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CHAPTER 1 : Scientific Investigation

SECTION A



1. Study the Iollowing section





(a) hat the problem that can be identiIied?
hy iron nails rust easily when leIt outside the house.

(b) Make one hypothesis Ior the situation given.
ater is needed Ior rusting the nails.

(c) IdentiIy the Iollowing variables:
(i) Variable that is constant
Type oI irons.

(ii) Variable that is manipulated
Presence oI water.

(iii) Variable that responds
Rusting oI iron nails.




Ìron nails rust easily when left outside the house.


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2. iagram 2 shows the arrangement oI apparatus to studt the relationship between the
Length oI the thread and the duration oI the swing oI the pendulum.




(a) hat are the variables involved in this experiment?
(i) Variable that is constant.
Number oI swings
(ii) Variable that is manipulated.
Length oI thread
(iii) Variable that responds.
Time taken Ior apendulum swing.

(b) hat is the relationship between the length oI the thread and the duration oI the swing
oI the pendulum.
The longer the thread, the longer the time taken Ior a pendulum to swing.

(c) II the height oI the pendulum Irom the surIace oI the table is increased, predict the time
taken Ior the pendulum to swing.
Time taken by the pendulum to swing is shorter.

(d) State one precautionary step when conducting this experiment.
Carry out the experiment in area oI calm air.






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3. n experiment is conducted to study the relationship between the Iorce (N) and the extension
oI a spring. The results are shown in iagram 3.



(a) State the variable:
(i) That is manipulated
Force
(ii) That responds
Extension oI the spring.

(b) hat is the relationship between the Iorces (N)and the extansion oI the spring (cm)?
The grater the Iorce applied, the more the spring lengthens.

(c) Study iagram 3 and Iill the data in the table below.

Force/N 2 3 4 5
Extansion of the spring/cm 2 4 6 8

(d) Predict the extension oI the spring iI a Iorce oI 6 N is applied.
2 cm




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SECTION B



4. iagram 4 shows a part oI the steps in a scientiIic investigation.





Diagram 4

(a) ow can problem be identiIy?
lways observe phenomena or occurrences that happen in the surroundings.

(b) hat is variable
condition or Iactor which can be changed in a scientiIic investigation.

(c) State three variables in a scientiIic investigations
Variables that are kept constant, manipulated and responds.

(d) hat should be done iI the hypothesis made is not accepted by the experiment?
new hypothesis is made.

(e) IdentiIy step x in the scientiIic investigation.
Plan the investigation.

Ìdentifying a problem Ìdentifying the
variables
Making a hypothesis Cotrolling
the variables
x


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5. iagram 5 shows an egg placed in two diIIerent liquid.





Based on the statements or quations below, identiIy the steps in the scientiIic investigation.
(a) hy does the eggsink in water but Iloat in the salt solution?
IdentiIying the problem

(b) ensity oI water/salt solution, density oI the eggs,volume oI water,type oI eggs
IdentiIying the variables.
(c) Buoyancy oI the egg is aIIected by the liquid used.
Making a hypothesis.

(d)
Liquid Buoyancy oI the egg
ater
Salt solution
Collecting the data.







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SECTION C

6. Study the Iollowing statements.




(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statements
Hypothesis : Seeds need water to germinates.

(b) escribed an experiment to test your hypothesis in 6(a) based on the Iollowing criteria:
(i) im oI the experiment
Aim : To study the need oI water Ior seed germination/

(ii) IdentiIication oI variables
Variable that :
O Is kept constant : Type oI seed/surrounding /temperature/presence oI air
O Is manipulated : Presence oI water.
O Responds : Germination oI seed.

(iii) List apparatus and materials
List of apparatus and materials : Seeds, test tube, cotton wool, water

(iv) Procedur or method
Procedure :



O Seeds are put into two test tubes.
Green bean seeds in dry gunny sacks do not germinates


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O ater is dripped into second test tube.
O Test tubes are leIt Ior two days.
O Observation oI the seed germination is recorded.






(v) Tabulation oI data

Condition of cotton wool. Germination of seeds.
ry
Soaked

(vi) Conclution
Germination oI seeds requires
















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CHAPTER 2: Body Coordination

SECTION A

1. Student sits on a chair as shown in iagram .



Student B knocks the knee oI student with a ruler.
(a) hat can be observed?


(b) raw an arrow ( ) in iagram to show the direction oI his leg movement.



(c) hat inIerence can be made Irom your observation in (a).
Knee ierking is a reIlect action.


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(d) Name the nervous system which controls this action.
Spinal cord.


2. iagram 2 shows that the rays oI a torch are directed to the eye oI a student.


(a) raw the pupil oI the student in diagram 2(b) aIter the rays oI the torchlight are directed
into his eye.


(b) hat happens to the pupil?
The pupil constricts.

(c) hat inIerences can be made Irom your observations.
Pupils constrict to prevent excessive light entering the eyes.

(d) Name the type oI action that occurs.
ReIlex action.








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SECTION B

3. iagram 3 shows a type oI nerve cell in humans.



(a) hat the nerve cell.
Motor neurone

(b) hat is the Iunction oI this nerve cell?
Transmits impulses Irom central nervous system (brain or spinal cord) to eIIector (muscle
or gland)

(c) Label structures P, Q, and R.
P- Cell body
Q- endrite
R- Myelin sheath
S-Nerve ending

(d) raw an arrow ( ) to show the direction on impulse transmission.

(e) here is the location oI structure S?
EIIector.




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4. iagram 4 shows the reIlect arc oI a reIlect action when a person Iinger is pricked by a
needle.



(a) Name the parts labeled P, Q and R.
P- Synapse
Q-Receptors / Sensory organ
R-Muscles/ EIIectors

(b) hat is the Iunction oI the structure labeled Q?
Responds to the stimulus. Nerve impulse is triggered.

(c) Mark the direction oI the impulse transmission during the reIlect action in iagram 4.


(d) hat happens to structure R when a student`s Iinger is pricked by a needle?
Contracts.

(e) hich part oI the nervous system controls this action?
Spinal cord.

(I) State one other example oI a reIlect action.
Finger ierks away when it touches a hot kettle.


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(g) hat is the importance oI a reIlect actions to us.
To avoid danger or iniury.






5. iagram 5 shows a longitudinal section oI the human brain.



