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Submitted in the partial fulfilment for award of degree of Bachelor of Technology in ELECTRONICS AND COMM. Brach of MAHARISHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK During academic session 2007-2011 Under the guidance of Mrs. Sachi mittal
Submitted by: SANDEEP KUMAR HEMA ASHWANI SINGLA POONAM VERMA (7EC 143-L) (7EC 135-L) (7EC 146-L) (7EC 140-L)
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“SUCCESS IS NOURISHED UNDER THE KIND COMBINATION OF PERFECT GUIDANCE, CARE AND BLESSING” We, SANDEEP KUMAR (7EC 143-L), HEMA (7EC 135-L), ASHWANI SINGLA (7EC 146-L) and POONAM VERMA (7EC 140L) are thankful to Mr. S.V.A.V. Prasad, Dean of academic affair, LIMAT, Mr. K.C. Mathur, Head of deppt. ECE, LIMAT for the kind support that they extended to us for making this project. We owe a sincere thank to our project guide Mrs. Sachi Mittal and our Project Co-ordinator Mrs. Pragati. We are also thankful to Mr. Ramnarayan and Mr. Prajapati for their cooperation, kindness and general help extended to us during the completion of this work.
With due respect, SANDEEP KUMAR HEMA ASHWANI SINGLA POONAM VERMA (7EC 143-L) (7EC 135-L) (7EC 146-L) (7EC 140-L)
2. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 4. EXPLANATION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND THEIR SPECIFICATION 5.1.
5.2. 5.3. 5.4.
PROCESSOR CIRCUIT LCD RFID
6. DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS 6.1. 6.2. PIC MICRO-CONTROLLER SENSOR 18.104.22.168.TEMPRATURE SENSOR 22.214.171.124.GAS SENSOR 126.96.36.199.RFID 188.8.131.52.HUMIDITY SENSOR 6.3. 6.4. 6.5. MAX 232 GSM MODEM ANCILLARY COMPONENTS 184.108.40.206.RELAY 220.127.116.11.TRANSISTOR
18.104.22.168.RESISTANCE 22.214.171.124.DIODES 126.96.36.199.CAPACITORS 188.8.131.52.LED 184.108.40.206.TRANSFORMER 220.127.116.11.VOLTAGE REGULATOR 18.104.22.168.DB9 CONNECTOR
7. METHODOLOGY/FABRICATION METHOD/PROCESSES 8. SOFTWARE 8.1. 8.2. MPLAB IDE 8.50 HYPER TERMINAL
9. WORKING OF THE PROJECT 10. APPENDIX 10.1. 10.2. 10.3. ADVANTAGE APPLICATION BIBLIOGRAPHY
As the world is becoming advance towards betterment, whether it is in terms of science and technology or in any other aspect, the more it is required to maintain the authentication of data or to prevent the data from manipulation. SHAP Data Monitoring System provides us all these facilities along with an additional provision of monitoring data from a centralised location or even from any part of the world with the help of technology named GSM. In order to achieve this aim, the system comprises of four functional unit namely sensors, microcontroller, GSM and display section. The primary unit of this system is the sensor section which includes different types of sensor required to observe various parameter as per the application required. For suppose in an industry numerous parameter of machinery can be sensed and monitored using this system. Or in school and colleges this system can be employed for maintaining the authentication of datasheet. Also keeping an account on the entry and exit of the employee or even employer and the duration for which they were present in the firm is enabled with the help of RFID sensor.
For monitoring database onto the display section, the processing of the data is done with the help of PIC16F microcontroller. Here in this project an 8 bit 40 pin microcontroller chip operating at 4MHz is used which has an inbuilt EEPROM data memory of 256X8 bytes, 8KX14 words Flash memory. It also has an inbuilt A/D converter which eliminates the additional interfacing of A/D converter as compare to other controllers.
