John Flavell Metacognition consist of both metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experience.

Person variables - This includes how one views himself as a learner and thinker. Knowledge about how human Task Variables – includes knowledge about the nature of the task as well as type of processing demands it will place upon the individual. Strategy Variables – Knowledge of strategy variables involves awareness of strategy you are using to learn a topic and evaluating whether this strategy is effective. Meta attention – awareness of SPECIFIC STRATEGIES SO THAT YOU CAN KEEP YOUR ATTENTION FOCUSEDON THE TOPIC OR TASK AT HAND Metamemory – Awareness of memories strategies that work best for you Metacognition – Highest level of thinking Expert learners - Employed metacognitive strategies in learning Novice learners – Have limited knowledge in different subject areas. 14 psychological principles are divided into a. cognitive and metacognitive b. motivational and affective c. developmental and social d. invidual difference Cognitive and metacognitive facotrs 1. Nature of learning process The learning of complex subject matter is most effective when it is an intentional process of on constructing meaning form information and experience 2. Goals of the learning process The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional guidance and create meaningful, coherent representation of knowledge. 3. Construction of knowledge The successful learner can link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways. 4. Strategic thinking The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals.

5. Thinking about thinking higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operation facilitate creative and critical thinking 6. Context of learning Learning is influenced by environmental factors, including culture, technology, and instructional practices Motivational and affective factors 7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning What and how much is learned is influenced by the learner’s motivation. Motivation to learn, in turn, is influenced by the individual’s emotional states, beliefs, interest and goals, and habits of thinking . 8. Intrinsic motivation to learn the learner’s creativity, higher order thinking, and natural curiosity all contribute to motivation to learn. Intrinsic motivation is stimulated by task of optimal novelty and difficulty, relevant to personal interests and providing for personal choice and interest 9. Effects of motivation on effort Acquisition of complex knowledge and skills requires extended learner efforts and guided practice. Without learners, motivation to learn, the willingness to exert this effort in unlikely without coercion. Developmental and social factor 10. Developmental influences on learning As individuals develop, there are different opportunities and constraints for learning. Learning is most effective when differential development within and across physical, intellectual, emotional, and social domains is taken into account. 11. Social Influences of learning Learning is influenced by social interactions, interpersonal relations, and communications with others. Individual differences factors 12. Individual differences in learning Learners have different strategies, approaches, and capabilities for learning that are a function of prior experience and heredity. 13 Learning and diversity Learning is most effective when differences in learner’s linguistic, cultural, and social background are taken into account.

14 Standards and assessments Setting appropriately high and challenging standards and assessing the learner as well as learning progress – including diagnostic, process, and outcome assessment – are integral parts of the learning process.

Part 2 Jean Piaget- cognitive theory of development – how individual constructs knowledge. Piagetian task – a research method involved observing small number of individuals as they responded to cognitive task that has designed. Genetic epistemology - Piaget general theoretical framework Interested in how knowledge developed in human organism Basic Cognitive Concepts Schema - refer to cognitive structure by w/c individuals intellectually adapt to and organize their environment. Ex. If a child see’sa dog for the first time, he creates his own idea what a dog is Assimilation – Process of fitting its new experience into an existing or previous schema Ex. If the child sees another dog and it is smaller one he is adding new schema of a dog Accommodation - a process of creating a new schema Ex. If a child sees now another animal that looks kike little bit like a dog, but somehow a different height try fit it into a his schema of a dog Equilibration – proper balance of assimilation and accommodation Cognitive disequilibrium – experience not match to schemata or cognitive s structure Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive development Stage 1 Sensori – motor stage – first stage corresponds from birth to infancy. Ex. Child is gasping sucking reaching more organized Object permanence – This is the ability of the child to know that an object still exist even without sight

Stage 2 Pre-Operational stage – The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven years old Intelligence at this stage is intuitive in nature Ex Can make mental representation/ can use of symbols Symbolic Function – Ability to represent objects and events. Develops in the children 2 – 7 years old Egocentrism – This is the tendency of the child to see only his own point of view Centration - refers to the tendency of the child focus on one aspects of a thing exclude other aspect. Ex. When a child is presented two identical glassand you transferred the other glass to a much higher glass, the child might say that there is much water on the taller glass than the other Irreversibility – Preoperational children still has the inability to reverse thinking. Ex. Can understand 2+3 = 5 but cannot understand 5-3 = 2 Animism – Tendency of children to attribute human like or characteristic inanimate objects Ex. Ask child where is the sun and he will tell reply mr.sun is asleep Transductive reasoning – A type of reasoning that is inductive nor deductive Ex. A causes b vice versa everyday mommy is at home at 6 and if ask why is it evening the child will answer because home.