(a) Name the parts labeled P and Q.
P-Cerebrum
Q-Medulla oblongata

(b) State the Iunction oI part Q.
Controls involuntary action,

(c) Part X controls the body balance. Mark X in the iagram 5.


(d) hy is the surIace oI P Iolded?
To increase surIace area Ior the placement oI more neurons

(e) hat happens to a person iI he experiences iniury to parts R and S?


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R-eaI
S-Blind

(I) State the part that protects the human brain Irom iniury.
Cranium

(g) State one example oI activity controlled by part P.
Looking /Thinking / alking.


6. iagram 6 shows the locations oI three endocrine glands in the body oI a male.



(a) (i) name the endocrine gland labeled X.
Thyroid gland

( ii) State one Iunction oI the hormone secreted by gland X.
Stimulates growth / control the metabolic rate.

(b) (i) hat happens to the blood oI a person iI gland Y secretes too little hormone.
The glucose level increases in his blood.

( ii) Name the disease which a person may suIIer Irom iI the condition you stated in
6(b)(i).
iabetes

(c) State two eIIects is both glands Z are removed.


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Sterile / Sperms cannot be produced / evelopment oI secondary male sexual
characteristics are stunted.






Section C

7. Study the Iollowing statement.




(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
ypothesis Pupils constrict when light entering the eye.

(b) By using torch, describe an experiment to test your hypothesis in 7(a) based on the
Iollowing criteria:
i. im oI the experiment
Aim to study the eIIect oI light on pupil

ii. IdentiIication oI variables
Variable that
O Is kept constant : Pupil
O Is manipulated : Light ray
O Responds : Constriction oI pupil.

iii. List oI apparatus and materials
List of apparatus and materials : torch

iv. Procedure and method
Procedure :
#eflect action will happen when the light was torched into eyes.


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O The ray oI torch is directed into the pupil.
O Observation on the change oI the size oI pupil is recorded.

v. Tabulation oI data
Tabulation :
Experiment Condition of pupil
Light illuminates the eye

vi. Conclusion
The reIlect action causes the pupils to constrict when light entering the eye.

8.
a. State Iour diIIerences between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
Nervous system Endocrine system
Impulses is sent through nerve Impulses is sent through bloodstream
short-term eIIect Long-term eIIects
ction is speciIic target areas ction is wide target areas
Fast and immediate responds Slow and continuous responds

b. n adults realize that his urine contains sugar. Explain how he overcomes his health
problem. Your explanation should include the Iollowing aspects:
( i) IdentiIy the problem
Urines contains sugar.

( ii) Explain the problem
O Less trickle oI insulin hormone in his pancreas.
O Blood has less insulin hormones.
O Extra sugar in the blood cannot change into glycogen Ior storage

( iii) Explain the method to solve the problem
Iniection oI insulin hormone

( iv) Suggest a daily diet.
Reduce sugar taking in the daily diet.





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9.
(a) State Iour diIIerences between voluntary action and involuntary action.
Voluntary action Involuntary action
Controlled by cerebrum Controlled by medulla oblongata
There is awareness Unaware
Controlled by somatic nervous system Controlled by autonomic nervous system
Respond can be Iaster or slower Spontaneous action

(b) iagram 9 shows the actions happen inside the body oI a student.

Study the action above. Explain how you can build a concept according to the above
inIormation. Your answer should be based on the Iollowing aspects.
(i) IdentiIy two common characteristic
Common characteristic :
O Unaware action
O ction that is controlled by the medulla oblongata

(ii) Construct the initial concept
Initial concept : Involuntary action is an action that react automatically
without knowledge and controlled by the medulla oblongata.


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(iii)Give one other example and non-example
Example : Constriction oI pupils / Constriction oI blood vessels
Non - examples : Listening / Seeing / riting

(iv) Explain the actual concept.
Actual concept : Involuntary action is an action that react automatically
without knowledge and controlled by the medulla oblongata.





CHAPTER 3 : Heredity and Variation

SECTION A

1. The height oI student in a class is measured. The data obtained is shown below.




(a) Based on the data given,complete Table .

Heigh of student / cm 46 5 5 55 56 6 6 65 66 7
Number of student 8 9 9 3
Table 1

(b) Using the data in Table , draw a histogram on the graph paper below.



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(c) Based on the graph in (b), state the type oI variation shown by the height
characteristic.
Continuous variation.

(d) part Irom body height, what other characteristic in human that shows the same
variation.
Skin colour /Body weight.






2. Table 2. shows the types oI ear lobe oI 2 students in a class.




(a) Based on the data in Table 2., complete Table 2.2.
Number of student with

Attached ear lobe Free ear lobe
2 8
Table 2


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(b) Based on the Table 2.2, draw a bar chart in the graph paper below.


(c) hat type oI variation is shown in the bar chart in 2(b)?
iscontinuous variation.

(d) part Irom types ear lobes, state two characteristics in humans that show the same
type oI variation.
Blood group and type oI Iingerprint / leIt handedness

(e) hat is the Iactor that inIluences variation in 2(c)
Genetic

SECTION B

3. iagram 3 shows a cross breeding between a pea plant with red Ilowers and a pea plant
with white Ilowers to produce Fi generation plants. The gene oI the red Ilowers is
dominant, while that oI the white Ilowers receive.



(a) hat type oI cell divison takes place during the Iormation oI gametes?
Meiosis.



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(b) Complete the schematic diagram in iagram 3 to show the cross breeding between
the plants.



(c) State the colour oI the Ilower produce in Fi generation
Red.

(d) State the parts oI the Ilower that produce the male gamete and the Iemale gamete.
Male gamete : nther
Female gamete : Ovary

(e) II the Fi generation plants cross bred among themselves, predict the ratio oI the
number oI plants with red Ilowers to the number oI plants with white Ilower
produced.
3:.
4. iagram 4 shows a part oI the cell division which takes place in the human somatic cell.



(a) Name the process oI the cell
Mitosis.

(b) Complete the stage X in iagram 4.

(c) State two reasons Ior the importance oI this cell division.

O Produces new cells Ior the process oI growth.
O Produces new cell to replace damaged or dead cells.

(d) State two sections in plants that experience this cell division.
Tip oI the root and shoot.



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5. iagram 5 shows some stages oI division occurring in humans.



(a) (i) hat type oI cell division is this.
Meiosis
( ii) Give a reason Ior your answer in 5(a)(i)
Chromotids do not separate at stage M

(b) hat happens at Stage L?
Replication or chromosome.