For making the database more clean and clear for the person observing or monitoring it, the different display device that can be employed as per the requirement in this system are LCD, desktop, laptop, mobile phone, etc. For enabling the data to be monitored from any part of the world as and when required, a system called GSM is used which is globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication.
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION
SHAP Data Monitoring System basically consists of four functional units namely: • Sensor Section • Micro controller Section • GSM Modem • Display Unit The parameters to be monitored are sensed by the primary unit of the system i.e. the sensor unit which basically senses the respective non-physical quantity and produces an output which is electrical in nature. Temperature, humidity, leakage of gases, fuel level, entry and exit of pedestrian, etc are the different types of parameter that can be sensed of monitoring via their respective sensor. The output of the sensor section is applied to the microcontroller section for its further processing. The programming required for
displaying database or any information regarding these sensed parameters is done by this section. The additional feature of monitoring these records from a centralised location or even from any part of the world, the next section is employed in our system. This is the GSM Module section which basically performs the function of transferring data to a distant location. The final section of this system is the display section which caters the purpose of providing proper understandibility of the database to the person monitoring the data. Different kind of display unit that can be employed in this system as per the application are personal computer, LCD display or a mobile phone.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS
The +5 volt supply is useful for both analog and digital circuits. DTL, TTL, and CMOS ICs will all operate nicely from a +5 volt supply. In addition, the +5 volt supply is useful for circuits that use both analog and digital signals in various ways.
The +5 volt power supply is based on the commercial 7805 voltage regulator IC. This IC contains all the circuitry needed to accept any input voltage from 8 to 18 volts and produce a steady +5 volt output, accurate to within 5% (0.25 volt). It also contains currentlimiting circuitry and thermal overload protection, so that the IC won't be damaged in case of excessive load current; it will reduce its output voltage instead. The 1000µf capacitor serves as a "reservoir" which maintains a reasonable input voltage to the 7805 throughout the entire cycle of the ac line voltage. The two rectifier diodes keep recharging the reservoir capacitor on alternate half-cycles of the line voltage, and the capacitor is quite capable of sustaining any reasonable load in between charging pulses. The 10µf and .01µf capacitors serve to help keep the power supply output voltage constant when load conditions change. The electrolytic capacitor smoothes out any longterm or low frequency variations. However, at high frequencies this capacitor is not very efficient. Therefore, the .01µf is included to bypass high-frequency changes, such as digital IC switching effects, to ground. The LED and its series resistor serve as a pilot light to indicate when the power supply is on. I like to use a miniature LED here, so it will serve that function without being obtrusive or distracting while I'm performing an experiment. I also use this LED to tell me when the reservoir capacitor is completely discharged after power is turned off.
Pin Description Most LCDs with 1 controller has 14 Pins and LCDs with 2 controller has 16 Pins (two pins are extra in both for back-light LED connections). Pin description is shown in the table below.
Figure(xxi) Table(i) Name
VSS VCC VEE RS
Pin no. 1 Pin no. 2 Pin no. 3 Pin no. 4
Power supply (GND) Power supply (+5V) Contrast adjust 0 = Instruction input 1 = Data input 0 = Write to LCD module 1 = Read from LCD module Enable signal Data bus line 0 (LSB) Data bus line 1 Data bus line 2 Data bus line 3 Data bus line 4 Data bus line 5 Data bus line 6 Data bus line 7 (MSB)
Pin no. 5 Pin no. 6 Pin no. 7 Pin no. 8 Pin no. 9 Pin no. 10 Pin no. 11 Pin no. 12 Pin no. 13 Pin no. 14
R/W EN D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7
DESCRIPTION OF COMPONENTS
When we have to learn about a new computer we have to familiarize about the machine capability we are using, and we can do it by studying the internal hardware design (devices architecture), and also to know about the size, number and the size of the registers. A microcontroller is a single chip that contains the processor (the CPU), non-volatile memory for the program (ROM or flash), volatile memory for input and output (RAM), a clock and an I/O control unit. Also called a "computer on a chip," billions of microcontroller units (MCUs) are embedded each year in a myriad of products from toys to appliances to automobiles. For example, a single vehicle can use 70 or more microcontrollers.
