888l0 0l9ll lß0lß00flß0

bn|t I
$urvev|ng - Objects - tvpes- c|oss|||cot|on- Fr|nc|p|es -
Meosurements o| d|stonces - |eve|||ng
C|v|| Eng|neer|ng Moter|o|s
8r|cks - $tones - sond - Cement - Concrete - $tee|
$ect|ons
5urvcvIng
-Il is dofinod as lho piocoss of noasuiing
hoiizonlaI dislancos, voilicaI dislancos and
incIudod angIos lo doloinino lho Iocalion of poinls
on, alovo oi loIov lho oailh suifacos.
- Tho loin suivoving is lho iopiosonlalion of
suifaco foaluios in a hoiizonlaI pIano.
- Tho piocoss of doloinining lho ioIalivo hoighls in
lho voilicaI pIano is iofoiiod as IovoIIing.
-cctIvcs nf 5urvcvIng
- Tho dala ollainod lv suivoving aio usod lo piopaio lho
pIan oi nap shoving lho giound foaluios.
- Whcn thc arca survcvcd Is sma!! and thc sca!c tn whIch
Its rcsu!t µ!nttcd Is !argc, thcn It Is knnwn as P!an
- Whcn thc arca survcvcd Is !argc and thc sca!c tn whIch
Its rcsu!t µ!nttcd Is sma!!, thcn It Is ca!!cd as a Maµ
-Solling oul of anv onginooiing voik Iiko luiIdings, ioads,
iaiIvav liacks, liidgos and dans invoIvos suivoving
MaIn dIvIsInns nf survcvIng
Tvµcs nf 5urvcvIng
-IIano suivoving
- Coodolic suivoving
Cnnccµt:
- 5Incc thc shaµc nf thc carth Is sµhcrnIda!, thc
!Inc cnnncctIng anv twn µnInts nn thc carth
surfacc Is nnt a straIght !Inc, -ut a curvc.
- Whcn thc survcvs cxtcnd nvcr a !argc arcas nr
whcn thc accuracv rcquIrcd Is grcat, thc curvaturc
nf carth has a!sn tn -c takcn Intn accnunt.
- Fnr sma!! dIstanccs thc dIffcrcncc and thc
su-tcndcd chnrd
P!anc 5urvcvIng
- Tho suivoving vhoio lho offocl of cuivaluio of
oailh is nogIoclod and oailh´s suifaco is lioalod as
pIano, is caIIod suivoving.
- Tho dogioo of accuiacv in lhis lvpo of suivoving
is conpaialivoIv Iov.
- ConoiaIIv vhon lho suivoving is conduclod ovoi
lho aioa Ioss lhan 260 5q.Km., lhov aio lioalod as
pIano suivoving.
- IIano suivoving is conduclod foi lho puiposo of
onginooiing piojocls.
cndctIc 5urvcvIng
- Tho offocl of cuivaluio is lakon inlo accounl.
- Il is aIso knovn as ¨TrIgnnnmctrIca!
5urvcvIng¨.
- Il is a spociaI lianch of suivoving in vhich
noasuiononls aio lakon vilh high piocision
insliunonls.
- CaIcuIalions aio aIso nado vilh hoIp of sphoiicaI
liigononoliv.
- Il is gonoiaIIv adoplod lv lho Cioal
TiigononoliicaI Suivov Dopailnonl of India¨.
(CTS).
C!assIfIcatInn nf survcvIng
- Land Suivoving
- Maiino oi Navigalion oi Hvdiogiaphic Suivoving
- AsliononicaI Suivov.
Land 5urvcvIng: Land suivov is a ono, in vhich lho ioIalivo
poinls oi oljocls on lho oailh´s suifaco is doloininod.
MarInc nr NavIgatInna! nr HvdrngraµhIc 5urvcv:
Maiino suivoving is ono in vhich in vhich lho ioIalivo
posilion of oljocls undoi valoi is doloininod.
AstrnnnmIca! 5urvcvIng: Il is ono in vhich olsoivalions
aio nado lo Iocalo lho hoavonIv lodios such as sun, noon
and slais.
C!assIfIcatInn nf Land survcvIng
TnµngraµhIca! 5urvcv:
- Il is usod foi doloinining lho naluiaI and ailificiaI foaluios of
lho counliv such as iivois, Iakos, hiIIs and canaIs.
Cadastra! 5urvcv:
- Il is usod lo Iocalo addilionaI dolaiIs such as loundaiios of
fioIds of fioIds, housos and olhoi piopoilios.
CItv 5urvcv:
- Il is usod foi lovn pIanning schonos such as Iaving oul pIols,
consliucling sliools, Iaving valoi suppIv and sovoi Iinos.
- Lnginooiing Suivov : Il is usod lo coIIocl dala foi dosign and
consliuclion of Lnginooiing voiks such as ioads, iaiIvavs,
liidgos dans olc.,
PrIncIµ!cs nf 5urvcvIng
PrIncIµ!c 1:
- A nunloi of conlioI poinls aio fixod in lho aioa
concoinod lv adopling voiv accuialo and piociso
nolhods.
- Tho Iinos joining lhoso conlioI poinls viII lo
conlioI Iinos.
- Olhoi noasuiononls aio nado lo Iocalo poinls
insido lhoso conlioI Iinos.
- Thus, nain liiangIos and liavoisos aio foinod
fiisl.
PrIncIµ!cs nf 5urvcvIng
PrIncIµ!c 1:
- Tho nain liiangIos and liavoisos aio dividod inlo
snaIIoi onos lv using Ioss iigoious nolhods.
