Vocabulary

for TOEFL® iBT
®
®

N E W YO R K

Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com

CONTENTS
Introduction v 1 12 31 45 61 74 81 99 117 174

1 2 3 4 5 6

About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Prefixes and Suffixes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots

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Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. One way you can do this is to find a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. Is it the subject—the person. look at the words around it. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. With practice. though. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. and heard words you’ve never read. You can also use trial and error to find islands of meaning in a sentence. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. a listening vocabulary. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. 1. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. The words something and whatever work well v . you will eventually see how they fit together. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. You’ve read words you have never heard. 2. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. and a speaking vocabulary. Here’s how to start. Usually you can figure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. 3. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. it’s a verb. If so. Start small. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well.

you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have finished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. or family. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. Take them apart.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. Sometimes. You may find you prefer nonsense words instead. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. friends. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. Determine how much time you have until the test day. and certification agencies. In general. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. Welcome them to your world. during your commute to work. It may be first thing in the morning. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. or before you go to bed at night. thesaurus. For the TOEFL iBT. and spelling. Vocabulary is a broad topic. this book will help you prepare. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. grammar. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. licensing. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. If you study hard the first time. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. Always keep your end goal in mind. Think about when would be the best time for you. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. Share them with your coworkers. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). Once you establish a study plan for yourself. Whenever the time is right. or exchange and scholarship programs. write. It mostly takes curiosity. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT.

I NTR O D U CTI O N

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Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difficulty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is filled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you find. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book finishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneficial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s definition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.

About TOEFL iBT

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he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.

WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST

Proficiency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.

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There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. followed by Listening. In other words.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. After completing a section of the test. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . The first test section is Reading. you will not be able to return to that section to finish or change your answers. each followed by 12–14 questions. The test is worth a total of 120 points. each test taker receives the same range of questions. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. and Writing. The test is not computer-adaptive. Speaking.

indicating your remaining time. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simplification • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. a passage will appear on the computer screen. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. On the right will be a clock. . A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage.

4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. you are asked to click the OK button to confirm that you want to move to the next question. and your remaining time. Difficult words or phrases in the passage may be defined for you. and social science 2–3 conversations. the number of questions in the section. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. there are Back and Next buttons. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. physical sciences. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. you may not go back and review questions. a question will appear on the screen. When the listening passage is complete. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. life sciences. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. In the Listening section. After selecting Next. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen.

An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. Listening. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. For the integrated writing task. Listening. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. For all of the speaking tasks. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. you will type your response to two tasks. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. Listening. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. For four of the speaking tasks. . Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading.

24 hours a day. and other information you will find useful. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student offices at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative offices • from the TOEFL website. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. If you do not. To register by phone. fill out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. www.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. test instructions.S. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend.S. you will receive an instant e-mail confirmation. Canada. After completing the registration form. or U. institution codes. and a registration number. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. To register by mail. territories.toefl. call 1-443-751-4862. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . To schedule a test date in the United States. Canada. test center address. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). seven days a week. such as sample questions. or U. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT. which you must bring to the test center on test day.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers fill up quickly. You will be given a test date. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). You should receive a registration confirmation. To schedule a test date elsewhere. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. and a list of writing topics. To schedule a test date in the United States. territories. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. reporting time.

The cost is $17 for each report ordered. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. you can get one examinee score report and up to four official score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. or by fax. Fifteen days after you take the test. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. you will be .M. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. you may view your scores online. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140.O.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Office P. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. Requests must be made online. TOEFL test scores are kept on file for two years after the test date. Box 6152 Princeton. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the final section scores as well as your total score. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. If you reschedule. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. You can have official score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. NJ 08541–6152. by mail. call the RRC for your area or country. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. the examinee score report will be sent to you and official score reports will be sent to your selected institutions.

If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. So. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your first semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. the points are converted to a 0. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. However. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. For testing elsewhere. In the United States.to 30-point scale. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. and you will not receive a refund. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. you can cancel your score at the test center. or U. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. Alternatively. For each test section. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas.S. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the first time around. Canada. contact your RRC. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. . meaning each question has a correct answer(s). Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. after taking the exam.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. territories. the total score will range from 0 to 120. you will receive a refund of $65. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. After canceling your scores. If you do cancel your scores.

Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. registration number. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online.O.S.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States. you will be notified via mail. which is found on the TOEFL website. and U. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new official score reports. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. If there is a change in your score. daytime phone number. Box 6151 Princeton. If the rescoring confirms your original score. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. Canada. date of birth. These revised scores will become your official scores. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. . NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. you will receive a revised examinee score report.

Before the test session. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. you will be required to write your signature and sign a confidentiality statement. You will also need your registration number. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. Your identification will be checked before you are admitted. raise your hand. • eat. watch alarms. Read the identification requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. raise your hand. at any time during the test. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. you must answer at least one question in each section. for some reason. drink. In most cases. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. beepers. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identification. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. If. If you fail to provide proper registration and identification documents on the day of the test. If. pagers. smoke. or chew gum. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. . Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. To receive an official score report. DON’T: • bring cellular phones.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identification for TOEFL test takers.

• leave the test center during the test session and break. • exceed the time permitted for the break. watch calculators. pamphlets. calculators. books. notes.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. . highlighter pens. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. • give or receive unauthorized help. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. rulers. Follow these guidelines. dictionaries. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. • attempt to tamper with the computer. translators. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identification.

you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). Once in a while. Using a dictionary is. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. of course.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. the best way to define a word. . which gives you a very clear definition of the word. Simply put. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your first English words. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. you have been determining meaning from context. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. For example.

because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. 2. d. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. but sometimes. Now. comfort with speaking in front of people. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. sincere speech. you will soon forget what it means. only b can be the correct answer. When you are learning a new word. if you don’t use it. thus signifying that candor means frank. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. The first part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. Even if you can’t figure out exactly what candor means. 3. readiness to judge or criticize others. he can be a bit too honest. frank.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. 4. Based on the context of the sentence. b. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. Candor means a. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. Introduce them to members of your family. c. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. In this case. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Specific Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. . irritability.

Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. But on Sunday. she slept until noon. reading and watching television. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. deep sleep d. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and specific detail. Thus you can determine what indolence means. Again. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. hard labor c. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. laziness. Saturday. while the second and third sentences confirm this with specific details. luxurious b. Besides. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and specific detail. The specific details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. so choice c is also incorrect. done her grocery shopping.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. The first sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. and by noon. and left the dishes in the sink. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . she was back to her old assiduous self. and paid her bills. laziness The correct answer is d. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. essentially defining the word within the sentence.

Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. . For instance. A quack. not functioning or operating Some English words. you might get a definition similar to that of two of its synonyms. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. cleaning and working around the house (specific detail). ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. unremitting. have more than one meaning. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. for example. For example. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary definition. hardworking. Then again. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualified person who pretends to be a doctor. spirited and mischievous.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. Assiduous means diligent. Therefore. Sometimes. however. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. is the sound a duck makes. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. very busy on Sunday. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary definition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. when you are looking for context clues. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. the connotation can be favorable or positive. At a minimum. or persevering. look at the dictionary definitions of the following words. while playful is neutral in tone.

However. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not figure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. While some synonyms can be similar. For example. Terse. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufficient context. In fact. While you can have a bountiful. Succinct is more neutral. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. has the most positive connotation of these three words. ample. and succinct. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. Laconic. In some cases. terse. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. you should choose your words carefully. each word carries its own specific connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. plentiful. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. For instance. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. for example. the words bountiful. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. Thus. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. although these words are effectively synonymous. you can’t even figure out if it is something positive or negative.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. though. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. they are rarely identical. on the other hand. But you could figure out what inept means by . ample. when it comes to your own communications. most words have their own unique connotation. and glut suggest abundance. one of these words suggests an overabundance.

Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. There are some basic skills you need to acquire.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its prefix (in-) and word root (ept). That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . More often than not. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the definition. Meanwhile. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. Even if you have no idea what a word means. Sometimes you will find unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. it’s hard at first and gets easier as you practice. Often. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the definition of the word. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. you can figure out what these words mean. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. but like everything else worth doing. it’s easy to decipher the message. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance floor. Once you have the key to the code. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. one of the units will express a complete thought. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. though. SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. though. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. however.

. or secular.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. consider this sample question: Select the word that best fills in the blank. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. theological c. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-defined units. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. The first unit. is the best answer choice. Now you know you need to fill in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. reverent b. For example. the unit without the blank. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. a. Now you’re ready to use the first unit to illuminate the second. Your final step is to look at the answer choices to find the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. you have: After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. The second unit. secular. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. religious d.” a word such as civic. Choice d. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. This question has a blank in each of its two units. ➥ After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. the one with the blank.

perambulate c. Actually is a clue word. sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. and cause and effect. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. . The second unit of the sentence. adventurous . uses a phrase of comparison. perambulate. If actually were to be removed from the sentence. . Think of a synonym for “not bold. rest d. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. would indicate that kind of temperament. scuttle The first unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. . Think of them as clues to a mystery. if not done before age two. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. . . . . comparison. you could be fairly confident that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice.” Put it in the first blank. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best fill in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. daring. right? So the word that goes in the first blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. As in the preceding example. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. or move about on one’s own. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. a. bold. . These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. Think of something that. reckless . . Now read the sentence using your word in the first blank. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. careful . The best answer to this question is choice b. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. careful . as illustrated by. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). daring . . The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. amble b.

Friendly. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. then fill in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . all meaning “not solitary. but.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. for example. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. Words that signal comparison include likewise. using the punctuation to guide you. as well as. as shown. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. and. however. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at first glance. despite. but. The first unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. Now you have as the first unit. and and. however. when you see one of these words or phrases. in other words. First divide the sentence into two units. or on the contrary. or sociable are other options. and as illustrated by. This is the logical relationship of contrast. as the second unit. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. similarly. and that is. although. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. despite. gregarious. or opposition. You might choose the word social. in fact. and yet. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. such as on the other hand. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the first unit is in opposition to solitary.

Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. In other words. English is a difficult language because it is so visually confusing. or its synonym. This sentence has three units. Foster slouched. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. irrelevant . you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. Again. The blank in the third unit. two complete and one incomplete. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. The first two units tell you that before military school. The correct answer will be posture. cumulative b. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. You may also find it helpful to use a nonfiction or fiction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). Words such as thus. decreasing d. and phrases such as due to. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. and because. as a result. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. consequently. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. illogical c. ➥ Scientific knowledge is usually _______. When you know what the complete unit says. Select the word that best fills in the blank. or very nearly so. needs to be filled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. therefore. a. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. This will help you match the word to its written form. therefore. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. Foster never stood up straight. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes.

cumulative. The incomplete unit. Abate and ebb. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. you’ve made a good start. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. • You might vacillate if you are timid or diffident. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. • You might grovel if you are servile. • You might disdain something that is banal. the one with the blank. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientific knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. have nearly the same meaning. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. using key words and phrases.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. for example. To prepare for these types of questions on the . J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. while disdain and revere are opposites. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. of course. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. which. you will be daunted if you are timid. applies to lots of stuff. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. chances are you will understand the crucial words. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary.

This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. Often. and specific detail. Remember the four types: restatement. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. positive/negative. contrast. This is a skill you can practice every day. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. and the less time you will spend looking up words. By reading actively.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. This may sound like a contradiction. Read carefully. For example. however. have a dictionary handy. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. . These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. From the start. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. By reading carefully. At a minimum. surprisingly. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. the more you will comprehend. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. it is a good idea to become an active reader. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. like the TOEFL iBT. Look for specific details that provide clues to meaning. To help you eliminate answers. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. you will often be able to determine meaning from context.

dedicated b. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. remainder c. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. revenue d. a. 1. talkative b. nocturnal 3. receptive c. demographic c. blasé . a. a. artificial d. candid d. She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. accomplished c. a. incumbent 2. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. practical d. but secretly she was very excited. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. domain b. nominal b.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to fill the blank. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. assessment 4.

circumference b. scented c. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. a. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. eloquent d. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. association c. ambiguous 9. solitude b. aged b. fulcrum d. accessible b. We were tired when we reached the _____________. a. unnecessary d. nadir 6. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. current b. summit c. a. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. dedicated c. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. receptive c. a.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. a. outmoded . irrelevancy 8. but now it is _____________. he longed most of all for _____________. musty d. loneliness d. decrepit 7.

c. Teem means a. they were on a _____________ to find the perfect cup of tea. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. complex. d. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. 12. b. quest c. d. insane. of local origin. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. 13. cadence 11. harmless. intricate. b. Benign means a. c. chronologically ordered. d. dangerous. nearly overflowing. natural. 14. clearly and fully stated. a. to be full of. ambiguous or implied. d. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. to close down temporarily. Futile means a. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. c. radical. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. surge b. c. b. useless. b. discovery d. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. . Explicit means a. fruitful. to be under close scrutiny.

and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. 16. d. Digress means a. d. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. b. to create. d. Evade means a. d. to deceive. d. b. elegant. who was always one step of his creator. preferring a more terse writing style. Terse means a. c. c. stray. b. Elusive means a. difficult to avoid. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. difficult to forget. b. . descriptive.000-word article. to regress. to refuse to answer directly. The editor. to answer indirectly. to intensify. to escape or elude. 17. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics. to refuse. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. to change the tone. c. difficult to compare.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. revert. c. b. to express concisely. 18. difficult to capture. concise. Diffuse means a. to soften. factual. c. to deviate. cut 500 words from the 2. 19.

Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. 8. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. a. Surmise means a. b. 3. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. behavior d. 1. foster c. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. d. can be a desirable thing. banter c. bolster d. c. Solitude. to surprise. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. to believe. 4. b. activities 22. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. a. Incumbent means holding any post or position. d. . a. d. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. 7.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. c. Revenue is the income of a government. 21. a. antics b. where the hikers would have a good view. 5. sustain b. The summit means the highest point. to confirm. 6. b. unlike loneliness. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. and it would be something a person who works in a busy office would crave. c. to guess. 2.

Terse means concise. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Benign means not harmful or malignant. disperse. b. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. The sentence tells you that Dr. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. eluding the grasp. d. 14. To digress means to turn aside. 20. To teem means to be full of. using no unnecessary words. or doing. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. Futile means useless. d. deviate. To diffuse means to spread throughout. to soften or make less brilliant. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. 16. gentle. producing no result. 10. having a beneficial effect. a. 17. Elusive means evasive. 19. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. to be present in large numbers. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. 11. b. to avoid fulfilling. who constantly escaped his grasp. 12. a. mild. 13. vain. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. d. Choices c and d are incorrect because their definitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. hopeless. a.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. answering. b. . straightforward. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. 21. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. difficult to capture. d. b. Banter is defined as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. 18. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. c. d. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. exact. dramatically reducing its wordiness. there is likely to be a great number of security officers in the hotel. 15.

want to raise or bolster this morale. The speaker would.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. . Choice a. and d are all incorrect.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. If the friend has a “sinking morale. thus. c. b.

you are already using the same prefixes and suffixes with simple words that you already know well. changes: 31 . There are dozens of prefixes and suffixes in the English language. Thus the meaning of the root word. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. the word prefix itself uses the prefix pre-.3 Using Prefixes and Suffixes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. fix. Though prefixes and suffixes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. but the job may be easier than you think. PREFIXES Prefixes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. meaning before. Learning prefixes and suffixes in another language may seem like a daunting task. For example. This chapter reviews prefixes and suffixes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know.

