Analysis of Consumer Behaviour towards “Sudha Icecream”





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take the opportunity to express my indebtness to my following teachers, organization members, and well-wishers for their unflagging assistance and encouragement, directly or indirectly in preparing this project. Rev. Fr. (Dr.) Felix Raj S.J, Principal for incorporating internship and project presentation in our curriculum. Prof. M. M. Rahman, Vice-Principal of B.Com.(eve), for providing motivation to carry out this project. Prof. Amitava Ghose, Dean of B.Com (Eve), for his great support. I would like to thank Prof. Chandrima Banerjee for helping and guiding me to do the project successfully. I express my gratitude to Prof. Soma Nath, Prof. Antara Dutta Sen and Prof. Shanta Ghosal for their great support and contribution. However, this word of commitment made me carry out the work, I recognize the moral support I received from my family and friends in pursuing this endeavour. There cannot be any recompense for their invaluable cooperation and support. Last but not the least I would also like to thank Vandana Mam for her support & guidance during my internship in Sudha Dairy which motivated me to prepare this project.



For the last 27 years since its inception in 1983, SUDHA which literally means
“Amrit” the well thought out name given to it by the Bihar state cooperative Milk Producer’s Federation Ltd, has with its reasonably priced products, including milk, reached the door steps of many people in Bihar & Jharkhand. In fact comfed set up with a noble mission to upgrade the socio- economic conditions of farmers of Bihar including helping them avoid disasters such as the death of their cattle by providing vet care. It also include supplying of good quality of cattle feed and facilities for artificial insemination catering to the needs of urban consumer with the supply of very hygienically packed milk at affordable rates, it was basically formed implementing agency of “operation flood” programmes on the lines of Anand Milk cooperative. I was confined to Sudha Ice-cream. What is consumers’ perception about Sudha Ice-cream. Whether they are happy with it’s quality, price, availability,etc. To solve my above queries I prepared a questionnaire for Consumers asking about 15 questions from 150 respondents. On the basis of those responses I prepared Survey Result which helped me to know various facts about Sudha Icecream. I also came to a conclusion & few suggestions which I have mentioned in my project report.


Today much of the South faces the implications of sharply altered economic
policies, many of which focus on capital-intensive investment that largely serves urban-sector requirements. In this context, it is imperative to find ways in which to advance South-South technology transfer, particularly technologies that directly improve the economic welfare and quality of life in rural areas. In this respect, India was fortunate to have been the first country to gain independence from colonial rule. In more than 40 years of independence, experiments have been made with a number of approaches towards developing the dairy industry and, as a consequence, it is possible that the Indian experience may hold lessons of interest and use too many of those concerned with balanced and sustainable development. It should be made clear that India's experience is by no means the only one possible. While there is definitely something to share, much can also be learned from the experience of others. One lesson is mandatory, however: success in dairying, or in any other agricultural field, depends on ensuring that control of the resources created remains with the producers.

An instrument of social and economic change
In India, dairying is recognized as an instrument for social and economic development. The nation's milk supply comes from millions of small producers, dispersed throughout the rural areas. These farmers maintain an average herd of one or two mulch animals, comprising cows and/or buffaloes. The animals' nutritional requirements are largely met by agricultural waste and by-products (Gupta, 1987). Ample labour and a small land base encourage farmers to practice dairying as an occupation subsidiary to agriculture. While income from crop

production is seasonal, dairying provides a stable, year-round income, which is an important economic incentive for the small farmer to take to dairying. Milk production in India is dominated by small and marginal landholding farmers and by landless labourers who, in aggregate, own about 70 percent of the national milch animal herd (Gupta, 1983).

As crop production on 78 percent of the agricultural land still depends on rain, it is prone to both drought and floods, rendering agricultural income uncertain for most farmers. Shackled to subsistence production as a result of a shortage of finance and credit facilities, these farmers become entangled in a strangling debt cycle. The combination of an unfavourable land: person ratio and fragmented landholdings makes it difficult to support large families on crop income alone. It is not surprising that the small farmer and the landless labourer are more often than not victims of moneylenders (Zuvakis, 1979) and of natural calamities. Dairying, as a subsidiary source of income, is a real relief to most of these weaker groups in society. Often one or two milch animals enable these farmers to generate sufficient additional income to break the vicious subsistence agricultural-debt cycle. The successful Indian dairy development programme Operation Flood has shown how food aid can be used as an investment in building the type of institutional infrastructure that can bring about national dairy development. Programmes like Operation Flood, with similar policy orientations, may prove to be appropriate to dairy development in other Asian as well as African countries since the conditions that prevail in dairying today in a number of developing countries are comparable to those that once were found in India. In the early 1950s, India was commercially importing around 55000 tonnes of milk powder annually to meet the urban milk demand. Currently, many developing countries either commercially import dairy products on a large scale or rely on donations to meet the gap between demand and supply of milk products. Together, developing-country imports account for over 70 percent of total world trade in milk products (FAO, 1993) As in India, the reliance on low-cost and often-subsidized commercial imports as well as gifts seriously affects the development of dairying systems in many developing countries as they increase domestic demand for milk products and erode domestic-price incentives. As low-cost imports from advanced dairying nations depress domestic milk prices, it becomes uneconomical for local milk producers to invest in dairying, causing st agnation in production. This hampers breed improvement efforts, fodder production programmes, the manufacture of quality feed and other endeavours to improve productivity. For any country seriously interested in exploiting the potential of dairying, therefore, it becomes imperative to

review and seriously consider policies that would promote dairy development activities by helping to establish independent and self-sustaining dairying systems.