- ßv doing so, accunuIalion of oiiois is avoidod
and anv IocaI oiioi can lo oasiIv idonlifiod.
- If suivov voik is slailod fion a pail (snaIIoi
liiangIo oi liavoiso) and piocoodod lo vhoIo lhoio
aio chancos of oiiois golling nuIlipIiod al ovoiv
slago.
- Hcncc anv survcv wnrk shnu!d -c frnm whn!c
tn µart and nnt frnm µart tn whn!c.
PrIncIµ!cs nf 5urvcvIng
PrIncIµ!c 2:
- Nov poinls shouId lo fixod lv alIoasl lvo
indopondonl noasuiononls.
|
1
|
2
F
Q
k
F|gure 1
F
Q
k
S
1
S
2
F|gure 2
F
Q
k
S
1
F|gure 3
|
1
PrIncIµ!cs nf 5urvcvIng
PrIncIµ!c 2:
- As poi lho IiincipIo 2, lho Iocalion of a nov
poinl invoIvos ono of lho foIIoving.
(a) Mcasurcmcnt nf twn dIstanccs.
(-) Mcasurcmcnt nf twn ang!cs
(c) Mcasurcmcnt nnc ang!c and nnc dIstancc
PrIncIµ!cs nf 5urvcvIng
ig 1: Il shovs lho nolhod of Iocaling R vilh iofoionco lo knovn Ionglh IO lv
using lho knovn dislancos of IR (I
1
) and OR (I
2
)
ig 2: Il shovs lho nolhod of Iocaling R vilh iofoionco lo lho Ionglh IO lv using
lho knovn angIos OIR (O
1
) and IOR (O
2
)
ig 3: Il shovs lho nolhod of Iocaling R vilh iofoionco lo knovn Ionglh IO lv
using lho knovn dislanco of IR (I
1
) and knovn angIo OIR (O
1
)
|
1 |
2
F
Q
k
F|gure 1
F
Q
k
S
1
S
2
F|gure 2
F
Q
k
S
1
F|gure 3
|
1
ChaIn 5urvcvIng - PrIncIµ!c
- In chain suivoving onIv Iinoai dislancos on lho
fioId aio noasuiod.
- Thoso dislancos aio usod lo dofino lho loundaiv
of fioId and naik sinpIo dolaiIs.
PrIncIµ!c :
- Il is lo foin a nolvoik of liiangIos lv using lho
dislancos noasuiod.
- ßolloi accuiacv viII lo ollainod if lho liiangIos
lhus foinod aio noaiIv oquiIaloiaI in shapo.
C!assIfIcatInn nf survcvIng
C!assIfIcatInn nf survcvIng:
- Chain Suivoving
- Conpass Suivoving
- ThoodoIilo suivoving
- IIano Suivoving
- Tochoonoliic Suivoving
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
Tho diffoionl accossoiios usod in chain suivoving
aio
(a) Molio Chain
(l) Chain Iins (aiiovs)
(c) Moasuiing Tapo
(d) Ranging iod/Offsol iod.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
MctrIc survcvIng chaIn
- A suivoving chain is a dovico usod lo noasuio dislanco
lolvoon lvo poinls on lho giound.
- Moliic chains aio avaiIalIo in Ionglhs of 5 n, 1On, 2On and 3O
n.
- 2On - 3O n chain is noinaIIv usod foi lho fioId of suivoving.
- A suivoving chain conlains liass handIos vilh liass ovoloIl
and coIIai, gaIvanizod niId slooI Iinks and viio iings.
- In lho caso of 2O n and 3O n chains, liass laIIios aio piovidod
al ovoiv 5 n Ionglh and indicaling liass viio iings aio allachod
al ovoiv nolio Ionglh oxcopl vhoio laIIios aio piovidod.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
MctrIc survcvIng chaIn
- Tho dislanco lolvoon lho oulsido facos of handIos of a fuIIv sliolchod
oul chain is lho Ionglh of lho chain.
- Tho Ionglh of lho chain, Iiko 2On is ongiavod on lho handIos.
- WhiIo noasuiing lho Iong dislanco, lho chain viII havo lo lo usod a
nunloi of linos.
- Aiiovs aio diivon al lho ond of ovoiv chain Ionglh.
- oi hoIding lho aiiovs in posilion, gioovos aio cul in lho oulsido faco
of lho handIos.
-Tho iadius of lho gioovo is lho sano as lhal lho aiiovs.
-oi convonionl handIing of lho chain, lho handIo joinl is nado fIoxilIo
so lhal il is possilIo lo svivoI lo handIo iound lho ovo loIl.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
ChaIn PIns
- Chain pins oi aiiovs aio usod vilh
lho chain foi naiking oach chain
Ionglh on lho giound.
- Tho aiiov is diivon inlo lho giound
al lho ond of oach chain Ionglh is
noasuiod.
- Chain pins lho aiiov shouId lo
nado of good quaIilv haidonod and
lonpoiod slooI viio of nininun
lonsiIo slionglh of 7O kg/nn
2
.
- Tho ovoiaII Ionglh is 4OO nn and
lhicknoss is 4nn.
- Tho viio shouId lo lIack onanoIIod.
- Tho aiiov has a ciicuIai ovo al lho
ono ond is poinlod al lho olhoi ond .
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
Pcgs
- Woodon pogs of 15cn Ionglh and 3 cn squaio
in soclion aio usod lo oslalIish lho slalion poinls
oi lho ond poinls of a Iino on lho giound.