(c) Name two organs in humans where this cell division occurs.


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Testis and ovary.

(d) State one reason Ior the importance oI this cell division.
To produce gametes/ Ensure the number oI chromosomes is diploid in zygote during
Iertilization.

(e) State two section in plants which experience this cell division.
nther and ovary.







6. iagram 6 shows a schematic diagram concerning the determination oI sex in a child.



(a) Complete the iagram 6.
44 ¹ XX
44 ¹ XX
44 ¹ XY
44 ¹ XY



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(b) Name Process .
Meiosis

(c) Name the gametes produced by the Iather and the mother.
Father : Sperm
Mother : Ovum

(d) hat are the saxes oI child P and child Q.
P : Female
Q : Male

(e) hat is the probability oI having a male child at each birth.
5




SECTION C

7. Study the Iollowing statement.





(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
Hypothesis : eight oI students in the class.

(b) escribe an experiment to test your hypothesis in 7(a) based on the Iollowing
criteria:
(i) im oI the experiment
Aim : Study the height oI students in the class.

(ii) IdentiIication oI the variables
Variables that
O Is kept constant : ge oI students
The height of students is a continues variation.


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O Is manipulated : iIIerence oI student
O Responds : eight oI students.
(iii) List oI apparatus and materials.
List of apparatus and materials : Ruler

(iv) Procedure and method
Procedure :
O The height oI student is measured using the ruler.
O The height oI students is recorded.

(v) Tabulations oI data
Tabulation :
Height
(cm)
5 54 55 59 6 64 65 69 7 - 75
Number of
students


(vi) Conclusion.
Conclusion : The height oI student is a continuous variation because it
shows diIIerent value.
8.
(a) Explain is occurences oI identical twins and non identical twins.
Identical twins
O One ovum is Iertilized by one sperm
O Zygote that is Iormed divides into two and Iorms two zygotes.
Non - identical
O Two ova are Iertilized by two sperm
O Two separate zygotes are produces.


(b) student is leIt-handed but both his parents are right handed. It is known that the leIt
handed respectively, explain how this student endow leIt handed genes Irom his parents.
Your explanation should include the Iollowing aspects:
( i ) IdentiIy the problem
The student is leIt handed but both his parents are right handed.



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( ii) Explain the problem
O The student carries kk genes
O Both his parents carry Kk genes.

( iii) Use a schematic diagram to support your answer.





9.
(a) State Iour diIIerences between mitosis and miosis.
Mitosis Meiosis
Cell division happens once Cell division happens twice
Crossing over does not happens Crossing over happens
Two daughter cells produced Four daughter cells produced
Number oI chromosomes in daughter
cells in the same as those in parent cell.
Number oI chromosomes in daughter
cells is halI oI those in parent cell

(b) iagram 9 shows the parts oI a student`s body that undergo a type cell division.








Skin Nail


Liver Bones
Cell
division


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iagram 9

Study the body parts where cell division happen. Explain how you can build a concept
based on the inIormation above. Your explanation should include the Iollowing aspects:
( i) IdentiIy two common characteristic
Common characteristics:
O Cell division involves the Iormation oI new cells.
O Cell division takes place in somatic cells.

( ii) Construct the initial concept
Initial concept : The Iormation oI new cells in somatic cells takes place through
mitosis.

( iii) Give one other example and one non example in relation to the concept
Example eart
Non - Example Sperm/ovum

( iv) Explain the actual concept.
Actual concept : Mitosis is a cell division process which take place in the somatic
Cells to produce new cells.

CHAPTER 4 : Matter and Substance

SECTION A
. iagram shows an experiment to study the eIIect oI impurities on the Ireezing point.


The result obtained are recorded in Table .



(a) Based on the experiment shown in iagram ,complete Table .
Substance Freezing point/ °C
istilled water
istilled water ¹ common salt -2


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(b) rite an inIerence based on the result oI this experiment.
Impurities lower the Ireezing point oI the distilled water.

(c) State the variables in this experiment.
i. Constant : Volume oI distilled water
ii. Manipulated : Presence oI impurities
iii. Respond : Thermometer reading

(d) Based on the experiment,deIine distilled water operationally.
istilled water is a substance which has a Ireezing point oI °C

(e) Predict the eIIect oI impurities on the boiling point oI distilled water.
Impurities increases the boiling point oI distilled water.

2. iagram 2 shows the arrangement oI apparatus Ior the process oI distillation.



(a) State two mistakes in the arrangement oI apparatus shown in iagram 2.
- The thermometer must not be into the round-bottomed Ilask.


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- The direction oI water Ilow is reversed.

(b) hat is collected in beaker X?
Pure water or distilled water.

(c) hat is the reading oI thermometer at that time in (b)?
°C

(d) State the Iunction oI the porcelain chips.
- To prevent the liquid mixture in the Ilask.
- To break the air bubbles when the liquid mixture is boiling.

(e) State two changes in states oI matter during the distillation process.
- Boiling
- Condensat
3. iagram 3 shows the arrangement oI apparatus used to study heat conductivity.

The time taken Ior the thumbtack to drop Irom the metal rod is recorded in Table 3.


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(a) Based on the results in Table 3,arrange the sequence oI the heat conductivity oI metal rod
K,L and M in descending order.
L,K and M

(b) State the variables in this experiment.
i. Constant : iameter oI metal rod
ii. Manipulated : Type oI metal rod
iii. Respond : Time taken the thumbtack to Iall

(c) hat the hypothesis can be made Irom this experiment?
The type oI metal rod used will eIIect the time taken oI thumbtack to Iall.

(d) II the metal rod used in this experiment are copper,iron and aluminium,identitiy metal rods
K,L and M that represent them.
K : luminium L : Copper M : Iron
SECTION B

4. Table 4 shows the melting point,boiling point and electrical conductivity oI three types
oI substance K,L and M.


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(a) i. hich substance possesses properties oI ionic substance?
M

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 4(a)(i).
Substance M does not conduct electricity in the solid state but does so in the liquid
state.

(b) i. hich substance is a molecular substance?
K

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 4 (b)(i).
Its melting point and boiling point are very low.

(c) hy is it that substance M cannot conduct electricity in a solid state?
Iron does not move Ireely to carry electrical charges.

(d) hy is it that substance L can conduct electricity in both solid and liquid states?
There are electrons that move Ireely in substance L.