ARCHITECTURE OF PIC MICROCONTROLLER
This operating principle applies to all TGS8xx, TGS2xxx and TGS3xxx series sensors.
Fig. 1 shows basic gas sensor structure of TGS26xx series sensors as an example. The gas sensor is composed of sensing element, sensor base and sensor cap. The sensing element contains sensing material and heater to heat up sensing element (eg. 400•). Depending on the target gas, the sensing element will utilize different materials such as Tin dioxide (SnO2), Tungsten oxide (WO3), etc. When a metal oxide crystal such as SnO2 is heated at a certain high temperature in air, oxygen is adsorbed on the crystal surface with a negative charge. Then donor electrons in the crystal surface are transferred to the adsorbed oxygen, resulting in leaving positive charges in a space charge layer. Thus, surface potential is formed to serve as a
potential barrier against electron flow (Figure 2). Inside the sensor, electric current flows through the conjunction parts (grain boundary) of SnO2 micro crystals. At grain boundaries, adsorbed oxygen forms a potential barrier which prevents carriers from moving freely. The electrical resistance of the sensor is attributed to this potential barrier.
In the presence of a deoxidizing gas, the surface density of the negatively charged oxyge decreases, so the barrier height in the grain boundary is reduced (Figures 3 and 4). The reduced barrier height decreases sensor resistance. The relationship between sensor resistance and the concentration of deoxidizing gas can be expressed by the following equation over a certain range of gas concentration:
Rs = A[C] -α where: Rs = electrical resistance of the sensor A = constant [C] = gas concentration α = slope of Rs curve Due to the logarithmic relationship between sensor resistance and gas concentration, semiconductor type sensors have an advantage of high sensitivity to gas even at low gas concentration. The excellent stability and performance of the semiconductor type sensor provides maintenance-free, long lived, and low cost gas detection. Figaro provides various sensors which have different sensitivity characteristics by selecting the most suitable combinations of sensing material, temperature and activity of sensor materials.
Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna (the chip and the antenna together are called an RFID transponder or an RFID tag). The antenna enables the chip to transmit the identification information to a reader. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers that can make use of it.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are made up of readers and tags—tiny microchips or integrated circuits with an antenna attached and embedded into labels. The antenna enables the chip to transmit the label’s identification information to a reader. When the reader is prompted, the tag broadcasts the information onto its chip. The reader converts the radio waves reflected back from an RFID tag into digital information that can then be passed on to computers or computer mainframes. There the information is collected, sorted, and converted into relevant data that can be used to measure future demand. There is effectively no upper limit on what an RFID tag can store (although more memory requires more power). Tags can be either active or passive. Radio tags can be applied on everything from car tires to hospital patients. Unlike traditional bar-codes, RFID chips give every tagged object a unique identification code. Companies will soon use RFID to track the billions of objects transported around the world every year in planes, trucks and ships, through ports and warehouses, on to store shelves, and into homes and offices. Accurate tracking will save hundreds of billions of dollars a year by improving the channels of distribution and reducing labor costs, inventory, and theft. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a system that transmits the identity of any object or person (in the form of a unique serial number) wirelessly using radio waves.
It is recognized under a category of automated identification technologies that includes bar coding and intelligent sensors that can be used for different applications. Bar codes, optical character readers, and biometric technologies like retinal scans are some of the automated identification technologies that reduce the time and labor needed to input and manage data manually, thereby improving operations and data accuracy. The basic components of RFID technology are the tags and readers that collect, integrate, store, and report the information collected. The demanding environment of security requires innovative and flexible solutions for secure student identification and security. RFID provides a complete solution for real-time identification and monitoring of students in the facility. Based on RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), location technologies, and standards-based architectures, the solution provides a tangible answer to the needs of the management to ensure the student safety and security.
