Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft

Abstract

A hovercraft is an air-cushioned vehicle that is, it does not require wheels like other automobiles, and hence surface friction is not a factor for a hovercraft. A hovercraft can go over land as well as water without any difficulty and is majorly used in marshy areas for patrolling and defense applications. A hovercraft is also used for tourism. A hovercraft works on the principle of propulsion and is futuristic vehicle and can be used in many defense and miscellaneous applications.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bangalore Institute Of Technology, v.v.Puram, Bangalore
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Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING

A Hovercraft or also called an air cushion vehicle is a vehicle that can drive on both land and water. This vehicle differs from other vehicle in that way, it needs no surface contact for traction. Obstacles such as gullies and waves can be taken very easily like it is a flat surface. The reason for this is a generated air cushion between the hovercraft itself and the ground surface. The Hovercraft lifts due to the pressure generated by the air in the chamber {formed by the bottom portion of the hull and the skirt]. We know that Pressure = Force /Area {P/A] this relation gives the pressure required for the lift of the hovercraft. So the Hovercraft lifts due to the pressure by the fan and hence floats above the ground. Air leaks from below the skirt. This loss of air is taken care by axial flow fan, which is continuously supplying air to the chamber. Flaps are provided to help uniform air leakage from the bottom of the skirt. As the craft is above the ground there is no friction between the ground and the craft, now the craft is propelled with the help of the propulsion fan. The control of direction is done by using rudder and a steering mechanism. In the hovercraft are placed two propellers both driven by a gasoline engine and one of them is used to provide lift by keeping a low-pressure air cavity under the craft full of air. As the air pressure is increased the air lifts the craft by filling the cavity. The cavity or chamber in which the air is kept is called a ‘plenum ‘chamber. At the point when the air pressure equals the weight of the hovercraft over the chambers surface area the hovercraft lifts and the air starts to escape around the edge of the skirt. The escaped air creates an air-lubricated layer between the hovercraft and the ground surface. This will lead to a

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bangalore Institute Of Technology, v.v.Puram, Bangalore
2

Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft
frictionless motion of the hovercraft, taken into account that the minimum contact between skirt and the ground surface during the motion is negligible. The amount of the total weight that a hovercraft can raise is equal to the pressure in the plenum chamber multiplied by the area of the hovercraft. This plenum chamber principle is visualized in fig. 1.

A constant feed of air is needed to lift the hovercraft and to compensate for the air being lost through the holes in the bottom plate.[1] The flow must also be greater than the amount of air that escapes through the holes in the bottom plate. The rate of air loss is not constant, because there is no way of ensuring that any air escapes evenly all around the hovercraft. To maintain also the lift, the engine and propeller have to be sufficiently powerful enough to provide a high air flow rate into the chamber. A cylinder is placed around the lift propeller to improve the efficiency, because it reduces the pressure loss around the propeller tube. The second propeller is driven by another motor and is placed on the back end of the hovercraft. This motor can only deliver a constant speed to the propeller in contrast to the lift propeller and is used to generate a displacement forward.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Bangalore Institute Of Technology, v.v.Puram, Bangalore
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Bangalore 4 . which leads to an outward banked turn. DRAG FLAP: Flap under rear skirt which prevents skirts from scooping up water and increasing drag. v.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Without a rudder the hovercraft is un-maneuverable. Rudders action not only creates turning moment but also a drifting force and rolling moment. BAG SKIRT: Older versions of hovercraft used continuous skirt which looks like an inner tube. HUMP: When starting on water the lift air creates a saucer in the water and climbing out of it is called flying over hump. ON CUSHION: The position of the hovercraft when the hard structure is clear of the surface riding on its cushion of air.v.Puram. HOVER HEIGHT: The height of the hard structure above a hard surface at operating speeds. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. HOVERCRAFT TERMINOLOGY AIR STRAIGHTENERS: The stator blades which serve to form the air into a straight line thrust. FAN DUCT: The circular structure around the fan which assists its efficiency and houses the air straighteners.

segments of fingers. each separately supplied with lift air. this may be nose-up. SKIRT TIES: Plastic ties which hold the skirt segments to the skirt tie anchor on the hull. Bangalore 5 . nose-down or leaning left or right. v. TRIM: Posture of the hovercraft when flying or floating. Ideally the craft should be level or slightly nose up. Figure 2: Hovercraft parts Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.Puram.v. The various parts are as shown in the figure 2.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft SEGMENTED SKIRT: Skirt made up of individual pockets.