Undoubtedly, the major challenge for the dairy sector in any developing nation is to increase milk production in order to meet the increasing demand resulting from the almost inevitable expansion of population and, presumably, growth of income. To meet this challenge, policies must become more market-oriented. The adoption of appropriate technologies for production, procurement, processing and marketing after the unique environmental, social, economic, political and cultural environment of the individual country has been considered - is an important aspect of dairy development. Those national governments and international institutions for whom the dairy sector is a major concern should accept the challenge and formulate policies that integrate and buttress the major functions of dairy development. Most of the significant developments in dairying in India have taken root in this century. The history of the dairy development can be broadly classified into two distinct phases: pre- and post-Operation Flood.

Dairying prior to operation flood
The earliest attempts at dairy development can be traced back to British rule, when the Defence Department established military dairy farms to ensure the supply of milk and butter to the colonial army. The first of these farms was set up in Allahabad in 1913; subsequent facilities were established at Bangalore, Ootacamund and Karnal. These farms were well maintained and, even in the early stages, improved milch animals were raised. As animals were reared under farm conditions, some herd improvement was made using artificial insemination. This approach did not have any impact on the supply of milk to urban consumers, which was of major concern to civilian authorities but less important to the military. With the growth of the population in urban areas, consumers had to depend on milk vendors who kept cattle in these areas and sold their milk, often door-to-door. As a result, several cattle sheds came into existence in different cities. This was not an environmentally sound approach. As the main objective of the milk vendors was to maximize profit, they started increasing the lactation period by using the focus system. In the process, these high-yielding cattle developed sterility problems,

which considerably reduced the number of carvings. Once the cattle became unproductive, they were sold to slaughterhouses. This practice systematically drained the country of its genetically superior breeds.

Dairy post Operation flood
The strategy for organized dairy development in India was actually conceived in the late 1960s, within a few years after the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was founded in 1965. It rested on the Operation Flood programme, which was conceived by the NDDB and endorsed by the government. Operation Flood is a unique approach to dairy development. During the 1970s, dairy commodity surpluses were building up in Europe, and Dr Verghese Kurien, the founding chairman of NDDB, saw in those surpluses both a threat and an opportunity. The threat was massive exports of low-cost dairy products to India, which, had it occurred, would have tolled the death-knell for India's staggering dairy industry. The large quantities that India was already importing had eroded domestic markets to the point where dairying was not viable. The opportunity, on the other hand, was built into the Operation Flood strategy. Designed basically as a marketing project, Operation Flood recognized the potential of the European surpluses as an investment in the modernization of India's dairy industry. Operation Flood is a programme designed to develop dairying by replicating the Anand Model for dairy development, which has stood the test of time for almost half a century. The first phase of Operation Flood was launched in 1970 following an agreement with the World Food Programme, which undertook to provide as aid

126000 tonnes of skim milk powder and 42000 tonnes of butter oil to finance the programme.

The programme involved organizing dairy cooperatives at the village level; creating the physical and institutional infrastructure for milk procurement, processing, marketing and production enhancement services at the union level; and establishing dairies in India's major metropolitan centres. The main thrust was to set up dairy cooperatives in India's best milk sheds, linking them with the four main cities of Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi and Madras, in which a commanding share of the milk market was to be captured. In achieving that goal, the first phase of Operation Flood laid the foundation for India's modern dairy industry, an industry that would ultimately meet the country's need for milk and milk products. The second phase of the programme was implemented between 1981 and 1985. Designed to build on the foundation laid in the first phase, it integrated the Indian Dairy Association-assisted dairy development projects being implemented in some Indian states into the overall programme. About US$150 million was provided by the World Bank, with the balance of project financing obtained in the form of commodity assistance from the EEC. The current, third phase of Operation Flood aims at ensuring that the cooperative institutions become self-sustaining. With an investment of US$360 million from the World Bank, commodity and cash assistance from the EEC and NDDB's own internal resources, the programme envisages substantial expansion of the dairy processing and marketing facilities; an extended milk procurement infrastructure; increased outreach of production enhancement activities; and professionalization of management in the dairy institutions.

National dairy development board
In October 1964, on the occasion of the inauguration of AMUL's cattle feed plant, the then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, spent the night as the guest of a village milk cooperative society near Anand. Impressed by the socio-economic changes brought about by the milk cooperatives, he expressed the desire for a national-level organization to replicate Anand Model dairy cooperatives throughout the country and to make available multidisciplinary, professional dairy expertise to dairies in the public and cooperative sectors. Thus, in 1965, NDDB was registered

under the Societies Registration Act, the Charitable Trust Act and the Public Trust Act. Consistent with its model and mandate, NDDB headquarters were established at Anand.

1 Operation Flood: Anand Model milk cooperative societies. 2 Operation Flood: milksheds. 3 Operation Flood: farmer members. During its initial stages, NDDB was assisted financially by the Government of India, the Danish Government and by AMUL. It also received aid from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in the form of teaching material and equipment. In 1969, when the Government of India approved the Operation Flood programme and its financing through the monetization of World Food Programme-gifted commodities, it was found that the statutes under which NDDB was registered did not provide for handling of government funds. Therefore, in 1970 the government established a public-sector company, the Indian Dairy Corporation. The IDC was given responsibility for receiving the project's donated commodities; testing their quality; their storage and transfer to user dairies; and receiving the dairies' payments. Thus, it served as a finance-cum-promotion entity while the entire Operation Flood technical support was provided by NDDB. To avoid-any duplication in their activities or overlap of functions, the IDC and NDDB were eventually merged into a newly constituted NDDB by an Act of Parliament passed in October 1987. The Act designated the NDDB as an institution of national importance and accorded it the same autonomy of operation that it had enjoyed and which had been a major factor in its success.


