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VIBRATION IN CUTTING TOOL
(MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSE)
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the
Requirement for the award of the
PROJECT GUIDE: Submitted by:
MR. DHANIRAM SHKRAWAL VIJAY KUMAR (7ME131L)
PREETAM KR. (7ME118L)
KARISHAN KR. (7ME113L)
PARVEEN KR. (7ME117L)
SANDEEP KR. (7ME134L)
Department oI Mechanical Engineering
LINGAYA`S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY.
LINGAYA`S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & TECHNOLOGY.
'SUCCESS IS NOURISHED UNDER THE KIND COMBINATION OF PERFECT
GUIDANCE, CARE AND BLESSING¨
First and Ioremost, we, VI1AY KUMAR (7ME131L). PREETAM KUMAR (7ME118L).
PARVEEN KUMAR (7ME117L). KARISHAN KUMAR (7ME113L) and SANDEEP
KUMAR (7ME134L) are thankIul to Dr. N.1. Dembi. Head of department MECH. ENGG..
LIMAT Ior the kind support that they extended to us Ior making this proiect.
We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our project guide. Mr. Dhaniram
Shakrawal. We were privileged to experience a sustained enthusiastic and involved interest
Irom his side. This Iuelled our enthusiasm even Iurther and encouraged us to boldly step into
what was a totally dark and unexplored expanse beIore us.
We are also thankIul to Mr. Sukesh Babu. (Mechanical Deptt.). Mr. Murli Karishan
(Mechanical Deptt.) and Mr. R.K. Singh (Mechanical Deptt.) Ior their co-operation, kindness
and general help extended to us during the completion oI this work.
We would also like to thank our seniors who were ready with a positive comment all the time,
whether it was an oII-hand comment to encourage us or a constructive piece oI criticism.
Last but not least, we would like to thank the mechanical staII members and the institute, in
general, Ior extending a helping hand at every iuncture oI need.
With due respect,
VIJAY KUMAR (7ME131L)
PREETAM KR. (7ME118L)
KARISHAN KR. (7ME113L)
PARVEEN KR. (7ME117L)
SANDEEP KR. (7ME134L)
This is certiIied that the proiect report titled 'VIBRATION IN CUTTING TOOL
(MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS)¨ submitted by VI1AY KUMAR (7ME131L).
PREETAM KUMAR (7ME118L). PARVEEN KUMAR (7ME117L). KARISHAN
KUMAR (7ME113L) and SANDEEP KUMAR (7ME134L) in partial IulIillment oI the
requirements Ior the award oI Degree of Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical) oI M.D.
University Rohtak is record oI bonaIide work carried out under my supervision and has not
been submitted anywhere else Ior any other purpose.
DR. N.1. DEMBI MR. DHANIRAM SHAKRAWAL
(HEAD OF DEPTT. MECHANICAL) (PRO1ECT GUIDE)
Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the
desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical
phenomenon which inIluences dimensional precision oI the components machined,
Iunctional behavior oI the machine tools and liIe oI the cutting tool. In a machining
operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly inIluenced by cutting parameters
like cutting speed, depth oI cut and tool Ieed rate.
In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are measured by the use oI Digital
Vibration meter, which can measure displacement, velocity, acceleration and
Irequency. Experiments were conducted on a lathe machine tool. The cutting tool
vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by
RS-232 soItware. The sensor was attached with the tool post Ior sensing the
vibration oI tool during turning operation. The signal provided by sensor is shown
in digital Iorm on the screen oI vibration meter. The vibration meter transIer these
signal to computer where with the help oI RS-232 soItware the data is recorded.
Three diIIerent materials were used Ior the collecting data at various parameters
like depth oI cut, speed, Ieed rate etc. A no. oI data was recorded by varying the
above parameters. On the completion oI experimental work MATLAB is used to
analyze the result Ior vibration in metal cutting tool and also to predict the
behavior oI the system under any cutting condition within the operating range
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Units oI vibration........................2
1.2 Characteristics oI vibration..................2
1.3 Relationship between the vibration parameters.......3
1.4 Types oI Vibration......................3
1.4.1 Free Vibration.....................3
1.4.2 Forced Vibration....................4
1.4.3 SelI-excited vibration..................4
VIBRATION IN MACHINE TOOL SYSTEM
2.1 SOURCES OF VIBRATION EXCITATION............7
2.1.1 Vibration due to Inhomogeneities in the workpiece...7
2.1.2 Vibration due to cross-sectional variation
oI removed material.................8
2.1.3 Disturbances in the workpiece and tool drives.....9
2.1.4 Impacts Irom massive part reversals............14
2.1.5 Vibration transmitted Irom the environment........15
2.1.6 Machine-tool chatter.................16
2.2 The eIIect oI vibration on tool liIe..............19
2.3 Free Vibrations in the Machine-tool System.........19
2.4 Forced Vibrations in the Machine-tool System........23
2.5 Disadvantage oI Vibration in the Machine Tool System....26
2.5.1 Chatter Occurring in the Machine Tool System.....26
2.5.2 Types oI Chatters.....................27
2.5.3 Machining Instability....................28
VIBRATION CONTROL IN MACHINE TOOLS
3.3 Tool Design.........................42
3.4 Variation oI Cutting Conditions..............43
4.1 Measurement oI Vibration................45
4.2 EIIect oI the transducer on the vibrating structure.....46
4.3 Vibration Transducers..................46
4.3.1 The Stroboscope Method............46
4.3.2 The Reed Vibrometer...............47
4.3.3 The Seismic-Mass Transducer..........48
4.4 Comparison oI Vibration-Measuring Systems..........49
5.1.1 Machine Tool..................50
5.1.2 Vibration Meter..................51
5.1.3 USB-232 Data Cable and SoItware........53
5.2 Block Diagram oI Set up..................55
6.2 MILD STEEL......................60
6.3 Low Grade alloy steels...................64
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK...............68
LIST OF TABLE
1. Comparison oI vibration-measuring systems............49
2. Techanical Data........................52
3. General Properties oI Aluminium..................56
4. Analysed data oI Aluminium Specimen..............59
5. Analysed data oI Mild Steel Specimen................63
6. Analysed data oI Low Grade Alloy Steel Specimen.........66
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Schematic illustrating the inuence oI the delay on the cutting process..1
2. Free Vibration...........................4
3. Turning Opertion......................7
4. (A) Turning process with material deIects,
( B) Single DOF Iree vibration system.............20
5. (A) Internal grinding process,
(B) Single DOF Iorced vibration system.............25
6. Poorly machined surIace resulted Irom chatter..........26
7. Load transmission between column and bed.(A) Old design, relatively
Ilexible owing to deIormation oI Ilange.(B) New design, bolt placed in a
pocket (A) or Ilange stiIIened with ribs on both sides oI bolt (B).....31
8. Successive stages in the improvement oI a Ilange connection....31
9. Torsional stiIIness oI box columns with diIIerent holes in walls...32
10. InIluence oI cover plate and lid on static stiIIness oI box column.(A)
Column without holes,(B) one hole uncovered,(C) hole covered with
cover plate, and (D) hole covered with substantial lid, Iirmly
11.Mounting schemes oI a iig borer................34
12.DeIlection oI machine-tool spindle and bearings. A machine-tool spindle
can be regarded as a beam on Ilexible supports. The total deIlection
under the Iorce P consists oI the sum oI (A) the deIlection X
oI a Ilexible
beam on rigid supports and (B) the deIlection X
oI a rigid beam on
13.EIIect oI bore diameter on stiIIness oI hollow spindle where k
stiIIness oI solid spindle, k
÷ stiIIness oI hollow spindle, D ÷outer
spindle diameter, d ÷ bore diameter, J
÷second moment oI area oI
hollow spindle, and J
÷ second moment oI area oI solid spindle. The
curve is deIined by k
÷ 1 (d/D)..............36
14.Load-deIlection characteristics Ior Ilat, deeply scraped surIaces (overall
contact area 80 cm
).1,no lubrication;2,lightly lubricated(oil content 0.8 ×
);3,richly lubricated (oil content 1.8 × 10
15.InIluence oI various components on total damping oI lathes. The maior
part oI the damping is generated at the mating surIaces oI the various
16.Auxiliary mass damper with combined elastic and damping element. The
combined element lies between two retainer rings, oI which one (3) is
attached with bolt 1 to the machine structure. The other ring (2) takes the
weight oI the auxiliary mass. (A) Arrangement when auxiliary mass is
being supported.(B) Arrangement when auxiliary mass is being
suspended.(C) Application oI both types oI arrangements to a hobbing
17.Lanchester damper Ior the suppression oI boring bar vibration....41
18.The Stroboscope Method..................47
19.The Reed Vibrometer.....................47
20.Seismic Mass Transducer..................49
21.Lathe Machine tool used Ior experiment..............51
22.Vibration sensor mounted on tool post..............52
23.Digital Vibration Meter.....................53
24.Vibration meter and Computer.................54
25.Block Diagram oI set up...................55
26.Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and
speed 750 rpm.......................57
27.Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and
speed 750 rpm........................58
28.Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and
speed 750 rpm........................58
29.Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and
speed 750 rpm........................61
30.Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and
speed 1250 rpm.......................61
31.Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and
speed 750 rpm........................62
32.Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and
speed 1250 rpm......................62
33.Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5
mm and speed 450.....................65
34.Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5
mm and speed 750.....................65
35.Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1
mm and speed 750.....................66
Vibration is a repetitive, periodic, or oscillatory response oI a mechanical system.
The rate oI the vibration cycles is termed 'Irequency.¨ Repetitive motions that are somewhat
clean and regular, and that occur at relatively low Irequencies, are commonly called oscillations,
while any repetitive motion, even at high Irequencies, with low amplitudes, and having irregular
and random behavior Ialls into the general class oI vibration.
With the modern trend oI machine tool development, accuracy and reliability are gradually
become more prominent Ieature. To achieve higher accuracy and productivity it is not enough to
design the machine tools Irom static consideration without considering the dynamic instability oI
the machine tools. II there be any relative vibratory motion present between the cutting tool and
the iob, it is obvious that the perIormance oI the machine tool not be satisIactory. Moreover
machine tool vibration has detrimental eIIect on the tool liIe, which in turn, lowers down the
productivity and increase cost oI production.
Figure 1.1: Schematic illustrating the inuence oI the delay on the cutting process.
During operations machine tools are subiected to static and dynamic loads. These Iorces may act
in either oI the Iollowing manners:
(1)Dynamic behaviour caused by entirely by the load acting during the action oI the load
(2)Dynamic behaviour initiated by a load but persisting aIter load has caused to act (Iree
(3)Dynamic behaviour through an interaction between the structure and cutting process
While analysing dynamic behaviour oI machine tools, rigidity and stability are two
important characteristics to be considered. Dynamic rigidity is deIined as the ratio oI amplitude oI
vibratory Iorce considered harmonic to the vibratory displacement at a given Irequency. It is the
measure oI structure`s resistance to vibration.