Plywood hovercraft can be built with basic hand and wood working tools.v. plywood is the material of choice. A hovercraft can be assembled quickly after all the panels are cut out. v.Puram.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft HULL [1] The hovercraft hull is a solid structure which forms the base of the hovercraft which supports the lift and thrust systems and also the driver. plywood is as durable and as low in maintenance as any other material. Plywood is affordable and easy to use. Panels are cut to shape from plans and joined together at the seams. When encapsulated with epoxy resin. Bangalore 6 . [2] The joining of the plywood is a “stitch and glue” method. For amateur hovercraft builders. SKIRT Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. Plywood has a better “strength to weight” than steel and is much lighter than most fiberglass hovercraft.

Other advantages of the flexible skirt development are a better stability and a better obstacle clearance.Puram. The invention of the flexible skirt was a big step forward in the hovercraft history. The function of skirts for a hovercraft has proved to be as important to the air cushion vehicles as that of the rubber tyres for an automobile. in a way that leads to a significant of the lift power. [3] The skirt bag is normally divided in several parts to improve the absorption of obstacles. powerful lift engines were needed to create only a few millimeters lift under the hull hard structure. Bangalore 7 . The material for a skirt bag should have high tearing and tension strength.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft The skirt is one the most important parts of a hovercraft as it is the part that allows the hovercraft to clear obstacles. Generally speaking the higher the skirt. but with as few as possible abrasion. The bag skirt The segmented skirt The juped skirt RUDDERS Rudders are important for steering the craft. However. The use of an inflated bag around the hovercraft resulted in an efficient air distribution and a reduction of the lift power. As the propeller of fan turns the air will Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. Besides their steering capability they have a nice effect to increase usable thrust. iii. the larger the obstacle that the craft will clear. The main idea behind the air cushion introduction was to create air lubrication between the ground surface and the hovercraft. Before the flexible skirt had thought necessary. if the skirt is too tall. Types of skirts i.v. The material type and the structure of the skirt are playing an important role in the skirt design step. the craft will ‘slides off the cushion and the cushion will deflate or the craft will become extremely unstable. ii. v.

A better solution would be to use an airfoil shape. A rudder setup.times the lever). The upper rudder pivot point is set back behind the lower pivot point.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft generate swirls and the rudders will straighten them again. Build wrong they may consume more thrust for drag then you can gain from straightening the flow so they should be made keeping this in mind. a NACA000x (where x stands for the thickness in %) will do the job. The force on the forward third is compensated with the third behind the pivot point so the force you have to hold with your steering is only the one on the rearward third (. they also act as an elevator or push the hull down on the outside of the curve.Puram.v. which compensates this negative effect and even supports leaning into the right direction. Bangalore 8 . What this does is that the rudders are just straight up if you drive straight ahead. Round at least the corner towards the propeller or fan and send the other side flat.This is why most hovercraft have more than one rudder (besides the higher steering forces you can achieve covering more flow area). The highest drag is from a flat plate. v. This can be either compensated with an elevator or special rudder arrangements. The pivot point of rudders is usually at 1/3 of the chord (the depth of the rudder) this helps to lower the steering forces. [3] An important aspect of rudders is their drag. Unfortunately rudders have a less nice side effect. is the one shown in the figure 3 below. The rudders can actually made thicker with less drag than what you would achieve with a flat plate. They actually act as flow straighteners. As soon as you turn them the Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. It doesn’t have to be a complicated airfoil.

Bangalore 9 . The disadvantage of this setup is that the linkage gets complicated. which combines rudders and elevator into one unit.Puram. To use the rudders as an Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. just into the opposite direction. The same for a right turn. For a turn the rudder pairs have to turn in opposite directions. If you want to make a left turn the left rudder pair has to go up and the right pair has to go down. v. Set up right the craft will nicely lean into the curve.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft top part will fold a bit downwards and generate some lift. Figure 3: Normal and Angular Rudders Another method.v. are inverted V rudders as shown in the drawing below.