(e) hy does substance K have very low melting and boiling points?
Particles in substance K are held together by weak Iorces oI attraction between the
particles.



5. iagram 5 shows the structure oI an atom oI the helium element.



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(a) hat are the proton number and nucleon number oI helium?
Proton : 2
Nucleon : 4

(b) Complete Table 5 to diIIerentiate between proton,neutron and electron.






(c) Name the group in which helium is located in the Periodic Table.
Group 8,unreactive (noble gas)

(d) hat is the special characteristic oI helium?
- Chemically stable
- Unreactive

6. Table 6 shows the proton number,number oI electrons,nucleon number and number oI
neutrons oI atoms P,Q,R and S.
Subatomic particle Relative charge Relative mass
Proton ¹
Neutron
Electron - /84


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(a) Complete Table 6 by writing down the number oI neutrons Ior atom Q and S.
(b) i. hich oI these particles is a positive ion?
Q

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 6 (b)(i).
The number oI protons in particle Q is more than its number oI electrons.

(c) i. etermine one particle which is a neutral atom.
R/S

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 6 (c)(i).
Its number oI protons is the same as its number oI electrons.

(d) i. hich oI the particles are isotopes oI the same element?
R and S

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 6 (d)(i).
R and S have the same number oI protons but diIIerent number oI neutrons.
7. iagram 7 shows a part oI the Periodic Table.
Particle Proton Number Number oI electrons Nucleon number Number oI neutrons
P 3 4 7 4
Q 4 3 9 5
R 6 6 2 6
S 6 6 3 7


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(a) ow are the elements arranged in the Periodic Table?
In order oI increasing proton number.

(b) etermine the element that is
i. the most reactive : R
ii. not reactive : Q

(c) hat is the proton number oI elelment P?
Proton : 9

(d) Element P has a nucleon number orI 9.ow many neutrons are there in element P?
Neutrons :

(e) mong these elements,which is
i. an atomic substance : R,S
ii. a molecular substance : P

(I) State two elements which will Iorm an ionic substance when combined.
R and P or S and P.

(g) hich element has the most protons?
S
SECTION C


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8. Study the Iollowing statement.



(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
Melting points oI atomic substances are high while that oI molecular substances are
low.

(b) i. im : To study the melting points oI atomic and molecular substances

ii. Variable that :
- Constant : Quantity oI substances
- Manipulated : Type oI substances
- Respond : Melting point oI substance

iii. List oI apparatus and materials : Lead Iilings,sulphur powder,crucible,clay triangle.





1here is a difference in the melting points of atomic and
molecular substances


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iv. Procedure :
- Two spatulas oI lead Iilings are put into a crucible
- The crucible with its content is heated strongly.
- Observation about the melting point oI lead Iilings is recorded.
- The experiment is repeated using the sulphur powder.

v. Tabulation oI data :





vi. Conclusion : n atomic substance has a high melting point while a molecular
substances has a low melting point.













Substance Melting point/ °C
Lead Iilings
Sulphur powder


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9. (a) ypothesis : Metals conduct electricity while non-metal do not

i. im : To study the electrical conductivity oI metals and non-metals

ii. Variable that :
- Constant : Size oI the rod
- Manipulated : Copper rod and glass rod
- Respond : Electrical conductivity

iii. Materials and apparatus : Copper rod,glass rod,dry cell,bulb,connecting wire

iv. Procedure :
- dry cell is connected to a bulb using a wire
- copper rod is then connected to the electric circuit
- Observe whether the bulb lights up
- The experiment is repeated using glass rod

v. Tabulation oI data :
Type oI rod Condition oI the bulb
Copper rod
Glass rod








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. (a) Four diIIerences between ionic substance and molecular substance







(b) i. Problem statement : Sodium chloride solution

ii. Name oI the method : Crystallisation

iii. Step that must be taken :
- eat the sodium chloride solution to obtain the saturated solution
- Cool the saturated solution
- Sodium chloride crystals are obtained






Ionic substance Molecular substance
Solid at room temperature Liquid at room temperature
Conduct electricity in molten Iorm oes not conduct electricity
Forces oI attraction are very strong Forces oI attraction are weak
igh melting and boiling points Low melting and boiling points


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. (a) Four diIIerences between metals and non-metals.

Metal Non-metal
as shiny surIaces as dull surIaces
uctile Not ductile
igh melting and boiling points Low melting and boiling points
Good conductor oI electricity Poor conductor oI electricity
Good conductor oI heat Poor conductor oI heat

(b) i. IdentiIy the information
Butter and candle change into liquid state when they are heated

ii. IdentiIy the common characteristic
- eat is absorbed
- Substances melt

iii. Initial concept : eat is absorbed by the substance causes the melting process
to occur.

iv. Example : Ice cube
Non-example : ry ice

v. Actual concept : Melting is a process oI change in the state oI matter when the
substance absorbs heat.



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CHAPTER 5 : Energy and Chemical Changes

SECTION

. iagram shows the arrangement oI apparatus used to determine the reactivity oI metals
with oxygen

The results oI the experiment are
shown in Table .




(a) Complete Table .
(b) rite one inIerence based on the observation in the experiment.
luminium is more reactive than copper

(c) State the variables in this experiment.
Metal Reactivity oI metal with oxygen
luminium luminium lights up brightly
Znc Zinc glows with a bright Ilame
Copper The copper glows dimly


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i. Constant : Quantity oI metal
ii. Manipulated : Type oI metal
iii. Respond : Reactivity oI metal

(d) hat is the Iunction oI potassium manganate(VII) crystals?
Supplying oxygen to react with metal.

(e) hat is the Iunction oI the glass wool in this experiment?
Prevent the potassium Irom mixing with metal Iilings when heated.

(I) hy do metal Iilings need to be heated Iirst beIore the heating oI potassium manganate
(VII) crystals?
Metal Iilings can be react easily with oxygen.

(g) Based on your observation,arrange the reactivity oI the three metals in decreasing order.
luminium,Zinc and Copper.











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2. iagram 2 shows the arrangement oI apparatus to study the puriIication oI metal.


The experiment is repeated a Iew times with diIIerent quantities oI electric current.The cathode
is cleaned,dried and weighed aIter minutes Ior each experiment.The results obtained are
recorded in Table 2.

Electriccurrent/C 3 6 9 2 5 8 2
Mass oI cathode/g .5 . .5 .2 .25 .3 .35

(a) In iagram 2,mark the positive electrode(anode) with the symbols ¹`.