1.1 Units of vibration
The units oI vibration depend on the vibrational parameter, as Iollows:
a) Acceleration, measured in g or |m/s
b) Velocity, measured in |m/s|;
c) Displacement, measured in |m|.
1.2 Characteristics of vibration
Vibration may be characterised by:
a) The Irequency in Hz;
b) The amplitude oI the measured parameter, which may be displacement, velocity, or acceleration.
This is normally reIerred to as the vibration amplitude when expressed in units, but vibration level
when expressed in decibels.
1.3 Relationship between the vibration parameters
Assuming that the vibration is simple harmonic motion, then
Displacement (x) ÷ A sin et
Velocity (v) ÷ Ae cos et
Acceleration (a) ÷ -Ae
e ÷ 2aI rad/s
I ÷ Irequency oI vibration in Hz
Note that the Irequencies are the same in each case, although there is a phase shiIt. The amplitudes
oI the above parameters are thus
Displacement amplitude÷ A
Velocity amplitude ÷ Ae
acceleration amplitude ÷ Ae2
1.4. Types of Vibration
1.4.1. Free vibration
Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set oII with an initial input and then
allowed to vibrate Ireely. Examples oI this type oI vibration are pulling a child back on a swing
and then letting go or hitting a tuning Iork and letting it ring. The mechanical system will then
vibrate at one or more oI its "natural Irequency" and damp down to zero.
Figure 1.2: Free Vibration
1.4.2. Forced vibration
Forced vibration is when an alternating Iorce or motion is applied to a mechanical system.
Examples oI this type oI vibration include a shaking washing machine due to an imbalance,
transportation vibration (caused by truck engine, springs, road, etc.), or the vibration oI a
building during an earthquake. In Iorced vibration the Irequency oI the vibration is the Irequency
oI the Iorce or motion applied, with order oI magnitude being dependent on the actual
1.4.3. Self-excited vibration
Steady input Iorce is modulated into vibration at the system natural Irequency.
Whistle -steady air Ilow produces acoustic vibration
Violin -bow across string produces vibration at Irequency that depends on string length chatter in
machining -steady excitation oI teeth impacting work leads to large tool vibrations at system
VIBRATION IN MACHINE TOOL SYSTEM
Machining and measuring operations are invariably accompanied by relative vibration between
workpiece and tool. These vibrations are due to one or more oI the Iollowing causes:
1. Inhomogeneities in the workpiece material
2. Variation oI chip cross section
3. Disturbances in the workpiece or tool drives
4. Dynamic loads generated by acceleration/deceleration oI massive moving components
5. Vibration transmitted Irom the environment
6. SelI-excited vibration generated by the cutting process or by Iriction (machine-tool chatter).
The tolerable level oI relative vibration between tool and workpiece, i.e., the maximum
amplitude and to some extent the Irequency is determined by the required surIace Iinish and
machining accuracy as well as by detrimental eIIects oI the vibration on tool liIe and by the noise
which is Irequently generated.
This chapter discusses the sources oI vibration excitation in machine tools, machine-tool chatter
(i.e., selI-excited vibration which is induced and maintained by Iorces generated by the cutting
process), and methods oI control oI machine-tool vibration.
Vibrations in the machine-tool system are a well-known Iact in causing a number oI
machining problems, including tool wear, tool breakage, machine spindle bearings wear and
Iailure, poor surIace Iinish, inIerior product quality and higher energy consumption.
Vibrations can be classiIied in a number oI ways according to a number oI possible
Iactors. For instance, vibrations can be classiIied as Iree vibrations, Iorced vibrations and selI-
excited vibrations based on external energy sources. It is useIul to identiIy vibrations types in
Figure 2.1 Turning Opertion
2.1 SOURCES OF VIBRATION EXCITATION
2.1.1 Vibration due to Inhomogeneities in the workpiece
Hard spots or a crust in the material being machined impart small shocks to the tool and
workpiece, as a result oI which Iree vibrations are set up. II these transients are rapidly damped
out, their eIIect is usually not serious; they simply Iorm part oI the general 'background noise¨
encountered in making vibration measurements on machine tools. Cases in which transient
disturbances do not decay but build up to vibrations oI large amplitudes (as a result oI dynamic
instability) are oI great practical importance, and are discussed later. When machining is done
under conditions resulting in discontinuous chip removal, the segmentation oI chip elements
results in a Iluctuation oI the cutting thrust. II the Irequency oI these Iluctuations coincides with
one oI the natural Irequencies oI the structure, Iorced vibration oI appreciable amplitude may be
However, in single-edge cutting operations (e.g., turning),it is not clear whether the segmentation
oI the chip is a primary eIIect or whether it is produced by other vibration, without which
continuous chip Ilow would be encountered. The breaking away oI a built-up edge Irom the tool
Iace also imparts impulses to the cutting tool which result in vibration. However, marks leIt by
the built-up edge on the machined surIace are Iar more pronounced than those caused by the
ensuing vibration; it is probably Ior this reason that the built-up edge has not been studied Irom
the vibration point oI view. The built-up edge Irequently accompanies certain types oI vibration
(chatter), and instances have been known when it disappeared as soon as the vibration was
2.1.2 Vibration due to cross-sectional variation of removed material
Variation in the cross-sectional area oI the removed material may be due to the shape oI the
machined surIace (e.g., in turning oI a non round or slotted part) or to the conIiguration oI the
tool (e.g., in milling and broaching when cutting tools have multiple cutting edges).In both cases,
pulses oI appreciable magnitude may be imparted to the tool and to the workpiece, which may
lead to undesirable vibration. The pulses have relatively shallow Ironts Ior turning oI non-round
or eccentric parts and steep Ironts Ior turning oI slotted parts and Ior milling / broaching. These
pulses excite transient vibrations oI the Irame and oI the drive whose intensity depends on the
pulse shape and the ratio between the pulse duration and the natural periods oI the Irame and the
drive. II the vibrations are decaying beIore the next pulse occurs, they can still have a detrimental
eIIect on tool liIe and leave marks on the machined surIace. In cylindrical grinding and turning,
when a workpiece which contains a slot is machined, visible marks Irequently are observed near
the 'leaving edge¨ oI the slot or keyway. These are due to a 'bouncing¨ oI the grinding wheel or
the cutting tool on the machined surIace. They may be eliminated or minimized by closing the
recess with a plug or with Iiller.
When the transients do not signiIicantly decay between the pulses, dangerous resonance
vibrations oI the Irame and/or the drive can develop with the Iundamental and higher harmonics
oI the pulse sequence. The danger oI the resonance increases with higher cutting speeds.
Simultaneous engagement oI several cutting edges with the workpiece results in an increasing dc
component oI the cutting Iorce and eIIective reduction oI the pulse intensity, while run out oI a
multi-edge cutter and inaccurate setup oI the cutting edges enrich the spectral content oI the
cutting Iorce and enhance the danger oI resonance. Computational synthesis oI the resulting
cutting Iorce is reasonably accurate.
2.1.3 Disturbances in the workpiece and tool drives
Forced vibrations result Irom rotating unbalanced masses, gear, belt, and chain drives, bearing
irregularities, unbalanced electromagnetic Iorces in electric motors, pressure oscillations in
hydraulic drives etc.
126.96.36.199 Vibration Caused by Rotating Unbalanced Members
Forced vibration induced by rotation oI some unbalanced member may aIIect both surIace Iinish
and tool liIe, especially when its rotational speed Ialls near one oI the natural Irequencies oI the
machine-tool structure. This vibration can be eliminated by careIul balancing, or by selI
centering due to resilient mounting oI bearings.
When a new machine is designed, a great deal oI trouble can be Iorestalled by placing rotating
components in a position in which the detrimental eIIect oI their unbalance is likely to be
relatively small. Motors should not be placed on the top oI slender columns, and the plane oI
their unbalance should preIerably be parallel to the plane oI cutting. In some cases, vibration
resulting Irom rotating unbalanced members can be eliminated by mounting them using
Grinding and boring are most sensitive to vibration because oI the high surIace Iinish resulting
Irom the operations. In cylindrical grinding, marks resulting Irom unbalance oI the grinding
wheel or oI some other component are readily recognizable. They appear in the Iorm oI equally
spaced, continuous spirals with a constant slope. From these marks, the machine component
responsible Ior their existence is Iound by considering that its speed in rpm must be equal to
aDn/a, where D is the workpiece diameter in inches (millimeters), a is the pitch oI the marks in
inches (millimeters), and n is the workpiece speed in rpm. An analogous procedure also can be
applied to peripheral surIace grinding. The speed oI the responsible component in
rpm is equal to the number oI marks (produced in one pass) which Iall into a distance equal to
that traveled by the workpiece (or wheel) in 1 min.
Since centriIugal Iorce magnitudes are proportional to the square oI rpm, high-speed machine
tools are more sensitive to unbalance oI tool holders and small asymmetrical tools (e.g., boring
bars).Lathes may be sensitive to workpiece unbalance due to asymmetrical geometry or the
nonuniIorm allowance (e.g., Iorged parts).
188.8.131.52 Marks Caused by Inhomogeneities in the Grinding Wheel
Although grinding marks usually indicate the presence oI a vibration, this vibration may not
necessarily be the primary cause oI the marks. Hard spots on the cutting surIace oI the wheel
result in similar, though generally less pronounced marks. Grinding wheels usually are not oI
equal hardness throughout. A hard region on the wheel circumIerence rapidly becomes glazed in
use and establishes itselI as a high spot on the wheel (since it retains the grains Ior a longer
period than the soIter parts).These high spots eventually break down or shiIt to other parts oI the
wheel; in cylindrical grinding, this maniIests itselI as a sudden change in the slope oI the spiral
marks. Marks which appear to be due to an unbalanced member rotating at two or three times the
speed oI the wheel and which are non-uniIormly spaced are always due to two or three hard
184.108.40.206 The Effect of Vibration on the Wheel Properties
II vibration exists between wheel and workpiece, normal Iorces are produced which react on the
wheel and tend to alter the wheel shape and/or the wheel`s cutting properties. In soIt wheels the
dominating inIluence oI vibration appears to be inhomogeneous wheel wear, and in hard wheels
inhomogeneous loading (i.e., packing oI metal chips on and in crevasses between the
grits).These eIIects result in an increased Iluctuation oI the normal Iorce, which produces Iurther
changes in the wheel properties. The overall eIIect is that a vibration once initiated tends to
grow. When successive cuts or passes overlap, the inhomogeneous wear and loading oI the
wheel may cause a regenerative chatter eIIect which makes the cutting process dynamically
Spindle and Ieed drives can be important sources oI vibration caused by motors, power
transmission elements (gears, traction drives, belts, screws etc.), bearings, and guide ways.