All down to push the nose down. It more or less demands that the rudders are actuated by a fly-by-wire system have the mechanical design would be a nightmare.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft elevator all rudders have to move into the same directions (All up to lift the bow. v. The same applies for the mechanical strength of all attachments. Figure 4: Inverted V . it is nonetheless necessary to consider the power-to-weight ratio at the design stage of an air cushion vehicle. Bangalore 10 . To make the situation worse it may be required for fine trim of the craft to have one rudder pair go up more than the other pair down for curves. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. POWER TO WEIGHT RATIO Although an air cushion vehicle does not require the critical power-to-weight ratio precision as does an airplane in order for it to still operate.Puram. They should be made strong enough not to flex which would also result in problems similar to the once with too much play in the hinges. This may be the reason why this excellent rudder arrangement isn’t used for most hovercrafts (Refer figure 4). rather than find out later that there isn’t enough power to lift or move the craft.v.Rudders Very important for all rudders arrangements is to keep the play in the hinges as low as possible to avoid that the pilot has to continuously play with the steering.).

v. Power-to-weight ratio = P / W POWER TO WEIGHT TO STRENGTH RATIO The next consideration for a properly functioning hovercraft is the power-to-weight-tostrength ratio. Lifting it too high will cause instability. its passengers or payload. Bangalore 11 . The greater this round clearance the more efficiently the propulsion system operates. This deals with the structural strength of the raft to be light enough to be lifted by the air cushion created underneath. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. Air cushion vehicle hull construction is more closely based on aviation rather than marine construction for the simple reason that aviation hulls are a combination of strength and lightness as opposed to strength as a priority. That is not to say that the higher the hovercraft lifts into the air the better.Puram. Such is the power of the lift that even a severally overloaded and miscalculated power-toweight ration hovercraft construction will still work. but it is far from ideal.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft The power-to-weight ratio determines in large part the amount of ground clearance between the skirt and the ground surface. v. yet strong enough to carry the weight of the engine.

Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Although wood and plywood are often used.Puram. such as PVC. and fiber glass and composite materials. welded or riveted onto an aluminum web or frame. Other crafts use aluminum-honeycombed paneling to provide the buoyancy. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. v. A hole in the raft can be made to feed air to the plenum chamber beneath the craft. more sensible and more common. led in from the edge f the raft through ducts. However. Enclosed spaces are sealed to provide airtight compartments for natural buoyancy. are becoming more popular as they combine strength.v. the use of the new skirt techniques makes peripheral jets. Bangalore 12 . lightness and buoyancy in a single material. many hovercraft hull structures are made of aluminum skin.

v.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Figure 5: Fan placement and the airflow in a Hovercraft THE DESIGN PROCESS In designing Hovercraft one of the first steps is to decide what is needed that is nothing but specifications. Difficult as it always seems. Bangalore 13 . v. the designer must try to write out a series Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.Puram.

performance. When done. Improper specifications soon become apparent and consequently. specifications often needed a revision. Hovercraft lift calculator Enter the required data in the following fields.v. life expectancy. Top of Form Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. noise. control. Conflicts arise and compromise becomes unavoidable. Size. and comfort are the contents in the specifications. Performance. press the "Calculate" button. Cost. not both. v. cost. appearance and capabilities. Press the "Clear Input" button before starting a new calculation. Dependability / maintenance.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft of requirements. The answers will appear below. appearance. Probably the most common specification are Size.Puram. use the metric or imperial boxes. Bangalore 14 . weight.

gross weight of craft in kg: Clear Input þÿ or inches (i. ft.e. ft. (m) Total hover gap area Total cushion area Cushion pressure Cushion pressure Expected actual air velocity Lift air volume Estimated lift engine power Estimated fan diameter (m^2) (m^2) (N/m^2 = Pa) (mm of water @ 4degC) (m/sec) (m^3/sec) (kW) (m) þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ (ft) (sq.Puram.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Enter hull length in meters: Enter hull width in meters: þÿ or feet: or feet: þÿ þÿ þÿ Enter Amount of air gap required in mm (i.v.5): þÿ þÿ þÿ pounds: . PSF) (inches of water @ 60degF) (ft/sec) (CFS) (HP) (inches) þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ þÿ Table 1: Hover calculator (Readings) Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.) (lbs/sq. 13): Enter max. ft. Bangalore 15 .) (sq.e. v. 0. Results below are computed from the Input Data above and are to be considered approximate values only.