mommy is

Stage 3 Concrete operational stage – the ability of the child to think logically but in terms concrete object only. For elementary years Decentering – ability of the child to perceive the different features of objects and situation. Reversibility – During the stage of concrete operations child can follow that certain operations can be done in reverse Conservation – Ability to know that certain properties of objects like number mass or area do not change there is a change in appearance Seriation – ability to order or arrange according to volume mass and weight

even if

Stage 4 Operational Stage – Final stage of operations covering 12 and 15 years of age Thinking is more logical Hypothetical reasoning – Ability to come up with different hypothesis about a problem and to gather and weight data to make a final decision or Judgment Analogical reasoning - Perceive the relationship in one instance and then use that relationship to narrow down answer to in another similar situation Deductive reasoning - This is the ability to think logically by applying a general rule to a particular instance or situation

possible or problem

Erik Erikson – Psycho social theory 5 psychosexual development Theory was largely influenced by Sigmund Freud Cultural and social aspects Epignetic principle – Principle says that we developed through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stage Psychosocial crisis- two opposing emotional forces Virtue – psychological strength w/c help us through the stage of our lives Malignancy – is the worse of the two, and involves too little positive and too much negative Maladaptation – not quite bad but too much positive `Stage I Infancy Psychological Crisis - trust vs. mistrust Maladaptation-Sensory maladjustment Malignancy- withdrawal Virtue- Hope Stage II EarlyChildhood Psychological Crisis – Autonomy vs. shame and doubt Maladaptation-Impulsiveness Malignancy- Compulsiveness Virtuepower/determination Will

Stage III Childhood Psychological Crisis – initiative vs. guilt Maladaptation-Ruthless Malignancy- inhibition Virtue- courage Stage IV School age 6-12 Psychological Crisis – Industry vs.Inferiority Maladaptation-narrow virtuosity

Malignancy- inertia Virtue- competency Stage V Adolescence 18 – 20 Psychological Crisis – Ego identity vs. role confusion Maladaptation-Fanaticism Malignancy- Repudiation Virtue- Fidelity Stage VI Young Adulthood 18 – 30 Psychological Crisis – Intimacy vs. Isolation Maladaptation-promiscuity Malignancy- exclusion

Virtue- love Stage VII Middle adulthood 25 – 45 Psychological Crisis – Generavity vs. stagnation Maladaptation-Stagnation Malignancy- rejectivity Virtue- Caring Stage VIII Old age around 60 Psychological Crisis – ego integrity vs despair Maladaptation- presumption Malignancy- disdain Virtue- Wisdom

Vygotsky – Socio Cultural Social interaction plays a very important role in cognitive development Scaffolding - term for the appropriate assistance given by the teacher to assist the learner Accomplish a task Social interaction and language two central factor in cognitive development Social Interaction – emphasize that effective learning happens through participation in social activities, making the social context of learning crucial. Zone of actual development – when a child attempts to perform a skill alone she may not be immediately proficient at it. So, alone she may perform a certain level of competency. Zone of proximal development – zone represents a learning opportunity where a knowledgeable adult such as a teacher or parent or a more advanced peer can assist the child’s development.. Scaffolding – Support assistance that lets child accomplish a task she cannot accomplish independently Ex. Leading the straw to the hole and letting child put the straw through the tetra pack hole is scaffolding Scaffold and fade-away technique – as learners become more proficient, able to complete task on their own that they could not initially do without assistance, the guidance can be withdrawn

KOHLBERG’S STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Lawrence Kohlberg interested in studying the development of moral reasoning Utilized moral dilemmas (Kohlberg dilemma) Six stages of Kohlberg’s Moral development Level Pre-conventional Level – Moral reasoning Is based on the consequence/result of the Act. Act may be good or bad Stage Description 1 Punishment - One is motivated be fear of punishment he will act to avoid punishment 2 may I Conventional – Moral reasoning is based on the conventions or norms of society include approval of others , law and order 3 Mutual Benefit - One is motivated to act by the benefit that one obtain later you scratch mine scratch yours Social Approval One is motivated by what others expect in behavior god boy/girl he values what he appears to others. law and order Motivated to act in in order to uphold law and order Social contract - Laws that are Wrong can changed/one act is based on social justice universal Principles This is associated with one’s the