Electric motors can be sources oI both rectilinear and torsional vibrations. Rectilinear vibrations
are due to a non-uniIorm air gap between the stator and rotor, asymmetry oI windings,
unbalance, bearing irregularities, misalignment with the driven shaIt etc. Torsional vibrations
(torque ripple) are due to various electrical irregularities. Misalignment and bearing-induced
vibrations oI spindle motors are reduced by integrating the spindle with the motor shaIt.
Gear induced vibrations can also be both rectilinear and torsional. They are due to production
irregularities (pitch and proIile errors, eccentricities etc), assembly errors (eccentric Iit on the
shaIt, key/spline errors and backlash), or distortion oI mesh caused by deIormations oI shaIts,
bearings, and housings under transmitted loads. Tight tolerances oI the gears and design
measures reducing their sensitivity to misalignment (crowning, Ilanking) should be accompanied
by rigid shaIts and housings and accurate Iits. All gear Iaults, eccentricities, pitch errors, proIile
errors etc., produce non-uniIorm rotation, which in some cases adversely aIIects surIace Iinish,
geometry, and possibly tool liIe. In precision machines, where a high degree oI surIace Iinish is
required, the workpiece or tool spindle usually is driven by belts or by directly coupled motors.
In some high-precision systems, inertia drives are used, in which the energy is supplied to the
Ilywheel between the cutting operations,but the cutting process is energized by the Ilywheel
disconnected Irom the motor/transmission system. Such a system practically eliminates
transmission oI drive vibrations into the work zone.
Belt drives, used in some applications as Iilters to suppress high-Irequency vibrations (especially
torsional), can induce their own Iorced vibrations, both torsional and rectilinear. Any variation oI
the eIIective belt radius, i.e., the radius oI the neutral axis oI the belt around the pulley axis,
produces a variation oI the belt tension and the belt velocity. This causes a variation oI the
bearing load and oI the rotational velocity oI the pulley. The eIIective pulley radius can vary as a
result oI eccentricity oI the pulley or variation oI belt proIile or inhomogeneity oI belt material.
Another source oI belt-induced vibrations is variation oI the elastic modulus along the belt
length, which may excite parametric vibration. Flat belts generate less vibration than V belts
because oI their better homogeneity and because the disturbing Iorce is less dependent on the
Grinding is particularly sensitive to disturbances caused by belts. Seamless belts or a direct
motor drive to the main spindle is recommended Ior high-precision machines. Vibration is
minimized when the belt tension and the normal grinding Iorce point in the same direction. The
clearance between bearing and spindle is thus eliminated. Large amplitudes oI vibration may
arise when the normal grinding Iorce is substantially equal to the belt tension and/or the
peripheral surIace oI the wheel is non-uniIorm. Tests indicate that vibration due to the
centriIugal Iorce is likely to be caused by an unbalance oI the wheel. The spindle pulley should
preIerably be placed between the spindle bearings and not at the end oI the spindle , unless the
pulley is 'unloaded¨(supported by its own bearings). Chain drives have inherent non-uniIormity
oI transmission ratio and are a signiIicant source oI vibration, even when used Ior auxiliary
Dimensional inaccuracies oI the components oI ball or roller bearings and/or surIace
irregularities on the running surIaces (or the bearing housing) may give rise to vibration trouble
in machines when high-quality surIace Iinish is demanded. From the Irequency oI the vibration
produced, it is sometimes possible to identiIy the component oI the bearing responsible. For
conventional bearings Irequently used in machine tools, the outer race is stationary and the inner
race rotates. In some cases, a disturbing Irequency can be detected. This is the Irequency with
which successive rolling elements pass through the 'loaded zone¨ oI the bearing, which is
determined by the direction oI the load. These disturbing Irequencies are less pronounced with
bearings having two rows oI rolling elements, each unit oI which lies halIway between units oI
the neighboring row. Because oI the importance oI spindle bearings` inIluence on accuracy oI
machining and on vibrations in the work zone, especially Ior precision and high-speed machine
tools, both races and rolling bodies oI spindle bearings must have high dimensional accuracy.
From the point oI view oI vibration control, both stiIIness and damping oI bearings should be
maximized. StiIIness can be maximized by using roller bearings (with tapered or cylindrical
rollers), by using rollers with two rows oI rolling elements, by preloading the bearings in the
radial direction, and by improving Iits between bearings and shaIts/housings. Preloading
eliminates clearances (play) in bearings, besides increasing their stiIIness. However, increased
preload is accompanied by decreased damping, as well as by an increase in heat generation and a
likely decrease in bearing liIe. Optimal preload values are recommended by bearing
manuIacturers. Roller bearings usually have higher damping than ball bearings. Sliding, and
especially hydrostatic, bearings have a greater damping capacity than antiIriction bearings and
are thereIore superior with respect to vibration. Machine tools with hydrostatic bearings have
extremely high chatter resistance.
220.127.116.11 Guideways (Slides)
The uniIormity oI Ieed motions is oIten disturbed by a phenomenon known as stick-slip. When
motion oI a tool support is initiated, elastic deIormations oI the Ieed drive elements increase until
the Iorces transmitted exceed the static Irictional resistance oI the tool support. Subsequently, the
support commences to move, and the Iriction drops to its dynamic value. As a result oI the drop
oI the Iriction Iorce, the support receives a high acceleration and overshoots because oI its
inertia. At the end oI the 'iump¨ the transmission is wound up in the opposite sense; beIore any
Iurther motion can take place, this deIormation must be unwound. This occurs during a period oI
standstill oI the support. Subsequently, the phenomenon repeats itselI. The physical sequence
described Ialls into the category generally known as 'relaxation oscillations¨. The occurrence oI
stick-slip depends on the interaction oI the Iollowing Iactors:
1. The mass oI the sliding body,
2. The drive stiIIness,
3. The damping present in the drive,
4. The sliding speed,
5. The surIace roughness oI the sliding surIaces,
6. The lubricant used.
It is encountered only at low sliding speeds; slide drives designed Ior stick-slip-Iree motion have
small moving masses and high drive stiIIness. Excellent results also may be achieved by using
cast iron and a suitable plastic material as mating surIaces. By keeping the oil Iilm between the
mating surIaces under a certain pressure (hydrostatic lubrication),the possibility oI mixed dry
and viscous Iriction is eliminated, and stick-slip cannot arise. High damping is another advantage
oI hydrostatic slides.
Rolling Iriction slides do not exhibit stick-slip but may generate high-Irequency vibrations
because oI the shape and dimensional imperIections oI the rolling bodies. These can be reduced
by increasing their dimensional accuracy and by introducing damping. Rolling Iriction slides
have very low damping and as a result can ampliIy vibrations Irom other sources iI their
Irequencies are close to resonance Irequencies oI the slide. High-precision systems require
extremely low Iriction as well as the absence oI vibration.
2.1.4 Impacts from massive part reversals
Some machine tools have reciprocating massive parts whose reversals produce sharp impacts
which excite both low-Irequency solid-body vibrations oI the machine (the system 'machine on
its mounts¨) and high-Irequency structural modes. Such eIIects occur both in machine tools,such
as surIace grinders, and in high-speed computer numerically controlled (CNC) machining centers
and coordinate measuring machines(CMM). In the CMMs the working process is associated with
start-stop operations; in machining centers it is associated with changing magnitude and/or
directions oI Ieed motions oI heavy tables, slides, spindle heads etc., with accelerations as high
as 2g. The driving Iorces causing such changes in magnitudes and directions oI momentum oI
the massive units have impulsive character and cause Iree decaying vibrations in both solid-body
and structural modes. These vibrations excite relative displacements in the work zone between
the workpiece and the cutting or measuring tool.
Reduction in the adverse eIIects oI the impulsive Iorces can be achieved by enhancing the
structural stiIIness and natural Irequencies, thus reducing the sensitivity oI the machine to
impulsive Iorces and accelerating the decay. A similar eIIect results Irom an increase in 'solid-
body Irequencies¨ (the natural Irequencies oI the machine on its mounts) in the direction oI the
impulsive Iorces and Irom decoupling oI vibratory modes in the vibration-isolation system, e.g.,
by increasing the distance between the mounts in the direction oI acceleration. Increase oI
structural damping as well as damping oI mounting elements (vibration isolators) also results in a
reduction in the decay time.
2.1.5 Vibration transmitted from the environment
Shock and vibration generated in presses, machine tools, internal-combustion engines,
compressors, cranes, carts, rail and road vehicles etc., are transmitted through the Ioundation to
other machines, which they may set into Iorced vibration. Vibration oI the shop Iloor contains a
wide Irequency spectrum. It is almost inevitable that one oI these Irequencies should Iall near a
natural Irequency oI a particular machine tool. Although the amplitudes oI the Iloor vibration
usually are small, they may adversely aIIect precision machine tools and measuring instruments.
The undesirable eIIects include irreversible shiIts in structural ioints oI machine tools and their
mounts, shape and surIace Iinish distortions oI machined parts, erroneous readings oI measuring
instruments, and chipping oI cutting inserts. Vibration transmitted through the Iloor may be
reduced by vibration isolation i.e., the stationary machines which generate the vibration are
placed upon vibration isolators. However, precision machine tools and measuring instruments
are isolated to provide Iurther reduction.
When applying vibration isolators to machine tools, some care must be exercised. The
Ioundation constitutes the 'end condition¨ oI the machine-tool structure. Any alteration oI the
end condition aIIects equivalent stiIIness and damping, and thus the natural Irequencies and
vibratory modes oI the structure.
II vibration isolators are not properly selected and located, the machine tool may become more
susceptible to internal exciting Iorces, and its chatter behavior also may be aIIected in an
undesirable way, usually at the lower modes oI vibration. Many undesirable eIIects can be
eliminated or signiIicantly reduced by using vibration isolators having a natural Irequency that is
independent oI weight loads on isolators ('constant natural Irequency¨ isolators); by using
isolators with high damping; by assigning the mounting points locations that enhance the
eIIective stiIIness oI the machine-tool Irame; by increasing the stiIIness oI isolators and the
distance between them in the directions oI movements oI heavy reciprocating masses and by
reducing modal coupling in the isolation system. In general, machine-tool structures which are
very stiII by themselves (i.e., without being bolted down) can be placed on vibration isolators
saIely (milling machines, grinding machines, and some lathes).