“Amul and the evolution of the Anand model”
Milk procurement from the rural areas and its marketing in the urban areas was the major problem in Indian dairying at the time India gained independence. In one of the earliest urban milk supply schemes, Polsons - a private dairy at Anand procured milk from milk producers through middlemen, processed it and then sent the milk to Bombay, some 425 km away (Korten, 1981). Bombay was a good market for milk and Polsons profited immensely. In the mid-1940s, when the milk producers in Kaira asked for a proportionate share of the trade margins, they were denied even a modest increase. The milk producers went on strike, refusing to supply milk to Polson. On the advice of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, a leader in India's independence movement, the milk producers registered the Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union, now popularly known as AMUL, in 1946. The Kaira union procured milk from affiliated village-level milk societies. This was the genesis of organized milk marketing in India, a pioneering effort that opened a new vista for dairy development in the country (see Box). Between 1946 and 1952, AMUL's policy was directed towards obtaining monopoly rights for the sale of milk to the Bombay milk scheme. In 1952, it succeeded in achieving its purpose after the Government of Bombay cancelled the contract with Polsons and handed over the entire business of supplying milk from the Kaira district to AMUL. However, as the Bombay milk scheme was committed to purchasing all the milk produced by the Aarey Milk Colony in Bombay, it would not take AMUL's milk during the peak winter months. The disposal of this surplus milk posed difficulties for AMUL, forcing it to cut down on purchases from its member societies, which affected members' confidence. The answer was the production of milk products: in 1955, a new dairy plant was set up at Anand to produce butter, ghee and milk powder.

A second dairy was built in 1965, and a product manufacturing unit was established in 1971 to cope with increasing milk procurement. In 1993, a fully automatic modern dairy was constructed adjacent to the original AMUL dairy plant at Anand. AMUL formed the basis for the Anand Model of dairying. The basic unit in this model is the milk producers' cooperative society at the village level. These cooperatives are organizations of milk producers who wish to market their milk collectively. Membership is open to all who need the cooperative's services and who are willing to accept the responsibilities of being a member. Decisions are taken on the basis of one member exercising one vote. No privilege accrues to capital, and the economic returns, whether profit or loss, are divided among the members in proportion to patronage. Each cooperative is expected to carry out the continuing education of its members, elected leaders and employees. All the milk cooperatives in a district form a union that, ideally, has its own processing facilities. All the unions in a state are normally members of a federation whose prime responsibility is the marketing of milk and milk products outside the state. There is also a fourth tier, the National Cooperative Dairy Federation of India (NCDFI), which is a national-level body that formulates policies and programmes designed to safeguard the interests of all milk producers. Each tier of the Anand organizational structure performs a unique function: procurement and services by the cooperative; processing by the union; marketing by the state federation; and advancing the interests of the cooperative dairy industry by the national federation. Thus, the Anand Model has evolved into an integrated approach to systematic dairy development.


Demand profile: Absolutely optimistic. Margins: Quite reasonable, even on packed liquid milk. Flexibility of product mix: Tremendous. With balancing equipment, you can keep on adding to your product line. • Availability of raw material: Abundant. Presently, more than 80 per cent of milk produced is flowing into the unorganized sector, which requires proper channelization. • Technical manpower: Professionally-trained, technical human resource pool, built over last 30 years.
• • •


Perishability: Pasteurization has overcome this weakness partially. UHT gives milk long life. Surely, many new processes will follow to improve milk quality and extend its shelf life. Lack of control over yield: Theoretically, there is little control over milk yield. However, increased awareness of developments like embryo transplant, artificial insemination and properly managed animal husbandry practices, coupled with higher income to rural milk producers should automatically lead to improvement in milk yields. Logistics of procurement: Woes of bad roads and inadequate transportation facility make milk procurement problematic. But with the overall economic improvement in India, these problems would also get solved. Problematic distribution: Yes, all is not well with distribution. But then if ice creams can be sold virtually at every nook and corner, why can’t we sell other dairy products too? Moreover, it is only a matter of time before we see the emergence of a cold chain linking the producer to the refrigerator at the consumer’s home.

"Failure is never final, and success never ending”. Dr Kurien bears out this statement perfectly. He entered the industry when there were only threats. He met failure head-on, and now he clearly is an example of ‘never ending successes! If dairy entrepreneurs are looking for opportunities in India, the following areas must be tapped:

Value addition: There is a phenomenal scope for innovations in product development, packaging and presentation. Given below are potential areas of value addition: o Steps should be taken to introduce value-added products like shrikhand, ice creams, paneer, khoa, flavored milk, dairy sweets, etc. This will lead to a greater presence and flexibility in the market place along with opportunities in the field of brand building. o Addition of cultured products like yoghurt and cheese lend further strength - both in terms of utilization of resources and presence in the market place. o A lateral view opens up opportunities in milk proteins through casein, caseinates and other dietary proteins, further opening up export opportunities. o Yet another aspect can be the addition of infant foods, geriatric foods and nutritionals. Export potential: Efforts to exploit export potential are already on. Amul is exporting to Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, and the Middle East. Following the new GATT treaty, opportunities will increase tremendously for the export of agri-products in general and dairy products in particular.


Milk vendors, the un-organized sector: Today milk vendors are occupying the pride of place in the industry. Organized dissemination of information about the harm that they are doing to producers and consumers should see a steady decline in their importance. The study of this SWOT analysis shows that the ‘strengths’ and ‘opportunities’ far outweigh ‘weaknesses’ and ‘threats’. Strengths and opportunities are fundamental and weaknesses and threats are transitory. Any investment idea can do well only when you have three essential ingredients: entrepreneurship (the ability to take risks), innovative approach (in product lines and marketing) and values (of quality/ethics). The Indian dairy industry, following its relicensing, has been attracting a large number of entrepreneurs. Their success in dairying depends on factors such as an efficient yet economical procurement network, hygienic and cost-effective processing facilities and innovativeness in the market place. All that needs to be done is: to innovate, convert products into commercially exploitable ideas. All the time keep reminding yourself: Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity, but it was the man who invented the meter that really made the money!


History of COMFED
Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd.

The Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. (COMPFED) came into existence in 1983 as the implementing agency of Operation Flood (OF) program of dairy development on Anand Pattern in the State. All the operation or erstwhile Bihar State Dairy Co-operation was handed over to COMFED. Area of Operation Five-district level Milk Producer’s Corp. Unions affiliated to the Milk Federation were covering eighteen districts till the end of programme in March 1977 (end of Eighth Plan). Number Of districts being covered by unions at present has risen to twenty four and in addition, five districts are being covered by the Federation, further work is being initiated in six districts more. District milk unions, which are organizing the DCS network in these districts, are listed below: i.Vaishal Patliputra Milk Union, Patna Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda, Saran and Siwan district.

ii.Barauni Milk union, Barauni

Begusarai, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Shekpura and Some villages of Munger and Saharsa district.


iii. Tirhut Milk Union, Muzaffarpur

Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, E. Champaran,and W. Champaran district

iv. Shahabad Milk Union, Arrah and

Bhojpur, Buxor, Kaimur Rohtas district.

v. Mithila Milk Union, Samastipur and

Samstipur, Darbhanga Madhubani district.

The milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Co-operative societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jehanabad, Bhagalpur and Purnea. Departement of AH & Dairying in the Ministry of Agriculture, GOI has approved a propose for dairy development in Supaul, Madhepura and Saharsha districts. The districts of east and west Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhandad are being covered by the dairies directly under the control of Milk Federation for the supply of Milk and Milk products to the urban consumers in these Cities. Procurement of milk has been taken up in Ranchi district only.


Because of initial teething troubles and
the set back caused by the natural Vagaries, the progress was impeded. Regaining of confidence of the milk Producers in the cooperative dairying system shattered due to poor management by erstwhile. Bihar State Cooperation earlier was also of one of the major reasons for sluggish growth. Lack of functional infrastructure in the sphere of animal husbandry, especially in breed improvement, artificial insemination (AI) and animal health cover also contributed to the torpid progress. Policy decisions taken six to seven years ago have changed the trend for growth in all quarters of cooperative dairying in Bihar. In the earlier Years, the emphasis was on the horizontal expansion of area is also being done.

BACKGROUND: Patna was one of the milk shed identified under `Operation flood – I’ (OF-01) for implementation of the programme. A hundred thousand liters per day capacity Feeder.Balancing Dairy (FBD) and 100 MT per day Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) were set up under this Programme. A corporation known as Bihar State Dairy Corporation (BSDC) was formed in the year 1972 for speedy and effective implementation of the operation flood Programme in the state. The Dairy Corporation was to develop the Dairy Cooperatives both at the village level and mil shed level on ‘Anand Pattern’ and it was expected that the milk shed level cooperative would take over the entire infrastructure created in due course. The corporation positioned a multi disciplinary Procurement & inputs wing in 1975 after their recruitment and training a Spear Head Team (SHT) was deputed from National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) from the same year for helping the Corporation in-organizing and developing the Cooperatives through the progress in the initial years was encouraging, the programme, for obvious reasons could not achieve the goals for which it was established. Subsequently, the State Government felt it worthwhile to request the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) for taking over the infrastructure created on management basis. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) took over the management to the infrastructure with effect form 1st October 1981 under the banner of Patna Dairy Project (PDP).


The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) immediately after taking
over the project positioned an integrated Spear Head Team (SHT) to restructure the milk procurement activities and also for streamlining the work of the Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD)and Cattle Feed Plant(CFP). Under the management of NDDB the project had not only made excellent progress but had been able to establish the fact that the Cooperatives could function equally well in Bihar too and what is essential is the proper atmosphere guidance. Along with the organization of milk procurement activities and management of both the plants Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) and Cattle Feed Plant(CFP) on commercial lines, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) took special care to develop the Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS), the milk shed level cooperative for taking over the project once the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) withdraws its management. National Dairy Development Board (NDDB)handed over the arrangements of Patna Dairy Project (PDP) to Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd.(VPDUSS) with effect from 1st July, 1998.

The major tasks before the Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS) was to see that the excellent infrastructure developed by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is not only maintained but also to see that pace of development is not hampered. The Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Sahari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS) has been able to accomplish these tasks to a greater extent.





There are present 1285 nos. of functional Dairy Cooperative Societies
(DCS) in the areas of Patna Dairy Project (PDP) covering the district of Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda and fringe areas of Saran with a total membership of 74663 members as mentioned earlier in details. The daily average procurement has reached up to147390 litres during the year 2005-2006. It is hoped that project shall collect above one & half lack liters of milk per day in 2007-08.There are 198 nos. of Women Cooperative Societies (WCS) exclusively managed and run by rural women folk. While the union has a fairly good number of functional societies, emphasis is being given to consolidate the functioning of the primary societies by increasing the member’s participation. The graphs showing the no. of functional societies, no. of members, yearly daily average milk procurement and daily average lean months procurement are enclosed. The Cooperative Development (CD) Program was also initiated from March 1991 with the assistance of National Dairy Development Board NDDB.


The union (VPDUSS), in addition to providing a ready and state market for the rurally produced milk at the door-step has been providing the inputs required for milk production enhancement.

Some of the inputs required for milk production enhancement are:
* * * * * * * Artificial Insemination (AI) with Frozen Semen. Veterinary First Aid (VFA). Vaccination. Supply of Balanced Cattle Feed. Supply of Folder Seeds. Treatment of paddy straw/wheat bhusa with Urea. Supply of Urea Molasses Block (UMB) on No profit no loss basis.

The response from the milk producers for all these has been exceedingly encouraging and the Union is in the process of extending these facilities to more and more Dairy Cooperative Societies and farmers.

The Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) with a capacity to handle 1.5 lakhs liter per day (LLPD), has facilities for manufacture of Milk powder, Butter, Ghee, Ice Cream Peda, Panner, Plain/Misti Dahi, Lassi Mattha etc. The Patna Dairy Project (PDP) was first to start milk marketing in sachets in Bihar during 1981 and its product profile includes- fluid milk of various grades, milk powder, butter, ghee, gulab-jamun, peda, ice-cream, paneer, Surabhi (Flavored Milk), rasogulla, diet ice cream and plain/misthi dahi along with this it also manufactures and supplies cattle to its members.