4 Post-conventional – Moral reasoning Is based enduring or consistent principle. Not just recognized law but the principle 5


development of conscience. Having set of standards derives one to process moral responsibility to make societal changes regardless of consequences to oneself

Just Community - Kohlberg and colleagues came up approach towards promoting moral development

Community meeting – w/c issues is related to life and discipline in the school are discussed

STUDENT DIVERSITY Factors that bring about student diversity Socio-economic status – the millionaires lifestyle differs from the middle income or lower income group Thinking/learning style - Some of you learn better by seeing something or hearing something Exceptionalities comprehension. In class there maybe one who has difficult spoken language or

How student diversity enriches learning environment 1 student’s self awareness is enhanced by diversity - exposed student w/ diverse background and experiences also serves to help students focus on their awareness of themselves 2. Student diversity contributes to cognitive development gain access to the perspective of peers and to learn student from other students 3 Student diversity prepares learners for their role as responsible members of society . the capacity to imagine situations or problems from all perspective and to appreciate all aspects of diversity 4. student diversity can promote harmony diverse student can be encourage to interact or collaborate with one another Some tips of student diversity 1. Encourage learners to share their personal history and experiences 2. Integrate learning experiences and activities which promotes students multicultural and cross-cultural awareness 3. Aside from high lightning diversity, identify patterns of unity that transcend group differences 4. Communicate high expectations to students from all sub-groups 5. Use varied instructional methods to accommodate student diversity in learning style

6. Vary the examples you use to illustrate concepts in order to provide multiple contexts are relevant to students from diverse background 7. Adapt the students diverse backgrounds and learning style by allowing them personal choice and decision making opportunities concerning what they will learn and how they will learn it 8. Diversify your method of assessing and evaluating students learning 9. purposely, from small-discussion groups of students from diverse backgrounds. You can forms groups of students with different learning style, different cultural background, etc. LEARNING AND THINKING STYLES Learning /thinking styles – refer to preferred way an individual process information Bipolar dimension- styles are usually considered describe a persons thinking style Sensory Preferences – individual tend to gravitate towards one or two types of sensory input and maintain a dominance Visual learners – these learners must see their teachers action and facial expression to fully understand the content of the lesson Ri charde breaks down visual learners into: Visual iconic - those who prefer this form of input are more interested in visual imagery such as films graphic display or pictures good picture memory Visual symbolic – Those who prefer this form of input feel comfortable with abstract symbolism such as mathematic formulae or the written word Auditory learners - They learn best in verbal lectures, discussion and talking things Auditory two categories Listeners - this is more common type listeners most likely do well good in school Talkers – they are the one who ones who prefers to talk and discuss Tactile/kinesthetic learners – person on hands on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them Global – Analytic Continuum Analytic - Analytic thinkers tend toward the linear step-by-step process of learning/ tree seers

Global – Global thinkers lean towards non-linear thought and tend to see the whole pattern rather than particle element/ Forest seers Global analytical continuum left/right brain continuum Left-brain dominant portrayed as the linear (analytic) verbal math, thinker Right brain – viewed as global; non-linear and holistic through preferences Successive processor – prefers to learn a step by step sequential format, beginning with details leading to a conceptual understanding of skill Simultaneous processor (right brain) prefers to learn beginning with general concept and going on to specifics Left brain Analytical Verbal Responding to word meaning Sequential Process information linearly Respond to logic Plans ahead Recalls people names Speaks with few gestures Punctual Prefers from study design Prefers bright lights while studying Multiple intelligence Multiple intelligence - Howard Gardner an ability to or set of abilities that allows person to solve problem or fashion a product that is valued one or more cultures Visual/spatial intelligence (picture smart) – learning visually ability to see things in ones mind in planning to create a product or solve a problem Verbal /Linguistic (word smart) – learning through spoken and written word Mathematical/Logical (Number/logic smart) – Learning through interaction with one environment. It promotes understanding through concrete experience Musical – (Music smart) – Learning through patterns rhythms and music Interpersonal (People smart) – learning through interactions with others Intrapersonal (self smart) – learning through feelings right brain global visual respond to tone of voice Random process information varied order respond to emotion impulsive recalls peoples faces gestures when speaking less punctual prefers sound/music background While studying prefers frequent mobility in studying