- Thov aio lapoiod ono ond and aio diivon inlo
lho giound lv using a voodon hannoi.
- Aloul 4 cn is Iofl piojocling alovo lho giound.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
McasurIng Taµc
-Thoio aio diffoionl lvpos of lapos aio usod. Thov
aio
(a) CIolh oi Iinon lvpo
(l) MolaIIic Tapo
(c) SlooI Tapo
(d) Invai Tulo.
Mcta!!Ic taµc and stcc! taµcs arc mnst cnmmnn!v
uscd.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
McasurIng Taµc
-MolaIIic Tapo is nado of vainishod
valoipioof Iinon.
-Il is ioinfoicod vilh fino liass
coppoi oi lionzo viios.
- Tapos aio avaiIalIo in Ionglhs of 1O,
15, 2O, 3O oi 5O nolios.
- In nolaIIic lapos ovoiv nolio is
dividod inlo 1OO divisions (cns).
- In slooI lapos, lho conlinolio
division aio aIso suldividod.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
RangIng Rnd
RangIng Rnd:
- Il is aIso knovn as ianging poIo oi pickol.
- Ranging iod is usod foi ianging oi aIigning Iong Iinos on lho
giound in fioId suivoving.
- Ranging is a sliaighl Iino noans fixing a soiios of pogs oi olhoi
naiks such lhal lhov aII Iio on a sliaighl Iino.
- Ranging iods aio usod naiking poinls on lho giound so lhal
lho posilions of lho poinls aio dislinclIv visilIo fion sono dislanl
vav.
- Tho Ionglh of ianging iod nav lo 2 n and 3 n and ils dianoloi
is 3O nn.
-Ranging iod nado of slooI lulo has an inloinaI dianoloi of 32
nn.
- Tho ianging iods aio nado of voII soasonod, sliaighl giainod
linloi of ciicuIai cioss soclion.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
RangIng Rnd
-Ranging iods shouId lo
sliaighl and fioo fion vaips.
- Tho dovialion in
sliaighlnoss shouId nol oxcood
5nn in a 2 n Ionglh.
- Tho ianging iod is painlod
in rcd and whItc In aIloinalo
land Ionglhs of 2OO nn oach.
- Tho lollon ond of lho iod is
fillod vilh a poinlod, hoIIov,
casl iion shoo oi slooI shoo of
15 cn Ionglh.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
ffsct Rnd
- Il is a ianging iod vilh lvo
shoil, naiiov, voilicaI
sighling sIols passing
lhiough lho conlio of lho
soclion.
- A hook is fillod of a gioovo
is cul al lho lop lo onalIo
puIIing oi pushing of lho
chain lhiough olsliuclion
Iiko hodgos.
- Offsol iods aio noanl foi
solling oulIinos
appioxinaloIv al iighl angIos
lo lho nain Iino.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
Crnss 5taff
- Il is usod lo sol oul iighl
angIos in chain suivoving
- Il consisls of foui nolaI ains
voilicaI sIils nounlod on a poIo.
- Tvo opposilo sIils aio
posilionod aIong lho Ionglh of a
Iino (Main Lino)
- A Iino poipondicuIai lo lho
nain Iino is foinod oi sighlod
lhiough lho olhoi lvo sIils
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
P!um- Bn-
- Il consisls of a soIid conicaI
pioco and a sliing allachod lo
il al ils conlio.
- Whon in uso, lho soIid
pioco is al lho lollon.
- Il is usod lo losl lho
voilicaIilv of lho ianging
iods and lo liansfoi lho
poinls lo lho giound.
- IIunl lol is usod vhiIo
doing chain suivoving on
sIoping giound.
AcccssnrIcs uscd In ChaIn 5urvcvIng
Unfn!dIng and fn!dIng nf chaIn
- ßolh lho handIos of lho chain aio hoId in lho Iofl hand and
lho olhoi poilions in lho iighl hand.
- Tho poilion hoId in lho iighl hand is lhiovn foivaid:
- Tho poison lhioving noving lackvaid hinsoIf.
- Tho Ioadoi lakos ono handIo of lho chain and novos foivaid
hinsoIf.
- Tho Ioadoi lakos ono handIo of lho chain and novos foivaid
liII lho chain is sliolchod lo ils fuII Ionglh.
- Tho chain shouId lo fioo fion anv kinks oi londs.
- Afloi lho conpIolion of lho voik, lho lvo handIos aio
lioughl logolhoi and lho chain is foIdod slailod vilh lho
niddIo paii.
- Tho Iinks aio pIacod olIiquoIv acioss oach paii.
- Tho foIdod chain is socuioIv liod vilh a iopo
RangIng a !Inc
- Il noans fixing a soiios of pogs oi olhoi naiks
such lhal lhov aII Iio on a sliaighl Iino.
- Supposo I and O aio lho lvo onds of a suivov
Iino.
- Ono ianging iod is diivon O.
- Tho suivovoi hoIds anolhoi ianging iod al I and
slands al aloul 3O cn lohind ianging iod.
- Tho assislanl goos vilh anolhoi ianging iod
aIong lho suivov Iino and posilions hinsoIf
appioxinaloIv in Iino vilh IO al a dislanco Ioss
lhan a chain Ionglh fion I.
RangIng a !Inc
- Tho suivovoi al I koops his ovo in Iino vilh IO
and signaIs lo lho assislanl lv vav of adjusling
lho posilion of lho ianging iod hoId lv lho
assislanl liavoisoIv.