O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. take the word polyglot. is an expert in global issues. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. is easily frightened. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. d. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a prefix alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a prefix to determine whether a word is positive or negative. knowing that the . For example. speaks many languages. Knowledge of prefixes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. including inept. administers lie detector tests. For example. the base upon which prefixes and suffixes are added prefix: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning suffix: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. meaning not—not suitable or competent. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. to eliminate incorrect answers. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fix: to place securely or firmly prefix: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used prefixes. If you know that the prefix poly. which uses the prefix in-. b. Thus. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life.means many. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. it is the only possible correct answer. c.

quarter. we have provided two examples of words that use that prefix. . triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. evil. To malign is to say evil. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. harmful. decimal. rather. c. b. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. to cast an evil spell. traditionally in three orders of priority). If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. you can eliminate choices a and c. to speak badly about. to arrange. centipede. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. these examples are not test-prep words. and often untrue things about someone.means bad. to charm. Among the most common number related prefixes are: un-. With your knowledge of prefixes. Take a look at some words that contain numerical prefixes: bipartisan (two parties). millennium. This will help you remember the meaning of each prefix—and show you just how well you already know them.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 prefix mal. to speak ill of. mono-: one (unique. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. b. triple) quad-. unity. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the prefixes are the numerical prefixes. trident. enchant. trinity. that is. For each prefix. d. quart. and trilogy (a series of three plays). bicameral. monotonous. decathlon. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. millimeter) Following is a list of the prefixes. quar-: four (quadrant. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. you may be able to choose the correct answer. With a few exceptions. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. or wrong can help you significantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. bilateral.

disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. together. without amoral (not moral). ant-: opposite. or lie between two points of time or things) . off abduct (to take by force). before anterior (placed before). among. or an occurrence) co-. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. about. apart. occur. comply). eject). circum-: around. not dismiss (to send away from. appear. away from exit (go out). a particular incident.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. opposing. out of. intervene (to come. reversal. abs-: from. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. atypical (not typical) ab-. com-. informal (not formal) inter-: between. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). away. an-: not. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). in front of. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). con-: with. jointly cooperate (to work together. come before) anti-. antedate (to proceed in time.

especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. beneath.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. make known in advance) re-: back. of unusually high quality. to take the place of) sub-: under. wrong. bring under control). much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. below subdue (to overcome. neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonfiction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than fiction). again rebuild (to build again after destruction). wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). over. multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. predict (to forecast. opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). replace (to put back in its former position. magnificent. malpractice (wrongdoing. abnormal. excellent). ill. recent. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). evil. exceeding superb (grand.

which means “to completely destroy. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. as in unhappy. and il. which means “ten. in-. the more you will understand. or rent a film in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. dis-. there is only a distant hint of the prefix deci-. . and illegible. After you have completed this chapter. inconsiderate. make sure you review the list carefully and study any prefixes that are unfamiliar to you. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present definition. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. not a verb.” Historically. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. You may also realize that the suffix -ian calls for an adjective. For example. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. The point of learning about prefixes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. Try watching the evening news. Other prefixes only remotely affect word meaning. . displeasing. Some prefixes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. For example. Go to the movie theater to see a film in English. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . For example.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English prefixes is located in Appendix B.” in the word decimate. . As you use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. The important point to remember is that in learning prefixes. the prefixes un-.

can also identify or quantify. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. Part of Speech noun Function names a person. or entire clauses. exhilarating that (e. place.g.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Suffixes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). place. valor go. clumsily. Elm Court. oblong. here. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. thing. or a modifier. Suffixes tell you whether a word is a person. contend. soon Examples cloud.. brush. which one. that dog) several (e. or concept verb shows an action. They often change a word’s part of speech. how and to what extent white. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. several dogs) slowly. to provoke the hostility of . adversarial to oppose actively. other adverbs. never. Helen. opponent opposing. an action or state of being (a verb). ancient. adjectives. tells where. interrupt For example. look how the suffixes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the prefix. how much adverb describes verbs.. an adversary. or thing (a noun). tells what kind. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Definition one who opposes or contends with another. how many. occurrence. imagine. car. feel. when.g. combating. jump. ant-). very.

Similarly. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. and only choice d is correct. Only choices c and d define adjectives. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. b. recurring illness. but they are both verbs. zero in on its meaning. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Definition to regard with deep respect or reverence. respectively. BUT NOT ALWAYS While prefixes and suffixes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. Squeamish means easily sickened. to scream or squeal. For example. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. to honor with a sense of awe. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. . you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. Thus. However. just knowing suffixes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. For example. such as equality (state of being equal). the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. easily disgusted. extremely shy. but look for other clues to meaning as well. depending upon its suffix. Select the best answer to the question.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. but it can help you determine the function of the word. deserving of honor and respect. or shocked. disgusted. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. if you know that the suffix -ity means state of being. Choices a and b are definitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. not adjectives. nauseated. d. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. c. if you know that -ish is a common suffix for adjectives. ➥ Squeamish means a. as you come across vocabulary words with common prefixes and suffixes. use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes.

process. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). makes. and economic equality of the sexes). believes. the transitional period between youth and maturity). -ence: action. etc. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the suffixes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. and again. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). state or condition detection (the act of detecting). state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. practice. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. we have again provided two examples of words that use that suffix. dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. or process. political. state. materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). produces. politician (one who seeks or holds a political office) -ion: act or process. fidelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). . For each suffix. process. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary.

or destroyed. in the manner of a fool) . servile (pertaining to or befitting a slave. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. However. relating to. exhibiting folly. unable to be believed. pertaining to. theatrical). useful). damaged. or characteristic of a humanitarian). or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. incredible (not credible. frail). -ial. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difficult vocabulary word for each prefix or suffix. improbable) -al. trustworthy). abjectly submissive. -ical: having the quality of. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common prefixes and suffixes by remembering examples of words you already know. -ible: capable or worthy of. -ian: related to. such as cooperate and dismiss. characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. or resembling a child). realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. Because the words are already so familiar to you.

By memorizing these essential word parts. You already know much of this material. Use as many .U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). they change or add to the meaning of the root word. having the quality of. to make impatient. rather. angry. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test.. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the prefix or suffix. nauseous (causing nausea. done with or working with others for a common purpose). to bring about colonize (to establish a colony).g. ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common prefixes and suffixes. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. impair. annoyed) -ify. Remember that prefixes and suffixes alone do not create meaning. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. Remember that you use prefixes and suffixes every day. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study prefixes and suffixes. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. -fy: to make. irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. to make inferior in quality or character). all the time. -ose: full of. cooperate). you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. famous). The more familiar the word is to you (e. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. form into beautify (to make beautiful).

b. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. 3. The more you narrow down your choices. put forth in writing. word roots (covered in the next chapter). Allow for exceptions. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. and context. c. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. d. 1. many sided. b. Antecedent means a. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. coming before. try to recall another word with a similar root. c. and context if possible to confirm meaning. word roots. c. not every -ist word is only a noun. Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to eliminate incorrect answers. Does it match the part of speech of the definition according to the suffix? If you know the prefix or suffix but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. Multifaceted means a. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. relating to the circus. under the authority of. cut into parts. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. d. to examine thoroughly. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. Plug in that meaning with the prefix or suffix and see if it makes sense. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns defining a kind of person (one who does).42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. looking after. including prefixes and suffixes. two-faced. 2. fighting against. Check prefixes. . looking around carefully. b. d. Circumspect means a. uniform.

d. to doubt or question. amount. to pressure. to be out of date. or degree. c. to warn in advance. b. to age gracefully. d. to send a message. one who doubts. d. less than the norm. exactly as expected. the state of being equal in status. doubtful. c. relating to land or land ownership. disappointing. speaking in a measured. 8. b. b. haughty. or degree. Dubious means a. To presage means a. or degree. to be uncertain. d. . amount. Consensus means a. amount.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. to make equal in status. Agrarian means a. 9. one who is equal in status. d. general agreement by a group. a nonbeliever. b. 6. to cultivate. or degree. Parity means a. d. c. amount. exact tone. Supercilious means a. to issue a warning. with an air of superiority. incapable of making a decision. an individual opinion. 5. c. the act of making someone or something equal in status. 7. c. b. questionable. b. c. a counting of individuals.

disdainful. Parity means having equality in status. 5.means with. The prefix pre. equivalence. scornful. d. the state of becoming active or aware. an opinion or position reached by a group. not showing anxiety or excitement. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. reversing a previous opinion or decision.means not. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. circumstance. done with the intent of harming another. The prefix super. on all sides. c. one who becomes active or aware. over. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. Antecedent means that which precedes. d. 8. b. relating to. The verb suffix -ize means to cause. c. c.means around. 2. Dubious means doubtful. complex. The prefix con. b. questionable. . 11. d. together. 7. to be active or aware. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). 3. or exceeding. 6. not showing anxiety or excitement. Galvanize means a. The prefix ante. Consensus means general agreement or accord. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering prefixes and suffixes? Check your answers here.means before. d. The prefix circum. b. amount.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. haughty.means before. to predict. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. the thing. to bring about. wary. to cause to become active or aware. c. d. a. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of.means many. 11. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. The prefix non. 1. watchful. The prefix multi. a. or event that came before. wavering. Circumspect means cautious. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. fraught with uncertainty. challenging. c. indifferent.means above. d. 4. 10. b. 9. value or degree. The noun suffix -ity means state of being. The adjective suffix -ian means related to. foretell. Nonchalant means a.

In fact. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. meaning hand. the stronger your vocabulary will be. meaning name. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. The study of word origins and development 45 . You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. so. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. do many of the words in the English language. The more word roots you know. the more roots you know. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. Needless to say. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. For example. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. too. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning.Word Roots 4 P refixes and suffixes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past.

the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. violet). My mother plants herbs in her garden. Meaning “memory aid. however. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. orange. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. blue. meaning. the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. Phil loves to help others. For example. yellow. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. indigo. For now. All the eggs are in the pan. green. the acronym Roy G. or acronyms (words that are made up of the first letters of a group of words or phrases. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. He will write the information on a graph. For example. or spelling. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. tunes. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. . Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red.

therefore. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. roots are the base to which prefixes and suffixes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. yield. stop. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. to yield. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. rhythmic patterns. The Latin roots err and pug. respectively. place. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. process . or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an office or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. meaning to go. useful: • Use rhymes. On occasion. or tunes. especially after an interruption. related to Thus. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. But most of the time. proper. for example. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to this root and how the different prefixes and suffixes change meaning.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. a course of action or conduct. a thing yielded. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. Now. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. move on. (often with reluctance). an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. kind ous: suffix meaning having the quality of. rank. etc.

and the suffix -ant means being in a state or condition of. meaning the act or state of.means back. pacify. c. retreat. through. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. to move or go back. to go together with others Remember your prefixes from Chapter 3. Re. d. Thus. or yield. The correct answer is b. not stopping. incessant means continuing without interruption. to move back. cess means to go. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to the root word. performing or causing an action.means not. not direct. self-satisfied. going between. stop. plac. continuous. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. Recede means c. continuing without interruption. to stop or abandon before completion c. subliminal. yielding readily under pressure. or among. to go forward blindly b.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. Again. ceaseless. retreat d. b. to move or go below the surface. to allay the anger of. you can also answer the following question. ced means to go. meaning to please. Now add the noun suffix -sion. withdraw. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. again. ➥ Incessant means a. yield. try determining what the word recede means: a. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efficacy of a drug . and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. stop. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. placate: to appease. The prefix in.

or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. For example. Similarly. because the colors of the traffic light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. yield. You could also picture a traffic light for the root ced/ceed/cess. To remember that eu means good or well. be simultaneous By changing the suffix of synchronize. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. I love Amy. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. stop. habitual. or a boxer with a pug nose. you could try one of these sentences for the root am. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. If you are an auditory learner. to record in chronological order. use pictures to help you remember words. you can picture the letters EU on a well. For example. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. on-going. For example. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. meaning time.WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. especially visual learners. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop. to occur at the same time. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. . For example. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. to remember the root pug. If you are a visual learner. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. I love ham. again. chronic: continuing for a long time. meaning love: I am love. Many different words can be built from a single root. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. we can create even more words.

predict (to foretell. as with a beating. chastise (to punish severely. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. enamored (inflamed or inspired by love. dit: to say. sour. or ill natured). keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. acr: sharp. which once again are mostly everyday words.50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. mea culpa (Latin. acute (extremely sharp or severe. use words dictate (to say or read aloud. equidistant (equally distant) . etc. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. to issue orders or commands). make known in advance) equ: equal. make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you.). dict. bitter acid (something that is sharp. Review the list carefully. “my fault”) dic. affectionate). captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war. profession. especially the American Civil War). After you have completed this lesson. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). romantic. taking note of the examples. tell. to rebuke) ced. yield. ceed. even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). exceed (to extend beyond or outside of. cess: to go. stop antecedent (that which precedes).

nic. to make unfit or harmful to living things) mag. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). vehement). luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. conspicuous. distinguished) nas. pollute (to make impure or unclean. ardent. hang over prominent (standing out. innate (possessed at birth. burning. projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). lum. maj. eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. max: big magnify (to increase in size. burn fervid (very hot. loqu: word. as a carbonated liquid. obnoxious (offensive. inborn. inherent) nec. to lessen the force or purity of). manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. error (a mistake. not dangerous or harmful). enlighten). noc. translucent (almost transparent. allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. animated) loc. nox: harm.WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. effervescent (bubbling up. high spirited. nat. hateful) . death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. lut. log. to amplify). lofty. volume or significance. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). free from guilt. bubble.

implied). anxiety. tranquil (free from disturbance. science (knowledge. taciturn (habitually untalkative. forceful. place deposit (to put or set down. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. vigorous (energetic. tending to express oneself often and freely. withdraw) . strong) voc. brilliant. still). hostile. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. decision or judgment). bright. reverse. revoke (to cancel. true to life. disposed to fight) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. call back. outspoken). interchange) pug: to fight pug (a boxer). vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). place). pos. aware). calm. pound: to put. verify (to confirm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. reserved) ver: truth verdict (the findings of a jury in a trial. distinct). active.52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once).

prefix. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. For instance. and suffixes are found at the end of a word. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. the prefix can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. If you are lucky. For instance. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. which means to trust or believe. too. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. you have to figure out what the word means without any help from context clues. Otherwise. and credit. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. Prefixes come before the word root. Knowing this. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difficult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. or prefix. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. sacred. Very often.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to find the synonym or antonym of a word. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. Let what you know about those words help you find the meaning of words that are less familiar. suffix. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. . or suffix—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. the root of credible is cred. In this case. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Not only do you need to know the word in question. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for prefixes and suffixes. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. unnecessary. A suffix like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. To identify most word parts—word root. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context).

epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . habitual. courage. to have a tendency or disposition toward something). to give support. especially one made of biological materials). seeing with one’s own eyes) card. slope. long-lasting or recurrent). bend incline (to lean. especially one used as a burial place). cryptography (secret writing. clin: to lean toward. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. archy: chief. one who creates plans for buildings). archi. slant. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. andro: man. human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. chronology (the arrangement of events in time. or confidence. encourage (to inspire with hope. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). cord. ongoing. such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external influence or control. or cause to do so.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. ruler architect (one who plans or devises. having inherent power of action or motion). the sequence in which events occurred) cli. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). principal.

or swerve. width). having a uniform structure or composition throughout). abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. deviate. euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. digress (to turn aside.WO R D R O OTS 55 di. obstinate). a marked change of form. a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . especially one praising someone who has died). dia: apart. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. thickness. or function). polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). character.

56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. a large orchestra) theo: god. and suffixes. a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. agreement between two people) ped: education. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. existence. for example. pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). harmony. prefixes. suffering. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. You might. pat. remember to focus first on roots. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed field) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). respond to a visual clue in a word. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). path: feeling. religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). all the gods of a people or region) pas. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary.

TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. A rebel. for example.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. fights in a war. bubble. bitter. Here again are some specific strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. For example. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. Similarly. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s prefix with that same prefix on another word she knows. suffixes. The prefix im. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. which means to boil. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. the meaning of the root bel is war. By memorizing common prefixes. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. Here are some specific strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. and word roots. . for instance. For example. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and significantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. burn. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. fervent has the root ferv. the root ac means sharp.in impervious means not. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association.