Naturalist (nature smart) – learning through classification categories and hierarchies. Its not study of nature but all areas of study Existential (spirit smart) - learning by seeing big pictures ex. why are we here? LEARNERS WITH EXCEPTIONALITIES EXCEPTIONAL LEARNERS – learners with disabilities, giftedness, sensory impairment Disability - is a measurable impairment or limitation that interferes with person’s ability ex. to walk lift, hear or mental condition. Handicap – is a disadvantage that occurs as a result of a disability or impairment Ex two person in a with hearing impairment one can make sign language and can read lips, white the other cannot. Categories of exceptionalities Learning disabilities – involves difficult in specific cognitive process like perception language and memory ex. Dyslexia (reading) dyscalculia (number operations) and dysgraphia (writing) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) – manifested in difficult in focusing and maintaining attention and recurrent hyperactive and impulsive behavior. Speech and communication disorders - involves the presence of emotional states like depression and aggression over a considerable amount of time Autism – is a condition manifested by different levels of impaired social interaction and communication repetitive behaviors and limited interest. Mental retardation – refers to significant sub average intelligence and deficits in adaptive behavior. Physical disabilities and health impairments Physical and health impairments - involves medical condition like limited energy reduce mental alertness little muscle control Severe multiple Disabilities – Refers to the presence of two or more different types of disability at times a profound level Sensory impairments Visual impairments – there is malfunction of the eyes or optic nerves

Hearing impairments malfunction of the ear or auditory nerves Giftedness - involves a significantly high level of cognitive development. BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism - focuses on the study of observable and measurable behavior Behavior – mostly learned through conditioning and reinforcement (reward and punishment) Ivan Pavlov known for his work in classical conditioning or stimulus substitution he’s most renowned experiments involved meat dog and a bell Stimulus generalization – Once the dog has learned to salivate at the sound of the bell, it will salivate other similar sounds Extinction – if you stop pairing the bell w/food salivation will eventually cease and response to the bell Spontaneous recovery – extinguished responses can be recovered after an elapsed time, but soon will extinguished again if the dog is not presented food Discrimination – the dog could learn to discriminate between similar bells (stimuli) and discern w/c bell would result in the presentation of food and w/c could not Higher order conditioning – Once the dog has been conditioned to associate the bell w/food, another unconditioned stimulus such as light may flashed at the same time that the bell is rung. Edward Thorndike – connectionism theory Gave the original S-R framework of behavioral psychology Theory on connectionism stated that learning has taken place when a strong connection or bond between stimulus and responsed is form. Laws of Learning Law of Readiness The Law of Readiness means a person can learn when physically and mentally adjusted (ready) to receive stimuli. Individuals learn best when they are ready to learn, and they will not learn much if they see no reason for learning. * this states that the more readiness the learner has to respond to the stimulus, the stronger will be the bond between them. Law of Exercise The Law of Exercise stresses the idea that repetition is basic to the development of adequate responses; things most often repeated are easiest remembered. The mind can

rarely recall new concepts or practices after a single exposure, but every time it is practiced, learning continues and is enforced. *Tell us that the more an S-R (stimulus response) bond is practiced the stronger it will become. “Practice makes perfect” Law of Effect This law involves the emotional reaction of the learner. Learning will always be much more effective when a feeling of satisfaction, pleasantness, or reward accompanies or is a result of the learning process. Learning is strengthened when it is accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling and that it is weakened when it is associated with an unpleasant experience. *it is stated that a connection between stimulus and response is strengthened when the consequence is positive(reward)and the connection between the stimulus and the response is weakened when the consequence is negative. Principles derived from Thorndike’s connectionism: 1. learning requires both practice and rewards (laws of effect/exercise) 2. a series of S-R connection can be chained together if they belong to the same sequence (law of readiness) 3. transfer of learning occurs because of previously encountered situations 4. intelligence is a function of the number of connections learned. John Watson – works at Pavlov’s ideas, American psychologist He initially involved in animal studies, later became involved in human behavior research Burrhus Frederick Skinner believed in the stimulus-response pattern of conditioned behavior. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning – based upon the notion that learning is a result of change in overt behavior