2.1.6 Machine-tool chatter
The cutting oI metals is Irequently accompanied by violent vibration oI workpiece and cutting
tool which is known as machine-tool chatter. Chatter is a selI-excited vibration which is induced
and maintained by Iorces generated by the cutting process. It is highly detrimental to tool liIe and
surIace Iinish, and is usually accompanied by considerable noise. Chatter adversely aIIects the
rate oI production since, in many cases its elimination can be achieved only by reducing the rate
oI metal removal. Cutting regimes Ior non attended operations (such as computer numerically
controlled machine tools and Ilexible manuIacturing systems) are Irequently assigned
conservatively in order to avoid the possibility oI chatter.
Machine-tool chatter is characteristically erratic since it depends on the design and conIiguration
oI both the machine and the tooling structures, on workpiece and cutting tool materials, and on
machining regimes. Chatter resistance oI a machine tool is usually characterized by a maximum
stable (i.e., not causing chatter vibration) depth oI cut. Forced vibration eIIects in machine tools
are more Irequently detected in the development stage or during Iinal inspection, and can be
reduced or eliminated. The tendency Ior a certain machine to chatter may remain unobserved in
the plant oI the machine-tool manuIacturer unless the machine is thoroughly tested. II this
tendency is encountered at the user Iacility, its elimination Irom a particular machining process
may be highly time-consuming and laborious. A distinction can be drawn between regenerative
and non regenerative chatter. The Iormer occurs when there is an overlap in the process oI
perIorming successive cuts such that part oI a previously cut surIace is removed by a succeeding
pass oI the cutter. Under regenerative cutting, a displacement oI the tool can result in a vibration
oI the tool relative to the workpiece, resulting in a variation oI the chip thickness. This in turn
results in a variation in the cutting Iorce during Iollowing revolutions. The regenerative chatter
theory explains a wide variety oI practical chatter situations in such operations as normal turning
and milling. An important characteristic Ieature oI regenerative chatter is a 'lobing¨ dependence
oI the maximum stable depth oI cut on cutting speed (rpm oI tool or workpiece).
There is an area oI absolute stability below the lobes` envelope. The position oI this envelope
depends on the material and geometry oI the cutting tool as well as the workpiece material. The
lobing shape indicates that some speeds are characterized by much higher stability.
Non regenerative chatter is Iound in such operations as shaping, slotting, and screw-thread
cutting. In this type oI cutting, chatter has been explained through the principle oI mode
II a machining system can be modeled by a two degree oI Ireedom mass-spring system,with
orthogonal axes oI maior Ilexibilities and with a common mass, the dynamic motion oI the tool
end can take an elliptical path. II the maior axis oI motion (axis with the greater compliance) lies
within the angle Iormed by the total cutting Iorce and the normal to the workpiece surIace,
energy can be transIerred into the machine-tool structure, thus producing an eIIective negative
damping. The depth oI cut Ior the threshold oI stable operation is directly dependent upon the
diIIerence between the two principal stiIIness values, and chatter tends to occur when the two
principal stiIInesses are close in magnitude.
18.104.22.168 Dynamic stability
Machine-tool chatter is essentially a problem oI dynamic stability. A machine tool under
vibration-Iree cutting conditions may be regarded as a dynamical system in steady state motion.
Systems oI this kind may become dynamically unstable and break into oscillation around the
steady motion. Instability is caused by an alteration oI the cutting conditions produced by a
disturbance oI the cutting process (e.g., a hard spot in the material). As a result, a time-dependent
thrust element dP is superimposed on the steady cutting thrust P. II this thrust element is such as
to ampliIy the original disturbance, oscillations will build up and the system is said to be
unstable. This chain oI events is most easily investigated theoretically by considering that the
incremental thrust element dP is a Iunction not only oI the original disturbance but also oI the
velocity oI this disturbance. Forces which are dependent on the velocity oI a displacement are
damping Iorces; they are additive to or subtractive Irom the damping present in the system (e.g.,
structural damping or damping introduced by special anti vibration devices).When the damping
due to dP is positive, the total damping (structural damping plus damping due to altered cutting
conditions) also is positive and the system is stable.Any disturbance will then be damped out
rapidly. However, the damping due to dP may be negative, in which case it will decrease the
structural damping, which is always positive. II the negative damping due to dP predominates,
the total damping is negative.
Positive damping Iorces are energy absorbing. Negative damping Iorces Ieed energy into the
system; when the total damping is negative, this energy is used Ior the maintenance oI
oscillations (chatter). From the practical point oI view, the Iully developed chatter vibration
(selI-induced vibration) is oI little interest. Production engineers are almost entirely concerned
with conditions leading to chatter (dynamic instability).The build-up oI chatter is very diIIicult to
observe, and experimental work has to be carried out mainly under conditions which are only
indirectly relevant to the problem being investigated. Experimental results obtained Irom Iully
developed chatter vibration may, in some instances, be not really relevant to the problem oI
The inIluence oI the machine-tool structure on the dynamic stability oI the cutting process is oI
great importance. This becomes clear by considering that with a structure (including tool and
workpiece) oI inIinite stiIIness, the cutting process could not be disturbed in the Iirst place
because hard spots, Ior example, would not be able to produce the deIlections necessary to cause
such a disturbance. Further-more, it is clear that were the structural damping inIinite, the total
damping could not become negative and the cutting process would always be stable. This
discussion indicates that an increase in structural stiIIness and/or damping always has beneIicial
eIIects Irom the point oI view oI chatter.
In practically Ieasible machines, the interrelation between structural stiIIness, damping, and
dynamic stability is oI considerable complexity. This is because machine-tool structures are
systems with distributed mass, elasticity, and damping; their vibration is described by a large set
oI partial diIIerential equations which can be analyzed using simpliIied models or more precise
large Iinite-element models. StiIIness and damping play similar roles in determining the stability
oI a machine tool. The maximum stable depth oI cut is proportional to a product oI eIIective
stiIIness and eIIective damping coeIIicients. The cutting angles and the number and shape oI the
cutting edges oI the cutting tool are important.
2.2 The effect of vibration on tool life
As much as the cutting speed and the chip cross section vary during vibration, it is to be expected
that vibration aIIects tool liIe. The magnitude oI this eIIect is unexpectedly large, even when
impact loading oI the tool is excluded. Elimination oI vibration may signiIicantly enhance tool
liIe. Ceramic and diamond tools are especially sensitive to impact loading. The liIe oI Iace-mill
blades may suIIer considerably owing to torsional vibration executed by the cutter. The torsional
vibration need not necessarily be caused by dynamic instability oI the cutting process but may be
Iorced vibration, because oI resonance caused by one oI the harmonics oI impact excitation Irom
interrupted chip removal, by tool runout etc. Judiciously applied Iorced vibration oI the tool
and/or the workpiece may also signiIicantly enhance tool liIe by reducing cutting Iorces, leading
to enhanced dynamic stability.
2.3 Free Vibrations in the Machine-tool System
II an external energy source is applied to initiate vibrations and then removed, the
resulting vibrations are Iree vibrations. In the absence oI non-conservative Iorces, Iree vibrations
sustain themselves and are periodic.
The vibrations oI machine tools under pulsating excitations can be regarded as Iree vibrations.
The origins oI pulsating excitations in machine tools include:
· Cutter-contact Iorces when milling or Ilying cutting
· Inertia Iorces oI reciprocating motion parts
· Vibrations transmitting Irom Ioundations
· ImperIects oI materials
For instance, taking a single-point diamond turning a part as an example, the part has
some material deIects such as cavities, as shown in Figure 2.2a. II the cutting tool is taken as the
obiect to be investigated, it can be simpliIied as a single DOF mass-spring Iree vibration system
as shown in Figure 2.2b, although this is an idealized model and the real system is Iar more
Firstly, consider the case oI an undamped Iree vibration system.
The general Iorm oI the diIIerential equation Ior undamped Iree vibrations is:
˲ӕ ÷ 0 (2.1)
Figure 2.2. (a) Turning process with material deIects,( b) Single DOF Iree vibration system
Where and are the mass and stiIIness which are determined during the derivation oI the
diIIerential equation. Equation 2.1 is subiect to the Iollowing initial conditions oI the Iorm:
˲Ӕ (0) ÷ ˲Ӕ Ŵ
The solution oI Equation 2.1 is:
where x is displacement at time 9:
0 is the initial displacement oI the mass
is the undamped natural Irequency.
There is a slight increase in system complexity while a damping element is introduced to the
spring-mass system. Here only viscous damping is taken into account. The general Iorm oI the
diIIerential equation Ior the displacement oI damped Iree vibrations becomes:
˲ӕ +.˲Ӕ +˲0 (2.3)
Where .is the damping oI the system.
Dividing Equation 2.3 by gives:
The general solution oI Equation 2.4 is obtained by assuming:
The substitution oI Equation 2.5 into Equation 2.4 gives the Iollowing quadratic equation Ior a:
The quadratic Iormula is used to obtain the roots oI Equation 2.6:
The mathematical Iorm oI the solution oI Equation 2.4 and the physical behavior oI the system
depend on the sign oI the discriminant oI Equation 2.7. The case when the discriminant is zero is
a special case and occurs only Ior a certain combination oI parameters. When this occurs the
system is to be critically damped.
For Iixed values oI and , the value oI c which causes critical damping is called the critical
damping coeIIicient, ..:
The non-dimensional damping ratio, z, is deIined as the ratio oI the actual value oI
., to the critical damping coeIIicient:
The damping ratio is an inherent property oI the system parameters. Using Equations 2.8 and
2.9,Equation 2.7 is rewritten in terms oI z and w3as:
ThereIore, the general solution oI Equation 2.4 is:
where and are the arbitary constants oI integration. From Equation 2.11, it is evident that
the nature oI the motion depends on the value oI z; Equation 2.4 then becomes:
This is the standard Iorm oI the diIIerential equation governing the Iree vibrations with damping.
There are diIIerent conditions oI damping: critical, overdamping, and underdamping.
2.4 Forced Vibrations
II vibrations occur during the presence oI an external energy source, the vibrations are called
Iorced vibrations. The behavior oI a system undergoing Iorced vibrations is dependent on the
type oI external excitation. There are a Iew types oI external Iorces including harmonic, periodic
but not harmonic, step, impulse and arbitrary Iorce, etc. II the excitation is periodic, the Iorced
vibrations oI a linear system are also periodic.
Considering the internal grinding process in which the spindle is out oI balance, the resulted
unbalance Iorce is assumed in a harmonic Iorm, 83(w9i). This Iorce will vibrate the grinder
relative to the work piece and result in Iorced vibrations.