The production and marketing of Table Butter under the brand name ‘SUDHA’ was introduced from 1st October 1993 and the response has been encouraging. The marketing of Sudha brand of Ice Cream in patna after test marketing in August-September1994, was formally launched from April, 1995. The initial response has been satisfactory. Efforts are on to increase the market share of Sudha ice-cream. The Marketing of Sudha brand Plain/Misti Dahi in Patna was started inOctNov.2001 and was formally launched from November, 2001. The initial response for this product too has been overwhelming. The production of Sudha brand Lassi in Patna was stared in April- May-2003.

4. CATTLE FEED PLANT: The role of balanced feed is not only increasing milk production but also sustaining
the same by ensuring regular conception need not be over emphasized. Realizing the same the Union has been making constituent efforts for popularizing the consumption of balanced feed by the milk production. In addition to catering to the needs of the Dairy Cooperative Societies cattle feed is sold through dealers in rest of the state for better capacity utilization of the plant. Further realizing the importance of introduction of latest technologies in this field, the production and sale of By Pass Protein Feed was started from the year 1989-90. The response for this feed is encouraging.

The marketing of liquid milk in sachets was introduced from the
year 1981. However, initially the thrust was for organizing the milk procurement activities and to stabilize the same at reasonable level. Nevertheless there was some natural growth in the milk marketing over the years. However, for various reasons there was some stagnation for few years in the quantity of milk marketed. With certain modifications in the policy decisions and because of concerted efforts, the quantum of milk being marketed is steadily growing. The graph showing the local daily average milk marketing in different years is enclosed.


The Dairy Plant Management Programme (DPM) was introduced in the year 1992 followed by Quality Assurance Programme (QAP) in the year1993 with the help of NDDB. This resulted in bringing about a positive change leading to viability of the project coupled lowering of operational costs on one hand and improved quality of products on the other. Consequent to the liberalization and globalization of Indian economy in early 90,s it was felt that the organization should strive to make its total outlook, approach and systems of highest standards. Accordingly, it was decided in the year2001 that the organization should go in for ISO certification both in quality management system and food safety. This process was successfully completed leading to I SO-9001:2000 and HACCP (IS-15000) certification by Bureau of Indian Standards in March 2002. The project has been honored with “Best Productivity Performance” Award for the two consecutive years 20001-2001 & 2001-2002 by National Productivity Council, New Delhi.

It is also called Board of Directors (BOD) that consists of 17 Members: Elected Secretaries of Societies: 12 Chairman: 01 Managing Director (VPDUSS): 01 Managing Director (COMPFED): 01 Milk Commissioner: 01 Representative from Government Cooperative: 01 Department Total- 17 The management committee makes policy for the organization and takes area of all the policy decisions regarding Patna Dairy Project. 1. Chairman: The chairman presides over the management committee meeting for taking any policy decisions regarding the project. 2. Managing Director: He is responsible for day-to-day management implementing

the Board of Directors decisions regarding the Patna Dairy Project (PDP) / Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS) 3. Manager Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD) : Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD) is controlled by a manager who is directly responsible for all the activities of Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) and works under the guidance of Managing Director technical officers and Quality Control Officer assist him in smooth running of Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD). 4. Technical Officer Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD): Technical Officers are professionals to look after the operation of the plant by operation in shifts. Other engineers and supervisors co-ordinate technical officers. 5. Quality Control Officers: Quality Control Officers assures the quality of incoming, under-processing and finished milk products. He reports to Manager Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) and Managing Director directly. Chemists and lab assistants helps the Quality Control Officer.

6. Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) : Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) controls the activities of the Cattle Feed Plant(CFP). Animal Nutrition Officer and Technical Officer Co-ordinate the Cattle Feed Plant Manager. 7. Animal Nutrition Officer : Animal Nutrition Officer is responsible for Research and Development work, developing formula at least cost for all animal feed and day to day inspections of raw materials of cattle feed and finished products also. 8. Technical Officer Cattle Feed Plant (CFP): Technical Officer Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) is directly under the Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) and is responsible for day to day production of different animal feed. 9. In Charge Marketing: Marketing –In-Charge is responsible for all the marketing activities of the project and reports directly to Managing Director. Sales Manager/ Executives assist the marketing In Charge in performing tasks and is guided by the Marketing-In-Charge.

10. Sales Executives: Sales Executive works under Marketing-In-Charge and is responsible for day-to-day sale of milk and milk products and achieving the targets assigned from time-to-time for sales. Sales Executives are also In-Charge of assigned marketing zone and union for the smooth sale of milk and milk products through retailers and also handles customer complains, if any. 11. Deputy General Manager: Deputy General Manager handles Accounts section and is directly under Managing Director. Assistant Accounts Officer helps the Accounts officer in performing his tasks. Cashiers, Accountants and Auditors are also there to assist him. 12. Manager Milk Procurement: Manager Milk Procurement is he InCharge of the milk procurement department of Patna Dairy Project (PDP) and reports directly to the Managing Director. Many group leaders of the different areas assist him in milk procurement. These group leaders are directly responsible for milk procurement in their respective areas. Milk Procurement Officer and Route Supervisors assist these groups’ leaders.

Research design is the basic framework which provides guidelines for the rest of
research process. It specifies the methods for data collection and data analysis.

• SAMPLE SIZE- My Sample Size was 150.


To study:
Whether consumer like Sudha ice-cream or not & which is their favourite flavour in Sudha Icecream. How often consumers have Sudha Ice-cream, Are they happy with the quality of Sudha Ice-cream? How they feel after having Sudha Ice-cream. Whether they are satisfied with the price. Where they rank Sudha Ice-cream as compared to leading market Ice-cream companies.What they think about Sudha’s environmental concern, etc.


My sampling design was Non-probability Sampling design. I used Convenience sampling: This sample is based on the convenience of the researcher. It is also called Accidental sampling as respondents in the sample are included in it merely on account of their being available on the spot where the survey is in progress.