MAX 232 LEVEL CONVERTOR
Usually all the digial ICs works on TTL or CMOS voltage levels which cannot be used to communicate over RS-232 protocol. So a voltage or level converter is needed which can convert TTL to RS232 and RS232 to TTL voltage levels. The most commonly used RS-232 level converter is MAX232. This IC includes charge pump which can generate RS232 voltage levels (-10V and +10V) from 5V power supply. It also includes two receiver and two transmitters and is capable of full-duplex UART/USART communication.
MAX232 Interfacing with Microcontrollers To communicate over UART or USART, we just need three basic signals which are namely, RXD (receive), TXD (transmit), GND (common ground). So to interface MAX232 with any microcontroller (AVR, ARM, 8051, PIC etc..) we just need the basic signals. A simple schematic diagram of connections between a microcontroller and MAX232 is shown below.
The Switching System
The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units: •home location register (HLR)—The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. •mobile services switching center (MSC)—The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others. •visitor location register (VLR)—The VLR is a database that contains temporary
information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. •authentication center (AUC)—A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. •equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node.
The Base Station System (BSS)
All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs). • BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the
MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.
BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC.
The Operation and Support System
The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.
Additional Functional Elements
Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows:
message center (MXE)—The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax, and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, email, and notification.
mobile service node (MSN)—The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services.
gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)—A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.
GSM interworking unit (GIWU)—The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR.
4. GSM Network Areas
The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. As shown in Figure 3, these areas include cells, location areas (LAs), MSC/VLR service areas, and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas.
ROM SERVICE AREA i1 operator's network)
mscriqui SERVICE AREA (area covered by /
LOCATION AREA (1 MSC consists of Us)
CELL Oro covered by 1 BTS)
Figure 3. Network Areas
The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell. The location area is a group of cells. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers, yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 4). Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number.
An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable, as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 5).
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Figure 5. MSC/VLR Service Areas
Before looking at the GSM specifications, it is important to understand the following basic terms: bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits; the broader the bandwidth, the faster data can be sent
bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data; eight bits are equivalent to one byte
frequency—the number of cycles per unit of time; frequency is measured in hertz (Hz)
kilo (k)—kilo is the designation for 1,000; the abbreviation kbps represents 1,000 bits per second
megahertz (MHz)-1,000,000 hertz (cycles per second) milliseconds second (ms)—one-thousandth of a
watt (W)—a measure of power of a transmitter
Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks. Listed below is a description of the specifications and characteristics for GSM. frequency band—The frequency range specified for GSM is 1,85o to 1,990 MHz (mobile station to base station).
duplex distance—The duplex distance is 8o MHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. A channel has two frequencies, 8o MHz apart.
channel separation—The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. In GSM, this is 20 kHz. 0
modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK).
transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.
access method—GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Each call is assigned a particular time slot.
speech coder—GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. The signal passes through this filter, leaving behind a residual signal. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps.
GSM Modem works on AT commands as follows:
The following section describes the AT-Command set. The commands can be tried out by connecting a GSM modem to one of the PC’s COM ports. Type in the test-command, adding CR + LF (Carriage return + Line feed = \r\n) before executing. Table gives an overview of the implemented AT-Commands in this application. The use of the commands is described in the later sections.
AT-Command set overview
Command AT ATE0 AT+CNMI AT+CPMS AT+CMGF AT+CMGR AT+CMGS AT+CMGD
Description Check if serial interface and GSM modem is working. Turn echo off, less traffic on serial line. Display of new incoming SMS. Selection of SMS memory. SMS string format, how they are compressed. Read new message from a given memory location. Send message to a given recipient. Delete message.