Again, an undamped mass-spring system under harmonic Iorces is considered. The diIIerential
equation Ior undamped Iorced vibrations subiected to an excitation oI harmonic Iorce is:
II excitation Irequency w is not equal to w3 the Iollowing equation is used to obtain the
particular solution oI Equation 2.13:
The homogeneous solution is added to the particular solution with the initial conditions applied,
In a damped Iorced vibration system with harmonic excitation the standard Iorm oI the
diIIerential equation is:
The particular solution oI Equation 2.16 is:
Equation 2.17 can be rewritten in the Iollowing alternative Iorm:
is the amplitude oI the Iorced response and I is the phase angle between the response and the
Figure 2.3 (a) Internal grinding process, (b) Single DOF Iorced vibration system.
Forced vibrations in machine tools can be generated Irom two kinds oI energy sources, which are
internal and external vibration sources. External vibration sources, such as seismic waves,
usually transIer vibrations to the machine tool structure via the machine base. The design and use
oI eIIective vibration isolators will be able to eliminate or minimize Iorced vibrations caused by
external vibration sources. There are many internal vibration sources which cause Iorced
vibrations. For instance, an unbalanced high speed spindle, an impact Iorce in machining
processes, and inertia Iorce caused by a reciprocal motion component such as slide ways, etc.
2.5 Disadvantage of Vibration in the Machine Tool System
2.5.1 Chatter Occurring in the Machine Tool System
Apart Irom Iree and Iorced vibrations, selI-excited vibrations exist commonly in
machine-tool system. A selI-excited vibration is a kind oI vibration in which the vibration
resource lies inside the system. In machining selI-excited vibrations usually result in machine
tool chatter vibration. It should be noted that chatter vibration can also be caused by the Iorced
vibration, but it is usually not a maior problem in machining because the external Iorce or the
dynamic compliance oI the machine structure can be reduced to reasonable levels when the
external Iorce causing the chatter is identiIied
Figure 2.4. Poorly machined surIace resulted Irom chatter (Courtesy: GE Company)
Chatter occurs mainly because one oI the structural modes oI the machine tool workpiece
system is initially excited by cutting Iorces. Chatter is a problem oI instability in the machining
process, characterized by unwanted excessive vibration between the tool and the workpiece, loud
noise, and consequently a poor quality oI surIace Iinish. It also has a deteriorating eIIect on the
machine and tool liIe, and the reliability and saIety oI machining operation. The problem has
aIIected the manuIacturing community Ior quite some time and it is a popular topic Ior academic
and industrial research. ThereIore, it is very important to identiIy and to get a better
understanding oI the machine structural dynamic perIormance at both the machine design and
production stage. Figure 2.4 shows a poorly machined surIace resulting Irom chatters
2.5.2 Types of Chatters
There are mainly three Iorms oI selI-excited chatters. The Iirst one is the velocity
dependent chatter or Arnold-type chatter, named aIter the man who discovered it, which is due to
a dependence on the variation oI Iorce with the cutting speed. The second Iorm is known as the
regenerative chatter, which occurs when the unevenness oI the surIace being cut is due to
consequent variations in the cutting Iorce when on the previous occasion the tool passed over
that location, causing detrimental degeneration oI the cutting Iorce. Depending on the phase shiIt
between the two successive wave surIaces, the maximum chip thickness may exponentially grow
while oscillating at a chatter Irequency that is close to but not equal to the dominant structural
mode in the system. The growing vibrations increase the cutting Iorces and produce a poor and
wavy surIace Iinish. The third Iorm oI chatter is due to mode coupling when Iorces acting in one
direction on a machine-tool structure cause movements in another direction and vice versa.
This results in simultaneous vibrations in two coupling directions. Physically it is caused by a
number oI sources, such as Iriction on the rake and clearance surIaces and mathematically
described by Wiercigroch.
Most oI the chatters occurring in practical machining operations are regenerative chatter,
although other chatters are also common in some cases. These Iorms oI chatters are
interdependent and can generate diIIerent types oI chatter simultaneously. However, there is not
a uniIied model capable oI explaining all chatter phenomena observed in machining practice.
2.5.3 Machining Instability
In the previous sections, many aspects oI selI-excited machine tool vibrations or chatters have
been brieIly discussed. In practice, however, many problems oI poor work surIace Iinish are due
to Iorced vibrations and the methods oI reducing Iorced vibrations should thus well be
understood. Forced vibrations are usually caused by an out-oI-balance Iorce associated with a
component integrated with, or external to, the machine tool, whereas a selI-excited vibration is
spontaneous and increases rapidly Irom a low vibratory amplitude to a large one; the Iorced
vibration results in an oscillation oI constant amplitude. An exploration into chatter vibrations
enables a better understanding oI machining instability in practice. From the machining point oI
view, with the designed machining conditions, a desired surIace Iinish will be produced under a
stable machining process. But as a complicated dynamic system, various mechanisms inherent in
the machining process may lead the innately stable machining system to work at a dynamically
unstable status which invariably results in unsatisIactory workpiece surIace quality. For instance,
a variety oI disturbances aIIect the machining system such as selI-excited vibration, thermo
mechanical oscillations in material Ilow, and Ieed drive hysteresis, but the most important is selI-
excited vibrations resulting Irom the dynamic instability oI the overall machine-tool/machining
process system. However, sometimes the machining process is carried out with a relative
vibration between the workpiece and the cutting tool, especially in heavy cutting and rough
machining, in order to obtain high material removal rates.
The relative vibration is not necessarily a sign oI the machining instability Ior the
designed machining conditions and prescribed surIace Iinish. The surIace generated may be
unsatisIactory because oI the disturbance, even though the machining system itselI operates in
the stable state. ThereIore, the machining instability is related to the level oI the surIace quality
required and the designed machining conditions.
VIBRATION CONTROL IN MACHINE TOOLS
Vibration in metal cutting is Iamiliar to every machine tool operator. This phenomenon is
recognized in operations such as internal turning, threading, grooving, milling, boring and
drilling, to which there are several reasons why this problem occurs. Some are related to the
machine tool itselI, to the clamping oI the tool, the length and diameter oI the tool holder and the
cutting data to be used.
The vibration behavior oI a machine tool can be improved by a reduction oI the intensity oI the
sources oI vibration, by enhancement oI the eIIective static stiIIness and damping Ior the modes
oI vibration which result in relative displacements between tool and workpiece, and by
appropriate choice oI cutting regimes, tool design, and workpiece design. Abatement oI the
sources is important mainly Ior Iorced vibrations. StiIIness and damping are important Ior both
Iorced and selI-excited (chatter) vibrations. Both parameters, especially stiIIness, are critical Ior
accuracy oI machine tools, stiIIness by reducing structural deIormations Irom the cutting Iorces,
and damping by accelerating the decay oI transient vibrations. In addition, the application oI
vibration dampers and absorbers is an eIIective technique Ior the solution oI machine-vibration
problems. Such devices should be considered as a Iunctional part oI a machine, not as an add-on
to solve speciIic problems.
Static stiIIness k
is deIined as the ratio oI the static Iorce P
, applied between tool and
workpiece, to the resulting static deIlection A
between the points oI Iorce application. A Iorce
applied in one coordinate direction is causing displacements in three coordinate directions; thus
the stiIIness oI a machine tool can be characterized by a stiIIness matrix (three proper stiIIness`s
deIined as ratios oI Iorces along the coordinate axes to displacements in the same directions, and
three reciprocal stiIIness`s between each pair oI the coordinate axes).Frequently only one or two
stiIIness`s are measured to characterize the machine tool.
Machine tools are characterized by high precision, even at heavy-duty regimes (high magnitudes
oI cutting Iorces).This requires very high structural stiIIness. While the Irame parts are designed
Ior high stiIIness, the main contribution to deIormations in the work zone (between tool and
workpiece) comes Irom contact deIormations in movable and stationary ioints between
components (contact stiIIness). Damping is determined mainly by ioints (log decrement Aɞ
0.15), especially Ior steel welded Irames (structural damping Aɞ 0.001).Cast iron parts
contribute more to the overall damping (Aɞ 0.004), while material damping in polymer-concrete
(Aɞ0.02) and granite (Aɞ 0.015) is much higher. While the structure has many degrees oI
Ireedom, dangerous Iorced and selI-excited vibrations occur at a Iew natural modes which are
characterized by high intensity oI relative vibrations in the work zone. Since machine tools
operate in diIIerent conIigurations (positions oI heavy parts, weights, dimensions, and positions
oI workpieces) and at diIIerent regimes (spindle rpm, number oI cutting edges, cutting angles
etc.), diIIerent vibratory modes can be prominent depending on the circumstances.
The stiIIness oI a structure is determined primarily by the stiIIness oI the most Ilexible
component in the path oI the Iorce. To enhance the stiIIness, this Ilexible component must be
reinIorced. To assess the inIluence oI various structural components on the overall stiIIness, a
breakdown oI deIormation (or compliance) at the cutting edge must be constructed analytically
or experimentally on the machine. Breakdown oI deIormation (compliance) in torsional systems
(transmissions) can be critically inIluenced by transmission ratios between the components. In
many cases the most Ilexible components oI the breakdown are local deIormations in ioints i.e.,
bolted connections between relatively rigid elements such as column and bed, column and table
etc. Some points to be considered in the design oI connections are illustrated in Fig.3.1
To avoid bending oI the Ilange in Fig.3.1A, the bolts should be placed in pockets or between
ribs, as shown in Fig.3.1B. Increasing the Ilange thickness does not necessarily increase the
stiIIness oI the connection, since this requires longer bolts, which are more Ilexible. There is an
optimum Ilange thickness (bolt length), the value oI which depends on the elastic deIormation in
the vicinity oI the connection. DeIormation oI the bed is minimized by placing ribs under
Figure 3.1: Load transmission between column and bed.(A) Old design, relatively Ilexible owing to deIormation oI
Ilange.(B) New design, bolt placed in a pocket (A) or Ilange stiIIened with ribs on both sides oI bolt (B).
. Figure 3.2 shows the results oI successive stages oI a model experiment in which the eIIect oI
the design oI bolt connections on the bending rigidity (X and Y directions) and the torsional
rigidity oI a column were investigated. The relative rigidities are shown by the length oI bars.
Figure 3.2: Successive stages in the improvement oI a Ilange connection.
In the design oI Fig.3.2A, the connection consists oI 12 bolts (diameter oI 58 in.) arranged in
pairs along both sides oI the column. In the design oI Fig.3.2B, the number oI bolts is reduced to
10, arranged as shown. With the addition oI ribs, shown in succeeding Iigures, the bending
stiIIness in the direction X was raised by 40 percent, which in the direction Y by 45 percent, and
the torsional stiIIness by 53 percent, compared to the original design.
Openings in columns should be as small as possible. Smaller holes result in relatively smaller
decreases oI stiIIness and natural Irequency than larger ones. The torsional rigidity k
oI a box
type column is particularly sensitive to openings, as shown in Fig.3.3.
Figure 3.3: Torsional stiIIness oI box columns with diIIerent holes in walls
Lids or doors used Ior covering these openings do not restore the stiIIness. The inIluence oI
covers depends on their thickness, mode oI attachment, and design, as shown in Fig.3.4.
However, covers may increase damping and thereby partly compensate Ior the detrimental eIIect
oI loss oI stiIIness.
Welded structural components are usually stiIIer than cast iron components but have a lower
damping capacity. Some damping is generated because welds are never perIect; consequently,
rubbing takes place between ioined members. A considerable increase in damping can be
achieved by using interrupted welds, but at a price oI reduced stiIIness. Welded ribs may be
necessary not so much to increase rigidity as to prevent 'drumming¨(membrane vibration) oI
large unsupported areas.
Figure 3.4: InIluence oI cover plate and lid on static stiIIness oI box column.(A) Column without holes,(B) one hole
uncovered,(C) hole covered with cover plate, and (D) hole covered with substantial lid, Iirmly attached.
Not all deIormations in machine tools are obiectionable, but only those which inIluence relative
displacements in the work zone between the tool and the workpiece. The magnitude oI the
relative displacement in the work zone under external or internal Iorces (weight, cutting Iorce,
inertia Iorce) determines eIIective stiIIness.
EIIective stiIIness oI machine-tool Irames is signiIicantly inIluenced by their interaction with the
supporting structures (Ioundations).For large, low-aspect-ratio machine-tool Irames, a rigid
attachment to a properly dimensioned Ioundation substantially improves dynamic stability.
Medium- and small-size machine tools are usually attached to the reinIorced Iloor plate by
discrete mounts (rigid wedge or screw mounts or vibration isolators). A rational assignment oI
number and location oI mounts noticeably enhances the eIIective stiIIness oI machine tools and
in some cases may allow direct mounting oI rather large machine tools on vibration isolators.
Figure 3.5: Mounting schemes oI a iig borer.
Examples oI inIluence oI number and location oI mounts on the eIIective stiIIness are given in
Fig.3.5, which shows three schematics oI a mounting Ior a iig borer on rigid wedge mounts. The
table oI the iig borer is in the lower end oI the illustration. Relative displacements in the work
zone when the table travels Irom right to leIt Ior the scheme in Fig.3.5C are three times smaller
than Ior Fig.3.5A and 1.5 times smaller than Ior Fig.3.5B, notwithstanding the Iact that in the
latter case there are seven mounts vs. three mounts in Fig.3.5C. In the case shown in Fig.3.5A,
the large weight oI the moving table creates a twisting oI the supporting Irame about the single
Iront mount, while the column is rigidly positioned by two mounts. In case oI Fig.3.5C, the Iront
end is well supported, but the column can tilt on its single mount and Iollow small deIormations
oI the Iront part, thus resulting in smaller relative deIormations and higher eIIective stiIIness. For
example, in the case oI a precision grinder having a bed 3.8 m long, it was Iound that mounting
the grinder on seven careIully located (oIIset Irom the ends) vibration isolators resulted in higher
eIIective stiIIness than installation on 15 rigid mounts.
The eIIective static stiIIness oI a machine tool may vary within wide limits. High stiIIness values
are ensured by the use oI steady rests, by placing tool and workpiece in a position where the
relative dynamic displacement between them is small (i.e., by placing them near the main
column, etc.), by using rigid tools and clamps, by using iigs which rigidly clamp (and iI
necessary support) the workpiece, by clamping securely all parts oI the machine which do not
move with respect to each other etc., and by the optimization oI mounting conditions mentioned
The static and dynamic behavior oI machine tools is inIluenced signiIicantly by the design oI the
spindle and its bearings. The static deIlection oI the spindle consists oI two parts, X
shown in Fig.3.6.The deIlection X
corresponds to the deIlection oI a Ilexible beam on rigid
supports, and X
corresponds to the deIlection oI a rigid beam on Ilexible supports which
represent the Ilexibility oI the bearings.
Figure 3.6: DeIlection oI machine-tool spindle and bearings. A machine-tool spindle can be regarded as a beam on
Ilexible supports. The total deIlection under the Iorce P consists oI the sum oI (A) the deIlection X
oI a Ilexible
beam on rigid supports and (B) the deIlection X
oI a rigid beam on Ilexible supports.
The deIlection oI the spindle amounts to 50 to 70 percent oI the total deIlection, and the bearings
30 to 50 percent oI the total, depending on the relation oI spindle cross section to bearing
stiIIness and span. The stiIIness oI antiIriction bearings depends on their design, accuracy,
preload, and the Iit between the outer race and the housing (responsible Ior 10 to 40 percent oI
the bearing deIormation).
It is oIten important to consider the dynamic behavior oI a spindle beIore establishing an
optimum bearing span. Maximizing the stiIIness oI a spindle at one point does not establish its
dynamic properties. Care must be taken to investigate both bending and rocking modes oI the
spindle beIore accepting a Iinal optimum span. For example, a large overhang on the rear oI a
spindle could produce an undesirable low-Irequency rocking mode oI the spindle even iI the
'optimum span¨ as deIined previously were satisIied. The optimum bearing span Ior minimum
deIlection as well as the dynamic characteristics oI spindles may be computed with the help oI
available computer programs.
The inIluence oI the ratio oI bore diameter to outside diameter on the stiIIness oI a hollow
spindle is shown in Fig.3.7.
Figure 3.7: EIIect oI bore diameter on stiIIness oI hollow spindle where k
÷ stiIIness oI solid spindle, k
oI hollow spindle, D ÷outer spindle diameter, d ÷ bore diameter, J
÷second moment oI area oI hollow spindle, and
÷ second moment oI area oI solid spindle. The curve is deIined by k
÷ 1 (d/D).
A 25 percent decrease in stiIIness occurs only at a diameter ratio oI d/D ÷ 0.7, where D is the
outside diameter and d the bore diameter. This is important Ior the dynamic behavior oI the
spindle. A solid spindle has nearly the same stiIIness, but a substantially greater mass.
Consequently, the natural Irequency oI the solid spindle is considerably lower, which is
undesirable. A stiII spindle does not always assure the required high stiIIness at the cutting edge
oI the tool because oI potentially large contact deIormations in the tool holder/spindle interIace.
Measurements have shown that in a tapered connection, these deIormations may constitute up to
50 percent oI the total deIlection at the tool edge. These deIormations can be signiIicantly
reduced by replacing tapered connections by Iace contact between the tool holder and the
spindle. The Iace connection must be loaded by a high axial Iorce.
A signiIicant role (Irequently up to 50 percent) in the breakdown oI deIormations between
various parts oI machine tool structures is played by contact deIormations between conIorming
(usually Ilat, cylindrical, or tapered) contacting surIaces in structural ioints and slides.
Contact deIormations are due to surIace imperIections on contacting surIaces. These
deIormations are highly nonlinear and are inIluenced by lubrication conditions. Figure 3.8 shows
contact deIormation between Ilat steel parts as a Iunction oI contact pressure Ior diIIerent
lubrication conditions in the ioint. Joints are also responsible Ior at least 90 percent oI structural
damping in machine-tool Irames due to micro motions in the ioints during vibratory processes.
Contact deIormations Ior the same contact pressure can be signiIicantly reduced by increasing
accuracy (Iit) and improving the surIace Iinish oI the mating surIaces. The non-linear load-
deIlection characteristic oI ioints, Fig.3.8, allows enhancement oI their stiIIness by preloading.
However, preloading reduces micro motions in the ioints and thus results in a lower damping.
This explains why in some cases old machines are less likely to chatter than new machines oI
identical design. The situation may result Irom wear and tear oI the slides, which increases the
damping and eIIects an improvement in perIormance. Also, in some cases chatter is eliminated
by loosening the locks oI slides. However, it would be wrong to conclude that lack oI proper
attention and maintenance is desirable. Proper attention to slides, bearings (minimum play),
belts, etc., is necessary Ior satisIactory perIormance. It would be wrong also to conclude that a
highly polluted workshop atmosphere is desirable because some new machines exposed to
workshop dirt Ior a suIIiciently long time, even when not used, appear to improve in their chatter
behavior. The explanation is that dirty slides increase the damping.
When the rigidity oI some machine element is intentionally reduced, but this reduction is
accompanied by a greater damping at the cutter, the increase in damping may outweigh the
reduction in rigidity. Although a loss oI rigidity in machine tools is generally undesirable, it may
be tolerated when it leads to a desirable shiIt in natural Irequencies or is accompanied by a large
increase in damping or by a beneIicial change in the ratio oI stiIIness`s along two orthogonal
axes, which can result in improved non-regenerative chatter stability.
Figure 3.8: Load-deIlection characteristics Ior Ilat, deeply scraped surIaces (overall contact area 80 cm
lubrication;2,lightly lubricated(oil content 0.8 × 10
);3,richly lubricated (oil content 1.8 × 10
A very signiIicant improvement in chatter resistance can be achieved by an intentional measured
reduction oI stiIIness in the direction along the cutting speed (orthogonal to the direction oI the
principal component oI cutting Iorce).The beneIits oI this approach have been demonstrated Ior
turning and boring operations.
The overall damping capacity oI a structure with cast iron or welded steel Irame components is
determined only to a small extent by the damping capacity oI its individual components. The
maior part oI the damping results Irom the interaction oI ioined components at slides or bolted
ioints. The interaction oI the structure with the Ioundation or highly damped vibration isolators
also may produce a noticeable damping. A qualitative picture oI the inIluence oI the various
components oI a lathe on the total damping is given in Fig.3.9.The damping oI the various modes
oI vibration diIIers appreciably; the values oI the logarithmic decrement shown in the Iigure
correspond to an average value Ior all the modes which play a signiIicant part.
The overall damping oI various types oI machine tool diIIers, but the log decrement is usually in
the range oI Irom 0.15 to 0.3.While structural damping is signiIicantly higher Ior Irame
components made oI polymer-concrete compositions or granite (see above), the overall damping
does not change very signiIicantly since the damping oI even these materials is small compared
with damping Irom ioints.
A signiIicant damping increase can be achieved by Iilling internal cavities oI the Irame parts
with a granular material, e.g., sand. For cast parts it can also be achieved by leaving cores in
blind holes inside the casting. A similar, sometimes even more pronounced, damping
enhancement can be achieved by placing auxiliary longitudinal structural members inside
longitudinal cavities within a Irame part, with oIIset Irom the bending neutral axis oI the latter.
The auxiliary structural member interacts with the Irame part via a high viscous layer, thus
imparting energy dissipation during vibrations.
Figure 3.9: InIluence oI various components on total damping oI lathes. The maior part oI the damping is generated
at the mating surIaces oI the various components.
Damping can be increased without impairing the static stiIIness and machining accuracy oI the
machine by the use oI dampers and dynamic vibration absorbers. These are basically similar to
those employed in other Iields oI vibration control. Dampers are eIIective only when placed in a
position where vibration amplitudes are signiIicant. The tuned dynamic vibration absorber has
been employed with considerable success on milling machines, machining centers, radial drilling
machines, gear hobbing machines, grinding machines, and boring bars.
A design variant oI this type oI absorber is shown in Fig.3.10. In this design a plastic ring
element combines both the elastic and the damping elements oI the absorber. The auxiliary mass
may be attached to the top oI a column (Fig.3.10C), as shown in Fig.3.10A. Alternatively, the
auxiliary mass may be suspended on the underside oI a table (Fig.3.10C), using the design shown
in Fig.3.10B. In either case, several plastic ring elements may support one large auxiliary mass,
as shown in Fig.3.10C. In a boring bar, shown in Fig.3.11A, elastic and damping properties are
combined in O-rings made oI a high-damping rubber. Tuning oI the absorber can be changed by
varying the radial preload Iorce on the O-ring. The natural Irequency oI this absorber can be
varied over a range oI more than 3:1.
Figure 3.10: Auxiliary mass damper with combined elastic and damping element. The combined element lies
between two retainer rings, oI which one (3) is attached with bolt 1 to the machine structure. The other ring (2) takes
the weight oI the auxiliary mass. (A) Arrangement when auxiliary mass is being supported.(B) Arrangement when
auxiliary mass is being suspended.(C) Application oI both types oI arrangements to a hobbing machine.
A variation oI the Lanchester damper is Irequently used in boring bars to good advantage. This
consists oI an inertia weight Iitted into a hole bored in the end oI a quill. To ensure eIIective
operation, a relatively small radial clearance oI about 1 to 5 × 10
d must be provided, where d
is the diameter oI the inertia weight. An axial clearance oI about 0.006 to 0.010 in. (0.15 to 0.25
mm) is suIIicient. A smooth surIace Iinish oI both plug and hole is desirable. The clearance
values given reIer to dry operation, using air as the damping medium. Oil also can be used as a
damping medium, but it does not necessarily result in improved perIormance. When applying oil,
clearance gaps larger than those stated above have to be ensured, depending on the viscosity oI
the oil. In general, Lanchester dampers are less eIIective than tuned vibration absorbers.
Figure 3.11: Lanchester damper Ior the suppression oI boring bar vibration.
Since the eIIectiveness oI both Lanchester dampers and tuned vibration absorbers depends on the
mass ratio between the inertia mass and the eIIective mass oI the structure (Chap.6),heavy
materials such as lead and, especially, machinable sintered tungsten alloys are used Ior inertia
masses in cases where the dimensions oI the inertia mass are limited (as in the case oI boring
bars in Fig.3.11).The mass ratio and the eIIectiveness oI the absorber can be signiIicantly
enhanced by using a combination structure. In such a structure the overhang segment oI the
boring bar or other cantilever structure, which does not signiIicantly inIluence its stiIIness but
determines its eIIective mass, is made oI a light material, while the root segment, which
determines the stiIIness but does not signiIicantly inIluence the eIIective mass, is made Irom a
high Young`s modulus material.
Dynamic absorbers can be active (servo-controlled).Such devices can be designed to be selI-
optimizing (capable oI selI-adiustment oI the spring rate to minimize vibration amplitude under
changing excitation conditions) or to use a vibration cancellation approach. The selI-optimizing
Ieature is achieved by placing vibration transducers on both the absorber mass and the main
system. A control circuit measures the phase angle between the motions and activates a spring-
modiIying mechanism to maintain a 90° phase diIIerence between the two measured motions. It
has been demonstrated that the 90° phase relationship guarantees minimum motion oI the main
vibrating mass. In the vibration-cancellation devices, the actuator applies Iorce to the structure
which is opposite in phase to structural vibrations.
Dynamic analysis oI a machine tool structure can identiIy potentially unstable natural modes oI
vibration and check the eIIectiveness oI the applied treatments. In another approach, transIer
Iunctions between the selected points on the machine tool are measured and processed through a
computational technique which indicates at which location stiIIness and/or damping should be
modiIied or a dynamic vibration absorber installed in order to achieve speciIied dynamic
characteristics oI the machine tools.
3.3 Tool Design
Sharp tools are more likely to chatter than slightly blunted tools. In the workshop, the cutting
edge is oIten deliberately dulled by a slight honing. Consequently, a beveling oI the leading Iace
oI a lathe tool has been suggested. This bevel has a leading edge oI 80° and a width oI about
0.080 in.(0.2 mm).Tests show that the negative bevel does not in all cases eliminate vibration
and that the liIe oI the bevel is short. Appreciably worn cutting edges cause violent chatter.
Since narrow chips are less likely to lead to instability, a reduction oI the approach angle oI the
cutting tool results in improved chatter behavior. With lathe tools, an increase in the rake angle
may result in improvement, but the inIluence oI changes in the relieI angle is relatively small.
Reduction oI both Iorced and chatters vibrations in cutting with tools having multiple cutting
edges (e.g., milling cutters, reamers) can be achieved by making the distance between the
adiacent cutting edges non equal and/or making the helix angle oI the cutting edges diIIerent Ior
each cutting edge. However, such treatment results in non-uniIorm loading oI the cutting edges
and may lead to a shortened liIe oI the more heavily loaded edges as well as deteriorating surIace
Iinish as a result oI diIIerent deIormations oI the tool when lighter or heavier loaded edges are
Reduction oI cutting Iorces by low-Iriction (e.g., diamond) coating oI the tool or by application
oI ultrasonic vibrations to the tool usually improves chatter resistance.
3.4 Variation of Cutting Conditions
In the elimination oI chatter, cutting conditions are Iirst altered. In some cases oI regenerative
chatter, a small increase or decrease in speed may stabilize the cutting process. In high-speed or
unattended computer numerically controlled machine tools, this can be achieved by continuous
computer monitoring oI vibratory conditions and, as chatter begins to develop, a shiIting oI the
spindle rpm toward the stable area.
Cutting with a variable cutting speed (constant speed modulated by a sinusoidal or other
oscillatory component) acts similarly with regard to undulations in the positioning oI the cutting
edges (see above) and results in increased chatter resistance.
An increase in the Ieed rate is also beneIicial in some types oI machining (drilling, Iace milling,
and the like).For the same cross-sectional area, narrow chips (high Ieed rate) are less likely to
lead to chatter than wide chips (low Ieed rate), since the chip thickness variation eIIect results in
a relatively smaller variation oI the cross-sectional area in the Iormer (smaller dynamic cutting
AIter identiIying chatters occurring in the machine-tool system, a number oI approaches Ior
reducing chatters have been proposed. Classical approaches usually use the stability diagrams to
avoid the occurrence oI chatters. The Iollowing approach Iormulates some general methods Ior
the reduction oI chatters both on the design and the production stage:
· Selecting the optimal cutting parameters
· Selecting the optimal tooling geometry
· Increasing the stiIIness and damping oI the machine tool system
· Using the vibration isolator as necessary
· Altering the cutting speed during the machining process
· Using a diIIerent coolant
More recently, modern control and on-line chatter detection techniques were applied to suppress
chatters. Furthermore, a change oI tool geometry is also an industrial Ieasible approach to chatter
control, Ior instance, through the application oI cutting tools with irregular spacing or variable
4.1 Measurement of Vibration
The choice oI the best parameter to be measured depends on a number Iactors, including
a) the type and size oI the transducer available,
b) the mass oI the vibrating structure, and
c) the Irequency and amplitude characteristics oI the vibration.
II the velocity, acceleration, and displacement amplitudes measured at various
Irequencies, the resulting graphs oI amplitude vs. Irequency are reIerred to as the vibration
spectra, and the shape oI graphs are reIerred to as the spectral shapes. With instrumentation
based on accelerometer transducers and integrator ampliIiers, the user is Iree to choose between
acceleration, velocity and displacement as the measurement parameter. The typical vibration
spectra are displays oI the three parameters oI a machine`s vibration.
Although they each have diIIerent average slopes their peaks occur at the same Irequencies. In
the example shown the amplitude range required to display the velocity spectrum is the smallest
and thus occupies the least dynamic range. In addition it means that all the Irequency
components on this curve need a smaller relative change beIore they begin to inIluence the
overall vibration level.
The low Irequency acceleration and high Irequency displacement components oI the spectra need
to exhibit much larger changes beIore they inIluence the overall vibration level. In general it is
thereIore advisable to display in turn each oI the three parameters and choose the one which has
the Ilattest spectrum. This will enable one to detect machine Iaults, which produce an increase in
vibration level, at an early stage. In practice the velocity-Irequency spectra oI many industrial
machines are shaped this way, i.e. they are quite Ilat over a wide range oI Irequencies. Since it is
also a measure oI vibrational energy present, the velocity parameter is the one in most common
4.2 Effect of the transducer on the vibrating structure
In general, the larger the mass oI the vibration transducer, the greater its sensitivity.
UnIortunately, the addition oI the transducer's mass (m1) to the mass (m0) oI the vibrating
structure changes the resonant Irequency oI the vibrating system as Iollows:
I1 ÷ resonant Irequency oI the structure with the mass added
and I0 ÷ resonant Irequency oI the structure beIore the transducer is added.
4.3 Vibration Transducers
4.3.1 The Stroboscope Method
The Iixed pointer or stud, shown in Figure 4.1, is attached to the vibrating surIace and is used to
give an indication oI the displacement only. By using the light oI a stroboscope to 'Ireeze¨ or
'slowly move¨ the stud, quite high-Irequency small-amplitude vibrations may be measured. The
typical upper range oI Irequency is quoted at 500 Hz Ior direct measurement.