- This adjuslnonl is conlinuod liII lho
inloinodialo ianging iod is liuIv in Iino vilh I
and O.
- Olhoi inloinodialo poinls aIong lho suivov Iino
aio aIso fixod in lho sano nannoi.
ut!Inc nf ChaIn survcvIng
- A laso Iino vhich is a chain Iino is fixod.
- Tho laso Iino is aIignod lv ianging.
- Tho Ionglh of lho Iino is noasuiod lv chaining.
- oi lhis foIIovoi hoIds lho zoio ond of lho chain and lho
Ioadoi diags lho chain lo an inloinodialo poinl on lho Iino
- Tho Ioadoi sliaighlons lho chain lv joiking liII lho chain
Iios oxaclIv ovoi lho Iino.
- Tho Ioadoi naiks lho ond of lho chain lv diiving lho
chain pin (aiiov)
- Tho foIIovoi hoIds lho zoio ond of lho chain al lho chain
pin poinl again
- Thus lho chaining is conlinuod liII lho onliio Ionglh is
covoiod.
ut!Inc nf ChaIn survcvIng
- oi Iocaling lho dolaiIs, IaloiaI noasuiononls aio
lakon lo lho oljocls.
- Thoso IaloiaI noasuiononls aio caIIod offsols.
- If lho offsol is al iighl angIos lo lho laso Iino, il is
caIIod poipondicuIai offsol.
- If il is incIinod lo lho laso Iino, il is caIIod olIiquo
offsol.
- Doponding upon lho silualion, poipondicuIai oi
olIiquo offsols aio lakon
- Tho Ionglh aio noasuiod aio onloiod.
Advantagcs and dIsadvantagcs nf
chaIn survcvIng
Advantagcs:
-Il is sinpIo
- Il doos nol ioquiio anv coslIv oquipnonl
- Il is adoplod foi piopaiing pIans foi snaII aioa
DIsadvantagcs:
- Il cannol lo usod foi Iaigo aioas
- Il cannol lo usod in lhick lushv aioas vilh ups
and dovns.
- Chain suivoving is nol aIvavs accuialo.
Cnmµass 5urvcvIng - PrIsmatIc Cnmµass
Cnmµass 5urvcvIng
- Whonovoi a nunloi of laso Iinos
aio lo lo iun foi ollaining lho
dolaiIs as in liavoising, jusl Iinoai
noasuiononls nado lv chain
suivoving viII nol lo sufficionl.
- Tho angIos incIudod lolvoon lho
adjaconl Iinos shouId aIso lo
noasuiod
- Conpass is ono of lho
insliunonls usod lo noasuio lho
angIos.
PrIsmatIc Cnmµass
DcscrIµtInn:
- A nagnolic noodIo is laIancod ovoi a pivol in a ciicuIai lox of 85
nn lo 11O nn in dianoloi.
- A giadualod aIuniniun iing is allachod lo lho nagnolic noodIo.
- An agalo cap koops lho aIuniniun iing slalIo.
- Tho lox is covoiod lv a gIass Iid.
- Oljocl vano and ovo vano aio piovidod al dianoliicaIIv opposilo
onds.
- Lvo vano caiios a iofIocling piisn vhich can lo iaisod oi Iovoiod as
dosiiod.
- A voilicaI hoiso haii oi fino viio is piovidod al lho niddIo of lho
oljocl vano.
- Tho giadualions in lho aIuniniun iing aio nado in lho cIockviso
diioclion slailing vilh O
o
al Soulh and 18O
o
al Noilh vilh invoilod
naikings.
PrIsmatIc Cnmµass
DcscrIµtInn:
- A liianguIai piisn fillod loIov lho ovo sIil onalIos
nagnificalion of ioadings lo suil olsoivoi´s ovo.
- ßasod on lhis piisn aiiangononl, lho conpass is
nanod piisnalic conpass.
- Conpass is fixod ovoi a liipod vilh laII and sockol
aiiangononl.
- A liakod pin is piovidod loIov lho oljocl vano lo
danp lho osciIIalions of lho nagnolic noodIo vhiIo
laking ioadings.
PrIsmatIc Cnmµass
WnrkIng PrIncIµ!c:
- Tho nagnolic fioId aIigns ilsoIf vilh lho nagnolic noiidian (N-S
diioclion)
- Tho Iino of sighl is acluaIIv lho Iino joining lho oljocl vano and ovo
vano
- Tho angIo lolvoon lho N-S diioclion and lho Iino of sighl is
olsoivod in lho conpass
- This angIo is acluaIIv lho angIo lolvoon N-S diioclion and lho Iino
on lho giound
- This angIo nado lv lho Iino vilh lho N-S diioclion is caIIod lho
-carIng of lho Iino.
- Conpass is usod lo noasuio lho loaiing of lho diffoionl Iinos fion
vhich lho angIos incIudod lolvoon lho adjaconl Iinos aio conpulod.
Hnw tn takc rcadIng usIng cnmµass
- Tho conpass is conloiod ovoi lho slalion lv diopping a snaII
pioco of slono fion lho conlio of lho lollon of lho conpass.
- A pIunl lol is usod foi conloiing.
- Tho conpass is IovoIIod lv adjusling lho laII and sockol liII lho
lop of lho lox is hoiizonlaI.
- Tho giadualod iing shouId novo fiooIv afloi having IovoIIod
lho insliunonl.
- Supposo lho loaiing of a Iino IO is lo lo olsoivod.
- Tho conpass is conloiod ovoi I.