Relay is a common, simple application of electromagnetism. It uses an electromagnet made from an iron rod wound with hundreds of fine copper wire. When electricity is applied to the wire, the rod becomes magnetic. A movable contact arm above the rod is then pulled toward the rod until it closes a switch contact. When the electricity is removed, a small spring pulls the contract arm away from the rod until it closes a second switch contact. By means of relay, a current circuit can be broken or closed in one circuit as a result of a current in another circuit. Relays can have several poles and contacts. The types of contacts could be normally open and normally closed. One closure of the relay can turn on the same normally open contacts; can turn off the other normally closed contacts. Relay requires a current through their coils, for which a voltage is applied. This voltage for a relay can be D.C. low voltages upto 24V or could be 240V a.c.
A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered, in a broad sense, to be a form of electrical amplifier. These contacts can be either Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC), or change-over contacts.
Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is also called Form A contact or "make" contact. Form A contact is ideal for applications that require to switch a highcurrent power source from a remote device.
Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called Form B contact or "break" contact. Form B contact is ideal for applications that require the circuit to remain closed until the relay is activated. Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called Form C contact.
Operation When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When the current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force that is half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Usually this is a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application, this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to reduce arcing. If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation, which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.  By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device, a solid-state relay is made with
a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. To achieve electrical isolation, a light-emitting diode (LED) is used with a photo transistor.
The name is transistor derived from ‘transfer resistors’ indicating a solid state Semiconductor device. In addition to conductor and insulators, there is a third class of material that exhibits proportion of both. Under some conditions, it acts as an insulator, and under other conditions it’s a conductor. This phenomenon is called Semi-conducting and allows a variable control over electron flow. So, the transistor is semi conductor device used in electronics for amplitude. Transistor has three terminals, one is the collector, one is the base and other is the emitter, (each lead must be connected in the circuit correctly and only then the transistor will function). Electrons are emitted via one terminal and collected on another terminal, while the third terminal acts as a control element. Each transistor has a number marked on its body. Every number has its own specifications. There are mainly two types of transistor (i) NPN & (ii) PNP NPN Transistors: When a positive voltage is applied to the base, the transistor begins to conduct by allowing current to flow through the collector to emitter circuit. The relatively small current flowing through the base circuit causes a much greater current to pass through the emitter /
collector circuit. The phenomenon is called current gain and it is measure in beta. PNP Transistor: It also does exactly same thing as above except that it has a negative voltage on its collector and a positive voltage on its emitter.
Transistor is a combination of semi-conductor elements allowing a controlled current flow. Germanium and Silicon is the two semi-conductor elements used for making it. There are two types of transistors such as POINT CONTACT and JUNCTION TRANSISTORS. Point contact construction is defective so is now out of use. Junction triode transistors are in many respects analogous to triode electron tube. A junction transistor can function as an amplifier or oscillator as can a triode tube, but has the additional advantage of long life, small size, ruggedness and absence of cathode heating power. Junction transistors are of two types which can be obtained while manufacturing.
The two types are: 1) PNP TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of P type of germanium to an N-P Junction
2) NPN TYPE: This is formed by joining a layer of N type germanium to a P-N Junction.
Both types are shown in figure, with their symbols for representation. The centre section is called the base, one of the outside sectionsthe emitter and the other outside section-the collector. The direction of the arrowhead gives the direction of the conventional current with the forward bias on the emitter. The conventional flow is opposite in direction to the electron flow.
OPERATION OF PNP TRANSISTOR:A PNP transistor is made by sand witching two PN germanium or silicon diodes, placed back to back. The centre of N-type portion is extremely thin in
comparison to P region. The P region of the left is connected to the positive terminal and N-region to the negative terminal i.e. PN is biased in the forward direction while P region of right is biased negatively i.e. in the reverse direction as shown in Fig. The P region in the forward biased circuit is called the emitter and P region on the right, biased negatively is called collector. The centre is called base.