Use the power of association. frequently digresses. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. highly educated. talkative. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. Remember that word roots work with prefixes and suffixes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. if possible. b. friendly. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. equate). errs repeatedly in its logic. Look at all parts of the word and the context. often without realizing it. truthful. is very clear and intelligible. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. tenuous. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. An amiable person is a. By memorizing these word bases. 2. predict. The more familiar the word is to you (e. to determine meaning. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. The more you narrow down your choices. is loosely held together. 1. d. You already know much of this material. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. b.g. . c. honest. loud. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. good natured.. d. Remember that you use common word roots every day. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. c. A lucid argument a. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word.

b. dull. d. b. harmful. is contented to a fault. d. b. 8. pick a fight with that person. c. c. c. to worsen it. d. very old. inedible. not fit for consumption. 5. stop or block that person from doing something. d. dangerous. b. chaotic. truthfulness. charge that person with a crime. still. circumference. To exacerbate a problem means a. antiquated. A complacent person a. c. harm that person. expressed in a powerful and effective manner. c. at rest. A quiescent place is a. c.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. To indict someone is to a. embellish the truth. to analyze it. d. b. tumultuous. weight. Something that is eloquent is a. 7. b. to lessen it. 4. value or worth. very isolated. d. to solve it. . likes to pick fights. trite. is known to tell lies. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. 6. but does not accept responsibility. hackneyed. frequently makes mistakes. self-satisfied.

The root loc/log/loqu means word. Veracity means truth. likeable. use words. unwholesome. b. The root ac means sharp.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. 7. The root am means love. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. A noxious odor is a. d. . violence. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. self-satisfied (pleased with oneself). d. 10. death. even-temperedness. fluent. at rest. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. c. 10. intelligible. a. d. pleasing. Complacent means contented to a fault. truthfulness. good natured. d. speech. especially under stress. b. quiet. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. d. b. 4. 5. and persuasive manner. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. To exacerbate means to make worse. patience and composure. The root luc/lum/lus means light. tell. d. b. a. has a violent temper. 3. easy to understand. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. bitter. c. Lucid means very clear. to increase the severity. unscented. refreshing. 2. Quiescent means inactive. 9. The root ver means truth. 6. 1. is even-tempered and composed. harmful. even. A person with equanimity a. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. The root plac means to please. The root equ means equal. The root qui means quiet. 8. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. c. d. or bitterness of. tantalizing. is very stubborn. enjoys the company of others.

One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. fall. For example. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring.5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your finger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . summer. They are called homonyms. or winter to flavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry. he will learn something new about his craft.

or stress. and bear and bare. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. His conduct in school was terrible. Night and knight. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. If so. For example. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. There are dozens of homophones. Otherwise. this chapter will help you get them straight. but have different spellings and meanings. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. . Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. great and grate. while others that you may still find confusing. The term for these words. or piece or peace.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A specific type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. homophone. for example. like TOEFL iBT. many of which you may already know. are homophones. as are slay and sleigh. for example. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. on one part of the word.

C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief definition of each word. CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to influence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (financial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .

64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. verb) compliment (noun. suggest to assume. verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to find something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint.

her. she. or they substitute for him. not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . sum of interest-earning money standard still.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue profits main person in charge.

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Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the definition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the definition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the definition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its definition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct prefixes. But the prefixes are attached to the same root, and the prefixes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selfish motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.

C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S

67

J

HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is filled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.

You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:

➥ ➥

ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness

The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the definition of each word.

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➥ ➥

ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings

Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the prefix. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a allude (˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform

ascent (a·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent censor ('sen·sor) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an official who reviews books, films, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing

disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. to separate and scatter in different directions. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. 1. to lessen the worth of. a hidden store or stock. n. 1. gladly feign (fayn) v. adversary. fake. reputation. to diminish in price or value. cache. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. a difference of opinion. 2. an enemy. a downward slope or movement. 2. not extinct. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. artificial. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. to withhold approval or assent. to provoke. still in existence. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. illegal. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. to pretend. to come or issue forth. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. etc. about to occur. to call forth or draw out. 1. 1. the range. distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj. standing above others in quality. to express disapproval of. 2. sufficient. v. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. to differ in opinion. disagree. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. or degree to which something reaches or extends. 2. 2.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. meeting acceptable standards. 1. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. towering above or more prominent than others. distance. 2. to belittle. lofty. to collect and lay up. a large group or crowd. the act of descending or moving downward. hereditary derivation. 1. character. to think or speak of as being of little worth. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. with joy. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. 2. 2. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. 1. forbidden by law. a vast multitude . not genuine or real foe (foh) n. to cause to do so. to distribute widely. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv..

unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. to intrude in other people’s affairs. to cause annoyance or irritation. 2. n. 1. spirit peak (peek) v. to be full of. 2. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. to join together so as to form a team. unable to mask feelings. 1. 2. to level to the ground. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. sincere. beyond belief. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. 1. to lift. intensity. to bring a criminal action against. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. artless. to increase in size. to erase. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. or intensity. pique (peek) v. activity. to be present in large numbers . the highest possible point of development. 1. 1. order something to be done. to prohibit. n. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. implausible. 2. 2. to vex or create resentment. harass. a brief or furtive look. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill. dictate. 2. n. 3. religious or political beliefs. activity. courage. make higher. skeptical. marked by inventive skill or creativity. n. to reach its highest point or maximum development. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. to issue commands. to oppress. frank. demolish completely. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. 2. the act of raising or increasing. degree. to carry on. a group organized to work together. 2. or strength. put in an upright position 2. obliterate team (teem) v. continue. remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. 1. 1. 1. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. the pointed top of a mountain. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. not cunning or deceitful. summit. 1. quantity. or mistreat. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. especially because of race. fortitude. or intensity peek (peek) v.

Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. rush. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. penalty. and appraise means to evaluate. n. 1. the more likely you are to find a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. Review. dispense with wave (wayv) v. 2. Use these words. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. 2. especially of the hand. 2. standard procedure. if you are a visual learner. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. rhymes will be more effective. Or teach them to someone else. And then review them again. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. Remember to make the most of your learning style. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. 1. review. you will remember which word has which meaning. For example. Pay attention to details. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. 3.). 1. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. to move up and down or back and forth. For example. Meddle. relinquish. review. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. appraise has the word praise in it. For example. Use flash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. If you are an auditory learner. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. The more carefully you read each definition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. a surge. undulate. .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. for example. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. etc. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others.

5. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. 1. . 7. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. meaning to write. 10. 4. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. Once again. Both prescribe and proscribe. 8. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. 6.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. but she didn’t say anything directly. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. 2. 9. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. 3. have the root scrib/script. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. for example. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances.

censor. standard procedure. penalty. Imminent means about to occur. disbursed. alluded. . 9. 2. An ascent is an upward slope.). To allude means to make an indirect reference to. imminent. or degree to which something reaches or extends. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. 5. showing inventiveness and skill. remarkably clever. 4. move on. ingenious. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. 6. advancement. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 8. Extent means the range. impending. 7. To censor is to forbid the publication. prosecuted. ascent. proceed. 10. waive. 1. etc. distribution.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. To disburse means to pay out. distance. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. especially after an interruption. extent. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. advance. a movement upward. To proceed means to go forward or onward. relinquish. 3.

perched on top of telephones. however. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the office until late last night. and the third. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. They’re called idioms. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. the second. that there were people able to interpret a political office seeker’s actions in a favorable light. All of these expressions are idioms. that a man was talking on the phone. you know that the first means that someone was delayed at work. . or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to define outside of the context in which they are used. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their office chairs. He was on the phone when I got to his house. In its simplest form. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. 74 Taken literally.

A related term is tenure track. Some of the words you’ll find in the world of academia. their impact is lessened. colloquialisms. . or even ask a university representative. which are frequently heard around campus. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the financial officer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. try and locate the definitions of the following words. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. In college. referring to the self. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. for example. They are too well known to English speakers. and slang. An idiosyncrasy. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these definitions. “Pretty as a picture. is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. or the world of education. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. Through overuse. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language.” “right as rain. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time.

For instance.” Here are some idioms with their definitions. All languages have their own idioms.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language.” the British call a “block of flats. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difficult. presumably. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. up to the job. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. give it a shot: try for the first time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . hot heels result from running hard. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously.

amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver find out: discover.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion fly off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. Reaganomics. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. . decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. from Reagan and economics. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. all fouled up.

PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. 1. _____ . “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. a colloquialism. or a cliché. and other dayto-day communications.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. and the easier it will be to remember them. the more familiar they will feel to you. 3. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. If you burn out at something. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. it happens rarely. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. Once again. If it happens once in a blue moon. textbooks. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. _____ 5. 2. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. 4. it means that you need the services of an electrician. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. The more you hear how they sound. Answer yes or no to the following sentences.

_____ 8. 8. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 7. you hand over your undergarment. If you give the slip to someone. 2. 4. 6. If you give something a shot. 1. 5. _____ 7. 3. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. you are willing to try. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here.

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you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. a. expressive b. favorably 81 . however. Directions: For questions 1 through 20.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. reserved d. a. We knew everything about the newest member of our group.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. When you are finished. aloof d. irrational c. shamelessly c. make a list of these words. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. if you come across words that you are unsure of. elitist b. ingenious 2. Then. adversely b. I have always liked your positive attitude. choose the word that best fills in the blank. candidly d. artistic 3. (We suggest not timing yourself. Take your time when answering each question. look up the definitions for the words on your list. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word. a. secretive c. After you complete the test. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. she was very _____________. 1.

potable 7.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. a. If your drinking water is not _____________. The directions to the new office were _____________. commonplace c. a. valid b. embodied 6. a. delectable b. and I had no trouble finding it in time for work. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. decreased d. impure d. meddlesome d. encompassed b. arduous c. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. a. condoned . dispersed 8. devised c. explicit d. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. priceless b. quenchable c. a. released c. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. docile 5. reminisced d. it could cause serious health problems. conformed b.

presumed d. torrid c. surmised c. prestige b. priority b. quandary d. a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. monotonous b. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. perplexity d. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. conspicuously d. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. eminently b. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. vital 13. resolved . Wanting to make a good impression. a. redundancy c. deficit 10. conformity c. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. a. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. To get the promotion she wanted. ample d. a. concept 11. virtuously c. obscurely 12. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. supposed b. a.

The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. winding highway. The fire alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer firefighters of the small community to come to action.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. audibly 17. disguise d. a. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. approvingly b. ventilated c. attraction c. a. careened d. a. dynamically b. voraciously c. agitated 16. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. dissented b. beneficially 18. council c. symbolically d. After running an early 5K race. a. generously d. portrayal b. reflex d. duplicate . The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. significantly c. mishap b. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. reunion 15. a.

b. 21. 23. . relentlessly funny. mystery. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. in a new location. b. c. a. to orbit. choose the best definition for the word in italics. d. very high. original. a. bitingly sarcastic. warily b. Caustic means a. filibuster d. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. d. 22. c. rendezvous b. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. enemy. b. Enigma means a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. Understanding the world economic conditions. d. scatter c. cutting edge. Sandra is truly an enigma. disperse 20. c. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. Exorbitant means a. luxuriously c. stranger. newcomer. belonging to a group. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people find his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. measurably d. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. refreshingly honest.

b. b. the process of instructing. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. 29. to surpass. outdo. To reconcile means a. repeated frequently to aid memorization. to move away from. to reestablish a close relationship between. moralizing. literal. of or like a condemnation. Subordinate means a. d. hierarchical. 27. to preach. 26. c. critical. d. d.86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. c. organized according to rank. something ordinary or average. . c. c. one who has changed. a teacher or instructor. a transformation. d. to transform. Denunciation means a. without distinction. 28. one-sided. c. Metamorphosis means a. to undermine. intended to instruct. c. one who denounces or openly condemns another. b. to denounce or openly condemn. under someone else’s authority or control. Unilateral means a. b. d. moralize. understated. d. to multiply. b. tending to change frequently. Didactic means a. b. 25.

b. lasting a very long time. to establish contact. d. constant. fight. abolish.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. c. penetrating. 33. c. biting in nature. insight. one who acquires items from other empires. Perennial means a. the process of encoding a message. 34. someone who is unconventional. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. quarrel. relating to the acquisition of territories. b. d. . revoke. badly handled. d. know intimately. To abrogate is to a. c. greatly varied. a number between one and ten. b. b. worthy of consideration. c. d. 32. Intermittent means a. Incisive means a. rest quietly. occurring at intervals between two times or points. a very naïve person. d. b. one who plants a garden. an empire built by acquiring other territories. someone who lacks creativity. 31. an evil person. Imperialism means a. c. c. to act forcefully. 35. b. villain. d. Miscreant means a.

hobo. d. is bitter or resentful. d. 38. c.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. exists only in the imagination. a formal proclamation or command. . has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. call attention to. a place to rest. give in to. has existed for a long time. b. given to wordy. 39. war. d. c. c. extremely talkative. d. d. generous. mask the truth. there is a. comply with another’s wishes. is extremely friendly. 37. c. is experienced through the life or action of another. c. a place to stop. highly noble. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. enables a guilty person to be set free. 40. 41. b. b. A magnanimous person is a. d. To acquiesce is to a. a wanderer. speak in a whisper. bitterness. An edict is a. b. rambling speech. A vicarious action is one that a. peace. b. surrenders the rights of others. b. c. the act of seeing or shining. If there is amity between two nations. equality.

c. nosy. but believe me. c. A pugnacious person is best described as a. fiery emotion. 49. peace. light-hearted. steady pace. tends to talk a great deal. c. d. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. meandering. 44. c. To feel fervor is to feel a. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. b. Something that is erratic a. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. carefree. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. straying from the norm. is unpredictable. as with guilt. is properly ordered. d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to find out how much it is worth. 47. talented. calmness. 46. 43. b. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. . 48. b. b. 45. A loquacious person a. often has difficulty finding things. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. burdened. in its proper place. d. moves at a constant. ruthless. d. combative. tends to like everyone. appropriate. is not discerning. intense. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. he is very anxious to learn more about you. has good intentions.

A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. 58. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. 51. or suffixes. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). 56. 55. 54. 52. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. visible d. prefixes. incomplete c.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. 57. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). I think he’s telling the truth. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. enhanced . identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 60. 53. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. let’s eat here. a partial report a. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. identifiable b. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). 59.

reverted b. pause d. slow b. 64. regressed d. rain delay a. deny d. tardy d. transgressed c. confirm b. average c. prompt payment a. challenge 63. corroborate the statement a. proven d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. regular 65. original b. alleged 62. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. a substantial report a. punctual b. moderate work flow a. slack c. final d. weighty c. desist 66. manufactured goods a. negate c. hasten c. inconclusive b. excessive . processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67.

blasé b. apropos b. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. mélange c. mélange d. hiatus c. the complete works of Shakespeare a. initial impression a. “work like a dog.” “sleep like a baby. milieu c. par excellence b. an avid sports fan a. gestalt b. imbroglio 69. insouciant d. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. first b.” and other such overused sayings a. oeuvre 70. final d. choose the word whose definition best matches the description. crisis c. aficionado . 68. savoir faire d. zeitgeist d. avant-garde d. façade 71.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. rendezvous c. cliché b. bourgeois c. gauche 72.

d. attentive. cheerful. 76. b. available. eager. entertain. . steady. see c. inscribe a. behind 74. 77. proficient. perform d. slight. d. A synonym for adequate is a. toward d. immense. proactive a. d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. c. 78. flatter. b. average. b. A synonym for comply is a. 73. c. sufficient. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. A synonym for vast is a. mediocre. after b. forward c. obey. write 75. c. confine b. d. adamant. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. b. subdue. c.

12. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. dissembling. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. 16. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. bizarre. 11. d. to lurch or swerve while in motion. wild. d. Resolved means having reached a firm decision about something. Ingenious means marked by originality. or obliging. d. b. 19. c. a. Docile means easily led or managed. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. c. 80. diverse. 14. a.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. b. c. 10. 8. a. slovenly. ravenously. ANSWERS 1. A synonym for ecstatic is a. . b. d. Favorably means gracious. resourcefulness. a. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. d. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. 17. to plan to obtain or bring about. d. Encompassed in this context means included. c. 6. and cleverness in conception. 9. a. c. 18. c. 15. An antonym for uniform is a. 2. Explicit means clearly defined. a. attracting attention. 7. thrilled. a. 5. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. positive. inconsistent. b. Potable means fit for drinking. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. 3. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. 4. d. 13. kindly. d.

Unilateral means one-sided.means under.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. sharp. having the quality of. Didactic means intended to instruct. and watchful prudence. Perennial means lasting an indefinitely long time. d. a. (2) to make subservient. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. c. b. suitable for. d. she remains a mystery. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. Only choice b defines a quality.means between or among. The noun suffix -tion means the act or state of. The main context clue is that people find Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. Metamorphosis means a transformation.means one. 21. related to. 25. or function. Miscreant means a villain. away from. forever. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. character. not continuous. alternate. below. a. a. . The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. 30. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difficult to understand. Choices b and c are both nouns. 23. it would require the suffix -ist. periodic. happening again and again or year after year. biting. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. out of. subdue. 29. 28. 26. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. 27. to bring back to harmony. wrong. criminal. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. The prefix sub. cunning. a marked change of form. but for choice b to be correct. c.means out. 31.means bad. The adjective suffix -ial means having the quality of. d. especially in public. cutting. Choice a is the only adjective definition. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. d. acute. Notice also the adjective suffix -al. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. 22. The prefix inter. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. The prefix mis. The noun suffix -sis means the process of. meaning action or process. The prefix re. a. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. The prefix ex. thus. an evil person. 32. but no one knows anything about her. The adjective suffix -ive means having the nature of. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. a. 24. Intermittent means occurring at intervals. again.means back. d. and as a verb (notice the -ate suffix) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. secondary. b. The prefix uni. 33. constantly recurring. a baffling problem or riddle. evil. beneath. Incisive means penetrating and clear.

The prefix ab. fake. The root vi means life. d. opinion. 47. The root loc/log/loqu means word. uninterested. 49. The noun suffix -ity means state of being. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. To acquiesce means to comply. d. teeming. The root ferv means to boil. Fervor means zeal. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. intense emotion. having no care or interest in knowing. away from. tell. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. The suffix -or means a condition or activity. cause to be. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. acting or suffering for another. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. 39. The root err means to wander. The root ac/acr means sharp. down. having the quality of. c. The root mag/maj/max means big. 36. a. An edict is an official order or decree. b. The noun suffix -ism means state or doctrine of. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 40. 38. not genuine or real. bubble. b. uneven. The root rog means to ask. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. burn. 41. To teem means to be full of. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. Amity means friendship. give in. To appraise means to evaluate. 37. The root am means love. . 48. 43. combative. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. 35. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. etc. to be present in large numbers. Faux means artificial. To abrogate means to abolish. to establish value or estimate the worth of. a. 44. speech. 42. 45. appraised. formally revoke. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. away. or inconsistent manner. inclined to fight. d. understanding and forgiving of others. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. bitter. the suffix -ate means to make. Uninterested means not interested. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. do away with. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. ardor. use words.means off. The root pug means to fight. Loquacious means very talkative. faux. d. a. d. d. 46. garrulous. The root qui means quiet.

. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. d. b. rebuke. prescribing. d. cutting-edge. 63. (2) meeting acceptable standards. 65. especially in the arts or literature. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. Moderate means average. etc. A substantial report is extensive. Assent means agreement. sufficient. 66. 53. This sentence uses the second meaning.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. spirit. 68. a hint or suggestion. 62. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. b. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. 59. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a finished product. such as a word or action. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. This sentence uses the second meaning. beyond belief. To prescribe is to issue commands. 55. raise. given to prompt or remind someone of something. 54. The key part of the word substantial is substance. To corroborate is confirm. assent. adequate. incredible. piqued. Some related words are cooperate. which means with or together. artist. d. A delay is a postponement in time. 64. (2) the total lifework of a writer. b. dictate. 69. Initial means first. Incredible means implausible. c. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. An initial impression is one that comes first. c. coworker. A cue is a signal. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. 61. A partial report is only part of the whole. Prompt means punctual. cue. mettle. 56. 51. consent. 57. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. concurrence. tardy means late. The root of the word here is part. innovative. horde. 58. Mettle means courage. order something to be done. Corroboration means that one statement fits with another. Notice the prefix co-. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. 67. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. To raise is to lift. To delay is to slow. fortitude. or strength. to hasten is to hurry. intensity. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. condemn. degree. To censure is to criticize strongly. final means last. to increase in size. to vex. Substance means something that has significance. A horde is a large group or crowd. Partial means incomplete. composer. and collide. quantity. decent. a vast multitude. c. a. 52. 60. censured. (2) to provoke or arouse. make higher. astonishing. excessive means extreme. Context clues are important as well.

it is sufficient. b. Vast means very great in size. 71. . d. 73. If someone is proactive. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. to meet at a rendezvous. to be diverse is to have variety. Comply is synonymous with obey. especially of a sport or pastime. d. The prefix pro means for. d. If something is adequate. 75. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. 79. (2) a place where people meet. d. The word root scribe means to write. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. especially a popular gathering place. 78.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. d. immense. An aficionado is a fan or devotee. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. b. 76. to engrave on a surface. a. a. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. 77. 72. Enthusiastic means eager. b. b. 80. 74.

Directions: For questions 1 through 18. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. Being a direct relative of the deceased. choose the word that best fills in the blank. (We suggest not timing yourself. pummeled c. if you come across words that you are unsure of. Then. prominent d. After you complete the test. a. rebuked d.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. facilitate 99 . however. vicious c. legitimate 2. pacify c. confound b. 1. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. a. When you are finished. optional b. belittled b. integrate d. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word. The hail _____________ the cornfield until the entire crop was lost. Take your time when answering each question. her claim to the estate was _____________.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. commended 3. a. look up the definitions for the words on your list. make a list of these words.

principled b. a. a. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new office procedures. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. a. seclusion d. exemplified d. assumption b.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. When you address the members of the committee. prevailed b. confluence c. punitive b. restorative d. requisite 7. Do not _____________ yourself. relinquish d. depreciate c. a. prohibit 8. grandiose c. diverged c. treatise 6. comprehensive d. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. determined c. massive . delude b. varied 5. Her rapport with everyone in the office _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated.

The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. abated b. ample . superficial c. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we first met him. customary b. tedium b. momentum 11. animated d. a. a. evoked 13.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. the thunderstorm _____________. After years of experience. consummate d. repulsively b. perpetually d. reticent c. a. germinated c. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. acute b. The news was no longer secret. voluntary 10. a. constricted d. After an hour of heavy rain. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. he soon began to talk more than anyone. reputedly c. and we were able to continue our golf game. preference d. precursor c. principally 12. a.

Provoking d. My cousin claimed to be _____________. clairvoyant . Irritating b. divided c. disconnected d. criminal d. operate b. terminally b. Anthony. a. evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. diligently d. Smuggling 16. otherwise. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. differentiated 17. comical c. hydroplane c. a meticulous young man. a. perpendicularly c. a.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. submerge d. separated b. a. On each slick curve in the road. reconnoiter 18. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. Poaching c. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. haphazardly 15. dreamlike b. they were exactly alike. a.

bring under control. Trite means a. Cy’s attempt to finally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. to be surrounded on all sides. to prevent from accomplishing. b. 23. b. b. to support wholeheartedly. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. To garner means a. d. choose the best definition for the word in italics. to regard as inferior. c. d. . to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. original.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. To subjugate means a. exciting. c. b. to demonstrate. d. b. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. 20. c. To thwart means a. to conquer. 21. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. c. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. to create. to be excessively competitive. to propose. imitate. To emulate means a. d. to support actively. overused. d. or outdo. to injure seriously. 22. to strive to equal. c. 19. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. complex. to be more successful than. Although the plot of the film is admittedly trite. to withhold.

to go away secretly and hide. c. the management of domestic affairs. c. abnormal. consistency. join together. b.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. to do something ahead of deadline. to do something without telling anyone. . easily managed or taught. kindness. one who domesticates animals. d. Benevolence means a. kind. obedience. c. regularity. d. c. an unfortunate occurrence. to dig up. Docile means a. Anomaly means a. generous ruler. or deviates from the usual form. to be generous with one’s time or money. discontent among a specific group within a larger population. d. to combine and form a whole. especially in shame. mine. b. b. giving charitably. 28. to regret. a surprising collaboration. d. d. To coalesce means a. regrettable. unfortunate. 27. To abscond means a. Lamentable means a. b. to do something regrettable. 26. b. something that is irregular. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. c. 29. d. willing to obey. to create a secret hiding place. c. b. 25. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. to withdraw silently. generosity. a kind.

b. 33. to correct. a correction. . 35. an examination of all aspects of an issue. b. Antipathy means a. b. exceeding expectations. d. distinct. Rectify means a. kind. Disparate means a. Inscrutable means a. d. A belligerent person is a. 34. that which occurred previously. a strong aversion or dislike. fundamentally different. c. original. d. having little or no impact. an editor. b. a beginner or novice. teaching a lesson. not fathomable. Neophyte means a. loving. d. b. unique.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. something that comes from multiple sources. from the same origin. 32. from another country. someone who lives with another. 31. c. incapable of being understood. b. c. or apart from others. the act of separating from the source. eager to fight. c. d. a roommate. d. chosen from within. foreign. eager to help. kept between or within members of a family. a surprising error. c. c. hostile. devoted.

newborn. c. c. b. A renaissance is a. even. c. d. capable. shining. everywhere. c. A person who is culpable is a. 39. calm or quiet. d. full of knowledge. c. 41. guilty. b. b. b. d. receives the maximum benefit. Someone who is omniscient a. Something that is luminous is a. blames others for his or her own faults. excessive. vocal. bright. 40. equal. d. 38. energetic. put something in its proper place. obvious. . b. speak in a way that conceals the truth. a lie. often speaks without thinking. a punishment. full of life. Something that is manifest is a. c.106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. d. b. d. To equivocate is to a. deadly. burn or sting. a mistake. is eager to please. 37. a rebirth.

a forgery or fake. d. flood. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. very valuable. thoroughly washed. 47. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. an autograph by a famous person. c. reserved. b. 48. be born again. 44. 43. b. bubbling over with enthusiasm. judging equally. harmless. d. wandering from the main path or point. inoffensive. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. deeply in love. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). To juxtapose is to a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. dangerous or deadly. 49. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. A veritable autograph is a. clean. d. I tried everything. genuine. 45. c. d. but the dollar is up. Someone who is reticent is a. . speak in a round-about manner. Something that is innocuous is a. 46. b. fair. c. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. overwhelm. As soon as I get off the phone. 50. irrelevant. b. c. silent. place side by side.

59. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. challenging . 60.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. 55. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. but they finally caught up with him in Reno. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. 57. I must (decent/descent/dissent). The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. I think this is a bad decision. not understandable b. not likely c. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to find out what he was getting. 52. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. or suffixes. 56. an incoherent answer a. 53. 54. prefixes. Although you all seem to agree. undeniable d. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 58. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots.

idle d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. outrageous . purposely c. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. unexpected c. harmonious d. apt d. absurd c. expensive b. capable employee a. compatible workers a. gifted b. comical 66. good excuses b. competitive c. 64. envious b. scattered rubble d. transparent material c. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. covered with debris a. unskilled b. protective material 62. exorbitant prices a. inadvertently left a. able 65. carefully 63. zealous pursuit a. cautiously d. reasonable d. eager c. mistakenly b.

appeasing c. parvenu d. liaison c. façade 72. quid pro quo c. malaise 70. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. blasé b. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. parvenu d. instinctive d. choose the word whose definition best matches the description. ad hoc b. an artist’s first gallery showing a. vis-à-vis . hiatus d. gauche c. belligerent attitude a. hostile b. cliché d. incognito b. aficionado b. imbroglio c. milieu d. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. imbroglio c. oeuvre 71. 68. ennui b. debut 69. wearing a disguise a. a temporary separation in a relationship a.

c. 76. c. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. c. dangerous. A synonym for continuous is a. adjacent. time 74. 77. accomplish. 78. unsettled. d. 73. with b. old. An antonym for novel is a. suitable d. contiguous. wisdom a. uninterrupted. An antonym for wary is a. intermittent. over c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. cause. leery. c. congregation a. b. apart d. a state of being b. b. worried. a relationship c. an action 75. a property d. careless. b. d. alert. b. d. influence. A synonym for affect is a. . sicken.

b. 80. A synonym for courtesy is a. d. d. b. 12. 6. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. conviviality. 13. 9. reserved. ANSWERS 1. b. civility. rudeness. or a gathering at one point. 4. Delude means to mislead the mind. 18. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. a meeting. 7. c. c. Precursor means something that comes before. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. c. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. b. c. d.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. d. congruity. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. to deceive. d. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal fish or game. Requisite means essential or necessary. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. . 10. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. it is called hydroplaning. truth. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. weakness. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. 8. a. An antonym for fallacy is a. 11. c. d. b. 14. blessing. c. Reputedly means according to general belief. 15. 17. 5. b. 3. b. Confluence means a coming or flowing together. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. a. d. b. Pummeled means to pound or beat. d. fable. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. 2. 16.

being in a specified state or condition. The adjective suffix -ile means having the qualities of. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. The prefix a. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous. To garner means to gather. 20. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. fuse. correct. 34.means new. reversal. a. unfathomable.means against. Notice also the verb suffix -ate. 21. inspiring grief or mourning. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. 25. not. b. a new form of.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. The verb suffix -ify means to make. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. The noun suffix -ence means state of. Notice also the adjective suffix -able. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. or acquire. The prefix sub. apart. meaning one that performs. To subjugate means to conquer. varied. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. Trite means repeated too often. 24. The prefix neo. Neophyte means a beginner or novice. unfortunate. 22. recent. a. b. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. bring under control. 23. The prefix anti. 27. apart. 28. without. a disposition to act charitably. overly familiar through overuse. 30. one that is irregular or abnormal. a.mean not.means off. ready and willing to be taught.means under or below. incapable of being understood. 26. d. opposed to. d. especially by imitation. b. or easily managed. promotes. Inscrutable means baffling. d.means away from. subdue. d. The prefix co. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. or causes an action. to join together. 32. c. The prefix ab. d. d. 31. 33. c.means with. down. together. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. especially after wrongdoing.means not. The prefix dis. 29. . The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. away from. amass. Docile means willing to obey. Lamentable means regrettable. To rectify means to make right. dissimilar. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. The prefix in. b.

persecuting. 36. Thus. at hand. obvious. The root omni means all. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. d. elicit. the root sci means to know.means not. silent. genuine. 39. showing an eagerness to fight. to provoke. The prefix in. depreciated. especially because of race. 45. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. or mistreat. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. The root ver means truth. 38. full of light. the suffix -ate means to make. blameworthy. 40. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. a. place. emitting light. harass. d. having no adverse or ill effects. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The root tac/tic means to be silent. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. Luminous means shining. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. cause to be. 37. brilliant. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. 47. a. to belittle. or sexual orientation. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. 46. The root culp means blame. as the other answers correspond with different roots. Omniscient means having infinite knowledge. true. The root equ means equal. performing or causing a specified action. a. 48. The root bel means war. Veritable means real. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. to lessen the worth of. innocuous means harmless. untalkative. 42. 44. To juxtapose means to place side by side. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. To persecute is to oppress. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. 43. The suffix -able means capable or worthy of. knowing all things. death. the suffix -ance means state of. reserved. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. b. guilty. c. This sentence uses the first meaning. thus. not quite doing either). . Manifest means clear and unmistakable. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. c. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. Thus. The prefix re. the root voc/vok means to call. a. The root luc/lum/lus means light. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. c. especially to compare or contrast. b. The root man means hand. The ending -ent is an adjective suffix meaning in a state or condition. 41.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. religious or political beliefs.means back or again.

a. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. disseminate. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. eager. which means not. This sentence uses the first meaning. 58. frank sincere. (2) in information processing. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. or cause to do so. c. to make aware of. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. 52. (2) to distribute widely. ingenuous. meddling. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. dissent. 59. unskilled means unable. apprise. 51. 65. Debris is scattered fragments or trash.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. You may have heard the word zeal before. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. 61. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. especially by cleverness. or skill. peek. Zealous means eager. The suffix -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. . a. To emanate is to come or issue forth. raze. 55. 62. dispersed. escape the understanding of. feign. Capable means able. 54. This sentence uses the first meaning. emanating. 64. Incoherent means not understandable. 57. c. inform. unable to mask feelings. To apprise means to give notice or information to. very high. interfere. 50. 66. This sentence uses the first meaning. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. so idle is most nearly the opposite. c. as from a source. choice b. to give the false appearance of. This sentence uses the first meaning. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. Inadvertently means by mistake. 60. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. (2) to be incomprehensible to. queue. a. To feign is to pretend. daring. elude. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. which means out of or away from. The best clue in this word is the prefix ex-. demolish completely. artless. The prefix in. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. 53. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. This sentence uses the first meaning. disagree. (2) to erase. (2) to withhold approval or assent. To cohere means to connect. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. 56. c.means not. 63. The key element in this word is the prefix in-. obliterate.