- Il is IovoIIod.
- Tho piisn and lho oljocl vano aio kopl in voilicaI posilion.
- Tho conpass is luinod sIovIv liII lho ianging iod aIioadv
oioclod al O is lisoclod.
Hnw tn takc rcadIng usIng cnmµass
- In lhis posilion, lho ianging iod, lho oljocl and
lho ovo vano aII Iio in lho sano Iino.
- Tho focusing piisn is iaisod oi Iovoiod liII lho
ioadings voio cIoai and shaip.
- Tho ioading in lho iing cul lv lho oljocl haii Iino
is lakon afloi danping lho osciIIalions of lho iing
lv piossing lho liako pin.
DcfInItInns
MagnctIc BcarIng:
- Il is lho angIo lolvoon lho nagnolic noiidian and lho Iino.
- Tho angIo is aIvavs noasuiod in lho cIockviso diioclion
- Il is lho diioclion shovn lv a fiooIv suspondod nagnolic noodIo
- Tho nagnolic noiidian is aIso caIIod -carIng.
Truc BcarIng:
- Tiuo loaiing of a Iino is lho angIo lolvoon lho liuo noiidian
and lho Iino.
- Tho angIo is aIvavs noasuiod in lho anlicIockviso diioclion.
- Tho liuo noiidian is lho Iino joining lho googiaphicaI noilh and
soulh loaiings.
DcfInItInns
Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng:
- Tho loaiing of Iinos noasuiod fion lho Nnrth is caIIod Whn!c
CIrc!c BcarIng.
- Tho angIo is iockonod in lho c!nckwIsc dIrcctInn frnm 0
n
coinciding vilh lho noilh.
Quadrant BcarIng:
- Tho vhoIo ciicIo is dividod inlo foui quadianls.
- Tho loaiing is oxpiossod vilh N oi S as piofix and L oi W as
suffix.
- Ouadianl ßoaiing is aIso knovn as Rcduccd BcarIng.
DcfInItInns
Fnrc BcarIng and Back -carIng:
- Lvoiv Iino has lvo loaiing nanoIv foio loaiing and lack lack
loaiing
- oio loaiing is lho loaiing lakon in lho diioclion of suivoving
and ßack loaiing is lho loaiing lakon in lho iovoiso diioclion.
- Thc dIffcrcncc -ctwccn thc fnrc -carIng and thc -ack
-carIng shnu!d -c 180
n
.
- Il noans lhal ono oi lolh slalions of lho Iino aio suljoclod lo
!nca! attractInn.
- Thus, IocaI alliaclion is lho infIuonco causod on lho noasuiod
loaiings of Iinos duo lo lho piosonco of naloiiaIs Iiko iaiIvav
liack, cuiionl caiiving viios oi calIos, olc.,
Tn fInd QB frnm WCB

E
W
$
A
35
O
15'
F
5n!utInn :
LInc PA !Ics In 1
st
quadrant.
Quadrant BcarIng -carIng nf PA = N 35
n
15' E
Tn fInd QB frnm WCB
130
O
0'
E
$

W
8
F
50
O
5n!utInn :
LInc PB !Ics In 2nd quadrant.
Quadrant BcarIng -carIng nf PB = 5 50
n
00' E
Tn fInd QB frnm WCB
F
210
O
15'
$
E

C
30
O
15'
5n!utInn :
LInc PC !Ics In 3rd quadrant.
Quadrant BcarIng -carIng nf
PC = 5 30
n
15' W
Tn fInd QB frnm WCB
F
W

$
E
D
óº
O
15
'
2º0
O
45
'
5n!utInn :
LInc PD !Ics In 4th quadrant.
Quadrant BcarIng -carIng nf
PD = N 69
n
15' W
Tn fInd Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng frnm QB
(i) WCB = PA -N 15
n
E
(II) WCB = PB - 5 25
n
45' E
(III) WCB = PC - 5 45
n
30' W
(Iv) WCB = PD - N 10
n
W
Tn fInd Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng frnm QB
Qn: PA - N 15
n
E
Ans: Lino IA is in lho fiisl quadianl. Ils WCß is 15
o
N
E
$
W
15
O
F
A
Tn fInd Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng frnm QB
Qn: PB - 5 25
n
45' E
Lino Iß is in socond quadianl. Ils WCß is 18O
o
OO´-
25
o
45´ = 154
n
15' N
E
$
W
F
8
154
O
15'
Tn fInd Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng frnm QB
Qn: PC - 5 45
n
30'W
Lino IC is lhiid quadianl. Ils WCß is
18O
o
OO´+45
o
3O´ = 225
n
30'
N
E
$
W
F
8
225
o
30'
c
Tn fInd Whn!c CIrc!c BcarIng frnm QB
Qn: PD - N 10
n
W
Lino ID is in fouilh quadianl. Ils WCß is
36O
o
OO´-1O
o
OO´= 350
n
00'
N
E
$
W
F
350
o
00'
D
Tn fInd Back BcarIng frnm Fnrc BcarIng
Qn: Fnrc -carIng nf LInc PQ Is 38
n
15', fInd Back
-carIng.
8ock 8eor|ng =218
o
15'
38
o
15'
F
Q
Tn fInd Back BcarIng frnm Fnrc BcarIng
Qn: Fnrc -carIng nf LInc R5 Is 210
n
15' fInd thc
-ack -carIng.
210
o
15'
8ock 8eor|ng =30
o
30'
k
$
Lcvc!!Ing
-Il is a suivoving nolhod usod lo doloinino lho IovoI of
poinls/oljocls vilh iofoionco lo lho soIoclod dalun.