The majority carriers (holes) of P region (known as emitter) move to N region as they are repelled by the positive terminal of battery while the electrons of N region are attracted by the positive terminal. The holes overcome the barrier and cross the emitter junction into N region. As the width of base region is extremely thin, two to five percent of holes recombine with the free electrons of N-region which result in a small base current while the remaining holes (95% to 98%) reach the collector junction. The collector is biased negatively and the negative collector voltage aids in sweeping the hole into collector region.
Hence we can say that when the emitter is forward biased and collector is negatively biased, a substantial current flows in both the circuits. Since a small emitter voltage of about 0.1 to 0.5 volts permits the flow of an appreciable emitter current the input power is very small. The collector voltage can be as high as 45 volts.
A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. This constant of proportionality is called conductance, G. The reciprocal of the conductance is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law:
Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films, as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy, such as nickel-chrome). Resistors are also implemented within
integrated circuits, particularly analog devices, and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits.
The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than 9 orders of magnitude. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design, the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor, according to its specific application. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinking. In a high voltage circuit, attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.
The series inductance of a practical resistor causes its behavior to depart from ohms law; this specification can be important in some high-frequency applications for smaller values of resistance. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. The unwanted inductance, excess noise, and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its form factor, that is, the size of the device and position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.
It is an electronic component whose function is to accumulate charges and then release it.
To understand the concept of capacitance, consider a pair of metal plates which all are placed near to each other without touching. If a battery is connected to these
plates the positive pole to one and the negative pole to the other, electrons from the battery will be attracted from the plate connected to the positive terminal of the battery. If the battery is then disconnected, one plate will be left with an excess of electrons, the other with a shortage, and a potential or voltage difference will exists between them. These plates will be acting as capacitors. Capacitors are of two types: - (1) fixed type like ceramic, polyester, electrolytic capacitorsthese names refer to the material they are made of aluminium foil. (2) Variable type like gang condenser in radio or trimmer. In fixed type capacitors, it has two leads and its value is written over its body and variable type has three leads. Unit of measurement of a capacitor is farad denoted by the symbol F. It is a very big unit of capacitance. Small unit capacitor are picofarad denoted by pf (Ipf=1/1000,000,000,000 f) Above all, in case of electrolytic capacitors, it's two terminal are marked as (-) and (+) so check it while using capacitors in the circuit in right direction. Mistake can destroy the capacitor or entire circuit in operational.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
When a light-emitting diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.
Light-emitting diodes are used in applications as diverse as replacements for aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly brake lamps, turn signals and indicators) as well as in traffic signals. The compact size, the possibility of narrow bandwidth, switching speed, and extreme reliability of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are also useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances.
PRINCIPLE: Two coils are wound over a Core such that they are magnetically coupled. The two coils are known as the primary and secondary windings. In a Transformer, an iron core is used. The coupling between the coils is source of making a path for the magnetic flux to link both the coils. A core as in fig.2 is used and the coils are wound on the limbs of the core. Because of high permeability of iron, the flux path for the flux is only in the iron and hence the flux links both windings. Hence there is very little ‘leakage flux’. This term leakage flux denotes the part of the flux, which does not link both the coils, i.e., when coupling is not perfect. In the high frequency transformers, ferrite core is used. The transformers may be step-up, stepdown, frequency matching, sound output, amplifier driver etc. The basic principles of all the transformers are same.
CONVENTIONAL POWER TRANSFORMER
A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. A voltage regulator may be a simple "feedforward" design or may include negative feedback control loops. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages.
Electronic voltage regulators are found in devices such as computer power supplies where they stabilize the DC voltages used by the processor and other elements.
In automobile alternators and central power station generator plants, voltage regulators control the output of the plant. In an electric power distribution system, voltage regulators may be installed at a substation or along distribution lines so that all customers receive steady voltage independent of how much power is drawn from the line.
The DB9 (originally DE-9) connector is an analog 9-pin plug of the D-Subminiature connector family (D-Sub or Sub-D). The DB9 connector is mainly used for serial connections, allowing for the asynchronous transmission of data as provided for by standard RS232 (RS-232C).