The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. b. The prefix con. an interruption or break. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. . a. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea.means to be together with. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 70. d. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. 73. 79. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. 74. or lasting. the opposite is old. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. A debut is a first appearance in or presentation to the public. d. (2) a close relationship or link. 75. a. 71. 76. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. The suffix -dom is a state of being. 80. careless is the opposite of watchful. true. b. c. The antonym would be appeasing. (2) an artificial or deceptive front. 69. 78. trickery. 68. To affect means to influence. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. one who maintains such communication. a. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. it is characterized by civility. 77. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. a. d. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. which means warlike. c. The key element in this word is the root belli. 72. d. d. To be novel is to be new. a. Hiatus means a gap or opening.

2.) If the word list looks intimidating. they’re portable. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the definition on the other. Or. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. Repetition is key—use a word three times. review the word list. When you learn a new word. After each vocabulary word. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. and a sentence using the word. Learn a short list every day. try the following strategy. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with flash cards. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the flash card and the definition of the word on the other.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. part of speech. use it in conversation as soon as possible. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. 117 . Flash cards are easy to handle. Multiply that number by 10. definition. 1. You and your friends can drill each other. so you can study with a buddy. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. you will find the word’s pronunciation. and they’re friend-friendly.

coin. how pan. you can learn 300 new words. crib church. tragic. aware. pot three. remember. dinner. yarn. yesterday zebra. farm bare. dependable. fair ball. shut delicious. head. measure her. frank odd. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. carry. father car. hazy. coy ooze. hedge kitten. please division. draw stage. score. dear sun. fact ago. track lost. cure. house. heaven. some of these words may already be familiar to you. sliver. coarse oil. cheer fan. trot salmon. boat. fog heed. puddle. bed egg. super pour. preacher day. listen. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. paper. strengthen. day bat. summon. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the definitions. a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. relief go. unhappy whether. finger. come. clear. chart. father.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. mutter. breath this. walk. shaken. live want. rabbit. treasure . tree ear. regular. horse out. trolley. fishing. pop rain. scare. cherry shaken. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. slim no. middle stencil. by studying only ten new words each day! And. cash tip. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. marry. worry cook. advisor oak. noodle. fox. blame. trickle eat. quaint you. stuffy. edible icy. rice share. treat. nowhere it. turn. sky jug. sew aboard. sure for. scorn. live. toll more. breathe cup. pedal palm. pull vail. tire. put.

formally revoke. 2. 2. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. a formal declaration of forgiveness. 1. When Joseph became a citizen. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. extreme. to repudiate. abscond (ab·'skond) v. renounce under oath. to refrain from voting. ˘ ˘ 2. obscure. 1. eating and drinking in moderation. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. we began to survey the damage it caused. 2. profound. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. 1. subside. I know Carlos abhors politics. being temporarily suspended or set aside. to lessen in strength. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientific theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. praise or approval. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a flop. 1. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. . but he should still get out and vote. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. As the violent ˘ storm abated. to give up or reject. to go away secretly and hide oneself. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. deviation from what is normal. I have decided to abstain on this issue. detest. redemption. difficult to comprehend. 2. or degree. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. 2. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. distortion. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. abjure (ab·'joor) v. suspension. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. do away with. limitless. 1. to abolish. 3. using or consuming sparingly. He received accolades from his superiors for finding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. to regard with horror or repugnance. intensity. the reviews were abysmal. extremely bad. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. 1.

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accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition; ˘ ˘
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.

acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police officer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian traffic, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.

acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.

acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen ˘
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.

acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judg˘ ˘
ment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.

ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a specific, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.

adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. firm, ˘ ˘
inflexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.

addle ('ad·el) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The ˘
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.

ado (a·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book ˘
report.

adroit (a·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous, ˘
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers fixed in no time.

agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.

aficionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pas˘
time. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aficionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.

alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager. ˘
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.

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allay (a·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The ˘
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.

allude (a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate ˘
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacrifices.”

altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an alter˘ ˘
cation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.

amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleas˘ ˘
ing. Miguel was usually the first person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.

amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to fight about money anymore.

ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. having mixed or conflicting feelings about a ˘ ˘
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.

ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplo˘ ˘
mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.

amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. 1. having no definite form or distinct shape; shape˘ ˘
less. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.

amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. ˘
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.

anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.

anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control result˘
ing in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.

anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.

antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an ˘
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.

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antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance, ˘
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.

anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics, ˘ ˘
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.

antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aver˘
sion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.

antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast. ˘
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.

apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or ˘
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.

aperture ('ap·er·chur) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The ˘ ˘
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.

apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their flag in the snow.

apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.

apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘
victions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.

apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deification, an exalted or glorified ideal. Hanson ˘
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.

appease (a·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way ˘
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.

appraise (a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.

apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform. ˘
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and final exams would occur.

austere. requiring great effort. the grumpy accountant. belonging to former or ancient times. 1. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. secret. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. ascent (a·'sent) n. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. ill temper. roughness of manner. 2. harshness. very difficult. condition. & adv. fitting. askew (a·'skyoo) adj. ˘ irritability. zeal. approval. 1. laborious. an original model from which others are copied. adv. difficult to traverse or surmount. mysterious. 2. to take for one’s own use. to set aside for a special purpose. an upward slope. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. but they were definitely apropos. at an appropriate or opportune time. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. beyond comprehension. . apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. passionate enthusiasm. appropriate to the situation. crooked. practicing self-denial. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. not straight or level. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. suitable for a particular person. original pattern or prototype. Patrick’s Day. a movement upward. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my five-year-old son’s birthday party. to one side. incidentally. ˘ 2. fiery intensity of feeling. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. severity. appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. by the way. advancement. 1. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. characteristic of the past. a ¯ ¯ a or place. The asperity that Marvin. occasion. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. often without permission. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difficult for many students to understand.

severe or stern in attitude or appearance. to soothe. hardworking. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. assuage (a·'swayj) v. but they often achieved results. very plain. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst).124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. evalu˘ ate after an analysis. austere (aw·'steer) adj. august (aw·' ust) adj. patronage. persevering. to make something less severe. inspiring admiration or reverence. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n. value. simple. consent. assent (a·'sent) n. favoring complete. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. ˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. strength. 2. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. unadorned. 1. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. reduce in ˘ force. I know my dad seems austere. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. to judge critically. put to a test. diligent. venerable. to increase in size. or degree. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. or intensity. 2. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. enlarge. 1. to make thin or slender. to try. augment (aw ·'ment) v. majestic. auspice ('aw·spis) n. attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. the committee must reach an assent. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. to weaken. a self-operating or automatic machine. In order to pass the new law. to examine. 2. 3. Because she fol- . The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its officers and enlisted men alike. 1. 2. unremitting. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. a robot. agreement. concurrence. protection or support. 1. but his interference only augmented the problem. v. a forecast or omen. 2. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj.

using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. cause of trouble. or animal. but the film turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. banal (ba·'nal) adj. Natasha made coffee. harmful. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. to amuse or charm. innovative. 1. eager to make war. intense dislike. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. commonplace. trite. distress. self-determination. causing him to miss his secret meeting. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. to deceive or cheat through cunning. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. a strong. self˘ government. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. poison. quarrelsome. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. or harm. misery. 2. to contradict. destructive. to obstinately refuse or oppose. sinister. car. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. to distract the attention of. 1. 2. woman. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. bane (bayn) n. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. to give a false impression. to show to be false. Whether it’s a ˘ man. 2. to pass time in a pleasant manner. personal or political independence. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. obvious and uninteresting. 1. Violet was able to beguile the spy. divert.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. 2. belie (bi·'l¯) v. repugnance. you can be certain to find at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. cooked breakfast. B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. 1. cutting-edge. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. misrepresent. balk (bawk) v. especially in the arts or literature. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. menacing. . belligerent.

benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. blight (bl¯t) n. 2. completely obvious. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ fight. nonchalant. 1. bevy ('bev·ee) n.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. a flock of animals or birds. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. something that causes this condition. utterances. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. 1. 1. bilk (bilk) v. 1. something that impairs or destroys. and carefree. such as air pollution. hostile and aggressive. to deceive or defraud. having a beneficial or favorable nature or influence. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. gentle. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. an unsightly object or area. not harmful or malignant. to buoy or hearten. contemptuous or irreverent acts. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. 1. bolster ('bohl·ster) v. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. and lacking restraint or discipline. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s confidence. especially to evade paying one’s debts. ˘ ˘ 2. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. 2. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. very sophisticated. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. 3. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. 4. light-hearted. disrespect of something sacrosanct. 2. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. . you would be tortured and killed. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. a large group or assemblage. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. cheat. to swindle. 3. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the field during the football game. kind. stormy and rough. 1. blithe (bl¯th) adj. loud. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. 2. noisy. 2. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. mild. to support or prop up. the inclination to be kind and generous. unconcerned. not attempting to conceal in any way. casual. he always acted in a benign manner.

When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. arrogant. conservative. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. to bring up. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. 1. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. a scheme or conspiracy. solid silver.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. a show of pretended bravery. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. 2. 1. cheerful. jarring. in fact. in order to begin a discussion of. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. boor (boor) n. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. hence also. light-hearted. loud. 2. to begin to grow and flourish. a crude. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. discordant sound. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. false courage. ill-mannered person. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. rub to a shine. with inflated selfimportance. she realized that it was. 1. The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. or materialistic. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. able to float. to polish. speaking pompously. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. burnish ('bur·nish) v. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. din. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. for many of the original tales included graphic language. With Antonio as their leader. clamor. to tap or pierce. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. typical of the middle class. Although she won millions in the lottery. conceited. to begin to sprout. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. broach (brohch) v. as in to draw off liquid. a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. blossom. In science class. censor. . Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. introduce. commonplace. grow ˘ new buds. 2. offensive.

Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or flattery. able to burn. 1. openness. or otherwise objectionable. to inflict a severe punishment on. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. sincere speech. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. the act of ridding or cleansing. the comedian. capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. to remove what is ˘ considered morally.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. caste (kast) n. corrode. etc. to lurch from side to side while in motion. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. politically. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. cutting. 1. films. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic fluid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. censor ('sen·sor) n. . demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. v. to chastise severely. to obtain by begging. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. careen (ka·'reen) v. 2. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. especially through art. to give in. to whee˘ dle. a distinct social class or system. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. While visiting India. to forbid the publication. an official who reviews books. frank. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. to surrender under specific terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. impulsive. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. distribution. bitingly sarcastic. candor ('kan·dor) n. acquiesce. The librarian served as a censor. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. to beg. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. whimsical and unpredictable. 2. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. he welcomed my candor. or dissolve by chemical action. cajole (ka·'johl) v. they castigated him. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned.

(in Greek mythology) a fire-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. boorish. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. rebuke. and a serpent’s tail. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n. watchful. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. illusion. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. 2. an extreme nationalist. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. condemn. long-lasting or recurrent. her mother censured her behavior. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. 2. rebuke. a vain or incongruous fancy. kept or done in private. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. to record in chronological order. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. rude. as with a beating. habitual. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. wary. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. to criticize harshly. to criticize strongly. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. but he uses too many clichés. an exceptionally accurate clock. on-going. to punish severely. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. 1. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. a trite or overused expression or idea. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. a goat’s body. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. . 1. make a historical record. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. ill-mannered. continuing for a long time. cautious. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. v. The firefighter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the fire. cliché (klee·'shay) n. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. Tito has an engaging writing style. conducted in secrecy. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. the arrangement of events in time. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. v.

self-satisfied. 2. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. conspiracy. etc. to combine and form a whole. a hard riddle. a feeling of deep. it was sure to be a lively debate. conclave ('kon·klav) n. controversial. uncon˘ ˘ cerned. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj. mollifying. soothe.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. persuasive. conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. . The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. enigma. fuse. a private or secret meeting. large in number or quantity. concede (kon·'seed) v. conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. contemporary. quarrelsome. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj. to grant as a right or privilege. With two contentious candidates on hand. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. appeasing. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. general agreement or accord. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. of the same time period. plentiful. competitive. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay. 1. (often ˘ with reluctance). compelling belief. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellfish on the island. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her fired. contented to a fault. surrender. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. to join together. convincing. causing contention. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. or comfort. quick to fight. ˘ ˘ 2. abundant. to acknowledge or admit as true. proper. 1. to yield.

.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. ˘ ˘ graphs. When the timer buzzed. to make more certain. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. As she walked down the aisle. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. a line of waiting people or vehicles. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. so she must be telling the truth.” remarked the police chief. hidden. blameworthy. a hint or suggestion. 1. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj. His austere manner daunted the small children. a horn of plenty. especially of a problem. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n. hasty and superficial. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. The first-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. gullible. violent flood waters. cowardly. to intimidate. ˘ 2. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. confirm. guilty. culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. given to prompt or remind someone of something. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. craven ('kray·ven) adj. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. D daunt (dawnt) v. a signal. having a hidden or secret meaning. I admitted that I was culpable. too willing to believe things. I only had time to give it a cursory review. All the tables. cue (kyoo) n. abundance. to make afraid or discouraged. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. 1. mysterious. a sudden disaster or collapse. occult. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. such as a word or action. 2. a queue. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. the appearance of a person’s face. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. secret. a total defeat or failure. the central or critical point or feature. crux (kruks) n.