-Il is aIso usod lo sol oul onginooiing voiks.
Uscs nf Lcvc!!Ing:
- To doloinino lho diffoionco in IovoIs of poinls/Oljocls
- To ollain conloui nap of an aioa
- To ollain cioss soclion of ioads, canaIs olc.,
- To doloinino lho doplh culling and fiIIing in onginooiing
voiks.
- To oslalIish poinls oi oiocl nachinoiv oi consliucl a luiIding
conpononl al a piodoloininod IovoI.
mµnrtant Tcrms
Bcnch Mark: Il is suivovoi´s naik cul on a slono/
iock oi anv iofoionco poinl usod lo indicalo a IovoI
in a IovoIIing suivov.
Rcduccd Lcvc!:
-Roducod IovoI of a poinl is lho IovoI of lho poinl
vilh iospocl lo lho IovoI of poinanonl foaluio oi
lonch naik.
- t IndIcatcs whcthcr thc µnInt Is a-nvc nr -c!nw
thc rcfcrcncc µnInt (datum).
nstrumcnts uscd In !cvc!!Ing
Insliunonls usod in IovoIIing aio,
(i)LovoIIing insliunonl
(ii)LovoIIing slaff
Lcvc!!Ing nstrumcnt :
- SinpIosl foin of IovoIIing insliunonl is dunpv
IovoI.
- Tho diffoionl pails of IovoIIing insliunonl aio,
(a) Tc!cscnµc (-) Evc-µIccc (c) fncussIng knn- (d) !cvc!
tu-c (c) crnss -u--!c (f) fnnt scrcws (g) !cvc!!Ing hcad
(h) dIaµhragm (I) rav shadc
nstrumcnts uscd In !cvc!!Ing
Insliunonls usod in IovoIIing aio,
(i)LovoIIing insliunonl
(ii)LovoIIing slaff
Lcvc!!Ing nstrumcnt :
- SinpIosl foin of IovoIIing insliunonl is dunpv
IovoI.
- Tho diffoionl pails of IovoIIing insliunonl aio,
(a) Tc!cscnµc (-) Evc-µIccc (c) fncussIng knn- (d) !cvc!
tu-c (c) crnss -u--!c (f) fnnt scrcws (g) !cvc!!Ing hcad
(h) dIaµhragm (I) rav shadc
Dumµv Lcvc!
Lcvc!!Ing 5taff
- Il is an inpoilanl accossoiv usod vilh IovoIIing insliunonl al lho lino
of conducling IovoIIing suivov.
- Roading is lakon on lho IovoIIing slaff hoId piopoiIv al lho poinl
concoinod lv vioving lhiough lho loIoscopo of lho IovoIIing insliunonl.
- UsuaIIv 4 n IovoIIing slaff nav lo usod of foIding lvpo oi loIoscopic
lvpo
- AIuniniun IovoIIing slaff foIdalIo al ovoiv nolio Ionglh has aIso
cano lo lho naikol.
- Tho IovoIIing slaff consisls of lhioo piocos.
- Tho lopnosl ono sIidos inlo lho niddIo ono and lho niddIo poilion
sIidos inlo lho lollon ono.
- Whon lho slaff is fuIIv puIIod, il viII ioad oxaclIv 4O docinolois (4n)
fion lho lollon shoo.
Lcvc!!Ing 5taff
Ciadualion in IovoIIing slaff:
- Lvoiv nolio Ionglh is dividod inlo 200 dIvIsInns.
- Tho dIvIsInns arc µaIntcd In -!ack and whItc a!tcrnatc!v of lhicknoss
5 nn oach.
- Tho giadualion figuios aio naikod al ovoiv docinoloi Ionglh.
- Tho num-cr IndIcatIng mctrc Is In rcd and lho dccImctcr num-cr Is
In -!ack.
- Thus, a giadualion figuio of 24 indicalos 2 mctrcs and 4 dccImctcrs.
- Tho giadualion aio nado conlinuousIv ono alovo lho olhoi in lho
sano Iino.
- Tho division Iinos shouId lo paiaIIoI lo lho laso of lho lollon shoo
and poipondicuIai lo lho Ionglh of lho slaff.
- Tho odgos of lho division Iinos shouId lo sliaighl shaipIv dofinod.
- Thov shouId lo cIoai and nado dislinclIv visilIo lv piopoiIv
conliasling.
- Tho graduatInn cn!nur µaInts uscd shnu!d nnt crack nr -!Istcr vhon
oxposod lo advoiso oi alnosphoiic condilions.
mµnrtant Tcrms In !cvc!!Ing
-5tatInn : In LovoIIing, lho loin slalion aIvavs iofois lo lho poinl vhoio
lho IovoIIing slaff is hoId and nol lho insliunonl slalion.
- HcIght nf nstrumcnt : Il is lho oIovalion of lho Iino of sighl vilh
iofoionco lo lho assunod dalun.
- Back 5Ight (B.5) : Il is lho ioading lakon on lho slaff hoId al a poinl, lho
oIovalion of vhich is knovn aIioadv. Il is usofuI lo knov lho nov hoighl
of lho insliunonl.
- FnrcsIght (F.5): Il is lho ioading lakon on lho slaff hoId al a poinl of
unknovn oIovalion. ion, .S., lho hoighl of lho Iino of insliunonl alovo
lho poinl can lo ollainod. Il is usofuI lo find lho oIovalion of lho poinl.
