This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dr David Smith Date: 24 July 2009
• • •
Why Advanced Supercritical? Advanced Supercritical : State of the Art Next step: Ultra Supercritical
WHY ADVANCED SUPERCRITICAL? TRACK 2: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) .89 290 250 Main Steam Pressure (bar) Supercritical means above the “critical” point for water / steam (220.95% CO2 Reduction TRACK 1: Increased Efficiency Baseline Time • • Both tracks are required to mitigate CO2 emissions from coal fired generation Primary means to increase efficiency is to increase the steam conditions we use in our power plant cycle Page 2 WHY ADVANCED SUPERCRITICAL? • Efficiency of the Rankine Cycle increases with increasing Turbine inlet Temperature and Pressure Cycle efficiency of typical sub-critical plant is 38% whereas today’s supercritical technology increases this to around 45-47% • Sub-Critical Advanced Ultra Super-Critical Super-Critical Super-Critical • 220.89 bar) after which there is no phase change between water and steam Other terms “Advanced Supercritical” and “Ultra Supercritical” are loose definitions to indicate steps in technology as opposed to any distinction in thermodynamic Page 3 properties • 570 540 610 Main Steam Temperature (°C) 2 .
DEVELOPMENT IN THERMAL EFFICIENCY Meaningful CO2 reductions can be achieved by replacing old units with modern advanced supercritical plant 55 Best Available Advanced Supercritical Technology being offered now – eg Kingsnorth. lower excess air and lower gas exit temperature have also contributed 55 375-700/700 Target AD700 50 305-585/602 285-580/580 Efficiency (%NCV) 45 275-585/602 274-580/600 260-540/560 Sub-Critical Supercritical 40 239-540/560 169-541/539 35 166-568/568 159-566/566 166-568/568 Main Steam Pressure (barg) – Steam Temperature Main / Reheat (°C) 30 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 Page 5 Year 3 . Greifswald Target AD700 50 – 55% (-29%) Increasing Efficiency Lower CO2 emissions 50 Doosan Babcock ASC Plant efficiency % NCV 45 46% (-23%) Supercritical Boilers Meri Pori Hemweg 40 New Chinese Orders 38% 42% UK fleet 32% 38% Chinese fleet 35 30 Older Plants Sub Critical Boilers Year 1960 1980 2000 2020 Page 4 STEAM CYCLE AND PLANT EFFICIENCY GAINS Efficiency gains have mostly been achieved by pushing the steam cycle.
J anu ar y 200 4 f or W ang qu r SEPARATO R VES SEL REHEAT ER REHEATER TO S TORAGE VESSEL FINAL SUPERHEAT ER PLA TEN SUPERHEAT ER PRIMARY SUPERHEATER ECONO MISE R ECONO MISE R 2 x 600MWe Units Evaporation S/htr Outlet Press S/htr Outlet Temperature R/htr Outlet Temperature Contract Effective Operational 540 kg/s 248 bar 571°C 569°C 09/03 36 months later Page 7 W ATER IMPO UNDED HOPPER HOPPER KNUCKLE FURNACE ACCES S DOOR 4 .AGENDA • • • Why Advanced Supercritical? Advanced Supercritical : State of the Art Next step: Ultra Supercritical Page 6 WANGQU. SHANXI PROVINCE. CHINA MAIN STEAM OUTLET REHEATER OUTLET P ep ar ed by Te r y E van s.
GERMANY 2 x 800MWe Units Evaporation S/htr Outlet Press S/htr Outlet Temperature R/htr Outlet Temperature 588 kg/s 277 bar 600°C 605°C PosiflowTM vertical tube furnace Page 9 5 .DEPLOYMENT OF SUPERCRITICAL TECHNOLOGY China’s deployment of supercritical technology far outstrips other countries and regions – UK deployment is zero Page 8 GREIFSWALD.
simpler construction and improved availability • With a PosiflowTM furnace the supercritical down-shot boiler can be realised: combines the economic and environmental benefits of supercritical steam conditions with anthracite combustion for the first time • Doosan Babcock 2 x 600MW supercritical down-shot units for Zhenxiong..DEVELOPMENTS IN SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS • PosiflowTM Best Available Technology for Once-Through boiler furnace • Lower pressure drop means lower feed-pump power and lower through-life energy consumption • Other advantages include better turn-down.existing plant can be upgraded to supercritical steam conditions with lower capital cost and more rapid timescale than new plant • New boiler within existing structure • POSIFLOWTM vertical tube low mass flux furnace • Re-use of other equipment (eg fans. Page 10 DEVELOPMENTS IN SUPERCRITICAL BOILERS: PLANT UPGRADE • Supercritical Retrofit . airheaters. application of PosiflowTM furnace and combustion system modifications gave 10% lower coal consumption and availability of 96% Page 11 6 . coal mills) • New HP and IP turbine • Doosan Babcock Upgrade of Yaomeng Power Plant in China 2002 • Owner chose not to upgrade to supercritical steam conditions…. • However. China. Yunnan Province.