Bags can be fitted to the curved Hulls and other odd shapes but with more difficulties. The bag against air pressure under the craft in the cushion. The nylon-base fabric is usually about 2. Allow a 0. which is like a giant inner tube fitted around the crafts perimeter. flow through and non. Fabrics for bags are usually the same as for jupes. the pressure ratio between the bag and the cushion. Coat the thread with epoxy or urethane to prevent fraying. Seams should always lay in the direction of travel as much as possible. Drape the material over the corner and mark the shape of the joint.33N/m2. There is usually little or no wastage. Neoprene coated nylon. Bangalore 16 .v. v.0254m glue seam.Puram. Bags are of two types. In the US this is still the most common skirt found on home built machines. Creases in the bag will cause drag. Additional pressure is needed to inflate.flow through.21N/m2. Bags assume different cross section shapes depending upon the attachment points. which is 5. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. The simpler the craft shape the easier fitting the bag becomes.4 BAG SKIRT: Recently the most widely used skirt was the bag skirt.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft 7. BAGS The bag is popular as its manufacture uses the least amount of material compared to other skirts types. as well as the local skirt height. Now it is very important that the relative position and shape of each corner with respect to each other corners be obtained before cutting the final skirt panels. Making skirt is an art. The draw back of this approach is that no two skirts will be alike and each hovercraft could have different characteristics depending on the quality and actual shape of the skirt. wear and uncomfortable operating characteristics.

v. The remaining duct area provides the lift air for the cushion. This is especially bad over smooth hard surfaces like concrete and ice. There is a natural tendency for bags to bounce. For best overall craft performance lift air should be introduced into the forward part of the cushion.0 of course this is the ratio at which most bags operate. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.Puram. Its is tough that bounce is more slightly to occur when the bag cushion pressure ration lies between 1.0381 m apart. for most applications. properly clean.flow-through bags are usually inflated through a splitter plate connected by a small duct placed directly under the lift pan in the fan duct. v. Instead several strips of skirt material are sewn along each side of the bag to help damp out oscillations and act as a spray deflector. and rivet using solid aluminum rivets with large flange aluminum backing washers placed on each side of the seam and spaced about 0. be adequate. Diaphragms fitted internally will reduce bounce but this solution is uncommon. glue. Bangalore 17 .2 and 2. However. Non. Its size is usually 10% of the lift duct area. neoprene contact (weather stripping) cement will.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft For best results when bonding skirt seams.

Some types of engines are most suitable than others. PRESSURE REQUIREMENT The definition of pressure is the force exerted per unit area. Cushion pressure = Total weight of the craft / area of the cushion. As a consequence. Here. will require a change in cushion pressure. Any change in hover gap will result in variation of the air volume required to maintain the cushion.Puram. In practice. [3] any change in craft weight or pay load. reliable. FAN The requirements of the fan are that it must provide the required volume of air at the required pressure. high performance hovercraft.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft ENGINES: The lack of engines specially developed for hovercraft use has been. this variation occurs in the change in surfaces over which the craft travels.v. and continues to be . v. it is necessary for the fan selected to supply sufficient pressure and volume in different conditions specified. Bangalore 18 . but all have been adapted and thus all types have problems when used in hovercrafts. As the cushion pressure is selected to offset the craft and thereby provide lift. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. a serious impediment to the production of low cost.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. Sand or 4" grass (pliable) = 1. The discharge coefficient ‘Dc’ depends on the angle formed between the skirt and the ground and is found from Von Mises equation. Qnom = V * A Qnom = √ (2 * Pc / ρ)* h* CPc * Dc. We know velocity pressure = ½ ρV2 Where. ρ = density of air V= velocity of air Flow rate.494 * 10^-7) * θs3 + (0. velocity pressure. Total pressure inside the skirt.2. Hard mud = 1.4 * 10^-3) * θs + (0. Pt1 = 823 + Ps1 Total pressure outside the skirt. Dc= 0.(1) -----------------------.537. For 45 degree skirt angle the Dc=0. Design factor to account for non-ideal surface conditions (Ks).(2) We know that when the air leaves the system all the static pressure is converted into velocity pressure. Therefore total pressure as only one component viz. Very short or wet grass = 1..Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft .Puram. Typical design factors Ice = 1.v. Pt2 = 823 + Ps2 -----------------------..4. Short course grass = 1.109 * 10^-4) * θs2 .(0. Bangalore 19 .5.3.5 + (0. v.345*10^-9)* θs4.