Note that there are DB9-DB25 adapters for easily converting a DB9 plug into a DB25, and vice versa. Pin number 1 Name CD - Carrier Detect
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
RXD - Receive Data TXD - Transmit Data DTR - Data Terminal Ready GND - Signal Ground DSR - Data Set Ready RTS - Request To Send CTS - Clear To Send RI - Ring Indicator Shield
INTRODUCTION-Making a Printed Circuit Board is the first step towards building electronic equipment by any electronic industry. A number of methods are available for making P.C.B., the simplest method is of drawing pattern on a copper clad board with acid resistant (etchants) ink or paint or simple nail polish on a copper clad board and do the etching process for dissolving the rest of copper pattern in acid liquid. MATERIAL REQUIRED The apparatus needs for making a P.C.B. is :* Copper Clad Sheet
* * * *
Nail Polish or Paint Ferric Chloride Powder. (Fecl) Plastic Tray Tap Water etc. PROCEDURE
The first and foremost in the process is to clean all dirt from copper sheet with say spirit or trichloro ethylene to remove traces grease or oil etc. and then wash the board under running tap water. Dry the surface with forced warm air or just leave the board to dry naturally for some time. Making of the P.C.B. drawing involves some preliminary consideration such as thickness of lines/ holes according to the components. Now draw the sketch of P.C.B. design (tracks, rows, square) as per circuit diagram with the help of nail polish or enamel paint or any other acid resistant liquid. Dry the point surface in open air, when it is completely dried, the marked holes in P.C.B. may be drilled using 1Mm drill bits. In case there is any shorting of lines due to spilling of paint, these may be removed by scraping with a blade or a knife, after the paint has dried. After drying, 22-30 grams of ferric chloride in 75 ml of water may be heated to about 60 degree and poured over the P.C.B. , placed with its copper side upwards in a plastic tray of about 15*20 cm. Stirring the solution
helps speedy etching. The dissolution of unwanted copper would take about 45 minutes. If etching takes longer, the solution may be heated again and the process repeated. The paint on the pattern can be removed P.C.B. may then be washed and dried. Put a coat of varnish to retain the shine. Your P.C.B. is ready. REACTION Fecl3 + Cu ----- CuCl3 + Fe Fecl3 + 3H2O --------- Fe (OH)3 + 3HCL
PRECAUTION 1. Add Ferric Chloride (Fecl3) carefully, without any splashing. Fecl3 is irritating to the skin and will stain the clothes.
Place the board in solution with copper side up.
Try not to breathe the vapours. Stir the solution by giving see-saw motion to the dish and solution in it.
Occasionally warm if the solution over a heater-not to boiling. After some time the unshaded parts change their colour continue to etch. Gradually the base material will become visible. Etch for two minutes more to get a neat pattern.
Don't throw away the remaining Fecl3 solution. It can be used again for next Printed Circuit Board P.C.B.
USES Printed Circuit Board are used for housing components to make a circuit for compactness, simplicity of servicing and case of interconnection. Thus we can define the P.C.B. as : Prinked Circuit Boards is actually a sheet of bakelite (an insulating material) on the one side of which copper patterns are made with holes and
from another side, leads of electronic components are inserted in the proper holes and soldered to the copper points circuit. In the boards copper cladding is done by pasting thin copper foil on the boards during curing. The copper on the board is about 2 mm thick and weights an ounce per square foot. The process of making a Printed Circuit for any application * * * has the following steps (opted professionally): Preparing the layout of the track. Transferring this layout photographically M the Removing the copper in places which are not needed, by the process of etching (chemical process) * Drilling holes for components mounting. on the back. Thus leads of electronic components terminals are joined to make electronic
PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Printed circuit boards are used for housing components to make a circuit, for comactness, simplicity of servicing and ease of interconnection. Single sided, double sided and double sided with plated-through-hold (PYH) types of p.c boards are common today.
Boards are of two types of material (1) phenolic paper based material (2) Glass epoxy material. Both materials are available as laminate sheets with copper cladding. Printed circuit boards have a copper cladding on one or both sides. In both boards, pasting thin copper foil on the board during curing does this. Boards are prepared in sizes of 1 to 5 metre wide and upto 2 metres long. The thickness of the boards is 1.42 to 1.8mm. The copper on the boards is about 0.2 thick and weighs and ounce per square foot.
MPLAB IDE 8.50 MPLAB IDE is a software program that runs on a PC to develop applications for Microchip microcontrollers. It is called an Integrated Development Environment, or IDE, because it provides a single integrated "environment" to develop code for embedded microcontrollers.
HYPER TERMINAL HyperTerminal is an application you can use in order to connect your computer to other remote systems. These systems include other computers, bulletin board systems, servers, Telnet sites, and online services. However, you would need a modem, an Ethernet connection, or a null modem cable before you can use HyperTerminal. Within HyperTerminal’s user interface, you will find menus, buttons, icons, and messages. All these elements and controls work together so as to provide convenience for the user, especially for accessing the necessary features and performing various tasks. This application is a useful tool, particularly for testing if your modem is working well and in verifying if you have a stable connection with other sites. In order to check if your modem’s settings are configured correctly or if your modem is connected properly, you can send a set of commands through HyperTerminal and view the results given. Other functions of HyperTerminal would include the recording of data being sent to and from the service of the computer you are connected to. Through this
information, you will be able to determine the stability of your connections.
This is the wire used to connect PC with circuitry. The wire is known as port wire.
WORKING OF THE PROJECT
SHAP Data monitoring system is basically a system that provides us the provision of monitoring or recording the database regarding various parameters of machinery in an industry. The inputs to the system are sensed by the number of sensors employed in our system. The functions of the various sensors are as follows: 1. RFID: is used for maintaining the track records of the entry and exit of employees as well as of the employers in the firm. It also provide us the information regarding the duration for which the person was physically present in the firm. Thus there is no chance of fake attendance. 2. Temperature Sensor: Temperature is a very important parameter in industries like printing press, IC fabrication etc. where a precise control on the Temperature is to be maintained. With the help of this system, we are able to keep a constant watch on the Temperature of a machine. 3. Level Sensors: Now days, fuel thefting is becoming one of the major obstacle in an industry. So by observing the level of the fuel constantly, we can detect if any of such activity is happening in the firm.
4. Gas Sensors: is employed to inform the concerned person about leaking of gas. These sensors output is fed to PIC 16F 877A at its part A which is been provided with an inbuilt A/D convertor as the output produced by the sensors are analog in nature except the RFID sensor. Since the RFID provides output in the form of serial bits, it is fed to the USART receiver pin of the microcontroller chip. With the help of the programming done in the micro controller, we are able to inform the concerned person about the mischief. The output of the microcontroller is then fed to MAX 232 which basically is the level convertor incorporated to provide compatibility between microcontroller chip and proceeding devices used in the system. The additional feature introduced in this project is fulfilled with the help of GSM Modem. It provides with the facility of monitoring this database from a centralized location via a PC as well as from any part of the world using a mobile phone.MAX 232’s output is connected to the GSM Module via DB9 Connector.
• In industries for monitoring different parameters of a machine. • For maintaining the track records of the employee as well as the employer in the firm. • For maintaining the authenticity of confidential database in educational institute. • For keeping medical records of patient in hospitals. • For attendance purposes in school and colleges. • Anti fuel thefting system. • Home automation. • Vehicle security system. • Door open and closing alerts. • Air conditioning status. • Weather monitoring system. • Water irrigation for farmers.
PIC Microcontroller- Mazidi Electronic Device and Circuit- S K Sahdev Data communication- Tomasi Mobile Communication- Rappaport
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