When questions concerning decorum arise. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. v. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. I always refer to Emily Post. propriety. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. a first appearance in or presentation to the public. make someone believe something that is wrong. to portray. to express disapproval of. hesitate. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. demur (di·'mur) v. so those scenes were removed. The king is only the nominal head of the country. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. demure (di·'myoor) adj. describe. & adv. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. to raise objections. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. Sharon could be very demure. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. . Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. to draw or outline. in reality or fact. to destroy a large portion of. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. delude (di·'lood) v. disparage. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. to deceive. depict. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. actual. to blacken the reputation of. sketch. or pretending to be so. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. to make a first appearance in public. When it was to her advantage. to belittle. the de facto leader is the prime minister. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. deign (dayn) v. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. depreciate. to condescend. modest and shy. defame. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. Polly hated to demur. appropriateness of behavior.

desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection. adj. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. something that is derived or made by derivation. wordy. or swerve. aimless. diffident ('dif·i·dent) adj. adj. extend. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. make less brilliant. penniless. to violate the sacredness of.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. detract (di·'trakt) v. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. jeering. spread out. utterly lacking. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. verbose. 1. to distinguish. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. Alan used to be so ˘ diffident. to profane. extremely poor. disperse. 2. expressing ridicule. haphazard. In order to promote freedom of expression. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. to soften. . to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. to undeceive. Unfortunately. deviate. lacking self-confidence. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. shy and timid. ˘ derived from another source.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. discern (di·'surn) v. scattered. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. to spread throughout. intended to delay. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. 2. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. 1. unoriginal. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting graffiti on tombstones. 1. to draw or take away from. recognize as being distinct. ˘ especially to gain time. mocking. After the economy declined. slow or late in doing something. to turn aside. diminish. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. many families were left destitute. to perceive clearly. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. scornful. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. to remove part of something. 2. digress (d¯·' res) v. not concentrated. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him.

to shake or ˘ quiver. to be extravagant and wasteful. 1. 2. sad. despise. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. to disperse to the point of disappearing. 1. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. dissuade (di·'swayd) v. inconsolable. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. ruffle. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. belittle. and only the very angriest protesters remained. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. ˘ Some find the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. be indecisive and uncertain. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. 2. a system of principles or beliefs. 1. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. to separate and scatter completely. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. a prescribed doctrine. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. . dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. a state of being despised. to hesitate. whereas others find it too restrictive. but they didn’t listen. falsely pretending to be unaware. especially the right to vote. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unflappable Miriam. 1. to upset the composure of. During a crisis. 2. 2. 2. not straightfor˘ ward or frank. calculating. squander. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. 2. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. 1. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. 1. insincere. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. dogma ('daw ·ma) n. dejected. disappointed. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. dither ('dith·er) v. or nearly so. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. v.

someone who is easily deceived. exuberant. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. E ebb (eb) n. I am eager for a reconciliation. anomalous. systems. or trivial. droll (drohl) adj. latent. great acclaim or applause. the return of the tide to the sea. melodious. ˘ 2. as the tide. gullible. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. sweet-sounding. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. to fall back. decline. extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). brilliant performance or achievement. harmonious. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. éclat (ay·'klah) n. dupe (doop) n. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. very harsh. waste product. 1. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. at rest. ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. temporarily quiescent. or styles. 2. inactive. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. . irregular. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. 2. sludge. This is a wonderful. commonplace. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. 2. 1. 1. 1. to flow back or recede. bubbling over with enthusiasm. trick. v.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. to deceive. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. something worthless. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. inactive but capable of becoming active. v. lying asleep or as if asleep. conspicuous success. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings.

towering above or more prominent than others. president. fluent. to earn or accomplish laboriously. characterized by or affirming the principle of ˘ equal political. Margaret’s efficacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. 2. 1. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. The customs ˘ officials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. civil. vigor. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. ˘ standing above others in quality. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. 2. distinctive style or flair. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. acting effectively. describe or comprehend. social. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. insolence. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. fla˘ grant. instructing. and economic rights for all persons. etc. and persuasive manner. élan (ay·'lahn) n. vivacity. profuse. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. reputation. efficacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. distinguished. eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. The . gushy. enthusiasm. lofty. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. impudence. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. eke (eek) v.S. elite (i·'leet) n. brazen boldness.. evasive. overflowing.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. Enid was fired. a person or group regarded as superior. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. 1. character. improving. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. difficult to capture. The bank robber was not caught during his first crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. eluding the grasp. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. Within the student orchestra.

While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. especially by imitation. he began his secret mission. 2. something that is puzzling or difficult to understand. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. lasting only a very short time. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. 2. larger territory. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj.. give rise to. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. purple-flowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. to weaken. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. Kudzu. 1. bring into existence. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. was actually imported from Japan.g. prevalent in or characteristic of a specific area or group of people. 1. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. engender (en·'jen·der) v. The math problem was difficult to solve and proved to be an enigma. . 1. to fix or settle firmly and securely. to place or hide securely. deprive of strength or vitality. Joan became a true epicurean. to produce. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. enclave ('en·klayv) n. before you know it. 2. a hairy. ensconce (en·'skons) v.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. excessive wickedness. transitory. atrocity. a ˘ ˘ baffling problem or riddle. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. native to a particular region. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. conceal. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. a monstrous offense or evil act. it’s time to go back to school again. based on observation or experience rather than theory. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. to try to equal or excel. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n. enervate ('en·er·vayt) v.

deviating from the normal or typical course of action. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. region. 1. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. When falling ˘ in love. uneven. or inconsistent manner. exterminate. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. a representative example or a typical model. a manifestation of the divine. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. 1. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. a sudden. 2. During an earthquake. 2. 3. etc.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. evade (i·'vayd) v. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. to avoid fulfilling. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. having or showing great learning. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. opinion. . The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. answering. especially under stressful circumstances. attitude. profoundly educated. a brief summary or abstract. 1. epoch. a feeling of well-being or high spirits. artificial. the spirit. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. 2. patience and composure. to annihilate. being an imitation or substitute. or doing. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. 2. to root out and utterly destroy. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. The ethos of their group included a commitment to pacifism. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. ˘ scholarly. even˘ temperedness. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. Epiphany. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz truffles. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. moving or behaving in an irregular. a perceptive revelation. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. calmness of temperament. etc. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. ethos ('ee·thos) n. The scholarly work of nonfiction was obviously written by an erudite young man. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria.

vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. transi˘ ˘ tory. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. 2. After finishing probation. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. to eliminate completely. straightforward. 2. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. jocular. to free from blame. ˘ ˘ sportive. urgent. he is really a deeply emotional person. 1. 1. 1. . violence. to increase the severity. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. F façade (fa·'sahd) n.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. to wipe or rub out. to make worse. to try to partially excuse. The safety officer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the influence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. cleverly amusing. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. inordinate and excessive. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. exact. to make evident. ˘ or bitterness of. annihilate. fleeting. adj. the face or front of a building. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. evince (i·'vins) v. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. an artificial or deceptive ˘ front. When Anthony admitted to the crime. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. suitable for a means to an end. crit˘ ical. humorous and witty. 2. delete. demanding. to show or demonstrate clearly. a short-lived means to an end. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. requiring much effort or precision. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. requiring immediate action or attention. stated clearly and fully. to clear from a charge of guilt. it served to exculpate Marcus. appropriate ˘ for a purpose.

The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community. weak. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. ardor. 1. flippant ('flip·ant) adj. lacking purpose or vitality. rosy. The florid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. to disobey openly and scornfully. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. Y and Z will automatically follow. 1. saucy. 1. Mr. feeble. . fecund ('fek·und) adj. to pretend. intense emotion. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. 2. fervor ('fur·vor) n. mock. disrespectful. (of complexion) ruddy. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. patience. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. elaborate. zeal. willingness to wait. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. flout (flowt) v. complacently stupid. something that misleads. tolerance. to impede or restrict. not firm. florid ('flor·id) adj. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. to reject. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. put in chains. 1. The skin of cadavers becomes flaccid in a matter of hours. 1. feign (fayn) v. 2. go against (as in a tradition or convention). apropos. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. to give the false appearance of. flabby. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. feeble-minded and silly. flaccid ('fla·sid) adj.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. apt. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. to shackle. Flappers in the early twentieth century flouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. 2. suitably expressed. hanging loose or wrinkled. ornate. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. marked by good ˘ fortune. 2. 2. deception. fetter ('fet·er) v. incompetent and ineffective. fertile. ˘ Ursula’s flippant remarks in front of her fiancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. not showing proper seriousness. careless. weak.

a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. to give up. to deny. ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. vain. gaudy. contradict. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. 2. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. especially excess flattery ˘ or praise. . Wei chose a small. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. to deny under oath. sparing. tastelessly showy. careful and economical. to gather and store up. garish (' air·ish) adj. to amass. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. renounce. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to find that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. 1. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. 2. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. producing no result. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. offensive due to excessiveness. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. to oppose. garner (' ahr·ner) v. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. to explode or detonate. to prevent by taking action first. happening by accident or chance. frugal ('froo· al) adj. gigantic. excessively bright or over-decorated. arguing with her was futile. shifty. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. huge. My mother would never let me attend the party. acquire. surreptitious. hopeless. The diplomat was able to forestall a conflict by holding secret meetings with both parties.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. 2. preempt. however. 1. 1. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. costing little. 1. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. thrifty. 2. In its true sense. characterized by stealth or secrecy. or declare false. berate. forswear (for·'swair) v. suggesting a hidden motive. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. useless.

to encircle or bind with a belt or band. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. a noisy. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. 3. v. and the soldiers girded for battle. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s specifications. grovel (' ruv·el) v. 1. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. clumsy or awkward. 1. without tact. unlucky. to make holy. 1. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. the act of gerrymandering. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. lacking social graces or polish. a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. well bred. to prepare for action. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. ˘ ˘ sociable. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. mock. refined. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. or fearful manner. unfortunate. 2. elegantly polite. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. consecrate. talkative. hum˘ ble. 2. 2. to sneer at. treacherous cunning. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. . Alan used to be so diffident. gird ( urd) v. gibe. The negotiations had failed. crafty deceit. 4. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. shrewd. especially military confrontation. missed connections. gauche ( ohsh) adj. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. to encompass. Panji. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. guile ( ¯l) n.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. coarse burst of laughter. seeking and enjoying the company of others. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. surround. and a very late arrival. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile.

despicable. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. creating great stress or torment. to declaim.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. predominant influence or leadership. lacking nobility in character or purpose. a person. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. 1. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the financial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. protected from outside influences. 2. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. an interruption or break. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. 2. v. Using words as weapons. thing. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. a gap or opening. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. make more effective. marked by shame or disgrace. dishonor˘ able. 2. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. to sharpen. a forerunner or precursor. scornfully arrogant and condescending. not of the nobility. 2. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. and many members of the organization resigned. especially of ˘ one government over others. hone (hohn) v. often scolding or bombastic speech. 1. overbearing pride or presumption. disdainful. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. I honed my computer skills. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. The turbulent flight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. a tirade. having an airtight closure. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. a long. 1. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. 1. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. or institutions. common. distressing. beliefs. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. By practicing creating spreadsheets. to perfect. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. .

It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. unduly hasty and without thought. stalemate. and a strike seemed imminent. I had to immolate the weeds.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. penni˘ ˘ less. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. a difficulty without a solution. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable. inex˘ ˘ orable. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. 1. marked by violent force. impasse ('im·pas) n. 2. In Shakespeare’s comedies. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. incapable of being placated or appeased. make incessant requests. a confused or difficult situation. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. characterized by sudden. overbearing. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. Great Britain embraced imperialism. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. importune (im·por·'toon) v. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. not able to ˘ be influenced or affected. as a sacrifice. In order for the plants to grow. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. to ask incessantly. 1. poor. impulsive. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. having little or no money. 2. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. domineering. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. to destroy (one thing for another). usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. to kill (oneself) by fire. incapable of being penetrated. 1. imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. a deadlock. bossy. 2. a curse. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. to beg persistently and urgently. . 1. an invocation of evil. 2. ˘ 3. but most are relatively easy to serve. to kill.

a frog. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj. (in·'sens) v. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. not yet fully formed. incomplete. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. of or involving arson. insolent. just begun. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. . inflammatory. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. The star was traveling incognito. to attack as false or questionable. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. with one’s identity concealed. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. to indoctrinate. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. 1. to attribute to a cause or source. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together. it is difficult to distinguish between a cow. undeniable. undeveloped. to make (someone) angry. 1. to contradict or call into question. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. 2. in an initial or early stage of development. or adv. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. or a human. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. credit. immodest. 1. ˘ ˘ 2. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. boldly showing a lack of respect. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. causing or capable of causing fire. 2. hoping to find some measure of privacy on her vacation. shamelessly forward. impute (im·'pyoot) v. incense ('in·sens) n. as they mature. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. 3. ascribe. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. indisputable. tending to incite or inflame. incipient. instill. skeptical. burning readily. unwilling to believe. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act.

or system of beliefs. lacking sophistication or worldliness. ˘ indifferent. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. forbid. unable to mask feel˘ ings. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. tireless. the members considered him an infidel. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. artless. inept (in·'ept) adj. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. 2. infidel ('in·fi·del) n. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. nonchalant. 2. not able to be vanquished or overcome. for even though he didn’t know her well. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. blithely unconcerned or carefree. 1. inevitable. inclined to avoid labor. inappropriate. 2.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. a person with no religious beliefs. foolish. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. not cunning or deceitful. defying imitation. 1. . insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. to prohibit. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. sincere. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. baffling. unfathomable. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. lazy. 1. lethargic. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. ˘ ˘ impertinent. unmatchable. brazen. and he won three championships. doctrine. haughty and contemptuous. bungling and clumsy. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. absurd. a nonbeliever. indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come. not easily discouraged or subdued. not suitable. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. not easily exhausted or fatigued. 1. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. 3. certain. incompetent. slow to grow or heal. disrespectful. 2. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modified foods. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his finances will get him in trouble someday. frank.

intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. vex. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. to entice. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. complex. specialized or technical language of a specific trade or ˘ group. feeling or showing uncertainty. accustomed to. stubborn. irk (urk) v. 1. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. fearless. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. I was filled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. hot tempered. 2. intricate. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. unwilling to compromise. habitual. so if you talk to her. irritable. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. easily aroused to anger. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. the smallest possible quantity. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. unmanageable. adapted. to influence or persuade through gentle coaxing or flat˘ tery. indecisive. irritate. firmly established. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the office. I am an ˘ inveterate pacifist and am unlikely to change my mind. a very small amount. wrath. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. and he faced the mammoth without fear. lacking substance. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. stubborn. undaunted. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. meager. . hence: (a) lacking in interest or significance. ire (¯r) n. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. J jargon ('jahr· on) n. inured (in·'yoord) adj. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. nonsensical or meaningless talk. iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. deep rooted. and it no longer bothered her. irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. to annoy. anger. hesitant. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. you might help her make up her mind. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. brave. unruly. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel film.

concise. succinct. lacking in rigor or strictness. slack. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. lax (laks) adj. languish ('lan · wish) v. merry. to lose vigor or strength. 2. flaccid. 'lee·a·zon) n. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. cheerful. not taut or rigid. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. 2. sprightly and lighthearted. to become languid. one who maintains such communication. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. They claim to be avant-garde. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n. present or in existence but not active or evident. Juggernaut. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. terse. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. title for the Hindu god Krishna. they’re just a bunch of libertines. feeble. lenient. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and profits are up for the third quarter in a row. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. brief and to the point. 1. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. a close relationship or link. weak. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. 2. 1. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. 1. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. but in my opinion. . latent ('lay·tent) adj. a massive. 1. hands-off. 2.

WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic official. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from office. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj. cripple. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. After several tests. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. 2. maim (maym) v. but they won’t win our vote. bungling. misconduct or wrongdoing. Wella finally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. garrulous. malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. 1. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. or injure. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. disable. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. tiny. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. to mutilate. 1. the act of plotting or devising. very clear. trivial or petty. improper professional conduct. sane or rational. malaise (ma·'layz) n. intelligible. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. talkative. to wound. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. 1. . excessively dismal or mournful. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. very small. 2. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. 2. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. producing much money. inept. disfigure. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. profitable. easy to understand. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour flight talked the entire time. comical misuse of words. clumsy. His malapropisms may make us laugh. often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so. a feeling of illness or unease. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body.

meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. . rebel. a mixture or assortment. Her mel˘ lifluous voice floated in through the windows and made everyone smile. move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. ˘ ˘ changeable. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. 1. 1. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. courageous. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. one who acts independently. make defective or imperfect. 2. 3. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. gaudy. apportion. nonconformist. 2. sounding sweet and flowing. volatile. allot. trying to figure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. mar (mahr) v. to move on a winding or turning course. With its casinos and attractions. she’s quite a malleable person. 2. mellifluous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. 2. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. extremely careful and precise. 1. environment or setting. Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. 2. meander (mee·'an·der) v. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. lively. easily molded or pressed into shape. honeyed. who don’t feel they can trust him. to wan˘ der about. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. to impair or damage. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or influenced. showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. mete (meet) v. tawdry. to distribute. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. 1. liable to change moods suddenly.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. I meandered through the park for hours. easily adapting to changing circumstances. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. 1. a falsehood or lie. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. high-spirited.

minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. 2. to soften. great merriment. to walk or speak affectedly. trivial or trifling matters. debatable. 2. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. gloomy. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. 2. 1. make less rigid. miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. diminish. too numerous to be counted. he’s a real misanthrope. 1. vast amount. . innumerable. melancholy. to moderate the force or intensity of. moot (moot) adj. a villain. to lessen in intensity. 1. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. Pay no mind to his criticism. joyous laughter. soften. undecided. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. to make less intense or severe. Although this is a moot issue. an immense number. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. dull. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. having many ˘ aspects. n. sullen. evil person. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. alleviate. The crying child was quickly mollified by her mother. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. commonplace. greatly diversified.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. mirth (murth) n. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. criminal. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery.. If you do not have passion for your job. not spiritual. very varied. calm. ordinary. very small details. an indefi˘ nitely large number. to cut into very small pieces. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. to soothe the anger of. 3. 2. as with studied refinement. 3. worldly. pl. secular. going to work each day can become mundane. 1. The joyous wedding celebration filled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. but today he was finally captured. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. To the refugees from Somalia. one who hates or distrusts humankind.

Marcus’s argument started off strong. the very bottom. emerging. but I could tell she was nervous. source of harm or ruin. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. especially in odor. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. novel ('nov·el) n. 2. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. not easily moved ˘ to pity. 1. In Frankenstein. a connected series or group. putrid. admiration or worship of oneself. ˘ noxious. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n. 3. indifferent or cool. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. original. the core or center. 1. 1. invalidate. unwholesome. noisome ('noi·som) adj. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. nexus ('nek·sus) n. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. foul. 2. agent of retribution or vengeance. 2. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. bane. hardhearted. I doubt he’ll change his mind. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. stubborn and inflexible. a genre of literature. to make null (without legal force). nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. coming into existence. the lowest point. 1. adj. he’s the most obdurate person I know. or different. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. a means of connection. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. unpleasant and harmful. nascent ('nas·ent) adj. . strikingly new. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. offensive. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. 2. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. harmful. The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action.

to muddle or make difficult to understand. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. Thankfully. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. get rid of. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. to make unnecessary. etc. stupid and slow to understand. meddlesome. bossy. 2. contemptible. intrusive. 2. to make obscure or unclear. 3.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. but it is clearly an oligarchy. 1. 1. Please don’t be so obtuse. Minsun survived the accident. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. 1. secret. hateful. incomprehensible. The embezzler was good at keeping his financial records occult from the authorities. 1. detestable. occult (o·'kult) adj. you know what I mean. undesirably noticeable. My officious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. artist. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. projecting. com˘ poser. hidden. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. blunt. noisily and stubbornly defiant. Zeus was the most powerful god. a work of art. 2. Instead of clarifying the matter. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. not sharp or ˘ pointed. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural. ˘ thrusting out. 1. concealed. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. fawning. for she is also a classical pianist. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. forward. unruly. Walter only obfuscated it further. to dim or darken. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. . obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. but he was not omnipotent. 2. the total lifework of a writer. 2. prominent. having unlimited or universal power or force. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. beyond ordinary understanding. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. 3. officious (o·'fish·us) adj.

Lee is very wealthy.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. such as friendly fire. 1. lack of color. a figure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. insignificant. ˘ 2. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. alleviate. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. 1. to provide relief from pain. 1. put a positive spin on. bringing shame or disgrace. scornful. expressing contempt or reproach. overbearing. paleness. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. contemptibly small in amount. mitigate. abundant. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. 2. uninterrupted rhythm. 2. ˘ ˘ abusive. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. onus ('oh·nus) n. possessing great wealth. . In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. duty or responsibility of doing something. but I believe they have already made their decision. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. vacillate. presumptuously arrogant. wretched or contemptible. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. to make something less intense or severe. to reject. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. to gloss over. appearing as such. pallor ('pal·or) n. The fever subsided. burden. lacking in importance or worth. 2. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. task. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. seeming. pitiful. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. immoderate. cast out from a group or from society. 1. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. excessive. 1. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. as between two conflicting options or opinions. to waver. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. affluent. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. pretended. having infinite knowledge. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. 2. knowing all things. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. luxu˘ ˘ rious. 1. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. 2.

pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. a trivial offense. 2. ˘ ˘ unimaginative. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. . 1. translucent. beyond comparison.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. Although the film received critical acclaim. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. scarcity. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. (e. easy to understand. a rejected and despised person. set of assumptions. 1. ˘ 2. of course. being the best or truest of its kind. an outcast. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo. Elected “Employee of the Month.” Winona is a paradigm of efficiency. something that serves as a model or example. relating to. ˘ 2. or involving money. dull. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj.g. having the highest degree of excellence. able to be seen through with clarity. quin˘ tessential. Ronnel was nice enough. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. of. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. of writing) very clear. a walker. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. an upstart. a small sin or fault. smallness of supply or quantity. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning. 1.. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. marked by a narrow. trite. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. beliefs. a walker adj. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the office. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. a guerilla. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. commonplace. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. unremarkable. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n. a member of an organized body of fighters who attack or harass an enemy. especially of rules or trivial matters. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. adj.

imperative. superficial. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath. . There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. to spread everywhere. The perfidious knight betrayed his king. destitution. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. We were not satisfied with his perfunctory work. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. deeply thoughtful. After the terrible car accident.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. next to last. not thorough. perfidious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. ˘ ˘ 2. purpose. a strong liking or inclination (for something). not allowing contradiction or refusal. dictatorial. extremely stubborn or persistent. I was petrified when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. Higgins would be their new teacher. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. or dread. to stun or paralyze with fear. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. dishonest. to make hard or stiff like a stone. holding ˘ firmly to a belief. deadly. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. treacherous. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. misleading. permeate. violating good faith. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. 3. attractive. very destructive. 1. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. harmful. The pertinacious journalist finally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. it’s ˘ good to be financially secure again. putting an end to debate or action. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. pleasing in appearance or manner. offensively self-assured. 2. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. extreme poverty. to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. the deliberate willful giving of false. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. dis˘ ˘ loyal. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. commanding. 1. pervade (per·'vayd) v. After ten years of penury. astonishment. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. or course of action.

. mournful. ignorant person. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. 2. pith (pith) n. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj. 2. to arouse or provoke. to wound (someone’s) pride. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. touching. especially in time of war. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. etc. piquant ('pee·kant) adj. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. especially one uttered as if it were new. 1. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. calm and peaceful. to forcibly rob of goods. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. 1. 1. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. keenly ˘ distressing. peevish.). The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with fire. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants. idea. pique (peek) v. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. 1. but concise. expressing sorrow. a smug. agreeably pungent. to offend. crucial. sharp or tart in taste. 1. the essential or central part. deeply moving. Her brief. poignant ('poin·yant) adj. an overabundance. pillage ('pil·ij) v. experience. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. melancholy. (in biology) the soft. arousing emotion. 2. but he’s really just a philistine. piercing or incisive. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. argumentative. being of vital importance. 2. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. controversial. placid ('plas·id) adj. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. a trite or banal statement. the heart or essence (of the matter. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. the wrong move now could ruin everything. 2. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). They captured the poignant reunion on film. to plunder. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. extreme excess. free from disturbance or tumult.

free from contamination. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. a rule establishing standards of conduct. auspicious. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. presenting favorable circumstances. 1. 1. but she is sorely mistaken. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. the working class. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. showy. 1. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. similarity in nature. lacking moral restraint. practical. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. 1. dropping sharply. 2. 2. lavish or profuse. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure. unadulterated. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. The propinquity of these two elements make them difficult to tell apart. clean.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. fraught with danger. . propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. someone who takes on airs to impress others. pompous. extremely steep. in its original and unspoiled condition. matter-of-fact. 2. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. a phony. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. Driving through the state park. dissolute. proximity. 1. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. profligate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. especially with ˘ money. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. given in great abundance. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. 2. original. ˘ rash. putting on airs. 1. precept ('pree·sept) n. ancient. pure. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. The profligate man quickly depleted his fortune. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. prodigal. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. 2. to stray from or evade the truth. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. hasty. belonging to the earliest ages. My first impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. 2. to tell lies. those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. favoring utility. His prodigal actions led to his financial ruin. foolhardy. affinity. nearness.

dull. frugal. Because my parents were so provident. sharp taste or smell. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. etiquette. . or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. to banish or outlaw. very meticulous ˘ and precise. bel˘ ligerent. strong curry. ceremony. unimaginative. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. to denounce or condemn. exercising good judgment. pundit ('pun·dit) n. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. taking many forms. economi˘ cal. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. judicious. proxy ('prok·see) n. one who is an authority on a subject. a first copy of a treaty or document. prudent ('proo·dent) adj. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. doctrine or cause.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. eager to fight. forbid. changeable. suitable only for children. versatile. a learned person or scholar. 2. 1. Clarissa has always been very prudent. 1. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. 1. variable. wisely providing for future needs. to prohibit. a document authorizing this substitution. 2. 1. ˘ caustic. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. 2. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. childish. having a strong. After a few minutes. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. contentious. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. 2. I love the pungent taste of a good. 1. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. 2. quarrelsome. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. In ˘ Native American mythology. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to fight. belief. extremely attentive to detail. stinging. Jackson was fired for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. immature. penetrating. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. ordinary. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v.

quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. inactive. . After Leon writes a draft. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. propose or intend. romantically idealistic. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. 2. to draw back in fear. extravagantly chivalrous and unselfish. peevish. but I love him. but who knows when it will erupt again. pedestrian. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. commonplace. an equal exchange or substitution. 1.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. 2. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. 1. a thing given in return for something. purloin (pur·'loin) v. the essence of a substance. dormant. daily. to drink hurriedly or heartily. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. to be intended to seem. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. to swallow in large draughts. Q quaff (kwahf) v. quiet. pure. 2. flinch. latent. to have the appearance of being. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours. impractical. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. cower. 1. quail (kwayl) v. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. to steal. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. at rest. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. 2. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. 1. to make or become clean. to free from impurities. discontented. queue (kyoo) n. complaining.

stubborn. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. 1. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. unmanageable. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. jaunty in appearance or manner. 1. disorderly. to reprove or reprimand. plundering. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. unruly. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. censure. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. unconventional and disreputable. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. 2. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s office for the third time in a week. smartly dressed or mannered. regale (ri·' ayl) v. unpleasantly loud and harsh. The raucous music kept us awake all night. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). a person who favors political conservativism. boisterous. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. 2. voracious. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. debonair. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. 2. . a relapse or backslide. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. 2. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. dissolute or debauched. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. not easily understood. long-lasting resentment. a bitter feeling of ill will. disobedient.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. abstruse. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. to criticize sharply. 1. refusing to obey authority. ˘ disturbing the peace. obscure. 1. and this causes tension at family gatherings.

The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. 2. resting or being at rest. 1. gorged. a criminal. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. deserving rebuke or censure. 2. v. one without ˘ scruples. objection. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. 1. to disown. postponement or cancellation of punishment. especially a popular gathering place. to scold or reprove. 2. a quick. and a traitor in his written confession. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n. especially of the death sentence. 1. widely known and esteemed. reject completely. 2. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. peace of mind. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. 1. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. an immoral or unprincipled person. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla fighters. disavow. calmness. 1. 1. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. witty reply. a deserter. a place where people meet. 2. tranquility. or opposition. . etc. one who rejects a cause. repose (ri·'pohz) n. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inflicting at least as much harm in return. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. well stocked or abundantly supplied. group. 2. ˘ 2. to meet at a rendezvous.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place. 1. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. to say or plead in protest. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. The house was replete with expensive antiques. to bring or come together at a certain place. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. Mrs. 1. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. 2. famous. full. the ability to make witty ˘ replies.

1. ˘ reserved. 2. having great splendor or beauty. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. hold in highest respect or estimation. 1. 1. Yesterday.” not “alternative medicine. perceptive. bril˘ liant. 3. 3. rubric ('roo·brik) n. a heading. title. dazzling. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. When you look at Judith’s work. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. ˘ ˘ wise. springing up or jutting out. to regard with reverence or awe. unprincipled person. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. to void or annul. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. or note of explanation or direction. petty procedure. 2. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. a dishonest. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. to repeal or cancel. confusing. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. resounding. revere (ri·'veer) v. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj. 2. 1.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. untalkative. rogue (roh ) n. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. silent. a class or category.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. incoherent ˘ talk. sound advice. 1. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. highly noticeable. 2. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. to anger or annoy. rambling. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. conspicuous. . 2. to stir up or agitate. a pleasantly mischievous person. a complicated. to venerate. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. Annette is very reticent. echoing. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a flood zone. having or showing sound judgment. prominent.

To promote better health. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. iota.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. especially in dangerous or difficult circumstances. mean. reme˘ dial. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I find myself in a confrontational situation. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. 2. contemptible. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. gloomy. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. composure. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. sparkling. a trace or particle. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. schism ('siz·em) n. v. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. to approve or permit. 1. sanction ('san k·shon) n. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. ˘ excessively self-righteous. brilliantly clever and animated. sarcastic. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. of the color of blood. . scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. optimistic. dark. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. shining brilliantly. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. graceful tact. 1. 1. ratify. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. confidently cheerful. sullen. red. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. sanguine ('san · win) adj. 2. to give official authorization or approval for. official authorization or approval. minute amount. mocking scornfully. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. producing a beneficial or wholesome effect. hypocritically pious or devout. 2. 1.

the study of meaning in language. undulating. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. the researchers discovered a cure. full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. moderate. to satisfy. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. pertaining to or befitting a slave or forced labor. 2. 1. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. 1. diligent. lacking ambition. symbols. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. not a sententious reply. serpentine. sodden ('sod·en) adj. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. the meaning. to approach with an offer for paid services. initiative. 2. The climax comes when Yolanda. slavish. of or like an ape or monkey. 1. 3. quench. 1. lazy and inefficient. 3. to reduce the intensity of. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. or purpose. I was amused by his sophistry. a mistake in the use of language. thoroughly saturated. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. . Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. soaked. ˘ unimaginative. expressing oneself tersely. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. 1. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. hard working. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. 1. pithy. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. or other forms. winding. After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. abjectly submissive. but the matter is not open to interpretation. 1. 2. He claims it’s an issue of semantics.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. persevering. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. allay. finds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. 2. clever but faulty reasoning. expressionless or dull. petition. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. to ask for earnestly. connotation. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his field. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. or interpretation of words. slake (slayk) v. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. impropriety. solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. 2. 2. 2. I was looking for your honest opinion.

