configuration of the system can be specified by one coordinate. When a vibration absorber is added to a one-degree-of-freedom vibratory system. the other below it. The rectangular coordi­ nates x. the equation of motion becomes . the machine transmits a large vibratory force to its foundation. and is rotating at frequency w. y and polar coordinates 8. To reduce or nearly eliminate the transmitted force. Let us assume that the machine is supported by a spring and a damper as shown in Figure 9-14(a).

)Y(s) .k"X(s) = 0 Eliminating Y(s) from these equations yields pe s) ...Sec. where x and y.(y - - y) = p(r) = P sin wr x) 0 = ( MS2 + bs + k + k. then resonance occurs. The equations of motion for the system of Figure 9-14(b) arc M:. and the transmitted force becomes extremely large.. the displacements of mass M and mass 111(1) respectively..k"Y(s) = P(s) (lII"s2 + k. to reduce the transmitted force. substitute (3 = wlw" = wlVklM and � = bl(2VklVi) into Equation (9-15). I n the analysis which follows.] If the viscous damping coefficient b is small and the natural frequency VkiM of the system is equal to the excitation frequency.(x lII"y + k.)X(s) .) may be added to the machine as shown in Figure 9-14(b). assuming zero initial conditions. we assume that b is very small and that the nat· ural frequency \/kiM is very close to the excitation frequency w.. (a) (b) is transmitted to the foundation. the machine is subjected to excessive vibration. we obtain + b.lchinc with a dynamic vibration absorber. Taking the Laplace transforms of the last two equations. [To obtain this amplitude. In such a case.t + kx + k..) and a spring (k. 9-5 Dynamic Vibration Absorbers 451 p( /) = P sin W( y Figure 9-14 (a) Machine supported by a spring and damper: (b) m. are measured from the respective equilibrium positions of these masses in the absence of excita­ tion force p(r). a dynamic vibration absorber consisting of a mass (III.

. it is possible to eliminate the force transmitted to the foundation.k� _ _ _ _ � k_ _ _ -.I1I(1W2 0 X(jw} Y(jw} P(jw} X(jw} ka ( .Mw' + k + k.) Physically. we may substitute 0 into this last equation.452 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap_ 9 It (allows that X(s) P(s} X(jw} P(jw} b = The sinusoidal transfer function is = _ _ = _ .( Ms' + bs + k + ka) (lIIaS' + ka) .k' a (9-18) .k � � _ _ " laW'_ _ ___ + - If the viscous damping coefficient b is negligibly small.en X(jw} P(jw} � � ( . 11..Mw' + bjw + k + ka ) ( -l1IaW' + ka) . -a � _ .k� [Note that. free vibrations eventually die out due to damping (even though it may be negligibly small).Mw'}( k(/ . _ _ a � ( .� _ -c. and the forced vibration at steady state can be represented by the preceding equation.. -. where I X(jw } 1 = = [Note that I p(jw} 1 P = I1Iw'r.III (jw') . (Without this device. such a dynamic vibration absorber is used only when the natural frequency Vk!M of the original system is very close to the excitation frequency w. then Y(jw} P(jw} = I I ( k + ka _ IIIw'r(k" .J 111e force}(t} transmitted to the foundation is f(l} = kx + bi � kx The amplitude of this transmitted force is k I x (jw) I ._ k . To see this point.J = In examining Equation (9-1 7).k' (I = �:�(%:< //l aw'} _ k� I I I P(jw} 1 (9-17) ka . observe that if ili a and ka are chosen such that or k"llll" = w'.) ( -//laW' + ka} .lIIaW'} ( k + ka . In general.s2 _ -. So if the natural frequency Vk"lllla of the dynamic vibration absorber is made equal to the excitation frequency w._ " I. note that if the vis­ cous damping coefficient b is negligibly small. the system would be in near resonance. _ + -. in the actual system. then I X(jw } 1 = 0 and the force transmitted to the foundation is zero. the effect of the dynamic vibration absorber is to produce a spring force kaY that cancels the excitation force p(t}.Mw' + k + k(/ } ( -IIIIIW' + k (I ) ..

Considcr the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-16. (Discussions of free vibrations of a three-degrees-of-freedom system arc given in Problem A-9-15. That is. we find that = Y(jw) P(jw ) ka -k� = - 1 k" Consequently. W.Mw') (k/I . we shall discuss vibrations that may occur in multi-degrees-of-[reedoll1 systems.1 ( /-:J P Sin wt + P . TI. Figures 9-15(a) and (b) show the curves of amplitude I X (jw)1 versus frequency w for the systems depicted in Figures 9-14(a) and (b).k' = 0 i = 1.Sin wI - ( k + ka . 2 I I (j The two values of frequency. when b is negligibly small.Sec. A /ll'o-degrees-oFfreedolll system re­ quires two independent coordinates to specify the system's configuration.ese two frequencies are the natural frequencies of the two-degrees-of-freedorn system and can be found from the characteristic equation for the sinusoidal transfer function Y(jw)IP(jw) given by Equation (9-18): = = � sin(wt . we treat free vibrations of a two-degrees-of-freedolll system in detail. which illustrates the two-degrees-of-freedom . and w" that satisfy this last equation are the natural frcquencies of the system with a dynamic vibration absorber. respectively. It can also be shown that there will now be two frequencies at which mass M will be in resonance.1 80') k(l 1-:. very large amplitudes at the two resonance frequencies may be reduced to smaller values. The magnitude of this force is equal to that of the excitation force. and the phase angle lags 180' from that of the excitation force (mass III" is vibrating in phase opposition to the excitation force)./1/IIw') . 9-6 FREE VIBRATIONS IN MULTI-DEGREES-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS In this section.. 9-6 Free Vibrations in Multi-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems = 453 If 1110 and ka are chosen so that kll 11ltlW2.. with the result that the spring force kaY and the excitation force pe t) cancel each other and mass M stays stationary. yet) = = This means that the spring kfl transmits a force koY P sin w( to mass M. k" . We have shown that the addition of a dynamic vibration absorber will reduce the vibration of a machine and the force transmitted to the foundation to zero when the machine is excited by an unbalanced mass at a frequency w. Ln particular. Note that the addition of viscous damping in parallel with the absorber spring k(j relieves excessive vibrations at the two natural frequencies.) Two-degrees-of-freedom system .

nl2 l--'lMIIr-r-.. S o 2.454 IXUW)I 5 4 3 2 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.J!k /J (a) w IXUw)1 4 3 5 2 o 2 .J!k j fi w Figure 9-15 (a) Curve of amplitude \'crsus frequency for the system of Figure 9-1-'(<1): (b) curve of amplitude versus frequency for the system of Figure 9-14(b). Figure 9-16 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. k3 ...J!k /J (b) 3 .

Let us derive a mathematical model of this system. To find the natural frequen­ cies of the free vibration.\"2 = B sin wt .(xi . . + 2kx.k3X2 . Thus.n � n7 7n 111 k III k Figure 9-17 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. We assume that the masses move without friction."' + 2kB .I'll 0 0 (9.:". [Free vibra­ tions of the mechanical system described by Equations (9-19) and (9-20) are dis­ cussed in Problem A-9-14. case. we assume that Xl Then :tl If the preceding expressions are substituted into Equations (9-21) and (9-22). the quantities i n parentheses must be equal to zero.] Free vibrations in two-degrees-of-freedom system.k. we assume that the motion is harmonic.(xi . + k3X. ) . + k.kB . . -mAw' + 2kA .) 111 . 111at is.kXI = = 0 0 (9-21) (9-22) Let us examine the frec vibration of this system.� XI Sec. Since these equations must be satisfied at all times and since sin wi cannot be zero at all times. yielding 111:"1 + 2kxI .kB) sin wi = 0 ( . 0 -mBw' + 2kB .x.1 9 ) (9-20) These two equations represent a mathematical model of the system. The equations of motion for the system of Figure 9-17 can be obtained by substituting 111 1 = 111 . 455 � 7.kZ(X2 . = III and kl = k. .(x.Aw2 sin wI.k A = 0 . which is a special case of the system given in Figure 9-16.kx. 9-6 k Free Vibrations in M u lti-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems x. 7..x.k A ) sin wi = 0 = = A sin wt .IIIB.n � � n7 � � n7 � n7 zn � n7. Applying Newton's second law to mass 1111 and mass "'2. III:". = k3 = k into Equations (9-]9) and (9-20). we have 1111:"1 I1lz:tz = = -klxl . Consider the me­ chanical system shown in Figure 9-17.xd = = Rearranging terms yields 1111\1 + k l x l + k. the resulting equations are ( -mAw' + 2kA .

0 2 k . 9 Rearranging terms.456 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. frol11 Equation (9-23). w2 has two values.mw')B = 0 (9-23) (9-24) For constants A and B to be nonzero.kB = 0 -kA + (2k .e = 0 + I or k ? w' . we ha ve (2k .mw')A .mw')' .= 0 2 n1 (9-25) Equation (9-25) can be factored as or = - k 3k w2 w2 = In m' Consequently.mw' k k (9-26) Also. we have If we substitute w' kim (first mode) into either Equation (9-26) or (9-27). from Equation (9-24). It should be remembered that in the one-degree-of-freedom system only one natural frequency exists. the determinant of the coefficients of Equa­ tions (9-23) and (9-24) must be equal to zero..I1lW' 2k . A -= 1 B = A B (9-27) . we obtain A B 2 k . in both cases. or 2k . whereas the two-degrees-of-freedom system has two natural frequencies.4-wm k' 3.II1W' -k 1 This determinantal equation determines the natural frequencies of the system and can be rewritten as (2k . the first representing the first natural frequency WI (first mode) and the second representing the second natural frequency w. we obtain.mw2 -k .. Note that. (second mode): W2 = f3k \j -.

n � � � (b) = mm k k Figure 9-18 (a) First mode of vibra­ tion: (b) second mode of vibration.(s) .) Note that it is possible to excite only one of the two modes by properly setting the initial conditions. the vibration of 11/. two modes of vibration may occur simultaneously.= -1 B I f the system vibrates at either of its two natural frequencies. � � � 7.1:. k � n7. Comments.1 when the masses vibrate at a natural frequency.kX.- k k /. or A = -B (the second mode of vibration).] At the second natural frequency w" the amplitude ratio becomes . If we substitute w' have 3klm (second mode) into either Equation (9-26) or (9-27). at the fre­ quency w.(5) .(0)] + 2kX. 9-6 Free Vibrations i n M ulti-Degrees-of-Freedom Systems � . we A .I . = k. at the lowest natural frequency w. the amplitude ratio becomes unity. in the present problem. � n7. For example..(0) .] In the pre­ sent system. so the motions are opposite in phase. (See Problem A-9-14. that is.(s) = ..1:. I n this case. From the first equation for the amplitude ratio NB. the amplitude ratio becomes equal to 1 or .(s) . at the frequency w. the motions are in phase. taking the Laplace transforms of Equations (9-2 1 ) and ( 9-22).sx. Without such assumptions.. consists of the sum of two harmonic components: one with amplitude 8. That i� the vibration of 1111 may consist of the sum of two components: a harmonic motion with amplitude A I at the frequency W I and a hamlOnic motion with amplitude A .(O) .(s) II/[s' X. the ratio AlB may not be equal to l or . or A = B (the first mode of vibration). the two masses must vibrate at the same frequency.kX. = k3. we need only the characteristic equation. at the frequency w. The reason for this is that we assumed that 1111 = n/2 and k.1 . [See Figure 9-18(a).� �-- 457 � k mm (n) --� � � .5X. which means that both masses move the same amount in the same direction.n � n7 � � n7..(s) = 0 0 . (See Problem A-9-16. To rind the natural frequencies of the system. (0 ) ] + 2kX. we have 11/[5' X.7. [See Figure 9-18(b).) For arbitrary initial conditions.Sec. and one with amplitude B.

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-9-1 Assuming that the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-19 is at rest before the excita­ tion force p(f) = si n w( is appli ed derive the complete solution x(t) and the steady­ state solution xss(t). 111e advantage of the method using the assumed harmonic solution is that one can easily visualize the mode of vibration by the sign of the amplitude ratio NB. all the n masses will vibrate at that frequency. the characteristic equation can be rewritten as w . however. although it is not. Many-degrees-of-freedom system. we obtain 2 [SXI(O) + '<1(0)]( s2 + k k2 s' + 4-s2 + 3 m 1112 �) + � [SX2(0) + '<2(0)] = The characteristic equation for the system is = k e s' + 4-s2 + 3m 11/2 .458 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. k p(r) =P sin wr x Figure 9-l9 Mechanical system. and the amplitude of any mass will bear a fixed value relative to the amplitude of any other mass.4-w2 + k 31'11 2 k2 which is exactly the same as Equation (9-25). P .TIlen the resultant vibration may appear quite complicated and may seem to be a random vibration. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the excitation force is applied. The system. . Generally. 111 0 If we substitute s jw. I f free vibration takes place at any one of the system's natural frequencies. may vibrate with more than one natural frequency. 9 Eliminating X (S) from the last two equations. an n-degrees-of-freedom system (such as that consisting of II masses and II + 1 springs) has n natural fre­ = 0 quencies.

Example Problems and Solutions 459 Solution The equation of motion for the system is niX + bi + kx = P sin w( Noting that x(O) � 0 and itO) � 0... and i: � bl(2v.( w2'1 .w) We can expand X(s) as c � m + 52 -as + d ') + 2{wlls + Wn ) By simple calculations.+ w� or � X(s) Pw ' --�2-�-­ s..1) + 2[2wI! .W2 ) 1 2 " S2 + w- s + 2[wns + w2! I 2 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives .illS + hs + k 1 Pw 1 .. ..W2) + 2[wn (S + [W. X [ -2{WIIS + ( wI2! . we find that the Laplace transfoml of this equation is (IIW .. X( s Pw ( as + .....k). where w" � ..k... we find that a = (w� w2 ) 2 + 4{2w.w2 w� w2 - _ Hence. + bs + k)X(s) P. s. + .+ w. s.W.

t + 2kx = p(r) X(s) I'(s) = ".w� ). -"50S(t) = w.w' . If m = 10 kg. what is the steady-state output x(r)? The dis­ placement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the input p(/) is applied.IIIW ) + b wbw . we obtain X(s) I'(s) . = G (s) = lOs' + 30s + 1000 I Then the sinusoidal transfer function becomes G ( } w) 10(jw)' + 30jw + 1000 per) = P sin WI .IIIW' sin w( . the terms involving e-(wnt approach zero.460 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems At steady state state. " 1.. Thus. Substituting the given numerical values for 111. . and w = 2 rad/s. and k into this last equation. P = 10 N.. .k . at steady Chap.mw· Y(k - (r -+ 00 ) . r k Figure 9-20 Mechanical system. k = 500 N/m.. The equation of motion for the system is The transfer function of the system is mx + b.tan.b cos wI 2 2 1.= = = == . 9 ( ( ( ) ) ) Problem A-9-2 Solution Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-20. P 1 o. b.2{w" COS Wf W m[(wn . =mw2)2 + b2w2 " sin WI . Pw .c= "" -. ' 2 Sln Wl .s2 + bs + 2k = = P sin wr where X(s) = 9: [x(r)] and I'(s) = 9: [p(r)]. b = 30 N-s/m. " W (k .+ 4{ WnW ] Pw k .

The initially x O) 0 the spring-mass systemO. .x k ..0010396 x(t) = 0.0624) = mass.0010396 X IO sin(2t . P = 50 N.)X(s) = ----. x + w. and w = 5 fadis.Example Problems and Solutions 461 x{t) is given by x{t) = Xsin { wt + <!» = I G ( jw ) I P sin [wt + �l For w 2 Tadls..0. under the initial conditions x(O) and itO) = 0.40) + j60 I G(j2) 1 Thus. determine xCt) for O.010396 sin(2t . '" U U p(l) = P sin w % Figure 9-21 Spring-mass system. = = Y ' 960 -tan-I I 10 N. for P = !S!JJJJ. SoluHoll ( = III = P sin wf By defining w" VJJ.. is " ( s- = 0 w + w. or and . k 100 N/m. Assume that the mass moves without friction. the steady-state output is :6� + 60' = -0.0624) = 0. At t a force applied Using the Laplace transform method. we obtain I G('? ) From Equation (9--6). ... J- ( 1000 . this last equation can be written P. + w p � � '%..All. .« 0) O.x = .sm wr = The equation of motion for the system is 111:\: + kx = = = = ( 2: 11/ The Laplace transform of the preceding equation.shown inp(l) P sin wt issystem isto Ihe at rest. m r. the stcady·state output = Hence.. Find the solution x(t) when 1 kg.0624 rad = 0. III Problem A-9-3 Consider Figure 9-21.0.

X(s) = = III Pw P "W . and wlw/l = 5/10 = 0. assume that voltage e. the transfer function between I(s) and £. P . In addition...(s) /( s) £. 9 Consequently...5.Ri I J C + i tit = e· ' Hence. 1 ( m w...462 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. we find that WI1 = -y-. Sin Will ) ( 2 ' Problem A-9-4 In the electrical circuit of Figure 9-22.( s) = Ls + R (1/Cs) LCs2 RCs + L Cs + " R c eu Figure 9-22 Eleclric<l1 circuit.+ w-) 2 w � w2 s2 +1 w'Z /I 11 From the given numerical values.w.. Substituting these numerical values into the equation for x(t). assuming zero initial conditions. S2 + w2 .w.."3 sm 1 0t + '3 SlIl 5r m . we have x t ) = .. is di L. + w.)(s.Sin wI ' ) - W" w . assume that the input is sinusoidal and is given by ej(l ) = £j sin wf What is the steady-state current jet)? Solution Applying KirchhofPs voltage law to the circuit yields dt + + - Then the Laplace transform of this last equation.. = v'lOci/l = 10 fad/so Plm = 50 N/kg. TIle inverse Laplace transform of this last equation is x( r ) = ( 21 ' .. (s. 1 ' _ 1 t w2 . is applied to the input ter­ minals and voltage eo appears at the output terminals. .(s) becomes ( LS R �S ) / (S) + + = £.

. the sinusoidal transfer [unction is XUw) PUw) TIle amplitude ratio is = (1(1) bs + k bjw + k I X Uw) PUw) 1 so p(l) = P sin Wt b x Figure 9-23 Mechanical system..--'-' c:. If the forcing frequency is changed to w = to Tad/s. -. Determine the values of b and k. Y{ l - LCw')' + ( RCw)' ( ( wt - tan -I _ tao-I I - RCw .r(t) is found to be 0.. LCw' I Rew - ) .:= =: 2T :=" "" CEi. where P = 1 N and w = 2 radls. LCw' ) Problem A-9-5 Solution The equation of motion for the system is Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-23. the steady·state current i(t) is [see Equation (9-6)J i(t) = I G Uw) I Ei sin[wt + /G(jw)J CEjw Sin wr + 900 Y{l LCw')' + (RCw)' - -:-.LCw' + RCjw + I Ei UW ) Therefore. = :=i = '=" cos .Example Problems and Solutions 463 The sinusoidal transfer function is Cjw J Uw) . If the excitation force P sin wI. per) = bi + kx TIlC transfer function is X(s) P(s) Hence.= G (jw) = ----:. the steady-state amplitude of XCI} is found to be 0. is applied.02 m. ..­ -::-c '-::-:: ---. the steady-state amplitude of ..-.05 m.

677 N-s!m = k' = 312. the amplitude of X(I) is 0. 4b' + k' = 400 (9-28) or 1OOb' + k' = 2500 From Equations (9-28) and (9-29)..t .05 or I f p(l) = = --. respectively. we obtain 96b' = 2100 or (9-29) b Also. 9 sin 21. = P sin wI 1 0. or = 4. z . Hence. =<= � Vb' x 2' + k' = Chap.57 k Problem A-9-6 17. assume that the input and output are the displacements p and x. = =. The displacement x is measured from the equi· librium position. if p(l) Therefore.464 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems From the problem statement. + kx = + kx bi) = 0 k .02 m. P sin wI = sin 101.. What is the output X(I) at steady state? Assume that the system remains linear throughout the operating period.p) m:i + b.05 m. then the amplitude of X(I) is 0. Suppose that p(r) = P sin wr.68 N!m In the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-24. Solution The equation of motion for the system is 111:< or + b(x ..x '" b - r p{t) = P sin rut Figure 9-24 Mechanical system.

(f) of the mechanical system shown are positive.tan0 k= Ip(jw) I P. I The displacements X I and Xl are measured from the respective equilibrium positions in the absence of the excitation forcc.x. So. the system is stable =i= 0 and and Equation (9-6) can be used to find the steady-state solution.Example Problems and Solutions Hence.) 11I2X2 + k2(X2 . for small w the output leads the input by almost 900. X(j ) I P(jw) 1 W ¢ = and w p rg'w.tl ...tl + klxl + lr. I I .1ao.!(.tl .1 k . Then = = = mixi + klxl + k.= tan.XI ) = = = p{/) 0 . _ Thus. in Figure 9-25..I k -bw 2 ) mw V(k . and for large the output Noting that = = = lags the input by almost 90'.{xi . Assume that the viscous damping coefficients and but negligibly small. [This means that. in obtaining equations.X2) k2(xi . the transfer function between X(s) and P(s) is X{s) bs P{s) ms' + bs + k = 465 Then the sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) bjw P(jw) -mw' + bjw + k bw bw mwz bw 900 . the output is obtained as X{I) IX(jw)1 sin{wl + ¢) Pbw 2 )2 + b2w2 Sin( wl + 900 tao. Since and are positive.X l ) + k2 (X2 X l ) = 0 Since bl and b2 are negligibly small.mw· bw .X2) p(t) P sin wI f1l2 l + b2(. let us substitute b l 0 and b2 0 into the equa­ tions of motion. Problem A-9-7 l - 0° w Find the steady-state displacements XI(/) and X]. we may assume that *" O. bl b2 b! b2 bl b2 Solution The equations of motion for the system are X + m ixi + bl.mw )] varies from to 1800 as w increases from zero to infin­ ity.mw 2 The angle an I [ bwl ( k . however small.

)(III.w' (0 � 0' or 180') . . the steady-state solution Xl (t) is 111252 k2 P(s) (mis' + kl + k.(jw)I are obtained from the sinusoidal transfer functions X1(jW) k2 . the amplitudes I x . assuming zero initial conditions.X. . XI(S) 111252 k2 + + Thus. .(jw) k.nl2W2 P(jw ) (kl + k.(jw)1 and Ix."" w') .)X.S' + k.IIIIW')(k.(s) .m.466 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. Taking the Laplace transforms of these two equations.6) can be applied. Equation (9.(s) � P(s) (Ill.kl and X. XI(jW) k.kl Since the system is basically stable. we have (mis' + kl + k. In so doing. )XI(s) .k.k.) .(s) � k. 9 Figure 9-25 Mechanical system.XI(s) � 0 from which it follows that and Xl(S) = X.S' + k.

2rr cos O . Solution As the ball stands out at a constant angle. as shown in Figure 9-26. That is.) ] X. r II " or = - g Therefore.(jw) X. If w = v'k1/m1.Example Problems and Solutions The steady-state solution x2 ( f ) is 467 x2(1) = I X2(jw)1 sin wi [ X.. and the horizolltal compo­ nent of S balances with the centrifugal force mw'1r Hence. mass 111 1 stays still. from geometry. = {li 2"Yg A IIlg Figure 9-26 Conical pendulum. Problem A-9-8 Find the period of a conical pendulum in which a ball of mass m revolves about a fixed vertical axis at a con slant speed. mw-r mg w..(jw) + P(. .(jw)IP(jw) and IX. but mass /Ill moves sinusoidally. .(jw)IP(jw) are eilher or Conse­ quently. the vertical component of the ten­ sion S in the cord balances with the gravitational force mg. since II = I T = -. the motions of masses "' l and 1112 are either in phase or out of phase with kzlm2 the excitation.... NOle lhal lhe angles IX. 1800 ( k. the period T is Note that. ( jw ) P (jw ) ] 0' 180'. masses Ill! and nil move in the same direction if w < Y and in the opposite direction if w > Vk1lml. the period i s a function o f the angle O.(jw)X.

If it is not. as shown in Figure 9-27. Solution TIle centripetal force that is necessary for a circular motion is mw-r = The gravitational force mg can be resolved into two component forces. 9 Problem A-9-9 A boy riding a bicycle with a constant speed of 800 m/min around a horizontal cireu· lar path of radius r = 50 m leans inward at angle () with the vertical.) Hence.3626 tan 8 = 9.807 X 50 = gr v' 8 = 19.93" Figure 9-27 Boy riding a bicycle around a circular palh. Determine the angle of inclination 0 needed to maintain a steady·state circular motion. as shown in Figure 9-27. TIle horizontal force F mg tan 0 must provide the necessary centripetal [orce mv2lr. we find that (800/60) ' 0. F and R. mg R . the boy must reduce his speed if he is to avoid slipping. = ") m­ v2 r mg tan O or tan 0 = u' m­ r = ­ or Substituting the given numerical values into this last equation.468 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. (Note that F can be supplied by friction if the surface is suffi­ ciently rough.

. So or where WI! = A-9-10 469 + r). the centrifugal force acting on the shaft is I1lw2 (e This force balances with the restoring force of the elastic shaft. G. so that the restoring force due to the elastic shaft is kr. kr.. ·What is the critical speed of the system? Solution From Figure 9-28(a). large vibrations may develop as a result of resonance effects. . a disk of mass m is mounted on an elastic shaft whose mass is negligible compared with that of the disk. if shafts rotate at critical speeds. respectively. and the center of rotation are denoted by points 0.. Solving for . (9-30) v. the cen� ler of mass of the disk. In Figure 9-28(a). which is pl aced midway between bearings. . The distance between points R and 0 is r. Assume that the disk is not pe rfectl y symmetrical and thaI there is an eccentricity e from the center of the disk.J..Example Problems and Sol utions Problem In rotating systems. and R. The geometrical center of the disk. Assume that the equivalent spring constant of the elastic shaft is k. (b) rotating system in which the anglllar speed is higher than the criti­ cal speed. and that between points 0 and G is e. yields w2(e + r) = w�r e X' x' (a) (b) Figure 9-28 (a) Rotating system in which the angular speed is lower than the critical speed.

we have == - - == e For w > Will the deflection r decreases and approaches e with increasing For w � Wm the center of gravity of the disk moves toward the line and in this case the disk does not whirl.470 The deflection tends to increase rapidly as w approaches W/l" At W Wm resonance occurs. or y(t) = Y sin In the seismograph. Z = x . 1l1C critical speed of the shaft is thus Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. The displacement y is the input to the system and. mw2(r e) kr Solving for r and noting that kIm w�. and the centrifugal force becomes mw\ r e) This force balances with the restoring force of the elastic shaft kr: hence.y Case (Output � : ) Figure 9-29 Seismograph. in the case of eaTlhquakes. Define the displacement of the mass III relative to the case as z. or wI. the center of gravity G will be situated as shown in Figure 9-28(b). The deflection increases until Equation (9-30) no longer holds. the displacement of the case relative to ineTlial space by y. Problem A-9-11 Figure 9-29 is a schematic diagram of a seismograph. we measure the relative displacement between x and y. y (Input = y) . w. TIle displace­ ment x is measured from the equilibrium position when y = O. is approximately sinusoidal. a device used to measure ground displacement during earthquakes. but the deflected shaft whirls about the center of gravity. 9 r r == At speeds higher than critical. X X'. G. The displacement of mass III relative to inertial space is denoted by x.

we find that Note that the input to the system is the displacement y and that the output is the rela­ tive displacement z.w"jw + w.+ k __ w... and blm = 2Cwn into this last equation gives w' -- 2(jw) Y(jw) where (3 = wlwnIn the seismograph. The sys­ tem configuration is basically the same as that of the seismograph./3' + j2. = 0 (9-3 1 ) Equation (9-3 1 ) becomes = 0 -my Taking the Laplace transform o f this last equation and assuming zero initial conditions. A glance at Equation (9-32) tells us that we can do so easily if (3 � in which case Equation (9-32) reduces to -w' + 2.. rately if w � w"./3 /3 ' (9-32) 1.. and the motion of the case can be seen as a relative motion between the mass and the case.w' _ ----:­ bjw -IIIW' + . To produce the condition W � Wm we choose the undamped natural frequency WI! as low as possible.. /3' -. 2(jw) . where WI! = Yk/.. Let us . A schematic diagram of a translational accelerometer is given in Figure 9-30.) Then the seismograph will measure and record the displace­ ments of all frequencies well above the undamped natural frequency Win which is very low.' 1 .= . we want to determine the input displacement yet) accurately by measuring the relative displacement Z(I)...y) = In terms of the relative displacement z i) + bz + kz x - Y. but their essential difference lies in the choice of the undamped natural frequency WI! = Yk/. The transfer function between Z(5) and Yes) is = (ill S' + bs + k)2(s) -ms'Y(s) 2(s) Y(s) The sinusoidal transfer function is 2 (jw) Substituting kIm = = ms2 + bs + k = Y(jw) = .-.= .1 Y(jw) ' /3 ' Problem A-9-U The seismograph measures and records the displacement of its case y accurately if (3 � I or W � WI/' In fact. for W � WI/! mass m tends to remain fixed in space... Solution The equation of motion for the seismograph is III:' + bU III(Y + or mz + bi: + kz = y) + k(x . -c __ _ .Example Problems and Solutions 471 Show that the seismograph measures and records the displacement of its case y accu. (Choose a relatively large mass and a spring as soft as the elastic and stalic deflection limits allow.

= x-y (Output = z) Figure 9-30 Translational accelerometer. this last equation becomes II/(Y + niX + b(. then Z(s) s2y(s) w� = -11/ - IIIs2 + bs + k I (9-33) . and thus its Laplace transform is s2y (s) 1 is 2(s) s2y(s) From Equation (9-33). we see that if [he undamped natural frequency WI! is suff iciently high compared with the frequencies of the input.y) =0 or i) + bi + k z = 0 II lZ + bi. 111e input to the translational accelerometer is the acceleration y. The output is the displacement of the mass III relative to the case. or z = x .) Show that if the undamped natural frequency w" is sufficiently high compared with the frequencies of the input.y) + k(x . The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position when y = 0. assuming zero initial conditions.472 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. then the displacement z can be made nearly propor­ tional to y. y (Input = y) Solution The equation of motion for the system is denote the displacement of mass III relative to inertial space by x and that of the case relative to inertial space by y. + kz = -my 1l1e Laplace transform of the preceding equation. In terms of the relative displacement Z. (We measure <lnd record the relative displacement z. not the absolute displacement x.y.r . gives (II/S' + bs + k)Z(s) = -I/lS'Y ( s) The transfer function between output 2(5) and input s2y(S) [the input is the accelera· tion y. 9 .

.(Y . A rotating machine with a mass of 100 kg and mounted on an isolator rotates at a can· stant speed of 10 Hz. the displacement z is nearly proportional to )i. Since b =i= 0 and b" =i= 0.) Solution llle equations of motion for the system are tv/: : + h. Design a dynamic vibration absorber to reduce the vibration.p(t) 1 473 b } Dynamic vibration absorber = negligible } ROIating machine Moo"" Figure 9-31 Rotating machine with a dynamic vibration absorber. the steady-state displacements can be obtained with the use of the sinusoidal transfer function.y ) = p(/) I1II/Y + kl/(Y . Determine the mass mil and spring constant ka of the dynamic vibration absorber such that the lower natural frequency is 20% off the operating frequency. the system is stable. Problem A-9-13 Thus. since the values of b and bll are positive. however small. but negligibly small. we choose the undamped natural frequency Wn = ViJiij to be sufficiently high.i.y) = p(/) = mw2r sin wI \ I1II/Y + b(. and both x and y are measured from the respective equilibrium positions.x) = 0 where x and y are the displacements of mass M and mass 111m respectively. An unbalanced mass III loca ted a distance r from the centcr of the rotor is exciting vibrations at a frequency w that is very close to the natural frequency WI! of the system. with the result that the machine vibrates violently and a large vibra­ tory force is transmilted to the foundation.v ) + kl/(x . When the dynamic vibration absorber is added to the rotating machine as shown in Figure 9-31. in the accelerometer.x) = 0 ..Example Problems and Solutions M ([) k r--. (Note that. the entire system will become a two·degrees·of-freedom system.i. Determine also the higher natural frequency of the system. the last two equations may be simplified to tv/i + kx + kl/(x .: + kx + bl/(''\: . Hence. Therefore. Assume that the values of b (the viscous­ friction coefficient of the isolator) and bu (the viscous·friction coefficient of the dynamic vibration absorber) are positive.:) + kl/(Y .

since the natural frequency W'I = to the operating frequency w = Ykjmm we can set ( 1 + " M k .T W.: w = 62. (9-34) To make this amplitude equal to zero. we have w 1 3944 = 10 X 27T 62. 62. we obtain k ( 1 + -" . 2 or Note that in the present system.k" = 0 (9-35) -VkiM is very close Now: the lower natural frequency must be 20% off the operating frequency w.0. [TIle denominator of Equation (9-34) is the characteristic polynomial.8- = 1...8 (1 _ )( _ _ Solving for k.8 radls so . Since WI < W.0'8') ( 1 ./k yields .8') k k " k = 0. V M = V -. 9 \Vhen the viscous frictions are neglected.8 x 62. from Equation (9 1 7) we obtain the amplitude I X(jw) 1 afx(t) as: ./ma = w2 i nto Equation (9-35). we choose kll = ma w = Since the operating speed is 10 Hz.= The two natural frequencies w\ and W2 (where WI < (2) of the entire system can be found from the characteristic equation. i k )( 1 - " ka Wj III ' k ) . we have wl l w!) k" 0 + k" = k k ww2 0.2025 It follows that mil M = kll k = 0 .} We have i = 111(1 k " . the system becomes the same as that shown in Figure 9-14(b) with b = O.2025 .8 Wi = = Substituting wl/w = WI and kIM = k. this means that Substituting Wi = {k {k:.8w = 0.8 into this last equation.-" = 0 k k 0. 1l1crefore.474 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.

w2 )( 1 .)( 1 . . = = k" (62.8)'m" (62. 1.9 103 N/m the mass and spring constant of the dynamic vibration absorber are mn The25twoand kl/ frequenciesN/rn.25 62. wor Solving for 1. we have Because m" = 0.and can be determined by substituting 20.0.2025 into the equation k" wl wi k ( 1 + .9 103 respectively..8 50.8)'(20.5625 Therefore. The displacements Xl and Xl are measured from the respective equilibrium positions.64.64.w.5 radls 12. w w w/w. Figure 9-32 Mechanical system.2 k w.25) 79.) .25 kg � M = ffla k" 62. = 0.2025 = 0 .k = X = = X WI W2 or ( 1 + 0.2050 100 = 20.25". and Problem A-9-14 I 1. . 9�32.-" = 0 i = 1.5625 w. 1. Assume that masses nI] and 111 2 move with­ out friction. 0.8' = = we obtain 11lU5.24 radls = 8 Hz w.8 78. we obtain w� -..8 62. kg natural 79..0. = = = x = = = x = = Consider the two-degrees-of-freedom mechanical system shown in Figure Obtain the first and second modes of vibration.8w 0.5 Hz W WI . k"lk 0.Example Problems and Solutions Since M 475 x = 100 kg.w' ) .2025 .

Thus.- k. we get [( -m. + k3 nl2 ) )w2 Now. + k3)B] sin wI � 0 Since these two equations must be satisfied at all times.kzB -k.. 1111 1112 _ :( l k ' + k.k� = or 4_ w Solving this last equation for w2. the quantities in the brackets must be equal to zero... ( ( . assume that m J Xj + (kJ + k2)x\ .B] sin wI � 0 [-k. 9 Solution The equations of motion for the system arc ml Xj = -kjXl .Xl) which can b e rewritten as To find the natural frequencies of the free vibration. + k.k. we define w .w' + k.k2X2 = 0 nJl\:2 + ( k2 + k3)X2 . + k3 ' ) + k.." . � 1.� + klk2 + k2k] + k3k] 11l1 nJ2 "4 1 k' + k ..476 Frequency-Doma i n Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. ml + ) ± r7 � � . and since sin wr cannot be zero at all times. + k3 ' ) 0 + k.. the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be zero.)A . - ------. ( . k ' + k. 2 ( ( k l + k2 111] + k2 + k3 1112 nl] + k..- k. -. - ------.X2) m2:r2 = -k3X2 . X2 = (9-36) (9-37) B sin wt Then Substituting the harmonic solutions into Equations (9-36) and (9-37).k2(X2 .k2Xl = 0 Xl = A sin wr. or l -m � = 0 (9-38) (9-39) 0 which can be simplified to 1 w2 + kJ + k2 -k2 0 = 2 2 (-ml w + kl + k2)( -11l2W + k2 + k3) .m lw2 + k\ + k2)A .w' + k.� .w' + k. + k3)B For constants A and B to be nonzero. k ' 2 ( + k. assume that the motion is har­ monic. � ... . + k3 nl2 k.k2(xj . That is.A + (-m... 11I1m2 . we obtain w' � 1.A + (-m.

z is the second mode of vibration. from Equation (9-39). Problem A-9-15 Figure 9-34 shows a three-degrees-of-freedom system. Note that.IB" we obtain A2 B2 Notice that -mw� + k2 k] + kz . To simplify the analysis. and x) are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. we assume that all of the masses are equal and the four springs are identical. Thu� which means that in the first mode of vibration masses m I and 111 2 move in the same direction. substituting wl into Equations (9-40) and (9-4 1 ) and writing NB as A. whereas in the second mode of vibration masses m I and nlz move in opposite directions. -m 2wy + k2 + k3 k2 (9-41) Substituting wi into Equations (9-40) and (9-41) and writing NB as A liBI yields Al BJ k2 -m]Wr + kJ + k2 Al Similarly. we get -m2w2 + k2 + k3 k. we obtain 477 A B A B k2 -mlw2 + kJ + k2 (9-40) Also. respectively. Obtain the natural frequencies and the modes of vibration of the system. The displacements Xl> Xl. from Equation (9-38). Figures 9-33(a) and (b) show the first and second modes of vibration.m2w� + k2 + k] k2 '\2 Also.Example Problems and Solutions The vibration at frequency WI is the first mode of vibration and that at frequency W. . We also assume that the masses move without friction.

respectively. (9-43). (-mw2A + 2kA .kC)sin wI � � � ( -IIIW'C . we assume that Xl X2 x) = = A sin wt B sin wi = C sin w( 0 0 a Then Equations (9-42).- . and (9-44) become.kB)sin wI ( -lIIw'B .k B + 2kC)sin wI . Figure 9-33 � k.kA + 2kB ..- � Z (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration..xil + k( X2 .. .X2) + kX3 = 0 X2 ) = 0 which can be rewritten as nlX1 + 2kx 1 .kX3 Ill:!) = = 0 0 0 (9-42) (9-43) (9-44) kX2 + 2kx3 = To obtain the natural frequencies of the system. � k k k k % IIIX. + k ( x2 ..kX1 + 2kx2 .478 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.x. That is.. (b) .kX2 mXl .-- � -. Solution The equations of motion for the system are mx} + kXJ + k(xJ - Figure 9-34 Mechanical system with three degrees of freedom..- (a) r.. 9 � k\ k2 k) :: -. we assume that the motion is harmonic.) � 0 m:t) + k(X3 ..

(2 .-. (9-47). .(2 . (9-45) and Firsr mode of vibration (mw'/k = 0.) A .4142v'kj..-) _ 0 IIlkW k k or from which we get mw2 = 2' k Thus. W = 0. That is. or .IIIw')B . the quantities in parentheses must be equal to zero. III {f ' W = 1. and C to be nonzero. These three equations can be simplified to ' mw( 2 .IIIW' ) C = 0 (9-45) (9-46) (9-47) For constants A.� W = 1.kB = 0 -kA + (2k . (9-46).) B .4142C From Equations .4142A = B B = 1.76)4 \ -. and (9-47) must be zero.-' )" .. mw2-k -1 mw2-k -1 . III Hence. and since sin wI cannot be zero at all times. we have 1." the second mode of vibra­ tion is at w = 1. we obtain 11 lW' (2 .8478 fk \j -..4142 -.C = 0 k mw.847Sv'kj..-) .kC = 0 -kB + (2k . the determinant of the coefficients of Equa­ tions (9-45).III w')A .\ + ( 2 .B = O k -. B.7654 v'kj." and the third mode of vibration is at w = 1.. 0 -I mw2 2-k IIIW' -1 0 =0 Expanding this determinantal equation.. the [irst mode of vibration is at w = 0.) -B + ( 2 .C = 0 k IIIW' ' (2k .Example Problems and Solutions 479 Since these three equations must be satisfied at all limes.5858) .

(c) third mode of vibration.1. k k k k Figure 9-35 (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration.480 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap.4142 : 1 (9-46). From Equations (9-45) and .. � k k k k (a) % k k k k (b) r. we have Second mode of vibrarion (mw'/k B = O A = -C = 2)_ From Equations (9-45) and Hence.4142 : 1 Figure 9-35 depicts the three modes of vibration of the system. the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : 0 : -1 Note that the second mass does not move. (e) % . = 3. 9 Thus.4142 ). the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : 1.4142C Thus.1 . because amplitude B (9-47).4142A = B B = -1. we get Third mode of vibm/ion (mw'lk = O. the amplitude ratio becomes A : B : C = 1 : .

(9-48) (9-49) Substituting the given numerical values into these two equations. y(O) y(O) = = k.Example Problems and Solutions Problem A-9-16 481 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-36. :i = -Aw2 sin Wf. That is.y) + k.A ) = 0 k.1 01. y x Figure 9-36 Mechanical system with two degrees of freedom. Determine the vibration when the initial conditions arc given by (a) x(O) = 0.x = 0 lIIi + k. assume that the motion is har­ monic.y) + 40x = 0 j + 1 0(y . Thus.A)] sin wI = 0 + - -2w'A IO(A .028078 m.l m. -O. we obtain [-2w' A + IO(A 8) + 4011] sin wI = 0 Since these equations must be satisfied at all times. and since sin w( cannot be zero at all times. Determine the natural frequen· cies and modes of vibration.(x .i(O) itO) = = k. the quantities in the brackets must be equal 10 zero. assume that z:r + lO (x . 0 mls. 0 mis. . In the diagram.17808 m. = 40 N/m 0.x) = 0 x = A sin wI. = 10 N/m. (b) x(O) = 0. . HO) = O mls y(O) = 0 mls Solution The equations of motion for the system arc M:i + k.x) = 0 . the displacements x and y are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. M = 2 kg. Then y = B sin wI y = -Bw2 sin wI If the preceding expressions are substituted into Equations (9-48) and (9-49).(y . we obtain To find the natural frequencies of the free vibration.8) + 4011 = 0 -w'8 + 10(8 . Assume that 11/ = I kg. [-w'8 + 10(8 .

6818 Substituting WI A B = 10 50 . 9 Rearranging terms yields (50 . we can (25' + 50)X(s) = 25X(0) + 1OY(s) (s' + IO)Y(5) = 5)'(0) + lOX(s) (9-52) (9-53) . and y(O) = 0. while in the second mode of vibration two masses move in oppo­ site directions (two motions arc out of phase).y(O)1 + 1O I Y (s) . Figure 9-37 shows the first and sccond modes of vibratioll.w')B = 0 (9-50) (9-51) For constants A and B to be nonzero.7808 < 0 10 Hence.482 Frequency·Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. substituting w� = 27.lOB = 0 -lOA + (10 .1. wc shall obtain the vibrations XCI) and Y(I).7.(0)1 + 1 0 [X(s) . we find that I = 0.w2 10 = 7.w� .s)' (O) .2733 Note that WI is the frequency of the first mode of vibration and W2 is the frequency of the second mode of vibration.1922 into AlB. )'(0) " 0. the determinant of the coefficient matrix must be equal to zero.2wl 1 0 . we obtain simplify the last two equations as follows: 2 [s'X(s) .35w2 + 200 = 0 or (w' . we obtain - WI 2.2wT 10 .1922)(w' . subject to the given initial COIl­ dilions.= .sx(O) . Next. or 1 50 . we get A B 10 50 .28078 > 0 A B 10 50 .808) = 0 Hence.X(s)1 = 0 Using the initial conditions that x(O) " 0.Y(s)1 + 40X(s) = 0 Is'Y (s) .1922 = and and w� = 27.10 =0 10 w' _ I which yields w4 . Laplace transforming Equations (9-48) and (9-49). x(O) = 0.808 into AlB.2w' -10 .808 w. in the first mode of vibration two masses move in the same direction (two motions are in phase). Note also that..2w2' A B 10 . [rom Equations (9-50) and (9-5 1 ). = 5.27.. or WT = 7.2w')A .w2 10 Similarly.

ill which rlie inilial cOlldiriofls are x(O) = 0.028078 cos 2.808) + + + 200 (9-54) lO)s 0.808 )(s' 52 0.1922 The inverse Laplace transform of Xes) gives X(I) = 0. + 0. 1 922 O .1 7.1922 = + 10 s2 + 7 .28078s s' + 7.028078. Eliminating Y(s) from Equations ( 9-52) and ( 9-53) and solving for X(s) .68181 .1922) (9-55) 0. I I 1 (a) (b) Figure 9-37 (a) First mode of vibration: (b) second mode of vibration.1922 1 10 sIs ' + 10) s.028078 + 5s + s' + 35s' + 200 X 0..ls s' + 7.s3 + 7. Y(I ) 0. and yeO) = 0: Substituting the initial conditions into Equation (9-54).1.Example Problems and Solutions 483 I..Q:!.1 + [ sy( O ) . = 0.028078s 7.1 cos 2.028078s(s' + 27. we obtain : Case (a).�922s + 2.+ 7 .68 1 8 1 Substituting Equation (9-55) il1lO Equation (9-53) and solving for Yes). _l (O) = O. we gel XIs) = XIs) yeO) = (s' + 10)sx(0) + 5sy(0) s' + 35s' X (s' (s' + 27. we obtain S b t i t uting yeO) = 0. 1 922 Hence.8078s 0.1 into this last equa t ion we gel Y(s) = = = + us VIs) s ' 1 10 52 s- .

-. 15(5' + 10) (5' + 10) (5' + 27.6818 rad/s. 9 2.1 cos 5.. The displacement x(t) is measured from the equilibrium position before the force p(t) is applied. x .808 (9-56) Hence. ill which fhe initial conditions are x(O) = 0.1 into Equation (9-53).--. k = 100 N/m. we get -0. for arbitrary initial conditions.1922) 0.-:-:-' - � -0. x( I) � 0.--'--.(O) � 0: Substituting the initial conditions into Equation (9-54).178085 5' + 27. .17808.r (O) = 0.. PROBLEMS Problem 8-9-1 TIle spring-mass system shown in Figure 9-38 is initially at rest. Note that.17808 cos 5. = // k / t p(l) = P sin WI Problem 8-9-2 Consider the mechanical vibratory system shown in Figure 9-39.27331 Substituting Equation (9-56) and y(O) Y(s) - --..808 � Thus. we X (5 ) ­ --'--'--. Y(I) -0. P = 5 N.808) ( 5' + 7. both the first and second modes of vibration appear.808) 0.15 5' + 27. 1922) (5' + 27. Assume that the dis­ placement x is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the sinusoidal Figure 9-38 Spring-mass system. and w = 2 rad/s.-.__ -. only the second mode of vibration appears. -0.-- 0.27331 In this case.--:. If mass III is excited by a sinusoidal force pet) = P sin wf. Only the y(o) have � Case (b). what is the response XCl)? Assume that III 1 kg. 1 . 178085(5' + 7. alld j.484 Notice that both XCl) and yet) exhibit harmonic motion at w first mode of vibration appears in this casco Frequency�Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems = Chap.

Problems Input force 485 per) :=: P sin WI k b x Problem 8-9-3 excitation force.--'-----' ---.(I) and X. The initial conditions are x(O) = 0 and _teO) = 0. r.(I) when the input p(l) is a sinusoidal force given by p(l) = P sin wI k . Assume that m = 2 kg. b = 24 N-s/m. If the input voltage Ej sin Wf. and the input force p(r) = sin WI is applied at I = O. Obtain the complete solution XCI). and w = 6 rad/s. . P P Consider the electrical circuit shown in Figure 9-40. Obtain the steady�state outputs X. Problem 8-9-4 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-41 . k = 200 N/m. Figure 9-39 Mechanical vibrntory system. = 5 N.p(l ) Figure 9-41 Mcchanical syslcm. what is the output voltage eQ(t) at steady state? ej(f) is Figure 9-40 Elcclrical circuit.

\'"\(1) and X2(1) are measured from the respective equilibri� urn positions. (The mass M includes mass m. Find the tension in the cord. Problem 8-9-7 A rotating machine of mass M = 100 kg has an unbalanced mass m = 0.) The oper­ ating speed is 10 Hz. If the maximum allowable tension in the cord is 10 N. what is the frequency w needed to main­ tain the configuration shown in the diagram? � 0'" /)1 I I ¢w 15 cm III Figure 9-42 Speed-regulator system.2.1 kg attached to the end of 1 -01 cord and rotated at an angular speed of 1 Hz. as shown in Figure 9-43. ] . specify the spring constant k such that only 1 0 % of the excitation force is transmitted to the foun­ dation. Suppose that the machine is mounted on an isolator consisting of a spring and damper. k x Figure 9-43 ROI<1ting machine mounted on a vibration isolator. what is the maximum angular speed (in hertz) that can be attained without breaking the cord? Problem 8-9--6 In the speed-regulator system of Figure 9-42.5 m from the center of rotation.486 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. be 0. . Problem 8-9-5 Consider a conical pendulum consisting of a SlOne of mass 0. 9 The output displacements . If it is desired that . Determine the amplitude of the transmitted force.2 kg a dis­ lance r = 0.

an instrument is attached to a base whose motion is to be measured. Problem 8-9-9 Figure 9-45 shows a machine of mass III mounted on a vibration isolator in which spring k] is the load-carrying spring and viscous damper b2 is in series with spring k2 • DClcrminc the force transmissibility when the machine is subjected 10 a sinusoidal excitation force p{t) = P sin wf. TIle displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the excitation force p(t) is applied. Determine also the amplitude of the force Iransmit­ ted to the foundation.y is the displace­ menl of the base. the device can be used for measuring the dis­ placement of the basco Show also that if w � Wm the device can be used for measuring the acceleration of the base.45 Mnchinc mounted on a vibration isolator. TIle relative motion between mass 111 and the base recorded by a rotating drum will indicate the motion of the basco Assume that x is the displacement of the mass.Problems 487 Problem 8-9-8 In Figure 9-44.s::. - Base J' Figure 9-44 Motion. where WI! = �. If the motion of the base is y = Y sin wI.or accelera· tion-measuring instrument. and z = x Y is the motion of the pen relative to the base. what is the steady-state amplitude ratio of z to y? Show that if w . W". (J(I) = P sin W( Figure 9. .

P Figure 9-46 Machine mounted on a vibra­ lion isolator. Determine the natural frequen­ cies and modes of vibration.ribration absorber. p = P si n W{ Problem 8-9-11 Figure 9-47 shows a machine with a dynamic vibration absorber. Determine the motion trans­ missibility. p{t) = P Sill WI Figure 9-47 Machine wilh a dynamic . where p is the displacement of the foundation. of the machine. Problem 8-9-12 Consider the pendulum system shown in Figure 9-48. find the vibration amplitude. If the foundation is vibrating according to p = sin w(.488 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. 9 I'roblcm 8-9-10 A In<lchine of mass m is mounted on a vibration isolator as shown in Figure 9-46. Suppose that the operatio frequency w is close to WH• If the dynamic vibration absorber is tuned so that kjlll(l = w. . The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of the vibration of the foundation. what is the amplitude of mass ma of the vibration absorbcr? TIle displacement x is measurcd from the equilibrium position in the absence of the excitation force p(t). The undamped natur­ al frequ� of the system in the absence of the dynamic vibration absorber is ' W/l = Vkim.

4 X 10' N/m.Problems / a . '" _ .. Problem 8-9-14 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-50. Figure 9-49(b) shows the cou­ pling of the translational and rotational vibrations. Assume that the mass elements move without friction. TIle vertical displacement x of the centcr of gravity (point G) is measured from the equilibrium position in the absence of any motions. J = k. I.. Assume t he fol­ lowing numerical values: k. \ I II' I I . Problem 8-9-13 Consider the pitching motion of an automobile. T 1. = 4 X 10' N/m 2500 kg-m' (J is the moment of inertia of the body about point G. lhe center of gravity of the body. = 1 .J\ M M . / ... The displacements Xl and X2 are measured from their respective equilibrium positions. I .5 m.I II M M �I I I-' 8. Obtain the first and second modes of vibration.) I • I' -t. . . Determine the natural frequencies and modes of vibration. '\ 1- ' Figure 9-48 Pendulum system. Figure 9-49(a) shows a simpli[ied model of the auto body and the front and rear springs. I . 11/ = = 2000 kg. \ .L jf+-.. I I I k I 8.-- / (a) (b) Figure 9-49 (a) AulO body and front and rear springs: (b) coupling of the translational and rotational vibrations. 489 .

yeO) = -0. m.1 m. Problem 8-9-16 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-36. . yeO) = 0 01/5 k. M. !vi = IO kg.05 111 = � III III % 1 kg. yeO) = 0 mls . Plot the resulting curves.t(0) (b) .i(O) 0 mis.t(0) = 0. = 100 Nlm m. yeO) 0 mls . y x Figure 9-51 Mechanical system. . 1 m. Determine the mlturai frequen­ cies and modes of vibration.r(t) versus t and yet) versus t for each of the three sets of initial conditions. yeO) = 0 01/5 = = . 9 Problem 8-9-15 Figure 9-50 Mechanical system. k.028078 111.obtain computer solutions for x(t) and Y(/) for the following initial conditions: (a) . \Vrite a MATLAB program that plots curves . = IO N/m. yeO) = 0 m .r(O) O m/s . Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 9-5 1 .490 Frequency-Domain Analysis of Dynamic Systems Chap. k ! .t(0) (e) . = 0 .1 m . = k. In the diagram.17808 = = 0.1 m . Assume that Determine the vibration when the initial conditions are given by . yeO) = 0.r(O) 0 mis. and k2 as given in Problem A-9-16.t(0) = 0. Using the same numerical val­ ues for III.i(O) = 0 m/s. the displacements x and y arc measured from their respective equilibrium positions. yeO) = -0.

it is called internal. Finally. In this book. we shall call any physical object that is to be controlled a plant. A disturbance is a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a system adversely. Our discussions are lim­ ited to time-domain analysis and design based on the transient-response analysis and root-locus analysis. Plants. the advantages and disadvantages of closed-loop and open­ loop control systems are compared. Disturbances. 491 . we then follow with a description of closed-loop and open-loop control systems.Time-Doma in Ana lysis and Design of Control Systems 1 0-1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents basic information on control systems. an external disturbance is generated outside the system and is an input. A planl is a piece of equipment-perhaps a set of machine parts functioning together-the purpose of which is to perform a particular operation. We begin the chapter by defining some terms that are essential in describing control systems. If the disturbance is generated within the system.

. since predictable or known distur­ bances can always be compensated for within the system. Instead of the driver observing the speedome­ ter. Both body temperature and blood pres­ sure are kept constant by means of physiological feedback. an electric generator can be used to produce a voltage that is proportional to the speed. an electrical. the thermostat turns the heating or cooling equipment on or off in such a way as to ensure that the temperature of the room remains at a comfort­ able level. This voltage can be compared with a reference voltage that corresponds to the desired speed. the terms feedback COl1lrol and closed-loop cOlllrol are used interchangeably. Feedback colltrol refers t o a n operation that. An example is a room temperature control system. 111 is is a feedback control system with a human operator. In other words. The difference in the voltages can then be used as the error signal to position the throttle to increase or decrease the speed as needed. the driver decides on an appropriate speed. which is the difference between the input signal and the feed­ back signal (which may be the output signal itself or a function of the output signal and its derivatives). The human body. In a closed-loop control system. Those control systems in which the output has no effect on the control action are called opell-Ioop cOlltrol systems. As another example. 1 0 Feedback control. If he or she is traveling too slowly. In practice. A system that maintains a prescribed relation­ ship between the output and the reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a means of control is called a feedback control system or simply a control system. For a given situation. tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system and the reference input and that does so on the basis of this difference. Closed-loop control systems. or some similar device. are not limited to engineering. is a highly advanced feedback control system. Soaking. One practical example is a washing machine. If the actual speed is too high. only unpredictable disturbances are so specified. In fact.492 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Feedback control systems. in an open-loop control system. The term closed-loop cOlltrol always implies the use of feedback control action in order to reduce system error. the output is neither measured nor fed back for comparison with the input. thus enabling it to function properly in a changing environment. Feedback control systems. The driver observes the actual speed by looking at the speedometer. of course. feedback per­ forms the vital function of making the human body relatively insensitive to external disturbances. consider the control of automobile speed by a human operator. Open-loop control systems. the driver releases the pressure on the accelerator and the car slows down. i n the pres­ ence of disturbances. for instance. Feedback control systems are often re­ ferred to as closed-loop cOl1lrol systems. but can be found in various nonengineering fields as well. is fed to the controller so as to reduce the error and bring the output of the system to a desired value. the driver depresses the accelerator and the car speeds up. Here. This speed acts as the reference speed. the actuating error signal. The human operator here can easily be replaced by a mechanical. By measuring the actual room temperature and comparing it with the reference temperature (the de­ sired temperature). which may be the posted speed limit on the road or highway involved. regardless of outside conditions.

111e machine does not measure the output signal. Section ·1 0--7 deals with stability analy­ sis and presents Routh's stability criterion. the accuracy of the system depends on calibration. in designing control systems it is necessary to make the most effective compromise between the two. Section 10-8 discusses the root-locus . General requirements of control systems. Outline of the chapter. Because the needs for reasonable relative stability and for steady-state accu­ racy tend to be incompatible. and the e(rects of various control actions on the transient-response characteristics of control systems are dis­ cussed. 11. because system stability is not a major problem. second. such systems are not feedback control systems. Section 10-5 is concerned with transient-response specifications. Open-loop control can be used. to each reference input. Section 10-3 discusses. By contrast. a control system must have a reasonable relative stability. and rinsing in the washer operate on a time basis. in practice. Section 10-4 cov­ ers the transient-response analysis of control systems. that is.and second-order control systems to step inputs are examined. the speed of response must be reasonably fast. simple electronic controllers. Section 10-2 deals with block diagrams of control systems. Closed-loop versus open-loop control systems. In the presence of disturbances. For example. which may tend to overcorrect errors that can cause oscillations of constant or changing amplitude. Velocity feed­ back to improve the transient response is treated. that is. 1 0-1 Introduction 493 washing. A primary requirement of any control system is that it must' be stable. This chapter presents introductory material on con­ trol systems analysis and design in the time domain. the response must show rea­ sonable damping. an open-loop control system will not perform the desired task. and as a result. whereas doing so is impos­ sible in the open-loop case. control actions generally found in indus­ trial automatic controllers and. and then static error constants are defined and used to obtain steady-state errors. Note that any con­ trol system that operates on a time basis is an open-loop control system. Moreover. Section 10-6 discusses improving transient-response and steady-state characteristics. traffic control by means of signals operated on a time basis is another example of open-loop control. A con­ trol system must also be capable of reducing errors to zero or to some small tolerable value. first. stability is a major problem in the closed-loop control system. From the point of view of stability. In addition to absolute stability. the cleanliness of the clothes.Sec. Specifically. the open-loop control system is easier to build.e responses of first. Clearly. Section 10-1 has pre­ sented an introduction to control systems. In an open-loop control system. the output is not compared with the refer­ ence input. An advantage of the closed-loop control system is the fact that the use of feedback makes the system re­ sponse relatively insensitive to external disturbances and internal variations in sys­ tem parameters. only if the relationship between the input and output is known and if there are neither internal nor external distur­ bances. there corresponds a fixed operating con­ dition. Thus. It is thus possible to use relatively inaccurate and inexpensive components to obtain accurate control of a given plant.

so feedforward transfer function = C(s) £(s) If the feedback transfer function is unity.H(s)C(s) ] Figure 10-1 Block dingram of a closed-loop system with a feedback element. Basic rules for constructing root­ locus plots are presented. Then the simplification of block diagrams is discussed using general rules for reducing block diagrams. and feedback­ connected systems is presented. That is. Section 10-10 examines tuning rules for PID controllers. feed­ forward transfer function. Finally. Section 10-9 treats the MATLAB approach to plotting root loci. 1 0-2 BLOCK DIAGRAMS AND THEIR SIMPLIFICATION A system may consist of a number of components. Figure 10-1 shows the block diagram of a closed-loop system with a feedback elemenl. 111e ratio of the feedback signal 8(s) to the actuating error signal £(s) is called the open­ loop transfer fllllclion. a MATLAB approach to obtaining transfer functions or state-space repre­ sentations of series-connected systems. then the open-loop transfer function and the feedforward transfer function are the same. Closed-loop transfer function. "r: G(" : I H(s) C(s) 1_ . the output C(s) and input R(s) are related as follows: C(s) = G(s)£(s) 8(s) £(s) = R(s) = = G(s) Eliminating £(s) from these equations gives C(s) = R(s) - H (s)C(s) G(s) [R (s) . Open-loop transfer function and feedforward transfer function. For the system shown in Figure 10-1. parallel-connected systems. 1 0 method for analyzing and designing control systems.494 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.oJ . This section first defines the open-loop transfer function. Finally. Ziegler-Nichols rules are detailed and PID-controlled systems are designed. block diagrams are frequently used in the analysis and design of control systems. and closed-loop transfer function. utilizing the root-locus method. To show the functions performed by each component. 8(s) = G(s)H(s) open-loop transfer function £(s) = The ratio of the output C(s) to the actuating error signal £(s) is called the JeedJonvard lre/IlSJer fllllClioll.

lG A I� . Some of these important rules are given in Table 1 0-1. from Equation (10-1 ). C (s) = G(s) R(s ) 1 + G (s ) f-l (s) the output response of a given closed-loop system clearly depends on both the closed-loop transfer function and the nature of the input. 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 495 or C(s) R(s) G( s ) 1 + G(s)H ( s) ( 10-1 ) 111e transfer function relating C(s) to R(s) is called the closed-loop tralls/er [I/nction. Since.111ey are obtained by writing the same TABLE 10-1 Rules of Block Diagram Al gebra Rule No. G1 Equivalent Block Diagrams -+ !i G B G B t :z.� 0 .+_ I�� @ B Original Block Diagrams t AG-8 ~ + _ A � � -B G L----[]] . I � I + GJG2 . If there are any loading effects between the components. A complicated block diagram involving many feedback loops can be simpli­ fied by a step-by-step rearrangement. This transfer function relates the closed-loop system dynamics to the dynamics of the feed forward elements and feedback elements.lG ill----A G:z. these components must be combined into a single block. using rules of block diagram algebra. I 2 3 4 5 AG AG I A �G A I A� Gi 4J A_@IT 4J .Sec. Block diagram reduction. Blocks can be connected in series only if the output of one block is not affected by the block that follows. . G A_ G.lAGG A-0 GL .

Then. .G.G. Note.G. 2.N. Wt! have Figure 10-3(b). that as the block diagram is simplified.(G.496 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. (The positive feedback loop yields a negative term in the denominator. In simplifying a block diagram. + G.N. eliminating the loop con­ taining HUG I gives Figure 10-3(c). Eliminating the positive feedback luup. Simplification of the block diagram by rearrangements and substitutions considerably reduces the labor needed for subsequent mathemat­ ical analysis.) .) C(s) Figure 10-2 Syslcm with mUlliplc loops. . Simplify this diagram by eliminating loops.N. The product of the transfer functions around the loop must remain the same.G. The denominator o f C(s)/R(s) is equal t o I - L (product of the transfer functions around each loop) . interchange summing points. 1. and then eliminate internal feedback loops.G. + G. 1 0 equation in a different way. .N. A general rule for simplifying a block diagram is to move branch points and summing points. however. eliminating the feedback loop results in Figure J0-3(d). remember the following: The product of the transfer functions in the feedforward direction must re­ main the same. Finally. Notice that the numerator o f the closed-loop transfer function C(s)/R(s) is the product of the transfer functions of the feedforward path. Example HI-l Consider the system shown in Figure 10-2 . Moving the Slimming point of the negative feedback loop containing /-/2 out­ side the positive feedback loop containing /-II_ we obtain Figure 1O-3( n ) . the transfer functions in new blocks become morc complex because new poles and new zeros are generated.

Series-collnected blocks. are series connected. parallel-connected blocks. Using MATLAB to obtain transfer functions of series-connected blocks. I n what follows.den 1 ) tf(nurn2. G. and feedback-connected blocks. and G. Any linear. 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simplification 497 C(s) (a) R(s) (b) C(s) (c) (d) R(s) C(s) . we shall consider se­ ries-connecled blocks. Figure 10-3 Successive simplifications of block diagram shown in Figure 10-2. time-invariant system may be represented by combinations of series­ connected blocks. and feedback-connected blocks. A physical sys­ tem may involve many interconnected blocks.Sec. I n the system shown in Figure 1 0-4. are respectively defined by sys1 sys2 sys G. System G. sys 1 G. parallel-connected blocks. parallel-connected blocks. and fcedback-conneclcd blocks. . sys 2 = = tf(nurnl . and system G.den2) FigUTC 10-4 Series-connected blocks.

G. den1 = 1 1 2 sys1 = tf(num1 . c. MAHAB Program 1 0--1 » » » » » num1 = 1 1 01. Figure 10-5 Parallel-connected systems.B2. are given in state-space form. sys2 tf(num2. then their MATLAB rep­ resentations are respectively given by sys1 = ss(A1 .num2. and G. In Figure 10--5(a) two systems G. while in Figure 10--5(b) c.denl = series(num1 . = -­ MATLAB Program 10--1 produces the transfer function of the series-connected system.B.G. B 1 . B 1 . are added. Then the series-connected system G. Transfer function: 50 sl\3 + 7 sl\2 + 20 s + 5 0 If systems G .Cl .sys2) = s+5 5 1 01.sys2) The system's numerator and denominator can be given by [num.498 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.den2) Consider the case where G 1 __ - 10 s2 + 2s + la' G. Figures 1 0--5(a) and (b) show porollel-connected systems.G2. num2 = [5]. and G.sys2) or IA.DI = series(A 1 .C.den 1 ). sys = series(sys1 . can be given by sys = series(sys1 . den2 = 1 1 5 1 . 1 0 provided that these two systems are themselves defined in terms o f transfer func­ tions. (aJ (b) .C l . D 1 .D2) Parallel-collllec/eli blocks.A2.C2. is given by sys = series(sys1 . B2.C2.den1 .den2). D l ) sys2 = ss(A2 . (a) G1 + G2: (b) Gt .D2) The series-connected system G.

02) and the parallel-connected system G. paraliel(sys1 .5). that is. 51\2 + 20 5 50 If G] and Gz are given in state-space form.C2. 10 s· + 2s + 1 0 .clen2).den1 ).G" as shown in Figure 10-5(b). ss(A2. 5 G. » sys2 .den2) and the parallel-connected system G 1 + Gz is given by sys .02) sysg . tf(num2. Inumg. and Figure 10-6(b) shows a positive feedback system. is given by 5)'5 .den1 . tf(num2.denhl . den2 .C2. parallel(A 1 .-5). then we define sys1 and sys2 as before. 151. paraliel(sys1 . = -. If G and J-/ are defined in terms of transfer functions. paraliel(sys1 .. 0 1 ) sys2 .B1 .52) or If the parallel-connected system is G.den 1 ) s)'s2 . are defined in terms of trans­ fer functions. s + � MATLAB Program 10-2 produces the transfer function of the parallel-connected MATlAB Program 1 0-2 » num1 .COI . + G. but change sys2 to -sys2 in the expression for sys. den1 . 51 .denl . tf(num1 . 1 0-2 Block Diagrams and Their Simpl ification 499 system G.Sec.sys2) or I num. tf(num1 ..A2.C1 .B2.B1 . is subtracted from system G. paraliel(num1 . . If G. » sys .clengl s)'sh .B2.den2) Consider the case where G1 = . ss(A 1 . then IA.C1 . n um2. then 5). 11 5 1 .B. parallel(sys1 . Inumh. system. then 5)'51 . 52) Feedback-connected blocks: Figure 10-6(a) shows a negative feedback sys­ tem. sys . 11 2 » sys1 . 11 01. » num2 . and G.sys2 ) Transfer function: 5 51\2 + 20 s + 1 00 51\3 + 7 + 1 01.01 .

tf(numh. 1 0 -@- LG (a) (b) Figure 10-6 (a) Negative feedback system. MATLAB Program 10-3 produces the transfer function of the feedback-connected system. Consider the case where G = S' " 5 + 25 . » sysg . 151.sysh) . (b) positive feedback system.15 + 1 Transfer function: » numg . feedback(sysg. » sysh .-sysh) Alternatively. feedback(numg. then sys .denl .+ 1 ) sys . we may lise H-sysh" in the sys statement.1 1 1 . MAHAB Program 1 0-3 f-{ = 0. and the entire feedback system is given by sys .numh.sysh) or Inum. MATLAB assumes that the feed­ back is negative.sysh. » sys . feedback(sysg. 10. If the system involves a positive feedback. denh 1 1 1 . » n u m h . 1 1 2 01.deng). 5 s + 5 5 . feeclback(sysg. that is.cleng. we need to add " + 1 " in the argument of feedbHck as follows: sys .500 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems G Chap. feedback(sysg.denh). for the positive feedback system. tf(numg. feedback(sysg. 11 I) f-{ = [ 1 ] and sys can be given by Note that. in treating the feedback system. s/\2 + 2 . deng .denh) If the system has a unity feedback function.

.. and derivative. 4. integral. Classifications of industrial automatic controllers. controllers Proportional controllers Integral controllers Proportional-plus-integral controllers Proportional-plus-derivative controllers Proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative controllers Automatic controller. and produces a control signal that will reduce the deviation to zero or a small value. we describe the fundamental control actions commonly used in industri­ al automatic controllers. a plant. 1. and a sensor (measuring element). and a sensor or measuring element...:t plant.. A good un­ derstanding of the basic properties of various control actions is necessary for the en­ gineer to select the one best suited to his or her particular application. We then briefly discuss an electronic controller. 5.. an actuator. determines the deviation. Control actions. The con­ troller detects the actuating error signal. or on-off: proportional. Industrial automatic controllers can be classified according to their control action as follows: 2.. Figure 1 0-7 is a block diagram of an industrial control system consisting of an auto· matic controller.. 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers 501 1 0-3 AUTOMATIC CONTROLLERS An automatic controller compares the actual value of the plant output with the desired value. The way in which the automatic con� troller produccs the control signal is called thc cOl/Ira/ aCliol/.. integral.. Here. The control actions normally found in industrial automat­ ic controllers consist of the following: two-position. actuator. or on-off.- \Actuating Ampllflcr crror signal HI I I I Actuator r--- Plant Output Sensor Figure 10-7 Block diagram of an industrial control system consisting of an automatic controller. . and combinations of proportional. Refere n e e input ___I _ _ ._ -. Two-position. and sensor (measuring element). 6.-< (p!��t) I: I � l - Aulomiltic controller rror detector L _ _. which is usually at a very low power level.Sec. 3. an actuator. derivative.

or voltage. or on-off. (TIl US. a suitable feedback circuit. or on-off. and M2 are constants. Two-position. which arc. pressure. 1\vo-position. = M2 e(l) > 0 e(l) < 0 where M. 1l1is element is in the feedback path of the closed-loop system. The sensor or measuring element is a device that converts the output variable into another suitable variable. TIle actuator is an element that produces the input to the plant according to the control signal. two-position controllers are electrical devices. so that the feedback signal will correspond to the reference input signal. As shown in Figure 1 0-] 1 . the differential gap is a result of unintentional friction and lost motion. In two-position control. such as a displacement. the signal 1'11 ( 1) remains at either a maximum or ct minimum value. control action. simply on and off. which can be lIsed to compare the output with the reference input signaJ. quite often it is intentionally provided in order to prevent too frequent operation of the on-off mechanism. The range through which the actuating error signal must move before switching occurs is called the differelllial gap. . In some cases. Let us look at the liquid-level control system of Figure 1 0-10. the actuating element has only two fixed positions. for this reason. to­ gether with an amplifier. is used to alter the actuating error signal to produce a beller control signal. Such a gap causes the controller output m(l) to maintain its present value until the actuating error signal has moved slightly beyond the zero value. With two­ position control. In a two-position control system. in many cases.and amplifies it to a sufficiently high level.) Quite often. Figure ]0-8 shows the block diagram of a two-position controller.e set point of the controller must be converted to a reference input of the same units as the feedback signal from the sen­ sor or measuring element. TI1e minimum value A12 is generally either zero or -M" As a rule. Figure 10-9 shows the block diagram of a two-position controller with a differential gap. so the liquid inflow rate is either a positive constant or zero. 1 0 m(l) = M. -� I 1-"-' t i M. the input valve is either open or closed. is used extensively in both industrial and household control systems. and an electric solenoid­ operated valve is widely used in such controllers. control is simple and inexpensive and. To explain the concept. the output signal Figure JO-8 Block diagram of <I two-position controller. depending on whether the actuating error signal is positive or negative. let the output signal from the controller be m(l) and the actuating error signal be e(I). TI. however. the automatic controller compris­ es an error detector and an amplifier. so that 502 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.

503 \--� - t '-. we see that the amplitude of the output oscillation can be reduced by decreasing the differential gap. _ /' _1 _ / Differential ga p o Figure 10-11 Head-versus-time curve of the system shown in Figure 10-10.Sec. 111 Figure 10-9 Block diagram of a two­ position controller with a differential gap. . ._ . In addition to two­ position or on-off control action. . For each control ac­ tion. From Figure 10-1 1 .-.C 'oL..l. Proportional.� _ . 1 M. proportional..r ll V moves continuously between the two limits required. In what follows. and derivative control actions. the output of the controller. integral.{ 1 � R Figure 10--10 Liquid·level control system. The magnitude of the differential gap must be determined from such factors as the accu­ racy required and the life of the component. ."'_ \L. increases the number of on-off switchings per unit time and reduces the useful life of the component.. M(s). 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers Differential gap M. . and derivative control actions are basic control actions found in industrial automatic controllers. however. /\7"1: V ---. . we illustrate transfer functions H(/) . thereby causing the actuat­ ing element to shift from one fixed position to the other. 'tJ---o --�. integral. This step. "" . Such output oscillation between two limits is a typical response characteristic of a system that is under two-position control.../.� .. and the actuating error signal £(s) are related by a transfer function of a specific form.

T. M(s) and £(s) are related by where Kp is the proportional gain. proportional-plus-derivative control action.( l + T" s) � s G. proportional-plus-integral control action. T. Referring to the controller shown in Figure 10-12. For proportional-plus-derivative control action. M(s) and £(s) are related by M(s) ( £( s) � G. Finally. £( s ) � G. the relationship betwcen M(s) and £(s) is M(s) £( s) � G. ( s) � Kp 1 + ( . M(s) and £(s) are related by M ( s) . 1 0 M(s) Figure 10-12 Block diagram of a conlroller. Electronic PID controllers. + ) T" s ( 1 0-2) . ( s) of the PID controller is G.. M(s) and £(s) are related by M(s) s £( ) where Kp is the proportional gain and T.s ) 1 where K" is the proportional gain and �I is a constant called the derivative lime. Since the transfer function G.504 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. For integral control action. is a constant called the integral time. is the integral time. Ki where Ki is called the inlegral gain.. PI D controllers are used frequently in industri­ al control systems. where Kp is termed the proportiollal gain. For proportional-plus-integral control action. and proportional-plus-integral-plus-de­ rivative control action.. for proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative control action.(s) � --. for proportional control action.(s) � K. s) � Kp M(s)/£(s) for proportional control action. and �I is the derivative time. ( ) � Kp I + ( ..

KPI K. instead of adjusting the proportional gain.(5) is given by £( s ) Z2 = I n this case. .. 25 % proportional band corresponds to Kp 4. then the output l11(t) from the controller is given by T" de(t) l11 ( t ) = Kp e(t) + Constants Kp. --. c. -� .. 1 0-3 Automatic Controllers 505 if e(t) is the input to the PID controller. C2 ' .:c R2. . R2 z. Equation ( 1 0-2) can also be written as (10-3) [ �1' e(t) dt + � -00 dr 1 where Kp = proportional gain Ki = KpiT.:c s + I Z2 = C2 s z. T" and T" are the controller parameters..I and Kd become controller parameters. .J + E(s) + EJs) Figure 10-13 Electronic PID controller.:=. The proportional band is proportional to 1/ K p and is expressed in percent. integral gain K(I KpTd = derivative gain = = the proportional band.--. Ei(S) L __ R : c _. we adjust Ei(S) ZI where C2 _ ..) Figure 1 0-13 shows an electronic PID controller that uses operational ampli­ fiers.:. (For example. The transfer function £(5)/ £.Sec.. In actual prD controllers.

+ R2 C2 ) R3R. C2 . R. Frequently.(R.':::-'' 2 C.-E(s) Ei(s) R. a combination of dectronic and hydraulic systems is found because of the advantages resulting from a mixture of both electronic con­ trol and hydraulic power.C2 R. + R2 C2 S Hence. + R2C In terms of the proportional gain. 1 0-4 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE ANALYSIS In this section. High-pressure hydraulic systems enable very large forces to be derived. R 2C2 I. 1 ( 1 0-4) Kp = R. We begin with an analysis of the proportional control of a first-order system.(R.C. C. Moreover. Hydraulic controllers. C2 Ti = R . and derivative gain.506 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. + R2 C2 ) R3R. integral gain. after which we describe the effects of integral and derivative control actions on the . hydraulic con­ trollers are used extensively in industry. these systems permit a rapid and accurate positioning of loads.C. + R2 C2 R. = -=. In addition to electronic controllers. K = R3 " Kp = Notice that the second operational-amplifier circuit acts as a sign inverter as well as a gain adjuster.C. C. we treat the transient-response analysis of control systems and the effects of integral and derivative control actions on the transient-response perfor­ mance.C.R2 C.'---' ::. we have R. 1 0 Noting that we have Eo(s) E(s) -. R.R2C2 R. K = -=-= � R3R. -=.

\" 11).(s) = KpK.(s) R RCs + 1 ( 1 0-6) Here. At r = 0. ii. the following equation for the liquid-level system can be derived: . . Equation ( 1 0-7) becomes Q. we assume that the gain Kv of the control valve is constant near the steady­ state operating condition.) A simplified block diagram is given in Figure 10. Assume also that the magnitudes of the variables . Q. or - ( 1 0-7) where Kp is the gain of the proportional controller.(s) is found to be H(s) Q.1 5(b). Figure 10--1 4 system. Suppose also that the reference input to the system is X .. Then we present the proportional control of a system with an inertia load and illustrate the fact that adding derivative control action markedly improves the transient performance. 1 0-4 Transient-Response Analysis 507 }( + X transient performance of the system.t. where K = KpK . Referring to Section 7-2.. so that they can be compared directly. Suppose that the controller in the liquid-level control system of Figure 10-14 is a proportional controller.Sec. q. which means that the system can be approximated by a linear mathematical model. we must insert a feedback transfer function Kb in the feedback path.+ h = Rq· ' dr (10-5) [See Equation (7-4). we assume that x and h are the same kind of signal with the same units.] So the transfer function between H(s) and Q. J !L 1-/ + 11 j C R Q + q. qi. Proportional control of first-order system . Liquid-level conlroi dil RC. . and '10 are sufficiently small. To simplify our analysis. Then. h. and C/o-are measured from their respective steady-state values X. (Otherwise. and Q. In terms of Laplace-transformed quantities. a change in the reference input is made from X to X + t Assume that all the variables shown in the dia­ gram-x. since the controller is a proportional one. the change in inflow rale fJi is proportional to the actuating error e (when:: e = .£(s) A block diagram of this system appears in Figure 10-15(a). H.

. substituting X(s) into Equation ( 1 0-8) gives H (s) . by taking the inverse Laplace transforms of both sides of Equation (10-9). as I approaches infinity. ) H. we obtain the time solution h (t) = } (10-9) KR 1 ( 1 + KR TJ _ e-tIT. we investigate the response h(l) to a change in the reference input.: 0 (10-10) where RC = 1 + KR Notice that the time constant TJ of the closed-loop system is different from the time constant RC of the liquid-level system alone..:... The closed-loop transfer function between H(s) and Xes) is given by I-I(s) Xes) KR RCs + 1 + KR (10-8) = Since the Laplace transform of the unit-step function is 1/s. @--0.508 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Next.. we see that.-JI ' ( . From Equation ( 1 0-10). We shall assume a unit-step change in x(t). ) 1 .-=-:: -: .: .s + [(l + KR)/RC] { Next.--:-: :c -.-- 1 /s 1 KR RCs + 1 + K R s Then the expansion of H(s) into partial fractions results in H( s ) 1 KR 1 = 1 + KR :. or . 1 0 (a) Figure 10-15 __ X(S) (a) Block dia­ gram of the liquid-level control system shown in Figure 10--14.:. the value of h(l) approaches KR/(1 + KR).-R I'K I t Res + I (b) L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r. The response curve h(l) is plotted against I in Figure 10-16. (b) simplified block diagram. ----.

� � . o � m(l) l .Sec. since a nonzero control signal requires a nonzero actuating error signal. as Figure 10-17(a) shows. Figure 10-16 Unit-step response curve for the system shown in Figure \O-lS(b). 1 . Under integral control action. (b) .) Figure 1O-17(b) shows the curve of e(t) versus t and the corresponding curve of met) versus t when the controller is of the proportion­ al type. h ( oo ) = KR 1 + KR Since x( (0) = 1 .. (A nonzero actuating error signal at steady state means that there is an offse!.... or offset.. This situation is impossible in the case of the proportional controller... the feed-forward transfer function does not involve an integrator or integra­ tors).. Such an error is called offset. 4T[ 6T.. there is a steady-state error.. 1 0-4 h(l) Tra nsient-Response Analysis I Input X{l) Offset 509 KR 1 + KR t .... The control signal met) can have a nonzero value when the actuating error signal e(t) is zero. the control signal (the output signal from the controller) at any instant is the area under the actuating-error-signaI curve up to that instant. e(I) o m(l) Lc=:-:(a) � e(I) .- ---- h(l) 0 2T. In the proportional control of a plant whose transfer function does not possess an integrator lis (and thus. Such an offset can be eliminated if integral control action is included in the controller. Eliminating offset by the use of integral control. C= __ � __ � __ o o '""=-"' Figure 10-17 (<I) Error curve and control signal curve for a system that uses an integral con­ troller: (b) error cun'e and control signal curve for a system that uses a proportional controller... in the response to a step input. there is a steady-state error of magnitude 1/(1 + KR). The value of offset becomes smaller as the gain K becomes larger.

. therefore. . From this diagram. and (2. . We assume that the controller is an integral one . it may lead to an oscillatory response of slow­ ly decreasing amplitude or even increasing amplitude. and qo: which are measured from their respective steady-state values X. H. X(s) ��L-__�__ (b) _(S) H _ . Integral control of a liquid-level system. . 1 0 x+x Q + Cfi --- ==t>l<>==� I + �R (a) . We also as­ sume that the variables x. or steady-state error. the steady-state error ess for the unit-step response can be obtained by applying the final-value theorem: £(s) Xes) X Cs) . the system can be considered linear. the closeLl-loop lrans­ fer function between H(s) and Xes) is HCs) Xes) KR Res' + s + KR Res' + s Res' + s + K R It follows that Since the system is stable. Note that integral control action improves steady-state accuracy by removing offset.510 Time-Domain Analysis a n d Design of Control Systems C ha p .H Cs) XCs) . Under these assumptions. (2._ Figure 10--18 (a) Liquid-level control system: (b) block diagram. However. qil h. the block diagram of the system can be obtained as shown in Figure l0-18(b). are small quantities. both of which are undesirable. Figure 10-18(a) shows a liquid­ level control system.

10-4 Transient-Response Analysis e" = 51' s( RCs' + s) 1 . we have The Laplace transform of this last equation. Derivative control action.Is'C(s) = }(3 = T T(s) 1 Hence. It is always used in combination with proportional or proportional-plus-integral con­ trol action. Proportional control of a system with inertia load. Note that proportional-plus-integral control action gives just as good a steady­ state accuracy as integral control action alone. it adds damping to the system and therefore permits the use of a larger value of the system gain. The output of the system is the angu­ lar displacement c of the inertia element. assummg zero initial conditions. the box with the transfer function K" represents a proportional controller. Its output is a torque signal T. which is applied to an inertia element (rotor) 1. This is an important improvement over proportional control alone. From this diagram. let us discuss the proportional control of an inertia load. Although derivative control does not affect the steady-state error directly. In fact. = lIm . because derivative control operates on the rate of change of the actuating error and not on the actuating error itself. this mode is never used alone. initiates an early corrective action. becomes . a factor that yields an improvement in steady-state accuracy.-0 lim sEes) Integral control of the liquid-level system thus eliminates the steady-state error in the response to the step input. which gives offset. when added to a pro­ portional controller. the closed-loop transfer function is . C(s) T(s) is' The diagram of Figure 1O-19(a) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 1O-19(b). Derivative control action. and tends to increase the stability of the system.-0 RCs' + s + K R s =0 . An advantage of using derivative control action is that it responds to the rate of change of the actuat­ ing error and can produce a significant correction before the magnitude of the actu­ ating error becomes too large.Sec. Derivative control thus anticipates the actuating error.1 9(a). thereby improving steady-state accuracy. the use of proportional-plus­ integral control action will enable the transient response to decay faster. Before considering the effect of derivative control action on a system 's performance. For the inertia element. In the position control system of Figure 10.. provides a means of obtaining high sensitivity. Notice that.-'--­ � .

Proportional-plus-derivative control of a system with inertia load. measuring the instantaneous error velocity and predicting the large overshoot ahead of time in order to produce an appropriate counteraction before too large an overshoot occurs. Let us modify the proportional controller to a proportional-plus-derivative controller whose transfer function is Kp ( l + T" s) .512 Time-Doma i n A na lysis a n d Design of Control Systems Chap. as shown in Figure 1O-19(c). Derivative coo­ trol action is essentially anticipatory. The torque developed by the controller is proportional to Kp(e + �/e). (b) block diagram. the closed-loop transfer function is given by . (c) unit-step response curve. 1 0 R(s) -+ � (S) - (0) K I' C(s) (b) C(I) Figure 10-19 (a) Position con­ trol system. Control systems exhibiting such sustained oscillations are not acceptable. We shall see that the addition of derivative control will stabilize the system. For the system shown in Figure 1O-20(a). o (c) C(s) R(s) Kp ' + Kp Is Since the roots of the characteristic equation is ' + Kp = 0 are imaginary. where e is the actuating error signal. the response to a unit-step input continues to oscillate indefinitely.

the transient-response characteristics constitute one of the most important factors in system design. they exhibit a transient response when they are subjected to inputs or disturbances. (If the response of a linear system to a step input is known. Then the response characteris­ tics can be easily compared. A typical response curve C(I) to a unit-step input is presented in Figure 1O-20(b). I n many practical cases. shown in Figure 1O-19(c). the desired performance characteristics of control sys­ tems can be given in terms of transient-response specifications. Clearly. 10-5 Transient-Response Specifications C(s) 513 " '}' o (a) IL (b) Figure 10-20 ( a ) Block dia­ gram of a position control system that uses a proportional-plus­ derivative controller. (b) unit­ step response curve.) The transient response of a system to a unit-step input depends on initial con­ ditions. the response curve is a marked improvement over the original response curve.Sec. For convenience in comparing the transient responses of various systems. Kin and Td are positive. derivative control action introduces a damping effect. such per­ formance characteristics are specified in terms of the transient response to a unit-step input. Thus. it is mathematically possible to compute the system ' s response to any input. since such an input is easy to generate and is sufficiently drastic. 1 0-5 TRANSIENT-RESPONSE SPECIFICATIONS The characteristic equation Because systems that store energy cannot respond instantaneously. C(s) R(s) is' + KpTds + Kp = 0 now has two roots with negative real parts. with its output and all time derivatives thereof zero. Frequently. because the values of i. Consequently. . it is common practice to use a standard initial condition: The system is at rest initially.

is the time required for the response to rise from 10% to 90%. 4. For overdamped sys­ tems. 0.1 O ����_+----_+--� f-----t. 5% to 95%. . the 0% to 100% rise time is normally used.-.5 0. Delay time. Mp Settling time. ----�. fp Maximum overshoot.j Figure 10-21 Transient-response specif ications. the maximum percent overshoot is Mp X 100%. If the final cCt) 1. These specifications are defined next and are shown graphically in Figure 10-21 . 3. Th e transient response of a practical control system often exhibits damped oscillations before reaching a steady state. 10 Transient-response specifications. Maximum (percent) overshoot.-. it is common to name the following: 2. 5. I n specifying the transient·response characteristics of a control system t o a unit-step input. t. The peak time fp is the time required for the response to reach the first peak of the overshoot. Rise time. or 0% to 100% of its final value. The delay time fd i s the time needed for the response t o reach half the final value the very first time. The rise time t. If c ( oo ) = 1 . The maximum overshoot Mp is the maxi­ mum peak value of the response curve [the curve of c(t) versus fl.0 0.---.02 -------.514 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems C hap . measured from c(oo). Delay time. the 10% to 90% rise time is common.- 0. 1.9 Allowable tolerance ��L 1 -- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 . f. Peak time.. f" Rise time. Peak time.. For underdamped sec­ ond-order systems.

If we specify the values of rd. the terms peak titHe and maximum overshoot do not apply. is used as the percentage of the final value.5 These points fIre specified. For instance. 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications 515 steady-state value c ( 00) of the response differs from unity. Settling time.02 0. T where T is the torque produced by the proportional controller. we use the 2% criterion. Note that not all these specifications necessarily apply to any given case. for an overdamped system. The settling time is related to the largest time constant of the system. instead of 2%. Throughout this book. is the time required for the response curve to reach and stay within 2% of the final value. then it is common prac­ tice to use the following definition of the maximum percenl overshoot: maximum percent overshoot = C(lp) . 111is fact can be seen clearly from Figure 1 0-22. tn lp. however. 111e settling time I. Taking Laplace transforms of both sides of this last equation. Suppose that we wish to control the output position C in accordance with the input position r.0 �/ f/// /t( ((((((/// // /I / J_ 0. 5%. . Figure 10-22 Specifications of transient-response curve. assuming zero ini­ tial conditions. In some cases.c ( oo ) c( 00 ) X 100% 11.Sec. o �--���----�--_ r. IS) and MPI the shape of the response curve is virtually fixed. we find that Js'C(s) c(r) + bsC(s) = T(s) For ( > 15.e amount of the maximum (percent) overshoot directly indicates the relative sta­ bility of the system. whose gain constant is K. Position control system. The equation for the load elements is Jc + be = Comments. . 1. response remains within this strip. 11le position control system (servo system) shown in Figure 1O-23(a) consists of a proportional controller and load elements (inertia and viscous-friction elements).

.e closed-loop transfer function is then C(s) = ls2 R(s) or K + bs + K Kjl S2 + ( bj. (b) block diagram: (c) block diagram of a second-order system in standard form. TI. Figure 1O-23(a) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 1O-23(b).516 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Figure 10-23 So the transfer function between C(s) and T(s) is C(s) T(s) s( is + b) 1 With the use of this transfer function.. 10 T c J l'J (a) C(s) (b) C(s) (c) (a) Position control system. = S2 + 2Cw"s + w.! )s + ( Kjl) C(s) R(s) w. ( 10-1 1 ) .

.4) yield excessivc overshoot in the transient response. the other necessarily becomes larger.8.Sec. Later we shall see that the maximum overshoot and the rise time conflict with each other. 111en C(s) = 2 S + 2(Wll5 + WI! S 2 C= n = fK V1 = undamped natural frequency _ � = b .4 and 0. Except in cer­ tain applications in which oscillations cannot be tolerated. let us consider the unit-step response of this system when 0 < C < 1 . For a unit-step input. Small values of C (C < 0.C - s i n Wdl + COS Wdl - ) (10-13) (10-14) A family of curves C(I) plotted against I with various values of C is shown in Figure 10-24.W" ' (h 1 . 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications 517 where W 2 v KJ In terms of C and W.' (s + Cw. If one is made smaller. (10-12) e-. So. in order to get a desirable transient response for a second-order system. where the abscissa is the dimensionless variable W"I." the block diagram of Figure 10-23(b) can be redrawn as shown in Figure 10-23(c).�. The inverse Laplace transform of Equation ( J O-12) gives C C(I) 1 e-" ". we have R(s) = 1/s. the damping ratio l may be chosen between 0. The curves are functions only of r A few comments on transient-response specifications. . dampmg ratI O ....1 cos wII 1 � or = 1 = (s + Cw.8) responds sluggishly. w� + 1 1 s where Wd s = S2 s+ w. and a system with a large value of C (C > 0.I sin wdl e-. both the maximum overshoot and the rise time cannot be made smaller simultaneously. it is preferable that the transient response be sufficiently fast as well as reasonably damped.)2 + w.. Next.. In other words.w.)2 2Cw" ?rw 2 -� IIS + wII + W.

) = 1 in Equation (10-13). and settling time of the second-order system given by Equation (10-11). The system is assumed to be underdamped..tan 1 Wd _ ( r. or e(t. � .-:---:::." sin wdl. by letting c(t. we must have a large Wd. peak time. These values will be derived in terms of . Clearly. SIn wdlr + cos wdtr = 0 vI _ or Thus. Rise time t.. . . + cos Wdl. ) (10-15) 0. and w".) = 1 Since e-(w"" '" = 1 - e-iw". = where {3 is defined in Figure 10-25. the rise time If is t. (b 1 .. 1 .. to obtain a small value of . We find the rise time I. Equation (10-15) yields . Let us now obtain the rise time. maximum overshoot.{3 Wd (10-16) . 1 0 o 2 3 4 5 6 w"r 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 10-24 Unit-step response curves for the system shown in Figure 10-23{c). Second-order systems and transient-response specifications.518 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.

_e-iW"(�/W" = e -{r. 1 0-5 Transient-Response Specifications jw 519 Figure 10--25 Definilion of angle (3. the transient response for a unit-step input is given by Equation ( 1 0-14). 7r/Wd' Thus. the maximum percent overshoot is e-ir. Notice that the re­ sponse curve c(r) always remains within a pair of the envelope curves.] The time constant of these envelope curves is 1/ Cw. ­ Wd 7r h ave wt/lp = 'Tr. [The curves 1 ± ( e-lw"I/ � ) are the envelope ClIrves of the transient response to a unit-step input.1 . SellUIIg time I. Maximum overshoot M p P . The peak time tI' corresponds to one half-cycle of the frequency of damped oscillation. as shown in Figure 10-26.i' x 100%. 1. We obtain the peak time by differentiating crt) in Equation (10-13) with respect to time t and letting this derivative equal zero. from Equation ( 1 0-13). That is. is four times this time constant..Sec. C(lp) . Peak time I I'" de dt I t follows that or Since the peak time corresponds Then to the first peak overshoot. For an underdamped second-order system. Wt. or (10-19) .. 1_{1 {h sin 7r + cos 7r ) ( 10-18) Since c(oo) ../Vt . The settling time I. 'I' t . ( 1 0-17) The maximum overshoot occurs at the peak time Mp .

= -­ w.I 520 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems c(t) �2 Chap. So w" � w. To limit the maximum overshoot Mp and make the settling time small. and settling lime when the control system shown in Figure 10-28 is subjected to a unit-step input. = 0.866 .4 and 0. Notice that Wn = 1 rad/s and .5 for this system.5' � 0.. The relationship between the maximum overshoot and the damping ratio is presented in Figure 10-27. it is clear that Wil must be large if we are to have a rapid response. by adjusting the undamped natural frequency w".5%. � � Rise time tr: From Equation (10-16). then the maximum percent overshoot for a step response is between 25% and 2. 1 0 1 1+ _ - JI _ 1 . the rise time is 7T . peak time. Examplc W-2 Determine the rise time./ VI - 0. In other words.-- �I e-{w.8. Note that the settling time is inversely proportional to the undamped natural frequency of the system . without changing the maximum overshoot. the duration of the transient period can be varied.l _ " ° 1 1_ _ _ � 3T 4T Figure 10--26 Unit-step response curve and its envelope curves. Since the value of � is usually determined from the require­ ment of permissible maximum overshoot. the settling time is determined primarily by the undamped natural frequency w"./3 1. maximum overshoot. the damping ratio � should not be too small. From the preceding analysis. Note that if the damping ratio is between 0.

. 1 -l/0..14 0. 1 0-5 % Transient-Response Specifications 521 100 90 80 70 Mp \ \ C(s) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 \ \ \ MI': Maximum R(s) " l + 2�w.05 � 2.41 s 0.'rr/� Settling rime ts: The settling time t..1. 0.866 Figure 10-28 Control system.L.-0..t-.s X3. � Ip 3.. the maximum overshoot is = Wd 7r � 3.-. Maximum overshoot MfI: From Equation (I0-iS).63 s e-. = 1 .:"-'-..l 0.5 Figure 10-27 R(s) Curve relating maximum overshoot /\4p and damping ralio r C(s) � -y----.5 '-.866 Peak rillle 11': The peak time is given by Equation ( 1 0-17): tp � M.866 = e-1.8! = 0. 163 4 .n defined by Equation (10-19). overshoot + w� "'- 1'-.Sec.14 . 1.r5 w� .0 1. t. is ls = = e-O. I'-.) X 1 = 8s .05 fad..866 � 3 . lllerefore.'-'---J where f3 = sin.

the response of second-order systems to ramp inputs is considered.1l. can be controlled by the armature current. [n de servomo­ tors. A de servomotor may also be driven by an electronic motion controller. as a motor-driver combination. with the result that motors with very high torque-to-inertia ratios are commercially available. the magnetic field is produced by a permanent magnet. we define system types and static error constants that are related to steady-state errors in the transient response. Next. Then we discuss a method for improving the damping characteristics of second-order systems through velocity feedback (also called tachometer feedback). and so on. Such de servomotors are called permallent­ magne( de servomotors. DC servomotors with separately excited fields. and word processors. where the field is excited separately. (That is. (Some speed control systems use field-controlled de motors. In some de servomotors. DC servomotors with relatively small power ratings are used in instruments and computer-related equipment such as disk drives. and programmable acceleration. We showed that a small damping ratio will make the maximum overshoot in the step response large and the settling time large as well. fol­ lowed by another method for improving such steady-state behavior through the use of a proportional-plus-derivative type of prefilter.522 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. We present a method for improving the steady-state behavior of a ramp response by means of proportional-plus-derivative control action. There are many types of de motors in use in industries. Some de servomotors have extremely small time constants. the rotor inertias have been made very small. the de motor is called a field-co11lrolled de motor. 1 0 1 0-6 IMPROVING TRANSIENT-RESPONSE A N D STEADY-STATE CHARACTERISTICS In Section 1 0-5. In the case where the armature current is maintained constant and the speed is controlled by the field voltage. printers. the magnetic flux is independent of the armature current. D C motors that are used in servo systems are called dc servomotors. the field windings may be connected in series with the armature. as well as permanent-magnet de servomotors. In de servomotors. tape drives. The technique is called armature COlllro/ of de servomOlOrs. the magnetic field is produced by a separate circuit. the magnetic flux is constant.is section begins with the derivation of the transfer function of a servo sys­ tem that uses a dc servomotor. Some of the servo­ driver's features are point-lo-point positioning. we considered the step response of position control systems. DC servomotors. however. The servodriver controls the motion of the dc servomotor and operates in various modes. numerically controlled milling machines. DC servomotors with medium and large power ratings are used in robot systems. Electronic motion controllers that use a pulse-width-modulated driver . fre­ quently called a servodriver. is a serious disadvantage. (Providing a constant current source is much more difficult than providing a constant voltage source. Finally.) The time constants of the field-controlled de motor are generally large compared with the time constants of a comparable armature-controlled dc motor. therefore.) The requirement of constant armature current. Such features are generally unde­ sirable. velocity profiling. or the field windings may be separate from the armature.) In the latter case.

e. to control a de servomotor are frequently seen in robot control systems. The output shaft position determines the angular position c of the wiper arm of the output potentiometer. where Ko is a propor­ tionality constant. = Kor and ec = Koc. (e) simplified block diagram. numerical control systems. 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 523 Reference input Input potentiometer Error-measuring device Amplifier (a) MOlor Gear train (b) Figure 10--29 (e) (a) Schematic diagram of servo system: (b) block diagram of the system. Consider the servo system shown in Figure 1 0-29(a). that is.u is the error voltage. (The amplifier must - c . whose gain constant is K\. ec = e. or e= r - The potential difference e. 111e objective of this system is to control the position of the mechanical load in accor­ dance with the reference position. and other position or speed control systems.Sec. The difference between the input angular position r and the output angular position c is the error signal e. The angular position r is the reference input to the system. The operation of the system is as follows: A pair of potentiometers acting as an error-measuring device converts the input and out­ put positions into proportional electric signals. The error voltage that appears at the potentiometer terminals is amplified by the amplifier. A servo system. where er is proportional to r and ec is proportional to c. and the electric potential of the arm is proportional to the angular position of the arm. The output voltage of this amplifier is applied to the armature circuit of the de motor. The command input signal deter­ mines the angular position r of the wiper arm of the input potentiometer. In what follows we shall discuss a servo system that uses armature control of a de servomotor.

.. For a constant flux. = L. When the armature is rotating.524 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap..+ Rala + K3dt dt = Kle" ( 1 0-21 ) The equation for torque equilibrium is Jo - . For constant field current. where eb is the back emf. C(5) = n6(s) ( 1 0-24) . or (10-20) T = K2 i. dO . since it feeds into the armature circuit of the motor.(t)]. 1 0 have very high input impedance. 11.. a voltage proportional to the product of the flux and the angular velocity is induced in the armature.) The differential equation for the armature circuit is di. La. and gear train. K3 is the back-emf constant of the motor. We assume that the gear ratio of the gear train is such that the output shaft rotates n times for each revolution of the motor shaft. Thus.I·a - dO dt .. The transfer function between the motor shaft displacement and the error voltage is obtained from Equa­ tions ( 1 0-21) and (10-22) as follows: s ( L"s + R. load.(5) = X[e. which will result in a reversal of the direction of rotor rotation. the motor develops a torque to rotate the output load in such a way as to reduce the error to zero. the torque developed by the motor is where K2 is the motor torque constant and ia is the armature current. ( 10-22) where Jo is the inertia of the combination of the motor. and 0 is the angu­ lar displacement of the motor shaft. and gear train. the amplifi­ er must have low output impedance. . load.)(J0 5 + bo ) + K2K3 s ( 1 0-23) where 6(5) = X[O(t)] and £.e speed of an armature-controlled dc servomotor is controlled by the arma­ ture voltage ew (The armature voltage en Kiev is the output of the amplifier.) A fixed voltage is applied to the field winding. and bo is the viscous-friction coefficient of the combination of the motor. the sign of the torque T will be reversed.+ Ra1(/ + eb = ea dt or di. the induced voltage eb is directly proportional to the angular velocity dO/dt.= T = K. because the potentiometers are essentially high­ impedance circuits and do not tolerate current drain. referred to the motor shaft. At the same time. Notice that if the sign of the current i" is reversed.(0 dt2 + bo. referred to the motor shaft. If an error exists.

-. The transfer function in the feedforward path of this system is C (s) = .Kj Ra) are multiplied by l/n'. converting the ve­ locity of the rotating shaft into a proportional dc voltage.-.-: ---:'. In Equation (10-27).--:-:-.K.(f + bo) + K.(s) KoK[K.. + bs (10--2 7) The block diagram of the system shown in Figure 1O-29(b) can thus be simplified as shown in Figure 10--2 9(c).I1/R" K. fo s + bo + . If the input to the . and the transfer function in the feed­ forward path becomes :-.----'"----' ----.K.) ( J + bo) + K. (10-24). The inertia 10 and the viscous-friction coefficient bo + (K./Ra)J!n' = viscous-friction coefficient referred to the output shaft K = KoK[ KzlIlR" we can simplify the transfer function C(s) given by Equation (10-26) to C (s) = -. the inertia and viscous-friction coefficient are expressed in terms of the output shaft. When fo and bo + (K. A dc tachometer is a generator that produces a voltage pro­ portional to its rotating speed. -OC Js I = K :.-::: --" :-"-.-= --. Tachometers.£[c(t)] and c(t) is the angular displacement of the output shaft..-- ( ) (10--26) The term [bo + (K. the time constant fib of the motor becomes smaller for a small­ er Ra and smaller 10. 11le device is used as a transducer.-:-:C ( s) = -.K.::. and (10-25) as shown in Figure 10--29(b). From Equations (10-26) and (10-27). the motor time constant approaches zero.11 C(s) e(s) E. it can be neglected./ Ra) are referred to the motor shaft.-- Since L" is usually small.. as the resistance R" is reduced.K. .s R" KoK[K. The block diagram of this system can be constructed from Equations (10-23). With small fo.K. and the motor acts as an ideal integrator.os s[( L" s + R.J os KoK[ K. R(s).Sec.)Js indicates that the back emf of the motor effectively increases the viscous friction of the system. The relationship among Ev(s).(s) ---. Thus.£[r(I)J. it can be seen that the transfer func­ tions involve the term lis.. this system possesses an integrating property. J E(s) e(s) £.­ s[R.K3/ R.C(s)J = KoE(s) ( 10--2 5) where R(s) = . 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 525 where C(s) = . Introducing new parameters defined by fo/n' = moment of inertia referred to the output shaft b = [bo + (K. and C(s) is Ev(s) = Ko[R(s) ..11 --.

218 5 Steady-state error in ramp responses. Two such means are discussed next. In such a ramp response. so Chap. we h ave R(s) obtained as � � I _ C( s) R(s) � ___ Is + bs _'_ _ ----. result in undesirable transient­ response characteristics.. .-0 . + bs + K Is2 e" � � To ensure the small steady-state error for the ramp response. Consequently. we have . the steady-state error for a ramp response must be small.� E(s) R(s) R(s) . a large value of K and a small value of b will make the damping ratio � small and will.-o s'(Is' + bs + K ) lim sE(s) � lim S --c . the value of K must be large and the value of b small. Consider the system shown in Figure 10-31.� � £(s) - K I s(Js + b) C(s) Figure 10-31 Block diagram of a position control system with a propor­ tional controller. In the present analysis. b hm K . The transient response of this sys­ tem when it is subjected to a ramp input can be found by a straightforward method.-0 Js2 + bs + K s' s' (1s + b) . Position control systems may be sub­ jected to changing inputs that can be approximated by a series of piecewise ramp in­ puts..ram p i np u t r(l) � I.528 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems � The undamped natural frequency w" i s cqual to VK/J K � 2w. � 24.C(s) R(s) The steady-state error for the unit-ramp response can be obtained as follows: For a I/s 2 The steady-state error e" is then unit. some means of improving steady-state error for the ramp response without adversely affecting transient-response behavior is necessary. However. R(s) 1 Is' + bs . we shall examine the steady-state error when the system is subjected to such an input.---.� - .92 N-m YKji.. in general. 1 0 K" is then obtained from Equation ( 1 0-28) as K" � 2 VKl? K - I � 0. From the block diagram.

For the system shown in Figure 1 0-32.-2 - - b Kp The characteristic equation is . e = hm sEts) = hm s s-o is ' " s-o + is' + bs 1 ( b + Kd)S + Kp . E(s) R(s) R(s) = C(s) R(s) - For a unit-ramp input. So it follows that E(s) = --c. Figure 10-32 Proportional-plus-derivative control of second-order systems.8. Since the damp­ ing ratio ? of this system is + Kd)S + Kp = 0 it is possible to have both a small steady-state error e" for a ramp response and a reasonable damping ratio by making b small and Kp large and choosing Kd large enough so that ? is between 0. A com­ promise between acceptable transient-response behavior and acceptable steady­ state behavior can be achieved through proportional-plus-derivative control action.Sec. . the closed-loop transfer function is C ( s) R(s) ( 10-29) Therefore.Is' + (b The effective damping of this system is thus b + Kd rather than b.---. - Js' + bs 1 is' + ( b + Kd)S + Kp s' The steady-state error for a unit-ramp response is .4 and 0. 1 0-6 I mproving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 529 R(s) -� Kp + K(/s s(Js 1 + C(s) b) Block diagram of a position control system with a proportional­ plus-derivative controller. R(s) = 1/5' . .

8 1 .8 0. From these curves.6 1 . and z as C(s) + -z fK" \/i' The steady-state error for the ramp response can be eliminated if the input is introduced to the system through a proportional-pius-derivative type of prefilter. we see that proportional­ plus-derivative control action will make the rise time smaller and the maximum overshoot larger. response behavior differs considerably from that of a second-order system without a zero. The transfer function C(s)/R(s) for this system is filter.2 ell) 1. and if the value of k is properly set./ 4 « = �WII 0.5.530 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Second-order systems with a proportional-plus-derivative type of pre­ w� s = ( 1 Z) s' + 2tw"s + w� R(s) Notice that if a zero s = is located near the closed-loop poles. Typical step-response curves of this system with t = 0.0 0..0 1.6 0.4 Figure 10-33 Unit-step response Ji!'1 / V r II 0- 0... the transient­ then Equation (10-29) can be written in terms of w.4 1 . t.5 and various values of zjtw" are shown in Figure 10-33. C(s) 1« s) ( 1 + ks)K is' + bs + K 2. 10 Let us examine the unit-step response of this system. as shown in Figure 10-34. If we define wn ::::. CJ( = � 3 curves for the system shown in Figure 10-32 with the damping ratio C equal to 0.2 0 / /II I '/II � ��� � 0 ' / � \ <} V � � "-.5) 5 6 7 8 . 2 w.

-0 lim sEes) So if we choose � 1S2 + (b Kk)s 1 2 + bs + K s2 . Note that the transient response of this system to a unit-step input will exhibit a smaller rise time and a larger maximum overshoot than the corresponding system without the prefilter will show. 1 0-6 Improving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics R(s) 531 Figure 10-34 Block diagram of a position control system with a propor­ tional-pius-derivative type of prefilter. a combination of a prefilter and velocity feedback in which the values of both k and K" are chosen to be K"I K". k � � R(. . the value of K is normally determined from the requirement that w" VKjJ. From this diagram.Sec. I! is worthwhile pointing out that the block diagram of a system with a pro­ portional-pius-derivative controller shown in Figure 10-32 can be redrawn as in Figure 10-35. Given the values of 1 and b. it can be seen that the proportional-plus-derivative controller is.Kk K � K the steady-state error for the ramp response can be made equal to zero. The use of such a prefilter eliminates the steady-state error for a ramp response.) Figure 10-35 Modified block diagram of the system shown in Figure 10-32. the difference between R(s) and C(s) is E(s) � R(s) . blK is a constant and the value of k � blK becomes constant. Once the value of K is determined.C(s) � 1S2 1s2 + bs + K - + (b � [I - C(s) R(S) R(s) R(s) j - Kk)s The steady-state error [or a ramp response is e" � .-0 1s lim s b . in fact.) q. Therefore.

This is a reasonable classification scheme because actual inputs may frequently be considered combinations of such inputs.532 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. and so on. The magnitudes of the residues depend on both the closed-loop poles and zeros. the dominant ones are the 1110st important. (The only way we may be able to eliminate this error is to modify the structure of the system. 1 0 If the prefilter and velocity feedback are provided separately. ramp inputs. we have discussed the transient-response analysis of second-order systems. The gain of a higher order system is often adjusted so that there will exist a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles. the dominant c1osed­ loop poles occur in the form of a complex-conjugate pair. A well-designed higher order system may have a pair of complex-conjugate closed-loop poles that are located to the right of all other closed-loop poles. Higher order systems involve more than two closed-loop poles... Classification of control systems. and coulomb friction. The relative dominance of closed-loop poles is determined by the ratio of the real parts of those poles. but may exhibit nonzero steady-state error to a ramp input. A proper choice of these values may enable the engineer to compromise between acceptable steady-state error for the ramp response and acceptable transient-response behavior to the step input. so that the response of the system is dominated by that pair of complex-conjugate c1osed­ loop poles. as well as by the relative magnitudes of the residues evaluated at the closed-loop poles.s + 1 )( T2s + l ) · · · ( Tps + 1 ) . analytical expressions of the output become very complicated. If the ratios of the real parts exceed 5 and there are no zeros nearby. The presence of such poles in a stable system reduces the effect of such nonlinearities as dead zone. Among all closed-loop poles. Thus far.) Control systems may be classified according to their ability to follow step inputs. and a computer approach to obtaining the response curve becomes necessary. parabolic inputs. Consider the unity-feedback control system with the following open-loop transfer function G(s ) : K ( T" s + l ) ( TbS + 1 ) · · · ( T. Since all closed-loop poles more or less contribute to the tran­ sient response of such systems.s + 1 ) G(s) = ". Any physical control system inherently suffers steady-state errors in response to certain types of inputs. TIle magnitudes of the steady-state crrors due to these individual inputs are indicative of the accuracy of the system. ( 10-30) s (T. backlash. System types. the values of k and K" can be chosen independently of each other. Quite often. because these poles correspond to transient-response terms that decay slowly. then the closed-loop poles nearest the jw-axis will dominate in the transient-response behav­ ior. Dominant closed-loop poles. Those closed-loop poles which have dominant effects on the transient-response behavior are called dominant closed-loop poles. Higher order systems. A system may have no steady-state error to a step input.

The higher the constants. then the open-loop gain K is directly related to the steady-state error..-.R ( s ) --:::-:J 1 + G(s) 0 = t-OO lim e(r) = lim s E(s) 5- sR (s) ". .. . As the type number is increased. Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-36. approaches unity as 5 approaches zero.::-. . = Steady-state errors in the transient response. N = 1. .-:. increasing the type number aggravates the stability problem. it is rather exceptional to have type 3 or higher systems. accuracy is improved. The present classification scheme is based on the number of integrations indicated by the open-loop transfer function. type 1. m . if G(s) is written so that each term in the numerator and denominator. We have discussed steady-state errors in step and ramp responses both in Section 10-4 and in the cur­ rent section. The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) R(s) The transfer function between the error signal e(t) and the input signal r(t) is E( s) 1 C( s) J _ = __ = _ _ --= -::-:R( s ) R(s) -:-+ G ( s ) 1- = G(s) 1 + G(s) where the error e(t) is the difference between the input signal and the output signal. except the term s N . We shall see later that. The final-value theorem provides a convenient way to find the steady-state performance of a stable system. In practice. however. the steady-state error is e" = . representing a pole of multiplicity N at the origin.". . respectively. . -0 1 + G(s) The static effor constants defined next are figures of merit of control systems.'---' -:­ . the � � � G(s) i---r'.:urc 10-36 C(s) Control system. . N = 2. A system is called type 0. we present a systematic discussion of steady-state errors in the transient response.Sec. the smaller is the steady-state error.---. because we find it generally difficult to design stable systems having more than two integrations in the feedforward path. Next. . A compromise between steady-state accuracy and relative stability is always necessary. . Note that this classification is different from that of the order of a system. 1 0-6 1mproving Transient-Response and Steady-State Characteristics 533 This transfer function involves the term s N in the denominator. type 2. In a given system. Since E(s) = if the system is stable."FiJ. if N 0.

:: _ .-0 Thus. .. 1 0 output may be position.. . the physical form of the outpul is immaterial to the present analysis." the rate of change of the output "velocity. velocity.e static position error constant Kp is defined by Kp = lim C ( s ) = C(O) 1 = -:--= -."_ -cc :c S _ _ ( TIs + 1 )(T 2s + 1) · · · K Hence. in what follows.-0 lim T . For a unit-step input. _ (:-.-o s' (TIs + l ) ( T zs + 1 ) · · · for N '" 1 1 + K for type 0 systems for type 1 or higher systems 0 The foregoing analysis indicates that the response of the feedback control sys­ tem shown in Figure 10-36 to a step input involves a steady-state error if there is no integration in the feedforward path. I1m s 1 + C(s) s . temperature. (If small errors for step inputs can be tolerated.:. the type of the system must be 1 or higher.) If zero steady-state error for a step input is desired. then a type 0 system is permissible. Figure 10-36 for a unit-step input is Static position error constant Kp" The steady-state error of the system of ess = 11. for a type 0 system. while for a type 1 or higher system. If the gain K is too large. the steady-state error ess may be summarized as follows: ess = 1 ess = .s_ ". the steady-state error in terms of the static position error constant Kp is given by 1 For a type 0 system.534 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. the static position error constant Kp is finite.-0 1 . = For a type 1 or higher system.: b_+ 1 )_ ' . however. "position" represents the out­ put temperature. pressure. it is difficult to obtain reasonable relative stability. in a temperature control system. This means that. "velocity" represents the rate of change of the output temperature. and so on. KI. Therefore.-:-:1 + C ( O) ." and so on. K(T "s + 1 ) ( T bS + 1 ) ' " = 00 Kp = Itm '1\ ' .( . Kp is infinite.'": '--K T" + 1 )-. provided that the gain K is sufficiently large. or the like. we shall call the output "position..

That is. K. The dimension af the velocity error is the same as that of the system error. the output velocity is exact­ ly the same as the input velocity. is defined by . In steady-state operation. The values af K. = For a type 2 or higher system. K . is given by e" l i y error constant . but there is a positional error that is proportional to . 10-6 Static velacity error constant K. = . the steady-state errar in terms of the static velocity error constant K. s The static ve oc t TIlUS. K. not in velocity. are obtained as follows: For a type 0 system.= 00 Kv for N 2: 2 for type 0 systems 1 1 ess = . -0 lim sG(s) = ­ 1 K.e type 1 system with unity feedback can follow the ramp input with a finite error. The steady-state error of the system of Figure 1 0-36 with a unit-ramp input is given by e" = 1 --' 5-0 1 + G( 5 ) s- Imp raving Transient-Respanse and Steady-State Characteristics 535 lim ..-0 s(Tls + 1 ) ( T 2S + 1 ) · · · Itm .Sec. s K ( T"s + 1 ) ( T bS + 1 ) · · · (TIs + 1 ) ( T 2S + 1 ) · · · It m = 0 For a type l system. = Itm = 00 N '-'0 s (TIS + I ) ( Tzs + 1 ) · 1 = . velocity error is an error. but in position due to a ramp input. . TI.-0 . .= ­ Kv K e" = 1 I ( = O for type 1 systems for Iype 2 or higher systems . The term velocily error is lIsed here to express the steady-state error for a ramp input.-osG(s) iIm -­ = 1 Kv K. sK ( T" s + 1 ) ( TbS + 1 ) · · = K The steady-state error ess for the unit-ramp input can be summarized as follows: e 5S bs + 1 ) · · · s K ( T"s + I ) ( T . The foregoing analysis indicates that a type 0 system is incapable of following a ramp input in the steady state.

The type 2 or higher system can follow a ramp input with zero error at steady slate.536 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. . + G(s) .. =0 .. 0 the velocity of the input and inversely proportional 10 the gain K.-0 - lim . Figure 10-37 is an example of the response of a Iype 1 system with unily feedback to a ramp input. The values of Ka are obtained as follows: For a type 0 system. Static acceleration error constant Kao 111e steady-state error of the sys­ tem of Figure 1 0-36 with a unit-parabolic input (an acceleration input) defined by r(l) = "2 = 0 12 for t < 0 1 .. 3 1 � - for I 2: 0 is given by = The sialic acceleration error constant Ka is defined by Ihe equation .2G( s ) The steady-state error is then Note thai the acceleralion error-the steady-state error due to a parabolic input-is an error in position.(I) C(/) 10 Figure 10-37 Response o f a type 1 unityfeedback system 10 il ramp input.

s'K ( Tas + l ) ( Tbs + 1 ) · · · = 0 Ka = 11m . · K{/ = lim 2 = K . Summary. Thus.s + 1 ) · · · = 00 For a type 2 system. s'K( T" s + I ) ( Tbs + 1 ) . Figure 10-38 shows an example of the response of a type 2 system with unity feedback to a parabolic input. A finite velocity error implies that. Kn = 11m 'II! . after transients have died out. and type 2 unity-feedback systems subjected to various inputs.Sec. . . and acceleration error indicate steady-state deviations in the output position.(I) C(I) I m p roving Tra nsient·Response and Steady·State Characteristics 537 o Figure 10-38 Response of a type 2 unity­ feedback system to a parabolic input. . s'K ( Tas + l ) ( Tbs + 1 ) . below the diagonal. . the input and output move at the same velocity.s + l )( T.-0 s ( T. they are zero. The type 3 or higher sys­ tem with unity feedback follows a parabolic input with zero error at steady statc. For a type 1 system. s + 1 ) · · · .-0 s ' (T. velocity error. the steady-state error for the unit parabolic input is ess = 00 For a type 3 or higher system. Above the diagonal. type 1 .�O s(T. Remember that the terms position error. The finite values for steady-state errors appear on the diagonal linc. Table 1 0-2 summarizes the steady-state errors for type 0.s + 1 ) · · · ess 1 for N "" 3 for type 0 and type 1 systems for type 2 systems for type 3 or higher systems = - K Note that both type 0 and type 1 systems are incapable of following a parabol­ ic input in the steady state. s + l ) ( T.s + l ) ( T. . . 10-6 . The type 2 system with unity feedback can follow a para­ bolic input with a finite error signal. but have a finite position difference. the steady-state errors are infinity.

where K i s defined in Equation Type 0 system Type 1 system Type 2 system Step Input r(r ) = 1 -- Ramp Input ( 1 0-30) r(r) = r 1 1 + K Acceleration Input r(r) = !r 2 00 00 00 0 0 - I K 0 - 1 K The error constants Kp. Example l� Obtain the steady-state error in the unit-ramp response or the system shown in Figure 1 0-3 1. stability analysis is most important in control systems analysis.538 TABLE 10-2 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Steady-State Errors of Unity-Feedback Systems i n Terms of Chap. It is generally desirable to increase the error constants. these constants are indicative of the steady-state performance of the system. then. using the SIalic velocity error constant Kw For the system of Figure 10-3 1 . TllltS. This. To improve the steady-state performance. If any of these poles lie in t he right-half s-planc. introduces an additional stability problem. The design of a satisfacto­ ry system with morc than two integrators in series in the feedfofward path is gener­ ally difficult. 10 Gain K. while maintaining the transient response within an acceptable range. hm s s-o s (1 s + b) b ess = . = K . Stability analysis in the complex plane. however. . For any practical purpose. we can increase the type of the system by adding an integrator or integrators to the feed forward path. Tile stability of a linear c1osed­ loop system can be determined from the location of the closed-loop poles in the s­ plane.= ­ Kv K which is the same result as obtained earlier. K" and K" describe the ability of a unity-feedback system to reduce or eliminate steady-state error. K. Therefore. with increasing time. the system must be stable. K b 1 0-7 STABILITY ANALYSIS The most important question about the closed-loop control system is concerned with stability.

the system is not stable. the output may increase with time. In practical cases.) The absolute stability of higher order systems can be examined easily with the use of Routh's stability criterion. If we are n terested in i only the absolute stability of the system. the amplitude of oscillations may increase at a rate determined by the noise power level. enables us to determine the number of closed-loop poles that lie in the right­ half s-plane without having to factor the polynomial. Most linear closed-loop control systems have closed-loop transfer functions of the form C(s) R(s) = bos"' where the a's and b's are constants and 111 S II. closed-loop poles in the right-half s-plane are not permissible in the usual linear control system. and the transient response increases monoton­ ically or oscillates with increasing amplitude. . The procedure used in Routh's stability criterion is as follows: 1. any zero root has been removed. The poles of the input. a control system should not have closed-loop poles on the jw-axis. Therefore. or driving function. however. Note that all the coefficients must be positive. that is. For such a system. any transient response eventual­ ly reaches equilibrium. This criterion applies only to polynomials with a finite number of terms. or driving function. where noise is present.-1 + 1 aos" + a. Therefore. This is a necessary ( 1 0-31) 2. This represents a stable system. known as ROlllil's Slability cri­ terion . do not affect the stability of the system. as soon as the power is turned on. Thus. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 539 they give rise to the dominant mode. A simple criterion. there is a root or roots that arc imaginary or that have pos­ itive real parts. but contribute only to steady-state response terms in the solution. When Routh's stability criterion is applied to a control system. closed-loop poles on the jw-axis will yield oscillations. since Ihe re­ sponse of a real physical system cannot increase indefinitely. the problem of absolute stability can be solved readily by choosing no closed-loop poles in the right-half s­ plane. If all closed-loop poles lie to the left of the jw-axis. including the jw-axis. If no saturation takes place in the system and no mechanical stop is provided.-IS + + (I" b". Either of these motions represents an unstable system.I S b". b s". = -- 8(s) A {s ) Write the polynomial in s in the following form: where the coefficients are real quantities.s" 1 + + + + (In. Assume that all ¢ 0. If any of the coefficients are zero or negative in the presence of at least one positive coefficient. then the system may eventually be damaged and fail. Whether a linear system is stable or unstable is a property of the system itself and does not depend on the input. Routh's stability criterion. The locations of the roots of the characteristic equation (the denominator of the preceding equation) determine the stability of the closed-loop system. (Mathematically. In such a case. of the system. the amplitude of which neither decays nor grows with time.Sec. there is no need to follow the proce­ dure further. information about the absolute stability of the system can be obtained directly from the coefficients of the characteristic equation.

a s may b e seen from the following argument: A polynomial in s hav­ ing real coefficients can always be factored into linear and quadratic factors. The factor (s2 + bs + c) yields roots having negative real parts only if b and c are both positive. b. where a. they can be made positive by multiplying both sides of the equation by . as b3 C3 d3 a6 a7 b. and the quadratic factors yield complex roots of the polynomi­ al.1. arrange the coefficients of the polynomial in rows and columns according to the following pattern: s" S" .l 5'1-2 5. The linear factors yield real roots. and so on.. 1 0 condition. c. d's. C. It is important to note that the condition that all the coefficients be positive is not sufficient to assure stability. For all roots to have negative real parts. but not sufficient. and so on. If all of the coefficients of the polynomial are positive. b . The coefficients bl > 1>" b3.540 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. . The nec­ essary. condition for stability is that the coefficients of Equa­ tion (10-31) all be present and have a positive sign. That is. the constants a. and so on. e's. The product of any number of lin­ ear and quadratic factors containing only positive coefficients always yields a polynomial with positive coefficients.. d. are evaluated as follows: The evaluation of the b's is continued until the remaining ones are all zero. such as ( s + a) and (S2 + bs + c). (If all a's are negative.3 S2 sl sO 511-4 ao al bl CI dl el II gl a2 a3 b2 c2 d2 e2 ".) 3. in all factors must be positive. The same pattern of cross multiplying the coefficients of the two previous rows is followed in evaluating the c's. and c are real.

Sec. where all the coefficients are positive numbers.-'-' -'. Routh's stability criterion states that the number of roots of Equation (10-31 ) with positive real parts i s equal t o the number o f changes i n sign of the coefficients of the first column of the array. (TIle column consisting of Sil. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 541 and CI cIb3 . The first column of the array means the first numeri­ cal column. The process continues until the nth row has been completed. .) Note that the exact values of the terms in the first column need not be known. only the signs are needed. The necessary and sufficient condition that all roots of Equation ( 1 0-3 1 ) lie in the left-half s-plane is that all the coefficients of Equation (10-31) be positive and all terms in the first column of the array have positive signs. The array of coefficients becomes a. a.bIC3 -" CI - ti. . a. In counting the column num­ ber.-I.. . Note that. . S. sO on the far left side of the table is used [or identification purposes only. 5' s· The condition that all roots have negative real parts is given by Example 10-6 Consider the po l ynomi al . this colunm is not included. an entire row may be divided or multiplied by a positive number in order to simplify the subsequent numerical calculation without altering the stability conclusion. in developing the array. Example l()-S Let us apply Routh's stability criterion to the third·order polynomial aos3 + a[52 + "2S + a3 = 0 s' s. The finished array of coefficients is triangular.. a. "t a2 . a.aOa3 a. .

' I 3 5 5' 3 5 2 4 0 53 e 2 0 1 5 . Note that the result is unchanged when the coef[icienls of any row are multiplied or divided by a pos­ itive number i n order to simplify the computation.35 + 2 = (s - 1 )2(s + 2) 1 = 0 the array o[ coefficients is as follows: One sign change: One sign change: TIlere are two sign changes of the coefficients in the first column of the array. consider the following equation: (10-32) TIle array of coefficients is S3 s' s . Actually. This means that there are two roots with positive real parts. If a term in the first column of the array in any row is zero. for the equation S3 .542 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.. Special cases. TIlis agrees with the correct result indicated by the factored form of the polynomial equation. ) is opposite that below it. 1 0 Let us follow the procedure just presented and construct the array o f coef[jcicnts. For example. If any coefficients are missing.) The completed array is as follows: In this example. then the zero term is replaced by a very small positive number E and the rest of the array is evalu­ ated. Equation ( 1 0-32) has two roots at s = ±j. sO r . . TIle remaining terms are obtained from these rows. then there is one sign change.3 -• 2 . it indi­ cates that there is a pair of imaginary roots.5 -6 5' 3 5 5° 5 52 4 The second row is divided by 2. For example. ) is the same as that below it. but the remaining terms are not zero or there is no remaining term. (The first two rows can be obtained directly from the given polynomial. they may be replaced by zeros in the array. the number of changes in sign of the coefficients in the first column of the array is 2. 5' 53 . ( :� ( 5° 5' o '" • -3 2 2 . the sign of the coefficient above the zero ( . however. 1 1 2 o '" • 2 SO 2 If the sign of the coefficient above the zero ( . If.

4 row. that is. By solving for roots of the auxiliary polynomial equation. s = ±j5 .50 = a S2 = -25 s = ±1. Thus. 1 0-7 Stability Analysis 543 If all of the coefficients in any derived row are zero.. the original equation has one root with a positive real part. the evaluation of the rest of the array can be continued by forming an auxiliary polynomial with the coefficients of the last row and by using the coefficients of the derivative of this polynomial in the next row.111e auxiliary polynomial P(s) is P(s) = 2s' + 48s2 - 50 which indicates that there are two pairs of roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign.25s . then there are roots of equal magnitude lying radially opposite each other in the s-plane. For a 211-degree auxiliary polynomial. consider the following equation: S 5 + 2S4 + 24s3 + 48s2 . The derivative of P(s) with respect to s is dP(s) = 8s3 + 96s ds The terms in the S3 row are replaced by the coefficients of the last equation. 2s' we obtain or + 48s2 . = S and 96. The auxiliary polynomial is then formed from the coefficients of the . These pairs are obtained by solving the auxiliary polynomial equation P( s) O. For example.111e array of coefficients then becomes . which is always even. there are two real roots of equal magnitude and opposite sign andlor two conjugate imaginary roots.- 2 8 24 1 1 2.Sec. Such roots of equal magnitude and lying radially opposite each other in the s-plane can be found by solving the auxiliary polynomial.. there are II pairs of equal and opposite roots.25 1 24 S5 s• S3 Sl SO . .7 -50 48 96 -SO a -SO <- Coefficients of dP(s)/ds We see that there is one change in sign in the first column of the new array. that is. In such a case.SO = a The array of coefficients is s5 s· s3 1 2 a 24 48 a -25 -50 <- Auxiliary polynomial P(s) The terms in the S3 row are all zero.

That is. th.544 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. however. and apply Routh's stability criterion to the new polynomial in s. In many practical cases. we substitute S = S . we usually require information about the relative stability of the sys­ tem.j5) ( s + 2) = 0 Relative stability analysis.-+ l�+ 2---:-:­ s(s The characteristic equation is s' + 352 + 25 + K = 0 The array of coefficients becomes s' s3 .l ) (s + j5 ) ( s .is answer is not sufficient. 1 0 These two pairs o f roots are a part of the roots o f the original equation. st 1 2 sO 3 6-K 3 K K 0 C(s) s(s + 1)(s K + 2) }�igurc 10-39 Control system.fJ ( CT = positive constant ) into the characteristic equation of the system. The closed-loop transfer function is s = -u. the original equation can be written in factored form as follows: ( s + l ) (s . C(s) R(s) K ---:-) (s ---:):-: + K = -. . A s a matter of fact. to determine the effects of changing one or two parameters of a system by examining the values that cause instability. Routh's stability criterion provides the answer to the question of absolute stability. mainly because it does not suggest how to improve relative stability or how to stabi­ lize an unstable system. The number of changes of sign in the first column of the array developed for the polynomial in s is equal to the number of roots that are located to the right of the vertical line s = -CT. It is possible. Let liS determine the range of K for stability. however. Thus. Consider the system shown in Figure 10-39. A useful approach to examining relative stability is to shift the s-plane axis and apply Routh's stability criterion. We close this section with a brief consideration of the problem of determining the sta­ bility range of a parameter value. this test reveals the number of roots that lie to the right of the vertical line Application of Routh's stability criterion to control systems analysis. write the polynomial in terms of s. Routh's stability criterion is of limited usefulness in linear control systems analysis.

that the designer know how the closed-loop poles move in the s-plane as the loop gain is varied. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 545 For stability. the gain adjustment alone does not yield a desired result. A simple method for finding the roots of the characteristic equation has been developed by W. the roots of the characteristic equation are plotted for all values of a system parameter. The roots corresponding to a particular value of this parameter can then be located on the resulting graph. The method is particularly suited to obtaining approximate results very quickly. Therefore. 6>K>0 When K = 6. both by hand and with the use of computer software like MATLAB. If the system has a variable loop gain.e basic characteristic of the transient response of a closed-loop system is closely related to the location of the closed-loop poles. It is important. and all coefficients in the first column of the array must be positive. Unless otherwise stated. it is desired that the designer have a good understanding of the method for generating the root loci of the closed-loop system. In this method. in some systems simple gain adjustment may move the closed-loop poles to desired locations.Sec. however. from zero to infinity. By using the root-locus method. therefore. the oscillation is sustained at constant amplitude. Such a plot clearly shows the contributions of each open-loop pole or zero to the locations of the closed­ loop poles. If. we find that the root-locus method proves quite useful. the designer can predict the effects on the location of the closed-loop poles of varying the gain value or adding open-loop poles andlor open-loop zeros. Note that the parameter is usually the gain. Root-locus method. but any other variable of the open-loop transfer func­ tion may be used. and. The locus of roots of the characteristic equation of the closed-loop system as the gain is varied from zero to infinity gives the method its name. . called the root-locus metltod. since it indicates the manner in which the open-loop poles and zeros should be modified so that the response meets system performance specifications. mathematically.1 must sat­ isfy the characteristic equation of the system. then the location of the closed-loop poles depends on the value of the loop gain chosen. I n designing a linear control system. we shall assume that the gain of the open-loop transfer function is the parameter to be varied through all values. R. the addition of a compensator to the system will become necessary. K musl be positive. Evans and is used extensively in control engineering. 1 0-8 ROOT-LOCUS ANALYSIS 11. From the design viewpoint. Then the design problem may become merely the selection of an appropriate gain value. the system becomes oscillatory. Therefore. The basic idea behind the root-locus method is that the values of s that make the transfer function around the loop equal to .

The roots of the characteristic equation (the closed-loop poles) corresponding to a given value of the gain can be determined from the magnitude condition. Remember that the angles of the complex quantities originating from the open-loop poles and open-loop zeros to the test point s are measured in the counterclockwise direction. . 10 �� � Figure 10-40 Control system. Equation (10-34) can be split into two equations by equating the angles and magnitudes of both sides. and the characteristic equation may be written as 1 + K(s + 'I) ( S + .1 (10-34) Here. to obtain the following: Angle condition: /G(s)H(s) = ± 1800(2k + 1 ) k = 0. Since G(s)H(s) is a complex quantity.546 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.) ' " (s + p. 1 0-40. The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) Consider the system shown in Figure (10-33) LB� G(s) f--. we assume that G(s)H(s) is a ratio of polynomials in s.) " ' ( s + Zm ) =0 (s + p . 1 + G(s)H(s) = 0 or G(s)H(s) = .. A plot of the points in the com­ plex plane satisfying the angle condition alone is the root locus. The details of applying the angle and magnitude conditions to obtain the closed-loop poles are presented later in this section. .) G(s) R(s) = 1 + G(s)H(s) The characteristic equation for this closed-loop system is obtained by setting the denominator of the right-hand side of Equation (10-33) equal to zero. In many cases. respectively. to begin sketching the root loci of a system by the root-locus method. Note that. we must know the locations of the poles and zeros of G(s)H(s). G(s)H(s) involves a gain parameter K. or the closed-loop poles. That is.---'- C(. ( 1 0-35) (10-36) Magnitude condition: The values of s that fulfill both the angle and magnitude conditions are the roots of the characteristic equation. ) (s + p. . 2. 1 .. Angle and magnitude conditions.) ( 1 0-37) IG(s)H(s) 1 = 1 Then the root loci for the system are the loci of the closed-loop poles as the gain K is varied from zero to infinity. .

we find it necessary to use the same divisions on the abscissa as on the ordi­ nate in sketching the root locus on graph paper.. Therefore.':':-.-'. 2 . .( :... . .. to determine and plot the root loci upon which the roots of the charac­ teristic equation of the closed-loop system must lie. Such a graphical approach en­ hances one 's understanding of how the closed-loop poles move in the complex plane as the open-loop poles and zeros are moved. because the open-loop complex-conjugate poles and complex­ conjugate zeros.. Let us sketch the root-locus plOl and determine the value of K such that the damping ratio { of a pair of dominant complex­ conjugate closed-loop poles is 0. if necessary.:-:+ 1 + 5(5---: )( s---:2 ) ' K H(5) = I \Ve assume that the value of the gain K is nonnegative.I . The first step in the procedure for constructing a root-locus plot is to use the angle condition to seek out the loci of possible roots. .. . 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 547 Note that. or graduated.!. we need to construct only the upper half of the root loci and draw the mirror image of the upper half in the lower half s-plane. For this system. ' + ) s :. -.. For the given system. + 2 _ 1 5(5 1�(5 I = I + + 2) R(s) -+ @-- J C(s) Figure 10-41 Control system. Because graphical measurements of angles and magnitudes are involved in the analysis. Then. the angle condition becomes � = /S(5 + 1)(5 + 2) = -!. Exmnplc 10-7 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-4 1 . Illustrative example.. G ( 5) = -:.� K k = O. 1 ". 1l1c first step in constructing a rool-locus plot is to locate the open-loop poles s = o.s. if any..Sec. are always located symmetrically about the real axis.5. let us use graphical computation. Although computer approaches to the construction of the root loci are easily available. . ) '. The magnitude condition is I C(5 )1 1.:!:J. and s = -2 in the complex K . 1 . . = A typical procedure for sketching the root-locus plot is as follows: Derermine rhe roor loci 011 rhe real ax. the root loci are always symmetrical with respect to that axis. the loci can be scaled. combined with inspection. s = . in gain with the use of the magnitude condition.L£. _ (:. .

Next... To determine the Toot loci on the real axis. select a test point on the negative real axis between 0 and . Hence. Therefore. then and -f.. .:':. f. which is the same as the number of open-loop poles.s.:t:...s.) Note that the starting points of the rool loci (the points corresponding to K = 0) are open-loop poles.f... 2.s.s.:. Since the angle repeats itself as k is varied.. the root loci for very large values of s must be asymptotic to straight lines whose angles are given by angles of asymptotes = -f. - f. the angle condition is satisfied.. If a test point is selected between -1 and -2..s. . the distinct angles for the asymptotes are determined to be 60°. Thus..+ :-c --:-:K --:-: s(s 1 )(s 2) K (10-38) G ( s) (10-39) .!.. if a test point is located on the negative real axis from -2 to -00.s... same . Therefore.:t:. � f. - f..1 . + 2 may be considered the . Therefore. f. TIle number of in­ dividual root loci for the given system is three. � o· and the angle condition is satisfied. Thus. -60°..!. 1 0 plane.180' ft can be seen that the angle condition is not satisfied. the negative real axis from . there are three asymptotes. then TIlis shows that the angle condition cannot be satisfied../s + 2 � -360' ± 180'(2k + I ) 3 k � 0. we select a lest point s. there is no root locus on the positive real axis.\ to -2 is not a part of the root loclls. .548 Time-Domain Ana lys is and Design of Control Systems Chap.+ '-C7. 2...s..:':.. � f.:':. and 180°. The asymptotes of the root loci as s approaches infinity can be determined as follows: If a test point s is selected very far from the origin.. (111e locations of the open-loop zeros in this book will be indicated by small circles. the ponion of the negative real axis between 0 and -1 forms a portion of the root locus.. root loci exist on the negative real axis between 0 and -1 and between -2 and -00.s.:':.. Before we can draw these asymptotes in the complex plane.....:.. If the test point is on the positive real axis. Determine the asymptotes of the root loci..s. 1 .... The one having an angle of 180° is the negative real axis. we must find the point where they intersect the real axis.. (There are no open-loop zeros in this system. then G(s) may be written as -. and f.. Since G ( s) - if a test point is located very far from the origin.. � ..) The locations of the opcn­ loop poJes are indicated by crosses.. TIlCn Thus. then angles f. Similarly.

au = -1 i ts) where A(s) and 8(s) do not contain K. we obtain d[(s) ds I s=s. 10-8 Root-Locus Analysis 549 = -j . From Equa­ tion ( 1 0-40). . = -K For a large value of s .53 + 352 + so. TIle characteristic equation is G(s) . we must find the breakaway point. Note that its) points where -- = 8(s) + K A(s) = 0 = ( 1 0-40) 0 has multiple roots at d[(s) = 0 ds This can be seen from the following reasoning: Suppose that f{s) has multiple roots of order r.s. Determine the breakaway pOIIII. = 0 = SI' then we get (J0-4L) ri[(s) ds = 8'(s) + K A ' (s) = 0 ( 1 0-42) where From Equation (10-42). the characteristic equation may be written as . -. the particular value of K that will yield multiple roots of the characteristic equation is K 8'(s) A'(s) rl/\(s) A'(s) = . < S 8' (s) = -­ ri8(s) ds . To plot rOOI loci accurately. then and the point o f origin o f the asymptotes is ( 1 0). this last equation may be approximated by (s + l )' = O If the abscissa of the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is denoted by S = (T".S2 ) ' " (s .st l ( s ' .1 break away (as K is increased) from the real axis and move into the COI11plex plane.. from Equation (10-39). The breakaway point corresponds to a point in the s-plane where multiple roOIS of the characteristic equation occur. The asymptotes are almost part of the rcol lad in regions very far from the origin. A simple method for finding the breakaway point is available. The method is as follows: Let us write the charctcteristic equation as . 3.) 1l1is means that multiple roots of f(s) will satisfy Equation ( 10-41 ) . Then f(s) may be written as If we differentiate this equation with respect to s and sel s it s) = (s . where the root-locus branches originating from the poles at 0 and .Sec.

c-. the breakaway points can be determined simply from the rooLs of dK =0 tis Note that not all lhc solutions of Equation ( 1 0-43) or of Kids = 0 correspond to .-lI(s) and dK ds 8'(s) A (s) .5774 .--: + 1 . 5774 is not on the root locus: hence.4226 corresponds to the actual breakaway point. For the present example.::s (s + 1 ) (5 + 2) + = d 0 or K = _ (s3 Setting dK/ds = 0. then that point is an actual breakaway point.8'(s)lI(s) = 0 ( 10-43) If Equation ( 10-43) is solved for s.1 . we have 8(s) K = .A ( A(s) = 0 ' s) or 8(s)A'(s) . The point s = . Therefore. Stated differently.S(s)II ' ( s ) If (/I(Jds is set equal to zero. at a point at which df(s)/ds = O.1.3849 K = -0. = . If a point at which df(s)/ds = 0 is on a root locus.-. On the other hand. s = . we get 8' (s) /(s) = 8(s) .550 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. from Equation (10-40). if. it is clear that s = -0.c:c -. it a is an actual breakaway point.1 .+ 6s + 2 ) 0 or s = -0.5774 yields K = 0. the characteristic equation G(s) + J = 0 is given by K --. 1 0 ( [ we substitute this value of K into Equation {l0-40).I . we gel Equation (10-43). the points where mulliple roots occur can be obtained..3849 for s = -0. evaluating the values of K corresponding to s = -0.5 774 Since the breakaway point must lie all a rool locus between 0 and .1. we obtain - 3s' + 2s) = dK tis . ctual breakaway points.4226 and s = . In fact.4226.(3.4226 for s = .-. the value of K takes a real positive value. this point is not an actual breakaway point.

jl Figure 10-42 root locus. K =6 w = K = -2 (J Construction of .I { = ±cas. root loci cross the imaginary axis at w = ± Vz. must be 180°. 0 jw w = ± Yz.3w' ) + j(2w . select another test point until it satis­ fies thc condition.j. (llle sum of the angles at the test point will indicatc in which direction the test point should be moved. and then solving for w and K. For the present system. 2w .) Continue this process and locate a sufficient number of points satisfying the angle condition. If a test point is on the root loci. 7..w3 = 0 from which it follows that Thus. De/ermine a pair of r/ominalll complex-conjugale closed-loop poles sl/eh film the damping mlio { is O. Also. then the sum of the three angles.5 lie on lines passing through the origin and making the angles ±cos. These points can be found easily by substituting 5 = jw into the characteristic equation.l 05 = ±60° with or 0. we obtain (jW) 3 + 3(jw) ' + 2(jw) + K = 0 ( K . a root-Joeus branch on the real axis touches the imagi­ nary axis at w = O. Ol + O2 + 03 . and the value of K at the crossing points is 6. equating both the real and imaginary parts.. as shown in Figure 10-43. 6. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 551 Note that when the two branches enter the complex region from the breakaway point. based on the information obtained in the foregoing steps. and apply the angle condition.w3 ) = + 25 + K = 0 0 Equaling both the real and imaginary pans of this last equation to zero yields K . Draw Ihe roar loci.3 + 352 or jw into the characteristic equation. they leave the real axis at angles of ±90°. Dcrermillc the points where the rOOl loci cross rhe imaginary axis. the characteristic equation is Substituting s = .. .3w2 = O. 5_ Choose a (eSI point ill lhe broad neighborhood of (he jw-axis (llld (he origin.Sec. 4. as shown in Figure 10-42. If the test point does not satisfy the angle condition. Closed-loop poles with { = 0. to zero.

the dominant closed-loop poles lie in the right-half s-pJane.3337 + jO. the negative rca I a xi s. or Using this value of K. 5 + 1 .jl Figure 10-43 Root-locus plot. + + valuc of K t hat yields these poles is found from the magnitude condition as fo l lows : K = s. We next summarize the general rules and procedure for constructing the root loci of the system shown in Figure 1 0-44 .able system. We simply pick out a point on a root locus. = -0. it can be seen that for K = 6 the dominant closed-loop poles lie on the imaginary axis at s = ±jV2.33J7-Jo.3326. 10 K = 1 .5 s.so 151 · I s + 1 1 · 15 + 21 = K General rules for constructing root loci.s. the product is equal to the gain value K at that point. we find the third pole a t s = . First.0383 K=6 -3 I -2 / \ /\ 600 - \ Jl J1 ji K = 1.0383 u I . = -0. obtain the characteristic equation 1 + G(s)H(s) = 0 .552 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems jw Chap. resulting in an unst. such closed-loop poles having . the rool loci can be easily graduated in terms of K with the use of the magnitude condition. For K > 6. Finally.jO. = 1 .2.3337 .5780.0383 2) IF-o. and multi· ply these magnitudes. and 5 + 2. from step 4. note that. the system will exhibit sustained oscillations. measure the magnitudes of the three complex quan t i ti es 5.5780 I s(s 1 ) (5 Note thai. \Vi th this value of K. if necessary. are obtained as follows: lllC == 0. From Figure 1 0-43.

and find also the number of separate root loci. Then rearrange this equation into the form 1 + K(s + z \ ) ( s + Z2 ) · · (s + z. A root-locus plot will have just as many branches as there are roots of the characteristic equation. Determine the asympTOtes of rool loci.. then that point lies on a root locus. we assume that the parameter of interest is the gain K.m implicit zeros at infinity) along asymptotes.) . then the number of individual root-locus branches terminating at finite open-loop zeros is equal to the number 111 of open-loop zeros. = . If the test point s is located far from the origin. TIle complex-conjugate poles and zeros of the open-loop transfer function have no effect on tbe loca­ tion of the root loci on the real axis. the number of branches usually equals that of poles.m branches terminate at infinity (n . One open-loop zero then cancels the effects of one open-loop pole and vice versa. As K is increased to infinity. Root loci on the real axis are deter­ mined by open-loop poles and zeros lying on the axis. then the angle of each complex quantity may be considered the same. .Sec. Since the number of open-loop poles generally exceeds that of zeros. 3. ( s + p. + p. The root locus and its complement form alternate segments along the real axis. Find the starting points and terminating points of the root loci. Each root locus thus originates at a pole of the open-loop transfer function G( s)H(s ) . If the total number of real poles and real zeros to the right of a test point is odd. In the present discussion. Determine the root loci 011 the real axis. each root-locus approaches either a zero of the open-loop transfer function or infinity in the complex plane. The points on the root loci correspond­ ing to K 0 are open-loop poles. Note that the root loci are symmetrical about the real axis of the s-plane.. If the number o f closed-loop poles i s the same a s the number of open-loop poles. because the complex poles and complex zeros occur only in conjugate pairs. because the angle contribution of a pair of complex-conjugate poles or zeros is 3600 on that axis. ) = 0 (10-44) 1. The remaining /I . 2. where K > O.. Locare Ihe poles and zeros of G(s)H(s) all Ihe s-plalle.) (s + pi l e s so that the parameter of interest appears as the multiplicative factor. . 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 553 C(s) Figure 10� Control system. The rOOl-loclls brallc"es srarl from open-loop poles and lerminare at zeros (finite zeros or zeros at infinity).

. Un is always a real quantity.( ZI-2 . .11 . + PI1 )5" + . .. + PI P2 . . .. .m . + Z2 + .m . 1 .(Z I + Z. Once the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is found. then dividing the denomina­ tor by the numerator yields G(s) H(s) = . The point at which they do so is obtained as follows: If both the numerator and denominator of the open­ loop transfer function are expanded. . I + � � � -.­ � � 111 n ( 1 0-46) .__ __:_ -=. + Z ) ] S . ' 2_ _ _ ""' . 111 s . . + Z .m s + e: c. + Z + . + ..I m = -K + ( 1 0-45) 0 [ PI + P _ (. . . .. -" _ ·_ -' "' ----:. + . PII K [ S Ill + ( z. . + ..Ill.( " + Z.\"" m + [ ( PI + p.-=5 'l + ( PI + P2 + . .-. + (P� p . - j If the abscissa of the intersection of the asymptotes and the real axis is denot­ ed by S = u{/l then � n = = Because all the complex poles and zeros occur in conjugate pairs.m k = 0. Equation (10-45) may be approximated by n._ + + z ) P. 2.I ---': -:-'. + .. k = 0 corresponds to the asymptotes making the smallest angle with the real axis.-.. as k is increased. + z ) s m . ) . _ Z I + -=.Z2 ' " Z II] If a test point is located very far from the origin. .� �.c. . .--'. All the asymptotes intersect on the real axis. then one of the asymp­ totes is the negative real axis. ' " Here. + p .'--. . Note that if the number of asymptotes is odd. _ _ -::.(:'. -m ) . . the angle repeats itself. + .. Although k assumes an infinite number of values. K Since the characteristic equation is G(s)I-/(s) i t may be written -1 For a large value of s. . the root loci for very large values o f s must b e asymptotic to straight lines whose angles (slopes) are given by angles of asymptotes where 11 = = - ± l SO' (2k + 1 ) -'-'. + ·_ + '-'.. and the number of distinct asymptotes is 11 . + Pn) .l + . . + p. . the result is III = number of finite poles of G(s)H(s) number of finite zeros of G(s) H(s) G( s) H (s) = � I .-= "-::= :-. ---. ) .p. the asymptotes can be readily drawn in the complex plane.m + [ (p. 10 Therefore.+�) .554 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.

the breakaway points and break-in points either lie on the real axis or occur in complex-conjugate pairs. If a real root of Equation (10-47) is not on the root-locus portion of the real axis. if the value of K thus obtained is negative. we must find the directions of the root loci near the complex poles and zeros.) 5.--. . Find rhe breakmvay and break-in poims. If a real root of Equation (10-47) lies on the root-locus portion of the real axis.".. A root locus branch may Lie on one side of the corresponding asymptote or may cross the corresponding asymptote from one side to the other side. Similarly. 4. or there may exist both breakaway and break-in points.--.--. then there may exist no break­ away or break-in points. then this 1'001 corresponds to neither a breakaway point nor a break-in point. and if it is not certain whether they are on root loci. s . Derermine rhe angle of deparrure (angle of arrival) of rhe roar locus from a complex pole (ar a complex zero). (A break-in point.' .)-. It is important to note that the breakaway points and break-in points must be roots of Equation ( 1 0-47). If two roots s = ".-.--. --. -. like a breakaway point. but not all roots of Equation (10-47) are breakaway or break-in points. [A break-in point is a point where a root locus in the complex plane enters the real axis (or other root locus) as the gain K is increased. point s = 5. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 555 It is important to note that the asymptotes show the behavior of the root loci for lsi � 1. If a test point is chosen and moved in the very vicinity of a complex S ' ( " ) A ( -'... _ ..Sec. then there exists at least one breakaway point between the two poles. Suppose that the characteristic equation is given by S(s) + KA(s) = 0 The breakaway points and break-in points correspond to multiple roots of the characteristic equation. As shown earlier.--= 0 A \s) ( 1 0-47) . If the root locus lies between an open-loop pole and a zero (finite or infinite) on the real axis. of Equation ( 1 0-47) are a complex-conjugate pair.S ( ) A ( s) . If a root locus lies between two adjacent open-loop poles on the real axis. then it is an actual breakaway or break-in point. is an actual breakaway or break­ in point.00 ) on the real axis. (Since K is assumed to be nonnegative.s. then point s = 5 1 is neither a breakaway nor a break-in point. and s = . if the root locus lies between two adjacent zeros (one zero may be located at . If the value of K corresponding to a root S = SI of d Kids = 0 is positive. To sketch the root loci with reasonable accuracy. then it is necessary to check the corresponding K value.-. then there always exists at least one break-in point between the two zeros. the breakaway and break-in points can be determined from the roots of dK ds where the prime indicates differentiation with respect to s. corre­ sponds to a point in the s-plane where multiple roots of the characteristic equation OCCUL)] Because of the conjugate symmetry of the root loci.--.

A particular point on each root· locus branch is a closed·loop pole if the value of K at that point satisfies the magnitude con­ dition. Determine the closed-loop poles.e K value corresponding to each crossing frequency gives the gain at the crossing point. Figure 10-45 Construction of the root locus. The values of w thus found give the frequencies at which root loci cross the imaginary axis. That is. the magnitude condition enables us to determine the value jw Angle of aeparture e.(sum of the angles of vectors to a complex zero in question from other zeros) + (sum of the angles of vectors to a complex zero in question from poles) The angle of departure is shown in Figure 10-45. equating both the real part and the imaginary part to zero. the angle of departure (or angle of arrival) of the root locus from a complex pole (or at a complex zero) can be found by subtracting from 180' the sum of all the angles of vectors from all other poles and zeros to the complex pole (or complex zero) in question. Taking (/ series of test points in the broad neighborhood ofthe origin of the s· plane. The shape of the root loci in this important region in the s-plane must be obtained with sufficient accuracy.(sum of the angles of vectors to a complex pole in question from other poles) + (sum of the angles of vectors to a complex pole in question from zeros) Angle of arrival at a complex zero = 180' . 1 0 pole (or a complex zero). (Angle of departure = 1800 - (O! + 02) + Ip. the sum of the angular contributions from all other poles and zeros can be considered to remain the same. 7. and solving for w and K. 8. TI. The most important part of the root loci is on neither the real axis nor the asymptotes. Find the poinrs where the root loci may cross the imaginary axis. 6. Conversely. The points where the root loci intersect the jw-axis can be found by letting s = jw in the characteristic equation. sketch the root loci. Therefore. but is in the broad neighborhood of the jw·axis and the origin.] .556 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. with appropriate signs included. Determine the root loci in the broad neighborhood of the jw·axis and the origin. Angle of departure from a complex pole = 180' .

we can find the correct locations of the c1osed­ loop poles for a given K on each branch of the rool loci by a trial-and-error approach or with the use of MATLAB (see Section 1 0-9).--=--. Draw a root�locus diagram. the variable parameter K may not appear as a multiplicative factor of G(s)H(s). The root loci are continuous wilh K. the system involves ve loci t y feedback.-. or product of lenglhs .--.4. applying the magnitude condition. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 557 of the gain K at any specific root location on the locus. it may be possible to rewrite the characteristic equation so that K does appear as a multiplicative factor of G(s)H(s).poles -"'. (If necessary. anu then deter­ mine the value of k such that the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0. Example 1 0-8 illustrates how to proceed. TIle open-loop transfer function is Notice that the adjustable variable k docs not appear as a multiplicative factor. The characteristic equation for the system is open loop transfer function = 20 s( s + I ) ( s + 4 ) + 20ks = s3 + 5s' + If we define then Equation ( 10-48) becomes 4s + 20 + 20ks = 0 (10-48) 20k K ( 10-49) C(s) 53 + 5s2 + 45 + K 5 + 20 = 0 Figure 10-46 Control system.--=--K = '---product of lengths between point s to zeros ­ This value can be evaluated either graphically or analytically. Example 10-8 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-46. In such cases.) The value of K corresponding to any point s on a root locus can be obtained using the magnitude condition.. Here.s to . Constructing root loci when a variable parameter does not appear as a multiplicative factor.Sec. I f the gain K of the open-loop transfer function is given in the problem. the root loci may be graduated i n terms of K. .between point . I n some cases. then.

. and the open-loop zero is located at s = O.j2)(s + 5 ) S I .21. Is .:.42°.4490 20 at point P K � I ( s + j2)(s .4. .2°..4 must lie on straight lines passing through the origin and making the angles ±66. 1589+j4. At point P. K = lim ...558 Dividing both sides of Equation (10-49) by the SUIll of the terms that do not contain K..90° .� 0 . and s = -5.2° the angle of departure from the pole 5 = j2 is 158.4065 � 8.2. 5 )- as (Til 11le angle of departure ( angle 0) from the pole at 5 = j2 is obtained as follows: 111US. 10 -c...-..-' -.260 .::. We shall now sketch the root loci of the system given by Equation (10-50).-:. the value of K is K � Hence. we ger I + or I + Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Note that the closed-loop poles with . Thus. If the test point s is located far from the origin. !s + i2.42° with the negative real axis.!..-= K ') (s + 2. Figure 1O-47 shows a root· locus plot of the system.j2)(s + 5 ) Ks + 20 -0 - (10-50) ±1800(2k + I ) = ±90° 3 1 _ The intersection of the asymptotes with the real axis can be found from . 5 8 � 180° .= I1m S ---o 00 53 + 552 + 45 + 20 s-00052 + 55 + Ks .=--:: ':':'::' c-(s + j2) (s . the root loci for very large values of s must be asymptotic to straight lines whose angles are given by angles of asymptotes = --... Notice that the open-loop poles are located at s = j2. there are two intersections of the root-locus branch in the upper-half 5plane with the straight line of angle 66.::-:.9801 K � 0 . and � may be considered the same.8° + 90° � 158.%52 � 28. TIle root locus exists on the real axis between 0 and -5.: . = 0. I (s + j2)(s ..f=-2.lim � .Ks :"" :: 53 + 552 + 45 Equation ( 10-50) is now of the form of Equation (10-37). then the angles L. two values of K will give the damping ratio ( of the closed-loop poles equal to 0. = -2 .j2)(s + 5) 5 I k� At point Q. Since one open-loop zero cancels the effects of one open-loop pole and vice versa. the value of K is - l=o-I .W90+j2. I n the present case.. s = -j2.

)1. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 559 jw Q j6 j5 j4 j3 /1 jl s = . the three closed-loop poles are located at s = -2. s = . since The open-loop zero al s = 0 was introduced in the process of modifying the character­ istic equation such that the adjustable variable K = 20k was to appear as a mullipJica­ tive factor.4490. s = . the three closed-loop poles are located at For k = 1. k = - 20 K Consequently.0490 + /1.1589 .9021 = 1.4130 at point Q It is important to point out that the zero at the origin is the open-loop zero.4065. we have two solutions for this problem.4130. This is evident because the original system shown in Figure 10--46 does not have a closed-loop zero.}4. For k = 0. Thus.1 .0490 .4065.9652.9652. not the closed-loop zero.1589 + }4.9652 -7 -6 -5 -4 0 a -jl -/1 -j3 -j4 -j5 -j6 Figure 10-47 Root-locus plot for the system shown in Figure 10-46.1. s = -0. s = -2.Sec.4065 s = -2.6823 .0490 + }2.1589 + j4. 20 C(s) R(s) = s(s + l ) (s + 4) + 20(1 + ks) s = -2.1 .

t.1589 + j4.4490 is oscillatory. » t � 0:0.9652)(s + 2.4130 is given by C(s) 20 � R(s) s3 + 5s' + 32. MATLAB Program 10--4 may be used to plot the unit-step response curves in one diagram. the real closed-loop pole at s = -0. 1 .4130] are shown in Figure 10-48.560 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.4130.4490 and k 1 . the oscillations due to the closed-loop poles MAHAB Program 10-4 � » % Enter n umerators and denominators of systems » % with k 0.t). Let us compare the unit-step responses of both systems. whereas in the system with k = 1.4065 )(s + 2.9652)(s + 0. 'k = 1 .86. respectively.9021 on the unit-step response is small.t). The closed-loop transfer function with k 0. the response characteristic is determined primarily by the real c1osed­ loop pole.t[ step{num1 .) For the system with k = 1.41 30.6823) Notice that the system with k = 0.den2.0490 + j2. » num2 [ 0 o 0 20[.x2.98s + 20 R(s) (s + 1. » [c1 .98 20[. ' k = 0.26 201.4130.4490 is given by = C(s) 20 � s3 + 5s' + l2.8.4490') » text{4.26s + 20 20 (s + 2.xl .1589 .den1 .41 30') » grid » title{ ' U nit-Step Responses of Two Systems') » xlabel{'t (sec)') » ylabel{'Outputs c_1 and c_2 ' ) � = � � � � .4490 has a pair of dominant complex-conjugate closed-loop poles. » plot{t.0. From Figure 10--48 we notice that the response of the system with k = 0. l n this case. 1 . 1 : 1 0.c1 .6823 is dominant and the complex-conjugate closed-loop poles are not domi­ nant.4490 and c2(r) for k = 1.9021 ) 1. » » num1 [0 o 0 201. » den1 [ 1 5 1 2 . » [c2.4065)(s TIle closed-loop transfer function with k = + 20 1.c2) » text{3 .j2. 1 .j4.t[ step{num2 . » den2 � [ 1 5 32.0490 . (The effect of the closed-loop pole at s = �2. 10 \Ye have obtained two different values o f k which satisfy the requirement that the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles be equal to OA. TIle resulting unit-step response curves [CI(t) for k = 0.

� � .2 c. (Two values of k give the damping ralio � equal to 0. l. their approximate lo­ cations are aU that is needed to make an estimate of a system 's performance.2 2 3 4 5 6 ( (sec) 7 8 9 lO 10-48 Unit-step response curves for the system shown in Figure 10-46 when the damping ratio ( of the dominant closed-loop poles is set equal to 0. it should be clear that it is possi­ ble to sketch a reasonably accurate root-locus diagram for a given system by follow­ ing simple rules. we should choose k = 0.) Figure at s = -2. the system can become unstable. 1 0-8 Root-Locus Analysis 561 Unit-Step Responses of Two Systems � � '-.4 r.1589 ± j4.� .--'. If the number of open-loop poles exceeds the number of finite zeros by three or more. ) At preliminary design stages.� 1.. The system with k = 0. From the preceding discussions.. ollen.4. o � � 0.8 0. it is important that the designer have the capability of quickly sketching lhe root loci for a given system.6823. we present several open-loop pole-zero configurations and their corresponding root loci in Table 1 0-3. we can easily eval­ uate the changes in the root loci due to the changes in the number and location of the open-loop poles and zeros by visualizing the root-locus plots resulling from var­ ious pole-zero configurations.� . there is a value of the gain K beyond which root loci enter the right-half s-plane.4 k = 1. A stable system musl have all its closed-loop poles in the left-half s-plane. In that case.9652 damp out much faster than the purely exponential response due to the closed-loop pole at s � -0.4.' � "0 0. 4490 (which exhibits a faster response with relatively small overshoot) has a much better response characteristic than the system with k 1. The pattern of the root loci depends only on the relative separation of the open-loop poles and zeros. Note that once we have some experience with the method.4130 (which exhibits a slow overdamped response).4490 for the present system. := Typical pole-zero configurations and corresponding root loci. .6 0. we may not need the precise locations of the closed-loop poles. In con­ cluding this section.-'. Therefore.4130 0. thus...Sec. Summary. (The reader is urged to study various root-locus diagrams shown in the solved problems at the end of the chapter.

which may be . we deal with the system equation given in the form of Equation ( 1 0-37).562 TABLE 1 0-3 Root Loci Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. we present the MATLAB approach to generating root-locus plots. Plotting root loci with MATLAB. 1 0 Open-Loop Pole-Zero Configurations and the Corresponding jw jw u � / jw �w ( jw jw ) \ jw jw I \ jw ! u 1 0-9 ROOT-LOCUS PLOTS WITH MATLAB In this section. In plotting root loci with MATLAB.

Ir. If it is desired to plot the root loci with marks '0' and 'x ' . in some portion of the root loci those marks are densely situated.den ) With this command. Note that command rlocus(num. that is.) If the preceding two commands are invoked with left-hand arguments.'-') = = rlocus(num.Sec. FinaUy. K) utilizes the user-supplied gain vector K. Also. (The vector K contains all the gain values for which the closed-loop poles are to be computed. note that. Each row of the matrix corresponds to a gain from vector K. x ') or plot(r. the root-locus plot is drawn on the screen. A MATLAB command commonly used for plotting root loci is rlocus( num.c1en.den) p lot( r. 1 0-9 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 563 written as 1 + K -- num = 0 den where num is the numerator polynomial and den is the denominator polynomial. since each calculated closed-loop pole is shown graphically. Through an internal adaptive step-size routine. Note that both vectors num and den must be written in descending powers of s.K) plots the root loci.) The plot command plot(r.den) rlocus(num. MATLAB supplies its own set of gain values that are used to calculate a root-locus pial. and in another portion of the root loci they are sparsely situat­ ed.c1en. MATLAB uses the automatic axis-scaLing feature of the plOl command.'o') ' G(s) /-/( s) K(s + 1 ) s(s + 2 ) ( s + 3) 10K ( s + 1 ) G(s)H(s) = s ( s + 2)(s + 3) 200K (s + 1 ) G(s)J-/(s ) = ( s + 2)( s + 3 ) s . it is necessary to use the following command: Plotting root loci with marks '0' or I X ' is instructive. The gain vector K is automatically determined.KI - the screen will show the matrix r and gain vector K. rool-locus plots of r = rlocus(num. since the gain vector is determined automatically.K] Ir. (r has length K rows and length den 1 columns containing the locations of complex roots.

5)(s..� .5) (5/\2+0. To sct the plot region on the screen to be square. '---.. and s = 0. s = -0.6s + 10) K 54 + 1.. '-') » axis('equa l').65+1 0)1 ') xlabel ('Real Axis').3 5 01.5. Entering MATLAB Program 10-5 into the computer.: . 1sj + 10. � '---. a line with unity slope is at a true 45° angle and is not skewed by the irregular shape of the screen.� � -. » plot(r.6s 10)1 4 � -.:.+ 0.. we obtain the rool-Iocus plot shown in Figure 10-49. 10 are all the same.= + 2 -3 -2 Figure 10-49 ROOl-locus plOL � 0 -.-. » den = [ 1 » Ir.den).­ s(s + O.--2 � 4 � -3 -2 -� �� � -7 -I -7 � � 3--Real Axis .352 + 55 Consider a system whose open-loop transfer function G(s)H(s) is lllcre are no open-loop zeros. The num and den se t is and den are num den Example = = same for all three systems. 1480. Open-loop poles are located at s = -0. With this command.j3.3 . MAHAB Program 1 0-5 » num = 1 1 1 .3 + j3. s = -0. ylabel (' Imaginary Axis') = Root-Locus Plot of G(s) 3 K lls(s + 0. axis(v) title(' Root-Locus Plot of G(s) Klls(s+0.� � . enter the command axis ('equaJ'). 1 . v 1-4 4 -4 = » » = » grid 41. The 1 6 11 01 num 10 j1 0 5 10-9 K G(s) H (s) = .5)(s2 + 0. KI r1ocus(num.564 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems the Chap.-. 1 1 0.1480.

» plot(r.6 6 . Root-Locus Plot of G(. .t)(s2 + 4s + 16) K(s + I ) Figure 10-50 Control system..� � � � � 4 '00 " � a E a -2 -4 - I-------i-� �� � .Sec. K3 [ 1 00:0. 1 0-9 Example Consider the system shown in Figure 10-50. Note that this system is stable only for a limited range of gain K.2 . see Problem A-IO-IO. K[ = rlocus(num.K).den.' ) » axis('equal').) K(s + t )/ 1'(s .6 6[. v [ .) MATLAS Program 1 0-6 10-10 Root-Locus Plots with MATLAB 565 » num = [ 1 1 [ .5:500[. » K1 [0:0.� -.0 1 :5[. » [r. yiabel('lmaginary Axis') = = = = s(s.� � � -4 O 2 . K2 = [5:0.1 )(s' + 4s + 16)] -. ' ._4 7 � .'.-. » den = [1 3 1 2 .-6 r.� � � 6.6 Real Axis Figure 10-51 Root-locus p[OI.l ) (sI\2+4s+ 1 6)] ') » xlabel(. Root-Locus Plot of G(s) = K(s+ 1 )/[s(s. (For the exact range of K.-.02 : 1 00[. » K [K1 K2 K3[. The re­ sulting plot is shown in Figure 1 0-51.1 6 0[.Real Axis'). MATLAB Program 10-6 produces a root-locus plot in a square region. axis (v) » grid » title (. Plot the root loci with a square aspect ratio so that a line with unity slope is a true 45° line.

.) 111e two methods called Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules are aimed at obtaining 25% maximum overshoot in the step response. Ziegler and Nichols pro­ posed rules for determining values of the proportional gain K". Here. In the field of process control systems. Analog PID controllers are mostly hydraulic. many of these are transformed into digital forms through the use of microprocessors. electric.) C(s) Figure 10-52 of a plant. and some PID controllers may possess on-line automatic tuning capabilities. Because most PID controllers are adjusted on-site.566 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. I n that case. TIle process of selecting the controller parameters to meet given performance specifications is known as controller wning. pneumatic. 1 0 10-10 TUNING RULES FOR PIO CONTROLLERS I t is interesting to note that more than half of the industrial controllers in use today utilize PID or modified PID control schemes.) Ziegler-Nichols rules for tuning PIO controllers. Many practical methods for bumpless switching (from manual opera­ tion to automatic operation) and gain scheduling are commercially available. However. PIO control of plants. be applied to the design of systems willi known mathematical models. many different types of tuning rules have been proposed in the literature. (See Figure 10-53. (These rules can. we must resort to experimental approaches to the tuning of PID controllers. and T. Ziegler-Nichols rules.. Figure 10-52 shows the PID control of a plant. and derivative time �I based on the transient-response characteristics of a given plant.) based on experimental step responses or based on the value of Kp that results in marginal stability when only the proportional control action is used. presented next. although they may not provide optimal control in many given situations. PID control . then it is possible to apply various design techniques for determining the parameters of the controller that will meet the transient and steady-state specifications of the closed-loop system. then an analytical approach to the design of a PID controller is not possible. Ziegler and Nichols suggested rules for tuning PID controllers (to set values Kin T. and electronic types or their combinations. it is a well-known fact that both basic and modified PID control schemes have provcd their usefulness in providing satisfac­ tory control.. if the plant is so complicated that its mathematical model cannot be easily obtained. we introduce only the Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. of course. integral time T. With these tuning rules. Currently. I f a mathematical model of the plant can be derived. The usefulness of PID controls lies in their general applicability to most control systems. PID con­ trollers can be delicately and finely tuned. Also. however. (Numerous tuning rules for PID controllers have been proposed since Ziegler and Nichols of­ fered their rules. automatic tuning methods have been developed. Such determination of the parameters of PID controllers or tuning of PID con­ trollers can be made by engineers on-site by experimenting on the plant. are convenient when mathematical models of plants are not known.

:ll--__�. then such a unit-step response curve may look like an S-shaped curve. as shown in Figure 10-54.22:(1 + 2Ls + O.. The S-shaped curve may be characterized by two constants-the delay lime L and a time constant T-determined by drawing a line tangent to the S-shaped curve at the inflection point. 1 0. as shown in Figure 1 0-55. First method.---_r. (If the response does not exhibit an S-shaped curve..:. These constants are determined by the intersections of the tangent line with the time axis and the line C(I) = K. I n the first Ziegler-Nichols method. as shown in Figure 10-55.I t-.". ) 2 Kp l + + _ _ 1 .) Step-response curves of this nature may be generated experimentally or from a dynamic simulation of the plant. Notice that the PID controller tuned by the first Ziegler-Nichols method gives GAs) = = = O.Sec.'s TdS ) 1. we obtain the response of the plant to a unit-step input experimentally.Ls = U(s) Ts + 1 Ziegler and Nichols suggested setting the values of Kp' 7. and 7. The transfer function C(s)/U(s) may then be approximated by a first-order system with a transport lag as follows: CCS) Ke. . this method does not apply.6T _ I ( . If the plant involves neither integrators nor dominant complex-conjugate poles._ V 11(1 ) s L D C(I) Figure 10-54 Unit-step response of a plant. + .1 0 C(I) Tuning Rules for P I D Controllers 567 Figure 10-53 Unit-step response curve showing 25% maximum overshoot.. according to the formula shown in Table 10-4.5LS ) L ( 2.

we increase Kp from 0 to a critical value Kcr at which the output first exhibits sus­ tained oscillations.2L T. Tangent line at inflection point Figure 10--55 S-shaped response curve. 00 �I 0 0 0. the PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zeros at s = = . = TABLE 10-4 Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Rule Based on Step Response of Plant (Fi rst Method) Type of Controller P PI PID KI' T L T 0. Thus. we first set 00 and Td O. 1 0 K r-------7f�-- . according to the formula shown in Table 1 0-5.) Ziegler and Nichols suggested that we set the values of the parameters Kp' T.1 / L. then this method does not apply. In the second Ziegler-Nichols method. and 0. Using the proportional control action only (see Figure 10-56). 9L T 1 .5L - L 0.3 2L .568 Time-Domain An a lys is c(/) and Design of Control Systems Chap. T. Notice that the PID controller tuned by the second Ziegler-Nichols method gives Second method. (If the output does not exhibit sustained oscillations for whatev­ er value Kp may take.. (See Figure 10-57.) Thus the critical gain K" and the corresponding period Pu are determined experimentally.

the PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zeros at s -4/ P".4SKcr Q. 1 2SP" O. Ziegler-Nichols luning rules can. of course. Over many years.Sec.5Kn c.) If the transfer function of the plant is known. and 01 from Table 1 0-4 or Table 10-5. Then. with those calculated values. 10-10 Tuning Rules for PID Controllers C(I) 569 Figure 10--56 Closed-loop system with a proportional controller.2 cr D D.6Kcr 00 1 -p 1. TABLE 10-5 Gain �r and Critical Period Pcr (Second Method) Ziegler-Nichols Tuning Thus. However. Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules (and other lUning rules presented in the literature) have been widely used to tune PID controllers in process control systems for which the plant dynamics are not precisely known. a unit-step response may be cal­ culated or Ihe critical gain K" and critical period P" may be calculated. the real usefulness of Ziegler-Nichols tun­ ing rules (and other tuning rules) becomes apparent when the plant dynamics are 1101 known. many analytical and graphical approaches to the design of PID controllers are available in addition to Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules. iod er = Comments. C(I) o Figure 10--57 Sustained oscillation with per P . be applied to plants whose dynamics are known. (If plant dynamics are known. 0. such tuning rules have proved to be highly useful. Rule Based on Critical Type of Controller P PI PID K" T. it is possible to determine the parameters K". so that no analylical or graphical approaches to the design of controllers are available. T" 0 O.SPer .

711 and �/' Then we will obtain a unit-step response curve and check whether the designed system exhibits approximately 25% maximum overshoot. . Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules give an educated guess for the parameter values and provide a starting point for fine-tuning. either because the plant does not exhibit the S-shaped response or because the plant does not exhibit sustained oscil­ lations no matter what gain K is chosen. If the plant is such that Ziegler-Nichols rules can be applied. fine-tunc the system and reduce the amount of the maximum overshoot to approximately 25%. however. in which a PID controller is used to control the system.570 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Ziegler-Nichols tuning rules can be applied. If the maximum overshoot is excessive (40% or more). On the average (obtained by experimenting on many different plants). for plants with complicated dynamics. let us apply a Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule for the determination of the val­ ues of parameters Kp . the maximum overshoot is approximately 25%. If.. (This is quite understandable. 1 0 Generally.. it is always possible (experimentally or otherwise) to fine-tune the closed-loop system so that it will exhibit satisfactory transient responses.) In a given case. if the maximum overshoot is excessive. the rules may not be applicable in some cases. we use the second Ziegler-Nichols method. Setting 7j = 00 and �I = O. then the plant with a PID controller tuned by such rules will exhibit approximately 10% to 60% maximum overshoot in step response. The PID controller has the transfer function � G. but n o integrators. I n fact. Since the characteristic equation for the closed-loop system is s(s + l ) (s Kp + 5) + Kp 53 + 6s2 + 55 + Kp = 0 C(s) Figure 10-58 PID-controlled PID Controller S(5 + t )(5 + 5) system. we obtain the closed-loop transfer function ( + J... the plant has an integrator. Since the plant has an integrator. + 7. because the values suggested in Tables 1 0-4 and 1 0-5 are based on the average.15) 7is C(s) � R(s) The value of Kp that makes the system marginally stable so that sustained oscillations occur can be obtained by the use of Routh's stability criterion.( s) Kp l Although many analytical methods are available for the design of a PID controller for this system. Examplc 10-11 Consider the control system shown in Figure 10--58.

32235' + 1Bs + 12. the period of sustained oscillation is (jw)' + 6(jw)' + 5(jw) 30 = 0 6(5 .B099 . Thus. 32235' + IB5 + 12.Sec. the characteristic equation becomes s3 + 6s2 + 5s + 30 = 0 To find the frequency of the sustained oscillations. we substitute s = acteristic equation and obtain or from which we find the frequency of the sustained oscillation to be Hence. = 0.3223(5 + 1.B l l 5 The unit-step response of this system can be obtained easily with MATLAB.4235 . TIle maximum overshoot in the unit-step response is approximately 62%.4 1 )5 The PID controller has a pole at the origin and double zero at s = -1.351245 ) 1. is . 10-10 Tuning Rules for PIO Controllers 571 the Routh array becomes 53 5 ' 51 sO I 6 30 .w') 0 = + jw into this char­ = 5 or ?" = From Table 10--5. let us examine the unit-step response of the system... we find that sus­ tained oscillation will occur if Kp = 30. A block dia­ gram of the control system with the designed PIU controller is shown in Figure 10-59. Next. (See MATLAB Program 10--7.(5) = Kp 1 = I Kfl = O.125?" = 0.6Kcr = 18 o = 0.J 5 Kp Examining the coefficients of the first column of the Routh array.Kp 6 K..4235)' -' ( + -..) TIle resulting unit-step response curve is shown in Figure 10-60. + 7. The transfer function of the PID controller is thus G.) T. we determine 211 w = 2 = 2.w') + jw(5 .s O' B ( + � + 0.!.-.35124 6. 5 v ::: w2 w = Vs.5?" = l AOS 0.B l l ' + 6s3 + 1 1 . The closed-loop trans­ rer runction C(5)/R(5) is given by C(5) R(5) 6. the critical gain Kcr is Kcr = 30 With the gain Kp set equal to Kcr( = 30).

81 1 1 .65.2 I 'G :.7692s 3._ .----. thaI is.4 Figure 10-60 S Q.65) ' s (10-51) MAHAB Program 1 0-7 » t 0:0.. . » den = [1 6 1 1 . using the PID controller G. 0.den..l) » grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » x[abe[('I').01 : 1 4.-: .. It can be reduced by fine-tuning the controller parameters. Unit-step response curve of PIO-controlled system designed by the use of the second Ziegler-Nichols luning method.-. possibly on the computer..(s ) � 18 1 ( + 1 + 0.2 O L-�-�----�-�-�� o 2 4 6 I 8 10 12 14 (sec) excessive... We find that... ylabe[('Output cit)' ) � = .4235)' Chap.3223 1 8 1 2 .572 lime-Domain Analysis and Des i g n of Control Systems � L_ _ _ _ -' s 6... » step(num.3223 1 8 1 2 .. 0..6 1..81 1 [ . 1. 1 0 PIO Controller s(s + I )(s + 5) C(s) Figure 10-59 Block diagram of the system with PID controller designed by the use of the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method.077s ) � 1 3..3223 (s + 1 .8 o 0.� � . » num [0 0 6.8 1.6 0. by keeping Kf! = 18 and by moving the double zero of the PID controller to s = -0.. � .4 <::' Unit-Step Response 1 .846 (s + 0.

322 "'-.4 0.) If the proportional gain K p is increased to 39. to approximately 28%.(s) = 39...42 I + .4235.--'-' 3. the maximum overshoot in the unit-step response can be reduced to approximately 18%. It is instructive to note that. if thc PID controller ' (s + 0 65 ) .(') 1 3 . as given by Equation (10-52).2 O L. = 3. varying the value of K (from 6 to 30) will not change the damping ratio of the dominant c1osed·loop poles very much.65)'/.� � � � .7692.846(. 18.+ 0. or G.''( 1 0-52) -G. T.(s).. thai is. T" � 0.7692 . varying gain Kp has very little effect.6 0. but the maximum overshoot is also increased.077. Then the tuned values of Kp' ri• and �I become It is interesting to observe that these values are approximately twice the values sug· gested by the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method.077. then the speed of response is increased. to be acceptable. Since the dominant branches of root loci are along the ( = 0. Since the maximum over­ shoot in this case is fairly close to 25% and the response is faster than the system with G. However. 1l1e important thing to note here is that the Ziegler-Nichols rule has provided a starting point for fine·tuning.0.'-.2 s.Unit-Step Response :5 "5 0- 0. as shown in Figure 10-62.42.65)..-'. we may consider G. 3. Figure 1 0--63 shows the root· locus diagram for the system designed with the second Ziegler-Nichols tuning method. 10-10 Tuning Rules fo r PID Controllers 573 1 .Sec.(s) given by Equation (10-51). (See Figure !O-61.7692s = 30. varying the location of the double zero Kp = 39. without changing the location of the double zero (s = -0.. 07 7 s s ( I ) is used. but as far as the percentage maximum overshoot is concerned.4 1.. T.8 . + 0.� � . increasing the value of KI' increases the speed of response.3 lines for a considerable range of K. (sec) Figure 10-61 Unit-step response of the system shown in Figure = � � 10-58 with PID cOOlro\ler with parameters Kp = and T" 0.� � 5 6 7 .42. in the case where the double zero is located at s = -1 .� � � � _ _ _ _ o 2 _ _ 3 _ _ L. llle reason for this may be seen from the root· locus analysis.

+ 35 ) K S _.I i 0.3 -""'" K 6.32 -5 .4 Figure 10-62 Unit-step response of the system shown in Figure 10-58 with PID controller with parameters Kp = 39.2 Unit-Step Response 0. _ I� _ - f. = 0.322(s + 0. + 1)(5 + 5) K = 6.5 4 4. j3 j 2 \ 0.574 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.65)'ls.32 .= = jl -4 -3 -2 -I I o -jl (]" -j2 Figure 10-63 ROOI-Iocus diagram of system when PID controller has double zero at s = -1.5 2 2..12.2 1. T = 3.4 1.5 5 jw -&-IL. or G("(s) = 30. 10 1.5 I (sec) 3 3..7692..077.4235.(. and T.. . 2 _ _ (_ _ _ ' -.

65.62 are not quite dom­ inant. the closed-loop poles at s = -2. The maximum overshoot in the step response in this case (18%) is much larger than in the case of a second-order system having only dominant closed-loop poles.82 act as dominant poles.846 corresponds to Ge(s) given by Equation (10--51) and K = 30. the maximum overshoot in the step response would be approximately 6%.65. By contrast.(s) given by Equation (10-52).Sec.65. This can also be seen from the root-locus analysis. Figure 1� Root-locus diagram of system when PID controller has double zero at s = -0. because the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles can be changed significantly.35 ± j4. Figure 10--64 show'S the root-locus diagram for the system with PID controller with a double zero at s = -0. making it possible to change the damping ratio of the dominant closed-loop poles. K = 13. Two additional closed­ loop poles are very near the double zero at s -0. 10-10 Tuning Rules for PID Controllers 1 jw jS 575 S(H 1)($+ 5) j6 G. Notice the change of the roOl-locus configu­ ration. the closed-loop poles at s = -2.) = . when the system has K = 13. with the result that these closed­ loop poles and the double zero almost cancel each other. The dominant pair of closed-loop poles indeed determines the nature of the response. (In the laner case. because the two other closed-loop poles near the double zero at s = -0.35 ± j2.322 corresponds to has a considerable effect on the maximum overshoot.322.65 have a considerable effect on the response. In the figure. notice that.846. in the case where the system has gain K = 30.

Solution First. Combining two blocks into one gives Figure 1O--{j6(c). . 1----. Figure 10-65 Block diagram of a system. H. (a) (b) G 1 + GH2 H 1 + ----' G (e) Figure 10-66 Block diagrams showing steps for simplifying the system of Figure 10-65. 10 EXAMPLE PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS Problem A-IO-l Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 1O--{j5 . Then. move the branch point of the path involving HI outside the loop in­ volving H2 as shown in Figure 10-66(a).576 lime-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. eliminating two loops results in Figure 1O--{j6(b).

+ 1 R(s) Solution The signal = = R(s). 10--67.5// Bl = [l!. D1 = [0. . Cl [-LS].[GI R(s) + R(s)) + R(s) \Ve thus have C(s) = GIG. or A2 = [-21 O0]· ["1] [-2 O][XI] + [1] l O x.r = y C(s) Problem A-I0-3 Consider the system shown in Figure or A state space representation of G2 is . ] + [O]y - 10-68.X(s) and R(s): C(s) = G.5] = f{ B2 [a = z = = = - Y C2 = [0 10).5x+ + 0.i-.X(s) + R(. !' � . Ai = [-5]. A state-space representation of G1 is -5x -1. + G.Example Problems and Solutions 577 Problem A-I0-2 For the block diagram shown in Figure and Xes) is the sum of two signals GIR(s) and R(s): Xes) GIR(s) + R(s) The output signal C(s) is the sum of G. 0 [0 lOt. derive the transfer function relating C(s) R(s) Figure 10--67 Block diagram of a system.) G. D2 [a] = -'©-I- t sysg Figure lQ-68 Closed-loop system.

578

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

Define

Obtain a state-space expression of the series connection of Gt and G2 with MATLAB. Use the command Then pl ot the unit-step response of the closed-loop system shown in Figure using the following commands: Solution MATLAB Program A
=

sysl = sslA 1 , B l ,Cl , 0 1 ) sys2 = ssIA2,B2,C2,02)
sysg series{sys1 ,sys2)

=

» A1 = 1 5 1 ; B 1 = 11 1 ; Cl = 1- 1 .51; 01 = [0.51; » A2 = [-2 0; 1 01; B2 = 11 ; 01; C2 = [0 1 01 ; 02 = 101; » sys1 = ss(A1 , B 1 ,C1 , 0 1 ); » sys2 ssIA2, B2,C2,D2); » sysg = serieslsys1 ,sys2) a= xl x2 x3 xl -2 - 1 .5 0 x2 0 0 0 x3 0 -5
=

MAHAB Program 1 0-8

10-8 0 [�2 �0 -�- 5]. [ �5 ], 5
o

sys = feedback{sysg, [1 [);

produces sysg characterized by C
=

steplsys)

10--68
=

by

B

=

I

[0 10 OJ,

D

[OJ

b=

u1 xl x2 x3
c= 0.5

0

xl y1 d= y1 u1 0
0

x2
10

x3
0

Continuous-time model. » sys = feedbacklsysg,ll I); » steplsys) » grid » tit[e( ' U n i t-Step Response') » x[abe [('t') » y[abe[('Output zit)')

Example Problems and Solutions

579

Unit-Step Response

0.9 0.8 0.7 S 0.6 � 0.5 5 o 0.4
N

0.3 0.2 0.1

0.5
Figure 10-69

1.5

r (sec)

2

2.5

3

3.5

Unit-step response curve.

MATLAB Program 10-8 <lIsa produces the unit-step response of the closed-loop sys­ tcm, as shown in Figure 10-69.
Problem A-l� Consider the control system shown in Figure 1 0-70, in which a proportional-plus­ integral controller is used to control the load element consisting of a moment of iner­ tia and viscous friction. Show that if the system is stable this controller eliminates steady-slate error in the response to a step reference input and a step disturbance input. Show also that if the controller is replaced by an integral controller, as shown in Figure 10-71. the system becomes unstable. Solution For the control system shown in Figure 1 0-70, the closed-loop transfer func­ tion between C(s) and R(s) in the absence of the disturbance input D(s) is C(s) R(s)

=

K" K +P T;s

K" , Js- + bs + Kp + T,s
D(s) C(s)

Figure 10-70

Proportional-plus-integral control of a load clement consisting of moment of inertia and viscous friction.

580

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

C(s)

Figure 10--71 Integra! control of a load element consisting of moment of
inertia and viscous friction.

TIle error signal can be obtained from
£(s) R(s) R(s) - C(s) R(s) Kp ., is- + bs + Kp + 7fs

Hence, for the unit-step input R(s) = l/s,
£(s)

., is- + bs + Kp +
lS2 +

J52 + bs

-

Kp

7js
bs

If the system is stable, the steady-slate error css can be obtained as follows:
e"

S

1

s-o

lim s£(s) � lim

s-o

152 + bs + Kp + KP

�0

TiS

For the system shown in Figure 10-70, the closed-loop transfer function between C(s) and D(s) in the absence of the reference input R(s) is
C(s) D(s) s

The error signal is obtained from
£(s)

-C (s)

If the system is stable, the steady-state crror torque of magnitude D [D(s) � Dis] is
e ss

s - - - - D( s ) - ::..... ---; ;K J5"; + bs2 + K/'s + ---.!!.. 7j
ess

in the response to a step disturbance

s--o

lim s£(s)

s-o

lim

Kp is] + bs- + Kps + T,
.,

_.'12

D
5

�0

Thus, the steady-state error to the step disturbance torque is zero. If the controller were an integral controller, as in Figure 10-71, then the system would always become unstable, because the characteristic equation
lsJ + bs2 + K = O

Example Problems and Solutions

581

Problem A-10-5

will have at least onc root with a positive real part. Such an unstable system cannot be used in practice. Note that in the system of Figure 10-70, the proportional control action tends to stabilize the system, while the integral control action tends 10 eliminate or reduce steady·state error in response to various inputs. Determine the values of K and k such that the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-72 has a damping ratio { of 0.7 and an undamped natural frequency w" of 4 Tadls. Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

C(s) R(s)
Noting that
W,, =

=

K s' + (2 + Kk)s + K

VK.
K

we obtain and

2{w" = 2 + Kk
=

= w�

42 = 16

2 + Kk
Thus, or

=

2{w" = 2 x 0.7 x 4 = 5.6
Kk = 3.6
=

R(s)

@-@-+ +
-

36 k = . 16

0.225
C(s)

l..-_--'

Figure 10-72 Closed-loop sysrem.

Problem A-10-6 Determine the values of K and k of the closed-loop system shown in Figure 1 0-73 so that the maximum overshoot in unit-step response is 25% and the peak lime is 2 s. Assume that J = 1 kg_m2 .

Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

C(s) R(s)

K = 1s' + Kks + K

582
R(s)

-+

@--@--

TIme-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
C(s)

Chap.

10

+

-

Figure 10--73
= 1

Closed-loop system.

LG
C(s)

Substituting J

2 kg_m into this last equation, we have

R(s)
WI! =

=

K s' + Kks + K

Note that

The maximum overshoot Mp is which is specified as 25% . Hence.

VK.
Mp
-

e-'1f/�

e-M� = 0.25 from which it follows that

or The peak time tp is specified as 2 s, so

!: = 0.404

1 = �=2 P W(t

or

Wt/ W

The undamped natural fre quency WII is then

=

1.57
1.57 0.404'
-

w =

"

VI="?

d

=

VI

=

1. 7

2

Therefore, we obtain

K
k

=

=

w� = L7i� = 2.95 N-m 2!:w" 2 X 0.404 X 1 .72 = 0.471 s = 2.95 K

Example Problems and Solutions

583

Problem A-I0-7 When the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-74(a) is subjected to a unit-step input, the system output responds as shown in Figure 10-74(b). Detennine the values of K and T from the response curve. Solution The maximum overshoot of sponse curve, we have Consequently,
l,, =
w(/ 'TT

25.4 %

corresponds to ,

= 0.4. From the

re­

=

7T

W11 � WI!
=

It follows that From the block diagram, we have C(s) R(s) from which we obtain
w"

1.143

=

Jf.
C(s)

2Tw = !> /I T

I

(a)

C(I)

0.254

o

3

(seconds)

(b)

Figure 10-74 (a) Closed-loop sys­ tem: (b) unit-step response curve.

584

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 10

111crefore,

= 1 . 094 T=-= 2(w" 2 x 0.4 x 1.143

K = w;,T = 1.143' x 1 .094 = 1.429
Problem A-I0-8 For the closed-loop system shown in Figure 10-75, discuss the effects that varying the values of K and b have on the steady-state error in a unit-ramp response. Sketch typical unit-ramp response curves for a small value, a medium value, and a large value of K. Solution The closed-loop transfer function is

1

I

C(s) R( s)
Therefore.

Js' +

K bs + K

£(s) R(s)
For a unit-ramp input, R(s)

R(s) - C (s) R(s)
1/5'- Thus,
£(5)

ls2 + bs + K

The steady-state error is
ess
=

J-O

hm

b . sE ( s) = K

We sec that we can reduce the steady-state error ess by increasing the gain K or decreasing the viscous-friction coefficient b. However, increasing the gain or decreas­ ing the viscous-f:riction coefficient causes the damping ratio to decrease, with the result that the transient response of the system becomes more oscillatory. On the one hand, doubling K decreases ess to half its original value, whereas ( is decreased to 0.707 of its original value, since ( is inversely proportional to the square root of K. On the other hand, decreasing b to half its original value decreases both ess and ( to half their original values. So it is advisable to increase the value of K rather than decrease the value of b. After the transient response has died out and a steady state has been reached, the output velocity becomes the same as the input velocity. However, there is a steady·state positional error between the input and the output. Examples of the unit·ramp response of the system for three different values of K are illustrated in Figure 1 0-76.

C(s)

Figure 10-75

Closed-loop system.

Example Problems and Solutions
Large K Small K

585

,(I) c(/)

Medium K

Figure 10-76 o

Unit-ramp response curves for the sys­ tem shown in Figure 10-75.

Problem A-I0-9 Consider the following characteristic equation:
s"' + Ks3 + 52 +
S

Determine the range of K for stability. Solution The Routh array of coefficients is
54 5' 52 51 5° I K

+ I = 0

I 0

-

K - I K K' K -

0 0

---

For stability, we require that
K >0 K - I -- > 0 K K' >0 K - 1
--

From the first and second conditions. K mllst be greater than unity. For K > 1. notice that the term 1 - f K2j( K - "1 ) I is always negative, since
K - I - K' K 1
-

- + Kc- - K ) - I _ ...: I_ ---,__ ( _ ' < 0 K - I

lllUS. the three conditions cannot be fulfilled simultaneously. lllcreforc. there is no value of K that allows stability of the system.

586

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

Problem A-IO-IO A simplified form of the open-loop transfer function of an airplane with an autopilot in the longitudinal mode is

Determine the range of the gain K for stability. Solution The characteristic equation is

K(5 + 1 ) G(5) N (5) = - --' , -'- ­ - '"' - s(s - 1 ) (s- + 45 + 16)
+

G(s)N(s)
or
_ _ _

1 =a
+ a

K (5 c + 1 ' "': --, ) '_ 5(S - 1 ) (s' + 45 + 16)
which can be rewritten as

1
+

=

5(S - 1 ) (5' + 4s + 16) + K(s
or

1)

= 0

5' + 3s3 5' 53

The Routh array for this characteristic equation is

+

I2s' + (K - 16)s + K 12 K - 16 K a

=a
K
a a

, s-

51 SU

1 3 52 - K --3 -K' + 59K - 832 52 - K K

The values of K that make the 5 1 term in the first column of the array equal to zero are K = 35.68 and K = 23.32. Hence, the fourth term in the first column of the array becomes

- ( K - 35.68)(K - 23.32) 52 - K
The condition for stability is that all terms in the first column of the array be positive. Thus, we require that

from which we conclude that K must be greater than 23.32, but smaller than 35.68, or

52 > K 35.68 > K > 23.32 K>a

35.68 > K > 23.32
A root-locus plot for this system is shown in Figure 10-77. From the plot, it is clear that the system is stable for 35.68 > K > 23.32.

Example Problems and Solutions
jw

587

-6

-4

Figure 10-17 Root-locus plot.

Problem A-lil-ll A control system with G(s) =
'

s (s + I ) '

K

H(s) = I

is unstable for all positive values of the gain K. Plot the root loci of the system. Using the plot, show that the system can be sta­ bilized by adding a zero on the negative real axis or by modifying G(s) to G,(s), where G, (s) - s'{s + 1 )

-

K s +_ -, (_ a ) ,.:- -,K

(0

" a < I)

Solution A root-locus plot for the system with G(s) - s'(s + I )

_

H(s)

=

1

is shown in Figure 10-78(a). Since two branches lie in the r ight half-plane, the system is unstable for any value of K > O. The addition of a zero to the transfer function G(s) bends the right half-plane branches to the left and brings all root-locus branches to the left half-plane, as shown in the root-locus plot of Figure 10-78(b). Thus, the system with

588

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

is stable for aU K > O.

K ( s + a) , G1 = , r(s + 1 )

H(s)

1

(0 s a < 1 )

2 ,-��--��-��--.
1.5

Root-Locus Plot of G(s) K�s'(s + I»), H(,)

=

=I

e 0 c '0;, e E -0.5

<
•• K
-

0.5

>.

-1.5

-I

-2_2 -1.5

-I

-0.5

0

0.5

1.5

2

Real Axis (a)
=

Root-Locus Plot of G(,) K(, + 0.5)/[s'(, + 1»), fI(,) = I

2 r- � � -- � � � -- � � �
1

1.5
;; 0.5 < t0 O c 'Qh 0 E -0.5
. �

(a) Root-locus plot of the system with G(,) = K/[,'(, 1») and H(s) 1; (b) root-locus plot of the sys­ tem with G,(,)= K(, + a)/[,'(, + 1») and H(s) 1, where a = 0.5.
Figure 10--78

=

+

-1.5

-I

f

�-�-1.5 -1 -7 7- 0.5 � 1.5 � � � � 1 -7 2 � 2 � 7--0.5 0 �
Real Axis (b)

=

Problem A-l(l-U Consider the control system shown in Figure 10-79. Plot the root loci for the system. Then determine the value of the gain K such that the damping ratio { of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0.5. Using MATLAB, determine all closed-loop poles. Finally, plot the unit-step response curve with MATLAB.

Example Problems and Solutions

589

Figure 10-79

Control system.

Solution TIle open-loop transfer function is G(s) Hence, for this system,
=

K , s(s- + 4s + ))
_

num den

= =

III 11 4

5

01

MATLAB Program 10-9 produces a rOOl-locus plot for the system, as well as the ( = 0.5 line (a line radiating frorn the origin and having an angle of 60° from the nega­ tive real axis if the axes are square). The root-locus plot is shown in Figure 10-80.
MATlAB Program 1 0-9

» num Il l; » den = 1 1 4 5 01; » K1 = 10:0.001 :2.51; K2 12.5:0.01 : 1 001; K3 » K IK1 K2 K3 1 ; » Ir, KI = rloc u s ( num, de n ,K); » plot(r,'-') » axisCequal'); v = [-4 4 -4 4[; axis(v) » hold Current plot held » x = 10 -2]; y = [0 3 .464]; l ine(x,y) » grid » title C Roat-Locus Plot') » xlabelCReal Axis'); yl abelC l magi n ary Axis') » text( - 3 .5,2.5 , ' \zeta = 0.5') » hold Cu rrent plot released
= = =

=

1 1 00:0.5 : 1 0001;

Next. we shall determine the value of the gain K such that the dominant closed-loop poles have a damping ratio { of 0.5. We may write the dominant closed-loop poles as s
=

x

where x is an unknown constant to be determined. Since the characteristic equation for the system is substituting s 53 + 4s2 + 5s + K = 0 x + jV3x into this last equation, we obtain = (x + jV:lX)3 + 4(x + jV:lx)' + 5(x + jV:lx) + K

±

j'v3x

or

-8x3 - 8x' + 5x + K

+

2V:lj(4x'

+

2.Sx)

=

a

= a

590

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 4
2 , = 0.5 Root-Locus Plot

Chap. 1 0

3
. ';;
<: 1:"

.� 0

-I

0

-2 -3
-4-4 4

-3 -2 -I

J'igurc 10-80 Root-locus plol.

Equating the real part and imaginary part to zero, respectively, we get

Real Axis

0

2

3

Noting that x

-8x3 - 8x2 + 5x + K 4x' + 2.5x 4x + 2.5
=

0, we obtain, from Equation (10--54),
0

0 = 0

=

(10-53) (10-54)

or

Substituting x

=

8x3 + 8x2 - 5x = 8( -0.625)3 + 8( = 4.296875 lllU S, we determine that K equals 4.296875.
K
=

-0.625 into Equation (10-53 ) , we get
-

x = -0.625
.

0 625 ) '

- 5( -0.625)

To determine all closed-loop poles. we may enter MATLAB Program the compulCr.
MAHAB Program 1 0-1 0

10-10 into

p = 11 4 rOO(5(p)
ans =

5

4.2968751;

-2 .7500 -0.6250 + 1 .0825i -0.6250 - 1 .0825i

Example Problems and Solutions
� � � --'- - - � ...., r- - - � � � r- -

591

1.4

Uni t- S tep Respon se

1 .2

0 0.6

:; ":;

0.8
0.4 3 5 4 r (sec)

0.2 0 0 2

6

7

8

9
Figure 10-81

Unit-step response.

Thus.lhe closed-loop poles are located al S � -0.625 ± jl.0825 and S � -2.75. 111e unit-step response curve can be plotted by entering MATLAB Program 10-11 into the computer. The resulting unit-step response curve is shown in Figure 10-8 1 .
MAHAB Program

1 0-1 1

Problem A-IO-13

» num = [4.2969[ ; » den [1 4 5 4.29691; » step[num,den) » grid » title('Unit-Step Response') » xlabel('t') » ylabel('Output')
=

Consider the system shown in Figure '10-82. Design a compensator such that the domi­ nant closed-loop poles arc located at s = -2 ± j2V3. Plot the unit-step response curve of Ihe designed system with MATLAB. Solution and s =

s = -2 + j2V3, the sum of the angle contributions of the open-loop poles (at s = 0

From Figure 10-83(a), if the closed-loop pole is to be located at
=

-2) is - 120° - 90°

-210°. This means that. to have the closed-loop po l e at

Figure J0-82

Conlroi syslcm.

592

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 0

s = -2 + j2,f]

jw j4 j3
j 2

s = -2 + ]2{3

jw j4 ]3

'"

30· jl
(]'

-4

-3

-2

:-"\

90·
-I 0

120· -jl
-4 -3

-2

-I

0 -jl

Figure 10-83 (a) Open·1oop poles and a desired closed-loop pole; (b) compensator pole-zero con· figuration to contribute phase IC<ld angle of 30°,
s = -2 + j2Y3, we must add 30° to the opcn-Ioop transfer function. Stated different­ ly, the angle deficiency of the given open-loop transfer function at the desired closed­ loop pole 5 � -2 + j2V3 is 180' - 120' - 90'

(a)

(b)

-30'

The compensator must contribute 30°. A compensator that contributes a positive angle is called a lead compeflsaror, a possible form of which is given by G,(5)

5 + a K -5+ b

Let us choose the zero of the lead compensator at s = -2. Then the pole of the com­ pensator must be located at s = - in order to have a phase lead angle of 30°. [See 4 Figure 10-83(b).] thus, GA5)

5+ 2 K -­ s + 4

The gain K is determined from the magnitude condition

or

I

K

5 + 2 _5 5 + 4 5(0.05 + 1 )

K Hence,

1

5(5

10 +

4

I

s=-2+j2V3

1

) s= -2+j2VJ

1

1.6

s+ 2 1.6 -­ s + 4

. MATlAB Program » » » » » » » » num = 1 1 01 .'. . The resulting unit-step response curves are shown in Figure 10-84. den = [1 2 1 01 . 'Compensated system') = = 1 0-1 2 � _ 1.2 S 0.5 3 3. ' .2 1. cl step(num.1 . (5) 5 5+2 10 = 1 . 6 5 + 4 5(5 + 2) 5(0.5 5 Figure 10-84 Unit-step response curves.4 0.cl . numc = [ 1 61.t).� . '" 0 0.-: _ -. 1 .denc.t.t). TIle original system has the following closed-loop transfer function: C(5) 10 = R(5) 52 + 25 + 10 The compensated system has the following closed-loop transfer function: C(5) R(5) 16 5' + 45 + 16 MATLAB Program 10--1 2 plots the unit-step response curves of the original and com­ pensated systems.� � � - Unit-Step Responses of Original System and Compensated System Original system 1. t = 0:0. c2 = step(numc.2 7.01 :5.75. 1 2 .6 0..8 a.4 .5 2 t (sec) 2.75. denc [1 4 1 61 . ylabel('Outputs') » text(I ..Example Problems and Solutions 593 The open-loop transfer function of the compensated system is G.5 4 4.'·I ) grid title( ' U nit-5tep Responses of Original System and Compensated System ') » xlabel('t (sec)'). plot(t. we shall obtain unit-step responses of the original system and the compen­ sated system.c2..den.-: _ .55 + 1 ) -- 16 5(5 + 4) Next. 'Original system') » text(l .

1 ± j1. the angle contribution of the two open-loop poles at the origin is .. The zero should not be too close to the origin and should be located somewhere between -0.5 s+ 3 Figure l().(s) = K -­ s + 0. Solution For a desired closed-loop pole at s = . arbitrary.S Lead compensator Space vehicle jw j2 jl Figure 10-86 Pole-zero location of lead compen­ sator contributing 90° phase lead..5 is. Then obtain the unit-step and unit­ ramp responses of the uncompensated and compensated systems.594 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.S Control system. 1 0 Problem A-IO-14 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-85.5. Hence.1350 .) To obtain a phase lead angle of 90'.) Thus. G.1 + j I. in a sense. -3 -2 -I o -jl (]" . Design a compensator such that the domi­ nant closed-loop poles are located at s = . the pole of the compensator must be located at s = -3. so that the lead com­ pensator can provide a 90' phase lead.270°. (See Figure 10-86.4 and -0. .135° = .135' .135' = -90' The compensator must contribute 900• Let us use a lead compensator of the form G.(s) = K -- s + a b s+ and let us choose the zero of the lead compensator at s = -0.8. (Note that the choice of the zero at s = -0. the angle deficien­ cy is 180' .

- . 2 Closed loop poles - -2 ...5 �1 52 or K � I (Ss + 3)5S'1 + 0... which arc shown in Figure 10-89.-.2 .rr---. --'-1--.""C --'. Root-Locus Plot of (45 + 2)/(s' + 3-") 3 r----r----.1 ± j l and s -1... . which aTC shown in Figure MATLAB Program 10-14 obtains the unit-ramp response curves. . Real Axis Figure 10-87 Root locus plot.3_'.--! _3 _ ._ .2 4 . c s=-l+ji �1 �4 s'=-I-}1 Hence. the lead compensator becomes G (s) � 4 ss++0. '. we shall obtain the unit-step and unit-ramp responses of the uncompensat­ ed and compensated systems. Next.' + 4s + 2 The closed-loop poles arc located at s . MATLAB Program 10-13 obtains the unit-step response curves.7".(s).O . s4s++3ssA root·locus plOI of the system is shown in Figure 10-87..3 Then the feedforward transfer function becomes 3 ' = = 10-88.-. .. Note that the closed-loop transfer function is C(s) � 4s + 2 R(s) + 3.35 � 1 2 G.Example Problems and Solutions 595 where the gain K must be determined from the magnitude condition IK ss++03.

I . text( 1 .-- Unit Step Responses o f Uncompensated and Compensated Systems __ � __ � � __ -. 'system') text(1 2 .2 :5 9.t). t = 0:0.3.02 : 1 5.9.e 2 . 1 .d system \ \ Compensated system \ 6 i f .denc.0. ' U ncompensated'). 9.'system') » text(4. text(6.85. 'lnpuI') . t = 0:0. 1_1 ) grid title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') xlabel('t (sec)'). 1 0.4 "" 1.6 0.den.t. 1 .73.95.7..6.I. text(4.8.t). ylabel('Outputs') » text(1 . numc = 14 21. c 1 . denc = 1 1 3 4 2 1 . f f \ Unit­ step response curves of uncompensated and compensated systems. plot (t. 9. c1 = step(num. den = 1 1 0 1 1.3.t.3 . 1 . 1 . 1 _1 ) grid title('Unit-Step Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec) ').8 1 . den = 1 1 0 01.I.1 " 0. ylabel('lnput and Outputs') lext(6. ' Uncompensated'). denc = 1 1 3 4 2 OJ .'Compensated').t).c2 .4 0.denc.2. 1 .3.02 : 1 2. numc = 14 2 1 .6. � � -.cl . I . c2 = step(n umc. (sec) 8 10 12 num = 1 1 1 . 'system') text(l 0.2 2 .den.6 1. c2 = slep(numc.85.__ � -- ! .2. plot{l. Figure 10-88 2 4 .65.0.t).8 1 .596 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. ! Unc�mpcnsale. c1 = step(num.'Compensated'). 10 0 0.53. 1 . 1 _ .95. text(1 0. 'system ') » » » » » » » » MATlAB Program 1 0-1 3 MATlAB Program 1 0-1 4 » » » » » » » » » » » » num = 1 1 1.0.

� � � r_ -� .-l _ J- _ _ Plant G(s) T"(s. and the response characteristics to disturbances <lrc a vcry important consideration in this system. "" " o §- 5 _+-' ""'-. Assume that disturbances D(s) cntcr the system as shown in the diagram. Problem A-lO-IS Consider the system shown in Figure 10-90. . Solution TIl e PID controller has the transfer function G. Obtain also the response to the unit-step reference input.-= � � � -. It is assumed that the reference input R(s) is normally held constant..-.'·)� Figure 10-90 PI D-conlrolled system. -.----.. which represents PID control of a second­ order plant G(s). Choose the configu­ ration of the closed-loop poles such that there is a pair of dominant closed-loop poles.-. Design a control system such that the response to any step disturbance will be damped Qui quickly (in 2 to 3 s in terms of the 2% settling time). 10 ::o ..Uncompensated system system o ��------�--� �---.Compensated o 5 t (sec) 10 15 Figure 10-89 Unit-ramp response curves of uncompensated and com­ pensated systems. C'.__ ---.Example Problems and Solutions Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems 597 1 5 r.(s) = K(t1s + 1 )(bs + 1) s � K(as + 1}(bS + I) PID Controller � ®-- O(s) -=. Thcll obtain the response to the unit-step disturbance input.

-0 .385) \Vith this PID controller.1 0 so that the effect of this real pole on the response is small. .( 5 ) = --' --'--.6-. we require 3. 0( 5) O(s) 1O)(s.- K [nb5' + (n + b) 5 + iJ 160(0.+ 565 + 160 (5 + .6 + Knb)5' + (9 + Kn + Kb)5 + K + I) (10-55) (5 + 10)(5' + 45 + 16) 565 + 160 TIle characteristic equation for the system given by Equation (10-55) is 5' + (3. + 16 ) I = 5 0 .4(5' + 4.(I) = lim 5Cd(5) = lim . fer function becomes Cd (5) 0(5) = 5 5(-" + 3.. we sec that the settling time is approximately 2.5 x 4s + 4') = = 53 + 1452 + Hence.5 and w" = 4 rad/s for the dominant closed-loop poles. Thus.6 9+ which yields nb = + Knb = Kn + Kb = K = 14 56 160 0.29375 0. sincc ._00 lim C.+ 45 5' .7 s. + 1O)(s. We may interpret the specification as ( = 0. n + b = The transfer function of the PID controller now becomes G. Then the desired characteristic equation can be written as 10)(5' + 2 x 0.-0 (5 The response to a unit-step disturbance input can be obtained easily with MATLAB Program 10-15. for a unit-step disturbance input. + 16) Clearly..293755 + I ) + . the stcady-state output is zero. the closed·loop trans. the response to the disturbance is given by 14s.598 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.-'-----'.065s' + 5 0. From the response curve. + 9) + K ( n5 + 5 1 )(b5 53 + (3. the response damps out quickly and the system designed here is acceptable.5192s 5 s 15. + 4. We may choose the third pole at s = .065. 10. which produces the response curve shown in Figure 10-91 (a). 1 0 For the disturbance input i n the absence o f the reference input.6 + KGb)5' + (9 + Kn + Kb)5 + K = 0 (5 + The specification requires that the settling lime of the response to the unit-step distur­ bance be 2 to 3 s and that the system have reasonable damping..

8 � 0 '" 0..5 1. The resulting response curve is shown in Figure J 0-91(b). 0 u = � 0.5 (sec) 3 3..5 2 f 2.5 3 (sec) (a) Response to Unit-Step Reference Input 3.-' � __ x 10-3 Response to Unit-Step Disturbance Input 12 10 8 .2 0 0 0. 2 0 -2 1. 1..6 " g.E 6 � 6 4 .14 r.0 1.2 6 g.5192s + 15.� � � � � � -. the closed-loop transfer function is C. For the reference input 1'(1).-' -. WAs' + 47s + 160 s3 + 14s' + 56s + 160 .5 2 2.5 5 Figure 10-91 (b) (a) Response 10 unit­ step disturbance input.385) s 3 + 14s' + 56s + 160 The response 10 a unit-step reference input can also be obtained with the usc of MATLAB Program 10-l5.(s) R(s) = 10A(s' + 4. (b) response to unit-slep reference input.Example Problems and Solutions 599 � 8 = -.-. 8 Q.4 .5 � �.5 5 1. 0.5 4 I �. 0..

600 "TIme-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. 1 0 111e response curve shows that the maximum overshoot i s 7.c2 ) » grid » titleC Response to U n i t-Step Reference Input'l » xlabelCt (sec)') » ylabelCOutput to Reference Input') » = = » % ----.7 S. MATlAB Program 1 0-1 5 » » » » » » » » » » » » » » numd = 1 1 0].xl .'---'- C(s) diagram Figure 10-92 Block of a system. x2.. » plot(t.denr. tl step(numr.01 :5.c1 ) grid title(' Response to U n i t-Step Disturbance Input') xlabelCt (sec)') ylabelCOutput to Disturbance Input') = % - --.-tL:J J h.4 47 1 601.tl = step(numd. 8-10-1 Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 10-92 and obtain the transfer function C(s)/R(s). -+-EJ LG .3% and the settling lime is 1.Response to unit-step reference input ----- PROBLEMS Proble". dend 11 1 4 56 1 60]. r.dend. denr = 11 1 4 56 1 601. t = 0:0.t).t). 111 C system has quite acceptable response characteristics. » Ic2.Response to unit-step disturbance i nput ----- numr 1 1 0. plot(t. Ic1 .

. hr--- C(s) H. 11 )) 0. R(s) + )--L-- D-®5 + � � 2 ) f----. I-----i Figure 10-93 Block diagram of a system.".55 + 1 f--� sys I C(s) sys 2 Figure 10-94 Control system. series.Problems 601 Problem 8-10-2 Simplify the block diagram shown in Figure 10-93 and obtain the transfer function C(s)/R(s). 10 sIs + l ) (s + C(s) '-------i O.. G. and feedback commands of MATLAB to obtain the c1osed­ loop transfer function C(s)/R(s) of the system shown in Figure l0-95. Problem 8-10-4 Use the parallel..5s + 1 Figure 10-95 Control system.. I------.sys2) feedback(sysg. Problem 8-10-3 loop transfer function C(s)IR(s) of the system shown Use the following series and feedback commands of MATLAB to obtain the c1osed­ in Figure LO-94: sysg sys = = Il(s) series(sys1 ..--.J .

y Engine Problem 8-10-7 Consider a glass-walled mercury thermometer. Oil under pressure w e Figure 10-97 Speed­ Fuel - control system. e· . then the thermometer may be considered a first-order .602 Time-Domain Analysis and Des ign of Control Systems Chap. + + Problem 8-1� Figure 10-96 Electronic controller. 1 0 Problem 8-10-5 Derive the transfer function Eo(5)/ Ej(s) of the electronic controller shown in Figure 10-96. Explain the operation of the speed-control system shown in Figure 10-97. If the thermal capacitance of the glass of the thermometer is negligible. \Vhat is the control action of this controller? R.

'c 1 30 20 to o L---�----�--���=---­ 2 4 6 8 (seconds) Figure 10--98 Response curve for a thermometer system. so it is experimentally determined by lowering the device into a pail of water held at l O°e. the thermometer may be considered a second-order system and the transfer func­ tion may be modified to (T.Problems 603 system.) Find the time constant. Assume also that the time constant of the thermometer is not known. and its transfer function may be given by 0(s) 1 Ts + 1 where 9(5) is the Laplace transform of the thermometer temperature 0 and 01J(s) is the Laplace transform of the bath temperature (h. Assume that a glass-walled mercury thermometer is used (0 measure the tem­ perature of a bath and that the thermal capacitance of the glass is negligible. Figure 1 0-98 shows the temperature response observed during the test.s + I)(T. Sketch a typical temperature response curve (0 vcr­ sus f) when such a thermometer with two lime constants is placed in a bath held at (I constant temperature (Jb. the temperature of which is increasing linearly at a rate of 1 0°C/min.s + I ) where T\ and T2 are time constants. both temperatures measured from the ambient temperature. where both the thermometer temperature (J and the bath tem­ perature Ob are measured from the ambient temperature. I f the thermometer is placed in a bath. how much steady-state error does the ther­ mometer show? If the thermal capacitance of the glass of a mercury thermometer is not negligi­ ble. [0(0) = 30"C. . Problem B-l(HI Obtain the unit-step response of the control system shown in Figure 10--99.

Problem 8-10--9 Consider a system defined by C(s) R(s) = Problem 8-10--10 Determine the values of ( and WI! so that the system responds to a step input with approximately 5 % overshoot and with a settling time of 2 s. \Vhat is the response c(r) to the unjl step input? C(s) feedback.604 Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Figure to-LOO shows a position control system with velocity feedback. 16 C(s) .. Figure 10-100 Block diagram of a position control system with velocity Problem 8-10--11 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-101.. Figure 10-101 Control system.. 1 0 C(s) �©-I S+1 r Figure 10-99 Control system. Determine the value of k such that the damping ratio [ is 0.. DL.. maximum overshoot MI" and settling lime Is in the unit-step response.- �� DL.. R(s) ---...5. 45-----. Then obtain the rise time fn peak time [p.

� Cont rol system..@-+ + R(s) Figure 10-102 . Problem 8-10-15 --. Determine the range of the gain K required for stability.Problems Problem 8-10-12 605 Consider the system shown in Figure 10--102. Also. find the steady-state error for the unit-ramp response.. which involves velocity feedback. Plot a root·locus diagram for the system. Static velocity error constant Kv � 50 5. .5 2. 2 s 3. R(s) -+ Problem 8-10-14 C(s) a Figure 10-103 Block diagram of system. K C(s) Problem 8-10-13 Find the response c(c) of the system shown in Figure 1 0--"103 when the inp ut r(r) is a unit ramp.1 4.--+ � + :-:­ . 0 < K" < 1 -@-.. Seuling lime :s.-: s ( s I )( s 5 ) K Consider the c1osed·loop control system shown in Figure 10--104. Assume thai the system is underdamped. Determine the range of the gain K required for the stability of a un ity-feed back control system whose open·loop transfer function is G( s ) - Use Routh's stability criterion.--: --. Deter­ mine the values of the amplifier gain K and the velocity feedback ga in Kh so that the following specifications are satisfied: 1. Damping ratio of the closed-loop poles is 0.

606

Time-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

�tPL-�
Figure 10-104 Control system.
Problem 8-10-16

If- ..-(s)_ --, C,,:, K(s' . 2s + 4) .:., s(s + 4)(s 6)(; + L.4s + I
+

Chap. 1 0

I)

Consider the system whose open·)oop transfer function is

C (5) N (5)

=

K - - - - --7'- - 5(5 + 0.5 )(5' + 0.65 + 10) K 54 + 1.1s3 + 10.352 + 55

Plot the root loci for the system with MATLAB. Problem 8-10-17 Plot the root loci for the system shown in Figure 1 0-105. Determine the range of the gain K required for stability.

Figure 10-105 COnlrol system.
Problem 8-10-18 Consider the system shown in Figure 10-106. Design a compensator such thal 1he dam· inan! closed-loop poles are located at s = -1 ± / i v

Figure 10-106 Control system.
ProbLem 8-10-19 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-107. Plot the root loci for the system. Detemline the value of K such that the damping ratio { of the dominant closed-loop poles is 0.6. lllen determine all closed-loop poles. Plol lhe unit-step response curve with MATLAB.

-------OL..�
Figure 10-107 Control system.

K
'(5 + 1 )(5 + 4)

Problems

607

Problem 8-10-20 Consider the system shown in Figure 1 0-108. It is desired to design a PID controller GAs) such that the dominant closed-loop poles are located at s = -1 ± jl. For the prD controller, choose a = 0.5, and then determine the values of K and b. Draw a roat­ locus plot with MATLAR
R_ _ _(S)� _

� I __

� _ __ __

PID control ler

K � + a ( s + b) �
__

C(s)
Plant

Gc(s)

G(s)

Figure 10-108

PID controlled system. -

Frequency-Doma in Analysis and Design of Control Systems
1 1 -1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the frequency-response approach to the analysis and design of control systems. By the term frequency respOllse, we mean the steady-state response of a system to a sinusoidal input. An advantage of the frequency-response approach is that frequency-response tests are, in general, simple and can be made accurately by use of readily available sinusoidal signal generators and precise measurement equipment. Often. the trans­ fer functions of complicated components can be determined experimentally by fre­ quency-response tests. Frequency-response analysis and design of linear control systems is based on the Nyquist stability criterion, which enables us to investigate both the absolute and relative stabilities of linear closed-loop systems from a knowledge of their open­ loop frequency-response characteristics. In this chapter, we first present Bode diagrams (logarithmic plots). We then discuss the Nyquist stability criterion, after which the concept of the phase margin and gain margin is introduced. Finally, the frequency-response approach to the design of control systems is treated. MATLAB approaches to obtain Bode diagrams and Nyquist plots are included in this chapter. It is noted that although the frequency response of a control system presents a qualitative picture of the transient response, the correlation between the frequency
608

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode

Diagram Representation of the Frequency Resp o nse

609

and transient responses is indirect, except in the case of second-order systems. I n designing a closed-loop system, we adjust the frequency-response characteristic of the open-loop transfer function by using several design criteria in order to obtain acceptable transient-response characteristics for the system.
Outline of the chapter. Section 1 1-1 has given introductory remarks. Section 1 1-2 presents Bode diagrams of transfer-function systems. I n particular, first-order

systems and second-order systems are examined in detail. The determination of static error constants from Bode diagrams is also discussed. Section 11-3 treats plotting Bode diagrams with MATLAB. Section 11-4 deals with Nyquist plots and the Nyquist stability criterion. The concept of phase margin and gain margin is introduced. Section 1 1-5 discusses plotting Nyquist diagrams with MATLAB. Finally, Section 1 1 -6 pre­ sents the Bode diagram approach to the design of control systems. Specifically, we dis­ cuss the design of the lead compensator, lag compensator, and lag-lead compensator.
1 1-2 BODE DIAGRAM REPRESENTATION OF THE FREOUENCY RESPONSE

A useful way to represent frequency-response characteristics of dynamic systems is the Bode diagram. (Bode diagrams are also called logarithmic plots offreqllellcy respollse.) In this section we treat basic materials associated with Bode diagrams, using first- and second-order systems as examples. We then discuss the problem of identifying the transfer function of a system from the Bode diagram.
Bode diagrams. A sinusoidal transfer function may be represented by two separate plots, one giving the magnitude versus frequency of the function, the other the phase angle (in degrees) versus frequency. A Bode diagram consists of two graphs: a curve of the logarithm of the magnitude of a sinusoidal transfer function and a curve of the phase angle; both curves are plotted against the frequency on a logarithmic scale. The standard representation of the logarithmic magnitude of G(jw) is 20 log I G(jw) I , where the base of the logarithm is 10. The unit used in this represen­ tation is the decibel, usually abbreviated dB. In the logarithmic representation, the curves are drawn on semilog paper, using a logarithmic scale for frequency and a lin­ ear scale for either magnitude (but in decibels) or phase angle (in degrees). (The frequency range of interest determines the number of logarithmic cycles required on the abscissa.) The main advantage of using a Bode diagram is that multiplication of magni­ tudes can be converted into addition. Furthermore, a simple method for sketching an approximate log-magnitude curve is available. TIle method, based on asymptotic approximation by straight-line asymptotes, is sufficient if only rough information on the frequency-response characteristics is needed. Should exact curves be desired, corrections can be made easily. The phase-angle curves are readily drawn if a tem­ plate for the phase-angle curve of 1. + jw is available. Note that the experimental determination of a transfer function can be made simple if frequency-response data are presented in the form of a Bode diagram.

610

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

The logarithmic representation is useful in that it shows both the low- and high-frequency characteristics of the transfer function in one diagram. Expanding the low-frequency range by means of a logarithmic scale for the frequency is highly advantageous, since characteristics at low frequencies are most important in practi­ cal systems. Although it is not possible to plot the curves right down to zero fre­ quency (because log 0 = - co ) , this does not create a serious problem.
Number-decibel conversion line. A number-decibel conversion line is shown in Figure 1 1-1. The decibel value of any number can be obtained from this line. As a number increases by a factor of 10, the corresponding decibel value in­ creases by a factor of 20. This relationship may be seen from the formula 20 log K + 20n 20 log ( K X 1 0" )
=

Note that, when expressed in decibels, the reciprocal of a number differs from its value only in sign; that is, for the number K, 20 log K = -20 log 1 K

Bode diagram of gain K. A number greater than unity has a positive value in decibels, while a number smaller than unity has a negative value. The log-magni­ tude curve of a constant gain K is a horizontal straight line at the magnitude of 20 log K decibels. The phase angle of the gain K is zero. Varying K in the transfer function
20
,

10

iii'
Ol ·0 0 0

0

"'"'

- 10

-20

-30

-40 0.01

V

V

/ [ L
0.04

'/

/
0.1

/

/

'/

L

V

i-'

�V-

0.02

0.2

[I 0.4 0.6

2

, -, 4 - 6 8 10 )

Figure 11-1

Numbers

Number-decibel conversion line.

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

611

raises or lowers the log-magnitude curve of the transfer function by the correspond­ ing constant amount, but does not affect the phase angle.
Bode diagrams of integral and derivative factors. The log magnitude of lI(jw) in decibels is 20 log

I �I
j

The phase angle of l/jw is constant and equal to -90". If the log magnitude -20 log ,odB is plotted against w on a logarithmic scale. the resulting curve is a straight line. Since ( -20 log lOw) dB
=

=

-20 log w dB

( -20 log w

-

20) dB

the slope of the line is -20 dB/decade. Similarly, the log magnitude of jw in decibels is
20 log Ijwl
=

20 log w dB

The phase angle of jw is constant and equal to 90" . The log-magnitude curve is a straight line with a slope of 20 dB/decade. Figures 1 1 -2 and 1 1 -3 show Bode dia­ grams of lIjw and jw, respectively.
Bode diagram of first-order system. function

Consider the sinusoidal transfer

X(jw) 1 -- = G (jw) = :::-:- --:­ -=---P(jw) Tjw + 1

dB
40 20

o
-20 - 40 � O.t
__

- 80' L

90'

t.1
O. t

� __ � __ � __ �

to

tOO

w

1-

---

--

-

__

___' _ _ _'_ _ _'_ _ �

to

t OO

w

Figure U-2

G(jw)

=

lI(jw).

Bode diagram of

612

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
dB

Chap. 1 1

40 20
o

Slope =

20 dB/decade

- 40 � � � __ � __ __ __ �

-20

0.1

10

100

w

Figure 11-3

Bode diagram of

G(jw) = jw.

The log magnitude of this first-order sinusoidal lransfcr function, in decibels, is 20 log

For low frequencies such that w "" liT, the log magnitude may be approximated by -20 log Vw'T' + 1 '" -20 log 1
=

I

TJw + ]
.

1

I

'��---0.1 10 100

w

=

-20 log Vw'T' + 1 dB

0 dB

11ll1s, the log-magnitude curve at low frequencies is the constant O-dB line. For high frequencies such that w i> l/T, -20 log Vw'T' + 1 111is is an approximate expression for the high-frequency range. At w liT, the log magnitude equals 0 dB; at w = lO/T, the log magnitude is -20 dB. Hence, the value of -20 log wT dB decreases by 20 dB for every decade of w. For w i> l/T, the log­ magnitude curve is therefore a straight line with a slope of -20 dB/decade (or
=

'"

-20 log wT dB

The preceding analysis shows that the logarithmic representation of the fre­ quency-response curve of the factor l/(Tjw + 1 ) can be approximated by two straight-line asymptotes: a straight line at 0 dB for the frequency range o < w < liT and a straight line with slope -20 dB/decade (or -6 dB/octave) for the frequency range liT < w < 00. 11,e exact log-magnitude curve, the asymptotes, and the exact phase�angle curve are shown in Figure 1 1-4. The frequency at which the two asymptotes meet is called the corner frequen­ cy or break frequency. For the factor lI(Tjw + 1 ), the frequency w liT is the cor­ ner frequency, since, at w = liT, the two asymptotes have the same value. (TIle low-frequency asymptotic expression at w l/T is 20 log 1 dB 0 dB, and the
= = =

-6 dB/octave).

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

613

10

I

Asymptote

I

o dB -10

� Corner frequency
Exact curve

I

I

r�,

� Asymptote

-20

"'"

o

-45 -90
I

---...
lOT

� �


I

Figure 11-4 Log-magnitude curve together with the asymptotes and phase-angle
curve of I/(jwT + I).
high-frequency asymptotic expression at w = liT is also 20 log 1 dB 0 dB.) The corner frequency divides the frequency-response curve into two regions: a curve for the low-frequency region and a curve for the high-frequency region. The corner fre­ quency is very important in sketching logarithmic frequency-response curves. The exact phase angle </> of the factor 1/(Tjw + 1 ) is
=

201'

I

5T

I

2T

I T w

2 T

I--

5 T

10 T

20 T

</>

At zero frequency, the phase angle is 0'. At the corner frequency, the phase angle is

=

-tan- 1 wT

At infinity, the phase angle becomes -90°, Because it is given by an inverse-tangent function, the phase angle is skew symmetric about the inflection point at </> = -45'. TIle error in the magnitude curve caused by the use of asymptotes can be cal­ culated. The maximum error occurs at the corner frequency and is approximately equal to -3 dB, since
-20 log "\1'1+1 + 20 log 1 = - 10 log 2 = -3.03 dB

614

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

111 e error at the frequency one octave below the corner frequency, that is, at w � 1I(2T), is -20 log The error at the frequency one octave above the corner frequency, that is, at w � 2/T, is -20 log

-V� + 20 log 1 4+ 1

v'5 -20 log 2 � -0.97 dB

v'2'+1 + 20 log 2

111US, the error one octave below or above the corner frequency is approximately equal to - 1 dB. Similarly, the error one decade below or above the corner frequency is approximately -0.04 dB. The error, in decibels, involved in using the asymptotic expression for the frequency response curve of 1/(Tjw + 1 ) is shown in Figure 1 1 -5. The error is symmetric with respect to the corner frequency. Since the asymptotes are easy to draw and are sufficiently close to the exact curve, the use of such approximations in drawing Bode diagrams is convenient i n establishing the general nature o f the frequency-response characteristics quickly and with a minimum amount of calculation. Any straight-line asymptotes must have slopes of ±2011 dB/decade ( II � 0, 1 , 2, . . . ); that is, their slopes Illust be 0 dB/decade, ±20 dB/decade, ±40 dB/decade, and so on. If accurate frequency­ response curves are desired, corrections may easily be made by referring to the curve given in Figure 11-5. In practice, an accurate frequency·response curve can be drawn by introducing a correction of 3 dB at the corner frequency and a correction of 1 dB at points one octave below and above the corner frequency and then con­ necting these points by a smooth curve. Note that varying the time constant T shifts the corner frequency to the left or to the right, but the shapes of the log-magnitude and the phase-angle curves remain the same. The transfer function 1/(Tjw + 1 ) has the characteristics of a low-pass filter. For frequencies above w liT, the log magnitude falls off rapidly toward - 00 ,

v'5 -20 log / � -0.97 dB

Corner frequency

-1 dB -2 -3
Figure 11-5 Log-magnitude error in the
response curve of II(jwT +

1

-4

asymptotic expression of the frequency­

I}.

1 101'

1 5T

1 2T

1 T
w

2 3 T T

5 T

10

T

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

615

essentially because of the presence of the time constant. In the low-pass filter, the output can follow a sinusoidal input faithfully at low frequencies, but as the input frequency is increased, the output cannot follow the input because a certain amount of time is required for the system to build up in magnitude. Therefore, at high fre­ quencies, the amplitude of the output approaches zero and the phase angle of the output approaches -90°. Therefore, if the input function contains many harmonics, then the low-frequency components are reproduced faithfully at the output, while the high-frequency components are attenuated in amplitude and shifted in phase. Thus, a first-order element yields exact, or almost exact, duplication only for con­ stant or slowly varying phenomena. The shapes of phase-angle curves are the same for any factor of the form (Tjw + 1 )'1. Hence, it is convenient to have a template for the phase-angle curve on cardboard, to be used repeatedly for constructing phase-angle curves for any function of the form (Tjw + 1 )·1 If no such template is available, we have to locate several points on the curve. The phase angles of ( Tjw + 1 )±l are
±45° ±26.6° ±5.7° ±63.4° ±84.3°

at w = T 1 at w = 2T 1 at w l OT 2 at w = T 10 at w = T
=

--

Bode diagram of second-order system. Next, we shall consider a second­ order system in the standard form

The sinusoidal transfer function G(jw) is
G(JW ) = '
? (JW ) ' + _(WI! (JW )
' .

2 w"

or
G(jw)

I f ? > 1, G(jw) can be expressed a s a product o f two first-order terms with real poles. If 0 < ? < 1, G(jw) is a product of two complex-conjugate terms. Asymptot­ ic approximations to the frequency-response curves are not accurate for this G(jw)

( )
Wfl

1

' j � + 2? j �
Wn

( )

+ 1

(11-1)

616

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

with low values of (, because the magnitude and phase of C(jw) depend on both the corner frequency and the damping ratio r Noting that
iC(jw) i

or
iC(jw) i

(

j- � W"

Y ( )
1
+

2( j- � W/I

+ 1

we may obtain the asymptotic frequency-response curve as follows: Since
20 log

�( - :;,y ( :J
1
+

1

(1 1-2)

2(

for low frequencies such that w

( )
JWI!

1

.w '

w + 2( J. WI!

( )

+ 1

= - 20 log \

I(

1 -

w2 '

w�

) ( )
+ 2(

w 2 w"

w'" the log magnitude bccomes
=

-20 log 1

0 dB

The low-frequency asymptote is thus a horizontal line at 0 dB. For high frequencies w � OJ'I> the log magnitude becomes w2 w - 2 0 log -40 log - dB
-

w�

=

WI!

The equation for the high-frequency asymptote is a straight line having the slope -40 dBJdecade, since - 40 log
-

10 w
WI!

The high-frequency asymptote intersects the low-frequency one at w this frequency -40 log
-

w = -40 - 40 1 0g OJ
" =

=

w" since at

This frequency, w,,, is the corner frequency for the quadratic function considered. The two asymptotes just derived are independent of the value of r Near the fre­ quency w = w,,, a resonant peak occurs, as may be expected fTOm Equation ( 1 1-1 ). The damping ratio ( determines the magnitude of this resonant peak. Errors obvious­ ly exist in the approximation by straight-line asymptotes. The magnitude of the error is large for small values of r Figure 1 1-6 shows the exact log-magnitude curves, together with the straight-line asymptotes and the exact phase-angle curves for the quadratic function given by Equation (1 1-1) with several values of r If corrections

w" -40 log 1 w" =

0 dB

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response
20 r------,---r---r-r-,---,--r,

617

_ _ f- +l -\' / �f- -.I +- -+ "'_ -( 10 f- --+ _ -t- Lj\. _! - - -+ --i

I

f:j ��f-

(

�O 0.2 �

dB

0

I

0.1

0.2

OA

0.6 0.8

I
w w"

2

6

8 10

Figure 11--6 Log-magnitude curves together with the asymptoles and phase-angle curves of the quadratic sinusoidal transfer function given by Equation ( 11-1).

are desired in the asymptotic curves, the necessary amounts of correction at a suffi­ cient number of frequency points may be obtained from Figure 11-6. The phase angle of Ihe quadratic funclion given by Equation (1 1-1) is

W W L� I! __ � n __ � __ � _

( )
j .!!!...

1
2

+ 2 ( j .!!!...

( )

+ 1

=

-tan-1

2( 1
_

( )

WI!

w

.!!!... 2 WI!

( 1 1-3)

The phase angle is a function of both w and r At w = 0, the phase angle equals 0°. At the corner frequency w = w", the phase angle is -90°, regardless of ?, since At w = 00 , the phase angle becomes - 180°. The phase-angle curve is skew sym­ metric about the inflection point, the point where 1> -90°. There are no simple ways to sketch such phase curves; one needs to refer to the phase-angle curves shown in Figure 1 1-6. To obtain the frequency-response curves of a given quadratic transfer func­ tion, we must first determine the value of the corner frequency w" and that of the damping ratio r 11,en, by using the family of curves given in Figure 11-6, the fre­ quency-response curves can be plotted. Note that Figure 11-6 shows the effects of the input frequency w and the damping ratio ? on the amplitude and phase angle of the steady-state output. From the figure, we see that, as the damping ratio is increased, the amplitude ratio decreases. The maximum amplitude ratio for a given value of C occurs at a frequen­ cy that is less than the undamped natural frequency w'" Notice that the frequency w, at which the amplitude ratio is a maximum occurs at w, = w"V1 - 2?2
=

618

Frequency-Domain Analysis a n d Design of Control Systems

Chap. 1 1

d>

=

-tan-I

( t)
2

=

-tan- l oo

=

- 90°

This frequency is called the resonant frequency. The value of w, can be obtained as follows: From Equation ( 1 1-2), since the numerator of IC(jw) I is constant, a peak value of IC(jw) I will occur when w 2 w2 2 g(w) = 1 2" + 2? ;;; (11 -4) 1/ WI! is a minimum. Since Equation (1 1-4) can be written as w2 - w2 ( 1 - 2r2 ) 2 > " g(w) + 4?2 ( 1 - ?' ) 2 w"
=

the minimum value of g(w) occurs at w cy Wr IS

[

(

-

) ( )
o
� � -2 - 2?

=

w"V1

]

Thus the resonant frequen( 1 1 -5)

" ( " 0.707

As the damping ratio ? approaches zero, the resonant frequency approaches w". For 0 < ? " 0.707, the resonant frequency w, is less than the damped natural frequency w" = w" VI - (2 , which is exhibited i n the transient response. From Equa­ tion (1 1-5), it can be seen that, for ( > 0.707, there is no resonant peak. The magni­ tude IC(jw) I decreases monotonically with increasing frequency w. (11,e magnitude is less than 0 dB for all values of w > 0; recall that, for 0.7 < ? " 1, the step response is oscillatory, but the oscillations are well damped and are hardly perceptible.) The magnitude of the resonant peak M, can be found by substituting Equation (1 1-5) into Equation (11-2). For 0 " ? " 0.707,

M,

=

I C(jw) lm",

=

I C( jw,) I

1

(1 1-6)

Sec. 1 1-2

Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response

619

As ' approaches zero, M, approaches infinity. This means that, if the undamped sys­ tem is excited at its natural frequency, the magnitude of G(jw) becomes infinite. For , > 0.707, The relationship between M, and , given by Equations ( 1 1-6) and (11-7) is shown in Figure 1 1-7. The phase angle of G(jw) at the frequency where the resonant peak occurs can be obtained by substituting Equation (11-5) into Equation ( 11-3). Thus, at the resonant frequency w"
M, = 1

(1 1-7)

/G(/w,)

.

=

-tan

_

1

VI

,

- 2,2

=

-90' + sm

.

_

1 _

r::---::? vI - ,2

,

Minimum-phase systems and nonminimum-phase systems. Transfer functions having neither poles nor zeros in the right-half s-plane are called minimum-phase transfer functions, whereas those having poles and/or zeros in the right-half s-plane are called nonl1linimlll1l-phase transfer functions. Systems with minimum-phase transfer functions are called minimum-phase systems; those with nonminimum-phase transfer functions are called IIomnininwl1'I-phase systems. For systems with the same magnitude characteristic, the range in phase angle of the minimum-phase transfer function is minimum for all such systems, while the range in phase angle of any nonminimum-phase transfer function is greater than this minimum. Consider as an example the two systems whose sinusoidal transfer functions arc, respectively,

and

14

12 10
.=

4

1\
0.2

2

\\

o

0.4

'"
,

0.6

O.S

1.0

Figure U-7 Curve of Mr versus { for the second­ order system l/[(jw/w,y + 2{(jwlw,,) + 1].

620

Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems
jw jw

Chap. 1 1

-+
G J (S) =

I - r;
I + T s

(J"

- +1

I T

Figure 11--8 Pole-zero configurations of minimum-phase and noomini­ mum-phase systems (G1: minimum phase, Gz: nonminimum phase).
The pole-zero configurations of these systems are shown in Figure 1 1-8. The two sinusoidal transfer functions have the same magnitude characteristics, but they have different phase-angle characteristics, as shown in Figure 1 1-9. The two systems dif­ fer from each other by the factor GUw)
=

I + T15

1

The magnitude of the factor ( 1 - jwT )/(1 + jwT) is always unity. But the phase angle equals -2tan- 1 wT and varies from 0 to -180° as w is increased from zero to infinity. For a minimum-phase system, the magnitude and phase-angle characteristics are directly related. That is, if the magnitude curve of a system is specified over the entire frequency range from zero to infinity, then the phase-angle curve is uniquely determined, and vice versa. This relationship, however, does not hold for a nonmini­ mum-phase system. Nonminimum-phase situations may arise ( 1 ) when a system includes a nonmin­ imum-phase element or elements and (2) in the case where a minor loop is unstable.

1 +

-

jwT jwT

-

Figure 11-9 Phase-angle characteris­ tics of minimum-phase and noomini­ mum-phase systems (G1: minimum phase. G2: nonminilllum phase).

-

- - - - - -== _ 1 80 '- - - - - _ ""- _ w
'

90·

measured in decibels-that is. I X (jw)IP(jw) 1 in dB. if a fast response is of primary importance. the system is minimum phase. The phase angle is !X(jw)1 P(jw) in degrees.p) dB/decade and the phase angle at w = 00 is equal to -90'(q . the phase angle at w = 00 differs from -90'(q . For a minimum-phase system.p).) Determine the numerical values of 111. respectively. For a nonminimum-phase sys­ tem. An experimental Bode dia· gram for this system is shown in Figure 11-11. and k from the Bode diagram . It is therefore possible to detect whether the system is minimum phase by examining both the slope of the high-frequency asymptote of the log-magnitude curve and the phase angle at w = 00. The units of I X (jw)IP(jw) 1 are mIN. (This is because. Example 11-1 Consider the mechanical system shown in Figure 11-10. In most practical control systems. The displacement x is measured from the equilibrium position before the sinusoidal force is applied. In either system.p).pl. Therefore. . if the input amplitude is dou­ bled. where p and q are. we can choose any convenient amplitude P. The input is a sinusoidal force of the form pe. the slope of the log-magnitude curve at w = 00 is equal to -20(q . k b x / Figure 11-10 Mechanical system. / . nonminimum-phase components should not be u s ed. Note that the amplitude ratio I X (jw )IP(jw) I does not depend on the absolute value of P. If the slope of the log-magnitude curve as w approaches infinity is -20(q . the output amplitude is also doubled. the degrees of the numerator and denominator polynomials of the transfer function.) = 1 1-2 Bode Diag ra m Representation of the Frequency Response 621 P sin wI where P is the amplitude of the sinusoidal input force and the input frequency is varied from 0. the phase angle at w = 00 becomes -900(q .01 to '100 Tad/s. b. In designing a system. The ordinate of the magnitude curve is the amplitude ratio of the output to the input.Sec.p) dB/decade. excessive phase lag should be carefully avoided. Nonminimum-phase systems are slow in response because of their faulty behavior at the start of the response.

:. 1 1 � .1 '\ � w in mdls \ \ 0" 10 \ -90" .::E [ p(r)J. The system equation is The Laplace transform of this last equation. we find that X(jO+ ) P(jO+) = -26 dB .:.50 � '\) ' � 0. gives (illS' + bs + k ) X(s) = P(s) where P(s) IIIX + bi: + kx = p(r) = P sin wr = .10 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap..30 � i � '" -20 � -40 . the transfer function can be uniq ue ly determined solely from the magnitude curve of the Bode diagram. First. we need to determine the transfer function of the system. . so it is a minimum-phase system. '< '3' .1 80" 100 . The sinusoidal transfer function is X(jw) P (jw) = m(jw) ' + bjw + k ( 1 1-8) Now. from the Bode diagram. The transfer function for the system is X(s) P(s) = 1 IIIs2 + bs + k This mechanical system possesses poles only in the left-half s-planc. 3 Figure 11-11 Experimental Bode diagram for the system shown in Figure 1 1-10. with zero initial condition. For a minimum-phase system.622 .01 0.

b. noting that we obtain b = 2. and k to be as follows: III X 0.949 kg ' -- Next.24 = 1. (3. type 1.992 N-slm k = 19. we find the damping ratio { to be approximately 0. X 1 .96 Nlm Relationship between system type and log-magnitude curve. (The larger the value of the finite static error constant. Assume that the open-loop transfer function is given by G(s) = K ( Tos + 1 )(Tbs + 1 ) . Consider the unity­ feedback control system shown in Figure 1 1-12.0501 k Also from the Bode diagram. For a given system. = 0. = -26 dB = 0. Determination of static position error constants.32. (Tl's + 1 ) .2 19.2 = 1 . and acceleration error constants describe the low-frequency behavior of type 0.32.= 10. we need to estimate the value of the damping ratio (. Then. it follows that w" = k = 19. the higher the loop gain is as w approaches zero.!. Thus. respectively.2 fad/so Since the corner frequency of the system given by Equation (11-8) is v kllll.2) \� III = 3. Comparing the Bode dia­ gram of Figure 11-11 with the Bode diagram of the standard second-order system shown in Figure 1 1-6. or . 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response J 623 Hence. information concerning the existence and magnitude of the s te ady­ state error in the response of a control system to a given input can be determined by observing the low-frequency region of the log-magnitude curve of the system. only one of the static error constants is finite and significant. X( '0 + ) P(jO+) or = .96 k III = -.s + 1 ) .949 = 3.w"m = 2 We have thus determined the values of III.992 N-slm. the corner frequency WI! is seen to be 3.Sec. . and type 2 sys­ tems. · (7.949 kg. 111e static position. b = 3. Consider the unity-feedback control system. sN(T!s + I ) ( T.32 X 3.96 Nlm Thus.) The type of the system determines the slope of the log-magnitude curve at low frequencies." s + 1 ) · . velocity.

. dB 20 log Kp t.iw + 1 ) .. the magnitude of G(jw) equals Kp at low frequencies. JW Kv for w Thus... 20 10g l l Kv JW "" 1 w=l = 20 log Kv .624 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems C(s) Chap. In such a system. This may be seen as follows: For a type 1 system.. . O �-------�--_ Figure 11-13 Log-magnitude curve of a type o system. Figure 1 1-14 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type J system.. Determination of static velocity error constants. or lim G(jw) = Kp It follows that the low-frequency asymptote is a horizontal line at 20 log Kp dB.. The intersection of the initial -20-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the line w = 1 has the magnitude 20 log K. or K ( Taiw + l ) ( Tbiw + 1 ) · · · (T". G( w) = J (jw)N( Tl iw + l ) ( Tziw + 1 ) · · · (Tpjw + 1 ) w-o Figure 1 1-13 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type 0 system. G(jw) = .. Consider again the unity-feedback control system shown in Figure 11-12. 11 Figure ll-U Unity-reedback conlrol system.

WI W in log scale W = I Figure 11-14 Log-magnitude curve of a type 1 system. then wj = ­ G (s) = ---:­ � -:- K s(is + F ) K J Since it follows that or .-O � -. The intersection of the initial -20-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the 0dB line has a frequency numerically equal to K". consider the type 1 system with unity feedback whose open­ loop transfer function is If we define the corner frequency to be w.� -. 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 625 dB -.Sec.-. define the frequency at this intersection to be W.� � w. then or Kv = W I As an example. To see this. and the frequency at the intersection of the -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the O-dB line to be W3..� � � -.

Consider once more the unity-feedback control system shown in Figure 1 1 -12.. = 20 log 1 = 0 .� .626 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.� w in log scale W= 1 / Figure ] 1-15 type 2 system. The damping ratio [ of the system is then [ = -- F 2 VKJ W2 =2W3 Determination of static acceleration error constants. 1 ___ 20 Iog K. The frequency Wa at Ihe intersection of the initial -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the O-dB line gives the square root of Ka numerically.( J wa )- w-I = 20 log Ka I Ka I dB -40 dB/decade / -60 dB/decade .log w2 Thus. at low frequencies... The intersection of the initial -40-dB/decade segment (or its extension) with the W = 1 line has the magnitude of 20 log K".. . 1 1 On the Bode diagram. Figure 1 1-15 is an example of the log-magnitude plot of a type 2 system.4r � .� � .log W3 = log w3 .. This can be seen [rom the following: 20 log . "0.. Since.� ­ . the W3 point is just midway between the W2 and WI points. G(jw) it follows tbat 20 log = -­ Ka (jw) 2 for W � 1 I I Ka ( Jw) - . -20 dB/decade O� . Log-magnitude curve of a . log WI .

. i n which the magnitude of the closed loop does not drop . Roughly speaking...... . For the system to follow arbitrary inputs accurately.. The bandwidth indicates the frequency where the gain starts to fall off from its low-frequency value. f wb W(I = = Vi<.. ..Sec.....e necessary filtering characteristics for high-frequency noise.. dB for W > Wb w'" W . From tbe viewpoint of noise.. the rise time and the bandwidth are inversely proportional to each other. for a given the rise time increases with increasing damping ratio r On the other hand.. it is necessary that it have a large bandwidth. 111e specification of the bandwidth may be determined by the following factors: I CUW) 1 I CUO ) 1 RUw) RUO) l C(jO)/RUO) l C(jW) 1 RUw) < I < -3 3 dB for W > Wb 0 dB. we can say that the band­ width is proportional to the speed of the response. ... there are conflicting requirements on the bandwidth. Thus. and a 2.. The frequency range 0 . however.- o�----"" I�-... dB -3 + . Referring to Figure 1 1-16.3 dB is called t he bandwidth of the system. w" w in log scale Figure U-16 Logarithmic plot showing cutoff frequency Wb and bandwi dth. the fre­ quency at which the magnitude of the closed-loop frequency response is 3 dB below its zero-frequency value is called the cutof frequency.. 111e ability to reproduce the input signal. ... the bandwidth should not be too large. Wb 1. A large bandwidth corresponds to a small rise time... 11. or a fast response. Thus. Thus. the bandwidth decreases with increasing r Therefore..Bandwidth : I . the bandwidth indicates how well the system will track an input sinusoid. Note that. For systems in which The closed-loop system filters out the signal components whose frequencies are greater than the cutoff frequency and transmits those signal components with fre­ quencies lower than the cutoff frequency. 1 1-2 Bode Diagram Representation of the Frequency Response 627 which yields Cutoff frequency and bandwidth..

so the cost of components usu­ ally increases with the bandwidth.33 Tad/s. (Asymptotic curves arc represented by dashed lines. the unit-step response and unit-ramp response curves for the two systems. Figures ] l-17(b) and (e) show.c -20 0. Figure 1 1-17(a) shows the closed-loop frequency-response curves for the Iwo sys­ tcms. 1 1 compromise is usually necessary for good design. respecti\'ely.. whose bandwidth is three times wider than that of system II. Note that a closed-loop frequency response curve with a steep cutoff charac­ teristic may have a large resonant peak magnitude. Example 11-2 Consider the following two systems: System I: C(s) R(s) C(s) R(s) 3s = 01' System II: + I Compare the bandwidths of these systems. dB 0 f--=::=�:. (e) . The cutoff rate is the slope of the log-magnitude curve near the cutoff frequency. Show that the system with the larger band­ width has a faster speed of response and can foUow the input much better than the sys­ tem with a smaller bandwidth. Note that a system with a large bandwidth requires high-performance components. Cutoff rate.33 I w (in log scale) 0 (b) (a) r(l) e(l) o Figure 11-17 Comparison of the dynamic characteristics of the two systems considered in Exam­ ple 1 1 -2: (a) closed-loop frequency-response curves. system I. The cutoff rate indicates the ability of a system to distinguish a sig­ nal from noise..) \Vc find that the bandwidth of system I is 0 :5 w s I Tad/s and that of system II is 0 :s. which implies that the system has a relatively small stability margin.628 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. has a faster speed of response and can follow the input much better. w :5 0. Clearly. (b) unit-step response curves: (c) unit-ramp response curves.

1 radls and 100 radls. .den. That is. use the command logspace(d1. The phase angle is returned in degrees.d2. MATLAB produces a Bode plot on the screen.wl = bode(num. time-invariant systems.3. each of which employs the user-specified frequency vector w.w) 'bode' returns the fTequency response of the system in matrices mag. [When the numerator and denominator contain the polynomial coefficients in descending powers of s. as in [mag. use the command bode(num.1 .C.d2) or log­ space(d1. evaluated at user-specified frequency points. bode(num.n). No plot is drawn on the screen.d2.d2) generates a vector of 50 points logarithmically equally spaced between decades 1 0 dt and 1 0 d2.phase. to generate 100 points between 1 radls and 1000 radls. the command 'bode' computes magnitudes and phase angles of the frequency response of continuous-time.dcn) to draw the Bode diagram.1 00) To incorporate these frequency points when plotting Bode diagrams.B.) MATLAB Program 11-1 plots the Bode diagram for this system. The matrices mag and phase contain the magnitudes and phase angles respectively.w) or bode(A. of the frequency response of the system.D. and w.2) logspace(d1.den) draws the Bode diagram. enter the command w = logspace( . 1 1-3 Plotting Bode Diagrams with MATLAB 629 1 1-3 PLOITING BODE DIAGRAMS WITH MATLAB In MATLAB. enter the following command: w = logspace(0.w). The resulting Bode diagram is shown in Figure 11-18.iu. Example 11-3 Plot a Bode diagram of the ITansfer function = C(s) 25 s2 + 4s + 25 When the system is defined in the form C(s) = num(s) dents) use the command bode(num. When the command 'bode' (without left-hand arguments) is entered in the computer. phase. logspace(d1. linear. The magni­ tude can be converted to decibels with tbe statement magdB = 20' 10gl O(mag) To specify the frequency range.den. When invoked with left­ hand arguments. to generate 50 points between 0.Sec.n) generates n points logarithmically equally spaced between decades 10 dt and 1 0 d2 For example.

which are frequently used for determining the relative stability of a control system.++�. We then define the phase margin and gain margin. the polar plot is the locus of vectors IC(jw) I/C(jw) as w is varied from zero to infinity.--'-.den) » grid » title(' Bode Diagram of G(s) = 25/(51\2+45+25)') 1 1 -1 1 1 -4 NYQUIST PLOTS AND THE NYQUIST STABILITY CRITERION In this section.t:: ±± i 100 Frequency (Tad/sec) s� + 45 + 25 ') 101 . An example of such a .. 0 -45 - ��=. » den 1 1 4 251. Nyquist plots.l � :±: ±±ddd --'.t H'I �--·+-j+ =J • =· I ·----. a posi­ tive (negative) phase angle is measured counterclockwise (clockwise) from the pos­ itive rcal axis.:: 'c :. ..11i'--1 11� . » bode(num.+H -. Thus. .. . 1 � 1 ..-' :-rJ-n' . Note that..L UU -L-L . . Finally. 1 1 -180 10..t\ji:+II-H'--+--ii-+-+h-Hi .J.. I -+ !H !1 1 i -90 �--1-11 I � I l 'j 1 \ [ �.· --!i-.!-i-r ---+--HI-til'H---+.630 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 0 -0 S . Bode Diagram of G(l') 25/(? + 45 + 25) = Chap.-.. .. .. we discuss conditional­ ly stable systems. The Nyquist plot of a sinusoidal transfer function C(jw) is a plot of the magnitude of C(jw) versus the phase angle of C(jw) in polar coordinates as w is varied from zero to infinity.. 1 02 Figure 11-18 Bode diagram of G(s) = 25 .!.·+�·h------tL-t��·· ·. 111C Nyquist plot is often callcd the polar plot.: 3- eo " 20 10 0 -1 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 II! I I I II ---h:.1 35 j T[t-�I --+. I 11 -[ I 1 ..l. .. . ! ' ( I :.. .LL . in polar plots.. we first discuss Nyquist plots and then the Nyquist stability criterion.J � ::. MAHAB Program = » num = 1251..L.

1t can be seen that. type 1 . One disadvantage is that the plot does not clearly indicate the contribution of each individual factor of the open-loop transfer function. then the C(jw) loci converge clockwise to the origin. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 631 1m Re[COw)] Re COw w=0 Figure 11-19 Nyquist plot. At w = 00. Table 1 1-1 shows examples of Nyquist plots of simple transfer functions.Sec. type 1. An advantage in using a Nyquist plot is that it depicts the frequency­ response characteristics of a system over the entire frequency range in a single plot. and type 2 minimum-phase systems are shown in Figure 11-20(a). . i f the degree of the denominator polynomial of C(jw) is greater than that of the numerator.11/ = 1 Rc Type I system (0) Figure Type 0 system (b ) 11-20 (a) Nyquist plots or type 0. plot is shown in Figure 1 1-19. The projections of C(jw) on the real and imaginary axes are the real and imaginary components of the function. (b) Nyquist plots in the high-frequency range.I1I = 3 w = co Re 1/ . the loci are tangent to one or the other axis. Each point on the polar plot of C(jw) represents the terminal point of a vector at a particular value of w. 1m Type 2 system 1m " n . TIle general shapes of the low-frequency portions of the Nyquist plots of type 0. as shown in Figure 1 1-20(b). and type 2 systems.

--. the Nyquist plol starts at a finite distance on the real axis and ends at a finite point on the real axis./ (I + jwT. 1 1 1m 1m Re jw - 1m O -w (jw)' 1 \ 1m o L IJ � o 1/ 00 1 + jW T --t _ _ 1m Re w = oo 0 Rc 1m o � Im I + jwT �17' 01" (I + o ll Re w �� 00 w=O \.) ( 1 - 1 Re ). 1 +/ru T + jwaT (a > jw(1 + jwT.) 1 Re I) \ . the time constants in the numerator of the transfer function. Nole that any complicated shapes in the Nyquist plot curves are caused by the numerator dynamics-that is. Re For the case where the degrees of the denominator and numerator polynomi­ als of G(jw) are the same.) .632 Freq uency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems TABLE 1 1-1 Nyquist Plots of Simple Transfer Functions Chap.) ( I + jw"[�) 1m w = I 1m + jWT. .w �o:J - jwT.

Hence. Note that it is always possible to reduce a system with feed­ back elements to a unity-feedback system. Furthermore. In what follows. Nyquist.Sec. TIle Nyquist stability criterion relates the open-loop frequency response G(jw) to the number of zeros and poles of I + G(s) that lie in the right-half s-plane. The closed-loop transfer function is C(s) R(s) G(s) 1 + G(s) For stability. . but also the degree of stability of a stable system. is useful in control engineering �@--I C(s) G(s) t Figure 11-22 Unity-feedback control sySICIl1. the extension of relative stability analysis for the unity-feedback system to nonunity­ feedback systems is possible. Nyquist stability criterion. all roots of the characteristic equation l + G(s) = O must lie in the left-half s-plane. we shall show that the Nyquist plot indicates not only whether a system is stable. Now consider the system sbown In Figure 1 1-22. In designing a control system. we require that the system be stable. In the discussion that follows. due to H. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 633 C(s) Figure 11-21 Modification of a control system with feedback elements 10 a unity-feedback control system. as shown in Figure 1 1 -2 1 . TIlis criterion. it is necessary that the system have adequate relative stability. TI. we shall assume that the systems considered have unity feedback.e Nyquist plot also gives information as to how stability may be improved if that is necessary.

N for stability. and the system is unstable. If C(s) does not have any poles in the right-half s-plane. Remarks on the Nyquist stability criterion The Nyquist stability criterion can be expressed as Z . Thus. which means that we must have P counterclockwise encirclements of the . This connuence of the two types of curve is convenient because. the C(s) locus as a representative point s traces alit the Nyquist path in the clockwise direc­ tion must encircle the . N + P where ( 1 1-9) If P is not zero.00 to + 00 and a semicircular path of infinite radius in the right-half s-plane. the locus of C(s) encircles the -1 + iO point twice in the clockwise direction. For small values of K. number of poles of C(s) in the right-half s-plane . for this system to be stable. K should be large. for a stable control system. . then. Since the number of poles of C(s) in the right-half s-plane is zero. For example. then. can be used for the sta­ bility analysis. The direction of the path is clockwise. we must have Z . C(s) . the system is stable for small values of K. or N = P. as well as experimentally obtained curves. it often happens that mathematical expressions for some of the components are not known. For good accuracy. or that the C(s) locus not encircle the -1 + iO point. in designing a control system. then. only their frequency-response data are available.1 + iO point P times in the counterclockwise direction.634 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. hence. Analytically obtained open-loop frequency­ response curves. The Nyquist stability criterion can be stated as follows: Nyquist srability criterion: In the system shown in Figure 1 1-22.1 + iO point. . consider the system with the following open-loop transfer function: . for stability. The Nyquist path is a closed contour that consists of the entire iw-axis from w = . For large values of K. K s(Tl s + J ) (T2s + 1 ) Figure 1 1-23 shows the Nyquist path and C(s) loci for a small and large value of the gain K. 1. - Z number of zeros of 1 + C(s) in the right-half s-plane. . there is no encirclement of the . the Nyquist path encloses the entire right-half s-plane. from Equation ( 1 1-9). we must have Z 0. N number of clockwise encirclements of the .1 + iO point. it is necessary that N Z 0. indicating two closed-loop poles in the right-half s-plane. 1 1 becall se the absolute stability of the closed-loop system can be determined graphi­ ca lly from open-loop frequency-response curves and there is no need for actually determining the closed-loop poles.1 + iO point P . From the stability viewpoint. if the open-loop transfer function C(s) has P poles in the right-half s-plane. .

:. From s = jO .to . lll\c Nyquist path (a closed COIl­ tour) must not pass through a pole or zero. I \ . the contour must be modi· fied by use of a semicircle with an infinitesimal radius e as shown in lhe figure.00 Re w= O+ " ( Slable ) (Unstable) Figure 1 1-23 Nyquist path and G(s) loci for a small and large value of the gain K.\·) en w U1 .joo I Nyquist path -1 / '\ �W � OO P�O N-O Z�O W ) Rc � 0 .:C _.+joo jW L h( l'-planc W= a- 1m 0- t II G-pl anc jO+ jO- v .� jO + Ihe representative point moves along the semicircle of radius l. 1m G-plane p=o N�2 Z�2 w � -oo w = .rr----. Thus.f plane·1 = G(s) locus with small K locus wit I large K G\.. lnc arca thal lhc modified closed contour avoids is very small and approaches zero as the radius e approaches zero.. Because the given G(s) hrls a pole at the origin. the Nyquist path encloses the entire right-half .

1 + jO point can be used as a measure of the margin of stability. This is not desirable for practical control systems. We must be careful when testing the stability of multiple-loop systems. Phase m argin. 2. the system is on the verge of instability and will exhibit sustained oscillations. the system is stable.) It is common practice to represent the closeness in terms of phase margin and gain margin. with this gain. or closed-loop poles. - Phase and gain margins. since they may include poles in the right-half s-plane. however. a large value of K causes poor stability or even instability. For a small value of the gain K. it is necessary to insert a compensator into the system. (This does not apply. The closeness of the G(jw) locus to the . In general. ) ( l + jwT.) Simple inspection of the encirdements of the 1 + jO point by the G(jw) locus is not sufficient to detect instability in multiple-loop systems. As the gain is decreased to a certain value. (Note that. however. the closer the GUw) locus comes to encircling the .1 + jO point. 1 1 however. In such cases. the G(jw) locus pass­ es through the -1 + jO point. For a well-designed closed-loop sys­ tem. then the zeros of the characteristic equation.) · · K : Large K : Smllll K Open-loop gain = . none of the roots of the characteristic equation should lie on the jw-axis. are located on the jw-axis. - 3. the more oscillatory is the system response.)( l + jwTb) ' (jw)( l + jwT. although an inner loop may be unstable. Figure 1 1-24 shows Nyquist plots of G(jw) for three different values of the open-loop gain K. whether any pole of 1 + G(s) is in the right-half s-plane may be determined easily by applying the Routh stability criterion to the denominator of G(s) or by actually finding the poles o� G(s) with the use of MATLAB. the entire closed-loop system can be made stable by proper design. The phase margin is that amount of additional phase lag at the gain crossover frequency required to bring the system to the verge of instability. the system is unstable. To com­ promise between accuracy and stability. For a large value of the gain K. I f the locus of G(jw) passes through the 1 + jO point.. 111is means that. G-plane 1m o Re Figure 11-24 Polar plots of K(I + jw'/.636 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. to conditionally stable systems.

The phase margin )' is 1800 plus the phase angle <p of the open-loop transfer function at the gain crossover frequency.1 800 line. the crit­ ical point in the complex plane corresponds to the O-dB line and . .'" Log w -270' Positive phase margin -90' t Negative gain margin ­ .--:. )' = 1800 + <!> Positive 1m gain G-planc egative phase margin ! 1m G-plane Positive' phase margin Re - Re Negative gain margin Unstable system (a) GUw) Stable system Positive gain margin + '" 0 �� -90' t.180' f.270' Negative phase margin Unstable system ( b) Log w Stable system Figure 11-25 Phase and gain margins or stable and unstable systems: (a) Nyquist plols: (b) Bode diagrams.� """" -:. the magnitude of the open-loop transfer function. > 0 and negative for ). the phase margin must be positive.Sec. Figures 11-25(a) and (b) illustrate the phase margins of a stable system and an unstable system in Nyquist plots and Bode diagrams.-r '-.-Log w <:2 - -Qj . In the Bode diagrams.. is unity.-f._ _ _ -Qj .-. < O.� :-.180' f. or On the Nyquist plot. a line may be drawn from the origin to the point at which the unit circle crosses the G(jw) locus.. which is positive for ).� . The angle from the negative real axis to this line is the phase margin. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 637 The gain crossover frequency is the frequency at which IG(jw) I. For a minimum-phase system to be stable.� .d-.

the gain margin indicates how much the gain can be increased before the system becomes unstable. in a Bode diagram.-:-. BOlh should be given in the determination of relative stability. TIle gain margins of first.1 + jO point. the gain margin is positive if Kg is greater than unity and negative if Kg is smaller than unity. Defining the phase crossover frequency w.1 80°. For a stable minimum-phase system. With these values. In most practical cases. the system could be either stable or unstable.and second-order systems cannot be unstable. (Even if the system is stable. Thus. to be the frequency at which the phase angle of the open-loop transfer functIOn equals -180° gives the gain margin Kg: Kg = In terms of decibels. the phase margin is . Although the phase and gain margins give only rough estimates of the effective damping ratio of a closed-loop system. Proper phase and gain margins ensure against variations in a system's compo­ nents. Therefore. a minimum­ phase system has guaranteed stability. ) 1 Expressed in decibels. For satisfactory performance. A tew comments on phase and gain margins. even if the open-loop gain and time constants of the components vary to a certain extent. a positive gain margin (in decibels) means that the system is stable. the phase margin should be between 30° and 60°. and a negative gain margin (in decibels) means that the system is unstable.and second-order minimum-phase systems are infi­ nite. and the gain margin should be greater than 6 dB. such first. a slope of -20 dB/decade is desirable at the gain crossover frequency for stability. For a minimum�phase system.-:. the slope of the log­ magnitude curve at the gain crossover frequency is more gradual than -40 dB/decade. For an unstable system. 1 1 Gaill m argill_ The gain margin is the reciproca l of the magnitud e IG(jw)1 at the frequency at whIch the phase angle is .- 1 I G(jw. the phase and gain margins must be positive for the system to be stable. ) 1 dB = 20 log Kg = -20 log IG(jw. Negative margins indicate instability. The phase and gain mar­ gins of a control system are a measure of the cioseness of the Nyquist plot to the . Note that either the gain margin alone or the phase margin alone does not give a sufficient indication of relative stability. the magnitude and phase characteristics of the open-loop transfer function are definitely related.638 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. If the slope is -40 dB/decade. since the Nyquist plots for such systems do not cross the negative real axis. these margins may be used as design criteria. however. For minimum-phase systems. The gain margin is shown in Figures 1 1-25(a) and (b). they do offer a convenient means for designing control systems or adjusting the gain constants of systems. Kg -. the gain margin is indicative of how much the gain must be decreased to make the system stable. The requirement that the phase margin be between 30° and 60° means thal. Thus.

1 + jO point twice. (Oz_ (03) 1m Re Gain crossover uequcncies w ( W I _ Wz. o I smaiL) I f Ihe slope at Ihe gain crossover frequency is -60 dB/decade or steeper. the system will be unstable. such a stable nonminimum-phase system will have negative phase and gain margins.1 + jO point twice. For stable systems having two or more gain crossover fre­ quencies.Sec. since a large signal may cause saturation. Figure 1 1-27 is an example of a G(jw) locus for which the closed-loop system can be made stable or unstable by varying the open-loop gain. the critical point . which in turn reduces the open-loop gain of the system. The system is stable only for the limited range of values of the open-loop gain for which the . For a nonminimum-phase system with unstable open loop. (03) \ w o Figure 11-26 Nyquist plots showing more than two phase or gain crossover frequencies. Hence. If the open-loop gain is increased sufficiently. Conditionally stable systems. the G(jw) locus encloses the . For stable operation of the conditionally stable system considered here. If the open­ loop gain is decreased sufficiently. It is also important to point out that conditionally stable systems will have two or more phase crossover frequencies. and some higher order systems with compli­ cated numerator dynamics may also have two or more gain crossover frequencies. Such a system is cOlldiliollally slable. and the system becomes unstablc. 1 1-4 Nyquist Plots and the Nyquist Stability Criterion 639 1m Phase crossover frequencies (WI.1 + jO point. the phase margin is measured at the highest gain crossover frequency. as shown in Figure 1 1-26. . again the C(jw) locus encloses the . Such a conditionally stable system becomes unstable when large input signals are applied.1 + jO point is completely outside the C(jw) locus. the stability condi­ tion will not be satisfied unless the G(jw) plot encircles the .1 + jO must not be located in the regions between OA and Be shown in Figure 1 1 -27.

time-invariant systems. Figure 11-27 1 1-5 DRAWING NYQUIST PLOTS WITH MATLAB Nyquist plots. which gives the frequency points in radians per second at which the frequency response will be calculated. When invoked without left-hand arguments. are commonly used in the frequency­ response representation of linear. When invoked with left-hand arguments. MATLAB returns the frequency response of the system in the matrices re. just like Bode diagrams. im. evaluated at the frequency points specified in the vector w.640 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. The command nyquist(num.wj = n yq u i st( nu m. and No plot is drawn on the screen. That is.d e n. The command 'nyquist' computes the frequency response for continuous-time. Note that re and im have as many columns as out­ puts and one row for each element in w.im. The matrices re and im contain the real and imag­ inary parts of the frequency response of the system. Nyquist plots are polar plots. linear. One plot or the other may be more convenient for a particular operation. 1 1 1m G·plane w = o:> Re Nyquist plot of a condi· tionally stable system. but a given operation can always be car­ ried out in either plot.wj or = \Y.im.w) employs the user-specified frequency vector w. time-invariant control systems. jre.w) nyqui st( n u m .den. the command nyquist(num.den) draws the Nyquist plot of the transfer function num(s) dents) C(s) = where num and den contain the polynomial coefficients in descending powers of s. while Bode diagrams are rectangular plots. as in jre. 'nyquist' produces a Nyquist plot on the screen.den ) .

the command nyquist(num.2 2 -2 2().2 axis(v). + + .2 to 2 on the imaginary axis-we enter the fo l l owing command into the computer: v=I . Since the system is given in the form of the transfer function.-' . we may combine these two lines inLO one as follows: axis(l.-'-r .8 1 1 . from -2 to 2 on the real axis and [rom .& I ) -' .5 -I .85+ 1 ).Sec.1 .5 G(s) = .5 Real Axis 1.. the ranges for the real axis and imaginary axis are automatically determined.5_1 Figure 11-28 Nyquist plot of -0..5 r. s� + 0. � ___.. MATLAB Program 11-2 produces the Nyquist plot shown in Figure 1 1-28.clen) » title('Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 /(51\2+0. [f we wish to draw the Nyquist plot using manually determined ranges-for example. In this plot. MAHAB Program = 1 1 -2 » num 1 1 ] .-.� I.. . < � '" � c 0.\' + I 1 ... » den = 1 1 0. 1 1 -5 Drawing Nyquist Plots With MATLAB 641 Example 11-4 Consider the following open-loop transfer function: 1 _ _ = � =--5' + O.8.5 0 0. Alternatively.den) may be used to draw a Nyquist plot. 2 -2 21.) Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 I(i' 0.. » nyquist(num...5 0 " E -0.--.:. .Ss + 1 G(s) Draw a Nyquist plot with MATLAB.

5 2 Real Axis MATLAB Program 11-4 uses these two lines of commands.) E -I -2 -3 -4 -5_2 \ ( - 1 .w) MAHAB » Program 1 1 -3 den = [ 1 1 0].: C " 5 4 3 2 0 Nyquist PIOI of G(. .\" + I ) . i m) = nyquist(num. The resulting Nyquist plot is shown in Figure 1 1-29. (TIle plot shows Nyquist loci for both w > 0 ilnd w < 0. even though a warning message "Divide by zero" may appear on the screen.� 1 s(s + 1 ) MATLAB Program 11-3 will produce a correct Nyquist plot on the computer.(s + I )] "Sn " Figure 11-29 Nyquist plot of G(s) = IIs(.642 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. Notice that the plot includes the loci for both w > 0 and w < O.5 1.den) » v 1-2 2 -5 5 1 . = "K .' 0 0.im.wj p lot(re. then we need to use the commands (re. » nyquist(num. 1 1 EXUlllpic 11-5 Draw a Nyquist plot for G(s) _ -.) = 11[. 5 -I -0.den. axis(v) » title('Nyquist Plot of G(s) = 1 /[s(s+ 1 )J ') » num = [1]. The resulting Nyquist plot is presented in Figure 1 1 -30. If we wish to draw the Nyquist plot for only the positive frequency region (w > 0).

5 2 Figure 11-30 Nyquist plo! of G(s) IIs(s + (The plot shows nyquist locus for w > 0.Sec. and so forth. 1 1-6 DESIGN OF CONTROL SYSTEMS IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN This section discusses control systems design based on the Bode diagram approach. den. 5 4 3 . <: i:' " NyquiSi Plot of Cis) 1I[s(s + l)] = 2 -l ' .5 -l -0. » w = 0. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 643 MAHAB Program 1 1 -4 » num = [ 1 ] . the low-frequency asymptote of the magnitude curve is 2. » plot( re im) » v = [-2 2 . Specifications of the transient response can be translated into those of the fre­ indicative of one of the static error constants Kp. K.v• or Ka- quency response in terms of the phase margin.:. .w). In Ihe Bode diagram. 3. In partic­ ular. TIlese specifications can be easily handled in the Bode diagram. » [re. axis(v) » grid » title(' Nyquist P lot of G(s) = 1 /]5(5+ 1 )] ') » x[abel('Real Axis') » ylabel(.im. an approach that is particularly useful for the following reasons: 1.5 1.l maginary Axis') .1 :1 00. TIle design of a compensator or controller to satisfy the given specifications (in terms of the phase margin and gain margin) can be carried out in the Bode diagram in a simple and straightforward manner. the phase and gain margins can be read directly from the Bode diagram.� E " " 0 -2 -3 -4 -5 -2 -1.5 5].) = 1).w[ = nyquist(num. gain margin.1 :0. » den = [ l 1 0[.5 Real Axis 0 0. bandwidth.

With the use of a lag-lead compensator. each of the PID control actions in the PID controller may be adjusted experimentally. The PD control action. and lag-lead compensators. the total system gain can be increased. increases the phase-lead angle and improves the system stability. l ag compensator. Consider a lead compensator having the following transfer function: Ts + 1 a K. The system bandwidth is reduced. we shall briefly explain each of these compensations. Lag-lead compensation is a combination of lag compensation and lead com­ pensation. The PID control action is a combination of the PI and PD control actions. in fact.) In what follows.644 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. and thus the system has a slower speed of response. any high-frequency noises involved in the system can be attenuated. Before we discuss design problems. and lag-lead compensator. Characteristics o a lead compellsator f . lag. the system has a faster response. the low-frequency gain can be increased (and hence the steady-state accuracy can be improved). Also. Lag compensatioJl reduces the system gain at higher frequencies without reducing the system gain at lower frequencies. TIlen we treat the design of a lag compensator. The design techniques for PI D controllers basically follow those of lag-lead compensators. and thereby low-frequency gain can be increased and the steady-state accuracy can be improved. we shall examine the frequency characteristics of the lead compensator. which affects the high-frequency region. the PI controller acts as a lag compensator. Lead compensation increases the system bandwidth. 1 1 In this section we present the lead. Because of the reduced high­ frequency gain. TIlCrefore. The PI D controller is a special case of a lag-lead controller. however. We lise MATLAB to obtain step and ramp responses of the designed systems to verify their transient-response performance. The PI control action affects the low-frequency portion and. aTs + l = K' 1 s + ­ aT I s +- T 0< a < 1 . That is. A compensator that has characterstics of both a lag compensator and a lead compensator is known as a lag-lead compensator. a system using lead compensation may be subjected to high-fre­ quency noise problems due to its increased high-frequency gains. followed by the design of a lag-lead compen­ sator. while at the same time the system bandwidth and stabil­ ity margins can be increased. Before we begin design problems. lag. However. Frequency characteristics of lead. ( I n industrial con­ trol systems. the PD controller behaves in much the same way as a lead compensator. thus. we first discuss the design of a lead compensator. and lag-lead compensation techniques. as well as increasing the system bandwidth ( ancl thus increasing the speed of response). increases the low-frequency gain and inlproves steady-state accuracy. Lead compensation is commonly used for improving stability margins.

For a given value of 0': t he angle between the positive real axis and the tangent line drawn from the origin to the semicircle gives the maximum phase lead angle <p". the zero is always located to the right of the pole in the complex plane. The minimum value of a is limited by the physical construction of the lead compensator and is usu­ ally taken to be about 0.05. (This means that the maximum phase lead that may be produced by a lead compensator is about 65°.l /(aT) Since o < a < 1 .liT and a pole at s . The lead compensator has a zero at s = . From Figure 1 1-31 Ihe phase angle at w WIll is cJ>m. TIle corner frequencies for the lead compensator are w = l iT and w = lI(aT) = 101T. Note that. 1m 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 645 W = CD Re Figure 11-31 yquist plOl of a lead compen­ sator crUwT + l )/(jwaT + I ). Examining Figure 1 1-32.K. we see that w'" is the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies. w III ( ) = -- -va T ( 1 1-1 1 ) .Sec.a -'. We shall call the frequency at the tangent point w"'. 1 . cPm = 1 -a 2 1 + a 2 = 1 -a 1 + a ( 1 1-10) Equation (1 1-10) relates the maximum phase-lead angle to the value of a. the pole is located far to the left.. for a small value of a. or 1 1 1 log wm = "2 log "T + log aT Hence. ) Figure 1 1-31 shows the Nyquist plot of = . where 0 < 0' < 1 . = 1 and a = 0.:jwaT + 1 0<a< 1 with Kc = 1 . Figure 1 1-32 shows the Bode diagram of a lead compensator when K. where = SlI1 . jwT + l -:: -.

but low frequencies are attenuated. T. 11 dB 0 -10 -20 90' O· i t-- _ ____ 0.1 T 1-. .-=+ � -t -'.. the magnitude of Ihe lag compensator becomes 10 (or 20 dB) at low frequencies and unity (or 0 dB) at high (requencies. (11-12) . 11ll1s. the lag compensator has a zero at s = -liT and a pole at Consider the lag-lead compen­ sator given by J s +I s +- G... Characteristics o a lag-lead compellsator.. 111e pole is located to the right of the zero. Figure 1 1-33 shows a Bode diagram of the given lag compensator.(s) = K.J. the lead compensator i s basically a high-pass filter. f s = -lI(f3T). where respectively.-·­ I �. s+ - 1 f3T. = 1 and f3 = 10. where a = 0. ----=ls+ ­ f3 > 1 {3T K. the lag compensator is essentially a low-pass filter.I -�-\10 T 10 T 1 ______ 100 T w in radls Figure 11-32 Bode diagram of a lead compensator a{jwT + 1)/(jwaT + I).cp "f.646 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 10 Chap...) Characteristics o a lag compensator. A s the figure indicates.. where the values of K. The corner frequencies are at w = liT and w = 1I(f3T). In the complex plane.. As seen from Figure 1 1-33. and {3 are set equal to 1 and 10. (High frequencies are passed. 1 . f Consider a Jag compensator that has 1 s+­ T the following transfer function: = K.-1 T 1 ---. Y s+- T. T.

the COIll­ pensator acts as a lag compensator.) VT. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 30 r20 dB 10 647 1-------___..:. we shall consider the case where y = {3. (This is not necessary.) In what follows.1 T � -- -:::. o O' . i t acts as a lead com­ pensator. and the tcrm {3 > 1 produces the effect of the lag network.. -----= T I --_ .-.�-- -90' 0..---" where y > 1 and {3 > 1 .. while for WI < W < 00.-.-L -.-..--. where {J 10. of course.01 T � -.-.-.. It is given by (For a derivation of this equation. we frequently choose y = {3.!. The Nyquist plot of the lag-lead compensator with Kr = 1 and y = {3 is shown in Figure 1 1 -34.. ---. w in rad/s 10 T y> I produces Ihe effeci of the lead network.---. ----. The frequency WI is the Frequency at which the phase angle is zero.::':_ -.Sec. It can be seen that. 1 . = + 0. see Problem A-1l-14.T.-.. -.-.. f3.-. We can.----_ . for 0 < W < Wt. TIle term Figure 11-33 Bode diagram of a lag compcnsalor (JUwT + I )IUw{JT I). - . chose 'Y :. In designing a lag-lead compensator.

Notice thai the magnitude curve has the value o dB in Ihe low. O.....-..." ..-.OO l .� . _ --. and T2 = lOT.-.. -----i -- -90· '::L .l O ..O.-. = 1 . 1 1 o Figure 11-34 Nyquist plot of the lag-lead compensator given by Equation (1 1-12) with K( = I and y = (3.---�=-� -­ -r---I.648 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 1m Chap.O ::.----.-.and high-frequency regions. _.-:-. O I.::.-= ==-� r--j..-: Figure J 1-35 Bode diagram of the Jag-lead compensator given by Equation (1 1-12) with K" = l ._.-.lOO . Example 11-6 Design of a Lead Compensator Consider the system shown in Figure 1 1-36(a)....--.-.- - - -· -- ------- - � w in fadls � � ---:-: � Figure 1 1-35 shows the Bode diagram of a lag-lead compensator when K.---l o ..-. � � -j. / w = oo Re 'w=O -. .l---. y = {3 = l O and T2 = l OTI..-. ')' = f3 = 10.-l---t--1' I i I :-: F-� _.-. -.--.. r .. o dB -10 -20 -30 90' O· t--..-:.-.-. . ."J __ ___ _ -- -. . \Ve wish to design a compensator such that the closed-loop system will satisfy the following requirements: static velocity error constant = K" phase margin gain margin � = 50Q = 20 5-1 1 0 dB .-- ..: I.- i_ >+ ---j - - -- --.

( s ) C( s ) = lim s $-0 . the phase margin is found to be 17°. the compensated system will satisfy the steady-state requirement. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 649 (aJ ( bJ Figure 11-36 (a) Uncompensated system. The first step in the design is to adjust the gain K to meet the stcady·state per­ formance specification or to provide the required static velocity error constant K'I' Since KlJ is given as 20 S. (b) compensated system. We shall next plot the Bode diagram of K = IO C. Taking the shift of the gain crossover frequency into con­ sideration. Since the specification calls for a phase margin of 50°.l .(s) = KC(s) 4K s(s + 2) K. . (This means that approximately 5° has been added to compensate for the shift in = 40 s(s + 2) . = lim sC. A lead compensator can con­ tribute this amount. We define C.-0 lim s4K = 2K s(s + 2 ) Ts + 1 C. From this plot.Sec. the maximum phase lead required. the additional phase lead necessary to satisfy the phase-margin requircment is 33°.(s) MATLAB Program 11-5 produces the Bode diagram shown in Figure 11-37.­ I s+­ aT s + - 1 T O < a < l where K = Kea. We shall design a lead compensator Ge(s) of the form Ts + 1 CJ s) = K a --:: ---::e aTs + 1 = The compensated system is shown in Figure 1 1 -36 (b). we realize that the gain crossover frequency will be shifted to the r ight.(s) aTS + I 20 or \Vith K = to. The gain margin is +00 dB. we have K. we may assume that c/>m. Accordingly. Noting that the addition of a lead compensator modifies the magnitude curve in the Bode diagram.f-Q = = . is approximately 38°. we must offsct the increased phase lag of Gj (jw) due to this increase in the gain crossover frequency.

.1. .L -L L.L. 11 MAHAB Program » » » num W = [og5pace( .24 corresponds to CPm = 37. -.L --'.1 80 10.....J ... 1 1 -5 0[. i1 I I II I I Ii j i I i .w) » grid » lille(' Bode Diagram of G_1 (5) = den = [1 = [40]. the gain crossover frequency._.. 1 00).650 Frequency·Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.. let us choose a = 0.8° does not make much difference in the final solution.. . Whether we choose cPm = 38° or ¢m 37. Once the attenuation factor a has been determined on the basis of the required phase-lead angle.1i ! 1 1i I . j j ...l ".Ll..L --'. Note that a = 0.--' .. =J 1 Bode Diagram of G. Hence.....2379... � 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -90 .. __.0 H-i i 10 Frequency (Tad/sec) = +I�-.. .(.1 '-.L. the next step is to determine the corner frequencies w = liT and w = lI(aT) of the lead compensator.. The amount of the modification in the magnitude curve at w = lI( VaT ) due to the inclusion of the term (Ts + 1)!(aTs + 1) is == 1- + " a 11 "I + jwT + jwaT I "...) Since sin ¢m = -- 1 CPm = 38° corresponds to a = 0. 1 . » bode(num..L . + 2)[ . ..I I ' 10 1 Figure 11-37 Bode diagram of G1 {s) 40/[s(5 + 2)].. L. or w = 1/( vaT).v"r 1 + ja 1 + j­ Va Va 1 1 .- _ _ LJ _ .(. � .. . -�� ' .) 40/[..---'i·..=..24. Notice that the maximum phase-lead angle cPm occurs at the geometric mean of the two corner frequencies.L . "" '2 "" .8°.....1 . _ . 2 = 40/[5(5+2)[ ') :s0 "0 iO :._ ..den.

Sec.-L � __ __ -L -L tOI Frequency (rad/sec) + Figurc ll-38 Bodc diagram of G1{s) = 40/fs(s 2 ) 1.2041 6. MATLAB Program 1 1-6 produces the Bode diagram in this frequency range.� 5 � 0 ::. -1 00 � � __ __ __ __ __ J__ __ � __ __ -L -L L. we plot a new Bode dia­ gram of G1(jw) in the frequency range between w = 1 and 10 to locate the exact point where GI(jw) = -6. or We = 9 Tad/s.2 dB is w = 9 rad/s. or . 1 00). I -\1 0. From Figure 1 1-37." " 30 20 25 Bode D i agram of G(5) = 40/15(5 + 2)1 � " 15 10 .2 -150 0. we find that the frequency point where IGI(jw)1 = -6. » bode(num. = -- I vaT MATlAB Program 1 1 -6 » den = 11 2 01.w) » grid » lille('Bode Diagram of C(s) = 40/Is(s+2)]') » num = 1401. Hence. we see that the frequency point where the magnitude of GI (jw) is 6 2 dB occurs between w = I and 10 rad/s. -5 -10 -90 � -120 � � . a.2 dB. 1 .2 dB w.24 = 0. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain = 651 Note that -= I Va We need to find the frequency point where the total magnitude becomes 0 dB when the lead compensator is added. Let us select this frequency to be the new gain crossover frequency. which is shown in Figure 1 1-38. » w = 1 0gspace (0. Noting that this frequency cor· responds to I/( VaT ).den. From the diagram. ..

409)/(.= aT Va \10.24 1 9 18..(s) = 4 1.371 0..371 K. I rw !!d !It: -- ..� " " 25 20 40 30 20 10 I .371) -.._ - illil TII III " Figure 11-39 Bode diagram of the compensator.652 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.409 = 10 s + 18. Note that 35 iii' � 30 0 "0 :.37 1 = K.409 + 18.227s + 1 1 Kc = = 41 . � � "0 • 0 -BIi+ IiiI I . . which is shown in Figure 1 1-39.a 0. 1 1 we obtain and The lead compensator thus determined is G.667(s + 4. (s) = where Kc is determined as We . the transfer function of the compensator becomes G.0544s + 1 MATLAB Program 1 1-7 produces the Bode diagram of Ihis lead compensator.227s + 1 s + 4.24 lllUS. (s) 0. + 18.667 - K a = - 10 = 41.0544s + 0.667 0.= . s s + 4. . r 1 1 '1 IIIII --TTl I i I I I Bode Diagram of G.= -.

668 den = 11 20.l . .667 5 + 4.w) » grid » title('Bode Diagram of G_C(5) = 41 .(5)G(5). From the figure.8391.. 37 1 s' + 36..Sec. ) .(S)G(5) = 41. » bode(numc.742s MATLAB Program 1 1-8 will produce the Bode diagram of G.3 7 1 36. » denc = [ 1 1 8.1 . l OO). » W = logspace( . 3 7 1 I ' ) The open-loop transfer function of the designed system is G.den.3 .839 s3 + 20.371 5(S + 2) 166.6685 + 734.w) grid title(' Bode Diagram of G_c(s)G(s)') Bode Diagram of Gc(s)G(s) 50 iii' � 0 "0 . num = 1 1 66. which is shown in Figure 1 1-40.409 4 5 + 18.. notice that the phase margin is approximately 50Q and MATlAB » » » » » » Program 1 1 -8 734. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 653 MATlAB Program 1 1 -7 » numc = [41 . 7 1 ]. 3 7 1 ]. bode(num. w = logspace(. 1 00).667 1 83 .742 01.667 (s + 4.409)/(5+ 1 8.l .� � " 0 -50 Figure 11-40 Bode diagram of Gc(s)G( .denc.

Unit-ramp response It is worthwhile to check the unit·ramp response of the compen· sated system. » den1 11 2 41. We plol both the unit-step response of the designed system and that of the original. 1 .371s2 + 203.654 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap.J). Since the static velocity error constant is 20 S.839 + 4.667(s + 4. 1 . Since Kv = 20 S-l. all requirements are satisfied. Hence. 203.41 s + 734. » plot(t. Hence.37 1 )s(s 2) + 41 . TIle closed-loop transfer function of the original.In Ihis program. 1 1 the gain margin is + 00 dB.839 20.667(s S3 MATLAB Program 11-9 produces the unit-step responses of the uncompensated and compensated systems.05.8.41 » den2 11 20. » t 0:0. + 166.8391. the original uncompensated system will have a large steady·state error following the unit·ramp input.409) + The closed-loop transfer function of the compensated system is C2 (s) R.668s + 734.3 71 734. the steady·state error following the unit·rarnp input will be lIKv = 0.83 91. 1 . » c2 = slep(num2. » num2 11 66.668 734.24.'Compensated system') » = = = = = = .(s) = s2 + 4 + 4 R.01 :6.839/36.l (734.den2.den1 . uncompensated system is C.1 .c2} » grid » titlee U nit-Step Responses of U ncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabelet (sec}') » ylabel('Oulputs c_1 and c_2 ') » texl(3. TIle static velocity error constant of the uncompensated system is 2 S-l.(s) 2s 41 .1. we obtain unil-step responses % of u ncompensated and compensated systems » » num1 141. un­ compensated system. ' Uncompensaled system'} » texl(0. The resulting response curves are shown in Figure 1 1-41. » c1 slep(num 1 .409) x 4 MAHAB Program 1 1 -9 » % . the designed system is satisfactory.J). Unit-step response \Ve shall check the unit-step response of the designed system.c1 .(s) = X 4 (s + 18.742 = 20).

8391. MATLAB Program 1 1 -10 produces the unit-ramp response curves.S 0.85. » num2 = [1 66.c2. � -".In this program.371 203 A1 734.2 2 3 t (sec) 4 5 6 Figure 11-41 Unit-step responses of uncompensated and compen­ sated systems. [Note that the unit-ramp response is obtained as the unit-stcp response of Cj(s)/sR(s). 1 .7. » den1 1 1 2 4 OJ. 1 'system ' ) = = .6 • . 734.3. 'system') » text(OA..839 OJ. 2 and R(s) is a unit-step input.2 oS' Compensated system Unit-Step Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems ---'. uncompensated system .� - 655 1. 'Compensated') » text(OA.den1 . MAHAR Program 1 1 -1 0 » % . we obtain un it-ramp responses » % of u ncompensated and compensated systems » » num1 = 141.'-') » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('lnput and Outputs c_1 and c_2 ') » text( 1 . » c2 = step(num2..01 :4. Uncompensated system "" "5 o � 0. » c 1 = step(num1 .85.] The resulting curves are shown in Figure 1 1 -42. » plot(t.4 . where i = 1.Sec. O. 1 .4 0.2 .35.-. ' Uncompensated') » text(2 .0.35. » t 0:0.t).c1 .t. The compensated system has a steady-state error equal 10 onc-tenth that of the origi­ nal.2 .-� � --.668 » den2 = 11 20.t).t. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems i n the Frequency Domain � t.t.7.'lnput') » text(2 .den2.

.5 3 3.-'A --- Input I) -g " " Q. We shall use a lag compensator of the form G.656 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems 4 3. " 2 Compensated system 1.-c s(s + 1 ) ( 0. Figure 11-:13 Control system.c:. ... " fr Chap.5 0. The open-loop transfer function is given by G ( s) - 1 .--. (s) = KG(s) K s(s + 1 ) (0.-.5 2 2.5 4 I (sec) Unit-ramp responses of uncompensated and com­ pensated systems... 5s + 1 ) It is desired to compensate the system so that the static velocity error constant Ku is I 5 5.5 1.. 1 1 Unit-Ramp Responses of Uncompensated and Compensated Systems � -. Figure 11�2 Example 11-7 Design of a Lag Compensator Consider the system shown in Figure 1 1-43. K.{3 {3Ts + 1 1 s+T s + -- (3T 1 (3 > 1 Define and G. and the gain margin is at least 10 dB.--.5s + I) S(5 +1)(0.5 � 2.� -. the phase margin is at least 40°...."...--. .55 + I) r..-' -' � � -.5 .5 Uncompensated system 0.(s) = Ts + 1 = K.

Since this corner frequency is not too far below the new gain crossover frequency.-0 s(s + 1 ) ( 0.Sec. which means that the gain adjusted but uncompensated system is unstable.1 rad/s. the phase margin is found to be -20°. the compensated system satisfies the steady-state performance requirement.5s + I ) � � � With K = 5. Thus. GJ(jw) � K � 5 dB Figure 1l� Bode diagrams for G1 KG (gain-adjusted. K. and GeG (compensated system). the new gain crossover frequency (of the compensated system) must be chosen to be near this value. � � or Ts + 1 lim sG. Noting that the addition of a lag compensator modifies the phase curve of the Bode diagram. we shall choose the corner frequency w = liT (which corresponds to the zero of the lag compensator) to be 0. we must allow 5° to 12° to the specified phase margin to compensate for the modification of the phase curve. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems i n the Frequency Domain 657 The first step in the design is to adjust the gain K to meet the required static velocity error constant. Since the frequency corresponding to a phase mar­ gin of 40Q is 0. We shall next plot the Bode diagram of 5 jw(jw + I ) (O.7 rad/s.5jw + 1 ) The magnitude curve and phase-angle curve of G1 (jw) are shown in Figure 11-44. but unco pensated system ) . From this plot. the modification in the phase curve may not be . m w in radls = .(s)G(s) lim s GJ(s) � lim sGJ(s) s-o 5-0 (3T S + 1 s-O sK 5 K lim . To avoid overly large time constants for the lag compensator. Gc!K (gain-adjusted compensator).

Any of the well·designed sys­ tems.20 dB.(s) = 5 lOs + 1 l OOs + 1 The open·!oop transfer function of the compensated system is thus The magnitude and phase·angle curves of Gc(}w )G(}w) are also shown in Figure 1 1-44. Hence. however. uncompensated system. The compensated system. we have las + 1 100s + 1 = K. the lag com· pensator must give the necessary attenuation. the compensator Gc(s) is determined to be G. (s)G(s) = 5( lOs + 1 ) lOOs + 1 ) (s + 1 ) (0. which in this case is . Finally. The required phase margin is now 52°. which is quite acceptable. Note that the new gain crossover frequency is decreased from approximately 2 to 0. To bring the magnitude curve down to 0 dB at this new gain crossover frequency. is then determined as l/{f3 T ) which corresponds to the pole of the lag = f3 = lO f3T GC (s) = KC( 10) 1 am radls lllUS. TIle gain margin is approximately 11 dB. 1 1 small. Hence. the transfer function of the lag compensator is Since the gain K was determined to be 5 and (3 was determined to be 10. 1 s+10 1 s+­ lOa K.I . Compensators designed by different methods or by different designers (even using the same approach) may look sufficiently different. == 20 10gor f3 1 = -20 TIle other corner frequency w == compensator. therefore.658 Frequency-Domain Analysis and Design of Control Systems Chap. so we choose the new gain crossover frequency to be 0. we add about 12° to the given phase margin as an allowance to account for the lag angle introduced by the lag compensator. TIle static velocity error constant is 5 S. = K f3 � = 0.5 10 Hence.5 rad/s. The phase angle of the uncompensated open·loop transfer function is -128° at about w 0. as required.5 s + 1 ) s( . The phase margin of the compensated system is about 40°.5 rad/s. The closed-loop transfer G.5 radls. satis· fies the requirements regarding both the steady state and the relative stability. which is the required value.1l1is means that the bandwidth of the system is reduced. The best among many alternatives may be chosen from the economic consideration that the time constants of the lag compensator should not be too large. will give similar transient and steady-state performance. we shall examine the unit-step response and unit-ramp response of the compensated system and the original.

5s' + Sis + 5 50s and C(s) R(s) respectively.6 0. .. Input 15 0- 10 5 Uncompcns<llcd system Compensated system 0 0 5 10 15 ( (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 11-46 Unit-ramp response curves for the compensated and uncompensated systems.Sec.4 1. 1 1 -6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 659 functions of the compensated and uncompensated systems are C(s) R(s) 50s + 5 ' + 150. 20 ". .8 � o Uncompensated system o 5 10 15 t (sec) 20 25 30 Figure 1 1-45 Unit-step response curves for the compensated and uncompensated systems. 0 -= .. MATLAB Program 11-11 will produce the unit-step and unit-ramp responses of the compensated and uncompensated systems.2 ".2 Unit-Step Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems � 0 0.. 0. 1.4 0..5s' + 101. TIle resulting unit-step response curves and unit-ramp response curves are shown in Figures 11--45 and 11-46. 30 25 nit-Ramp Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems " = " .

2.xl .t[ step(nu m. 23.dene.' lnpul') = = = = = respectively. t[ = step(num1 . we find that the designed system is satisfactory.V--') » grid » title('Unit-Ramp Responses of Compensated and Uncompensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec) ') » ylabel('l nput and Outputs') » lext(l 0.den. '.5 5 1 5 [ .3155 .7.t).x2.t.') » grid » title('Un it-Step Responses of Compensaled and U ncompensated Systems') » xlabel('t (sec)') » ylabel('Oulpuls') » text(1 2 . 1 1 MAnAB Program 1 1 -1 1 » % . » I = 0:0. z l .32.5 1 01 .2 . » nume [50 5 [ . Note that the zero and the poles of the designed closed-loop systems are as follows: zero at s = -0. 'Compensated system') » texl(1 7. » num1 e [50 51.t.5 51 5 0[.'·'. From the response curves.7.t).5 0[. ' .e2.'.5 1 .01 :30. ' U ncompensated system') » » % U n i t-ramp response » » num1 = 11 1 .8.01 :30.5 1 01 .den1 .660 Frequency-Domain Analysis and De s ig n of Control Systems Chap.5 1 [. ' . » plot{t. » ly2.5. 'Compensated system') » text(1 2.c1 .den1 e. » dene = [ 5 0 1 50.t). '. » clen = [0. » [y l . 1 . » [e2.6. » [e1 . » den 1 = [0.U n it-step response ­ » » num = [1 [ .t.2859 ± j0.t[ step(nume. .1 poles at s = -0. ' U ncompensated system') » lexl(1 2 . s = -2.0.t).y1 . » denl e = [50 1 50.5 1 . s = - 0 1 228 . z2. » plot (t.3 .y2. » t = 0:0.5196.6. t[ step(num1 e.

that the zero and pole of the lag compensator should not be located unnecessarily close to the origin.] Since the Jag compensator tends to integrate the input signal. respectively. a lag-com­ pensated system tends to become less stable.0. Because of this. When saturation or limiting takes place in the system. lag compensa­ tion permits a high gain at low frequencies (which improves the steady-state performance of a system) and reduces gain in the higher critical range of fre­ quencies so as to improve the phase margin. To avoid this possibility. 3. 1 1-6 Design of Control Systems in the Frequency Domain 661 The dominant closed-loop poles are very close to the jw-axis.Sec. To avoid this undesirable feature. however. the time constant T should be made sufficiently larger than the largest time constant of the system. as shown in Figure 1 1-47. Therefore. Also. Lag compensators are essentially low-pass filters. 1. the transient response to the disturbance input may last very long. It is also noted that in the system compensated by a lag compensator the transfer function between the plant disturbance and the system error may not involve a zero that is near the closed-loop pole that is located close to the origin. Note. and may even become unstable. the system must be designed so that the effect of lag - .(jw )G(jw) is relative­ ly unchanged near and above the new gain crossover frequency. because the lag compensator will create an additional closed-loop pole i n the same region as the zero and pole of the lag compensator. although its magnitude will become very small because the zero of the lag compensator wiLl almost cancel the effect of this pole.1228 and the zero at s = . S. (The phase-lag characteristic is of no use for compensation purposes.1 produces a slowly decreasing tail of small amplitude. Therefore. Then the system becomes less stable. Thus. [111e phase-angle curve of G. the lag compensator will reduce the bandwidth of the system and will result in a slower transient response. Conditional stability may occur when a system baving saturation or limiting is compensated by the use of a lag compensator. Note that in lag compensation we utilize the attenuation characteristic of the lag compensator at high frequen­ cies. How­ ever. a pair consisting of the closed-loop pole at s = -0. it reduces the effective loop gain. The closed-loop pole located near the origin gives a very slowly decay­ ing transient response. A few comments on lag compensation 2. The attenuation due to the lag compensator will shift the gain crossover fre­ quency to a lower frequency at which the phase margin is acceptable. with the result that the response is slow.) Suppose that the zero and pole of a lag compensator are located at s = z and s = p. the transient response (decay) due to this pole is so slow that the settling time will be adversely affected. Then the exact location of the zero and pole is not critical. 4. rather than the phase-lag characteristic. provided that they are close to the origin and the ratio zip is equal to the required multiplication factor of the static velocity error constant. it acts approxi­ mately as a proportional-plus-integral controller.

the phase margin is 50°. 1 1 dB 10 0 -10 -20 -90' -180' -270' -� -. We shall design a lag-lead compensator of the form Then the open-loop transfer function of the compensated system is Gc(s)G(s). = I.0 . le