(b) raw a graph showing the quantity oI electric current versus the mass oI cathode.


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(c) From the graph drawn,determine the mass oI the cathode when the quantity oI electric
current is 2C.
.2g

(d) Based on the graph in 2(b),what is the relationship between the quantity oI electric current
and the mass oI cathode?
The larger the quantity oI electric current that Ilows,the higher the mass oI cathode.













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3. iagram 3 shows an experiment that is conducted to study the reaction between zinc and
hydrochloric acid.


The volume oI hydrogen gas that is released is recorded every 3 seconds.The results obtained
are recorded in Table 3.



(a) Based on Table 3,draw a graph oI the volume oI hydrogen gas against time.
Time/second 3 6 9 2 5 8
Volume oI hydrogen gas/cm¹ 25 38 46 5 5 5


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(b) Based on the graph drawn in 3(a),state the relationship between the volume oI gas and time
in the Iirst 9 seconds.
hen the time increases,the volume oI gas released also increases.

(c) State the variables in the experiment.
i. Manipulated : Time taken
ii. Respond : Volume oI hydrogen gas
iii. Constant : Volume and concentration oI acid

(d) Predict the volume oI hydrogen gas that is collected at 2
th
second.
5cm¹

(e) Give one other metal that can be used to replace zinc in this experiment.


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Magnesium











4. iagram 4 shows an experiment carried out the study the heat change in chemical
reactions at room temperature (28. ºC)

(a) Based on iagram 4,complete the Table 4.



(b) State the variables in this experiment.
i. Manipulated : Type oI chemical substances
ii. Respond : The Iinal temperature
iii. Constant : Volume oI distilled water

(c) hat is the hypothesis that can be made Ior this experiment?
Type oI chemical substances Initial temperature (ºC) Final temperature (ºC)
Potassium nitrate crystal 28. 22.
Sodium hydroxide crystal 28. 46.


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iIIerent type oI chemical reactions causes diIIerent changes in temperature.











SECTION B
5. iagram 5 shows the arrangement oI apparatus Ior the electroplating oI an iron nail with
copper plate.

(a) Name the process occurred.
Electrolysis

(b) hat the material is used as :
i. anode : Copper Plate
ii. cathode : Iron nail



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(c) Suggest one electrolyte that can be used to replace copper(II) sulphate solution.
Copper (II) nitrate solution.

(d) State what can be observed oI the Iollowing materials at the end oI the experiment.
i. Copper plate : becomes thinner
ii. Iron nail : is coated with a brown copper layer

(e) rite the energy transIormation that occurs in this process.
Electrical energy Chemical energy

(I) State two other uses oI the process mentioned in 5 (a).
- Extraction
- PuriIication

6. iagram 6 shows a model oI a simple voltaic cell.


(a) hat can be observed on the voltmeter?
The deIlected galvanometer needle.

(b) Give an inIerence to the observation in 6(a).
Electrical energy is produced.


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(c) rite the energy transIormation that occurs in this experiment.
Chemical energy Electrical energy

(d) i. hat will happen iI the copper plate is replaced with a carbon card?
The needle is deIlected.

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 6(d)(i).
The carbon is conducts electricity

(e) State one example oI a Iood item which can be used to replace vinegar solution.
Orange

7. iagram 7 shows the experiment to study the reaction oI sodium with water.

(a) hat happens to the sodium?
Sodium moves randomly on the surIace oI water and gives out a hissing sound.

(b) Name the gas released when sodium reacts with water.
ydrogen

(c) i. hat can be observed iI a Iew drops oI phenolphthalein indicator are dripped into


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the basin?
Pink solution Iormed.

ii. Give the property oI the solution Iormed.
lkaline.

(d) rite one chemical equation in words Ior the reaction that occurs between sodium and
water.
Sodium ¹ water Sodium hydroxide ¹ hydrogen



8. iagram 8 shows a piece oI photographic paper.The centre section is covered with a
round piece oI black paper and exposed to sunlight Ior one minute.



(a) raw your observation at the end oI the experiment.





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(b) hat is the layer that covers the photographic paper?
Silver chloride

(c) hat happens to the layer you mentioned in 8(b) when it is exposed to sunlight?
ecomposed by light energy to silver atoms oI a dark grey colour.

(d) rite an equation in words to explain the occurrence in 8(c).
Silver chloride Silver ¹ Chlorine




SECTION C
9. Study the Iollowing statement.



(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
Hypothesis : Electrical energy can be produced Irom Iruit.

(b) i. Aim : To study the production oI electrical energy Irom Iruits.

ii. Variable that
- Constant : Type oI metallic electrode
lectrical energv can be produced from fruit


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- Manipulated : Type oI Iruit
- Respond : Production oI electrical energy

iii. List oI apparatus and materials : Pineapple,orange,mango,iron plate,zinc plate,
connecting wire,crocodile clips,galvanometer

iv Procedure :
- The iron plate and zinc plate are connected with connecting wire and crocodile
clips to the galvanometer
- Both metallic plates are put into a pineapple.
- Observation oI the deIlection oI the galvanometer needle is recorded.
- The experiment is repeated using an orange and a mango.

v. Tabulation of data :






vi. Conclusion : Electrical energy is produced when two diIIerent conductors are
dipped into an electrolyte solution.



Fruit Deflection of the galvanometer needle
Pineapple
Orange
Mango


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. (a) State one method that can be used to plate the iron chain with the copper.
Electrolysis



- Copper plate is used as anode.

- Iron chain is used as cathode.

- Copper(II) chloride solution is used as electrolyte solution.



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- Switch is turned on.

(b) i. IdentiIy the problem : Extraction oI tin Iorm its ore

ii. Explain the problem : Tin needs to be separated Irom oxygen.

iii. Explain the method oI extraction :
- Method : eat the tin ore with carbon
- Method 2 : Molten tin ore is electrolysed using carbon electrode.

iv. Choose the best method and explain your choice :
Method is more suitable because it is cheaper.

. (a) iagram . shows the addition oI potassium iodine solution to the lead(II) nitrate
solution.




State Iour reasons why the above reaction is considered to be a chemical change.
i. New substances are Iormed.
ii. It involves a big chance in energy.


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iii. The chemical properties and composition oI the new substance are diIIerent Irom
those oI the original.
iv. It is not a reversible change.