- Changc PnInt : Il is lho poinl al vhich lho foio sighl is lakon fion ono
insliunonl slalion and lack sighl is lakon fion lho noxl insliunonl
slalion.
- ntcrmcdIatc statInn : A poinl lolvoon lvo chango poinls is knovn as
inloinodialo slalion. OnIv ono ioading is lakon on lho inloinodialo
slalion.
Mcthnds nf Lcvc!!Ing
-- Molhod 1 : Molhod 1 : Il is dono vilh onIv ono Il is dono vilh onIv ono
solling of lho insliunonl. solling of lho insliunonl.
-- Molhod 2: Molhod 2: Whon lho lvo slalion poinls Whon lho lvo slalion poinls
aio vido apail and lho insliunonl is sol aio vido apail and lho insliunonl is sol
up al noio lhan ono poinl and lho up al noio lhan ono poinl and lho
IovoIIing is caiiiod oul. IovoIIing is caiiiod oul.
Mcthnd 1
WIth nn!v nnc scttIng nf thc Instrumcnt
- Tho insliunonl is sol up al a poinl lolvoon I and O and
lho lonpoiaiv adjuslnonls caiiiod oul.
- Tho IovoIIing slaff is hoId al I, lho oIovalion of vhich is
knovn aIioadv.
- A lack sighl is lakon on lho slaff hoId al I. Tho slaff is
lhon hoId al O and lho foiosighl is lakon.
Mcthnd 1
WIth nn!v nnc scttIng nf thc Instrumcnt
HcIght nf thc Instrumcnt = Knnwn c!cvatInn nf P + thc
staff rcadIng at P
= 1OO.OO+ 2.1O = 102.10 m
E!cvatInn nf Q = HcIght nf thc Instrumcnt -
thc staff rcadIng at Q
= 1O2.1O - 1.8O = 100.30 m
Mcthnd
Whcn thc statInn µnInts arc wIdc aµart, thc Instrumcnt Is sctuµ fnr at
mnrc than nnc µnInt and !cvc!!Ing Is dnnc
(HcIght nf Cn!!ImatInn Mcthnd)
- A chango poinl (C.I) is oslalIishod in lolvoon I and O.
- A lack sighl is lakon al I and a foio sighl is lakon al lho
chango poinl.
- Tho insliunonl is shiflod lo anolhoi poinl lolvoon lho
chango poinl and O.
- A lack sighl is lakon al lho chango poinl and a foio sighl
is lakon al O.
- Anv nunloi of chango poinls aio oslalIishod as
ioquiiod.
- This nolhod is knovn as Hoighl of CoIIinalion nolhod.
Mcthnd
Whcn thc statInn µnInts arc wIdc aµart, thc Instrumcnt Is sctuµ fnr at
mnrc than nnc µnInt and !cvc!!Ing Is dnnc
(HcIght nf Cn!!ImatInn Mcthnd)
Thc c!cvatInn nf changc µnInt = E!cvatInn nf P + Back sIght at P - Fnrc
sIght at changc µnInt (C.P)
= 1OO.OO+1.6O-1.1O = 100.50 m
Thc sccnnd hcIght nf thc Instrumcnt = Thc c!cvatInn nf changc µnInt+
Back 5Ight at changc µnInt
= 1OO.5O+1.25 = 101.75 m
Thc c!cvatInn nf Q = Thc sccnnd hcIght nf Instrumcnt -
fnrcsIght at Q
= 1O1.75 - 1.81 = 99.94 m
RIsc and Fa!! Mcthnd nf ca!cu!atIng thc !cvc!
- Tho slaff ioadings of lho poinls olsoivod fion lho sano
solling of lho insliunonl aio conpaiod.
- Il is found vholhoi a poinl is alovo oi loIov lho
piocoding poinl.
- If lho poinl is alovo, lho slaff ioading viII lo Ioss lhan lho
piocoding poinl. Tho diffoionco lolvoon lho slaff ioadings is
caIIod rIsc.
- If lho poinl is loIov lho piocoding poinl, lho slaff ioading
viII lo gioaloi lhan lhal al lho piocoding poinl. Tho
diffoionco lolvoon lho slaff ioadings is loinod fa!!.
RIsc and Fa!! Mcthnd
Tho diffoionco lolvoon lho slaff ioadings
al I and O = 2.1O - 1.8O = 0.30 (rIsc)
Honco, IovoI of O = LIovalion of I + Riso
= 1OO.OO+O.3O = 100.30 m
RIsc and Fa!! Mcthnd
Back
sIght
ntcrmcdI
atc statInn
Fnrc
sIght
RIsc Fa!! Rcduccd
Lcvc!
Rcmarks
1.245 100.00 BM
2.100 0.855 99.145
2.425 0.810 1.290 100.435 5TATN A
0.480 1.945 102.380 5TATN B
`B5
3.670
`F5
1.290
`R5E
3.235
`FAL
L
0.855
ArIthmctIca! Chcck nf RIsc and Fa!!
mcthnd
3.670 - 1.290 = 3.235 - 0.855 = 102.380 - 100.00
2.380 = 2.380 = 2.380
c 8.$ - cF.$ = ck|se - c Fo|| = Lost k.L - F|rst k.L.
F!v Lcvc!!Ing
-Anv nunloi of chango poinls aio oslalIishod as ioquiiod
duiing IovoIIing. This nolhod is knovn as fIv IovoIIing.