(Sample Size- 150)

Ques1. Which age group you belong to?
Category ( Age group ) 10-20 20-30 30-40 40 & above Total

No. of people 23 75 18 34 150

Central Tendency 55 180 43 82 360



12% 50%

Pie-Graph showing the age group to which sample size belong. Statistical Inference: There were total 150 people in a sample. Out of 150 people 15% people belong to age group 10-20years, 50% people belong to age group 20-30 years, 12% belong to age group 30-40 years & 23% share is shared by people of age group 40& above. People of age group 20-30 were more enthusiastic to answer & they are the one who are mainly targeted by marketers to sell their product. The youth - largest consuming section.

Ques 2. Gender of the respondents is:


Gender Male Female Total

No. of People 88 62 150

Central Tendency 211 149 360





Pie-Graph showing Gender of the respondents.

Statistical Inference: Male respondents are in majority in my sample constituting 59%. They are the one’s who take initiative to purchase products for their family & themselves. Female generally don’t take initiative to answer. It was difficult to catch them to fill the questionnaire. Still they showed good amount of interest and constituted 41% of the total respondents.

Ques 3. Are you a consumer of Sudha Products?


Are they consumers Yes No Total

No. of People 150 0 150

Central Tendency 360 0 360





Pie-Graph showing number of people who are consumer of Sudha products.

Statistical Inference: The above statistical analysis states that all the respondents selected randomly have at least once consumed Sudha Products. This is a very positive response as the target market constitutes a large number. There is no section of people who are unaware of Sudha Product. Whether it’s upper class, middle class or lower class people.


Ques 4 . Varieties of Sudha products you had. Category ( Sudha products ) Sudha Ice-cream Sudha peda Sudha dahi Other Sudha products Out of people 150 No. of people 138 80 59 52 TOTAL – 329 responses. Central Tendency 151 87 65 57 360



16% 42%



Pie-Graph showing varieties of Sudha products consumed by People.

Statistical Inference: Consumers are aware of almost all Sudha products. Many of them have tried most of the Sudha products. Among all Sudha product majority of the consumers had Sudha Icecream constituting of 42% followed by Sudha peda constituting of 24%, Sudha dahi consituting of 18% and other Sudha products like Rosogulla, Kalakand, Paneer, etc constituting of 16% .

Ques 5. Is Sudha Ice-cream your favourite of all Sudha Products?

Category Yes No Total

No. of People 96 54 150

Central Tendency 230 130 360






Pie-Graph showing preference of Sudha Ice-cream among all Sudha products.

Statistical Inference: Consumers were asked about their preference of Sudha Ice-cream among other Sudha products, most of them that is 64% of them replied that they prefer Sudha Ice-cream over other Sudha products like Sudha curd, Sudha Rosogulla, Sudha Kalakand & many others.

Ques 6. How often you have Sudha Ice-cream? The sample size for questions regarding Sudha Ice-cream is 138 because out of 150 sample , 138 have tried Sudha Ice-cream… Category Frequently Occasionally Rarely Seldom TotalFREQUENTLY

No. of people 40 58 34 6

Central tendency 104 152 89 15 360

4% 25% 29%



Pie-Graph showing frequency of Sudha Ice-cream consumption by respondents.

Statistical Inference: Out of 150 respondents 138 respondents have tried Sudha Ice-cream. 29% of them are repeat buyers of Sudha Ice-cream. The rest 67% respondents have Sudha Ice-cream either occasionally or rarely. We should try to persuade them to make repeat purchase. Ques 7. Do you know in how many flavours Sudha Ice-cream is available?

Category Yes No Total

No. of People 35 103 138

Central Tendancy 91 269 360






Pie-Graph showing whether people have knowledge of variety of Sudha Ice-cream available.

Statistical Inference: When respondents were asked whether they know in how many flavours Sudha Ice-cream is available, most of them altogether 75% of people were not able to recall or they had no idea. Rest 25% people were aware of different flavours available in Sudha Ice-cream.

Ques 8 . Which is your favourite flavour?

Favourite flavour Chocolate Kesar pista VanillaCHOCOLATE Other Total 31%

No. of people 42 49

Central tendency 110 127



43 4


113 10 360






Pie-Graph showing preference in flavours of Sudha Ice-cream by Consumers.

Statistical Inference: As we have seen in earlier observations Sudha Ice-cream is liked by majority of Consumers. The next question arises that which is their favourite flavour. The flavour that makes their mouth watery is ‘Kesar Pista‘. But Chocolate and vanilla are not too far in the race of favourite flavour. Some improvement is required in the flavours like Mango, Strawberry, Blind love, etc.

Ques 9. The quality of Sudha Ice- cream is:

Quality Excellent Very good Good Average Total

No. of people 55 46

Central tendency 144 120 82 14 360

31 6 138




Pie-Graph showing how consumer rates the quality of Sudha Ice-cream.

Statistical Inference: There is no doubt in the quality of Sudha Ice-cream as per the above Pie-graph. Only 4% of the consumer finds it Average & rest 96% of the consumer ranks it up to good. This speaks that regarding Quality of the Sudha Ice-cream we need not to bother much as its quality is liked by almost all 

Ques 10. Sudha Ice-cream tastes…

Category Tasty Ok-Ok Satisfactory TASTY Bad Total
17% 13% 0% OK-OK

No. of people 97 24

Central tendency 252 62 46 0 360

17 0





Pie-Graph showing how consumer ranks taste of Sudha Ice-cream

Statistical Inference: Sudha Ice-cream is Yummy for 70% of the Sudha Ice-cream consumers. It denotesconsumers like the taste of Sudha Ice-cream. One more thing which can be observed is that 17% consumers finds it ok-ok & rest 13% satisfactory so in total 30% of the consumers are not fullysatisfied so there is a scope of improvement here. Good aspect is that no-one finds the taste of Sudha Ice-cream bad. Ques 11. How do you feel after having Sudha Ice-cream?

Category Refreshing Energetic Better No change Total

No. of people 68 42 23 5

Central tendency 177 110 60 13









Pie-Graph showing how consumer feels after having Sudha Ice-cream.

Statistical Inference: Majority of Consumers i.e. 48% of them says that after having Sudha Ice-cream they feel Refreshing & Energetic. Around 17% consumers feel Better after having Sudha Ice-cream. Very less percentage of consumers finds no change. So we can say that the after effect of Sudha Ice-cream is good and consumers feels good after having Sudha Ice-cream.

Ques12. How you rate Sudha Ice-cream in terms of Price?

Category Costly Fair Reasonable Cheap & best Total

No. of people 10 39 60 29 138

Central tendency 26 103 156 75 360


7% 29%



Pie-Graph showing what is consumer’s opinion on price of Sudha Ice-cream. Statistical Inference: No matter how much one is earning he/ she want to do best deals. Good product withreasonable price are the core elements for success of any business. If we sum up the positive answers almost 93% of the consumers find the price of Sudha Ice-cream Reasonable. For them price of Sudha Icecream is affordable. Whereas for 7% of the consumers the price of Sudha Ice-cream burnhole in their pockets. So overall the price offered by Sudha Ice-cream is reasonable & it should be because “price is the only element which earns revenue”.

Ques 13. Where you rank Sudha Ice-cream as compared to other IceCreams available in the market( Amul, Vadilal, Treat, Kwality, etc)

Category Top Next best Average Bottom Total

No. of people 79 33 21

Central tendency 206 86 56 12 360







Pie-Graph showing where consumer ranks Sudha Ice-cream as compared to leading Ice-cream brands.

Statistical Inference: In this Era of tough competition to remain in Top is a big challenge for any businessconcern. But more than 55% of the consumers rank Sudha on Top. Whereas 43% of the consumers says that brands like Golden,Treat, Vadilal, Amul are better as compared to Sudha. The only problem with this analysis is the survey area is Patna so their preference is obvious.

Ques 14 . In which field do you think Sudha Ice-cream needs Improvement?

Category Price Quality Quantity Availability Total

No. of people 9 31 25 73 138

Central tendency 24 82 65 189 360

7% 23%

52% 18%


Pie-Graph showing consumer’s opinion as to in which field Sudha Ice-cream needs improvement. Category No. of people Central tendency Yes No Total 130 8 138 340 20 360 Statistical Inference:

It’s truly said nothing is perfect in this world. Though many consumers like Sudha Icecream they want some improvement in few fields like Quantity offered, Price, Avalability, etc. Majority of the consumers almost 52% are not satisfied with the location of Sudha outlets. They want more convenient locations. 23% of them want some improvement in the quality, 18% in quantity & rest 7% in price. Here major focus should be on providing convenient locations for consumers. Ques 15 . Will you advice others to have Sudha Ice-cream?

YES 6%




Pie-Graph showing whether consumers will make others aware of Sudha Ice-cream.

Statistical Inference: What is the impact of Sudha Ice-cream among consumers can be answered to much extent through above survey. 94% of the consumers of Sudha Ice-cream will advice others to try Sudha Ice-cream whereas just 6% says that they are not going to adviceothers to have Sudha Ice-cream. So we can infer that Sudha Ice-cream has good impact on the major population. The rest 6% consumers are loyal customers of other brands so we can try to make them our loyal customer 

Ques 16. How is the quality consistency of our product? (SUDHA’S QUESTIONNAIRE) Category Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory Poor Total

No. of people 8 14 43 25 18 108

Central tendency 27 46 143 84 60 360


8% 13%

23% 39%


Pie-Graph showing what consumer think about quality consistency of Sudha products

Statistical Inference: Quality consistency is an important aspect to hold the consumers. 60% of the consumers think that Sudha Ice-cream’s quality is consistent. But 40% of the consumers don’t think that Sudha is consistent in maintaining the quality of its product. This is a thing to worry because inconsistency in the quality of the product can lead to decrease in customer. Ques 17. What you will score for Sudha’s Communication Facilities & Methodology? (SUDHA’S QUESTIONNAIRE) Category Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory Poor Total No. of people 3 26 30 34 15 108 Central tendency 10 87 100 113 50 360






31% 28%

Pie-Graph showing the score given by respondents to Sudha’s communication facility.

Statistical Inference: Better communication facility & methodology increases efficiency. Efficiency leads tobetter products which results in Customer Satisfaction. 28% consumers grade Sudha’s methodology good & 31% are satisfied with the existing methodology. But 14% consumer thinks that Sudha’s communication facilities and methodology is poor. So there is a slight improvement required in this field.

Ques 18. How is the Promotional activity of our organization? (SUDHA’S QUESTIONNAIRE)


Category Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory Poor Total

No. of people 3 28 37 29 11 108

Central tendency 10 93 123 97 37 360







3% 26%



Pie-Graph showing consumer rating of promotional activity of SUDHA. Statistical Inference: Wide range of products is available in the market. To convince a person to buy our product we need to carry promotional activities like advertising campaigns, sales promotion, etc.


63% consumers grade Sudha’s promotional activities from Excellent toGood. But 40% of the consumers don’t think that Sudha is consistent in maintaining the quality of its product. This is a thing to worry because inconsistency in the quality of the product can lead to decrease in customer.

Ques 19. What will you score for our Environmental concern?

Category Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory Poor Total

No. of people 3 27 29 25 24 108

Central tendency 10 90 97 83 80 360







3% 25%

23% 27%


Pie-Graph showing what consumer thinks about environmental concern of the organisation.

Statistical Inference: Industries are only concerned with earning profit. They are not concerned with the Environment. Infact the smokes, chemical waters, etc which comes out of the Industry are main reasons for Environmental degrading. But Sudha industry is very much concerned about the Environment as per 78% of the consumers. Rest 22% has an opinion that Sudha should do bit more for the Environment.

Ques 20. How is the Social concern of our Organisation?

Category Excellent Very good Good Satisfactory Poor Total

No. of people 4 20 37 24 23 108

Central tendency 13 67 123 80 77 360







4% 19%

22% 34%


Pie-Graph showing what consumer feels regarding the social concern of the organisation.

Statistical Inference: Sudha is part of this society so it has some duties towards the society. From the above survey we can infer that as per 57% consumer Sudha is concerned for society. Whereas 22% consumer are just satisfied with Sudha’s concern for society. According to rest 21% consumer Sudha should have some concern for the society.

Sudha Ice-cream is liked by majority of people as we saw earlier in the pie-chart. More than 60% Sudha customers like Sudha Ice-cream. Consumers are aware of almost all Sudha products. Many of them have tried most of the Sudha products.


Consumer’s Favourite flavour is Kesar Pista…Chocolate & Vanilla are next preferred flavours. People like the Quality of the Ice-cream almost majority of them i.e. 94% consumers are in favour of Sudha ice-cream’s quality & they find it good. Majority of Consumers i.e. 79% of them says that after having Sudha Ice-cream they feel Refreshing & Energetic. 93% of the consumers find the price of Sudha Ice-cream Reasonable. For them price of Sudha Ice-cream is affordable. Majority of the consumers almost 52% are not satisfied with the location of Sudha outlets. They want more convenient locations. More than 55% of the consumers rank Sudha Ice-cream on Top & Sudha Ice-cream has good impact on them.

I have observed that people of age group 20 to 30 are maximum consumer of
Sudha Ice-cream. So the target market for Sudha Ice-cream is people of age group 20-30 years & also kids of age group 10-20 because kids are always easy targets. Some improvement is required in the flavours like Mango, Strawberry, Blind love, etc. Majority of the consumers almost 52% are not satisfied with the location of Sudha outlets. They want more convenient locations. Here major focus should be on providing convenient locations for consumers & introducing “PUSH STRATEGY” in order to make sure that Sudha Ice-cream is always available to consumers.

23% of them want some improvement in the quality, 18% in quantity & rest 7% in price. But 40% of the consumers don’t think that Sudha is consistent in maintaining the quality of its product. This is a thing to worry because inconsistency in the quality of the product can lead to decrease in loyal customer.

The progress of comfed is a very good news in a state that’s been reeling
under severe industrial and economic decline since it was bifurcated, with Jharkhand taking away most of its natural resources and big industry. Comfed stands out as bright beacon of hope, breaking the pessimistic belief that no industry can survive in the state, forget making profit. The federation claims to plough back Rs 250 crore every year directly in to hands of rural farmers. It gives 65 percent of its earned profit to farmer and cooperatives as bonus, dividends and development fund, while 35 percent is used for plant &machinery maintenance.

Comfed’s growth has certainly been in geometric progression. “Dairy cooperatives act like a bridge between rural farmers and an organized market” Comfed along with the other associations related with it have taken pledge to turn Bihar into a healthy state. Comfed does not treat itself as government body nor does it treat itself as NGO. It prides itself on being body of the farmers and for the farmers. Comfed was conceived to replicate and oversee Anand pattern dairy cooperatives in the state. Federation was lucky enough to get excellent managing directors, dedicated and sincere employees. Federation has drawn 55-60 percent officers from other states in formative years with support received from NDBD government of Bihar and various other international agencies. Comfed slowly but steadily improved its performance over the years. According to newspaper report on April19, 2010 the federation had set a record of collecting & distributing 11.70 lakh litres of milk per day. It is continuously increasing and catering to the needs of people not only in Bihar but also in neighbouring states as well. The role of comfed in improving the economic condition of people in rural areas is of vital importance. Bihar will develop with comfed, accelerating on the path of success.

1. Area of Operation.
- My survey area was confined to Patna, capital of Bihar. So we can’t infer the consumer behaviour towards Sudha Ice-cream in whole of it’s marketing area Bihar.

2. Time Limitation.
- I had just 1 month to do my survey. So due to lack of time I could not cover large sample size & also the survey area shrinked.

3. Sample size.
- My sample size constituted of 150 people which is very less in ratio with Total Sudha Ice-cream consumer.

4. Sample Selection Method.
- I randomly selected people & asked them to fill my questionnaire so there were few respondents who were not in category of having Sudha Ice-cream.

5. Survey Error.
- Due to respondents unawareness of answer the result was not accurate.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Times of India Outlook One India F & B Www.

6. (pictures) 7. (pictures) 8. 9. 10.

NAME ADDRESS PHONE.NO1. Which age group you belong to?

10-20 30-40 2. What is your gender? Male

20-30 40& above


3. Are you a consumer of Sudha products? Yes No

4. If yes then tick the products you had… Sudha Ice-cream Sudha Dahi Sudha peda Other products

5. Is Sudha Ice-cream your favourite of all other Sudha Products? Yes 6. How often you have Sudha Ice-cream? Frequently Rarely Occasionally Seldom No

7. Do you know in how many flavours Sudha Ice-cream is available? Yes 8.Which is your favourite flavour? Chocolate Vanilla No Kesar Pista Other

9. How you find the quality of Sudha Ice-cream? Excellent Very Good Good 10. Sudha Ice-cream tastes… Tasty Average Ok-Ok



11. How do you feel after eating Sudha Ice-cream? Refreshing Energetic Better No change

12. How you rate Sudha Ice-cream in terms of price? Costly Fair Reasonable Cheap & Best

13. Where you think Sudha Ice-cream ranks as compared to other Ice-creams available in market? (Amul, Vadilal, Treat, Kwality,etc.) Top Average Next Best Bottom

14. In which field do you think Sudha Ice-cream needs improvement? Price Quality Quantity Availability

15. Will you advise others to have Sudha Ice-cream? Yes No THANKS FOR YOUR VALUED OPINION  Signature


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