Neobehaviorism – it has aspect of behaviorism but it also reaches out to the cognitive perspective Two theories of reflecting neobehaviorism Purposive Behaviorism – Edward Tolman Sign Leaning theory Often seen as a the link between behaviorism and cognitive theory Edward Tolman – believed that learning is a cognitive process, learning involves forming believes and obtaining knowledgeabout the environment and an then revealing the knowledge through purposeful and goal directed behavior Tolman’s Key concept Learning is always purposive and and goal-directed he believed individuals do more than merely reepond to stimuli Cognitive maps in rats his most famous experiments, one group of rats put in the maze Latent learning learning that remain in the learners until needed Example. A child sees her dad operate the tv remote control volume, channel is changed and parents are surprised that the child knows how to operate the remote control The concept of intervening variable are variables that are not readily seen but serve as determinants of behavior. Learning is mediated or is influenced by expectations and other internal or environmental variables Reinforcement not essential for learning – it provides an incentives in performance Social Learning theory – Albert Bandura

Focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. Iot consider that people learn from one another including such as concepts as observational learning imitation and modeling

General principles of social learning theory 1. 2. 3. 4. People can learn by observing Learning can occur without a change in behavior Cognition plays a role in learning Social learning theory can be a bridfge or a transition between behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories

How environment reinforces and punishes modeling – people are often reinforce modeling the behavior of others 1. 2. 3. 4. The observer is reinforced by the model The observer is reinforced by the third person The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences Consequences of the models behavior affects the observers behavior vicariously

Vicarious reinforcement – model is reinforced for a response and then then the observer shows an increase in that same response. Contemporary social learning perspective of reinforcement and punishment 1. Contemporary theory proposes that both reinforcement and punishment have indirect effects on learning 2. Reinforcement and punishment influence that extent to which an individual exhibits a behavior that has been learned 3. The expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes to promote learning Cognitive factors in social learning Learning without performance; Bandura makes a distinction between learning through observation and the actual imitation of what has been learned Cognitive processing during learning : Social learning theorists contend the attention is a critical factor in learning

Expectations: As a result of being reinforced, people form expectations about the consequences that future behaviors are likely to bring Reciprocal causation: Bandura proposed that behavior can influence both the environment and the person . Conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur Attention – the person must first pay attention to the model Retention- The Observer must be able to remember the behavoirthat has been observed Motor reproduction – the third condition is the ability to replicate Motivation the final necessary ingredient for modeling to occur Gestalt Psychology – was at the forefront of the cognitive psychology. it served as the foundation of the cognitive perspective to learning. Was the initial cognitive response to the behaviorism. Adheres to the idea of learning taking place by discovery or insight Gestalt principles Law of proximity - elements that are closer together will be perceived as a coherent object. We perceiove them as belonign together Law of similarity - elements that are look similar will be perceived as part of the same form Law of closure – We tend to fill the gaps or close the figure was perceived Law of good continuation individuals have the tendency to continue contours whenever the elements of the pattern established an implied direction Law pf good Pragrnanz – The stimulus will be organized into as good a figure as possible example good refers to symmetry, simplicity and regularity Law of figure/ground – we tend to pay attention and perceive things in the foreground first a stimulus will be perceived as separate from its ground Discovery learning - the important aspects of learning was not reinforcement, but the coordination of thinking to create new organization

Information processing – is a cognitive theoretical framework that focuses on how knowledge enters and is stored and retrieved from our memory Information processing theory – describes how the learner receives information(stimuli) from the environment through the senses what takes place in between determines whether the information will continue to pass through the sensory register, then the short term memory and the long term memory Types of knowledge General vs. specific – this involves whether the knowledge useful in many task or only in one Declarative – This refer to factual knowledge. They relate to the nature of how things are. Procedural – this includes knowledge on how to do things Episodic – This includes memories of life events, like oyur high school graduation Conditional – Knowing whn and why to apply declarative or procedural strategies 3 stages of information processing theory 1. Encoding – Information is sensed perceived and attended to. 2. Storage – The information is stored for either a brief or extended period of time, depending upon the processes of encoding 3. Retrieval – The information is bought back at the appropriate time and reactivate for a use of a current task. True measure of effective memory Sensory register Capacity – Our mind receives a great amount of information but it is morethan what our minds can hold and perceive Duration – The sensory register only holds the information for an extreme brief – in order of 1 to 3 seconds Role of Attention 1. To bring information into consciousness, it is necessary that we give attention to 2. Gate – things that pass through our attention