(also stanch) stopping the flow of something. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. firmly loyal and constant. specious ('spee·shus) adj. concise. obstruct. to impair or make ineffective. to prevent the accomplishment of something. 1. morally degraded. ˘ impassive. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. 2. squalid. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. but underneath. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. 2. 1. supreme. seemingly plausible but false. lofty. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. to ruin.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. wretched. 2. Of course I’m angry! You stultified me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. thwart. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. below the threshold of consciousness. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. destroy completely. discordant. he is every bit as emotional as we are. 2. 2. indifferent. unswerving. cripple. to hinder. staunch (stawnch) v. 1. filthy and wretched. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. morally repulsive. ˘ terse. firm and steadfast. not genuine or authentic. false. firmly fixed or unchanging. having noble or majestic qualities. 1. Michael was stoical. or reverence. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. inspiring awe. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj. unswerving. dirty. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. adj. adora˘ tion. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. counterfeit. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. shrill. grating. 1. to overthrow. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. sordid. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won first place in the essay contest. 2. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. 1. unpleasantly loud and harsh. 3. firm and constant in principle or loyalty. resolute. . Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. to undermine. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain.

Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. or disgust. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. reserved. done. scornful. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. gruff. After finding dirty footprints in her apartment. svelte (svelt) adj. haughty. a substitute. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. In some countries. overindulge. various. a fawning parasite. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. slender and graceful. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. glut. or obtained through stealthy. surly ('sur·lee) adj. to guess. one who takes the place of another. to feed or fill to excess. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. conjec˘ ture. an excessive amount or overabundance. made. to infer based upon insufficient evidence. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. v. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. 1. disdainful. 1. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. satiety. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. 2. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. habitually untalkative.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. a person who asks humbly for something. a person who tries to win the favor of influential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through flattery. bad-tempered. v. suave. 2. ˘ ˘ clandestine. . marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. miscellaneous. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. the state of being or eating until excessively full. assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. or fraudulent means. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly.

able to be perceived by touch. partisan. not impartial. When it comes to fighting for equality. timid ('tim·id) adj. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. of or relating to a tangent. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. 1. a belief. thwart (thwort) v. concise. 1. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. tenet ('ten·it) n. 3. it’s all hearsay. flashy and tasteless. The fisherman found a stream teeming with bass. to be present in large numbers. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. opinion. sticking firmly. terse (turs) adj. real or con˘ crete. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outfit as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. biased. cohesive. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at first. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. holding firmly. of no substantive ˘ connection. flimsy. or organization. fearful. foolish disregard of danger. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. using no unnecessary words. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. timid. lacking confidence. only superficially relevant. . tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. succinct. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. or courage. 2. fearful. 2. persistent. holding firmly to something. The stray dog was timorous. unsubstantial. conviction. gaudy or showy but without any real value. 4. not relevant facts. shy. to be full of. adhesive. having little substance or ˘ validity. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate floor. (of memory) retentive. 2. group. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. brashness. After our disagreement. palpable.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. afraid. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. 1. stubbornly unyielding. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. she is the most tenacious person I know. hesitant. audacity. This ˘ is no time for temerity.

The theme of the novel was trite. fleeting. overly familiar through overuse. labor strenuously. disorderly. a long. a violent denunciation or condemnation. It was a trenchant argument. especially with the goal of getting a customer. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. difficult or laborious work. 1. . docile. transient ('tran·zhent) adj. a ˘ state of confusion. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. to solicit (customers. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. turbulence. transitory. Their relationship was transient but profound. a court of justice. often highly critical speech. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. 2. Since Andre was known for his temper. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. forceful. etc. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. to promote or praise highly and energetically. angry. easily managed or controlled. 1. exhausting labor or effort. toil (toil) n. fierce. etc. hackneyed. worn out. or agitation. vote. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. trite (tr¯t) adj. many writers had written about death in a similar way. noisy. v. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. obedient. 1. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. 2. lasting only a very short time. tumult. creating an uproar. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. 2. defiantly aggressive. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. votes. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. repeated too often. clear-cut. penetrating. effective. tout (towt) v. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. 3. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. to work laboriously. 2. incisive. extremely per˘ ceptive. and fluctuating prices wrought havoc for investors.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. sharply defined. 3. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. ˘ brief.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. 1. violent. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted.

improper. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. 2. 1. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. 2. to seize. senseless. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. to reprove. course of action. admonish. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. who was the rightful heir to the throne. especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation. elegant. waver. to swing back and forth about an opinion. 1. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. to move or sway from side to side. resentment. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. condemn. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. 2. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. stupid. 1. offense. to weaken or injure. highly refined in manners. 2. greasy. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. fluctuate. troublesome. a corrupt or depraved act. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. inconvenient. 2. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. wickedness. 1. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom. 1. unseemly. to be indecisive. who had forbade them to eat sweets. empty. slippery. to destroy in an underhanded way.. adverse. purposeless. fluctuate. . extremely tactful and polite. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. inane. to wrongfully take over. the babysitter undermined their mother. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. ˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. perverse. by force and without right. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. etc. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. suave. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. but he’s really quite pedestrian. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. or take possession of. reproach sharply.

The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. long-winded. vigor. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. to cen˘ sure severely. to compete with or contend. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. using more words than necessary. Einstein was a veritable genius. 1. After a few minutes of pandemonium. to annoy. 1. adv. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. irritate. to strive for superiority or victory. caustic.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. real. extremely poisonous. The film is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. acrimonious. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. ˘ ˘ 2. vignette (vin·'yet) n. wordy. vie (v¯) v. indeed. referring or directing attention to. easily bribed or corrupted. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. venal ('vee·nal) adj. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. or energy. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. injurious or infectious. The two scientists were vying to be the first to find concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. 1. ˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. 2. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. character or position. 2. to cause worry to. genuine. berate. savagely hostile or bitter. bitterly hostile or hateful. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. unprincipled. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. true. the lights came back on. face to face. . Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. a brief description or depiction. 2. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. 1. marked by great force. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. the appearance of being true or real.

watchful. After being swindled by the street vendor. excessively greedy. eager. a strong dislike. 2. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. rapacious. 2. nimble speech. winnow ('win·oh) v. 1. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. devouring greedily.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj. having a great ˘ appetite for something. 3. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the fifties. unstable. the point in the sky directly above the observer. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. zenith ('zee·nith) n. turning or rotating easily on an axis. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. likely to change suddenly or violently. cautious. talking a great deal and with great ease. 2. peak. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to five highly qualified candidates. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. the spirit of the times. language ˘ ˘ marked by great fluency. varying widely. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. 1. X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. ˘ 2. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. the highest point. ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. distrust. filled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. top. inconstant. guarded. changeable. to separate the good from the bad. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. . fickle. 1. 1. rapid. or fear of foreigners. fervent. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. ˘ earnest. explosive. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n.

WO R D LI ST

APPENDIX B

Prefixes, Suffixes, and Word Roots
PREFIXES

The following table lists the most common English language prefixes, their meanings, and examples of words with each prefix.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-

not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not

atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested

173

174
PREFIX MEANING

VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES

duoexim- ir-)

two out, out of, away from

duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superficial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral

in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one

P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS

175

SUFFIXES

The following table lists the most common English language suffixes, their meanings, and examples of words with each suffix.

NOUN ENDINGS
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y

(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a specified state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; office or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business

drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy

cursory. unable to act or be acted on (in a specified way) full of. plagiarize. preeminent helpful. -ian -ant. electrify. glorious. agrarian important. to come to be or have to make. incessant. full of. relating to. tending or inclined to flammable. of. lengthen. -ical -an. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. form into to cause to be or become. lacking. to bring about violate. related to. tolerate. synchronize . ephemeral human. characteristic of performing (a specific action) or being (in a specified condition) full of. archaic fragile. exacerbate. having the nature of without. squeamish sensitive. bookish. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. culpable. frighten beautify. having the qualities of. -ial. having the qualities of. -ose. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). relating to characterized by. futile. listless adventurous. servile Swedish. wistful fantastic. rectify colonize.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. egregious sleepy. fearless. peripheral. inscrutable educational. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. -fy -ize to make. peaceful. -y capable or worthy of. or characterized by one who is or does. chronic. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. cooperative. -ible -al. pensive endless. emanate quicken. American. tending or liable to having the quality of.

equanimity annual. allure alternative. more than one. to lead to. carnage caste. alter am amb amb. amph anim annui. enamor ambulatory. apocalypse. chronology. cardiac. ennui anthro. soul. bell ben. mind. principal. chastise. cept card. bitter to do. alien amiable. to drive.P R E F I X E S. adept. There are more than 150 roots here. amity. cess centr cern. discern chronic. To learn these roots. near other. andr apo apt. to judge. cret. crit chron sharp. ambivalent. principal. acr act. to distinguish. ambush ambiguous. to walk both. intercept. anniversary. cour carn cast. headlong to take. and examples of words with those roots. another love to go. bonus accident. to get heart flesh cut to go. cip. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. critique. chant cap. animosity. archi. misanthrope apology. to stop center to separate. cent. android. to happen by chance to sing head. ruler self to be. monarchy. benevolent. to yield. fitness. ag ad. reincarnation. perennial anthropology. belittle rebel. human away skill. agitate adjacent. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. spirit year man. synchronize . bon cad. acute. eccentric ascertain. S U F F I X E S. castigate exceed. ability chief. recant capital. preamble. acrimonious agent. al al. discord carnivore. to have a certain quality war good to fall. bemoan. enact. concede. inept hierarchy. toward. ept arch. adhere. cord. capitulate capture. capit. emancipate encourage. to decide time acid. antebellum benefit. anarchy automatic. automaton befriend. cipit cap. around life. ceed. alias. coincidence. belligerent. chast ced. to force. amphitheater unanimous. apotheosis adapt. enchant. cascade chant. crim. autonomy. concentric. cert. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. archy auto be bel. ali. cid cant. their meanings. incessant central.

proclivity recur.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. acquiesce euphoria. incredulous crypt. fy fer ferv fid fin flag. flexible fluid. flam flect. cryptography succumb. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. dot. to make to bring. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. indolence. fic. cur crat. cryptic. feit. to bear to boil. cresc. fam fac. dit dign dog. dow dub duc. indignant dogma. through to say. even to wander becoming good. endow dubious. effervescent confide. to tell. bend running. dictionary. famous. bureaucracy creation. epidemic. indict dignity. well speak to do. dystopia. fidelity. close to shout. fait. autocracy. error. cursory democracy. indubitable. clu claim. erratic adolescent. euthanasia fable. feign offer. doc dem di. dolorous donate. induct. clamor decline. fluctuation. culpable. preclude exclaim. proclaim. precise. dia dic. incursion. dict. superfluous . exculpate doctor. orthodox. abnormal upon equal. docile democracy. cret cred cryp cub. dox dol don. clo. infidel final. flex flu. coalesce. equivocate err. clin cour. indoctrinate. diatribe. increase. flammable. to bubble faith. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. epigram. affinity flame. pandemic dialogue. clam cli. to cry out to lean toward. inflammatory deflect. dichotomy predict. credit. fervid. dyslexia epidemic. cumb culp dac. a course to govern to grow to believe. fig. to use words worth opinion suffer. proliferate fervor. affable fiction. cracy cre. epigraph equation. finite. increment incredible. trust end to burn to bend to flow scissors. incumbent culprit. eulogy. incubate. equanimity. paradox condolence. factory. transfer. obdurate dysfunctional. flux to cut shut. reflect. to carry. durable. endow. conducive endure. recline. enclose. incisive closet. dubiety conduct.

conjecture joint. nym. hyperextend. moratorium mutate. loquacious illustrate. eclectic elevator. frag. magnanimous manual. admonish. frac. metamorphosis. homogenous ignore. hyperbole idiom. incognito progress. forestall. maj. lus lud. junction. nom. other same over. digress grateful. infringe infusion. aggressive. creation. idiosyncrasy. remit. luv mag. innocuous nominate. inherent heterosexual. perjury. lucid. nai nec. deluge magnify. lum. morbid. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. adherent. nic. juxtapose jury. light. heterodox homogeneous. nown death change rule. S U F F I X E S. manifest minute. monit morph to pour birth. dejected. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. permutation economy. anthropomorphic fra. luminous illusion.P R E F I X E S. fring to break fus gen gn. recognize. lut. death name immortal. homonym hyperactive. leg lev loc. race. excessive one’s own to throw. intermittent monitor. heterogeneous. noc. dilute. minutiae prominent. allude lavatory. genetics. ideology eject. rise word. renaissance innocent. noun. taxonomy. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. gress grat her. fortunate. lever. order to be born harm. to join to swear to select. log. ingratiate cohere. nas. manufacture. noun. nox nom. diffuse generous. alleviate dialogue. select. nym nat. autonomy native. fortuitous fracture. fraction. preeminent transmit. gno grad. eloquent. to throw down to meet. magnitude. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. nown. immutable. lus lug. nascent. loqu luc. to choose lift. junct jur lect. forbear fortune. homonym. abjure election. nominal . mit mon. noxious. remonstrate amorphous. max man min min mis. elude. diminish. imminent. gratitude. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam.

completely. apathetic poverty. wrong around to go. neophyte object. impetuous philosophy. desultory conscious. peripatetic compete. comply. to jump to know to write apart announce. punishment. to weigh. paragon. to seize much. obsequious omnipresent. pervade perimeter. philanthropy. pit phil phone plac ple plex. path pau. scrip se to announce new toward. probation. conquest. sacrament. pun pend. penance depend. pos. sanction assault. permeate. placebo. neo. pound port prehend. over all peace all. antipathy. peas pan par para pas. ridiculous. acquiesce riddle. disparate. everyone equal next to. to test to fight to point. encyclopedia. omnipotent. poign que. sil. surrogate. insolent. query quiet. deplete. puncture. portable. impede penalty. of. petition. expedite. cacophony placid. impugn point. seditious . sult sci scribe. ply pon. suffering. parity parallel. segregate. prise pro prob pug punc. abrogate sacred. sanct. appease. pod pen.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. education foot to pay. pandemic. paradox passionate. omniscient scribble. po. reprisal proliferate. op omni pac. pu ped ped. pacifier panorama. to strive love sound to please to fill to fold. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. pugnacious. obstruct. to twist. pedantic pedestrian. bibliophile telephone. science. pung. nou ob. to pay completely. apprehend. plic. pat. for. secr sal. component. denounce novice. to. sault. beside feeling. proselytize probe. pronounce. implicit expose. poor child. compensate. nunc nov. impoverish pediatrician. pauper. ris rog sacr. against. homophone. pensive perplex. panacea par. tranquil. disease few. circumscribe separate. novel. to bend to put. peripheral. to get. importune surprise. quis qui rid. pens per peri pet. to compensate to hang. plethora complex. punctilious inquisitive. reprobate repugnant. prescribe. profuse. little. to seek. a lot to prove. pov. complacent complete. derision interrogate. to tangle. oc. to place to carry to take. omniscient pacify. juxtapose import.

dissident sense. aversion. persuade. vert vi vid. sti sua tac. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. sent sol spec. tin tend. circumspect static. resolution. to thin god. sess. detract. tenacious extend. theology. S U F F I X E S. sequ sed. to be aware to loosen. tenu theo tract us. vis voc. intervene verdict. vigorous. apotheosis attract. sustain. survey. tic tain. tension. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. usurp convene. to be still. obsequious subside. taciturn detain. benevolence . to plan. assiduous. to free to look. dissolution perspective. dissuade tacit. tent. to draw to use to come. dissent dissolve. to pull. tractable abuse. verisimilitude. volition. venture. sequel. sentiment. sid sens. steadfast suave. utility. spit sta. speculation. equivocate volunteer. advocate. tens. obstinate. reticent. vicarious evident. to see to stand. visionary vocal. versatile vivid. tenuous atheist.P R E F I X E S. to plot to feel. ut ven. spic. religion to drag. vent ver vers. tent. ten. veritable revert. vok vol to follow to sit.

N OTE S .

N OT E S .

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