Figure 4.1: The Stroboscope Method
4.3.2 The Reed Vibrometer
The variable-length reed vibrometer shown in Figure 4.2, is used to measure the main Irequency
component oI the vibration. In practice the length l is adiusted until the maximum reed vibration
occurs, when its resonant Irequency is the same as the Irequency oI the vibrating mechanism or
structure. The length l is calibrated directly in Hz. A small mass may be added to the cantilever iI
the vibrometer is to be used Ior very-low Irequency investigation, but the scale readings would
then need to be corrected Ior the additional mass. The range oI measurement is quoted as 5 Hz to
Figure 4.2: The Reed Vibrometer
4.3.3 The Seismic-Mass Transducer
In instrumentation, seismic pickups are used to measure the motion oI the surIaces to which they
are Iixed. They are sensitive to motion along one axis only, so iI the motion is three dimensional,
three seismic pickups are needed to determine the components oI the motion along three
mutually perpendicular axes. The principal Ieatures oI a seismic pickup are shown
diagrammatically in Figure 4.3. The essential component is the seismic mass. This is a body oI
metal, suspended Irom a resilient support. This is a support whose deIlection is proportional to
the Iorce applied to it. The inertia oI the seismic mass causes it to lag behind the motion oI the
casing when the casing is accelerated, causing a deIlection in the support. This deIlection Iorms
the input to a transducer, which produces a proportional output signal. In Figure 4.3 the
transducer is represented by a potentiometer, but any suitable type oI transducer may be used.
The damping shown in Figure 4.3 may consist only oI the hysteresis oI the support material, or it
may be increased by Iilling the casing with a silicone Iluid oI suitable viscosity Ior example.
By choosing suitable values Ior the mass, the stiIIness oI the support and the damping, and by
using an appropriate transducer, the same basic arrangement oI seismic pickup can be designed
as a displacement pickup, a velocity pickup or an acceleration pickup (accelerometer). The
seismic pickup is essentially a damped spring-mass system, and will have a natural Irequency oI
vibration given by:
is the natural angular Irequency (rad/s)
ì is the spring stiIIness (N/m)
m is the mass (kg).
Figure 4.3: Seismic Mass Transducer
4.4 Comparison of Vibration-Measuring Systems
Table 4.1 compares some Ieatures oI complete vibration-measuring systems and reveals that the
accelerometer system, although the most expensive, covers the widest range oI Irequencies and
Table 4.1: Comparison oI vibration-measuring systems
We measure and analyze the vibrations produced in the machine tool at
diIIerent cutting speed, depth oI cut, Ieed rate etc. during the cutting operations on the machine
tool on three diIIerent materials. The diIIerent parameters like speed, depth oI cut, Ieed rate give
the diIIerent results Ior the vibration in the tool. We measure the Irequency, amplitude oI the
vibration in the tool.
For measurement oI the vibration Iollowing elements were used:
1. Machine tool,
2. Vibration meter,
3. RS-232 data cable,
6. Material Ior Turning on machine.
5.1.1 Machine Tool:
We has to choose a machine tool Ior perIorm operation and collect data Ior analyzing
vibration. We choose the lathe machine Ior our proiect Irom the college workshop. A lathe is a
machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perIorm various operations such as cutting,
sanding, knurling, drilling, or deIormation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an
obiect which has symmetry about an axis oI rotation. Lathes are used in woodturning,
metalworking, metal spinning, and glass working. The material can be held in place by either one
or two centers, at least one oI which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material
lengths. Other work holding methods include clamping the work about the axis oI rotation using a
chuck or collets, or to a Iaceplate, using clamps or dogs.
Figure 5.1: Lathe Machine tool used Ior experiment
5.1.2 Vibration Meter:
Vibration meter is the device which is used Ior measuring various vibration
parameters like Irequency, amplitude, time period etc. The vibration meter can also measure
acceleration, velocity, displacement. These parameters give us inIormation about the vibration
Figure 5.2: Vibration sensor mounted on tool post
produced in the tool. These parameters when Ied to the computer with the help oI data cable
provide us the Irequency mode oI vibration. The vibration meter we choose Ior our proiect is
digital vibration meter VB-8205 HTC.
` Figure 5.3: Digital Vibration Meter
5.1.3 USB-232 Data Cable and Software:
The cable which is used Ior the transmitting data Irom the vibration meter to
computer is RS-232 USB data cable. It is high speed data transmission data cable. SoItware is
used Ior the process oI vibration measurement. The soItware receive data Irom the vibration
meter through data cable and show them in the Iorm oI displacement, velocity, acceleration or
Irequency as per requirement. These collected data Irom vibration meter used Ior plotting graph
oI various parameters like Irequency-time, amplitude-Irequency etc., in MATLAB.
Computer which receives signals Irom vibration meter through RS-232 data
cable, process the signals in the soItware and show on the screen.
Figure 5.4: Vibration meter and Computer
5.2 Block Diagram of Set up
Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal on this planet which is silvery-whitish in
appearance. There are several aluminum properties that makes aluminum, one oI the most
heavily used element. Aluminium is a silvery white member oI the boron group oI chemical
elements. It has the symbol Al and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under
normal circumstances. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, and the third
most abundant element, aIter oxygen and silicon. It makes up about 8° by weight oI the Earth's
solid surIace. Aluminium is too reactive chemically to occur in nature as a Iree metal. Instead, it
is Iound combined in over 270 diIIerent minerals.
The chieI source oI aluminium is bauxite ore.
.General Properties oI aluminium:
Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13
Density 2.70 g·cm
Crystal structure Iace-centered cubic
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.1 µm·m
Young's modulus 70 GPa
Shear modulus 26 GPa
Bulk modulus 76 GPa
Brinell hardness 245 MPa
Poisson ratio 0.35
Aluminium is remarkable Ior the metal's low density and Ior its ability to resist corrosion due to
the phenomenon oI passivation. Structural components made Irom aluminum and its alloys are
vital to the aerospace industry and are very important in other areas oI transportation and
building. Its reactive nature makes it useIul as a catalyst or additive in chemical mixtures,
including ammonium nitrate explosives, to enhance blast power
During machining oI aluminium Iollowing data was recorded with the help oI vibration meter:
Figure 6.1: Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and speed 750
Figure 6.2: Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and speed 750 rpm
Aluminium graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and speed 750 rpm
AIter analyse and calculation Iollowing data was obtained :
Depth of cut
1 0.5 750 .0028 .02 -1.699
2 0.5 1250 .0025 .021 -1.678
3 0.5 1650 .0038 .011 -1.958
4 1 750 .0038 .282 -0.549
5 1 1250 .004 .o13 -1.886
Table 6.1: Analysed data oI Aluminium Specimen
Best method Ior machining Aluminium
O Depth oI cut:- 0.5mm
O Speed: 1650rpm
O Feed:- 175 mm/min.
Mild steel is the most common Iorm oI steel because its price is relatively low while it provides
material properties that are acceptable Ior many applications. Low carbon steel contains
approximately 0.050.15° carbon
and mild steel contains 0.160.29°
carbon, thereIore it is
neither brittle nor ductile. Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and
malleable; surIace hardness can be increased through carburizing .
It is oIten used when large quantities oI steel are needed, Ior example as structural steel. The
density oI mild steel is approximately 7.85 g/cm
and the Young's modulus is
Low carbon steels suIIer Irom yield-point runout where the material has two yield points. The
Iirst yield point (or upper yield point) is higher than the second and the yield drops dramatically
aIter the upper yield point. II low carbon steel is only stressed to some point between the upper
and lower yield point then the surIace may develop
Mild steel has a density oI .248 pounds per cubic inch.
Mild steel is very strong due to the low amount oI carbon it contains. In materials science,
strength is a complicated term. Mild steel has a high resistance to breakage. Mild steel, as
opposed to higher carbon steels, is quite malleable, even when cold. This means it has high
tensile and impact strength. Higher carbon steels usually shatter or crack under stress, while mild
steel bends or deIorms. Both the BHN and VHN Ior steel range Irom 150 to 190. For all
structural steels, the modulus oI elasticity can be taken as 205,000 MPa
During machining oI aluminium Iollowing data was recorded with the help oI vibration meter:
Figure 6.4: Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and speed 750 rpm
Figure 6.5: Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and speed 1250
Figure 6.6: Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and speed 750 rpm
Figure 6.7: Mild Steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and speed 1250 rpm
AIter analyse and calculation Iollowing data was obtained :
Analysed data oI Mild Steel Specimen
Best method Ior machining mild steel
O Depth oI cut:- 1mm
Depth of cut
1 0.5 250 .0083 .065 -1.187
2 0.5 750 .0071 .028 -1.553
3 0.5 1250 .0099 .022 -1.657
4 1 750 .0087 .015 -1.824
5 1 1250 .0122 .023 -1.638
Low Grade alloy steels
Low alloy steels are usually used to achieve better hardenability, which in turn improves its other
mechanical properties. They are also used to increase corrosion resistance in certain
With medium to high carbon levels, low alloy steel is diIIicult to weld. Lowering the carbon
content to the range oI 0.10° to 0.30°, along with some reduction in alloying elements,
increases the weldability and Iormability oI the steel while maintaining its strength. Such a metal
is classed as a high-strength low-alloy steel. hey have a carbon content between 0.050.25° to
retain Iormability and weldability. Other alloying elements include up to 2.0° manganese and
small quantities oI copper, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, vanadium, chromium, molybdenum,
titanium, calcium, rare earth elements, or zirconium. Their yield strengths can be anywhere
between 250590 MPa.
During machining oI aluminium Iollowing data was recorded with the help oI vibration meter:
Figure 6.8: Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and speed 450
Figure 6.9: Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 0.5 mm and speed 750
Figure 6.10: Low grade alloy steel graph oI Freq. vs Magnitude with depth oI cut 1 mm and
speed 750 rpm
AIter analyse and calculation Iollowing data was obtained :
Table 6.3: Analysed data oI Low Grade Alloy Steel Specimen
1 0.5 450 .0044 .012 -1.921
2 0.5 750 .008 .022 -1.657
3 0.5 1250 .0073 .014 -1.853
4 1 750 .0089 .02 -1.698
5 1 1250 .0388 .066 -1.180
Best method Ior machining Aluminium
O Depth oI cut:- 0.5mm
O Speed:-450 rpm
O Feed:-80 mm/min.
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
This paper has a detailed description oI the eIIect oI cutting tool vibration
on surIace roughness oI workpiece. The surIace roughness oI machined parts is predicted by
using the vibration data. For this purpose, a series oI experiment were conducted on a lathe
machine. It is well known that the vibration amplitude increases with the progression oI tool
wear. The conclusion oI our work is that the vibration oI machine cutting tool increase with
speed and depth oI cut Ior the hard to machined material as in our case the vibration amplitude
also increase with increase in speed and Ieed rate. On the other hand Ior soIt material the
vibration is much less at higher speed then slow speed. Vibration also increase in the tool due to
whirling oI the iob mounted between two stock oI lathe machine. With the increasing Ieed rate
the surIace roughness oI work piece will increase. The Ieed rate can be considered as a main
cutting Iactor in the machining operation.
Micro-electric mechanical system has been used in the Iuture. ThereIore
required precision method oI machining. Vibration can be controlled by using some damper
material like lather. Some improved technique also develop to reduce vibration like piezoelectric
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