3. Getting through this attentional filter is done when the learner is interested in the material 4. Before information is perceived, it is known as precategorical information this means that until the point, the learner has not established a determination of the categorical membership of the information Short term memory - can hold 5 to 9 chunks of information Working memory the new information is temporarily placed when it is mentally processed duration 18 sec. Maintenance rehearsal – it is using repetition to keep the information is active in STM Long term memory – Final or storing housefor memory information Executive control process – involve the executive processor or what is reffered as the metacognitive skill Forgetting – id the inability to retrieve or access information was needed Decay – information is not attended to and eventually fades away Interference – new or old information blocks access to the information in question Methods for increasing retrieval of information Rehearsal – repeating information verbatim , either mentally or aloud Meaningful learning – making connection between new information and prior knowledge Organization – it is making connection among various pieces of information Elaboration - this is adding additional ideas to new information based on what one already knows Visual imagery – forming picture of the information Generation – things we produce are easier to remember than things we hear Context – remembering the situation helps recovers information Personalization – it is making the information relevant to the individual

Other memory methods Serial position Effect (recency and primacy) - You will remember the beginning and the end of list most readily Part learning – Break up the list or chink information to increase memorization Distributed Practice - Break up learning sessions, rather than cramming all the info in at once (massed practice) Mnemonic aids – memory techniques the learners may employ to help them retain and retrieve information more effectively Jerome Bruner – first proponents of constructivism A major theme in the theory of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learner construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge Bruner’s Main Concepts Representation Enactive representation – At the earliest ages, children learn about the world through actions on physical objects and the outcomes of these actions. Iconic representation – Second stage learning can be obtained through busing models and pictures Symbolic representation – third stage, learners has developed the ability to think in abstract terms. The most common symbols are language and mathematical Spiral curriculum Spiral Curriculum – teachers must revisit the curriculum by teaching by the same content in different ways depending on students developmental levels. Principles of instruction Spiral 1. Instruction must be concerned with the experience and contexts that make the students willing and able to learn (readiness) 2. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily graspedby the student (spiral organization) 3. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps (going beyond the information given) Discovery learning

Discovery Learning – refers to obtaining knowledge for oneself teachers plans and arranges activities in such a way that students search , manipulate explore and investigate

Four major concepts of Bruner’s theory of instruction Predisposition to learn – introduced ideas of readiness for learning Structure of knowledge – ways in which a body of knowledge can be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner. Categorization – a fundamental process in structuring of knowledge Effective sequencing – No none sequencing will fit every learner but in general, the lesson can be presented in increasing difficulty Sequencing or lack of it can make learning easier or more difficult Reinforcement - rewards and punishments should be selected and paced appropriately Categorization Categorization – are rules that specify four things about objects Construction of cognitive maps Rules of categorization 1. Criterial attributes – required characteristics for inclusion of an object in a category 2. Second rule prescribes citerial attributes are combined 3. Third rule assign weights to various properties 4. Fourth rules sets acceptance limits on attributes Kinds of category Identity category – includes objects based on their attributes and or features Equivalent categories – provide rules for combining categories equivalence can be determined b y affective criteria which render object equivalent by emotional reactions, fuinctional criteria based on related function

Coding system - are categories that serves to recognize sensory inputs. Ausubel’s theory knowledge is hierarchically organized; the new information is meaningful to the extent that it can be related to what is already unknown

Focus of Ausubels theory 1. the most important factor influencing learning 2. Meaninful learning takes place when an idea to be learned is related in some sensible way to ideas that the learners already possess Subsumption – a process by which new material is related to relevant idea the existing cognitive structure what we learned is based on what is already known Meaningful learning can take place through four process Derivative Subsumption – describes the situation in which the new information you learn in\s an example of a concept that you have already learned Correlative subsumption – valuable learning than that of derivative subsumption since it enriches the higher level conc ept Superordinate learning - a child already knew a lot of exmples of the concept, but did not know the concept itself until it was taught to her. Combinatorial learning – newly acquired knowledge combines with prior knowledge to enrich the understanding of both concepts Its different it describes a process by which the new idea is derived from another idea that is neither higher nor lower in the hierarchy , but the same level. Advance Organizer – is a major tool proposed by Ausubel facilitate learning by helping you organize and strengthen your cognitive structure. Help you link the new learning to your existing scheme Benefit of Advance organizer 1. you will find it easier to connect new information with what you already know about the topic 2. you can readily see how the concepts in a certain topic are related to each other. Types of advance organizer Expository – describes new content Narrative – presents the new information in the form of story to students

Skimming – is done by looking over the new material to gain a basic overview Graphic Organizer – Visual to set up or outline the new information Progressive differentiation – increase th stability and clarity of anchoring ideas.

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