(b) iagram .2 shows the physical changes in diIIerent substances.



i. - The shapes oI the substances are changed.
- No new substance is Iormed.

ii. Initial concept : The shape oI the substance changes but no new substance is Iormed


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showing a physical change.

iii. Example : Ice melting
Non-example : Iron rusting

iv. ctual report : Physical change is a process that involves the change in the shape but
does not Iorm a new substance.






CHAPTER 6 : Nuclear Energy
SECTION B
. iagram shows the deIlection oI radioactive radiation.

(a) hat are radiation X,Y and Z?
X : lpha
Y : Gamma
Z : Beta

(b) hy does ray Y not deIlect?


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Ray Y not deIlected because its neutral in terms oI electrical charges.

(c) i. hich ray can be blocked by only a sheet oI paper?
Ray X

ii. Give an inIerence Ior your answer in (c)(i).
Ray X because the penetrating power is low.

(d) hat is the best way to store radioactive substances?
Store in thick lead containers surrounded by thick concretes.

(e) i. hich ray is the most dangerous?
Ray Y.

ii. Explain your answer in (e)(i).
Ray Y because the penetrating power is high.




2. iagram 2 shows the generation oI electrical energy Irom a nuclear reactor.






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(a) hat processes take place at stages ,B and C?
: Nuclear energy is produced by nuclear Iission oI uranium in a nuclear reactor.
B : Nuclear energy is converted to heat energy and boils water to produce steam.
C : Steam under high pressure rotates the turbine and generates electricity in the
generator.

(b) State the energy transIormation that takes place during generation oI electrical energy.
Nuclear energy heat energy kinetic energy electrical energy

(c) Give two eIIects iI nuclear energy is misused.
Explosion and pollution occur.


3. iagram 3 shows the use oI a radioactive substance in detecting a leak in an underground
water pipe.

(a) State brieIly how the work in iagram 3 can be done?
- small quantity oI radioactive substance is put into water,gas/oil in an underground
pipe.
- The movement oI the radioactive substance can be traced by using the Geiger-Muller
Counter.






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(b) State two other uses oI radioactive substances.
i. Medicine : kill cancer cell
ii. Food preservation : sterilising Iood


(c) Name one material which can be used to stop beta radiation.
Thin aluminium plate

(d) State two adverse eIIects oI radioactive rays to human beings.
- Mutation
- Cancer
SECTION C

4. (a) State Iour diIIerences between alpha and beta rays.







(b) i. Problem statement :
- Protecting Irom radioactive rays
Alpha rays Beta rays
Nucleus oI helium igh speed electrons
Positive charge Negative charge
Low penetrating power igh penetrating power
Can be blocked by a sheet oI paper Can be blocked by a thin sheet oI aluminium


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- Storing radioactive substance in proper way

ii. SaIety measures :
- earing a special protective outIit
- earing a Iilm badge

iii. Method oI storage :
- Store in thick lead containers
- Surrounded by a thick concrete




5. (a) Compare isotopes and radioisotopes by using examples oI carbon-2 and carbon-4.
Similarity : Both have the same number oI proton


(b) Study the inIormation and build a concept oI beta rays.

i. IdentiIy the inIormation :
- Beta rays deIlect to positive plate
- Beta rays can penetrate through a paper but cannot penetrate through a thin
aluminium sheet.
Carbon-12 Isotopes Carbon-14 Radioisotopes
Number of electrons 6 8
Number nucleon 12 14
Emits radioactive radiation No Yes


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ii. Explain the inIormation :
- Beta rays are negatively charged
- The penetrating power oI beta rays is moderately high

iii. Initial concept : Beta rays are negatively charged and have a high penetrating
power

iv. Example : Can penetrate through thin plastic
Non-example : Cannot penetrate through thin plastic

v. ctual concept : Beta rays are rays with negative charge and have a moderately
high penetrating power.

CHAPTER 7: Light. Colour and Sight
SECTION A

. iagram . shows a part oI the light rays on a plane mirror.





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(a) Complete iagram . by drawing the light rays reaching the observer`s eye.

(b) hat is the relationship between distances X and Y?
X and Y are same distance

(c) State two characteristics oI the image Iormed.
Virtual and upright

(d) In iagram .2,draw the image Iormed on the plane mirror.Then,state the characteristic
oI that image.
Characteristic oI image : Inversed laterally

2. iagram 2. shows an obiect placed in Iront oI a pinhole camera.

(a) In iagram 2.,draw a ray diagram to show the image Iormed on the screen.

(b) State two characteristics oI the image Iormed.
Real and inverted

(c) hat is the eIIect to the image iI


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i. The size oI the pinhole is enlarged?
More bright but blur.

ii. convex lens is placed between the obiect and the pinhole?
The image will be more sharper.

iii. The pinhole camera is moved towards the obiect?
The image will be more bigger.

(d) Two more pinholes are punched in the camera as shown in iagram 2.2.raw and
label the image Iormed.

3. iagram 3 shows a .7cm high obiect placed in Iront oI a convex lens.


(a) Complete the ray diagram to show the Iormation oI an image in iagram 3.

(b) hat is the height oI the image Iormed?
.7 cm



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(c) State two characteristics oI the image Iormed.
Real and inverted.

(d) hat optical instrument possesses the obiect distance oI 2F?
Photocopy machine

(e) hy can`t the location oI the image be determined iI the obiect is less than the
Iocal length oI the lens,F?
The image is virtual.






4. iagram 4 shows an experiment carried out to determine the Iocal length oI
diIIerent convex lens.


(a) Measure the Iocal length oI the convex lenses in iagram 4 and write down their


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Iocal length in Table 4.



(b) hat is the inIerence that can be made Ior this experiment?
The thicker the thickness oI the convex lens,the shorter the Iocal length.

(c) State the variables involved in this experiment.
i. Manipulated : The thickness oI convex lens
ii. Respond : The Iocal length
iii. Constant : Light ray Irom distant obiect

(d) State the hypothesis Ior this experiment.
hen the thickness oI convex lens increases,The Iocal length will be decreases.

5. iagram 5. and iagram 5.2 show the experiment that is carried out to study the
image Iormed by a pinhole camera.

(a) raw the light rays in iagram 5. and iagram 5.2 to show the Iormation oI image.
(b) Measure the size oI the image Iormed in iagram 5. and iagram 5.2.
i. Size oI image in iagram 5. : .4 (. cm)
ii. Size oI image in iagram 5.2 : .5 (. cm)
Thickness oI the convex lens Focal length (cm)
Thin 3.6 (.)
Thick 2.4 (.)


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(c) State the variables involved in this experiment.
i. Manipulated : istant oI obiect
ii. Respond : Size oI image Iormed
iii. Constant : Size oI the obiect

(d) hat is the hypothesis that can be made in this experiment?
hen the distance oI the obiect Irom the pinhole camera decreases,the size oI image
will increases.

(e) State two characteristics oI the image Iormed in this experiment.
Real and inverted.

(I) Predict the size oI the image Iormed iI the obiect is placed 5 cm Irom the pinhole.
Less than .4 cm
SECTION B
6. iagram 6. shows the arrangement oI apparatus used to study light dispersion.


(a) i. hat happens to the white lights at the border oI the prism?
ReIracted



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ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 6(a)(i)
It is because the white light are reIracted Irom one medium to another with
diIIerent densities or angles.

(b) hat is the colour oI the light Iormed at P and Q on the white cardboard?
P : Red Q : Violet

(c) Complete the boxes below to show the sequence oI colours Iormed in the spectrum.
P(Red),Orange,Yellow,Green,Blue,Indigo,Q(Violet).

(d) similar prism is palced in the position as shown in iagram 6.2.


i. hat can be observed on the white cardboard?
hite light.

ii. State one natural phenomena in which a spectrum can be seen.
Formation oI rainbow.







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7. iagram 7 shows the structure oI a camera.


(a) Label structure X and Y.
X : iaphragm Y : Film


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(b) Name the structures oI the human eye which are analogous to structures X and Y.
X : Iris Y : Retina

(c) hat is the Iunction oI X in the camera?
Controls the size oI aperture and amount oI light that enters to the camera.

(d) ow can a sharp image be Iocused in a camera?
The lens Iocuses the image oI an obiect onto the Iilm.The lens is adiusted by the
Iocus adiuster either towards or away Irom the Iilm to obtain a sharp image.






8. iagram 8 shows the Iormation oI a rainbow aIter an evening rain.


(a) ow is a rainbow Iormed?
- Sunlight shines on the raindrop.


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- part oI the light is reIlected oII the outer surIace oI the raindrop.
- part oI the light is reIracted at the diIIerent angles in the raindrop.
- The light is split into its colour constituents through dispersion.
- The colour constituents are reIlacted oII the Iar inner surIace oI the raindrop.
- Light reIraction occurs again as it exits the raindrop. rainbow is Iormed.

(b) hat is the role oI the raindrops?
ct as a prism.

(c) State two processes that occurred to the sunlight at X?
ispersion and reIracted.

(d) hat process occurs to the sunlight at Y?
ReIlected


9. iagram 9 shows the arrangement oI apparatus to study the addition oI coloured light.

(a) hat colours are Iormed in the regions oI X,Y and Z?
X : Red Y : Magenta Z : Blue



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(b) i. OI the colours Iormed on the screen,which is the secondary colour?
Magenta.

ii. Give a reason Ior your answer in 9(b)(i).
Magenta can only be produced Irom addition oI two primary colours,blue and red.

(c) hat coloured light is Iormed in region X iI a yellow Iilter is placed in Iront oI the
red Iilter in torch P?
Red.

(d) hat coloured light is Iormed in region Z iI a green Iilter is placed in Iront oI the
blue Iilter in torch Q?
No colour Iormed.

(e) II a piece oI cyan cloth is placed under the light rays in region Y,what colour will the
cloth appear as?
Blue.
SECTION C

. Study the Iollowing statement.




(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
Hypothesis : The thicker a lens,the shorter its Iocal length.
1he spectacles of old people have shorter focal length than those of a student who is
long-sighted.1his is because the lenses in their spectacles have a different thickness.


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(b) i. Aim : To estimate the Iocal length oI a convex lens and relate it to the thickness oI
the lens.

ii. Variable that :
- Constant : Obiect distance
- Manipulated : Thickness oI the lens
- Respond : Focal length

iii. List oI apparatus and materials : Metre ruler,screen,convex lenses with vary
thickness,lens holder.





iv. Procedure :
- The arrangement oI apparatus is set up as shown in the diagram below,Iacing an
obiect outside the window.
- The screen is adiusted until a sharp image is Iormed on it.
- The Iocal length is measured with a metre ruler.
- The experiment is repeated using lenses oI diIIerent thickness.

v. Tabulation of data :
Thickness oI the lens Focal length, I/cm


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vi Conclusion : thick convex lens has a short Iocal length while a thin convex lens has
a long Iocal length.











. (a) Contrast the mechanism oI Iocusing and the mechanism oI controlling the amount
oI light entering the human eye and the camera.
Mechanism of focusing :
- Eye : Focussing is done when thickness oI the lens is regulated by the ciliary
body.
- Camera : Focussing is done by regulating the distance between the lens and
the Iilm.
Mechanism oI controlling the amount oI light :
Thin
Thick


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- Eye : The amount oI light entering the eyes is controlled by the iris.
- Camera : The amount oI light entering the camera is controlled by the
diaphragm.

(b) Explain how the student can build one device to solve his problem.
i. Problem statement : Seeing an obiect behind the wall.

ii. Name oI the device : Periscope

iii. Name oI the light principle that applied : ReIlection

iv. Step in building the device :
- Two plane mirrors are arranged parallel to one another at an angle oI
45º.
- Light rays Irom the Iirst mirror are incident to the surIace oI the second
mirror.
- The second mirror reIlects the light rays to the eyes oI the student.
2. (a) Compare the images Iormed by a concave lens and a magniIying glass.
- The images Iormed by a concave lens and a magniIying glass are virtual
and upright.
- magniIying glass Iorms a bigger image than the obiect.

(b) iagram 2 shows the colours that appear in the screen when white light is passed
through the coloured Iilters.


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i. IdentiIy the problem :
- red Iilter only allows green light to pass through it.
- green Iilter only allows green light to pass through it.

ii. IdentiIy two common characteristics :
- Red and green coloured Iilters only allow their own colours to pass
through them.
- Other colours are absorbed by red and green coloured Iilters.

iii. Initial concept :
Red and green coloured Iilters only allow their own colours to pass through
them but absorb other colours showing that they are primary colours.

iv. Example : Blue
Non-example : Yellow,cyan,magenta

v. ctual concept :
Primary Iilters only allow their own colours to pass through them but absorbed
other colours.


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CHAPTER 8 : Chemicals in Industry

SECTION A

1. iagram shows that a steel ball is attached to the surIace oI a pure copper block with
cellophane tape.


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weight is dropped on atop oI the copper block Irom a height oI 5 cm. The diameter oI
dent Iormed is recorded. The experiment is repeated with a bronze block. Table shows
the result oI the experiment.
Ex periment verage diameter oI dent/mm
iameter oI dent on pure copper block/mm 4.2
iameter oI dent on bronze block/mm 3.8
Table 1
(a) Based on the results on the experiment, which block is harder?
Bronze block.

(b) hat is relationship between the diameter oI dent Iormed and the hardness oI metal
or alloy?
The smaller the diameter oI the dent Iormed, the harder is the metalor alloy.

(c) hat hypothesis can be made Irom this experiment?
The diameter oI a dent Iormed on the pure copper block is bigger.

(d) State the variable that
(i) Is kept constant
eight oI the weight.
(ii) Is manipulated
Type oI block
(iii) Respond
iameter oI dent.
(e) eIine alloy operationally based on the results oI the experiment.
lloy is a material in which the depression produced on it is smaller.


2. iagram 2 shows the experiment to study the rusting oI metals.



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Both test tubes with their contents are leIt Ior three days. The results are recorded in
Table 2.

Type of nails Observations
Iron nail Rust
Stainless steel nail

Table 2

(a) Complete Table 2 by showing what has happened to the stainless steel nail at the end
oI the experiment.
oes not rust.

(b) hich nail is more resistant to corronsion?
Stainless steel nail.

(c) State the variable
( i ) is kept constant : Volume and concentration oI sodium chloride solution.
( ii) is manipulated : Type oI nail.
( iii) responds :Rusting oI the nail.

(d) eIine alloy operationally based on the observation oI the experiment.
lloy is a material which does not rust.

SECTION B

3. Brass and steel are two examples oI alloy.Brass which consists oI copper and another
element is harder than pure copper.

(a) hat element is mixed with copper to Iorm brass?


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Zinc.

(b) hat type oI particles is Iound in pure copper?
tom.

(c) raw and label the arrangement oI particles in pure copper and in brass.


(d) Explain why brass is harder than pure copper.
The atoms in pure copper are the same in size and are packed closely.Layers oI these
atoms easily slide over one another when Iorce is applied.The zinc and copper atoms
in brass are oI diIIerent sizes.This disrupts the arrangement oI the layers oI atoms
and make them diIIicult to slide over one another.

(e) State the pure metal and Ioreign atoms that Iorm steel.
Pure metal : Iron
Foreign atom : Carbon
4. iagram 4 shows the disposal oI industrial waste Irom a chemical Iactory that
manuIactures chemicals needed Ior the growth oI crops.


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(a) State one product that could be produced by the Iactory.
Fertiliser.

(b) State two pollutants that might be disposed Irom the Iactory into the river.
Nitrate and phosphate compounds

(c) State one adverse eIIects oI the pollutants in 4(b) on the environment.
isrupt the balance oI aquatic ecosystem.

(d) The Iactory uses petroleum as the source energy.
i. State one acidic gas produced in the burning oI Iossil Iuel.
Sulphur dioxide

ii. State one method to control air pollutant in 4(d)(i) Irom the Iactory.
issolve the gas using air cleaner system beIore release to air.

5. ir pollution is caused by the burning oI Iossil Iuel Irom Iactories.



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(a) Give three examples oI pollutants which may be contained in the smoke released
Irom Iactory chimneys.
Carbon monoxide,dust and sulphur dioxide.

(b) i. hat happens iI acidic gas dissolves in rain water?
cid rain.

ii. State one eIIect oI pollution to the environment and human health caused by the
event in 5(b)(i).
Environment : Lower p value uman health : Respiratory system

(c) Suggest one way how Iactories can reduce the release oI acidic gas into the air.
issolve the gas using air cleaner system beIore release to air.

(d) part Irom Iactories,what other source that causes poisonous gases to be releases to the
surroundings?
Motor vehicles





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6. Study the Iollowing statement.



(a) Suggest one hypothesis to investigate the above statement.
Hypothesis : stainless steel nail does not rust easily compared to an iron nail.

(b) i. Aim : To study the resistance oI stainless steel nail to rusting.

ii. Variable that :
- Constant : Concentration and volume oI sodium chloride solution.
- Manipulated : Type oI nail
- Respond : Rusting oI nail

iii. List oI apparatus and materials : .5 mol dm¯¹ sodium chloride solution,iron nail,
stainless steel nail,test tubes,test tube rack.

iv. Procedure :
- Test tubes and B are each Iilled with 5 cm¹ oI sodium chloride solution.
- n iron nail is put into test tubes and stainless steel nail into test tube B.
- Both test tubes are leIt on a rack Ior three days.
- Observation oI the nails is recorded.

v. Tabulation of data :
Type of nail Observation
Ìron nails left outside the house rust easily
compared to stainless steel nail.


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vii. Conclusion : lloy is more resistant to rust than pure metal.


















7. (a) State one process that can be used to produce this chemical substance.Explain.
Iron nail
Stainless steel nail


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- aber process
- One volume oI nitrogen and three volumes oI hydrogen are used.
- Temperatures between 45-5 °C and 2-5 atmosphere pressure.
- Iron Iilings are used as the catalyst.

(b) Explain how he can prepare ammonia Iertilizer by using the Iollowing substances.
i. mmonium sulphate
ii. Crystallisation
iii. - Excess ammonia solution is added to sulphuric acid.
- The mixture is heated until saturated.
- The solution is leIt to cool.
- mmonium sulphate crystals are produced.















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8. (a) State Iour diIIerences between bronze and copper.

Bronze Copper
Mixture oI copper and tin Consists oI copper only
arder SoIter
Stronger Less strong
Can withstand corrosion Cannot withstand corrosion

(b) i. IdentiIy the common characteristics :
- Contain two or more metals
- Stronger than pure metals


ii. Initial concept : Substance that contains two or more metals and is stronger
compared to pure metals is an alloy.

iii. Example : Bronze
Non-example : Tin

iv. Actual concept : Alloy is a substance that contains two or more metals and is
more stronger compared to pure metals.




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