television. Assuming Ks =1.7. Q =Qnom*Ks m3/ sec Depending on this value we select appropriate fan. these areas often being remote and environmentally sensitive. b) Less friction or interruption to the surface = less disturbance of the environment. Bangalore 20 . v. The hovercraft achieves this by using low-pressure air to form air cushion beneath it. Our knowledge of them is usually gleaned from newspapers.v.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Wet or sticky mud or Long pliable grass = 1. For any vehicle to operate economically the drag. thus actually lifting the hull clear of water. The majority of the drag arises from the vessels hull through the water. or resistance to motion.Puram.6. Very choppy water or long course grass = 1. Therefore hovercraft can be used to best advantage in shallow water and drying areas. The main point here is that because the hovercraft does not pierce the surface over which it is traveling the advantage is two-fold: a) less friction = less fuel burnt to move. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF HOVERCRAFT For the majority of the people hovercraft is a new experience. magazines and the like. therefore we can reduce the drag and consequently propulsive power by minimizing hull contact. must be kept to a minimum. Most of these areas are Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. Very sticky mud or shallow shale 1.8+. Cushion design flow rate. and consequently misconceptions are ripe.8 Therefore.

rising locally to 0. This has been confirmed by independent scientific tests. mud flats and vegetarian is virtually nil because of the hovercraft’s low pressure “footprint”. which in case is largely directional in characteristic and more apparent to above surface creatures like humans. This “footprint” pressure is less then that of a seagull standing on one leg. as well as negating any possible sea bed erosion when operating in shallow waters. Bangalore 21 . and river delta. All advanced Hovercrafts are fully amphibious and create virtually no under water noise. For example. The major noise factor with any hovercraft is the air propeller noise. with no loss of speed or comfort. With the Hovercraft you can reach destinations which where before not accessible for research and studies. If this area is a future wetland where nobody could proof that it is a wetland or not-since it was not accessible by traditional transportation means. To minimize this effect advanced Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. the average human being when standing on a beach exerts a pressure of some 0. whilst rivers and tidal estuaries present no problem for the passage of the vessel.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft wetlands. The average hovercraft by comparison. marshes and flats. Channel dredging becomes unnecessary. swamps. In these sensitive areas are nearly to transportation means available. Previously inaccessible areas may be accessed Economically with little or no impact on their environment. They are not only the feeding ground for a lot of different species of birds as well very often used for marine live for hiding from predators. v. such as beaches.021N/mm2 underfoot. It therefore becomes obvious that fish and other marine life are in no way affected. or a very shallow bay where you need to download your data from your instrument platform. The fact that there are o underwater protrusions eliminates the usual thrashing noise signature associated with conventional propeller driven craft.v. Damage to the shore environment. Being amphibious the hovercraft can use direct routes across sand banks.0172 N/mm2 when walking. with no loss of speed and comfort. just atmospheric noise levels which would typical of truck or bus. exerts a pressure of only N/mm2 on the surface regardless of speed.Puram. Hovercrafts are able to operate in these areas in an environmentally friendly way.

These engines operate at a mixing range of 1:50=1part oil:50 parts gasoline where the unburned oil and fuel particles get discharged over the lower unit of engine-basically oil injecting the environment you navigate in. thus eliminating the pollution of the marine environment by oil and fuel particles. Atmospheric pollution is also considerably is less because of the inherent fuel efficiency of the modern four stroke machinery utilized. it does not pollute the water and does not disturb the bottom in shallow areas which many fish rely upon for food and breeding.00568m3 of bottom paint to your hull. A study in the United Kingdom concluded the passage of hovercraft over inter tidal areas caused no Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. as opposed to very large percentage of marine propulsion units which still utilize the stroke principle. thus lessening the pollution of the atmosphere even more. but we do our best to supply on a continuous basis till we find a better solution……when? If the last fish is dead? The wake created by the passage of the hovercraft is minimal. ensuring that river bank erosion and damage to foreshore by the waves created is virtually nil.00373m3 -0. Copper is just not the best stuff for our marine environment. the hovercraft hull is ‘sealed unit’. Another important factor is that. Bottom paint which tries to have a very high copper contend to work effectively (30 to 75%).Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft hovercraft propulsion propellers have been designed with low tip speed to minimize atmospheric noise. the hovercraft is in itself a fuel efficient mode of transport. Any accidental discharges and leaks are fully contained within the hull structure. The lower hull of a anti fouling coating like on all common boat hulls.v. On an average of 30 boat hull you have to apply all two years a new bottom coat-besides the expenses of haul out-you will apply between 0. particularly prevalent with two stroke outboard motor usage.Puram. These anti fouling paints have just one purpose-slowly come off your hull with whatever marine lives adhere to it. What must be attempted is to keep the noise within tolerable limits and we believe that we have gone a long way towards this. remaining there to be pumped out an appropriate shore facility. There is no exhaust discharge into the water as with most conventional water craft. Bangalore 22 . by necessity. For example a fully loaded six-person hovercraft burns less fuel per hour then a typical Jet Ski. In addition. v.

It was also noted that the bird life rapidly adjusted to the presence of the hovercraft. Hovercraft can work in areas and leave without the need for environmentally damaging the construction projects to support the operation. Hovercrafts do not require docks. v. The air pressure exerted by the hovercraft is considerably less then the normal pressure variations due to natural tidal movements. piers or dredged channels and can operate off many beach sites. Last not least – Hovercraft need minimum base requirements. Commercial operators in other areas around Australia have had similar experiences.v. Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.Puram. Road access to the maintenance base is desirable but not essential. This has been confirmed on the Gold Coast (Australia) where a commercial operator passed over the same area of the beach many times a day for more then three years without any effect to the Yabby population ( Yabbies live just below the wet sand) on the actual operating launch ramp. Bangalore 23 .Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft damage to sea grasses or invertebrates.

some of which are listed below.  Passenger transport and tourism related excursions.  Commercial freight transportation. v.Puram. Bangalore 24 .Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft APPLICATIONS OF HOVERCRAFTS Due to their characteristics hovercrafts have a big variety of applications.  Exploration  Search and rescue  Patrol and security  Amphibious  Fast attack  Mine counter measures  Policing and Customs.v.  Logistics  Medical Evacuation  Crash Rescue  Hydrographic survey  Commando Missions  Range patrol Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.

crash rescues. Bangalore 25 . Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology. amphibious assaults. v. carrying out counter measures for mining areas. hydrographic surveys.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft CONCLUSION  A hovercraft being an expensive piece of equipment is useful in many applications like tourism. policing and custom applications.  Through the capital cost and maintenance cost of the hovercraft is very high. commercial transportation over land and water.Puram. patrol and security of marshy areas and border security in deserts. commando missions and range patrols can also be done by a hovercraft. medical evacuations can be carried out by a hovercraft. It is useful in many applications and can be useful in many more futuristic applications due to ease of control. immediate military attacks. exploration of marshy areas.v.

html http://rchovercraft.com/index.com.v.com/ronaldb66/index.html http://www.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft References Websites http://4wings.geocities.phtemp. v.html Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.com/index.Puram. Bangalore 26 .

Bangalore 27 . v.Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.Puram.v.

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v.Puram. Bangalore 33 .Working principle and some Design Concept of Hovercraft Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangalore Institute Of Technology.v.