AGENDA • • • Why Advanced Supercritical? Advanced Supercritical : State of the Art Next step: Ultra Supercritical Page 12 ULTRA SUPERCRITICAL Boiler concept for > 700°C Generation Overall cycle efficiency >50% Main Steam Pressure Main Steam Temperature Reheat Steam Temperature 550MW 365 bar-a 705°C 720°C Reduction in CO2 emission relative to sub-critical ~30% Page 13 7 .
0 20.TUBING To put that in context consider a 48mm tube operating at 700°C with a design pressure of 380 bar: HR3C Austenitic Allowable Stress @ 750°C (MPa) Calculated thickness t = P.MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES .2 9.5 Page 15 8 . 347HFG available now Sanicro 25 available – not yet codified Nickel Alloys Validation ongoing 200 P92 Super 304H Alloy 617 Alloy 740 Alloy 263 T23 Sanicro 25 150 100 347 HFG 50 Steam Temperature 0 500 550 ~550°C 600 ~600°C 650 ~650°C 700 ~700°C 750 Metal Temperature (°C) Note – maximum allowable temperatures are also limited by steam-side oxidation Page 14 MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES .TUBING Steam cycle based efficiency gains are constrained by the availability of suitable alloys Average Stress Rupture (MPa) (100000 Hours) 300 Ferritic Alloys All available now 250 T24 Austenitic Alloys Super 304H.D / 2.5 Alloy 617mod Nickel Alloy 56.0 Alloy 740 Nickel Alloy 96.σ (mm) 44.5 16.
MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES – HEADERS AND PIPEWORK Austenitic alloys suffer from thermal fatigue. making them less suitable for thicker wall section components Average Stress Rupture (MPa) (100000 Hours) 300 Ferritic Alloys All available now Nickel Alloys Validation ongoing T24 250 200 P92 Alloy 617 Alloy 740 Alloy 263 T23 150 100 50 Steam Temperature 0 500 550 ~600°C 600 ~650°C 650 ~700°C 700 750 Metal Temperature (°C) Note – maximum allowable temperatures are also limited by steam-side oxidation Page 16 MATERIALS FOR ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES – MANUFACTURING Manufacturing processes for components from new materials require extensive validation Bend tests in Sanicro 25 Test bending furnace wall panels in T23 material Alloy 263 pipe production Alloy 263 weld qualification Page 17 9 .
ULTRA SUPERCRITICAL – CYCLE OPTIMISATION • In addition to improvements in Rankine Cycle efficiency from increasing steam temperatures we can make better use of low grade heat in our power plant cycle • Feedwater heating can be optimised to reduce the quantity of high grade bled steam taken from the turbine and better utilise the low grade heat in the flue gas leaving the boiler Page 18 SUMMARY • • Increasing plant efficiency is fundamental to reducing all emissions including CO2 Primary means to increase efficiency is to increase the steam pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet This means using steam at supercritical pressures – we use terms such as “Advanced Supercritical” and “Ultra Supercritical” to indicate higher ranges of temperatures and pressures We can make improvements to the basic once-through boiler concept like the PosiflowTM furnace to further increase efficiency and operating flexibility Supercritical technology can be readily retrofitted to life-expired existing plant Today’s Advanced Supercritical plant will achieve around 46-47% cycle efficiency (LHV basis) and about 20% reduction in CO2 for the same MWe output as existing sub-critical plant Ultra Supercritical plant operating at steam temperatures above 700°C is the next step. Together with improved cycles this will achieve a plant efficiency over 50% and about a 30% reduction in CO2 compared to existing sub-critical plant Attainment of 700°C is constrained by the availability of suitable materials for the highest temperature components and development programmes are underway Page 19 • • • • • • 10 .
Commercial Contact Details Doosan Babcock is committed to delivering unique and advanced supercritical boiler technologies. Steve Whyley Global Sales Director Doosan Babcock Energy 11 The Boulevard CRAWLEY West Sussex RH10 1UX T +44 (0) 1293 612888 D +44 (0) 1293 584908 E firstname.lastname@example.org Page 20 11 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.