- Il is adoplod lo find lho diffoionco in IovoI lolvoon lvo
poinls, vhon
(i) Tho lvo poinls aio loo fai avav
(ii) lho diffoionco in IovoI lolvoon lvo poinls is Iaigo
(iii) lhoio aio no olsliuclions in lolvoon lho lvo poinls
concoinod.
Ca!cu!atInn nf Arcas
- Ono of lho puiposos of suivoving is lo doloinino lho aioa lo lo
suivovod.
- Tho aioa of lho Iand ollainod lv suivoving acluaIIv iofois lo lho aioa
as piojoclod on a hoiizonlaI pIano.
- Thoio aio diffoionl nolhods of conpuling lho aioa of Iand using lho
dala ollainod lv suivoving.
-
Ca!cu!atInn nf arca -v TraµcznIda! Ru!c
- In liapozoidaI, a convonionl laso Iino is oslalIishod.
- IoipondicuIai dislancos fion lho laso Iino lo lho loundaiv of lho Iand
concoinod aio noasuiod al ioguIai (oquaI) inloivaIs aIong lho laso Iino.
- Thoso poipondicuIai dislancos aio caIIod oidinalos.
d d d d
h
5
h
4
h
3
h
2
1 2 3 4
h
1
TraµcznIda! ru!c
Tnta! Arca,
A= d/2 (h
1
+h
n
+2(h
2
+h
3
+...+h
n-1
))
5Imµsnns Ru!c
- This iuIo is appIicalIo onIv if lho nunloi of oidinalos is odd.
A = d/3 (FIrst rdInatc+ Last rdInatc + 2 (sum nf ndd nrdInatcs)+
4(sum nf cvcn nrdInatcs)
I. c. A = d/3 (h
1
+h
n
+ 2(h
3
+h
5
+h
7
+...+h
n-2
)+ 4(h
2
+h
4
+..+h
n-1
)
- If lho nunloi of oidinalos is ovon, lho aioa of lho Iasl liapozoid is
caIcuIalod sopaialoIv and addod lo lho iosuIl.
Prn-!cms nn 5Imµsnnn's Ru!c and TraµcznIda!
Ru!c
1. Tho foIIoving poipondicuIai offsols voio lakon al 1O n inloivaIs fion
a suivov Iino lo an iiioguIai loundaiv Iino:
3.6O, 2.8O, 4.5O, 8.25, 7.85, 6.45, 5.35.
CaIcuIalo lho aioa oncIosod lolvoon lho suivov Iino and loundaiv Iino
lv liapozoidaI iuIo and Sinpson´s iuIo.
2. A soiios of offsols voio lakon al 5 n inloivaIs fion a chain Iino lo a
cuivod odgo.
O,3.25,4.1O,6.45,8.9O,5.75,8.5O,O
CaIcuIalo lho aioa lolvoon lho chain Iino and lho iiioguIai loundaiv lo
lho cuivod odgo lv lho Sinpson´s iuIo and TiapozoidaI RuIo
UNT
5trcss 5traIn DIagram
$
I
k
E
$
$
/
L
O
A
D
EXIE$IO/$IkAI
PrnµnrtInna!
LImIt
E!astIc LImIt
YIc!d PnInt
U!tImatc 5trcngth
BrcakIng LImIt
5trcss 5traIn DIagram
-PnInt P: PrnµnrtInna! LImIt: Wilhin IiopoilionaI Linil slioss is diioclIv
piopoilionaI lo sliain. Honco lho naloiiaI viII iogain ils oiiginaI shapo afloi
unIoading.
Tho slioss coiiosponding lo lho Ioad is knovn as LImIt nf PrnµnrtInna!Itv.
-PnInt E iopiosonls lho c!astIc !ImIt. In lho iogion IL, lho slioss is nol
piopoilionaI lo sliain. Il noans lho slioss sliain diagian is nol a sliaighl
Iino.
-Anv Ioading lovond poinl L, viII causo poinanonl dofoinalion. Tho
slioss coiiosponding lo lho Ioad al L is caIIod al E!astIc LImIt.
-YIc!d 5trcss (PnInt Y) :Tho Ioading lovond L causos oxlonsion nuch Iaigoi
lhan lho oxlonsions olsoivod oaiIioi. Tho naloiiaI vioIds lo a gioaloi oxlonl
and lho slioss coiiosponding lo lho Ioad al Y is loinod as YioId Slioss
-ßovond Y, a nuch snaIIoi incioaso in lho Ioad causos considoialIo
oxlonsion and lho naloiiaIs is said lo lo soni pIaslic nodo.
5trcss 5traIn DIagram
W Al U, lho naloiiaI vioIds al a pailicuIai poinl and a nock
is foinod lhoio. Tho slioss coiiosponding lo lhal Ioad al U
is caIIod naxinun slioss (UIlinalo slioss)
- ßovond U, lho oxlonsion govoinod lv lho lino of Ioading.
Tho Ioad ioquiiod lo causo oxlonsion is snaIIoi lhan lho
Ioad al M.
-Tho aioa of cioss soclion is considoialIo ioducod.
- Tho oIongalion conlinuos liII lho naloiiaI lioaks al ß.
-Tho slioss coiiosponding lo lho Ioad al ß is caIIod
ßioaking slioss.
Hnnkc's Law
Il slalos lhal, ¨ Wilhin oIaslic Iinil lho slioss inducod in lho
naloiiaI is diioclIv piopoilionaI lo sliain¨.
p u o
I= L o.
L = p
o
lncrc. p - S|rcss. c - S|rain. | - Ycung´s Mcdu|us

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful