Wlth respect 'to. the (Ointent i n ~ny' 'Vid~os. w~ititeJll instructlons or v~~bal instructicns from Edlrd'l4Eliu~if'gy or dillY).!

affilillat't!d c·ompilllilYt. it Is your r!1Z5IPons~lbility '~O ;()Q1iiIiI pty wi~h a n¥ dllild ,alii aIP~li(a ble 11()C;a,I~ ~tat~ a nd 'fedewall cooe~ r~ulafti(]llIs, and law~ regltm~ illilg b~iill dingl stenda Fd~", inS/ped'ol1l re.quiilreme,nts, permittbi I11g raql!Jireme;nts •. pl!Jb!lh: si!,fiety standards homeowner ,~$5od'3'tiion guidelil1!@~ ;;irildi ather J-ell~vant COI1!(e.fli5"

You shol!Jld contact professiiomds i!'l11d/or expe,rts fur Jlssist,moe and .advi,o; as neoes:s.ary to :s;af;e'ly ·;:md Prrop~rlly 'coliiI'i! Prlet·!! i!i! Ir\y 11m plemellltation o,ff '~he' m!!thod~ ahd sY$l,!!ms· d\e$ii;;irilbed in ~!1lY Edl~tlil4Efilergy vl'dool WiritJt~n lnstructlon or v@rballln5tmctliolil.

You a~.@ J'@Spoi"!sib I@ 'fQ,~ you .actiiOiJ\~ ·arild a9re~ 'to' ijlnde.iITf'i!Ii"!,iify andlor hiQI\d hi!i!lr~ Iles$.IEartl!i4Eli"!-erQ(Y or aln(y off ~tts :arfliillll~ted compa nll:e1l, for alnrY 1105:5:", ~In~uryl de;i3ith da~m ~wlh!lZ~hlZlr valid or ~lniValid)1 jud9~1i1IlI~11~ ,~U~~ p~·m~e~ding, ~([I nn~ge~" C!D:S·U allld~©'r ~pen~~ 'Cif ~ny naliulre whaIU~~vetr ,@jri~~ln9 from ·~Ii!Y· ~(.ti on·tglk!B'rl by you wheli! I,fSj~g or mi$u$ilog ~riry iln,fo~1lf! ~tllon ilill any ~ rtM.e!l!@J'gy

vid eo, wr'l1ttelil IlnSitmctliOIil or \ferrbilll ~ 1Il51rrU)ctjO'nl.

1

'(OIP'YRIIGH'T'INIOTIICE

N(~ m nrt,~nrt f~'iJm the IEilrlh4Enl~\r9Y vidleos~ w rirtten iiist~iUc~h)ns or verbal iil$t~i!,JctlicHfk$ may be reo~rodllll~'eO~, se Id~ 9~vefil aw-ay' er IPlllbJI~e(.l,111y dis playoo wHh~l!IlI ~rllm aplPruv~ II (rom Earth4Ener@y 'or Swerd Pu b!llshing Pill. The Ealrth4Ene;rgy na me and log 0 .are ~reg~ste;red tradremalrlks of $'wero P,ulb lij~hiri!gIIP It ari!di 1!l1~(Y lFliol, be IUlS$d wh,alsOi;ver wirthOlJlt Prri1o~ apprQ\!ijlll ~ro'm l~r1h4EIFl~rg,y 'o~ Sw~rd IP'u blis h ling PIt. If you nO,'1tl~ Illegal coples ,or amy' c,on~nt {rom Ear~h4EfiI~rI~Y plsass 'c'onti! ct l!JS imm.edliately",

2.

PARr 11= INTROOUaION.!!!p'.I!'.!!!~'!!l'!'i"'l!!!~!!P'~!!'!II!"!~'!!!I"'.!!~l!l"i'!ll!!!''!I!!!'"!I!oI"!!"'!!!pi"!!"I"'II!I·i!!I"I.!!I"'i!!!PI'!!!PI.!!I!'I!!!l!'i"'l!li-iI!PI"!"I~!!"!I"lI!!!I"I"!li-il!l"i~l"i'!ll!!"'!I!oI.!I!I .. !!"i"!!"I!i

'1 ,~ Solar Pow~r AIil~ YOI!J.",.",.",., " ... -, •• ",., •• ", •• , •• ,- •• ""'.,,,., ,.", •• ,- •• ,,' ,.",., , • .,. •• ,-, •• , •• ",.",.,"".,-,."",.", • .,..", •• ,-,.,,""''''.,,, , •• , •• ,,' "''''

'1,J .a P~:os snd CC1I'11S of PhotO'vtdtaic. :Syst,em s " ..... ;,,,,,.,;,,,,.-;,.,",,; .. ,,,,;,i-i, ... ,,,, .... ,,,'"' .... ,;;,,.,, ,i-i, .. ;, .. "

'1,,2 Photov.ottg II(: Syst@mri1 CQmIPlQirN~II!t$.,_"._,._ _o-;,.,._,._., .. , .... _.,._,._.,.-"'!-!-'''-'.--'''''-''.''.-'.-"'-'''-O-;''''-''-''->

'113 Ph©'~tov-ott'ali~: S(YS"t:e1filll rVpe.il, 1!II.ll'.1 Ilill 1.1l1.lIlll.lll.11.lI1111I.1:1 •• 11 •• lll.llll'Ill.ll.U.111'1.1 •• 1 Illllll'I •• :I.lll!ll.lll.1 .lll Ill.I:I.llll •• lll.lll.ll.II.I:I.llll.ll •• lll.1l1

'1i ~ C I . v ,... "I." H I!-.. '.-

"',' II " ila!ng Ililg If(fUlr L."ilillj' illl!"!!Itts. ~ •. , ,." ~ e e- ".,.".,,, ~,. r' """ '"" ", .. ,." ,,,.,"',, .

,2" ] .b V€!ntli Ilatio,n, aln~ Tsm per,[jjtui ~€!, •• , •• "' , ,,'.,.,.,,"' ..... , •• , ••• , .... ,.~, •• ,,'.", •• ,.,., ", •• ", •• , •• , ...... ,.,." .. ,., ... , •• ,,, •• , •• , •• ",.

.2, ] .'C: A~ppll~allil6e·:!:l, a nd Ellec:tJolilic;~.,. "" ,., ... , ", """''',.,,,., "'., ,."",.,,,.,_, . .,. •. , .• ," "" , ",."' . .,. "" ,.,-,., ",.,.,.",.,,",.,-, .. ",., , •. ,,"" ,."

:2 !,] .!d Wa1te[! ..... !oI!o!.;iiiOol_!oI .. iil~_ .. ~ii .. !oI.iOoI._! ... !"!lii!<!.!o!oI._ •• !oI_!oi!ii_!ii!ol .. ii;";_.!o!ii! .... !ii!-!oIiiiOolii!-I .. !oI .. ii.!_io!oI.o..; •• !o!_l .. ii!<! ... 1 ... _ •• ! .... !oI_!-.ii_lo!iiiOoliiio!oi!.! .... !_!-!oI_!oIii.!_

,2,,]: Slm;ti1111 Illni';,l'~,'tnn ein!ts (illlil Go, A to iii gl W,~ ... , •. " •. , .. ".", .• "." .• , •. ".", •. "." .. , .• "., ... , •. , .• ", .. , .• , •. .,. .. , •. ,,, •. , .. , .•. ,. ,:;;;: ,:2.a Refr'ig~ra~lolll Urillt::s", .. ,., , .. ,,, .. ,,,., ,." .. , ", .. , .. , .. ",.,."".", .• , .. ",."'.", . .,. .. ",." .. ,., ... , .. , .. ," .. ",., ,., ,." ... ", .. , .. , .. ",.,.",.", .. ",.", . .,.." 2,2-b, St~ucil;;Ulr:allllniV~$,~mf'ii~II!1t$+<-"--"-'.-""'.'-I--"-"-',.".-"-".-,.-., •. , •.• ,-.,.-,.-.,.,,.-~--,.-,.-,,-.,.- ... --,.-,.-., •. ,.-~-".-,.-.,-

PARr 11111,:, BE.FORE YOU SirA1R,T VnUIR: PRO,JE.CT'llllll •• :I.tllll.lll.ll •• llllI.I:I •• ll- •• I!II.III.tl.II.U.tll'I.1 •• 1 1.1'1r1 •• :I.tllll.III.ll •• I-lll.I:I.lIll.tllll.lll.1

3'1 TI .!a EJlea ric:al CYlr~,e:nrtlll.lIll'.I-I.1111I11'1I.1'1.1I1.1.1-'.l'lllllnU.'11.111'1.lll.I'.lltllll.I1I •• nl •• III.I.IIII .• l •• III.lIlll.ll •• 1111I1111'I •• '1.111.1.IU.tl.lll IU.r::I •• 11' •• lll.I'IIIII.ll.I-I.I1III.ll ••

:~L~ .b Ell<ell:tbrical 'C~lrw iltS"""""""'i"i"";'i""""'i"""i"~"i'., ••• i •• i •• ~ •• , •• , ••• , •• , •• " •• i •• i ••• ,;.i •• ~." •• i ••• i •• ,;.~ •• i •• , •• "i •• i.

3J .c EI~,tricgII Cir(:!!,dt;s. ~n P hotCivdltak SY:5item~-";"';-""H'-"~--"";--""'.-'~''';'''-'''->H-'';- .. " .... -0.;-., .• - ...... " .. "- ... - .. ,,

,4,] E'!J'AlJU,ATIINGi 'YOlll IR SOLAR POTEIf;liflAIL", •• ,."' •• ~ •• , •• , ••• "'., •• ~ •• , •• , ••• ,."' ,,' •• , ••• , •• , •• ~ •• , •• , ,., , •• , •• ~ •• , •• , •• "'.

,4,,2 AU YIOl!! INe-.e!lJ To I(jnow Ab-ourt e(irtrte;ries..., " ,,; .. ; ,,""~ ;., , , ~ ,

4..3 Phot:o\!\i)tta lit s.yste~ [Desigr1i alnd Sizlng._, _, •. ,.- --"-,.- •. ,.".-~-,,,.,,--,.- •. ,.- .. __ ,.-' .. -'-.,.-~--,.-, •... ,-.,.- --,.-,.

,4,.3;.i3l toad Estlilma!t,es... •• , •• , ••• , •• , ,.,,' •• , •• , ...... , •• , •• "'."' •• ~ •• , •• , ••• '''.''' .... ''' •• , ••• , •• , •• ~ •• ",., ••• , •• , ...... , •• , ••• ,."' ...... , •• , ••• , •• ,,, ..... ,

1414] Dlr¥ o- 11-1 ire 1[1 C~ ntrac1l:or? 11.1 1.1'.ll.I:I.lll!ll.ll .... ll.1 I 1 •• :I.lIlll.lll.11 •• 1111I.1:1 •• 11 .111 1.lll.lI.ll.I:I.lllll.11' •• 1 1.1'lll •• :I.llllIlIlll.ll •• 1 Ill.I:I.llll.lllll.lll.ll.II.III.1l11l

4".4._;;li D Ii¥.. - .. , •• ,. - ~ - ... -,. - •.• ". - ~ -, .• -,. - .... ,. - ~ -.,. -I' -.,' ... - ~ - ,. - "- -,. - ~ - -,. -., - •.• - ~ -". - .• -., - ... - ~ -., •• ,. -"'. ,. - ~ - ',. -. ,-.,. - ~ - -",

,4,4.i:I.13 Tille Code. .. , .. , .. ~ .. , .. , .. ", .. , .. , ... , .. , ... , .. , .. , , .. ", .. , .. , .. , , .. ", .. , ... , .. , ... , .. , ..... ", .. ,,, .. , .. , ...... , .. , , .. , .. ~, .. , .. , , .. , ..

414.b, H i ~,elll'.ll.I:I •• llll.ll •• llI1l1111'I •• :1.111'1.111.11 •• llIll.I:I •• ll' •• II'.I!I.I'.ll.I:I.11Ill.ll •• III.I'lll •• :1.1I11I.lll.11'.I'III1.I:I •• 11'.111'1.lll.ll.ll.I:I.lll!l.11' •• III.I'lll •• :1.11Illlllll.II •• I'lll.I:I •• lll.lnll.111.

PARr V': IDlY PV' PANIEl, ASSEMIIEtIl. 'i ..... 1,11,1 ... 1;1 ... 1,1.1,1.1; ... 1,;1 ... 1;.1 •• ,1 ... 1,1 ... 1.1; .... 1;1 ... 1.1.1, •• 1.1.1.1 ... 1;1 ... 1;1.1 ... 1, .... 1,1.1;1 ... 1, •• 1;1.1,1.1, .... 1;.1 ... 1, •• ,1 ..... 1 ...

5'i'~ Asseli1fil blinlQ .a iF'lhoto'i£Qlitaij( PaneI1i •• i ••• i •• ,; • .;.,i •• i ••• , •• i; ..... i •• i ••• ".i ....... i .... ,.i;.i; .... ', •• i ••• i •• ,; • .;.'i •• i ••• , •• i; -

5",l-ilii C,;;lIIIOLilla~i iIlg 'the Siz'l! Cif the I?'a iI1~I. __ ... ,._~ __ ,."'_, ... ,._~_." ... _., __ ''"~_ .. ; .. ; __ , __ ,,_,._'" .. , .. - .... , ...... --, .. ,.- .... ,.-, "

5, ] .b' :sOlld~~irilgl1l:h~ C~III:s"." ... .,. •. m."'."'.,."'., , •• ",.", • .,..", •• , •• " .. ", .. , •• , • .,. •• , •• ", ,.",."' • .,. •• .,. • .,. ,.",."'.,.",., , •• ",.","", • .,. •• , •• " .. ", .. ,."' •• ",.

5J .'c. Attactfing the Celli s to tlh-e Ac~llk ~Ind Millkirngl the' IFiinal CQ nlilediorns,,, ; , •. ;.

5 'I' l "d Fill! .;;1111 A s.s.e,j'n b ~y, -,. - " .. ,., -1- -,. - ,. -.,.". - ~ -". -,. -. , •• ,. - "" .... - ,. -"., ,. - ~ - -,. -,. - " •• ,., ... - -,. - ,. -. ,-.,. - ~ -". -,. - -, -. ,- -,.. - ,. -., - .. ,. -,..

5 , ] .'fre.~if5i Iilg, , .. , ... , .. , .. ", .• , .. , ... ' .. ' .. 000 •• ' •• ' ••• , •• ", ..... , •• , ••• , ." ','.000.',',' ., •• ", •• , ...... , •• , ••• ' •• '''.'0' •• ,.", •• ", •• ",., ••• , •• , ••• ,.,,' ". ,.,."',,., ••• , •• , ••

,$.'12 Do;s afildllDo'ntt.s'!! .. i!"! .. i.!"!P!i!!!Pi!l!Pi.!!!~i!"!!!'i,,!!i-i!! .. i!l! .. i'M!!"!='!i!!!l"i.!!!i-i!!!jooi'!!!i<i'!l!!!pi!!"i,,!!!PI!,,!p-i'lpi'l!!!I·i!"! ... i.!!i>i!!pi!!!pi.!I!l!'i!!!~i"!"!i'!!!!!"i!ll"i'!!!!"!t!i!!!l"i.!!i.!!!j<i~jooi,!!!!!!pi!!!!Oi!ll!!I .. !!!p-i"l!pi"i

Lj~ll of' ~~nll in~ [r-e~«lI ~'OO~.I!I.II!I.'.I-I.tllll.'U.111.tll'I.I:'.1 Ill.III.I1I.IfIIl.I-I.I .• l •• I'I.III.lIll •• I-I.1111'I •• II.I'I.1!1.1.1-'.l'lllllnU •• 11.111'1.1:1.I'.lltllll.I1I •• nl •• I-I.I.11I1 .• l •• III.IIIII.11

,5 5 6 '7

9 9 10 10 '111 '111 '111 12

12

INT.RODUCTION

The, $l!I rI lis the most prom iirtent u~aty ~,e ©f our solar ~Yl1;tem and w~dlUiU1! hr ~~e;r€ 'wo-uliid be rm lire, ,0111 Earth 'since Siulnlig ht is E~~wtih/s priITl-ary sou~e of ene,rgy,;, In dear c'cmdition~, '~he amcu m' of pow-~~ thfiltt :5iUll! d.ep-!)$its 10 r'!1 ttn@ $.!.l! ~fg(.@ of th~ Earth l~ ,~bo!Ut 1 ,-(JOD 'W/m2 (W2!111~ psr $q U ~r@

nn EH€r).l~rouglh the pmC:t!'5~ of ~hmo~mhesl s, pi alll1l:s c:al~ru FI,e '~he, ene;rgy Cif the siulnli@ht and 'C'Qnve~t ~t iwvtlO life pwes~rving O'xygen"

{lv@r O~ri!t~iii~, p~'p'I@ ha\i@ tQulnd nevv' -way5 of li1;!u"!J'~i$,ting ~Qlar @iil@iFgy", llil ~Inc:i ~ nt !inn ~ w@ have, used iit to ma Ike, 111re" T~~aiil, Wll1!h the II~lve1nfti© n of P!hotl))vol~a Ie tedln©llo-gry' we hav~ the

" --

III eans to' make powe;r ror eu ~ homes by h~rvestingJ solar energy.

Ph~tQ¥olta,i!~ Ir~~@~rdi! fb~,t b~g alii il1! 1873 'w1h~ri! Willll!oug hby Sm lth, gl ~~itli$h ~1@d~i'~11 ~ri!g ilil)~@rl '1ilfSt InaticM that s8fl~nimn W,tI!$ ,$~lJ\sitliv€, to Ugilh't. lhr,ou911h r'8:s-~alf'( h, he (;alm~' to t:1fl~ conduslon that :sel\eni UllllrS, ,abi lily to co ndu(t eledridtty WdS ijn direct proportion to the d\eg ree of'its

'~XPO$lli ~~ t~ Ugtht IHb, ilili!diillig$ c'r'! the. ph~,tO\l\olt.g i\~ effiect 'Ofi! $el~irlh-lin h~$le~dI t,o mmQ'~e r"e"$~,r'ch in tlh e' hOiP~ o;f '1illilcUng m18~ ns to IU~~ 'the mal'te-tial 'to, create ~IKtflic~ty and '~he nrs:t s:eJ,~·n~~ m based sela r e-e.lll whid~ wai) ablie, te preduce electrid1ry widmu~ g,enerathlQI heal! O~ i(otJl~umi ng

,a n~l ~ bs,tan~'~_ Wg~ d~~loiJ)~dI il1l111860 by (hh;!I~les Fr~ltl!$;, N ~v~rthel~ it Was. i1!O,t 'Ulotllll Albert

Eli nste;lln gaw his account of '~Ifle p~oto~leLtf11(, eofflfect thatt phOlt,o'iOltaic$ as a powe~ source became wi@ely- aC!I:,epted.

S,elenil!Jm sola r cell parVted tihe' W?J.'ij'to the' next generation of solar ceills, The '~Id'ij' 19.50s brau'ght a brsa kthrQurglit ilii plhotn'\l'onta~c~\o TIfl~ 5(j~n~i:s,t~ ,of [1;eill La bOlratntj'.85 d i5C!O'\tei~d that :;;ill~(.cm e!' '6re.aI~d a$IJJDsUlnrtiall amO'Ullilt ©'f 'V-oltage wh~1i exposed t))) lig h't lin ,a~difionl to ~e'iln@ m~ri!l ,efficient. the sililkon@ solar c,e,111I was ill lis; 0 ,c:he~ per to' p reduce than the' selenium solar cell because siUco n~' W;;J($r a ~d $ttJllll ~s~ 'ttlhe s@mnd Ilfi os,t alOO ndari!lI ~1@m@li!lI o~ ~i!i!rt h .a,~d by U 'G;S41 the filr'St

SmC;D ne, sela ~ cell wa s ~roolJJil:,ed.

One of' t~e 'first use'S 011' pnotovQltak tec:hnQI'o~w was ,e;mpl'O}t'ed by NASA whel1l d PV syste m con$Jl$tillg of 1 00 c~,lh W.~$ iln$1g 111~d ~ n V~li!g Ul~rdlll ~ the 1m f'5;t $~rttelliite Igl!i ~ched by the US\,T~d~~ m,ore than ] .~ tmillll~DIIl homes 'lin 'the US m:,e!' phO't,ovohaic 't.e<hlllologrY to poweir orr he-ait dil~lr homes and solar power t&:hnol~IY has even rolll nd Its w,a'ij' to' I~ pto ps and cell phones,

1Ji! INo\i'elITr'i! b~~ .2000_ the I~rg\f;stt SQI~r pOIwer fadllty ijlrl the United St~te~ 'WgSi open 111 An~~d i~.i' Floirl da The D~:So,to sola r fiel d produces ove-;r 15, mE!gallNdtts ,of €I~ctrlai'ty and POW8f"S, '~~e- ~nil5ilr€l'

't'i,'· . - ,,_,.;i' ~. -, - "·d'·· 1-· (-1- ".,,.. ·-1 -" ~i· . "i'~ ._- '-,- -,. ·t ",'; .-,. -- ,- "if .. i' ·lld;-, I . ·t 't:'i II 'p--:: I· '" . ,- l-._~- .

l"i))Wn tJl n.~C8i - 11(ij, n ~llInil" p ans II or ~II ~e construe ~H:m Uil w© r , - s alrgt!-S. ,~i))l al~ alii ~ a Fie I!..I't:lriIg

,cfiiilriedl oUrt 1ft is ~timfil1ted that it will produc@ @nCiUigh so!I~I~ ,e'r'!'E!rgry to Pr0~r 3: milliliolil ha'ilifii@s. BU'~ by 'ffalr 'th~ most amaLiliigt 1Il~W.$ 'from 'the; solar (Dmmunirty carne Dill lD~aemb8r itlh 8' 3,rrd ,2.009 ww.elnl1ih~ \!vmHdI was a ~I~ to wii'ttlile:s:s a ~mall mirse Ie lin the uorm off 1i~e Solar ~ mIPIJ.II~e pr-otot~pe p~an@ which left' the qreu nd for the fiji rst time.

fhe pih o:to~Jt~i( J'!ii ~~k~t 9IF'q,W5, with ~ch p.g&~ifi!9 ye;;.r (illll!$hig it t,o be IFeg;;Mded ,~~ th~' futu ~~ of ,er.etrgry ~rodllJ~fjior.. Till ii5 ~ap'id gw'iNth has a lilI'iIy~ia~ ou ~:olngi~all and ,e(iUlnormri ~I b~neil~:ilu

The 'oontJlnl!Jall use 'of trdldiltio:n{!jI1iu,e;1 sou roes ha s credited emililrQlilme;nta I p~ob!lems such as gillobi!lli W,i;litnihi!g~ :$01ogj w.ail,~\r pollutio(i!j al'i1di ~Lid r~ijln~! C~g$eless polll uitiOril Iha~, !!~(i! Il;:~~~~d the ,ex'tiliic,'!!lon of liiIiIany- spsctes dILle to 'the. de1;:truc,ttIon of 'th~ir natura Ilhahl'tt,ats~ Plilot'Ovolt21 ir, :sys,jr,ems, or pV :sys,jr,ems. briing us a step closer to, sdlving and ,allleviaJting these problems siim:'e

't-h'-'-' -- ---1-- -. -.;10 --1--' -- -,--- . -,Io.-t ,- - --- ----- b-I-' but ,- -1- -----"-- -b-I-'

· _ _,@y @l1i!liP oy IilO!! O!fli_ Y '1B!;!Tl~F!gy ~ llal 1i.S ~'@\n~wa _~ll! liS a sO Sll!::nfijllna ,_e.

'When -con5MfE!lillllg ths econom bral aspect of Ph01iovoltaltcs the (lilf'st 'th~ IIlg 'thatt cornss to mind 'I s the, r~dlJJ~uior. 'Uif our nruuilddy '~le~itlri,C'irty- bi 1111, How~\i\~rr ~h~ dliirect an@ ~ndir~c,t impacU it, has 0111 tjh~ 'o'lie~,;;I111 @QO'iJlomy of ~I 'OOili ntry ,;;.re by no iin@.;M1S to b~, n@gl@d,[~cl:II!, R@$~t(:hl d~v~lopr!rv~;n,ti'

p roductlon and ,~dur.ath:m in Ph.otovdltaic5 not only creetes Iile-W Jobs 'thus, redUldn,g uneliilil ployrm'enrt of al >C:O!UlliYtry but 'l't slse ililijtiates: trade al~~ @e~r~aS:~5 f@:ssil rulel ~ep~fiIdleliJlc~, Indir~tlY:r th~Ql!Jglhl the' 1II:>e' of sola r energy the' dI mQUlnt' of poll I urion is reduced hence bring ilng healthie;r li'!lli ng and 1t'i~dUictio n ~n hrzilll th ,care costs,

S-ltilll havi tJlg HII '~hi~ 'illil lilI'iI'illild, Ilell: us IloUik. at 'it~e lmpaet li1:fIJl: a PV' :~y11~em 'Wli 1lllhav~ on )lOur household and discuss the benefits .imd d rawbadt ,of IPV s;ysttems.

PV :iy~tems, offe r co:n<S!ide~,:abll,e ~d!v,al'litages ,over traditl10nal powe,r S:OI!Jn::~:s;:,

• Ilnd;@peli!dle nee; Whether you want tu power' yOUir Ihom~ or roo ~ Ilog c,~biln in the iliri!OiJJli!taifH~t

a PV s-y:s;tt~m 'Will II allow you to be OOIiilii pl@lt~ly in depellld~nl. of the powe-t gl~ld.

• Z,ero fuel ,©()_~ts;; B~.alu:ile solar ~elll~ getlle;rate ~I~c;tnciity dir~tly' frem the ~ufillii9h~ '~helr-e ar~

no, CO$,1i$ oonne~t-~d t,o pUlrdhasililQl Oil tralill:spo·jjtilng -fu ~L

• 1ft~I~albill~'~~ E.wn in less QP~llltiiiIal we.a~h~~r PV 5yS't,@ms, 91Jlara lilt~~' PQwe-~ proVIi.sI:Oil. MQr~o'w~, if you dltJ!©se te install a system 'W'irth battery s,ttJ!rag'e 'Y)):m can e.v~~ IU:ile ~r.e ele.(tri~iiLy gt!\nerarted by ~t dl!Jriing Iilighuime.;,

.. 1L00W ma~lnrt,e-,nanc~:' Once YOUI CJ"'~~'tt,~, and 'ilnstalill a solar pansl there 1s ham I¥ anythling Ie'h 'torr'

y©u to. do to ,enl5ure 'irt:J p FO~~~' fu m::tionrilng ~xc,ep-~ may~~ to take off a tJlY I)e.ave~ '~h~t migln hav'e fallen or ghr\e- it a qu ielk wipe te get '~I'le dust ,off'.

• Du r~ bility; Mos,t otT panells 'today 'ooilifi!>e' with ~ 2.0 00 25, y~QI~ w~ F["~IF'!ilY ,;;Ilild ~v@n the ,old@r ty~~s ou medules sr.()w no degradlation al-rt'er' as m ueh as 10 years oF' use"

• tiJo pcllutlore Ai;;; we di~cllJssed ea~lijer; rv Systems prodlJlO! d\edllil r>elijalble ~nergy by directly

t~llPpl ~g into th~ b~~,t r~ri!@wab I@ :5iOI,Ir(@ ~11;.l,aiIIQlbl@ to iliri!al1 ,_ ~l!! iJlli9 ht _, and th@~'~'fu.r@ g@iJ)~rat@ no polllllilt~QIIl to the @liIvlilfOnmelJ'U. lHow~v€rl bsceuse PV' :sy5t~m5 op~rait@ 5~ l~fiItl¥ and with mifll~ IiiI1I ill II or ne mov@me'li1t. the-y also de not ,generate any 'sound poll I uitic'ni;, Ibis m~y [be Cf1I@ of the ,greatest i!i!d\,lgnt~g~s of ,~mpl oyili!9 tM~, ~1~ti(Jullar type 'm I!"@(i!@walble ~(i!@rgy $yst~iJifi!. J'Lii~t im~Qlil!J)~ havllng so,mil1iith~ ng on 'You r ~oof or any immoola~ :s!1Jno!l.mdlrlllgs that causes constant Inois~"

• SarVe:ty: SA noo, they' do Inot reqllJir-e use of ~@mb~stiblle, fllJel~~ PV 5Y11,tem11 alFoe' v-erry ~affre if

p'Fope~ly C'OI'i1$truct~d g nd hl$,1t;llled.

• Modu la,rrity~ 'You calil s'~art your 50llar p~ 1Il~1 c.o!I~iI1iictllQn wi'tt~ one IP-alil~1 and a dd mo'r~,

increms nr!!ally. IlIhere'foroe" ones 'YOl!l bUliM a nd in~1!a1l y©ulr IPV panels '~hey' ~ont W€~lr OLJil', don't g@ ,away and yOI!J can add to them.

• AltJ11ilude. (:01ll5Id~r.tIth:m: Co nr1!r.tIlry to, th-~, loss ~Inl €im/CiI~liIc.y that iii foss,lill ru~l-generraw,r hes ifil higlh altli1iiu:d~~" IPV sy:stt."ffil1I~, o~er.ate wi1l:~ more t:wmkiem:y' because ©'f the 'iltJle:rea$oo i ns~!larti~ n at higlnelr ~IUltu des,

• F~@_:(ihll itty,;, D~p~ndin9 on y'oUlr n@~dlsJ PV S,%t'~ilt5, (~n b@i cOrilfilg U r,~ I irl m~ny' diiff@\F~Iil1t w.~y$,

• Iinitial ,cost: On~ Q,f tlh~, maso,ns why' more and ImO.r~' p~opl!,~' ,,~ Ibokli ng ~n do Ht YO!Jirs~lf' '3l©tal~' pan~1 :!!ystem is beil:ause, a ,c:ormlmelrclialll3.KW s,ystelill'il _ a 300'0 W('Ju, sy':!l'!r<em ,_ costs about $.22.'000! AI~hough the reb~tes, and inc'IE ntives from the II~III govemments .• :Sl'~lte ~nd 'CQUlnty :~O!Ji ~C@5, willill h~llp- y,o~ r'iEdiJjc.~ those costs" ij1L i~ .eMp-.eIii$iN~ to h"~~ it dOi1@"

• Erilergy effiiClelllcy: To elU~lre ,oo~t=.effeil:tlive;ne:!l~. )I(~1lJ migtn need te rep lace ~Ul)l ifileili)d,en1r

,alPpli~lnoes,

• :5o.l~lr ~dila~lo~ vart~bHlity~ W~.ath@r ,gr@a~ly .;I,flT@ct$, '~h~ pow~~ o~tpurt. of ,a PV 5ys,trem ,al1!d

'chalng~ ~ n s'lite CD nditliolils liiIiIay reql!!Jire a dhang\~' In d€tsiglnl,

Havingl (11111 these pros and (,'QIil.S In mlndl I stilill b~U~v~ '~lhat s-("alll'~5 tllp5 in {avo r O'ff PII 5~:tenl:~L Meverthel!ess. do, 11I0t h2't my' persona I opinio n ij n~luence you and befu re yOllJ ded de to eenstru ct. 'or iln$1;~1111 031 IPV $Y$t@m tak~ sOmfi!.e time to w@igh Ollit the b~n:etfit$ ;":lInd dk.awb~u:;;k$, of ht$tr~lliIil 9 a ~v :5;yst,~m In your horne,

fhe' b~(Sl!; ,of a rv ~steill iiS the ilndividi!,J~11 SQI~~r c~ll~ which l~ ,~ sq!Jiare o~ a di~~ iln'i;lQ@ of ,sellilidcOlildu('!ror ma~rjalll 'ttha'l! 9ieiil€!rnrttes, '!J'Olrl,ag€!' and eu ifrelilt w~e\nl €fipos~d to sIJ,.mII~glltvt. 10 understand h©w the solar ~elll a~luailiry W@ rlk£1 he~,e is a ~~mlPllifl ed exp!lanalli:on: phoeons ln t~e

s u nl h~liit al~~ ~lb:sQrlb~ Py thE! :semkQ nduc,1Li iIlg ma:tei'il,a,~~ sllidh ,a5 silic,oru~. c~u$,ilillg the n@9~tti!V@;ly ,chalrged ,elec,trom; to becoms IOOSJ~' from thslr aeoms alnd flow 'throogh ths nn aiL"efi;!i1 I 'ttlill!J$

p roducil1lQl eIK'Ull(i1[y. How~ve1rr due to th~ s,~~ia,ll structure of dle :!)ollar ~e;lt 'the ,eil~~llron~ are abl e 'to move in one direct jon Olilly" Me~ln!Whijlle~, (omplle;ment~,r'j{ positive ,dharges. the nol@'s (hole.s shou lid not bs c,onfu::;;~d w'lith positrons that are. 'the dllil'tJim;r;rn:eif ana logu~ of '~he ele;ctmns,) alse CIF~a1ted fl©w illi) the oppo~rt.e dir~C'lh:m o1i"tihe' ~I!eu~on~.llh,e, elleu~oniil: behavk~r 'Cif .a selar ,c,~11 (~;lIn be glrap1h i\Q!jl~ portrayed with a dl~(!ulit ITl cdel ,~lectJriully' ,eql!Jiv~dleint and based ,0111 diistlnct el~dricgll (Ornp-OiI)~Ms, whose b@haavilo~ ii.S w@11 known. IB!eCgl,liS~ IilO s,ollar c!2\lllli$, iid~,I~ i!!! ,ljh!J lin re:s:i~itaIIi1OO an d .81 ~eries, Iresi!1,llal1c.e (I)) mponsnt alr~ addled te the lilI'iIodell,

v

6

S'ol ar c,~III$J which hf1!V~"~ pO$irtiV@ dharg~ (~Ii! Ori!@ :$id@ all!d t~~ li"N=ggltive dharg@ on t h'e (~~herl ~Ire connectsd to' creat.@ a module or pOIIil@L A panel conslsts of s~v'iZrolll rows of cells wired In pOlrr,alll~1 or ~eriiel) and ~Iac~d b~t\i'iJeen a delw and en~a pl)ul('jltin~ su b~~~.ate., S:e'iler:alllPan~ll) 'WII ~~@ art a :spedfk: v{)lt~;gei 'form an i!n~y.

,
=,,1 ~
I
_~ ~.
_<' .~.
._.,
~.
~ ~.
1 Module

'f' ·il
'l~ . ,:>_ L'. i',
I
,_
! .1
,
,~-, ,~ .
,{_
!,. - I_I'
I ~.
'1,0
'~', Array

Jibe, power thM selar IP~ulleb: P FOOUIl:,e IS, IDiroct C~Ure\nft (U1FOtJi'l1l now en r~f.err~~ to al~ IDC) bUll: tth~ pow~~' that mo!St 'of hom~ glp,p.11 i~nc,~ Uitili~e' i$, AIt@martili1g L!Ur1F~~mt I(j'r Pte. lIlhat b~ why ~In in!j,!'@~1t@r is one of the standard components of ,afilY PV 5.ysr,~.m, The ~lnrv'iZrr-@'~ 1(5; a d~IL€ that. ,coml~rr1!:S the D( pow~rr' gene rarl~d b'~' 'the, pa ut~I:!:l, ijlnrt,~ A(',

If you want to Ih~\,i'e " fuilly 1 tJ"ldependent PV s.ystem upabl-e of sto:ril~g e~e;r.gy, "y'OU will also Ineed to' ifils'talll a dilalrg~ (''OInltroilller and ,of' (00 ~,S~ 1'lh~ ibat'!'iZfil8S. [1;aU'iZiil!8.S ,a~ ,a nn;iZd i Ulnnl that s't,o~ the D-C pow~rr' prod llJoodilby the sols r panels t h~t we Will dli5S-C:Iill)s illl ~,etaii Illater, The ma~ n rurr~~~ of (ill 'chalrge C'ofilt~'oller is to regul~te '~he levell of pOWeir stored in the b"lue~ie'5i, Not olllily does I't pf~vent '~h'e ba!tt@ry o~ bat1-eFii~$ from reathirligl .a darrHJeroutSly low ~harg\e' I~\i\el by stop\ping th~ ,~ulPply !i)f' pow~~ to 'the IDC lead but it all~o p rotacts the batte;ry' from beiln@ ©ver~halrged ~ ,j,ulI'itom aibk",II~ discen nedilng '~he mod!JIlles, in yoo r PV .anray from the battery b~nk whelll '~he b~U@ri@$ are fu 110/ dharg@d-lh~r@for@1 to' m~~lnrtaili! looU.ery 1P@~for\rngl!l1Q~1 lit ls vit~,11 to ilil1$tg,1l a 'charg@ controller 'lin all burt 'th€i simp lest of PV' ,sy:!r~~ms is Vlitlal.lFii nally, dl~ 11051. piece of e-qlillpm€int for v,our Pit Syst-~WI1i is ~ d itS!conlllea' switch, As they are of'vltal importanc,e. thiey ne~d 'ttO be

ilf! ount@d witlhilirl ~~I$Y ~,~dl ~nd @V@i~y' rn~rnb~ r 0,11· y'OlJi ~ ¥';!JIill1illi)! $holJ! lid kJi!OW ,~~;3,'d;ly' how to' 'W ~n ths PV :s),IS1!!iZm ,off' ('Or 5al~llIlt'!@,asolils" AII1thougl~ most cHsa:mn@Lt :5wlit'Lh5 hav~ fUSliZ5 ~hat, wi III p'F~'iltmt ~qui pment dlamag~ if the PV orthe illil elle·~tlri;e:al ~y.!j;tem is; s~~w'iln~ a ny a'~l'iIomfl'al b@hi!i!vi,or; $lI!ut off tth~ sl(j,l~r' :5V$,1!@ffi 'fllrst

nne 011 '~Iile' posi~iv,e, ,chalr,O'cterlsth:s, off P\/' sys,'tems, is 1'lillat the--y Ol~'~ ve~Y flex'i ble ,and d1iZpiZfilding on irildiivi@ual needs 1!h~r~' are tw~ diff~r~m: ~~~S of IPV s,yst:e1i1lll5: ©ff-~Irid $y~t~rn~ and -cm-glrid :s;ys,wms, or ,g!'1id tied systems. The Iless ccmmcn otff·glriid 'sys,wms ,alre ,co~ plete(ly Si!lf·s!JIffident and ,are USIU;t;i Illy ~mpJoy€id by people who Ihave' a III IKV~ a cabi III illil 'the. IiiIiIOUinitalillilS or who want to ,get -away from it all and. dU::lr~for~, do not haw. ~ ,$:~Uln:,;~ of ~1~tri!Citty d0'5e 'to them, Depend in~ '0111 inc! ividul,d needis these systeli1l1ls ca n power DC loads, olnl'y Q~; by' instam ng an iml@rte rJ, can pow~~ both IDC and At: Ilwd$...

In o.rde-tr tc operat~, th i's Ikin~ of ~ys,telm at ni'ghlt e r dlur~lnrg dou@y we.afth~rl the :S:Y;:jlem must illl(lud~ ~ means for storingl ener'QY' ~ llIsualllly ~I deep cycl@ batte;ry,. The ned s.y,stem ~s; an

,off~grid $}i'stem wil1!n a g@!J)~rat'Q,r ilJ\F a hybrid SY5it@m. Uk~ 'tlh-e' pw.eviio,utS one ilt ItS 'oornri! pl@t'~ly of 'gridJ: hiOWe\le'~f this one, does no,tt have: power ~t'O~,a9~.11 ns:teadl it, has 01 ge,niZralt,or - lJIslLlalllly 9'atS or

,d"· ',' II I' " d _'rb. r .,. ".1"·<·, Df"fW' ,.",a., ·ilLL..t-" 'I' bad weath '1\",1"1··,0. _. , , .II· '. f

,.llese powere. 'Ina,~ S!JIPI=I.I-E!S .1;,. PQ'._eFi g", illig II'", or In! ~1I"iI we~ ... err, nomer @'Xamp.1E a .a

hybtid $,YS1~tn i$ 0 il'e tlilij,t h~s a ill iln'\'l@griUeo Wind ~ulrbi n1~.

j'

The da~ use ~yste:m is '~he, :;implle~tt f©'rmn of a n o1if-gl~id PV ~Y!1,tem .. A:.~ it~ name slJJ@g,en.s ilt designed fur day use onty",The'se s,ystems ~~'I! uS!.llall~twilredl diiroctly't'o,the DC lo~ds or appliiam:,e;s. like a IDC powei,f'E!d wilit:err pump, -ga1r@' oPeirij!~r or a s:tti31lildf-akm'ei' :soislIT poweirE!d cslcu laft,or"

A more cemrnen PV system type 'i s the oli1~g rid ~~ternr gl~i~=tth~d sy..nemrll O~; as it, is se menmes r@'1T@lTed to, luitil~ty·interliildive sy~tewrl. Ths bask c,ompcments of this, system ,~ue the solar panels ,~Iild th@ i ifW'~;Ft@r b@~iU$@ this type is m~inly' us.-~d for r@:$id@n~ial pi,llrPrO~~1 i ,,@, iii! li!OUl$@$ ilii) whkh ,aIPp.li.alli1oo~ aIF<e' m,C\~~ly !i.e ~©w.er~d. Wi~h this typ.e off' ~y~n,e,m, d~p.eli1ding on 'the .am~urnrt 0" irildlepef1lclle;n.ce YQY 'W~nt YIO!,U IPV Soy,stem to have. 'ylOu can opt not to install b~ltte~ie::s; OK:ilIYS@ the uitill irl-' nrld to which-cu alF@ 'cOillru~cted 'W:i III ad ,as ill - :O!N@~ ~'~E!rv@;, So m@ hOm@OiNltleB who

- --- - -y 9 -- - -- - - - - - - y - -- -- - - -- - - - - - - -- -- -- - ,- -- p - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - -- - - -- --

de1cide nart. to IIn5talili bat~,elfii~s ,~\!IF.l!fi1 sell 'th~ surplus of ,en,e,rg-y to 'th~ir leca II pCiw~r' c,onn pilllJlY

th~oygh ~I s~eci'alized invErt,sr.

To .;I,c:hi~v~' m~Xirmurm illld\ellJ!e:nd~nO!llhowtW~rl rm.;llnlY ~Qmel)lNn~rs, ;;;;hQ'O:~!! to ijlil~t~11111 a biii!tt,~ry bSIIilk. to, 'theiir s,yst,eiiilil as. we-:I II. This type off 5~"S,'t,em shoulid aliso (nlilttl~ n ,a charg€! -controlll~,r to ,etJ1~ur-e ban-elFY' 1~llIg ev'ilty'"

8

Sii nC@' th@ ~~irl ~$on fur s,witchij iJlg to f@iJl~w~bl~ @ne~,g:Y' i$, cost r@ChJictioli!l stlFainiri!QI yoult PV :sys'ttem to' lts II~ mlts does no,1! mali);)i1i' much sense cllnd that is why. we afe< dli1id'icaitilil91 al dh,ap'ttgr to way$ in 'whi c:~ you esn r~uc~ yo-u r Dower c!!J'n!slJJmptilOn. Alfw'(lirY;l) hav~ ~n m~nd thart 'the am ~Utnrt of li1I1Ione-y spem: om power ,cons@rvation is eqlJal~ IJ'rQPO rtiQnal to' '~he ameu m of mfiloney rMucM 'hom 'the (DS:t O'f GIIPV s,Y5:I,@1i'iI1I illlikd ~' malking some ,cllla ng~, in household heblts ,~n"rzrgly eensu mlPlion calli) ~e IFe~lIIe:e~ up te ,2.0%, How'eve:~" :!liOrn,etiilill'ile.~ te make, !)!)]me serious ,(jut~ to youlr monthly electrh:itjr bill 'so me cos.tly irn/esibments iW'E!' fileoeS:S~lry. Energy' C'DfilSlUlmfiI piblon can be rech,.I,ej iln many Glii~r~lI!t ways, g nd hoW iTIri! U,~~ Y'Oi!.! Wglint to i!1!Vest ij$, ehibllr~ly up to Y.Oi!,.c ,all!d ~ven if you have alr.ea~y dleci~e!)] not 'l))} illlstall a PV ~ys.,tem please, read ~h,e, foll~wil~g seene ni5 O~ h©v!f you can help illllleI!li ate the stra iln on E& If~hts, natura IllresollJl Fi'QeS, by CIO nl5'ervifilgl energy.

2,.,' Cha,ng,in9 Your ,Dtlily ,Hob,i:"

Have you ever wondered wh)l' two he uses $~mTIIa!lr i FtI size and the num ber of

.Q!L(UP~ nts ~,~rVe twa velry' different e I!ectricitty' bn I s?' The rna ~n d rlfife,rente betw-ee.n them can be, seen Tn the, habits of thetr respective occupa nts, IFor easiier re~l!'IfE!'lIiIciin gJ' 'we willi (alii them II ouse ,~, the one with no ,~nergy conservatlon Ij'n mind, and houseB cwh ose rasldents alr'e not wa.s.1fefu I eli elrgy wi:se'" lFIere is ;3 ffable, of the ~r dai Iy ha bits,

IH:OUS,EB

IH:OUS,EA

2. '1.,Q' iJght'S

The 'firs'!! ~'tt€m on thi1i' list is :s,i1ilf-~prlallilait'ory. A, wrzll~l~tt house m,ay seem roililil'fo:rtalble allild ilil'Vilting but Ilightill1g UIP the whQle hQ!JISoe like. a Chris-tJma~ tre<e is net g'oing to g'et you fair iff youl are' tryillng to. r@ji~h,.l(@ y.oUlf bill II" A ,gold~,nl Irul~ whEMl ilt 'com>e$ 00 II igrht's is, tnat o:ne' ligiht bo lib Pce~ 1P@~$OIi! ~s, qullt~ ~lilougllll.lHlow~~~1- tf your stilll w,ant ~v~ry' corner ofyoUir IhoUJs~ to shilil~ bri,:gh~ try ~,@placililgl y©ulr Ilnean!)]e~~ent li~lhrt ~ullbl) W1it~ 'einer9¥ efflldefil'l! LEDl) or 'C:Uimpa{;t ~I'UQre'500rilt bulbs an~ dOiJ)~t' W-O'HY that your hOlli~e wilill have the ~I of your Ofilk,~ b-e(;i!i!lli$~ (i!@w v@J$!10!i)$ 'of tillU',cu@$cerilt bu lib::: haMi1i' a much pl~i1iaScan~r :sp'i1iCtlrUlmi. Aln,otliti8r r'MSOiil why inca ndei~liIt Ilil9lhts, GI~'!Z' ifil~f~ctiw is t hst they put out a lot of heal So 'illi) the ~lLImme:rlji me. whelil you are maoo:ilmiiZllln 9 the OlLlt;PllJt @if youlr Arcs" they alr'e &ctw~lllly Ihei:1lting up yliJl!Jr house, CO'n15i'der this: for a '1 00 W~1rts 'of lii:gMilng. yo'U r A;C: spends em adlditl,on:till 30 'W,altlt:s '~O cool down the place, Ni1i')(~ c,om:,bder i5 usifllgillow w,au;a'ge. by 11~:5' ins,lead ,((if dimm ers,

Lig Willlgi the outdocrs b riltllgs; i:1I sense of s;eculrilty' to m~ln(Y people; but w~th some mij n U~'e' Ilfi Qdii~(;atioli!:S~ you 'C~iII $.g~ ,~ lo,t 011' @il1~~gy:" OIil@-tilntriH~' IrlWst m@nt iill motk~il1 det~(t.Qrs, C~ln, ,elill)Ure that the OUfl))]OOr liglhrtt~ are on only wheli) li1ece.s'~alry·,

9

2. 1 a. 0 Venti'i(~tj:on and ~e.mp-eratur€'

fih~· ·al!i1Du M or lPo~r yOU! c,o n$iUm,~ for heatJln'lt' and air~cot!dJt'ioilliog 9re~~ly d.~p~nd$ oil! '~h~ ·dinn am lin 'wihi,c~ you liv@ ~n. All ~h~· sa me, u n I!~~, YOUI III!\!'~ in 01 place ttnat has p~~p~ruaillare. spr'lililg ·c:·~n@ ltlens, h~ling or aiIF~'oli1d~1:'i:(mi ng take.~ up a ~P'F1()x'ilmal:eIIY 25'% ~f y~ulr el1tii tJ';e. ·elileiF-gry eosts, Howev,e;rJ. the 1P~,obilem lies not il1l ·tihe ,dimate, burt' In ·tih-e fact ·tihat yOlil r house ls not pr,ope~ly

InS~ Ila~d and by nn aid 1il9 some Ihablttuall and loVit-cQ,st :::t:mcru ~,al ,chaln~M, YOUI ~,aln :saw a h:lJt. of

nn ~lIIey bY' ~a\iiiln@ pow~~.

The 'ch~n~~ you ca n m,ake to your tneatJl ng and o:tOliiJng routine are shTfrJ pie but eiecthre. S,tart by' ,d~$1In'9 o:fil' ~ ny ~oom5 thart you ·alj'e not liIs·il11l9 c,oliis,1tarii1tI¥. lh~F~ is no Iii@e-dl t,o heat or c'oo I tln~

leu tIldry room or '~he, attic: the Hr y!U~ 910 up t here olilce illl a bllue moea. CI~~e th~ garage doer, VOUI woulld be surprised at how muc h ene~·gy· 'you a rte w~s~lng by k~pi ng it Olpe n, (ilose L!I ~ ·any· 'fi~IDI~("@$ that ~Je In r):t. ill !Use,. Do thiis; @sp~d~llly d ull1 ng Wllnt'~F b~_g'U.5@ hOlt ·~ir lis lijg ~t-er tli!;";!ln w·lld a~ r~ 'tt1il~rr,~fQre~ it r15M, up and by l\fMIVin!£j ~h~· fireplace open you are c.~€a'ttin!£j a p~rf,~cit c'Cifildiuit for tihe, hot a,ilr t~ e~pe .. Minimiz.e '~he, use of exh~lJIst fan$I~'liilllS;~ a II they clio is suck out the ~ ilr

t hat you F H~A( Hl~s to IF@p!lel1!ii:dt

Turn dowiI\ ow up, '~h@ ~h~tIiilllQ5t:att as much as possl~l~ and Whi@IiI€i\.!l~r p05:s,ilble .. T~mingl·lrr down by U 5rfiF for 8 hours OVIemight Y'Olil can ~ lIIP to '15% ofif 'Y0ulr electric bill II .. Most p@opl!e ad~us.t tJh~ir th~rm;Q$t~t On('@l iii day or '~V@1iI less than that If th~ w@iith@n- do@s not (1il;3lng@ s;igli!~fi(i!i!lndy! Howmi'~rr !halnlli;;s to 'rh€ modem ::;Ci~IilL~' 'You do nO", h;av,~ 'to, ~m,~moor eo ttUrinl ~'~ down or up. Prr'UiglralITI mab:l~ thermostats alre· a ~heap ijlniVe~·tmeril'!r ~hat can 9tUi a ,gr~t 1~li1g'!rh 'iitll s.avllng ,ener-g¥. By' I,I$Jilnlg these smart II iit~le .g~d9~~ l/O'UI ~In $~1t weekly g,nd daily p Fogr~rns,1tInM m~lnage y>Oi!Jr 't.e:nnlperraru ~,~. Some of them ev~nl hai'il~ 'tt~e. occupancy f.e-aitUM thst IiiIiIOlnito\rs 'Iiff semeo nels in 'th~· house - 'if 1II0t the '!remperaJtllJr~ ~:ema'illil~ on ~rnln@lby"

You pr'oba,bhl never gave much th'Ol.IIght to energy ~,ol1lS>erv·ati)On from the" sped: of WI ndews and blinds. 'Ye~ by opening or ('losing wlndQW5~ blind s or e¥~fi1 curtalns YOILI can accomplish a let, In~tea d cf tumin@ the Ale ~n~. tlrV ~penlng the wl1 nd©w t10 \JIenlilate· y~Ulr h'OIl.I~~. DUll'ling W1ilnlteiF ·and s;ummre;r to >eithe:r lkee~ the house ceclcr wcarm dose the blind~ and pull down 'tihe curtslns, as th~s)~, ·ar@ ~ 'Qlr~t way to ii1$lIi Ilat@ iKHJIi" hO!Ji~'- lHo~\f@i"1 .~ goad waiy to get som~ ~t Fa 1h~lt

du ~in~ winter is tn ~pe\n ~ne Ibllin~~, a nd eurtains on those 'i!!.dln@ow~ t hat are ~lJJfilll~'tt. In '!rh~ end, w-e~lr "I sweater 'in the wllnt-e1F or W~ Ilk around the house naked in the· summer ~ be su re tc close tlh~' hliilnd$.fir~1t b~c"a Ul.S~ yoo dlorii"1t want t'G $(~n~ th@ !rl~;lgJlhb(lo~:$.

SOIiilll~' otlhfrlf' things, yqui callil do, i$ ch~k rn'r II €talks, ol~·ound 'ffiram iMj, ollikd doors, S8a II tt~~ (raicliis iln 'the blldll dingl errvelope:,. d05e ha,t-ene'S orr- r·ejplla~·e ~ ny cracked window panes. AJlso. in ·tihe, 'summer try 'cookJl iIl9 ,,,n Y0l!iIF 'lTQod '00 ,j;I '9;";1$ barbeOJi!~. llhi~ w-ay YOIUI~ storv--@ wlillilin 01' geiJ)~~ate h~-Qlt aroll! ml th~ house,

2. 'I. c Applia-nces and Electronics

Beside~ heatirnQI and a ilr·~onditioFil~ ngr ",~pllial1l(:e:~ and electrornks a ~e, 'tlhe it'e.mrlI:& that i!1!"e the ·causl~· ·of IMgh ~1~,ttric~11 billll_s. Chalnlg1fil91 tth~ WfJi'Y' you use ,applialniC~$ and €I€ctmlilics areund dili@ house may'lea~ to a:~'l)UniiiShiril91Ir,e~~ Irt~.

(ooke;rsJ• rehi~erators, and dry·e rs consume m~:s.sive amounts of' ener·gy: .. An easy' way tn saVli;' power irS to tUlrn off th~ oven befor.~ 'tth~ -food ~$ tfiliili$lh~ «Jokiiligl ~ as it d,oe~nn cool 'Qff

lrom edllately y~ulr ro©d will ~ni III get cooked but y[)~ will halloi\e, .~ave~ powe~;.lU1m down 'the t:em~er-atu ~·ej of Y'OY r Irefrigera1t-or - dllallilCtes a Fe ·tihat the food willill not lcsa ·any 'Of its ClrU ality. If you hgve· ·alii i()~~ d l~p@lls@r use irt iO$tE!~d or !O'IP~iIl,"g '~h@ dOoor .and Ilet1til1g the c'ool glilF iO,urt '!rjgCUU! iftfi! d~~ coils ZI'!! Ilelci:~1! twice a V~lr beceuse Whi@fii dust and IJllln hu'lJId lUI' Olll the (,oj Its the (,0 mpressor is much less efficient mrrI1eaning 'tihat it hes to work long:er to g'el'1ier",t~ '~he nom~nal·amoYnt of co ld ·a~ F. IBy d@~1i! iliJ)g the 'COill~ r~gul~IFIM you ~II~D ~,!¥<:i U c@' tJh~ sound po'll:ultion (re~t@d by the (0 mp~~i$·~ :sor.

To :!lave 1P~W'er ·even m@,F~ 'wh(Y not 'try drying yoo r'l aUlFlidry on a ·dbdne~I~lne· .and only' u~~ng the dry~~ when gb$oh,it~ly liiec~ry- lHow@<~r~ if yOilJ .~r@ V10'it up 1To'F th~1t Ir~niemb~F to ~~@P' tJh.~·liriit 'tlrap· d~n ,and d~alnl our ,any doggool dry,~r v~n~\.

H)

'You pr,obalbl~l ha(\!\~ not ~wn no,j!i:ood ~hli s, bu t ~I~c!ronic ,~ulip1m~ln about ~~~ bou ~~ drnVilS power even 'when ~'tt b: Oii. Elec1!mrilij(~ alr-e· ,(]'fiten re1i'~rr~d te as phantom I cads boc,a,u s:e dley draw pow'e·r ooli1st~lntly' wiiholurt you beingl ilrw~n;~ of ilt The most Inteirestiing t h iililg ,aooillt them is· tlhat :~o m@ 'Cr!T th@;jTI ~(;,tua!llly d ~,aw liif'iio~·~ pt)w@~ wihelii '~hi!!Y fi!lF€!' ,off theill whelii ~h-ey alF~ ,at1N • .j'ally flJI nnifiig I' E>talmpl~5 of phantom I cads ."re electronics ililild appUa nees with ~ ligUall1 c looks aln~ LJEDs, so you

m ight W~ nt to 'cam;ijde,r pl1adngl the'mfiI 0 n al time,r o'r a sWllt,,;ih d roulirt' to S~Vli; power. Keepingl thes;e 'ori! glill the tilme ,CQ.st YOlii ~Iboutt $60 p~r y@g!F. INot much burt, stii IIII S60 liTIoiF.e th;;!ln you $htH.illd sp~ii!d

ilhh~ tee ls ani ('iIIT,elIl where yoo calt!) IT'OO U'OO' ')I!!)ulr eloctrilcity ~iII by em p!loyi11il9 :$ev,e\ral nifty tricks tlhat 'liiililinot reduce the q ulal itty of your lifestyle. First oil, take ~howers ~In~t~d of baths, l'l1Illess, you had ,~ hg rd dgy ;;! nd necedl to unwilod~ ;l sho~r will d;~ n y'iJiIJ up equg Illy well a$, a bath would ,alnd lit 'Wlllll cest you le1ls . .A.lw,ay~ tlry rurJlning ~ fulill dl1Shwasher.. Whe!tlile1r YO;UI W~:'td16 pl\at~ and 6 ,gllili£S~ Qr 111 plliltes and 1.2 gllasses ,t" is gaii Iilg tc cost the Sa mfile~, but YOlil r dishw·asher will h~VE tn r\lln l!l1o~~ 'tlirrnes tli!;;! Ii1 n~ce.s~glry", N~xt Whte'h yo!i,J d r~ (.;;lIP Wglt~~; try !.!Ising o'illrry mid 'W;;!lt~r. 1111

rn arny households, sin k taps. ha\t~ onlry one I€!wr for ooliltrollliling both hot ,and cold w~tt€r that is 1lJ~!Jall:v' pushed 'l-Ui the nil id@ I!e,. ilhi\S way '100 Cllre ij] ~.awiltJlg hot wat-er fre m '~he, ta p as W'ell. h(]'W'ev~~; b@caus@ it t.aI~~S ~t(Hli[iie time for tth~ Iii;q,t w;alt~r to ~oeadh the tap' yOU! al~'~ ~l[tul;:dIIV Ii"!lfj'~ gettli1r'!:9 ,~Ii!Y' ho,t! wa~,er. Willait haplPe! ns ~ n~tead is. tlllat the!' hot wiI'tt.er rem aifils. ln the pipes Whe!rf!! 'lit is wasted, Making som e miner heusehe ld Weipainl. will also he!llP. R~pa Ilr'iln@ ~he, IMky hot ~Nart-e:r fauc~ls, and dirainingl the hei1lte1r twke a y~~ r to remOVli; the crud that reduces e;ffkiem:y is .all }HJU need to do, fifildllillyt. ImMe!r ~hie!' ~mperr,at)me .or the watte-r ~eiItt,e-,r. rhoe!re 'Its absol urt:elry no need fIo se1I the t~mp~~alu ~,e all: ~ 6~ when 12~1F willi glet dle jo~ d©lnle' u Ye.aI~I:V:r yoo ('al~ :5av~ !J ~ te $,21Q ~ by

ITi akillilg th i~ ~mfilall ,adjustment '~hat y'O!UI will nt:J,t evelil Iilo~ke., For further read~lng '0111 how t() make youlr hom ~ e.n~r'gy ,~ffid~M '\i'i$'it ~oI~te.elfi ergy;.g,ovlQon:~a .. m,~i'.

So Iiii1i ,e!' of the oh:l~rr applialniC~~~ ,aM,und 'YOlll ~ house ,are. ~ lfIj~ffkie-~t wihe!fi1 ~fI (lOitnilZS '1,10, ,~n;~rgty

eonsu mplion. T© ~ee if' YUilJlr 21lpp!i'i!arh,':'t!'s 2Ilre ineffl)~iefil1l: cheek 'the, mi nimum and maLXimllJITI elller;@y 'C'OIl~lJi mlptiO.!l1 {Q,F th~ rrnod\E!il 'tlhat' you lii;;!iV~ withi $iIJ'rnrIi@ of the Ir'!~wer li11od~ll$ thM lii~iV@; the, E1i"N~rm~ Sttlir ratting d'e!~lop,~d by u.s. Elilvjr!mm'~fiI't;al Prote'r:tio,n Ag~ncy alne! 'the!' U5. lDepallfitllitiient of

E ner~ly" E~Sefil1ii~.aIl:V:r ~1l: ls a volul'1Itary l~belirilgllPro@lram des;i,gn~d tID, MellIrtirUy (lmd promota '~iIl@'rgl)l~effii(lent prodUtl:;.t~ to re-diuce 9 ~~enhOUSr! g,il'$ ~ mi$$i'Dns_lo Ilea tn iln Ore ;;!Iboll!t the ~ner;gy Star rattings v'li.stt. wWVJ.en~rg%tar.gio';J.

fih:E!' r~Fig@~,atto'r' is on@ of~h-e sl r'! gl@ 1;;I1~'g@st lo~d5 in ,~ ('@iSid@lltii.a II noi'!ii~; If yDili ,~r@ ~~fi!dy to, 'trade illl y!U~ r 01 d re'~ri g~~,arto~~ th~IT,e a re' some thing\!) tlilart you sheu IkJ be awalIT,e ©f. B~ljMes 1~~Jkiin@ fora relTirigerator that has '~hi; Ern:efg~ .st~lr watli ng. it should also, th~¥e, :supeiior in~ l\atiio'lil with a \JIe\rj higrn R~vah,.i@. Thiis. v~l u e i$ ~ot !li@(Je~s~iilly $1t~t@d ,Oil! '~h~' prodt,i(,t irt~el~ burt, 'You c~n alliw;;!iY$ a~k the, salssperson.Then YOUI should llook for ,[Ij r:e-rrlge-rr.atDr that hes a :~malill current draw 'wihern 'operi;i,ting i;illild '~hat has two ~p.;ilrate ,campa rt ments for '~h~ freie~ lund the Ir>efriigerator., Also, ,avoid sid@~by"'$ld@ mI1iQd@l~ and Ilook ro~' a ~~ff119~rato r th~t hi;;!1$ ail md@iit c,omp'r@S$Q>~ w:gst,~ heat remo';JalL Anotlhe! r (D,nsliderr,ail51olil [5 'Iif' 1t~e- un'lrt, has, tt~e- compressor IQcaiL~d on top bsceuss of the pJh¥Si:cs of hot ,air.

llii ~I $t~fiidl~lo r'!@' PV ~yst-emt ~n ,off-gli1d $f,st@r!f!~ it iis. ijm p~rati\f@ tht;il1t Y'ot.llh~ve a \i\~ry higln ,e-Ii1~rgty-~fffii(ll~n~ re'f~19~~"';;iI·ttor. lfil ~dlditi,on 'tD' ~he, AC p'!lWe.~;oollr,efI'i19 ~rai'tor~ tihe!l~ ,a~ 'thm~ basic m(]@el~ ~f re.flri)gerat)))'Fs a'vaijllable fOl ()"-ll:he~@rid $y~tenll~ .. ilhie, 'f1I~~t on;e, i~ 'dh;e, p ro~atn;e, powe~-e@" fihriiS type, of J~firi'9~~at'O r Ih3S b@~nl !.!Is~dl lin rots fu;~ Q'i,i'~r 70 y€al~~.

'111

On~ of .~~~ d ~awbacks. o,f plropa 1iIl~, as well as tlht!!, fiI~~ model, will iclh ~s, .~~~ Ik€ir:os-€n'~ liiI'iIod~l~ I::;, 'that tI'iI~)l both need 1IO ~e IFefuel\ed;' '~hey do not need eloctl'licij1ry ~U'l[ 'l[h~ n~d reTUie I~ ng whicr. 15 why yOI!J 'Wiilill need te rneke sure that YOUI have a SI!JPphl of f;u;eil. lLas,lIlrt. a common type· of r~ti9@~,aro~ on ,~fri off d'ij@ grid s.ystem iis al 11)( IP-O'w@f$d ~~Fi!9@~,aro"rl wliiiiclh cO!Jilld b@ ~ 21 24 ·o~ 46 v!))II1r:S. The~~ d o have a r.i@her illl~tial eost but tihey' ru Iil dirKlly ©ff a battery or orlf' 'the ,~sitem wji1i:~ nc inverter Ire~luliiredi.

2.1. b Structural b:nl€5tfflenfS

When we tallk a eeut strueturel ~lnve~lWilll'E~fiI1t~1 we, I'I1'i ea til ~(~@r\) and wi ndews, W~ile thi:l esn 00 a :~ubst~wrti~11 iilnrvEs,tmrllefilt it can bring abQlult huge' savi ngs, il1l the 10 ng ~1!J11I. Next ti mfile Y'lU need to 'chgln:g~ YOlJi~' ~'oof. C'Ofris:id~F 1 iJ)$t.;Jllllling glFll efrietgy",~ffici~nt 'one. Alit)h.oiUgh (1i!.allllgifi!Qi all the 'wilillldow,s in your house i5 rrath~f' expensiw b@sldE!s hal'!Jli ng C!i hU9'e!' ililAu~nce on ie!n~r9Y

'c'OnSIJ mption of' yoo r househeld, it is .alilso, functional, ,aes.1he:tk~lll'y pleasingl and will 'cert~iiln I~ raii~ ·~h~ \,i'gIIIU'~ of your lP~opertY" S~oulld ~I'QiUI !c~o$e to ~'~'PI~c!! t~~ wind!ow$1 do yOU1F Ir~~ean;;h f!r$,t as, d1er~ aN1 liiI'iIa ny new type's O'f gllass;. 11lle:.r~ Is .glass ,e!5:pe<ia III~ desi,gfil€1d 'for cold dlmat'e!5,. wlil~(_h lets ~unllighrt: In a nd ins uillate~ for he21rt, an@ hot diltJllllat:e'5" whiil:h blocks offr ~!J IIlligihrt. Ounentily ll:h~ :st,alo~al~d for ,gla55 itS; th,grl ill sholl! lid b@ doulblliEl panMI burt YOtl! cali'll evejJl '9@t triipl@ lpafi!@d ttl1a&S, lflhe!' nil aln t~ing 'Y0~ should remember ls that YOUl do not In sed to, rep la~ all 'tihie!' wi ndoll,l!J,s. ¥cm ean r-.epll2Ke jU:!1'II tn~ windlOWll, en the IFOOml) thall: .are !Jsedl1t~e most Itilke the livi ng mom e r the klltdh,e n ;,

Be1Tare' Y'OU oogijn youlr pirojlect it "is very iimpoftJint that YlIJUI are ralm i'liiar wiU1i ~ III the eledricall f~nd!alnrvsnt~l$ p~rtg~nilng $dl~r ,~nie'rgly. Krl!(!wiogJ ~$ mri! U en 3'$ pOtS$ibli@ ,~bourt how ell@ctri,oity works vliillillfmit ©'nII¥ ht!\1 ~ y~u llJitill iz~ ~t ijlll the most ,e,f1foctiv'e '!/!'I,a)! burt it Willlll.al~~, ~ep you 3afe.

1111 lts sim~le~t fQI1TI; el@'ctr~dtry I~ ,a fllaw of elle~t~ons, '~hFl-Ol!Jg h an ,~Iec~riul ,c:ii~'ClUllt lne;re are three fiJjhdl~tlr]'!~inrt~1 ull"liilb of m~g~Ulr'!S' p'eFlalnilng to ebil;;.tricity: ¥othi~ wains, alnd ,am~;, SH1C~' CLHtenrt ijs, Imn1s,llble~ it is dlrflicu It to deliililom;t~ail~ the precesses Qiff ell~,1I~'Ofil~CS;r dil!£i!r~fo'~l 1I~e basics; of ,e'~ectrical ,~nen;;ljy are oft,e;n dal~ifie:d1 throueh '~h-e 'so-called walte!lr flow ,al1lall\og~r il1l which 'ellectrlcal ,drtuit:s, al~@; t,om~lr,~d to 'Warl,@iF=1Tii 11\~d pipes,

Volts, alrr~ tlhie!' Ufil~t O'r €i1~tmmo,'~'lrve- fCln:~ 'ttlha~ tsnds to oCi3iUJ5€! Oil ~relilt ('th~ actualll 'e!lectoo,nt.S and i©ml,' to Wim.N" Sii mpliy speakilnQr volts a re' ,a mea(l)ur~ oli' how' rnueh push or ~I,ectri~al pFe~!l!Ulre causes '~he' ,~I;@ttJron$, to mov@" Th@ir ,abbr@vi~1t~dI sym Ibol is, ~h~' .c~pirtal V_ lin t h~ wat~r ~1t1W ,alnalogY1 volts, a ~.e!' equivall e,nrt to the w.cl't,e;r pressure IIIIl the pipes,

V(JI~il9~5 IU sed iilil the el~C'll'ikalll 'fnieM aIF'El' '12, ,24, ,4;S~ 120 and 240 V an MiIIO$t ,of the aplpllialilce.s 'iin youlr household uss some or all of these \i\olt~ge!$. For examp le, the' d 1 r oondithoner contactor th a:t, br'lllIlgs, ~Ih~ compressor on and oft! is p~,obalbly of ,2,4-'!lOlrt ,oontra.ctDf'r tlh@lV 'Is almost

imra ~iably runlilin~ @ff 1 20 velts, hmllle,w.r. ~h;El, water heartt!1r. dry~r er !j.~ove ~!l, most I ii~ly !Jsin~ 240 '\Jol~.,

Amlps a ~!e!' C!i meaS!JJM or tdl~ amou nt o;f ,el,~ctlric c h:ar.9~ passing a point per lJIn'lit, 'time. Amlp~, alrr,e!' ,ab~revia~ed wi~h al cal~itall.A a nd a Ire' ,expres.'Sied by the svmbollli~ whi~h ,lj~imds f~r '~he, ifilt'Ell'iIsity of th~' ,oUIIlFent As a 'walt~t Pcip-e h; siz~d! based '00 '~h,re, 'i:i!mo~nt 'of wat~r p ~r mil1!liit-~ flowiog tltlr'ougl~ i~ eli wi1 ~,e!' is slzed based em a IiiIiIQUInt of amps that will 00 passIng 1rlhmugllh 'lit. rh~Mfm~~ the gr;eate~ 'the, ameu nt ,u;f am~~ tihe' lalr9e;r 1i:h~ (~nduuorr' or 'wi ~e, 'we 'Willi II hav'e,.

An amp/l'iJoum is the mneaSJUlfe ror current 1mow for' one hour. lts abbr~viatrE@ ~ymnb(]1 Ah is wide1ly used '00 ralt~ lhow long it takes a battery to discha,~ge; For sma 111~r dceVllcesJ, the battery ratllng I!Jsed Is mllU~m ~hQur or mAli!. For example~ a :5 OOm.A.h baruEiry willi r~leiI~e :5;000 mill~alliitii ps ,of .au m~nt, lf~ ,11) ~pe~ifi~ V~litaige ror [) ne hou ~ ~~1f[):r>e' it. is ~~~I(har~;e~. E.~:\l;en1[i\ally:. dll:) term ls IU SOO to ,~x:pre'£~ the 'storage capadty of batt,@rie-s., Star,age bi!,ttE'~ies luitiliz,edl"i n IPV :&y,stem~ .ar@ refen-'edl to as deep cyd@ batt~rii~s ~Ind ~r@ ~ated by' 1 ,OS i!i! rhlpihI()UI[,s- Whgil; th'ls, th~o~~,tit~ny' ilf!,~ln~ !'$ that th@.~@ bi!irtt:t."ri~ (an be d"ilar~e@ 'to. pro@ ue"~ lOS. .amps, w'0r e ne' heur,

W~ symbolized by the ca pita,ll W; ind bC~lt~ th~ ralt~ irn which '~hce 'E!,liectrical ,e;ne:rg(y. ics; eWle,r 'coli$lli m@G ot IProdlu(e!d, One watt is ~Gllii;ll to Ollie amp ulnde~' the. IJ)J'e"$$!l,"m~ '(lif (HJ)~ \101ft.

ilihe :sile of y,ol!Jr PV system will ,gre~fly depellId on this 1.11 nit and" in o,rder to 'size it; yOI!J 'wii I1I1 h~\Je to' cililliculiale hOl.<v much e.nergy; m~tSi!Jred ilil W>atit$" you COil!~UIJlIi'lil!' d~,ilty.lhi$, ri!U ~b~r willi det~rmine the illmOIJJIII[ off power YOlJJr sys,tem wilill have to prodlJJ~,e" l~e a mount: ©r wartts,

consu med can V.a!ry gl~,eadv dependijng on what yO;'J,!l win"

fhe J'!i'! ost commQI'ii ~$E! 'of the wa1ltJ!nour .3lnd k'ill(i<w~ttJjho~r ~\iVh and kJIIJh) I,Ilnl~ itS wherii @111~~,gy l$ deliver,edi by ~le(tlrI.L utlliti].e!s to consumers. The Eiler:tlll( bllllll we- I~L'e!lv.e is ,caklLilal'~€d by multjpl~l'illlgi the- ameunt o;f watts COlniS1Ulm ed by the number of hours per daYJ' lPelr week and per WlIontlh;, f.a ("~,I!OUII~te the iJ)i!Jmb@f or Waltl$, cOr'i!$ulm~d~ 'W@ iI)~d to Iknow two thiIilQ$.;,

.. what ls 'the!' r.!iIt€ld wat~ag~ af' '~Iile olpplliance- or the. olpplrliafil(e5 we. Olre- go'ling to ~e ~tilizin~ a nd,

• w@ have to @$,tilm.ate th@ a mOi1J!lt of ~lm@ th;!i!t ~plPlllari!(@ Q~" th~ f1!1Pp'lii~'iilC€!$,

wllllll be ru Iilnifilgl,

F~r ecxamp le, a ] O()W ll~grht: bul b I~ft on for 1 ij heu r\j eonsu mes '1000 WHtU. whidll i~ ~Qu~valetJ)t te '1 kWh" Energy' (,of1lSJulmpil11otJ1 celculatlons wi'll be explained in detal I ln IP~rt IV cliJalpter 3, of this book

EII~Cil5rh: current is the 'flbw of e.l~CiI5ri(: (holr'9~ (:alrrl1i~d by mO'llillilg ell'e!(,'tt~on5! 'Iilill iii conductor such 05 'Wil~,e.1Wte\r~ ,ar~ .2 ty~~3 ef CYlrwe;nt tharl we eeme 'illil (:o~uc,t wi'li:n~ dlilre<t (=l!I rrellll. or DC. and ,all1Dem-atil ng (!UllTent. or AC

Dil~tE1["t OJ! ~f@nt is thE!' i!Jll!iidiiIJ:ectiOri!a,11 (flowing iii! emlry one directiem} fl'o.w o,f el~(t~ic .Qh~rg@ "md 1$ PiFOOUCed by' sue hi sourees as batte:riie~~ thermocouples a,"~ ellec1[~i~ mn,a~hifileE ef the dyrn.HIlmo tYrle. It is cemmc n ijn ft"1Shliglhlts, sm~lIer- d~Vloe5, !lIke 1V rem ate control; ,cakl!Jl"tor; p hone. and PDAs... Its glt,aphical symbol is a solid Ilii!ll~ wirth i;i! da~h lillie iLlri!d\erill~,th it i:i!S Sihown 1 h 1Tiig ulre :5.

Dil~:ed OJ! ~rent is also the type of cu ~rent p reduced by PV 'or photQVQI~~k pan@l1s and is stored in b~ltt@!ri@:$ fur llat~~, lu~e.

In allle;rn~1i:i ~g ~lJ.Irren~ dhe' 'fl rJW o.r elleil:1i:~i(: c'har@oe D~ri@dlh:.@jlly' re\i'~r~es, diirecti(]l1" Ane\I~~tlriiC: ,ch~lrge can fur iln\S.t~nce Ii1flIQ\JIe, forw~lrd.., then bad~;:wlard~ '~hen fOflN-a ~d.r the'n ba(kw~rd~ Q''i!@r en d (~~J' ,ag~ !l.l- 1ft' l~ produced by YOlllF @I@d;rh:;: compillny and most hom~ ;;lInd bu~iri!es~e5 IUt$@ this, type Cliff C!IJt1r~fn. AIMmatifil91 OJ rrrelill or A,e: ~s, syltitii boliz,e<J by what sems people calli 'th~ silne W.a"iN2'S 1m ner but this, 'symbol ~'e;pre-:S'el'ilts the ~!!Mks. and v,alleys of the AC as shown in lFiigulFe 6.

An ,el\e~ni6 ci rcu ill is a ,oon~11n u ous I~ne, of eleetren floW' from a 'V'(jltag~ SiOl1Jme 11~1k,e,,~ baltl~~y or (ill PV' III oOlilile' '~hFl;ol!Jg 11 ill conducter or ~ wiire to ill !bad tnrougln a swirtclh and back to' '~he sou rce, SJl mIP~Y spealkllill91 a di ~QUlirt as nothing ImOt,~ thial!l1 a n@\i"@;r=~!idiliigillmlp@d p,althway 1fo~' el@t;,tro FilS", fi@ure 7 'iis an ,e::('(Illm ~I~ of a si m pie ele<'!Iriika I !l:ir~U~1i: made u r of a \!'ol~;ge SO'UlrGe' a nd a re:si'~w r,

..

I

v

R

l4

One of'the most ilmfll port~nt things in an @Iedrrica I drcuiit 1$ (10 ntinu~ty" It does not mattt,er Ihow twi$,t@dI th~ root,~ of thr=' condll!!ct,or i$; rf ilt 1ftWIJ!~ @ 'Coiliri! pl@t,~ dr(uii1t cur~.efi!t wililru nl thr(HJ,gh it

v

R

,

I

(ontiil!ll!QIU$, ,~I\i:c;;~ron 'fibw CgniJ)ot O(ClUr in ~I blPk~11 'cilWUlrt lh~ 'following tfigll! ~~ $Ih !J1,NS, g cirtu~t niL~dg, up (hf a VO\I't.~g~ :SOUIt'(~ iii! this .cas~ 01 batMtYI a load ~pr~iZniM.d by the Ugh! bulbI ~ protection d>e!vike :s;efvil1lgl as a pTote<ti~on devke and ~ s.wit[h '~hat serv~s as ~I control device.

Q) WOiHKlN-GmVKE

- ~LAMP)'~'

1' .... ~ ..... ,C,iON(lU, C'fOI~ ~ {WllltE)

,-, ~'

Q') tr-JIDif-crLON '

, Dl:vicl:

(RJSIt.!

Tha :switch funct:liOns as. a d)!1iUb~rat~l~ rlJ\stadll~1 oj ~,(U'lit, brsa k to be m:,!1id wh~1J\ 1J\ffi:.€ssalry. lIlher~fou:e, whelll y!O~ !I.witch off a li~hl, you are a,c;tlllalll:y. mnllikilllgi a ~re.ak in the ,drclJJiit re-:mhillilg in discontinuatien of el~edricall po:w'Ia'r del ilvE!lry' to the· lig ht~ lin this Ipartkl!.d~ r di~~ ram, yo UI csn nQ·ti,ce thi;;!lt tlii@ swift·d) itS open ,ar'iidi th@ bulb WDl,.llld iflot be bu rniliig~ i!,if'iitilll the $w'itrdh iis dlo~dl, There ."re three, tyPe's of' ele>Ctriika I ikircu~llS: serie:!), paH!lllIell ~:w~d :!)eri~-palutdle.lldr,cull; ntJIWEl;fer, in Ml Sllstem assemb Iy and illlstallllaltiol1l yo~ will encol!JllIter '~he first two types 'only.

S~I11i@5 (:ir''Cuits, ~ ~,~ 'tJn~ silmplles,t m drcuiiltS.IFiig wire 9 l$ ,acru~lIy g r'@p'pe.s@!iJl'tfiltiOr1! of :s~ch ~ circuit Howe\iletr, s@fli~s ,cln::uiitS (,.['11111 !have more then one Iload - as shown in figlJl r,eo 10.

SWIITCIHI

R

1

R

2.

In al s@fll€s ,cifClUi~ conductors, protection d~vllcesl such as 'fftt5:es~ loads, s.WittJh!1i5 and plOwer :SQU wces ,are oonnected wiith only' one p~lth for 'OUllTent ~ncl". ~ ltheu gh, the same a ~QI!mt Qf (~rN~li!t will'flow througJh ,~~,dh I~o~dl the volt~ g@ ~'C~Q~S, ,~.ad~ wijilll be, diiff@;Fell!t

,A pa ralll~1 cif(U~'t has more tha III one peth mr cuni~mll! 'ffiIQw. The Ibads off such a drcu It ere connected illl piliraliliel branches, which ~Ire ,called branch dill:l!Jitt:s., and the point where the· 'CUrir.eli!t Ipat1h Ir~c'OlllrH~CG O~' $pUts ii$ Qln~ a JiiLI(il(ti,on-llh~ voilt~g@ in ,~dl brg iIlclll ii$ tlii@ $am~~ howev€f'~ ~h~, Ctlflrgn'~ ea III v.ary. If the Ibad Ingsisttanc.eo ~Inl each branch is t!heo sa me, '~lhe CUlr~e,nl't '111ll eseh 'i,~ the ~ame" On the ether hallild~ if1i' the loo,d r~SiljUlIIilOO' illl eaeh branch ilj d~ffe\rel1it llw.e ~Ulme\nt w iIIl II differ iii! each_

'16

PAIRAILILEl

F;ig u reo A pal~,allel dl~l(uit wirth two loads

If you. lodk alt the drQ!l ills, in y'Ou r hOl!.lse er 'the room in which you ~ re :sit:tilng. y'Ol!J 'Wllllllprobab Iy see' -4 O~' 5 wall ph.ig~t 110 ,alllikellli!o(ldf dl~ Ihave b~n wil~~d ijril p~:u'~IIII~L lh@! r@;a:S("J.!~ ifrr'i!ost: itild,i)or w'lirriiil9 ts dons i III palrall~11 ~s, that itt a S$UI~5 ,~I"!1!ctrricit.y d,~liv~ry. !For ,~alliilil pl@1~ if one O'ff tlh~ pi U.g5 in the, ree m wou ld beeems dle~ec~ive dle rest wOIl.Ii!)] not b~ pr~v'e1nlted fJiromril wt]~killilg prop;erl~l and you wi)~ld s,till hi1!if@ ~ $oi,ilrt@ 011 @I~(,tridty av~ill~I~:d@" I n ~rIi@$, Wil~ll'i!m tI~ii$. ii$ not the 'Cra$@,

Las,tlYI ::;~ri€:s-palr,allll~1 'wl ifln9 is, a I(s:o U$~S ,and aditliloogh V~U will not ~nCCiUlnll!g r tth~!@, In p1iJ' $ylS,1t!1!'t'i1 irils,ttaliartiUiIilI It, is impolfita nt dhat. y©u Unde~ijlallild how ilt: 'Works. Th ls kind off ii:ircu~tt has ,l)©me ccmpenents in p& r:allel and others in series, The w m~nt fUaws Uuolllgih the serles part of the ,circuit dlnd then s plln~ to flow 'tlil rough p9ir'a 111,!1!1 branehes, Thei lo~d!s ,ar~ usus Illy cOin,lllel.ted in palITitd lei 'wlhiillle'the, pow-er :s-mJrce~ ,~witll:h~s an~ fuses ~ r-e' in ,se~ie'5, The sama ~une:nrt jijow~, irn ~erie_l) P"IFit or~h;e dUl!Jit wherw s different Il:li • .Jfrrelllt filow in 'the p~ rallel p~rt P,wailiel devk,~, rell:'e1IVli; the sam@ volt,arg@ ~I~d s@ri@i$ r,~(@iiV·~ d iilTIt@r,[~;jllt volt:.a'9l~." If ,;;. ,dn;;uit b~'~~lk i!l'~w ~$ in the s~'ri~~ ~c~"tmr the 'CiUllirent IS, cut of for the 'e'.nrtireo circuh.IH t]W'E\,I-e~~ if dle Ib~,ealk i~ illn the palrallell :!le~itllonr the 'CI!..Jfrefiit s,till'fi1aW'S Ul00ugln the s;erh~s s~ctJioli1 and lts bralli1dle,$"

S E:RII ES = PARA LliEL

RHEOSTAT

,', .. '_ , '''!

'1 ;

Tha r1hgos.~a~ ls alnl ~I~ctric~ II co,mpon~lIlt 'tiha't. has. (l11il .adj'lu5t~ bl~ r~sijs.'~afilc.@ used to c:orruml 'ttlh~ 'fl(]W of ~llJner1l'!i ~ Iil a dlri(~u it III ls used illl 1~9 ht d~mm~r\j and motor ~(]riItr'QlltlU (foo nd in sma II ,alP~lioa,noes, such as IiifiI kxers. blenders, fans, and pOWE!,r tools).

3 ':Ii r ,iC",'b ... "" .. ;' .... o<'Ii ~ C' "rr- - "+I .. "n pc"" ... n~n ........ j'~..-:t"C s- , .. ~.om- ~ • ~ •. t.. (;;,riE:;o!.:.l, ~!LU~', J-Uh,j; If" ' .PJViL'IU'vvh uJ,:Y'jou~~; '''-"

If'iI bUllld~lnigl a PV ,S)I$f[·!1iM1 ~'t i5 illiiril portaln!t to !lJt1Jd~rst21 nd how dffMr'@lilt. ,cir-cuit::s. worik lb!1icalts~ dep.en~Jhlg ,0111 whkh type ('):f dn:l!Jit willi ng YOI!J ,are going! to use you .are going 'to oaffuct ,e:ither the, 'voltag@ Q~' the armlpei1ilg)@' p rodu(,e,d by thE! PV' pgln~liSl'

Io crea'!'lo!1i' a p(lIIiIIe-1If, :sola rr' oell~ ;tIlr,!1i' wi rrgd in s!~rl,~~: pos:litive 'tfo It'h~9Iatilv,~:r lPosittlive It(I; n!1igaiti'!l~ and So on until the e,nrttire panel i s ooliln~c;too" IB.['l'sedi Olil ymn irildilvidUial nt."eds ones 'y'i)~ Ih~ve 2111111 o1i ttw.e p;;;lIIil~I~s; a~~emlbled" yoUI are! gloing to !I;;~ n h@<;1t tho~ In :se~ies; {J;~ pi:i!rallell., (.onneclilllgi p~ln~l$ ill! ,s~rri5 ls goif'il9 to illllcre.a.se ttille a mQunt, of" \fol1taJge they ,are prodlH:illllg while ttlhe amperage ~s

'gol Iilg te ~tay the same,

1,---,,-00

I I I I I I ~ I I I

9-_, __ 1

2,4V'I) c 3,A

H@r@ we Ihave two' panells eddhl (0 n~istbing of 36 cells, ~nd p'rool!J!!:ingl ~ 2'1 and ,3A Wh@1lI 'tih@y dire wil~,~d togetli!@f in $@~i@$ their 'cQliilIbill!@d V(]!lt~g'e p rod~_IC;;till)n iru;:reas@$ to ,2,4'Vs how@\i"~r" th~ ameu n't. ,of ,ann p~rn9i(1i, ptOOUc,ttl,on :s~lys the sann,e. lin ot:lil~r words~ w~~nl pan.!1iI::; a r,~' ,cQnf'il~ct~d in ,l)t."~ie'~ vdlta~e i~ in~rMl)OO but tJlUiIt'~he, lead capi!l'Olty.

eQ!I)\i'~rs~IYI ilii) p~lrall@11 will! !l)g~, 1th~ load c~pacirtY' (;if t he, 'Cil~'tU it is, ili!( F@tJjs.ed hurt' not tlh~ volhg:e,_ Figl!! rr~!Z, 14 replt'@sents. tlheo Sclillitii,!1i' two paln!!1ils, wirnd in panll~1 wi'tth dilifl!ir cQm,bilnl~d IPr,oduc.tlof'il amou Iiltingl to 1 "lV and 6A.

'18

l.2.VIIi)( 6A

To c re&te ,a hig h Yoiti!QE!' Pit panel ~Ilra~ QIP& bl@ ou' can),llng greater Io&d~ thus slulppl~ing power for the ,~nililr~ household, Ind'llVidual pa nJ~II:5, must b@ !(lmlll~,tt,~d both ln serles and In pe rr,all@1 .&5 ean be, ~e.efil in f1@!JI ~:e 1 ~.

I~

I~

The eigl~t lnd irvidlll,al p~nells ill~'-e diivid@d int.o two g roups offol!Jr;, The ffil rst g roup ~nd the ssce nd gro!.l!lP are wireHd in! seri@Si ~'~~'Pr~til,!'ely by c'Onn!ectii ng the Irl~ativ:~ 't@rmingll of ~h;e 'f!IJ'St IP~n!el t,o the lileg~lJi\i'e, te~minall olr~he, ~K:Olild panel (ljlnij] 110 (lint. This tJlmOUlnrts, to 4IDl and 3A fen ~e:h group., 191 QWP\N21rJ, beca u ~e the' first group and second g ~Ol!Jp al~,e connected in parallel the arnp@i'"aglE!' is, in!lCr@fII5@d whil@ dl~ vo[)I~~g~, St.ao/5 th@ sam~- 'Co'r'!&eq UJ~ntly.r this to~1 conl1gu1ration u tilUzifll9 ~he ~iglil'tt panels Zf~ l2V per pjl~(,e w'lrth lA capa bUity g'IIV'e5 us a Iile'!r ,~ft:~(t of ,48V of IDC po,ttefiltital 'wHh ,5A load capabll irtV:.,

'19

DETER.MINIIIN.GI.THIE BE:ST' PV SYSTEM, F'OR. YOU

In this ·chapter; we al~:e goiing :stnow you how you can d~termil'lle the b~.s.t P'V ,sys"tem few jfQy,.lhow to eva luale YOUir sola rr po~ntilal and [haw to dsclde mil b~t'W~~rn iii king a (orn1!~aiLiL'Or and d oifil91 ~t y©ulFseilw,

:51 nve PV :syst.ems harness the el1leqgy oftih e Su n one o;ftlh e mast import~nt things th~t youl need to t~lke ilnito gll;;)[Ql,lInrt wlh~11! c:oli!$.id~~ing ~ln~i;i!~[1 111119 ·a PV' s·ystem i~ the· daij try amO!lJl1!t o~· .sunll'glil1! ~'Qu have .arvaila ble. B;,'tima:tii ng tlil€! amount liloUirs off su Iilliglhrt you can expect per day is, an exten:slve .$llIbJec~ aln@. al~h-ollJ~h ~nere alFe frree solar ca Ilc=l!lliaM F:-5 Iliike t~e one at 'WW1N:!lpVWa't.~.!cQm av.a,illi~bl\E!' orlilliiln-E!~ w@ feiEl '~h,at· rt. is. \,t@i'Y ili'n[pm1t~rli1L ttnfiit you fa'mfii ill i,culiz'~ y\Dtii r,s@I~' wirth itlhits slLIbJ,ect as much as poss'llbl€!.

De p'endill~ on ~h~ dimaile in whi~h y~u live, YOUI ge~ more, or less ~unl i;ght Clliirm,ate ij 1il~l'ud~~ ,e,lleme nts such as tsm per""tu re, pr'E2<llpit'dti;on, wi nd ~peed~ PQllutiiolilr a,if density and cleud ,CQ\!IE!!\r. All ,or these ca n .allild willinfluelilctli' th e· power prod uetton Oi~ yo~ rr I?V $y.siL~m.IRig ures 116-.2.0 5 h.oW' 'the, avemgle' nu mber oJ heu r:s per d.a('l of'~!J liuh~lne, in t hie, US .

.20

7.0 fig Uire 1 ! Ths ave.rrag!i1l' number or 1il00 r,s per day off 5U Il1shiln,!Z, In th e' us. dl1Jlillng Summer

.211

There iis IilUit much YlUtlI ca n do about '~he, a meu lilt cf SIJ,1n Iii glWlt y{~U get per @ay~ h!Uwe!"~r; p ro~erly' p!lacill11g 'YOU r solar panels is a 'Very' impo~tant factor in ,gmi ng the W1Iaximl!Jm energ~ QI!JlpI,.IJt' of your PV ~yst:eiJilil ,

F()r rnaximu tJ1IlI power '~ut~lJJ~ PV mQ@~ l)es, s hould be, ,ex~t)~~d to ~he sun ff:©:r as ~!U~~,il~I~~ ,e:spedally' du ring Ipe~11!:; SlU n hOIJl r:s betwe~m '10 ,a.lll. and 3 p,; m, ,SecQl11d; the @1!<po:Sl!Jfe must b@ cl~lr of any ()b$tru(,tiOri!$ wdh ~ tf@~~ m'Oi!JIil"ttairi!$ 0 r bi!Jild ilng$, ~hat might $hgd\J:' ~h~' p.gI!rl~I~! COIi)s:i@~r both summer and winter ~ths, OF the sun, as, weilll es th~ groMh 'Cif 'tr~~, a nd lUlU !fe' construrtion that may ul!Jse :s:hadlilng prob lems, The unobstructed ,exposu re III ust also have :$uffid~'nt :$piI'ce to' iri!$t~1I '~h~ PV 5Y$,tem. Wi iJ)~11l/1 the~~ glF~ 50ffi@ t1,the~ 'co!ft$id~rgU~ii!$ yo UI ili!1l1i5't ta k€, ifil'!ro acmuilill WlfhMI Imo-untlllng your ~dlar pallille!ls::

.' Irf the ~I~~I ~In wh'iclhl yoo II ~V@; iii! is. ~ dOliidy Oli!~. you will ~iv@ difflUi$~d solar ener:gy tr.e,roefor~ ~t ill) not Viltal st what aln~lle you mmuilt the panels b!'2!c~l!Jse Ilight will come in at nTfiI~lny different ~lngI12'£ ilnstead dilredly frorn the $iJJli! •

• ' Iff you I live- ln allil ar~ai thall: ge1lS 'ffog dur'lllilg ,a pi! ~'ttI)Oull"r t'llliiIiI~ ,oJ day', '~lhe- b~st1 erientatlon for 'ylOlIJIlr panels, is so that 'tihey (~tdh the most sun when the rugl d~a t:s, Iror e:(gl!lipll~1 W' It 11:$ foggy in the ml)rTi!~ ng~, O~I~nlt the p,gli'l'eh i n th~ directiclIni ~rol1ilil which th~, :sulnlilligh'~ cemes aroulilld nooli"ll .

• ' 1'©u mi~lhit have ~Uitiked that: so me ;2ilreiJ s of your mOT @et: h~ilvy s.umw buiilld!U~, lhe!ii~ glre tJh t; ,are~$ 'y'Olii 'IANi!lt!t toO avoid when liilo~ .. U'i!tilil1g you r Ip'~rileb. be;ralLl5e 'Iiff tlhe:y g.~:t 51nowed I!Jfild~ir '~llle'Y will filO1~ pmduL'~' e-I!~ctrrlcl tv .

• ' Wind will nCH! aifrnct the prOOlLlctilvity of your IPV s,ysl~1iiilI but it linigllrt 'tear ,off' YOlJJr pan~l~ of theim tJ1IlIoulntii Iilg ha rdw(!IIffi\. The1F<efbr~. if )"OIJJ liv~ ~n an area wi'th 1101'S. o;f wilnd. yOI!J need to m(lli!:;'e' sure that y·ou ~Ire I!JSilllgl som e 'ibJIU gtn ~ nd duralbh~! liif'iiooUlJl~irig ,@qlullp'l'rU!nt

• Sm Q@ aft:EK~ the amUiul1t Qf' :U~ 1il1i@lhrt you wi 1IIIre~,elve, •

• ' The semk:ondudor th~lt mak~.s; up '~he :soilillr oell ~dulally work_s, bett'e!,r in I'l)'w@r t@m p@~,~W ~.e$. yo~ will get iin ore @il!@J'gy o~tput .on a cold dear' d,JIY thgl!'ll on a :~mnlillY day' .

• ' Ali r de,n~ity ahcts how m1ulch the s;unl~g ht :scatt,errs;" At: h~gllile,r aitiltu'desJ, the' ,a.ir ls 'tlhi nil@~ h@illce I@$S sufi! liig hI' is, $c~rtt~r~d .!lInd 5011~lr '~,POSUI!"@ j:S b@tt@r"

l11'H~ best w.ay of e'v~lll!J~ti ng 'tJ11 e d~lill~ am ount of! diilr:ed :s;unliglht is p lotting Sun Ch~ rts, which are. a m~;n5 of '91"a! Prhkglilly displlWirilg! th~ mOiVE!1iil en! of the 5iUfi! ~~m$S th@ :s;ky",

alU~ I---+---+----lf--+--+---+-+--+---+-+--+--+-l---+---+----l-+--+-----f-+--+---+-+---l

Plotl!~n9 a Sun chart is. a blil: CQIiiI'iI plica~d alnd 'talk~s qu liI:,~ alot O'f' tinil,~. IFortlUlna'l'l€ly, d,~~€, ,al~ ,tJlllllij Iile r~lj(]UIFC'es; like Ihltlp:HsiOll!1)r@a:UJ~r!9g~n.ed!J/S!J IilOh~rtP~,@gralm ,IPr.P fer plbtitlilng Y'@Uf own Sun charts by simplY 'entelilng '~he, l~tiltl!Jde and longii1Du de of yaulr residence.

Howev~r If 'You do w;a nit teo m~ke ~ :SUIii Lh~r~ YQ!,Jjrrs~lff Iii@re"s, l!iow~

To 9 eli: pmper rea~:flililg~ Y)))U will nesd al wa~dh~ a ~~mpa~:!), n(Jite~ad an@ pen lalrge ha tf .. drde pretractcr ~nd '10 il1lches of stri ng. ChoQ5ie ~ location whe reo you can oibtse~ve the suns paUl ,a(ro~ the @~$t!Ej!'FnJ' murtl!i.;m!ll ~,il1d ~$,t@rinl $kies" PI~(@ ;;!I $olid (i!iQ;~um ~~nk cn~t~I~¥elliiijg h b~~ 'that. 'WIll II ~€ma~n ~:tat:ronelfY, because 'YOU will ta k~, YiOur Ir,~adling~, IToIiiI'iI tllleir,~'. Talk~ read lilftg5 'itli'mee times a day a Iw',ws ma,ikil1lg1 SIUI!'e you take them alt the s;am~ tilme 'of the day. for ,ex~'Ilfi,ple at: S: am, .. , noo~J' ;;! nd 41P,lfn- ~'~,~@di'i,i'@IY.

If you havechosen 'ID' talk.@ dl@ firs.'~ ~€adlng ail: a, am~Jun b~fur~ then ,aligln ya!JJr corn pass wi1!ih

nf'I a~rn-e:ti!c north .an~ art Sam s h~rp 1!iUIm Y'oo ~ ,,"om pass, as 'ItJi(]llJ@h it L~ r.aill~d ~hrmllJ~lh, its ,cem<er into th@ bi!:l$.@~ ulnrtil the sight II i iJ)~$l!i Pc with th@ SUII!_ R'~ d the ,a~ilm uth {dijlFettJloiil il~ d@gr@~$)1 ~nd jiO.'~ ~1'l on your notspad, R~peat the :sarm~ IProcess ,tit. filoon and 4. p'.IiiiiI" B~ s,U1re. 1to iiiiilal~k 'th~, spot whEl1r<e, ymJ p;L~oo@ t~e eernpass and to putt lit there ev~tJ'Y' '~lme you ta ke, re.~d~ng$ as Woell as to

m ark the' stop whe:~;e you were sts ndil1lQI "'Ind stand the:~;e ,every time. DUlril1l9 wi nte'r~ youl will see' 'tJh,~, lo~r e.1~e-vation a,ll"lld 5ih;Qr1'l€f arc OiY 'tih.€, suns dailily IiiI'iIO'IJ.e!me.lNt

On the 1i1Iat bottem of the pm,ttr.ado~; there sJh.ouM be a ru l\er malrkifil91 o~' i:'eJFO to ~bi or m(]r~ inches. At the fair end ohhat ru Iter gll'uJe one 'e:nd of the str~lng.., then II ift the. pro'tra~tor to Y'0ur eye: lev~L :Sig M and ~Iiglii th~ hO'~ll)[)n alorTlgl th@' stF.aiight s id~, of th@ ~!J..II@r ,~dg@. W'ithout rmovilng ~he' protractet ta li:ie ~he, ~t~in~ with youm 'frree hand and a Illgn the, :iUI1 a llon~ ~he, ~t~in@, held I rig it :~tJret,dl~d ti~ht ~gail1l$t the pro,tracto~~ !Dortt rele'a~e this position '-II nUl )i"OU read the ~ngle" t h-en jot iit lin your ri!Qt,~p~d.

Take a IP~~ of :5,I);)~t(lhill!lg pi! p@rr and draw ill \I\~rtll(a II (tlh~, :sky) a nd hiOrl!lo:n!f1allilil~ {11Iili;? horrizon) th FOl!Jgh the center O'f the page. IPut the' c,ente!r of the' 1'\1.1 Ile;r edg~, of the pro,b,actor o:ve;r the irrrt@~@(tJlon ~nd plat ~ d'm ,~bo\i'~ ~Ind b@low th~ $~I!iif'i!~' d@gr@~ ma rk youl ~ot@d dllii ~i!l!gl your

:sig llltilil9~ Wlrllt,~ 'I'llilis d~grn~' iOf indif'iFl:illiof'll f'lI~t '~Q 1th~ db'f:::. lD,raw ~ I~ n~ from 'th~ 'Iin~r:::~cticm 'lhrrollJ~h dle"Se POIII])l~. and Ilabel 'that 1IIIne alS the date an@ ttllme, ,(JIt YOllJr ~iiglhti n~ for ,exam pie: ] 2. D~('eiliri! b~r .2000',

Take YOUlf next .se~ie:s: O'f Iro!Ziadfling~, iln, IFebfuary o~ !Mia ~,ch and e:'lfe~y rnenth 'th~rea'fterf. unitilll '~Ille autumnsl equijnox. Make ~llJr~ to ~1~'1i youlr reading~ ,careru 11)1' on }i'tJUlr sun chart, .Arter tw.e 'fl III (111 II pilot~lng of the yealr" cOlnined the dots in al curved line and yoo will halvE' made y'ou r :Suln Chart. HoW' you o,ri.€lnrtt your pallil~lts iln rr,~laltiolil to the. illnglg!i: ef the. SUf'lIr:s liiiiIove-:ments on ths SUf'lI (ihart, is imperattlrve. E,ViId1e;ntly; 'tihe, best way' te mount 'the ~a nels is, so that tt~~y face the :5,UiIl as much as pQ;S'si~I,.;. ilih,!; tilt alng Ie of the iP,al1lels ,cons1lde,r.albly inTihJlefllce:-s; the amount of s!.!Inlig ht you are -going to g~t. I r yaUi liiiiIatrh 'the, pm'lltio n of ~h~, pallilels to the Su n~s movements IblLlt do not set 'the Diro~~~ tilt alr.gl~ ylU~ will n©,t 9 eli: maxllmum su nli9lhl, expm,uIF<e, forr ymu pHln~I~.IRig u re 2:2 p'resents IllOW an ~mprop@f 'tJllt .ang lle, reduces :5lurnligrht ,exiposuire e

. ~ ... · -, o

'. ",

. "<:.

.' -

To optlimij:ze al ~,ysl~m~s p@rrf'Orliil'ilalnc~ sp~dall (o'nl.s:l:d@r,a~ions r"@garolling itillrt angll~, ln (Hffeir'~fil'tt seasens must be taken ifil~o 2Iltx:;QiUIr.t. I?alr.eil:s, wi~h i!!1 tilt, angle equal to 'the Ila~lttllJde willi rEOOiive, 'the higlnest i'n~dla,tion.

,24

B~rtrt~ri~'S gl~;~ Y$:@d to co.ll@ct DC ell~,tt~ic~11 @iTl~rgy p:roch,.u::,@d by th~, PY' $Y$tr@ni fO~'I~ter' ibI$@, 51 iTlc~ a PV 5ys,1t~m pow~rr au t pUrr. can and ''iilllill 't1l~crlLla'~,~, 'tJuough '~Iil~ day d~p@,lilcUlng on the ,d'ouds, illlild 'lhe,'W'eadhelr, dle Ibal,1!erle~ ar~ g©il'ilgl te provrd~ a relaltr\,l~I¥ e.OtJl:iGrltJ'U: :)©!JIi'Ce. fo~ p~~i©~:ij OF redw:ed sola r e.mergy. C-ommomlly used batterh;:l,;, come in two' (atego~le;s;:, '~h-e lead-add and ~ts V~ ~iatilons", wh iclh a ~€, th~, liqu id 'V~lJl'tM and 1t~~ :s-~all€d ba'tl~tYr and '~Iil~ v.aII\J~ 1~9u l\ait,@d liiMd-i!!Ic~d or \tRLA. AI kalll ne b~n:e.rli~" sud, as N idtel~Cadlli1nd UIITI alni)] Nlic:kel~ II ron, are a II~O used from time to time es ped~ lillY iin v'e.ry low temperi!ltl!.ue h)cafioli1s.

fhe lead..a,old b~tt,efi@.$, ;':!Ir'@ithe I'!i'! ost commQ'nll¥ IU5~d bat1e;ril~ for resid@liiti~1 sc~l@ IPV syst@lITfiis ilill the, US. lin many wa¥5! if y.ou 'were {to jillJdg!e' by i!l1~peanmlk,e, they res:emblle car b.atterie~.II-k!!W'e'ife~! they' a re different by desi'gn. Calr batttterh;s, ~Ire intended to lPuH;lid ei a hlilge' amount of current ror ori!lly ~I $i1ifih~1I ,amount OIf time'l whil I\~' b~,tt@~i@$ IliIl't@!i1d@d for i!,.I$.@ I iJ) IP'V $)I$t@!lf!~ p,mvl,d@ Irel~ti\,!i@IY liO-\I\i'-po~r output 'for l~n9~r p€f1iooS and can be. ~,~clilalr'9ed !1.md~r ineg ullar c'cmdiitjonrs .. Another diiffelr.emce be·tween the two -is tihe· a,epth of dlarg.e:" whkh is the· ~ meunt of total capadtry a bi!Itt:@ry ij$ d\esilg iTl~ t'o 10$@ !bet_en dh~rg~$- (~Ir ibatttt@rl@$, y:l@ld ;!i! sm~ III ~1m.Oil.Jfi!tt of tih@'llr @ntillr~ 'capacrt}l'. whill~ IPV 5y.st'f:im ones yi\~ Id ill SlLIbS;rafUi1al amou lilt. That is why these bD'tJt~fil~s are ,81150' re1T@rred to as dle~p cyde batt'E2\ri\~s..

If the bgtt'~~i~$ .gl~'~ p~op@rty $il~t~d m~int.al'ned .. th~ liif@ $pan ror g PV $,y$1e;m battery (.glill b@ anyvJ here 'ffirolftlil 3 to 10 'years, or I)ong~r. lts IJrf~sp-an mairnlly d'~IP~ nds on ths a\f€:r.!!I9~' depth '1,0 which you dii:s<Jh-arge a baltte~y. (.ontilnualilly disch~lrging ~ battery to ,S()% will ,a(c,eil@r~te it:

,~x pifi!i!ttlori! ~Ind such g batt@ry I!li~jy d~~ to ;;1.1$ ~i!l!lrty as wlrtli!llilt 2: yt!.;IIi"~_ w:e' r'@~omFi! iIT!'i!@ri!d di$th~ rglog 'thrz' billn:~~i&S up' to :s ~ of ~h~'ilr 'Mtall {:;.[Jlpacjtty.

A~ P'F.e\l~oo:s1y m e\nrti~ned ~her-e ar~ two su ~!i:ategQ!ri~; OF 'dh,e, l~d~-aiCtid ~an'e\ry' - dle lij(1ru id '\i'ented ,j}li!d the ~g~~d 0 r I!li~ ililltena nICe ulr.ee b;;rttt~ry, The Ililquid=V~(i!tt:!dI ibatttr@ry n~5, r@m OV~ bl~ caps 'ffo:r .add~lng watt,~,r dlnd ma~lntt;:~~ln;lllf\g 'tih~, ba,tt.e-rry.1I'r is b~~ ~r 'ffb~ml po~~~llv~ a libel nega'~i ~e· pl(aites just IIi'ke a car batte ry and the plates .are. made ~'rotJll1l tthe S;['Jlme' mtltel'iialll;, lea@ a nd lead aiIIOYr- and ,alre ~:d"ced ln a elled~,olyte seluticn 'Of 511111fu ric ,arjd and wate{r. Ui ke ,an "urt:o, ~Ineryr this desig n r-e<quilrE!s v-oJI'ttag~ rolil'rroJII,~r, In al PV sy,st.em~ ~hri s ls rr,ef'errred to as. a ch.alrr'ge c,Q:nltmJIII~r. wlilich is ILIs~d to protect ymu Ibal1rery m'FOnflt over d'ilal~'gilllgi. When a bat!rery 1':; ove~dlargei)] hyd ~ogen gas! wnkh is, ,eox.trem,~ly explosive if it' is, 'CQota,ilnec!, IS produced '~h IlS posilng ~ S~I1TetY' h~iZ',wd. 01her :5~fuW hazards whe1nl d.~illlllilJ)g w'lith p\, 5~"'S:re1m baneries are high short-d rr,cuit. po't,enttiat el~ctJrTc shock pote1nrtiall and '6.r.m~tic:i't)l ~f the ele.c:trol¥le. It is \!\err lm portent that .@III the tJ1~'e:;~a W ~af~1y'

ITl sasures are taken 'wheln dlea liilng wilth b-aU.eries.

il'ih~' VRLA liS a rmaill!t~il!ijlnCe' f~ bi!ltt@!i)! h~c~us~' it is d~~igril1~d Ii n $II..! ch ,~ wary th~tt they ~~~I@~s@ the, ,~x&e-.s'S of Ifnes~llJre throogh a va live in the lk'etJ'ller' 'iltJ'l the (:atSe ~f ,mre~'~naIr9Ii tJ'l~.lihe'Fe are 1lW'O ty~@5 Qf's@alled batteries used in PV :sy'S:Ib~ms. One of them Ts the gsl c@1111 iin wlhidh the el&trolyte i$, ,gelled by the ,~dditJio.~ ,of' :s:i IlilOl g~1 that 1i!u m$ tn~ lilq Ulid ili!tro an ,actJulal gel i1i!'iI;;l$s- fih~ o~h~ r type of ~;tfrfr,errie-s is catlll~edl1!he A,GM baltterrie-51, w~ich sta nels. (cor Absofh~d 911 ass MaMria L

These batte;rles lIISie a 'fib:rou s 'silh:~ glla/5S, m at 'to SlUIPP~~ the electrobrte.1ih~ ~div,antrage of lII~ing tjh~5e bi:ftl,!~ti:~ Ilii@$ III '~he' fad ,tJh~t tlh,ey g re :$1'111111 pi"'Qof glnd wlIlll1 IFl'pt '~'ei1! slPili if t~~ Cg;s.e' i~, b ro~en 'W~lch Is a p~rfeLr :solul'ttion for RVs and slnce '~Iile-y requ Ilr,~ no peri odica II ma;lilJl'telJlance~, itlh~y' alr.e! a -good ,dlt]i~e fer remol~ locatiens.

.2S

How~veirr dlE!'se, b.artteri~:) also tnarve a 'Few disolllid\lal~tag!e:~L They I.t51lJ~[lly eest mrlIo~,e per Ulniilt (!if ,capad~l per ~ mplihoulr when compared to' 'till-e! more i(Qnr\l\enttlol1la,lllmquid loatter~es • .are more ,Slts;c'€jp'~liM~ to dalmai9~ of' 'o'lM'~-:cha rgiling p~r'tlicuIICilrl~ Wh~fii tlh~~l alr,i1i In~;,~II~d In walfm~~ d i liiI'iI,tit~1 so y!U~ have to malike, SUire, y'~Ulr chal~,ge contro Iller is world ng p ro~~~ty and th~y n~'i/!e shorter Ilife spans 'till-en ether b~trte;r'i es so not: only db they 'cost more ~er amp/hou r but '~he~t' are 'going to last lless 1tiliif!~= IFu ~tlllrB;rmor'~j 'they need to P@i chq ~'g@d to IOWoer \l'QI~~g\~s, ;!i! nd ,at low~r o'3I1'1il1p,@r,ag@ rate,to p~,evefilt g\alj ,t!"X<:e'£~ damagin@ iHle battery cell.Thls means 1l~at ~wymJ hada Ii~~id lead acid battery and al ~;~n;11 one 'side, b~l s!ld!e' you would w.ant to r'eduu;ge the ~f~1 c~111 at lower ,al!ilper~g~ a ~d for a 1(:iIl!QI~r ti rnI'iI.e than the liql!iiid b2!trt'~FY:"

Pr,e-vl:oI!J5Jly we taill-iied ebout 'chalrg:e c,ofiitrollerr,s neoessa r:v when you are (har9~lng your b.attel1ie5. Clharg:e' 'contrrolle:r ij nsta,lllla~ion p~rtkull" ~Iy. ~ pplmes to, lead acld b·atte:riies OOC~!.!Is-e 'tihey' fileed a d@vic@ to ~uu1!@ct th~rn from ove~oCnarglilillg ,a nd di~(h;3I~'9ifl!g~ Tha (h~rg@ roiJ)tro!lll~r peFtO~m~ :s@!v~r,allmpo rtallilt 'fulm:itM:ms one of wh~dil is te lin (Hlltto r tlil~ bi3it,t€ry \!'Qltag~ so a15 'the lbar~,rzjry ,e:haIF91E*l, and ~ijsc~ar:~e!l it i~, ~oil~g 'to menlter ~he, ~,~n~Tti©11 of '~he, baltte~y" lit, D roteets 1iromr o\t@J'chgIFglung which r'@$~ . .dtl ~Inl e:xce$·s.lV>e' 11O'~ ()of liqulid~ wihi,dh (_Q Ul5~ lhrydrog@11! gQ~ Prr(jd~_u:tiioiJ)., snd pm'tl'i1icti:S the batt.i1iF1 f~onn 'i1i'X,c,rz:s\S,llv~ dl1Sc~argg, • .A [101 of cihaf'g~ oolin.MJII,~f!j, today hav~ an ILVD_ which stands for I©w v~ltage di~oonrll;ec:t. am d wlhriich mrlIOnil))):r;\; the dep'lh ©r d~SQh~f;ge. Wh~n the b~ttlE'ry gets to a certaiin tlhreoshokl the DID ~hysk~ II(Y discol1lnell:ts the lead so tlhat '~h-e oottery ~s no,'tl eom pl~'!!'e!ly d iisdilalrg\~d and da,nni3iged.

Ba1lte,r~l ,eapa6i'ly rate<J i ~ amp-hours (Ah) Ii) .a measure af how mlu eh e nergrY ;['JI ~an,ery can hold, To call10ullate the to:t~11 energy c~lpadty off' ~ baUery mfilll..Il~ipl~ the ameunt off' amp-hca rs by' '~he vo!l~g@,,'Th@refu F~'r ;31 ~ OQAIrD b.a,ttery ro iIlniln'9i at '1.2 vdlt$ yiel'd~, '1,,2kJNli! of '~iJ1~r.gy. B~tt,~;ri'~s ~I~~' ,ava,ijlabl~, illl 6 or 12 'V!i'J lts, whi~h y!i'JU een C!i'Jnlilec~ 'iln series to get 6r 114r ~ 8 or ,2,4, VDC. lH©wEver;, if you ~Ire usiilnlQ an ifilvelier ijt will not tJ1flI'liiltter what '~he' ~IUelY vol~~g'e is,

If you tIFUI~ w~ ottlO b@ iod@p~ll!dli~nt $rQmr YQ'u r i!.itJill i,ty' compiI,oy_ you ,~Ib$oliJt~ly' mU$,t h~ve balU:eori~5 iln~t.a lied 'iln Y(]IJJr ~Y!l,tem" Batlt>eri'e~ :no~,e pow~r n!Ut onlly for night U5e but also fo)) r day use, "{OUf system wilill driilw po,weJ rromrrl thsm when ~t is dO'utdy ~ nd whe:n, tlhe~ii; is, not enoogh :$ulnll:ght tQ PrGw~r gil II tlh~ lo~d~, of 'You hou$,~·;h,old- Fri:gu r@ :25 :sh!QW5 th;@ tY1pic~1 ~~~fgry r'~liJ..Iif@= nil ~lnl'tS ,of ,a household and i8il€irgy producnon Oif',~ PV' :s~"'S;~,~m.

H01Jl9l!OOid

line~g!;.' 11JI.5:ii~

~'-"'I .-----r I J I I I I ,

I I

.26

When the wlhol e· family w.akes up irn the morning; there is not ,e;nol!Jglhl stII nlig ht to p reduce '~noiUgh @ledll1(Jty ro~' th@!il~ ~n r=rg¥ ~eqlulir@mI'i!@nlt$"" Durl1lil.g mI'i!(~$t of the dgY" wlw~n ,~;I@(;tbr~dty prodacti on i~ ,ait ~~ ~igh~~tl- ther~ i\s ~rolba~ly ~() on~ at heme, Then, ~n !h~ ll.alle .arf1'e1rm:~~n Wh~li1r ,ag~in there 'it& not eli10ugrn sl!Jnllglnt eV@f)lOli1e retu ms, Iff this familv' diidrrt have batter~es, lnstelled ill! 'itlheir syst~m th~llF Ihar~$ted $01~r @~~~'gy wOUIld go 11Q Wi!i!$t~ ~Ind their ili!ve.sibiTI@nt WO!I .. dd h!i!llf-@ beelll 'Wt.nil~ ibe(1U,tSe for th~, nil ost of tlh~, dalY tthe. solsr ellle,rgy is produced 'there ~S. no olile to consu m@ th~t energy" 'WI~hl battte rlas, hO~i\I\e'ver. they ,Swre file, ,colled,ed @1'iI@rgy ~ nd COnSlIIli1I1I@ irt 'W~@n it sillits th~tn best.,

A 3. Ph""'" J't ,. S' t D· d- r: .

'"'/h.~:' ,_- _,_O"IU'VO_~ .0'1" ~-ys:_,eml _'esrgn ,on _ ~z',ng

nne o:~ 1!llle most '111iiI'iI portent 'thilngs wih,e!fiI cDliIs.ide~lngl ~lnt5't;3llllillilg a PII 5.~.·t,em 15 to, ac.culr.attel¥ determine irU ~ilre,. There ar~ :se'!/!e.rall factors Y{!iU must tak-e i IlltlU eceoure, fIIFS'l. the totall amount 'of watt-hours per d~ly that yaul willi need. Then 'YOU will neea to define the p'Nk powe;r output irn -watlt$ ~I!I)d figulr.e out th~ d'urt.y cy(I@,. HOW@'i!~rf even rf youl $holl!lld IUlndef@o$tllmgt@' '~h:e' $i~e 'Of the PV '~ys,tem b~~t for Y\)Ju t~e\F.e ts ne n~edl fo'F wcmy because, a:~ we :!:li!ilid e.airliioerl- PV' ,l)y~tems are

IT! odllll~r iillnd yOI!J 'cam ~llw~ys iilnoreas-e power prod U ctjvit~l by "dd~ng mors panels,

lflh~, :5ignlillk:a IIlc,e of the hlaci15 'that we ellr,e goillilg to, powe~ wltth our P\' s.yst,em li€s in 'th~ fact. 'tihat leads lJJ~u.a1111y irmrp~se, ,greate~t: ~~ n-gl~ ~ nfnh.!lel1ce on 'the ~ile and 1ih~ cost of (ljlriY PrV :s:y~termr. We can m inimi~ cur IPV sys"l'emril cost by 'effu:ie;nthl usi Ii1g the enerQ(Y we· Ihave ~v~il~b!e to us. Remember, r-edudli!9 po~r COlI!sj,Ji iliri! pt)lon1 i~ ~ h)t I@$S ,~x p~ri<$i\!l~ than bUlildiililg ,a PV :~y$.t.em ~d@ql!iat@ ,etJlQIlJ~h to supply' powe~' F© r a III the devices dh~t we, are (~~r~li1tJy usl tIlg.

10 s.1~ rt (;~ ICllll,~il'1igl ji\Oyr loads make a ooWf1ple·t-e lis·t of' .aJ11 the alppliial1lc~:s; and dleVilces in YOUlr hOlliS@; ~Ind how !iirl!u,dh hour$. ~ day- ,~~ en ilS UlSU~ III¥ ~uli! (b@ SilJr@ to t~ike S~1501i!~ II \i'ar'i~rtiOI1!S- ij M'o ,ac~()uril'li'. Some, ICJads consume el~trli(ii1iy all the, 'lime wh~ll~ ethers !JS'e' ~I!e!!:itrridty less eften, Watts/ ,consid-er~ltiof1l is tille m~ijn ('O:mIPOn@tJ1t in designirng Jlnd 'siziltJ1g P!h~t:o'VOHtak .s-ys,tem To d@t@~min@ tha @n@rgy C,OIl!:5.iJiif! p~km of ;]1 I\o~d~ mUlltiipty the W;]ltti!i!9~ of th!@ ,~pplii!i!ln'c@ by' ·~h-e number olff hours: it i$ uS1Zd in ell s:lllilgl~ day. WCliuage can be ~ad off 'the label of the applialnOlll. If" the· labet nowe,ve.r. statss the ~ mI1I ps ins·w~d of w,ati!s., mulltiplly the· amps b~l '~he voH:-age, which il1l IifI cst ~:oi1is@holds is 12(~ YQlrls and that will result in th@i nu m!brgr ·oft w,aitlts the d@'vicoE! is uSJ1 n ' , IFot

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - - - --I - -- -- -- - - - - -- - - - - -- - - - --- - --- - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -9 - - -

,ex'anil,pl~ let U5 aS~!UlniI e tlh at ';ViOU harve a d·e!Vii!Ce plug,ge-d I'lilto, the!, walll 'tIilatt 'Its C1ulrrreliltly d rr,awilng :2

amps. W~en :2 amps ~re mull'tlprl~e@ by ~ :If} volts, th~ ('UIfIOllJfilt o~' watt~g~ is :240 watts .. IBy (JrM~ ng 'llhe 'totab, of all ,~ppli~IIi1C~S' '~ri!d illildlilldii n 9 the Prhgl~dO!li k~gdsJ' Y'O'UI G;Ul det'~FIlll line whgt power output you Ill~d for your IP-V s.yst:eliil'il"

i~ble 3.2-'1 s.WlO'ws. 1iYpjcalll wattag'e' reqllJireme1nrU forsome eemmen househeld a~prl~an!!:'es;,

IMJd~Ymdl!llall Iloads; Qt,' X' I W'atts, X Use HrsJD-ary - W,IfU"HoUlli's/Day
Ughts (flliioreS'cel'iit) '10 X £I' X 6 ~ 540
V(IR '1 X I 30 X 1 ;;::;; 30
TV 2 X I 70 X 3- .... 42(~
(.Olmput-e ~' X H10 X 1 ~ 700
,
II: neir-gy Star R~firigierrdltor X ~ Hl X 6 - 6.60
. -
CIO'~he~. Washer X I 800 X '1 :::::: 800
, ,
Clock IRadio X 11 X 24 ~ 24·
,
(offee· Pot X 20~ X 0.5 - Hm
. -
M" X 1400 X 0.25 3.:50
. l".- _., '. '" ::::::
" IrLroWitlN€ , ,
'lio. I,AIL WA TI - IHIRS/D'A,Y 36214, ."2,

For tihilll' i~m_$ ns~d ~bo\,i\~t. you wo!Jlld fiI~OO a sy.siL~ml 'that prod uess 21lnl ar\i'~rag~ daily ~n@wgy '@UlIfU1'!l: ofr ~6,241k\!V~" A.s WE· me;nrtiiUllIe@ ~~Iijeri @~fnfelfefil'tt l,o~tioniS r,ec~i[\l\e v~:wYillilg ameu nts of sunl ilght which must be t'all!zi;!n ijnt-o censlderatlon when calloUllati ng the 'size of the F'V s}t,stem n@ces$03IJY- To glirv-~ -y.o!J! ql b~1tte~'lu nd@i"$t~fridilng liiow lin u'ch your IO-CCl,tioi'ii callir ij n1TIIrl,ie:n,(@ th@ S!'ZE!!

and ,F'.-..=-t' ,f"ti~ vour svstern UJ,.,. 1~JI-111 r-~~I- ","'UJ' ',,",,',10, 1".. ... """,'1 ens AI .... u nu"""'of!I'''L'I, rr.1""'~J' M-" L'I"Y-lof';f'I, -lin w' ,1",'I·I"'b.", I~~,j ,~- ..... valL. ~I ) __ ~ ~~ ~1.G[ I'l 'IF~~ jIJ.~ ~.!.!. ~"I.'«' IL~T~ ~'!..o.~!tI. ~ a M U. "io.I -_ ~I ~~"Gil 11·'t~'I!-~ . ~A ~'k..I,r .... II !\.;.Ill a] F"~'

ITiodlul1e wilill prodil!Jc'e' 62 watt-iliIFi,S -o:telectf11dty d~ijl~ij and Pittsbulrgh. Penns.yI~?afillaIJ' ijnr whkh '~Ile :~gm@ ili!'i1Qdull@ wiilllllPr.(~dllice 2..4 w~rttt~h rs d~illy_

To !(,aII('!!Jjla~ ths siz;e of the- Syste-1iiIiI (as repteSenled in lirl ble 3.1-L~ ) each will need we: will d~vl,de. the da illsy plOwer reqlllij wements by the afv~r,age dlaihl output. dI ivide thi~lt by .0,,8 to, ,aCC'Ol!Jl1It fer bi!'tt:ery ~ n~ffi;ci'~in;Cy~ add 11 0%, t~> 03V@!~' anything d~~t hg$ b~(i! o¥@~It!o~~1 o~ to, ,alillow 'f,r)~ th@ 'grow~hr ('act'or and diV11die- 1401 wihrbr.ihl5 the amount of w,at~ each mod !JII@ will produce,

3:6..24, -+ 6.2 ~ ,585 S,S5 .;:. ~l$ ~ 712 'J 31 ,+ 7,4 ~ 006 8,06 -:-140~ 6

3624 +- .2.,4, '::; l :S'U~ 1510 ~·(t:8:= ~ SS8 ~ SSg + ~ S9! = 20.77 2077 ~ l-4Q~' 15

5 Winter dverdg e of da ill¥ el@ctric itv preduenon,

is A.III the iTlmm bers h!,;;JI¥E! b@@!il ~oJI..Il1!d Ui P to' '~he Iiliig ~e:r In Ullin ber;

Daily @n~rg:y ,cQn$umpti.o.nr (glnl b~ (2!ku llated by usii!J)g tli!@ $impfl@ Qilc~.dgti:OIl ,~s th~ .one' ,abl)\i'-~ oW th rolLl@h soph~S'ti~ated 1k'@mpl.ne1F pr©@lraITI~' Whkl'ilev~rr' 'ita.l¥ YOUI ehoese to 'ct!ilii:lLlla1re' ;¢@U r d~ily power F1eq UJire~el'1itsr the re ,are t~w mo~e factors you need to ccmsider'

fihlli! 'filr'St O~~ is, d!J!ty cycle' which is,,~ m~i$ur@ of h ('J!f.J' o;ft@ri! 'the, $ys,t@m Willill b~ in t1i~, ~or ,e-xampl~ ;81 Iialke- house mig ifwr, haw a dlJ1'y cycle- of 2~% whil@ a rr€5~de-,nitia I hOIiilii'illl' has, al duty qi'!(II~ of i-iID%. The second censideration is the pea k ~ n<&l"dntaneollislPower output- which is, t'h'e amount ,of P,).oW@'F me~$~ r~d ~ n w.~tt~ -fo~' ~II th@ ,applii!i!lil'~$, riJlillillil1!gr ~rt fh@ $am~ ti mrl!.e' 1ih ls il$ a Pg ~t o;f the :syst€m :specili'catjQ,nl oWlr which you Ihav~ ~ II00t af ;c~:ml'trol bsceuse you can ehoese eo run hMVl/ power' (:OIil~lJJmilllgl a,pplliiaril(~s; at dHle1Fel1t '!l:i'IT1 e~'

rlh,~ oe:<,t f~i!i!ti!,Jre o,f PV' $yst'!~\Fn ifi!$ta Illglti.oii! th~t will h~v-@ ~11! elffed 00 5Y$,tem de:~igri! ~ nd C(li~t glr~' 'the, baluerril5" lit Is v~ry e.a S')t 'tn, cakullart'~ tine ~~:Z~ oif tlhi!\1!' harne~y ba.nk tihat. you will rnquir~' Fo,r our ,ex:am~le- we wi n assu Iilrihe a "i1\f[DC s,y.st~1i1riI ;flilild '~he, ameunt Uir wan~·~!))uI~,ay 1i'~om the IPr~vi@us, 'case-iDiVildie' '~he ~ meu m' of war'tt-houlrstllay b~t '~2V[)C m'ulltiplrt by' two in order to cover 'Ollie d~y (l,f r-es~r'lf~ power and then nn ulil:liply' by f2lcttor 2 'tto ltIIiIalk~ 5U ~~, that 'the, bal'tt:errie:s: ,i3ir:~ not dralilned more than 7Ii!' perc:e.nrt aT '~hei r aN'aiiable energy',

3:62-4Wh/dla,y 7 12VID( ~ 302Aih ,3.0.2 Ah * .2 = 604Ah 604,Ah ~ 2. - 1.208Ah

ihilll~fQ~~, lin ,ord~r to h,iW~ ~nou91~ powillllr to ~un 211111 of' tlh.€!ir ~ pp 111anc'iiM:, (lInd haMilll' a dalY O'f' IMjS~~V'i1:!' power the household ~ Iil Allbuqru e1rque or' lP\in~biUlr@h needs 1208Ah of ba1l.1'e1F)l '6ap~6iity"

A5 ,always. scm e u~efl!Jl-Of1lllii ne resources 'can hel p you ceku ~,ate the siiz'e QfY'Olil r rv s.ystem" Sem e ,of tlii@ml ,Gain ~@ ('OUi nd ~t Alt€!rrna~@ IEo@r'9Y' R@50 .... IFC"@ Network" '$ W~bsft@ 'I'

.28

'When ,ooll~i~er'i ng a lalr9e-'5(;al~ IPmj~ct such a~ eOtJ1ljllFu"ctifilgi a PV sy~term~ u ndt!nt('jllrKI~ng the ,entire process is the most: imp.oFlt~nt '~hliing, lihe:re is a \1'"~lri~ty of f~d'ors 'to take ii ni,o account 'Wh~n rn~lkjfi!gl th~ d·~d51!(];~ to ~iitn~r do the Prffi~.ec;t YOiiJl~s@llf iI)~' nire gl (iI).,ntra(.tto["

,4,.4,t~' DlY

De~]gnifiUJIf. assiembllllllg and illJ\sitallling a IPV s,ystelfirii is alia bOiriiOus alnd le1n,gthv UIosk. tJJOlfh~''!'lhel!€~s~ this'ils netto Siil~ tha~ YOUI should 9~t disci))U1roHliged I'ligln-l away and nire (91 c©nrtractor. or ~ven WQ~se glilv,!2' UIP on the entire ~dle~l;,

Most peolPl\~, are innlp~lIi~'!'llt andilliik~' to. get. 'itlh ilillgs done IFi,glilt ~W~Yr gl~d wheill not ev~;!Y~hilng 'go:e~ the, wa¥ they planned tney get frustrated. T© avoid ~~'iing i))1IIe.. )fOU! willi need 'W paee youlrs;e!If. Constantly ~>emind YOI!.uwlf that sorn!2' '~hlilllgs ijn Iliifu do t~lke ti me a nd that malkillilg a PV $y$.tt~m is oli!@ ,q,f tlh~~rl!. 0-0 ifIIGt $@'t ,~Inly dJ~~d lill!@~ or $,h@dulh~~, 'th~t wilml cg'iJl~e you to $p@~dI thitrlgl$ ,allolilg and liiIiIalk~ mi5'ltak~s.

Knowingl mrlIQ~,e abolJJt tlile S!J bject w;i III1 eas.e the task off' meki ng a PV system immensely, [)o not limit: YOlii ~ knowledg@ t'o 'what: i~, 'W~Jt.t~1l! iJi! this book. Nurn@~,ou~ ~Y'=g~(~$ f~~@ oolili)@ r~oun:~ cain h~llp you a !cH'l.

BefrOr<e' a~1J)Ulally b.Uryilllgl alill the tJ)ec~~alFy m ~t~riall~ 1IO COli\ljIDruct Y©UIF sys"l~ml ~alcullart.e, recak)u}~ I~t~, amd ~i~H,e;[~llw Ilate y'OiJlJ" logd po~r (oll!$liJlmpti'(J;h and Irequi~ po~r p~'odlJ!dioll!' M~ ki(i!91 drraWtllngs of your would-be ~ys'M',m calnllhelp as weill-, the more YOUI go in d€ita~ I 'tthe ibetM.;r. (:oli1tac~ stores thart :sell II ~he ~qu~lPmenrt an@ matelriii1ll~ that y,~u alr~ ,gi)) Ing te need allild 'find ~r.e best deal, Comad contractors, and ask them for ,advioe ,~ you will find that m~ no/ ~IFie willingl to '9iv~ 'th~lr re;r;oliililliilil~ndatjo n without lie!imbUirseim~nt Fina 111~f. 'go. to the (,OU nit)! bu lil\dingl d~pal~m~nit and irnqlulir~ al~i)).l!It the codes ~n y'O-ulr area

One 0.' the rnaier hasslss ijn going rollar is, p~cssin9 the (oclle en d ,geUling all the nocessalijl' p@Il!Tdts.,,"fholii'gh 'goiliel'ln mI'i!@II![ r@glJ! latio.ncs, law~, ;;.nd oorl~ e:xis,t to 'Qr~i!i!tte ,a sgM~j mOJ'~ r@liglbl~ ,ewiminlliililf!!nt ~'Or alll~ m:~,ally 'tih ey lf1riltai'~e, ,alill/O,n e' willo has, ~!Je.if 'U11~d to ma k~, any kilnd of

m odijfic~Uon to thel11r property.

fihe' 'filrstt $.t-~p i:s; to visit tnr! CCllJ!lnrty bu vi dill!gl de]partmerrtl t~llk to ~ h ilirl$pell;:w~' and gtet hi~ opirnijOh on wha~ you Iile€d to dQ to make. the IPruj~Lt. vldlblet how Ifong the elJlltlil~ p~S5 ,or 'ge:ttJilng permits l\a~~~ wnat fees ,are 'illiW{~lved and w h,at ins pectlons a Ire' m:_;;c.e~~alrry..INo doubt; he or' she willl~ t~111 YOiiJl th~t ijlnl ,l)~d@ r to' ,filip-ply for perijlilits you willi In·eed d r~wllnf!}$ ,of all the iITriiodificati,ons,

th at you alr.e' p.lclililningl 't-o m eke. Ma~~ inn.all d ~awlilJlg5:, -po5s!lbly based on other dlraw~ ng thst have, p('j~:iied cede which Y))J!j can find in the c:o.ulnt_y blJJiMltJlg depallfhlllernt - an~ go fo,r (1m illlrormaill visit becalll~ once youl sl!Jbmijt YOl!Jr d raw;ings tlhaes, it Any' a djl!Jstbments, to the origijnal d€isign r,eq~'llrr,e resubm ilUJilng the drawlngiS ,and g€ttliing IiI~W perm ilts. When you ,i:ilffi 'ffii lIlally ready 't)!} ~!J ~l'Ii'iiit: for permit m ak~ :sure th~ d~awiin~s. a ~;e, @eudll~ed as tJ1IIIlU'c:n a!ll poo5iblle.IR'ememibelF to include materials and s.pec:irfiiiutions lists.

4.4.b,H.ire

A comr~<tof can be h~lred to do the entire project = from desi~n ~ nd olbt~iiniing permijt's; 1-0 ,as~jembl~ and iln15'tallllatioinl - or can be hir~d to' do just par'tt or pa rts of t1hrz' project, Wh@1il ,c:,~n:5~d~t!'dlilg h~ rill1@ a ~{!im~.ai!.:itorr there a ~:e, ~~Vi~hral !jl~p~ 'Y'i))!J must tske,

First. shop arou nd, Get: bids frorn mnluttiplle contractors.De not go for the dh;e~ past bid wi~hol!Jt ,~siking ~lrOillriid why it is: so clilealP ;";! no WithOiJrt g@ttl ng r@jf@~ra I~!, GlE!t Ir'efer~als, @1Je-n ~f you 1iI;J¥~ 'C:'Uimp:l~lf!' ce nr'ftidenc:e in a ,oonitir.@iC"t))),F. Vi~~'tt a ~ite wher,e the ~olll1r~HUorr' has irils:tailled a PV ~ys,t,e:m! 'e!'x:amillle the syS1-em it.s;ellf ,and; if p~ibileJ' talk to '~h·e ,owne;r and get his OIT' heir opil1lijon.

H il~ir'iigl gl I[Onltr~![,tor m ~1!fkS '~halt you ~IF@ i"dli ~~c:tly empl,oying hijrnj so it is ~ g~od id@~ to Int~fVie\N ,alii the, potentlal calndidalte-s,. Mak~ allU$t 'O'f' questio ns be't!) rehend alnd ask tlShiE!' sa 1iiIiI~ q!JIes,ti'-ons, or ,~-dh contractor.Ta ke ou r tilme in deciding whklhl the: be5t one is, Abov~ ,all. n@90ti~te .and get ev~~y~hilng in! writilillg.

H'II~ifll91 al (afiltrn('~or esn $al\i\!lli' you ;til 10.11 O'f ttlim'!lli' and manua 1lllabor; IhO\iV~~rr ~'t w~llllln'ot 'saw you

nn ~l1ey, EXIPe;n~e is, the main reason why people opt 'to Ibulil~ a IPV s,ystem by tthem:sel\i\e!l. A '~tanda,llone PV s~{stelll dle~igned and ~ nst~,lllled by a ccntractcr can e&S!II:y cost ITHJfe thalli $ 2.0'.000 :~o ;asl youlrs@lf a~' ytt,UI willlijing 'I,D pa¥ $ud~ ,i3i prilCe wherI! 'YoU! c~ n b~ild Q,n@< yQtIi ~S@lf~' .alt Dilly' frsetlon cf the. ann ~IJJrilt

The, ,emtire pmce-s~ 'Uif des,jognil1lg~ assemblliitJlg. ilrt:;u Illin@ a!li1d 'get~l tJlg the PV ~it1tem pe~mitltoe~

fill all til,ik:e' up to ,3 months ~ in wli1f1Ie cases 'ev-efll longe r mostly' d@pendilli1g '!'Jill '~ho@ ameu nt of time ne.ed~d to g~tt ,all the Iilec€t$sallry' permits, f'unh~rmo:~ S,IIIilC'~' a lo,t (IIff mOfii~ is in play you wallilt: 'M, nn ake sure 1rhat e:v'etJ"!ldliI'il9 is dlml~ ~ight

Here i$ a step~by~t@Pr Ii~t of ~ II YOO If"!'i:ed to do to b~'mfi!e il.JilJillUy inde~ii!d ~nt;

1 Re:iie(lilrbh 'the sub] e~1r a~ Il1IIIUdl as pO!1sib~le.

2. Perform an ene;rgy fe'View of youlr heusehold to determiflle t h~' ,~rnoulnrt '(lif PrQ~r yOll! ;;M~ COO$llli mri! ilng ,ali!di on 'what

~ Make your heme ~filer:@Y efficijent by dh:fm@~ng ,~~m~ daily' ha bits. OIr by m~dulng some minor or m ajor illilv'es.tlll snts,

4" D~id~ 'Gil! 'th~ gI!TIQ~ nt ,ef Ilnoney Y'O'UI ~r@ will~ng to il1~1 in ~h~, p,roJ K,t

5", De;tterm~ne 'tihe size of the IP'V system that will s",tisfY your O@~d1s,!,

6 . De:t,~rliiridilJl~ '~Ih~ cost off ths PV' 5~,tlem 'that wi III sathl;fy yoo ~ n~e<1!),

7, Il)et@;rili!'i1il~~ ~fYOUIF hou~@nold ha~ ,~noi!,.lgh $p~(e fQr th~

hils,ttall~f~ion or 'the IP'V panels, 8 . Creat~ :\i!UI~ charts,

9 • lD@ot~rli1l'idlli1e the proper lccatlon for :yol!Jr Pit system. 1 o. lD~t~~m~n~ '~Ille> proper ~lil'r of y'Qur PV :syst,~m.

111. Malke prelimifillJ,ry il1w:itl19a~oli1~ into IbUliMlng codes an~ regl!Jl~lIioril:5. ",li1d 'find 'Out wlh.at steps & ~e llIeoess~lry for yOIlJl to' talk~ to 9i~'t al pe,rrm lit.

1.2. M~lke :~oc~ndaIFY inv~S"t19~tiontS il!i1tD buii Iding ~~ITrIi'I it~ and feli1f1lember to brilllg yaulr dr"fWings 'wHh you :50., '~hat you 'cali! get si(hme advh~e ff'Oiif! the b~ildilng deP~lftmfi!~i1!t

I n SIP ec,'lro r.

13. Onc@ you a re sl!Jre that YlOUI deslglll is, fe~1&iblle iin the ey@'~ of 'lh~ CQi),lnlitY boilldi1ng CI~~'JtiITril~i1!t glPpily for g perllnit

14. Orderr O~ buy matter'lals and Iiloc'€ss;alry toolts and start H:!lsemblriing Y@U1F IPV :!l,y.steli1lll, Teke y~UIF tiime' because y~u a r@ d~liliigl with d ~~I~,ca,t@; m~1!:€!rlaK $OI;aIF ~lIs, ,air€! !p~IP@ir 'tihiillilg and ("11 n break ~111iiIiI05t, by slm pity brea~hlililg on them.

15" On;e:e y~u have, ma~e y~ur solsr paill~l~ Ii1IlIOUInr. them,

16. Corm ell:t & III the. Fle(,~S!&ary wliriing except the' con nectlen to, ths nn ain el\e;(:~~ic panel of' your household,

1 '"1. 'Wart for in$IPe<:1ri~n:t1 by th~ C~!J lilt)/' and the uti I~ty 'oompii lilY.

1 :8. 'Wart for t he, ~ttiill ilty' C(~mlpiiil ny to !put ii n a iIlm ilf!~t-er glnd eormeets you to the gri~.

19'. :Sl!Jbmrll~t p&pe;rwo~k. for ~,ebate ~~ymentts..

2~1 CGrils"Ji iITriI'L;' ,~I>ectJrkirty pf!!,ld@I1'~ly ;";lind in .i;!I!I1 >elllergy elidi@l1It mafilnJer.

::n. M&ijntain a'li1d rep&~lr the sy~1eli1f1l",

22- II iJ1i;j~t yourself in ,~ n@W sQ,lar' pjroj:~t Iii k@i a sol!at watEM' hea~r.

Be;lktr~ you g(.tualilly s.t~rt ,a~:wmtdii illg you r IPV p~UI!eL let U$, m~k~' sure that YQi(.i hg\fe all the n~OO!l~(!liIy ma1terial!l and reels ror 'di''1e, jeb ~~a u ~~ l:h~ v!.mnl,1t thiril9 L5 ~e;iltJ1g riQl~t in t ha mid@ll'e"Uif work and find out that 'Y'OllI ~I~,e misSJlng :something;,

f.D<iJls:

'1,;, Acrylli'c cutter

:2" Drilill ~ nd drill II bits.

3" caullk g~ Iil

4, MJUllul~me:l:t!'~· 5", Solderiln:g il~(nl

6, R€spl ratory and eye IProMCtiiolil

7, GIIb:\te11,

S;, Stainless steel s;c:~,~s and nuts .g, A Phimps and .131 1fiId,the.ad

~cr~wdl~iver

'1 ~l lFillile point l1Ieedle nose pllie\rs; '11. Peirldl or m;;.rk~t

12, Calrp~lill~~J!l !l~uare an@ msasuri ng t~lpe'

'13. l@~,ttilirlg ttlo~~

Materialls;:,

1" Solar ~n5

,2, 'Whit'e. and {JI~a r a'cry Ik

sJII~i!,ths,

3." Caulilk ~ I iqu~d $ilicon@

4, IFI ux, Aux, pen a nd .lmlld,e r 5" Ch~SIe NlipiPlle ~nd jI.·OO;N; 6." lab ~Ind bus wire

j, C-pirO'tilll,e, a lu i1iIiI~ IIlILlM 'ffirann,e Et Low ,g~lIIge wir~

9", Do..u bl@ tt~riliri!illn,al s~rilp'

8e:~.r.e!' ,CifilytthifilgJ ~15e 'lis done, yoo must det,ermlne the :s]:ze dllJld d€sign off you r sola r ptm~I5..1hle,

,3: i Z-€' ~r the ~anel willi ~e d e1term~lned by the size an@ qUltll11tirl)" @fthe, fii@lalrr o~lI:!) used, ht]wever, 'the ITl ost (o:mmonlfy ussd solar panels consist of 36 cells, (,onne(ted illl 'till ~,ee ~'OM Qftw@l:v·e colu mns or ill'll itbUIF If(tW$, of nill!@ mll~lif!Insl wMdh ;;i,llmmt @iJltif@ly' di@p@ncb on the .amOiLIl1!t of SIP~C'~ ~v.all~bl~ for rJilolJ.ll'iltii~g '~he, p(!jl~eI3, T~} @emQl'iIsna1te h@w to ,cal~lJ.lla1te, 't he, ,fiiire· 'Cif the ae:rryjl ie; neoooo for the front and 'tihe bi!;ek of' the' panells; W@ opted to llISE four rows 'of Iiline~;,

5. " . a f:atculatJng the Size of the Panel

Start b'y mea51L1riilng the siz''e of 'the ~lndiV1idlLlall celli, For '!llile purpose of tlhillS .e,xampl@1 we are- usl ng 'eeills, 1i:ha~ alwe!' ~ ~!j by 6~ F@ulr Q-indh wide cell~, equalll1to 24 ~ but because we ne;ed !l~me sp.a{-:e 'i ~ betwe@n 'tihem and on E,,-ch :!,i·ide. we are g~oifilg to factor in ~I v.~ of an inch fur each 'sp.aQe~ IFj nally;, woe n~d lroom ro:r th~ c~p~.;)filli~ ~II U mfi! iinUIl) f~,~me o~ both $id~ for Whii(h W~ gd1d two tim~ i!t$ wi,d~h - 'i n eur ease, 1"'.

311

fih:E!' height ofith@ panedl ~Fai"!f!,~' is, cakullalt,ecIl simi larl¥f. ~Q~V@J; :SQm@ ~~ttiF~ :5p.a,~ at 'thE! to,p and bottom is nssdsd ("Ot '~Iile bus 'wilr,e!S alnd ths I-box, 3'0/4'" 'ttlimes 1iI~ Iile c,~llsl a '0/4 ,of an inch for 'the!' 'spaoe illl betwl;>el'il '~he rows" :2 times the width of the ""profile. 1""01111 the bottom for the bus; wires ,alnd ?t' on tOiP rot tHl~ burs w;i ~,e' and J~bo:-:(-

"1i'''"tI .:J.!L

,5. ~l. b Soldering til€: Ce/b

sot~r c~ll~ ar,~ @~tJrem~'ly mragil@ p~IP~,r-1rhill! squ ~r@$ or d iso,Th@ ~Ft!oifrtl om the n~fl~~lv@;r $id@ 1()1f ,tlh~' 'L,~II is bl1ack. wah two C,Oli1t:act stf1i ps acrn.s5 1ft wih~rna::; ~h~, haiCksld~, o,r tih~ po,sitJivt!!'r ls g~~y wi~h two columns of tlhr;ee oontJld points. Because the firQnt of the (:ells is, easily stained 'jI'OlIJI w.arilt to ,avoid tcu,Ii(M iilg it ,~Ii'ld should ~¥en W@~IF gtliove$ when ha !J1dlilng theiITri! I,

rh~rei .are 'ttwo '~P€S ,or solar c.e.llls: prs-ta bbiZd a Iild IUfiI-'ttabbeodl.. Many' Pf1opl~, de!cide to 'get 'the p,re~~abbed (~II~ _ ev~n thoogh t h,ey- @O eost a ~it more ,_ because t'he~/ ~a\i'e, a I~[ of 'rtli me Sln!/:,e ,the 'ta bblng 'WilIFoiE!' is ,alre~d¥ soldered. The t~b w'i re 0011 the IUI1!=tabibe-d1 celb, IiilIJ!.lS,t b~ s,o;ld~r~d on ,eacih contact illild~vl:dUdrll~Y.

How~v'e\r" should yOU! ehoese It) use the u n-tsbbed ~e,lls; here i':) hmiV to solder tihe' tal~bi ng Wli re, First. cut Q'urt' ,alii '~h~ 'talbbill11g ''!'iij~e '~hat you Jjlr;e gOiing tQ need to cenaect ,all of your celWs, The leng~h off d'le- wire :d'louid ~q~:all the Iheiglli'wt: or 2, ceilits plus, dl TI F3 of an mch 'tto allow '~:r 'ttn~ 'ex'~arJtS'i:t)11 and eeraracnen of ~he, ,00 Ills; snd ~he, tal~ Wiilre-. Lay the e,ell fa~,e up {d)e blsek side of '!the ,ce;II), talke the fillIIx pen and a ~pily ~t to the contact stl'111Ps in order to dean them. Then tak:e. ~I ~iec.e of th!@ p,t@Qurt" 't.:Jlb Wi1lr~' ,~ti!d Ililn~ iitt lii P. wirth the ,c,ont:~'d.ll)ip tth~ s(j,ld@fiilgl ijlF'on i nto dl~ "flUi< and ,aIP~ly' a bill ef sQl@er en the talb for dil~ elil'l!ire Ilen~1i:h of the :s:triip,

When you have so Idlered 'tihe rest of the comact strips or if you chose to get the pre·t~lbbed cellls" you Cglril prGc~-ed 0 nltt,o $olGle~ing the ,cell$ 'oog~1th~~. 1S;~cglJi$~ 'YOlii glf!~ 'tbryiri!gt to '~CHl)n~ the 1!fQnt ,c,onta,ct IlfiI€S 'Wilth the baek CCiifil'~a.Ct poilnt~ la:v two ceills, fuace dowlil and allll:gfil tn~, contacts, CI~afil the contact po:ints wilth the f UlX pen and dip'tihe sollde;r'i 1119 iron ~ 1111-0 the f U[X. ''Wirth 'dh@ '~11P of the :solldletil1il9 ironl t~k@ a bit of th@, :soldl:r" IP~'~-S$ the tab Wire dlO:W11l aga lln~t 'tJh.~, ,c,pnta'c1 po ints ,~[1!dl apply ~h~, 501Ide.r.lFi:.ep'~~1L the sams process for alill c'c),nit,act points in each of" 'th~, ,oolUJmfils and

'c:-em'tl r.1lJe' (!UIII nec,ttiill1g the cells !J nlil y!))U lilaI've 'f~ur ~1mirilgers, c,©niSi~t!lng of nine cells or '~hrr'~ :string@rs, t,ofiis,istirii91 off' t'I,N@h,l@ c@lllls, How@\,!i@r_ b~u5e the fJlFS1' (ilill th@ ca&~ of t h~ iJ..ifii~tab bsd ~lIs.) end the lsst celli o'ff tihe 5t~ifil{1'e!~, will not nave the ttabibing wire dltt;adhed YOUI lIl~d to 5.ollde~ those en as, w~lll,

If 1fOU should happen to brr,e'il,ik,.a cell in t h@ P recess, gently' pullll up 'til'le tillD ''#llire wilth a kln ilFe or so meth~lng ha naYI h~at up the connectlon ;!!l nd the solder will CQIiiIiI€l' ,off.

5,.1",( Attoching the Cells to the Acrylic and McJ'i<j'ng the Final Connections

Before ,atti.u:h~ ng the stf11ngerrs to' tlh e ,~u::rylk, JI wise COIJ rr,se' of action wQ'ulld be to test if they are WQ~kjlng property wlltth a ml1Jltii-m~t:err.lj;ake 'the S'tf1i ngerr,s ,ouitS;lde dlnd malke :Stll!e! you h~w ,ernQu'gh sunl i'ght Place ~~e first cell illl '~he, ~~ringer -em '~h e 'te$"~lng block, w~i~h is jus,'!t a highl:y conduc,'!tirv,e' p'le~,e ~f coppe,r altt~dh;ed to a ~iec:e of weed Iby two :S;C~~$J' rneasu ~oe tJh~' amps and 'dhe voll'ts thalt th~ $~Filng@r l~ proch,idl1!gl and compalrl! ttln~ !l!l!! m ib@;r's ~iittlh the (:@II~, $lp@dfic~~ion. 1111' @\,i'~ryitlhing i$ in range, ymJ ean lPu,()~,~d with a1l1achijng the eells,

Mark Olilt .on the acryllit: where the c,e!II~ are 90ing to be pllac:,edl to make, su ~,e' '~h<rt' '~h@ :s~ring@rs Jlln~, liti!@d up ni'c4';!ly. Than PUt,~ titi!y d~b o;fsilicoil!@ on 'th~' b.gdk 01f ~ch c~lt pull up th@ $tri1n9ie~ ~l1d 'fllip. ol!t~r onto the diLryll~c. [1;~aus~ tlfl~ slll~c,(m~' wllill not immoola~lv dlry~ 'Y0~ Ihav~ SQIiiIiI~ 'tjm~ '~O 11VJ:\J@ the ceilis arou nd a bit. ~f you harve' not placed them on the ma~kers· ~o:ulr~el;y. When '~he'Y ,alre iln p1lqlc@ where yOi!J W~I!frt. t h'eml mgl~~ $lJi ~~' 'tlhat you r !hands gl~ d~iI! glnd ~pply ,~ b'itt '(lif

pressu rre- in th~ middle of" ,each ~II 'to, s pre;a d out tthe s!lll1cone evenllry. Repe.att. the proc~!i:5 for all ~he!' ,~~rin@e" malki'n@ su re' that their ends a re' in ~!)it.ive 'W rilegattirve sequence,

Iii! ord~r t,o !have an iLll1!broken dr,r;uit ~. willill 'COnilect the Silrii nge~:s In :~e~ies; a~ f![JiI11o'NS,;, ,tih~ bottom two ,c.ells, of ~h~, 1 st and 2nd ~'OWI the. trap t!N'o, ,c'e!~llls, ClIff the 2nd alnd 3,rrd row dlndl agallilil.r the. bot1!oliilil lwt) Uirthe 3rd an@ 4th Irow _ in oi!l:h~r'w!i'Jrds,r pn:iiulve,to liIe~atjve,

The prilnikip Ie of :soldering the ~U~ v!lilre is dle ~alme, as in $olderring the tab wiirr,e to dle !l:elll~ e:,x©ept tlh,i~ tim ~ y'Q\!I ,we solde;ring two, wilres: together. VIIr~p t'h-e tab willre ,aroo nd '~h:e bus wire.. d ilp the solid ~rilng ito rll ij M'o the -nu':<r talk@! wiifi.e, $olld.~r ~ od app!ly ~t toO the UI'iIlnedioli!. Wh@fi! :¥(!U have connected the Wi1 res as. s,iflo-wlil illil lFigUi~ 28~ you willillhav@ '~Ill@ tab wlir,~, off ~h~, firs'tt ililild last ,c~1I ~flI(onnectedl;,Tdlke two pi@~s, of bus wire and sQIk:!@rth@twotab wife's of each (e~111 together:

Howev'e;rJ, before oonnE!'Ctifllgi the·Wi! 'to the' hemeru ns, youl must d ri III a hole in the WII~ddlle of the ,~tryllc 00 r the. Ch~~' NlipiPlf~ glrld the JI=box- .Mea5ulrre out th~ middl~ (j·f '~he' pilln~1 glnd dlrilll ;l hol@ blgl 'Elfiiough to CliC:l:O mmodlate Cli 1,6, irnClh Chass Nliprpl,~.lIh~,nl drrill ~h El' e):act, :siz,~ hoJle In the JLbo:x as well because the (Ihas@ In iipplle is 'go:llng to' fh ~o~glh both i(lf~h,em" Flip '~he, ptilrnell so that it ls b,g(~id@ Up,\; i;!lpply silicone on the ced'g~ ij,nd ill! ~h·e, rniddl!! of tltl@ J,bo~1 and ~~y 1ft on the pi!i!n~1 sO 'that the tViIQ holes are 0:aclI to one ClllIlotlh~r. Whelil 'the sillh:one has. ,s;e:ujIEid! you can procsed with pia dllng '~he, dou ~Ie termlnal ~1:ITip. Ptn the '!leirm~ nal ~iDrip into the J=~©:x whel'e y'~1JJ 'fe~11 I't irs 'c'~nlt~t@dl iITiiiarn, of thie ,edges with ~ p,enJ" ~ke. QUIt' tlii@ te~lif!rin~11 s,trip_ ,apply sil~tO~rle' ,afiid set: It dowo ag\i3jjn. Calr.e!fuilly ftip '~he-lPali!~1 over ;[Ilppliy siliC'OIi!Ei on ths rim of !hole YOUI Ih~'!h~ drilll~d ~md plaos the, (ha~~ NilPpl~ iint))) the h~II~" Whil~ the sl Ilioone is seit;'!lllin~. you can work on '~he, wiirr'tffi. O~' the hemeruns,

The wllres. that lllr€' ,gojng to' be com ling out off '~lhe- panel should be ~ln5ula'~€d dlnd iii! t_'ViO' colors so th at y()U ean det~rmilne, the tJlegatiive, and th~ p()$I'!lifVe I~a@ ]IU st by lookingl at them .The (:oll()r~ that ,are IU sua Illy used are black; for the negatii'it~, d n d red lkn the positiv.e"

PUIII the r:OO~. po,sltJlv~ Cllnd tlh~, bilaclk~ n~a'tjve.r wlr~ 'ttlluough the 'L~a$~ nip ple, Skillil O'ffitlh~

lnsu Ilatliotil of ~he eni)] ©f the, n~artif\ile "",dire! ,apply' ~© me 1fiI!Jx i!I nd ~O!lde1r to the. sUili)]el'1llng im''01l and sold e,r the· noeg~d\fe hom erun to, the neg~tilve· bu S wllre. Rtepe~t the process fu:r the IPo:sitblv.e! lead as well. OnC€! you fe@1 C(tillfirl@ifrt that you ha/IJ~ m~doE! a good ~nn@cC1io:n~· pu III up tlhe, $0 IdlE!,!"@d wilJ~ and aplPIy seme s.ill ioone be:nead, them iltll order te ::leCUlre du~m in pl~~,e.

When yQU are sl!.ue th~t the sill i'COlfUi!' has dri,ed. flIiIr~ 'the p.a1nEil badtside l!Jp in order to 'conned the hO,!li@J1,iIr'!$ to the t~'Fmlilill~11 s,t~ip- :Skiin mi!f!~' irw~,ull~tllon (lifli' th~ @iIldt IU nfa$,t~1i! th~ $(f'@W'$ ~I lau@ bit and push the wire.lililto, tih~ holes ufild!em~ittil 'tih~, screws, !Do '~Iile sa m,~ wirth tlh€l other wire. (lind ,after y'O!JI ha¥e' put, t'Og!etne;r the· entJilre p~lnli!\l bOJ(~ yO!JI alre 210ilng to pUlIl twe ~ore wires that will b@ (Oilln@d'@d to tli!@ ,dlarg~ c'onibroll~~ thro\ligh tlh'@ tOi!J holes off 1ih~ 't@rl!iiilr'!,~1 s:trilp;,

Fil1!;;IIIIP"~ri!el ,i;I~SJenib~y eiilt.a ,ls c:oilnlPrI@li!1!gJ the rralme' 'of the pgnel. Fro~ thb· stag@" y.p,ul ai",~ going 'ItO nee;dllIhe d~iU ~(]ryli(, ,51i1~a~h~ d rrill and dnlill hlitS~ ca ~p~fiI'tt~r'S; squa rs, s;(:~!~wdl1iv,~~ S(I~W'S, dlnd nuts, fake out the ,d\e.aIIT' ~c:ryl lc a nd put ill '(Jive IT the panel in e rd elr to m~~ttlY F,e eut wtaen~ to c.Ull the ,c·p:rofiii Ie ,ahJlm iln um kam e, :Slide t hoe 'hearne onto, t he paln~1 and, by usi ng the c,wpenter's squalre~, nil ark off' ~ 4,5(> alngle on one :sJde of" ths 'frrame" tJJ.iZ'X'~ go to the other ,e,nd of '~he penel, rna rk of another ,4,5.:;1 angll!e'. ani)] !butt ttr.e ITa!m~ in those tWl)} P(1~C?e~. IRe)pellrt the pm(~s~ fOIT' all four sides . .once you have the c-profila cut mark off wne·re til'le screws, willi be (0 mklg ilnto pl\ac,e k@epiing irn Jill iiid tth~t tth!W s!hould b~ $IP~,~d 'out @\I@nty ,alo,n.g the mram~. IHQw~v.er t(l· @n$~ ~~ no,tt br~k the ,acryli~ or the eells, drli III1 ~he holes iilnrlUi 'the f'rrame first ani)] dletJl iitJlti!J' the, paltJ1e1L Therref~r~~ ~I~d e' eut the fr~me; t:alke ~ sm~llllef d ~m bit fer the pilot holes that wiill,e:n~ulre. the drill st~l~ iin p.1~ce. !Once you d ~iII 'out tth~ pilliot holle$t c~all!g~, tih~· drill I bitt i!i!1r'!d ilJ$@ the bit ,t1hat' corre.spond$ to tha bolt :yOll! alre goilng to put illill"

Aft'er the holes illll the c~profde have been d ri lied QI!Jt, :slide the o-profile back onto the p~nel and '!~killil out'ttJh.e holies irnto the ij(~lliic whil@ rrHllkilligl s-Ulh! yo~ !~M'~ d ~illil1!g art ,;;a '000 all!gJl\e :$0 that, alill tn~ holes ,aIUgln. snd~ the bolts 'thOOUight put ~Iile w,a$h~r:s. drlild th~, nuts afild malk;e, sure that 'tliley a~ £lu~w~d 0111 't!IQ1ht enUiuglh ..

lr.~s'~i ng 'the!' ,e;nl1ire panel and Its connections 15 a '!.iiery impolitant s'tt,~p ~n ~ln5tallllllilg y-nu r IPV sY,5:tellilil bseause 'f~ulty wilr'iltJ1g maY' esuse ,~le!ktri'~1 pro~l~m3 if\))lr y~ulrr 'eqru ip ment,

ln Qrde;r to te-st a p~ItJ)~I; the fiii ~st. r@quiilrementthi!lt mu st be· me·t is to have ernou'gh su nnght so that the readiln;g you '9e't on 'th~ multii-met:err willi correspond to the voltage and ,a mp'~fa,ge- dIIiitiiOunt:5, y©u WEr~ ~nr~vin@ fbr. The second ~'eqrulir~tJ1i'iIefil~ ls to nave ~h~ IhiOnile'ruln~ 'oomin~ ©!.U of tth~ tE'rmil'il~111 stilip I\ocated in 'tlhe J·bo~" Ifh,mc,e, as befQ~e; t~lke two ilnsull~ted wilres, IPmerdb~ blildk fur t h~' o@gMi'~~ glnd r~d OO'F tth@ pO$iti¥~ leact IOO$@n the $CJ"@W$, i!!!nd slide in the wllr€% the pO$Jittil'if~ ,and the lile9\aliw. resp~~tively and you ar~ JFlE~ad~ to 'la li:ie, m e~lSlJJr~m~filtt~.

I!' '" D'o-··~' ,ri'·II!'II\d·,~ , 'D· ,o~ -lIiiIit·\F-

,.;JI~·~, '. _ .. ~ lItilil-l_ I' _ .11.11 _~.

Redkles.s b@haVilQ~; negillig@nce ~ nd not thinkilli1Q th~ Ii1gs, '~hlrr;oug h ij n IrV sy.stem ~ Ii1st~lllllatbion can hrilng g rno~ntgij n of iii;!! nn. f~k~ (~Ir~ of iIi!'i1atfiJ..incti'on$t not o:nly iw~ YOIJ,Jr PV s'Y$t~m but al$Q in tth~ ,entire ,~I~ctf1ic, wiirifil91 and a ppH,ainc,e:s~ Imlm ~II a~t~ and a5 ,quii(kl~ a5 p0:55ibil~. Mak~ S!LU'e' flo mend the malfunction in 'tihe· most practicsland ~es,t w·a'y- po;s:sibl(e,.l1hli'nk befo~,e doi'ng something from whi'Cn th@~'~ is II!O gOing ~ck_ M@asulr~· twic.~ i!i!lnd 'curt' c.iI'i!(@" 0-0 not. b~ glr@~y ~ 'tlhce'F@ itS iIlo pDlilllt: lfil heifil9 911i,~dy when ilt .com,~s t"O :sollar ene,rgy, By m~ kilng ~ PV ~ys:t,e.m ~hait, 'generrat'El5 more. power than yoU! (:an 'oon:mme you ,ar~ wastingl because 'Y'!U!J gert Inothiij n-g forr the exoo~s pov.rer

t hat you alre not llisiln9- Ia:~ ~el1sJbl~ when dedidiiig 'to ijlr'!~t~ IIII al IPV $)i'stem! If you live in ,all! il!IFeg with low SiU nligJli1tt -iZ'X~J;(l5U~ 'therr-e i~ filQ IPQ~fiI~ ~n ~ 1Jl5ta III ling ~ fill sY"':5:t,e.m b~cau:5;~, 'to, ifilsta II O'n,~, 'tihat w~ II ~a~i'$fy your ~aily ,ele~~ric:'ity' ne.edi~ wlliliprobab Iy ttak.e i!l1 Ilot (]'f mOlile-y. Do not 's:kJlmp on mt1I.at~~ialls - ,cheaper lliHtt.eni!Jlls! eijual ,suibsta nd~ rd quaillilty'.

"1i',E' .:)J

] . US [.h~pa rtment of EJn i1!rgy - En€irgy IEflffioi€im:y a nd R@Iil~w,abl ~ EIil~tgry www .. e~re_.eli)e1F9!'f ,9 r:JV1c.on~llJmelf

(.OIll:5tll mer ~b>£lte wi~hl valu.a.lble ~ mQ~m atJlon on how to make yaulf home energy e:l'liiI(llent ~ nd where youl cain li~lt;n more t!'h ~,~n~wa~l~ ,~n~:rgry.

,2., The EIiI€r-~nl Grid WWW',lPvwat~,c©m

Free so:lalf ,e;nerg(y "-'lllioullaro~,s

3. US EliYviro:nlmelilt IPro,'~ection Age·ncy and Us. OeiPartme-lilt ,of Elile~9Y

www.,e:nergry.s'ta r;,gQv

W@b~it~, wh~ F@ you c~1i! I~rn mor~ about EiI1~r'gy $t~l~ ~~t@d glPlPlii~lnces-

4, Uniive;r~rty of OregQn SCilalr R:adijarti©11 M-cmilIoITilll91lLaboITa'M ry'

httpd /:soil~lrd~t,uor.egon"edil!JISufilCtnal~tPirQ;gr~ m.htm I

Iii, fr'~€i onlirile calculator for plo'1rtiril91 sun charts,

S," Altemalte IEne;rgy Re!'SOlYoce INetwQ~k

http';! IWWw,;;iII~'~'rngt't:=~:n~rgly-ne.t}~lliQUllat;e~ mp!Q2.ntml

Onl~lne, r~(jurce offr~e, selsr ,e:nerg~ an~ en~IT·g~l u~age esleu IIa'IID:r;S,

,6;" US lDep~]wtmfilerilt of Ene rgy databa se'

http:;! ttoir'!lto!@ia.diQ.e,.go\f/:st~lt~

tlnli1!f9Y 111ll'formaNon abont YOUlr :5,t.a~.

7. II-I~(jm~ IP©wer M,(jn~lIorilllgl

Ihrttp:/!www.home~owermonit:O'rilng .. coITl/

W@p$i1te 'wh~ re )i\Oi!,J calli learii"!1 I!TICilr~ Olli '~h~' @1\etWdt.y u~g@ ,l)1i h,!)utS@nold ;;iIPpil i~nc'@$,

g, The Consu mer Elileirgy (~n~r

htlpd twww.c)!J!n~ulme\Feliler~.i(~liYt~~ .. (jr9~il.ildlex.html1ll

Website witih the Ililitest ilnfQmuti·on ,aoolYt elile1rmt r@'£OlYrClE'5 and hewte use them wlis.ely' in ou ~ ho'lli~ VI,I'Ork iii!nd v~hi:d~$..

9- CI~~ln PDW,@<~, E;stilifif'iialt,or

IhIn ~:Hwww.colJlsum~fe.n.i1!J.gl).i.celil.tt.i1!r.or.9/rrefil€iw.abll€!sf.e51!illiiIiIato,r/ilild ~~~hitliililll

An econc mic 'evalu.a.ltiol1l sO\f!twarFe' pr:ogra11i1l1l the Californi'a Energy Commission is Ilh:ensll ng 'fOFJ' lu'se ftrQ.ilirll CI~~ln pow~,~, W{~$@~r(h. Tha prog r~m IProvid~ C~liifun'iI1la r@o$ld@fitii~JI ~nd c,omm~~!ci~1 e!l@ctrilC customers ,a personalized €t5tJi mate OT 'the, costs a nd b~ne:ffli'lS ,O'f ilw~,tlng ~n dl pho·f!ovoltaih: (PV) solar er s,mI1Iall wind ,~le~t1riic gel'iler-a~iCiIil sys,'tem.

'1 (), Find :SoJI~ ~

http-:l/MVW',rlf'lld50Ia rr,;com/ilild!~>.tphp"? pa9,~=ri9Ihtfol'in'h~

l11'H~ Sol~r Estimator i's me~nt 'only to gh!E!' you ~In h:l~ of price" 's~villl1gs, end 'sys.tEm 'size.

'111" Go SCilalF Call~f© rnia

httpd 19O5Qlar'~ I irlkHni~.ca .. gov!f1Is:hpc~ IculatlO'r/CECPV...A._O.,msi

A deta~ll~d hQurly calkullaition tool based on the. 5-p~ra m~terr model d~\ileIQPeCl by Drr. laeCkrtrildllil!:S, gro-ul~ at tthe U tJli'!l~H~iity of ''i!\n~oonsiiln~ ifilC,©jF~© ratingl detailed inv~rlI~r perform ance mod~1 i'tJl9 and uses the 'W!9a~her dat~ from '~he 16 dim~te zones in Calirorni'~-

'11,,;::: .:lU

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful