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In Carnival Mode
he global construction industry's output is all set to reach a phenomenal US$ 12 trillion by 2020, a 70% increase from this year's figure of US$ 7.2 trillion, according to a recent report by Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics. It comes as no surprise to many to find India amongst the big boys of global economy vis-à-vis China and the US to be partly responsible for half of the US$ 4.8 trillion increase in output. Not in awe for the reason that it is perceptible to the world that the Indian Infrastructure sector is passing through one of its most exciting periods in history. The need for world class infrastructure, which is so crucial for growth and development has never been felt so strongly before by policy makers. Infrastructure projects such as nuclear plants, mass public transport systems, expressways, highways, flyovers, and world class airports that will empower our dreams are being envisioned keeping in mind the long term perspectives. Expansion in areas of rural infrastructure, irrigation, water resource management and environmental engineering is expected to get top priority in the 12th five year plan, as the UPA realigns itself to make growth truly inclusive by reaching out to rural areas. India's water market is one of the largest in the world with an annual growth rate nearing 20%. The PPP model will be critical to accelerate growth and increase output and efficiencies in this sector. In addition, significant steps to foster infrastructure growth in our country are innovative measures like long term contractual partnership between private and public sector agencies, specifically financing, designing, implementing, and operating infrastructure facilities. Similarly, the road network across the country aggregating over 33 lakh km, with 70,548 km of National Highways, 1, 31,899 km of state highways, 4, 67,763 km of major district roads and 26,50,000 km of rural and other roads that needs expansion and overhauling throws open immense opportunities. The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI), after experiencing a period of lull last year, also saw a change at the helm of affairs in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, and is targeting 100 road projects during the fiscal. Along with urbanization, steps need to be taken to ensure environmental protection too. We need to step up the projects pertaining to renewable energy and water conservation to ensure a sustainable development. The Union Budget 2011 has sent the right signals to the infrastructure industry and this should provide the necessary fillip to enhance the overall growth and development in the country. On the whole, it looks certain that the country's infrastructure sector is in carnival mode and is bound to witness good times ahead.
K.P Pradeep, Editor-in-Chief
H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd
Editor's Comment.......................14 News & Events............................20
CE: Road Construction
Extreme Utility Machines In Large Earthmoving Projects
94 116 124 128 138 142 144 150
Building Information Modeling
Emma Stewart, Ph.D.
The Battle to Bring Buildings Back to Basics
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
Dr. Prabhat Kumar,Distinguised Scientist & Project Director, Bhavini L. Swamy Raju, Additional Chief Engineer (Civil), Bhavini V. Manoharan, Additional Chief Engineer (Civil), Bhavini
India's Ambitious Plan Electricity Production By Nuclear Reactors
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
Kit Miyamoto, M.S., S.E., President & CEO, Lon M. Determan, S.E., Project Manager Amir Gilani, PhD, P.E., Project Engineer, Marr Shaffer & Miyamoto, Inc. West Sacramento, CA, Robert D. Hansen, PhD, P.E., Professor Emeritus University of Michigan Walnut Creek, CA
Seismic Rehabilitation of Historic Concrete Structure with Fluid Visco-Elastic Dampers
Infrastructure: Nuclear Power Plants
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment
Opting for Nuclear Power ? Be Clear & Design Smart
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
Design Considerations for Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Marine Environments
CONEXPO-CON/AGG Show Lifts the Spirits of US Construction Industry
Amith Indurthi, Resident Correspondent, USA
Atef Cheaitani,Chief Technology Officer Savcor Group Ltd, Sydney, Australia M N Ramesh,Chief Executive Officer Savcor India Private Limited, Bangalore, India
Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
Road Construction Equipment Sector Ready for the Bull Run
Repair : Polymer Modification
Flexible Polymer-Cement Repair Materials and their Applications
Ivan Razl, Ph.D., P.Eng. Gemite Products Inc., Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
Executive Briefing' A Chat with JCB's Chief Alchemist Vipin Sondhi
Corrosion Control: Technologies
New Roll Out
Emerging Corrosion Control Technologies for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures*
JCB Rolls Out New Diesel Engine for Off-Highway Vehicles
Dr. Qiu Jianhai, BEng PhD CEng MIMMM FICorr, NACE Certified Corrosion Specialist (#5047) WebCorr Corrosion Consulting Services
CE: Road Construction
Extreme Utility Machines in Large Earthmoving Projects
Post Event Analysis
2nd International Conference on Construction Chemicals Speakers Highlight Role of Construction Chemicals for a Sustainable Tomorrow
High-tech Road Building Intelligent Compaction Shows the Way
14 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd
156 162 170 176 183 184 190 194 196 198
Earth Moving Equipment: New Technology
Automatic Navigation Control Systems in Earthmoving Equipment Breaking New Ground
200 204 208 212 214 218 220 222 223 224 226
CE: Company Focus
Mobile Crushing, Screening and Washing Equipment from Powerscreen
Paving the Way to the Future
Gmmco-Caterpillar Celebrate 25 Years of Partnership
Analysing Asphalt Plants' A Key Ingredient to Success
Blesson Varghese, Director, Marini in India
Hoover Dam Bypass An Engineering Marvel
Modular Building: Rating
Liugong India Eyes US$ 175 Million Annual Revenue by 2012
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™
TIL Introduces Double Barrel Technology to India
Design of Place Lalla Yeddouna in Fez - Competition Winners Announced
R Nandagopal, Vice President Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL Limited [A part of material handling solutions division]
STAXO 40 The Lightweight, Economical, Safe and Efficient Shoring System
Profile: Shoring System
One Day Flooring
Subash Cipy, Managing Director, Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt. Ltd
Construcion Chemicals: Company Focus
Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd now Part of DCP International
Face to Face
Mr. Ajay Mohta, General Manager Construction Accessories Division, The Supreme Industries Ltd.
Industry Interaction “DURAmembrane is a versatile material”
Smart Reset Self-Repairing Automatic Flexible Door
Disaster Management Buzz
Putzmeister @ Fukushima Nuclear Plant
Equipment: New Roll Out
New High Pressure Concrete Pump from REL
Construction Chemicals Industry Captains See Happy Days Ahead
Akhil Kakkar, General Manager, Kryton Buildmat
ERP for SMEs
Kunal Mehta, Managing Director, SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd.
E Surveying Solutions Simplifying Survey Engineering Drawings
Putzmeister M32 at work in Alakhnanda Hydro Project
16 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Action Construction Equipment Ltd 137, 139, 141 81 203 131 31,39 Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Back Cover Hormann India Pvt.Ltd Hyundai Construction Equipment India Pvt.Ltd JBA Concrete Solutions Pvt.Ltd JCB India Ltd JSW Serverfield Structures Ltd 199 9 Rockwool (India) Ltd Savcor India Private Limited Schwing Stetter (I) Pvt.Ltd SEC-RJMT Engineering Pvt.Ltd Seven Hills Safety Equipments and Systems (P) Limited Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd Simpson & Co.Ltd SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Sleek Boards India Ltd Soilmec Foundation Equipment Pvt.Ltd Speedcrafts Ltd STP Ltd Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd Terex India Pvt.Ltd TIL Ltd The Supreme Industries Ltd Tunnel Design & Construction (IQPC -Singapore) Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt.Ltd Unipave Engineering Products 193 173, 175
55 45 187 207 101 119 225 111 27 161 107
Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt.Ltd Amogha Road Equipment Asons Enterprise Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Bridge Seminar Bomanite India Case Construction Equipment Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) Cico Technologies Ltd Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd
159 Flap Front Cover- 2
21 187 59 53 63 203
Kamaz Vectra Motors Ltd Kryton Buildmat Co.Pvt.Ltd Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd Liugong India Pvt.Ltd Lucky International Back Inner 29
61 85 91
SSA Techno Construction Pvt. Ltd. 207
Machines & Engineering Company 113 Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd MB subscription form Metecno India Pvt.Ltd MM Castings (P) Ltd Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd Partnership Contracting (Hongkong) Pidilite (Dr.Fixit) PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd Ramtec RD Mining Equipments Pvt.Ltd Reliance Industries Ltd Revathi Equipment Ltd Relyon Facility Services 173 211 Front Inner- 2 127
Gatefold 71 73 41 215
Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd 179 Cosmos Sales Corporation Dextra India Pvt.Ltd Doka India Pvt.Ltd Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd E Surveying Solutions Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd Fayat India Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Greaves Cotton Ltd 153
197 19 49
217 77 15 23
199 123, 165,197 Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd 203,225
103 Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd 155 Unisteel Engineering Works Unitech Exhibitions - Roof India Viki Industries (P) Ltd Vimtech Corporation Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd 97 221
207 89 169 93 207
135 Front Inner- 1
H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd 13
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Advertisers Index / Classification_______________
Concrete Block Making Machinery Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Back Cover Machines & Engineering Company 113 Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd 203 Concrete Pipes Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Concrete Pump Manufacturers Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd Schwing Stetter (I) Pvt.Ltd Construction Chemicals Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) Construction Equipment Greaves Cotton Ltd Construction Equipment & Machinery Action Construction Equipment Ltd Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt Ltd Amogha Road Equipment Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Case Construction Equipment Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipments Pvt.Ltd Fayat India Hyundai Construction Equipment India Pvt.Ltd JCB India Ltd Liugong India Pvt.Ltd Machines & Engineering Company Revathi Equipment Ltd Schwing Stetter (I) Pvt.Ltd SEC-RJMT Engineering Pvt.Ltd SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Speedcrafts Ltd TIL Ltd Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt.Ltd Unipave Engineering Products Unisteel Engineering Works Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd Vimtech Corporation Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd Crushing Equipment RD Mining Equipments Pvt.Ltd 89 137, 139, 141 81 203 31 21 63 179 10 9 Flap 85 113 93 45 187 225 161 73 193 103 97 Particle Board 155 Front Inner- 1 35 Sleek Boards India Ltd Repair and Rehabilation Cico Technologies Ltd Pidilite (Dr.Fixit) Savcor India Private Limited 59 77 55 111 OEM Suppliers Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd MM Castings (P) Ltd Simpson & Co.Ltd 203,225 127 119 Turbine Ventillators PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd Waterproofing Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd Kryton Buildmat Co.Pvt.Ltd Pidilite (Dr.Fixit) Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd SSA Techno Construction Pvt. Ltd. STP Ltd The Supreme Industries Ltd 187 49 29 77 101 207 107 41 15 Material Handling Equipments Esquire - CMAC Pvt.Ltd Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd 123, 165,197 173 Formwork Doka India Pvt.Ltd Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd Foundation Equipment Soilmec Foundation Equipment P.Ltd Green Building Materials Ramtec 27 207 19 Gatefold Terex India Pvt.Ltd Doors-Automatic Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Hormann India Pvt.Ltd 39 Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd Dozers 23 45 Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Facility Services 49 187 Relyon Facility Services Fire and safety Equipments Seven Hills Safety Equipments and Systems (P) Limited Flooring Bomanite India Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd JBA Concrete Solutions Pvt.Ltd Reliance Industries Ltd 147 53 159 169 207 Software E Surveying Solutions Splicing Systems Dextra India Pvt.Ltd Steel Structures JSW Serverfield Structures Ltd Tensile Membrane Lucky International Thermal Insulation Rockwool (India) Ltd TMT Viki Industries (P) Ltd TMT-Technology Suppliers H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd Truck Manufacturers Kamaz Vectra Motors Ltd 199 197 207 63 11 199 175 71 Roofing Metecno India Pvt.Ltd Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd Lucky International Roofing Fastners Asons Enterprise Rubber MDF Sleek Boards India Ltd Scaffolding Cosmos Sales Corporation Front Inner- 2 61 91
Front Cover - 2
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Doka India Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
Indian Market Helps in World Construction Equipment Market Upturn
The research survey indicated that the Indian market would become a potentially 11, 00,000 units market by 2015. The survey also pointed out to the fact that India is the third largest equipment market in the world after China and the United States.
Testing Times for Japanese Construction Equipment Majors
The recent devastating earthquake in Japan has caused extensive damage to some of the country's major construction equipment factories. Big names including Hitachi and Komatsu have seen their production being disrupted.
and New Holland, two leading brands in the construction equipment domain has now consolidated its position in the growing Indian market with the buyout of Larsen & Toubro's (L &T) stake in their joint venture. The joint venture includes a widespread distribution network of 56 dealers and 144 outlets, apart from a modern production facility in Pithampur, near Indore in Madhya Pradesh. The company has announced that it would rename the business 'Case New Holland Construction Equipment India', hitherto and would continue to come out with new product offerings apart from strengthening its presence in the country. Speaking on the development, CNH Global President and CEO Mr. Harold Boyanovsky remarked “This is an important step in our long term commitment to consolidate our construction equipment business in India and in other export markets and to develop a manufacturing base in India fully integrated in the CNH worldwide industrial footprint.” Mr.Boyanovsky further added that "The Pithampur plant will be in a position to make the most of the opportunities for growth that the sector offers today and in the future.” The plant is currently being used for the manufacture of vibratory compactors and backhoe loaders. The new venture now joins CNH's agricultural equipment base in India, New Holland Fiat India. Terming the development of the company's decision to exit the joint venture Mr.J.P ,Nayak, President of L & T said that it is part of the stream-
The increase in construction equipment sales in India, China, North America, Western Europe, and Japan has attributed to the world construction equipment market being on the upturn to the levels of 2007. The market for construction equipment in these regions is expected to grow + 8.5 percent in 2011 and touch 8, 07,665 units, according to the research done by Off-Highway Research. The previous high witnessed by the market was in 2007 when a volume of 7, 82,661 units were sold all over the world. According to the research the resurgence is being led by the remarkable growth in the India and Chinese markets. The two markets are expected to account for not less than 70 percent of the construction equipment sales in 2011. This is a substantial increase compared to the figure of 40 percent in 2007. The Indian market enjoyed a growth rate of + 4.5 percent with 59,322 units being sold. While the growth rate of the Indian market is expected to zoom to + 19.3 percent, it is expected to remain a more modest +6.7 for the Chinese market.
With India being one of the dependent markets on Japanese exports when it comes to construction equipment, the impact is also likely to be felt here in a few days' time. Five of Hitachi's factories are said to have suffered damage in the quake. Komatsu is also reported to have suffered damage to its heavy equipment plants located in various parts of the country. Kubota is another big name that has a presence in the affected region, but the company has not come out with any official reports about any damage.
CNH Acquires Full Ownership of Indian Construction Equipment Joint Venture
CNH, which is the parent of Case
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Case Constructions Equipment
News & Events
lining process. "We have an excellent relationship with our partner, and wish them all success in India”, he added.
SC Notice to Indo-Italian JV
The Supreme Court has issued notices to Italian firm Ansaldo Caldaie Boilers and its Indian partner Gammon India over an appeal , that was filed by power major, NTPC, seeking restriction of the joint venture from participation in a Rs.15,000 crore tender for super-critical power equipment. A Delhi High Court verdict earlier had permitted the joint venture to participate in the bidding process for the supply tender. A bench consisting of Justices Cyriac Joseph and Altamas Kabir remarked that it would pass orders only after proper hearing of all the parties concerned. Solicitor General Gopal Subramanium, appearing for NTPC said that the joint venture was formed for supply of super-critical power equipment to the state-run company. However, the bid was rejected by NTPC since the Italian firm did not have the capacity to design the particular equipment and did not fulfil the minimum criteria that were stipulated as part of the techno-commercial tender.
Solicitor General. Chennai-based ACB India is a JV between Ansaldo Caldaie, an Italian boiler manufacturer, and Gammon India, which holds a 73.4 per cent stake.
Ashok Leyland Aims Big
Industry Majors Demand Environmentally Positive Regulations
Vinod Dasari- MD- Ashok Leyland Ltd. "We will adopt a multi-pronged stratergy."
Ashok Leyland's new Managing Director Mr.Vinod Dasari has told media personnel that the company will strive for doubling its sales of trucks in the next five years and also aim for a slot in the top ten truck companies in the world. The company put up an impressive performance with sales of 94,100 vehicles in 2010-11. The target achieved by the company gives it a rank “close to 20” among global truck makers. The company's board has set ambitious targets for attaining a position among the top ten truck makers in the world. “This will effectively mean doubling our current sales,” said Mr Dasari, who took over as the Managing Director from Mr.R. Seshasayee. Mr. Dasari also said that the company would be launching the “Avia' medium duty vehicles in the country in a year's time. Among other observations, Mr. Dasari said that the company, apart from aggressively promoting the Ashok Leyland brand is also considering an entry into the boat building industry.
Environmentally positive construction equipment by 2020 is what has been demanded through new regulations by leading players in the domain. With increasing focus on emission control norms, manufacturers are now under pressure to come out with machines that are compatible with the seemingly ever-changing norms. A new set of tough regulations has been demanded by the industry to ensure that construction machines make a positive contribution to environment, carbon dioxide emissions, and noise pollution. There has been growing demand for construction machines that emit fewer pollutants. The new regulations are aimed at producing construction equipment that will mandate zero emission of particulates, carbon monoxide and hydro carbons from 2020. Similarly, the regulations are sought to make the machines not only quiet, but also ensure that they absorb any extraneous noise from their immediate environment. The regulations also aim to ensure that radical new laws are implemented in order to ensure that machines are built using low carbon materials.
Senior Advocate, Gopal Subramanium
Senior Counsel Mukul Rohatagi, appearing for the Italian firm argued that the firm had all the requisite experience and had fulfilled all the parameters to participate in the bidding process. NTPC would maintain status quo on the tendering process till the issue was resolved according to the
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
Anil Sardana,said "this project further contributes to our clean fuel portfolio and reinforces our sustainability agenda. Our association with SN Power has been fruitful and rewarding and is in line with our growth strategy to build global relationships and partnerships with the organisations which are leading performers in their field."
Tata Power JV Bags 236 MW Hydropower Project
US$ 250 mn ADB Loan for Bangalore Metro
` 6, 000-cr Thermal Power Project Beginning to Take Shape
A 6,000 crore thermal power plant project is going to come up in Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh. The project will mark the stepping into the power generation domain by state-owned Singareni Collieries Co Ltd (SCCL), which was till now majorly in coal mining projects. Financial closure for the project has been achieved according to media reports. The total debt component of Rs.4,000 crore for the proposed 2 x
Anil Sardana, MD, Tata Teleservices, “this project further contributes to our clean fuel portfolio and reinforces our sustainability agenda.”
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has loaned an amount of US $ 250 million for the Bangalore metro project to the Indian government. The project which is scheduled for completion in 2013 will consist of 42.3 km of track, equipment, sleek new stations, and rolling stock for the two key routes that it will cover in the Indian IT capital. Bangalore Metro Rail Corporation is the special purpose vehicle which has been formed to carry out the project. Japan International Cooperation Agency has also provided funds for the project. Loans from commercial sources are also being utilized for the project.
Tata Power has announced that its consortium with SN Power, a Norwaybased firm, has won the rights to build a 236 MW hydroelectric power plant in the northern part of India.Tata Power and SN Power Norway entered into an exclusive partnership in 2009 to develop hydro-power projects to meet the increasing demand in India and Nepal through the provision of clean energy. The company in a statement said that the Dugar Hydroelectric project in Himachal Pradesh would be developed through a special purpose vehicle. A detailed exploration and design study will then be taken to plan and finalise the project implementation. The pre-implementation agreement will be signed with the Directorate of Energy, Himachal Pradesh government. It however, did not disclose the financial details of the project. Tata Power's managing director,
S NarsingRao, Chairman & MD, Singareni Collieries
New Hurdle for Hyderabad Metro Project
A new hurdle seems to be crop from seemingly nowhere for the Hyderabad Metro Rail (HMR) project, almost every passing day. If it was shop owners who didn't want the line to be passing close to their buildings some time ago, it is now the time of foundation stone ceremony, which could potentially delay the project.
600 MW power project will be provided by the Power Finance Corporation (PFC), according to Mr. S NarsingRao, the Chairman and Managing Director of the company. The project is likely to be completed and be operational by April 2014.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
News & Events
During FY11, around 5,000 km of road construction was awarded, which was much below the targeted 9,000 km mark. “However, this is the highest awarding done so far in the history of NHDP This translates into . approximately 14 km per day, versus the initial target of 20 km per day,” says a Sharekhan report offering some optimism to the beleaguered sector. With the state government keen to invite the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh or UPA Chairperson Mrs. Sonia Gandhi for the foundation stone laying ceremony, officials fear that they would need to wait at least for two months since it is tough to secure the appointment of the VVIPs. Incidentally the concessionaire L & T had achieved the financial closure for `16,375 crore in a record six month's time for the project. The project has been facing delays right from the time the contract was awarded to Maytas in 2008 and subsequently terminated resulting in fresh bids and the award of the project to L & T in 2009. There were recently protests against the metro project from some sections which were of the view that the line would mean the demolition of some heritage buildings. Industry experts believe that though tough, it is possible to achieve the much touted target of executing 20 km a day by FY 13. Although a Herculean task, it is believed that with better handling of land acquisition issues, the required pace can be maintained.
Chief Engineer, A.P Bahadur
constitute only about 6 percent of the total road network in the country. Industry analysts feel that more often than not, safety features such as flyovers and underpasses are the first to become a casualty, right at the design stage. In a recently held seminar on road safety to highway engineers and design consultants Mr. A.P Bahadur, former Chief Engineer, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways had said “ The original (proposed) project cost for building that stretch ( Delhi and Agra) was an estimated `8.56 crore a km. We were told to reduce the cost”. The cost was bought down to `3.6 a km. Mr. Bahadur further added “To do this, the features that were knocked off included 15 minor bridges, 29 vehicular underpass, 59 pedestrian underpasses, 25 flyovers, and stretches of service roads.” Mr. Bahadur wanted engineers to put their foot down and insist on safety features and make sure that they record on file that they had suggested safety features but had to comprise to reduce costs.
Aggressive bidding is expected once the process for awarding road projects starts in the next few months. This is considered a turnaround for the sector which had come in for harsh criticism for lack of initiatives for driving ahead the progress of projects.
Road Projects set to be Focus Area in FY'12
The road sector is showing sure signs of revival, thanks to the criticism of the government on that front from all quarters, according to industry experts. The signs are visible from the fact that bidding for new road projects by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) has gained momentum recently, after the lull experienced last year.
Quality; the Sufferer in Highway Projects
Quality seems to have taken a back seat when it comes to highway projects in the country. Highway engineers have been reportedly quoted saying that increasing pressure from the Planning Commission and the Finance Ministry has meant that safety has taken a beating in highway projects. It is interesting here to note that around 60 percent of the fatalities in road accidents take place in National and State Highways, even though they
NHAI Chief's Term Extended
The tenure of the National highways Authority of India (NHAI)
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in 25
News & Events
Chief, Mr. R.S Gujral, has been extended till June 30th the government said in an announcement. The Centre is planning constructing two new expressways linking Jaipur and Chandigarh with the national capital. The construction cost of the projects would be around an estimated US $3 billion. "The Centre has decided to build Delhi Jaipur and Delhi-Chandigarh expressways. Ministry officials will take up the issue with states of Delhi, Rajasthan, and Haryana. Once they come on board, we will get the detailed project report," Road Transport and Highways Minister Mr. C.P Joshi has been quoted saying in media reports. The Centre is also re-examining a proposal that envisages setting up of an Expressway Authority of India (EAI) on the lines of the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). There are plans to build over 18,000 km of expressway entailing an investment of ` 4, 50,000 crore. The minister reportedly told that there was a need for the new expressways in view of the increased traffic between the cities.
for the speedy industrial development of the two districts. The corridor connects important cities in Rajasthan with those in Madhya Pradesh.
Six Laning of Ahmedabad-Vadodara Highway Cleared
The Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure has cleared the six laning of the Ahmedabad-Vadodara section in NH-8. The total stretch of 102.3 km will be built on Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis in BOT (toll) mode of delivery. The cost of the project is estimated to be ` 2,37.76 crore, with the concession period being 25 years, which includes the construction period of 36 months. The stretch is strategically important since it covers the industrial districts of Ahmedabad, Kheda, Anand, and Vadodara.
Mr. R.S Gujral
It also said that the process for appointing the regular Chairman is going on. Mr. Gujral, Road Transport and Highways Secretary, was given the additional charge of NHAI Chairman for three months with effect from January 1 this year. “We have given extension to Mr. Gujral for another three months. Meanwhile, the process is on for selection of a regular Chairman for NHAI,” the Road Minister, Mr. C.P Joshi has . reportedly said on the issue.
Four Laning of Kota-Teendhar Highway Approved
The four laning of the Kota Teendhar Highway has been approved by the Cabinet Committee on Infrastructure. The 88.9 km stretch on National Highway -12 will be developed on Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) basis on BOT (toll) mode of delivery. The total project cost is pegged at ` 580.79 crore, with the concession period being 25 years, including the construction period of 30 months. The project covers the districts of Jhalawar and Kota in Rajasthan. The project is considered crucial
Expressways to Link Delhi to Jaipur, Chandigarh
The section is an important stretch in the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) network, which links the two major cities in Gujarat with Mumbai. Apart from further improving trade and commerce in the cities, the project is also expected to provide employment to thousands of labourers in the region.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
it is planning to allow the ports to raise the amount themselves. “We are yet to take a final decision. Major ports are one of the options for raising the money,” Mr. K Mohandas, Secretary in the Shipping Ministry has been quoted saying in press reports. “They will need some agency to raise this money, like National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) does. It doesn't seem very feasible for port authorities to raise the money,” Mr.Vishwas Udgirkar, senior director, Deloitte, has reportedly said in media reports. According to industry sources the ministry is also planning to set up a Maritime Finance Corporation (MFC). The money that will be raised will be used to finance the infrastructure requirements and dredging operations of the various major ports.
Paradip Port Plans Expansion
The Paradip Port Trust (PPT) is chalking out ambitious expansion plans and intends to raise capacity over three times to 237 million tonnes by 2020. Interestingly this is despite the 1.72 percent decline in cargo throughout 2010-2011.
India, according to Mr.P.Mara Pandiyan, Chairman of MPT. The Chairman said that the construction of a berth, mainly for berthing of non-cargo vessels, including cruise ships, is scheduled to be completed by August. The plan also envisages the development of a 4MTPA mechanized coal import terminal at existing berth No.11 on design, build, finance, operate and transfer (DBFOT) basis. Mr. Pandiyan also added that the development of coal handling terminal at berth No.7 on DBFOT basis is under progress with the scheduled date of commencement of operation pegged at May 2013.
“The port will increase its capacity from 76 million tonnes to 237 mt by the year ending 2020 to become the number one port in the country, elevating its position from fifth place,” PPT Chairman, Mr. G.J. Rao told media persons recently. There are plans to establish an oil jetty and a multipurpose berth with 15mt capacity added Mr.Rao. The port also intends to undertake massive dredging works to handle large sized vessels. The capacity expansion is being undertaken at the port keeping in view the future requirements.
Govt Mulls Tax-Free Bonds from Major Ports to Fund their Infra Projects
Rural Infrastructure Development Activities on the Rise
There has been a spurt in rural infrastructure development activities around the country. With the government launching the Bharat Nirman, its flagship program for boosting rural infrastructure, there has been definite positive effects that are visible in several areas. Infrastructure including, water, irrigation facilities, housing, electrification, telecommunication and roads are now the areas of focus in several parts of the country in rural areas. The Pradhan Mantri Gramin Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) has been instrumental in the increase in good quality roads around the country in rural interiors. Similarly, the Rajiv Gandhi
Mormugao Port Expansion Plans
The Mormugao Port Trust (MPT) has crossed the 50 million tonnes cargo figure during 2010-11 and is now one of the most important ports in the country. The port has secured the 7th position among the 12 major ports of
Mr. K Mohandas, Secretary Shipping Ministry
The government is reportedly considering allowing major ports to raise Rs.5, 000 Crore from tax-free bonds. The highlight however, is that
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Kryton Buildmat Co.Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
spread over around 8 sq km and would offer all facilities needed for setting up manufacturing units. The DIPP is seeking sops including, flexible labour, tax incentives, refinance facility, simpler exit norms for foreign investors, etc, for these facilities, according to industry sources. Grameen Vidyuttikaran Yojana (RGGVY) which had targeted to cover over 175 lakh below poverty line households in one lakh villages has also been a success. Another 42 lakh houses are to be covered under the scheme by the end of this fiscal year.
Construction Works at Kutch Branch Canal (KBC) Project to Begin
Five Key Water Supply Projects in Trouble
Five key water supply projects that are intended to quench the thirst of Mumbaikars have run into trouble with locals' opposing them tooth and nail. It is the demand of the locals that the projects should first of all provide water to locals and the tribal population in the area before water reaches Mumbai. Most of the projects that are facing stiff opposition are being executed by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA). Dams are proposed to be build over Kalu and Shai Rivulets as per the plan. Similarly there is an ambitious plan to bring water from Surya Dam in Thane to the western suburbs in the city.
Govt Mulls Mega Manufacturing Hubs
Hon'ble Chief Minister, Gujarat, Shri Narendra Modi
The construction works related to the Kutch Branch Canal (KBC) project, which is part of the Sardar Sarovar Project, is all set to begin. The Chief Minister of Gujarat, Mr.Narendra Modi will lay the foundation stone for the five major construction works related to the project in a few days time. Speaking about the Sardar Sarovar project, the State Water Supply Minister Mr.Nitin Patel said that the project would ensure gravity-based flow of Narmada water in the entire Kutch district. He also said that three pumping stations would be set up at a cost of `518 crore for the purpose. The pumping stations will lift water to a height of 60 metres, which is equivalent to the height of a 20 storied building said the Minister. The parched land in Kutch is expected to be turned into a 'fruit bowl' once Narmada waters begin to flow through the region. According to experts the KBC , which would be a man made 360 km long river, would be the only perennial source of water in the district once it is completed.
Shri Anand Sharma, Union Minister for Commerce and Industry
The government is mulling setting up of mega manufacturing hubs in various parts of the country, in order to make the country a manufacturing powerhouse. The move is seen being inspired by China's success story in the field of manufacturing. The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) is said to be putting on fast track the National Manufacturing Policy, which would help in the creation of what is being termed as the National Manufacturing and Investment Zones (NMIZs). Typically these zones would be
At present only Mumbai and the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporations have dams. With the population of the city increasing quite literally by the day, there is an urgent need for augmenting the water supply capacity through additional projects.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd
News & Events
Manitowoc Exhibits Top of Line Cranes at Intermat Trade Show
The MDT 268 is one of the recent introductions in the Potain topless MDT crane line. It offers fast erecting and dismantling times without compromising capacity. NFT, an Abu Dhabi-based Potain dealer and one of the largest tower crane owners in the world, has many Potain MDT 268 cranes which it has used on some of Saudi Arabia's most prestigious recent construction projects. This crane, along with Potain's larger model, the MDT 368, were lifting leaders during the construction of the Princess Nora bint Abdulrahman University in Riyadh, the world's largest women-only university. There were 150 cranes used on this $11.5 billion project, the majority from Potain. The MDT 268 has a topless design, with no cathead and tie-bars, which means contractors can place them in close proximity on job sites, without needing to erect them too high. This saves both time and money and provides an optimized working environment. The versatility and speed of erecting and dismantling the MDT 268 allowed main contractor Saudi Oger to not only meet but exceed the extremely tight build schedules on the university project. One interesting feature on the MDT 268 is its folding jib an industry first for topless cranes. The patented folding jib helps with one of the biggest problems in the construction of cooling towers dismantling the crane once construction is complete. Because the jib's radius is greater than the cooling towers, contractors are often faced with a problem when 'climbing down' the crane. But the folding jib offers an innovative solution to this problem. Another standout feature is the counter jib that can be folded for transport.
Yet another Super Heavy Lifter Tested
Sarens, a leading name in lifting solutions, has tested a new 120,000 tonne metre SGC 120 super heavy lifting ring type crane in its facility in Belgium recently. The 3,200 tonne capacity super heavy lift crane is among the largest in the world. The lattice boom giant comes with 130 metres of main boom. The crane boasts of a capacity of 1,000 tonnes at 80 m radius. The crane is designed to meet both European and US standards for lift cranes.
(L - R) Carina El Rkaiby and David Semple of Manitowoc Cranes, Nabil Al Zahlawi, od NFT, Ahmed Talhimet of Manitowoc and Fadi Daher of NFT.
Two of the latest innovations from Manitowoc stood side-by-side on the company's booth at Intermat Middle East. The company showed the Grove GMK6300L all-terrain crane, that combines 300 t of lifting power with a long-reaching80 m boom, and the Potain MDT 268, one of the most recent additions to the company's range of high-capacity topless tower cranes, with a capacity of either 10 t or 12 t. Both cranes are new to the Middle-East market within recent years. David Semple, vice president of sales for Manitowoc in the Middle East and Africa, said the two cranes demonstrate the company's industry-leading engineering and ability to adapt to changing market needs. With an Allison transmission, the GMK6300L has a powerful, reliable and cost-effective drive-train that offers unmatched performance. Its electronic controls allow it to adapt to its surroundings and it has selfdiagnostics for easier maintenance. When combined with Grove's Megatrak independent suspension system, the Allison transmission provides optimum travel both on and off the road.
The new crane's application areas include nuclear power plants, refineries, mining, and construction. The design also boasts of features that reduce cost of transporation and operation. The crane can be shipped in 135 standard containers in standard boom condition.
CAT's New CT Series, Vocational Trucks
Caterpillar, one of the leading construction equipment manufacturers, will unveil its newline of vocational trucks during the forthcoming
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
News & Events
The crane can lift 1.3 tonnes at the jib, with its compact dimensions ideally suited for work in urban areas where space is at a premium. The highly versatile climbing tower section of the crane is 3.9 m long and can be used both inside and outside a building. The crane is also easy for carrying around in urban centers since its unit weigh less , the heaviest component weighing less than 3 tonnes. Another interesting feature of the crane is that it can be operated either with or even without a cabin. hurdles such as the potential problem that could be caused to air craft pilots whose visibility could be disturbed due to the beams of light that shoot out from the turbines. There was also the concern about the turbines generating solar rays that could set surrounding buildings on fire, if they are concentrated.
ConExpo show in Las Vegas. The machine on display at the company's booth would be the Cat CT660. According to the company, the trucks are suited to a wide variety of work and have been designed using customer feedback. Also on show would be the company's 64 tonne capacity G Series 775 rigid dump truck. The company will also display five new models in the K Series of midsized wheeled loader range. This new line features an improved cab, apart from featuring a fuel efficient engine.
Shantui Launches First Product in US Market
Shantui Construction Machinery Co., a multinational based in Shandong, China, announced today the launch of its SD10YE bulldozer, the Company's first product to enter the U.S. market. The SD10YE is certified by TÜV SÜD America as Tier III emissions compliant, and is the smallest dozer in Shantui's arsenal. The SD10YE runs on hydrostatics, comes standard with a Cummins engine, and has horsepower rated at 100, or 74kW . Like other Shantui offerings, this dozer packs in value for the price. Intelligent GPS service, automatic alarm system, and auto-diagnostic functions keep uptime at a maximum. The SD10YE also doesn't skimp on operator comfort,. The fully enclosed hexahedronstyle cabin provides for low noise and vibration, and a highcapacity climate control system circulates air and defrosts. The SD10YE is designed for smaller projects, but has Shantui's hallmark toughness and durability, along with being environmentally friendly and highly economical. “This is our first product that meets the stringent emission standards of Europe and the USA. It is on the vanguard of a whole line of new products that we will be introducing in the coming years,” said Richard Li,
Solar-Powered Wind Turbine for Ultimate Energy Generation
New Flat Top City Crane Launch
Scientists have now come out with a new set of spinning solar blades that will enable both solar energy and wind energy to be produced together. A team led by Dr. Joe King has come out with the innovation solution in the UK. Dr. King, while speaking about the project said, “While we are no strangers to windy weather in the UK, it can be intermittent in other regions. Solar panels may only be useful here during our ten days of summer or an occasional heat wave, but in countries such as Morocco, Italy, and Spain they could make a real difference.” The team had to face several
Liebherr, a market leader in lifting solutions, is all set to launch its 85 EC B 5 tronic flat top city crane soon. The company will be launching the crane during the SMOPyC exhibition that is going to be held in Spain this month.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in 33
News & Events
However, there has been an increase in the number of overseas visitors, which was about 24 percent of the total number. The figure was about 19 percent in the previous edition of the show in 2008. The organizers of the show, the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM) have claimed that the exhibition has been a success with the exhibitors reporting strong purchases, as well as sales leads. According to Mike Haberman, Chairman of ConExpo 2011, “it was really great to see our industry look ahead with some enthusiasm after the recession.” The exhibition was spread over 2.34 million net square feet of exhibit space and attracted more than 2400 exhibitors. The next edition of the show would be again held at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, US on 18-22 March in 2014.
Vice President for International at Shantui. “Our aggressive investment in R&D these past few years is starting to show handsome results with the launch of the SD10YE,” he added. At Conexpo, Shantui is also demonstrating its wide diversity of product lines. In addition to the breakthrough SD10YE dozer, Shantui is also displaying its workhorse SD32W bulldozer, SL60W wheel loader, SR12P-5 road roller, SG18-3 motor grader, JCM 921C excavator, HJC5270THB truck mounted boom concrete pump and the HBT8016R concrete trailer pump at booth G-200.
in recent weeks include that of Pace University, Verizon Tower and New York Downtown Hospital.
Truck Mounted Concrete Pump Helps Cool Down Japanese Nuclear Reactor
Visitors down by 16 percent in ConExpo but Rise in the Number of International Delegates
Iconic Building Turns Dangerous
A building which was hailed as a masterpiece is now being admonished by virtually all and sundry. Critics had raved and ranted about Frank Gehry's iconic tower at 8 Spurce Street in New York City. The very same critics are now tearing down the famous architect for the glimmering steel façade of the iconic building. The façade is so incredibly reflective that it has set on fire on more than one occasion, some of the surrounding buildings. If reports from the New York Fire Department are to be believed that the concentrated reflections from the stainless steel façade of the building are causing the fire on the roofs of several nearby buildings. The buildings that have caught fire
Workers are using an M 58-5 Putzmeister truck mounted concrete pump for cooling down the Fukushima nuclear reactor. The concrete pump that has been produced in Aichtal near Stuttgart comes with a vertical reach 58 m. The concrete pump also has a 5arm boom to support the cooling of the damaging cooling pools. With the concrete pumps the advantage is that cooling water can be fed over great distances. Water can be fed to exactly where it is required using the concrete pump. The pump has an output of 160 cubic metres per hour at a pressure of 85 bar and is driven by the truck's diesel engine. This means that the concrete pump does not have to rely on external power supply. The machine is operated using remote control, which allows the distributor arm to have flexible movement.
The ConExpo construction equipment exhibition which concluded last week attracted around 120000 visitors, figures which are about 16 percent lower than the 2008 show. According to industry experts, the show's attendance pattern in a way reflects the difficulties that are being faced by the construction industry in the US.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd
Building Information Modeling
The Battle to Bring
Buildings Back to Basics
ur global society is simultaneously experiencing an economic and environmental crisis. Economically, signs of a feeble recovery mask fundamental flaws with the way capital and currencies are managed worldwide. Environmentally, world energy demand is predicted to double by 2030 and water shortages are predicted to hit every major city in the next couple decades. The combination of two such complex and seemingly intractable challenges has led many to defeatism. The numbers are too large, the causes too many, the data too expansive,
and the necessary leadership too wanting. Those of us in the building space now find ourselves at the front line of the battle against these two crises. And as with many in the front lines, we are both in the “cross-hairs” of new regulation but luckily newly equipped with an “armament of tools” to respond. Buildings are in the crosshairs for new regulation because, in most economies, they represent the biggest guzzlers of energy, outpacing even vehicles. The reasons are simple.
Emma Stewart, Ph.D.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Building Information Modeling
buildings roughly 728 billion square feet worldwide - can make conducting comprehensive building performance analysis and implementing energysaving projects a daunting task. Dated or nonexistent building plans and incomplete energy consumption histories make it difficult to predict future performance throughout the life of a proposed renovation project or to evaluate and compare proposals from energy service companies (ESCOs). There are also the political challenges of garnering stakeholder support and building consensus between legal, procurement, and finance departments during contract negotiations. So herein commences the battle to bring buildings back to the basics -- but this time, with new tools. The linear design-build process embraced for so long with questionable returns is finally being forced to compete with a renaissance of new industry practice, integrated project delivery (IPD) and building information modeling (BIM). The first contractually realigns the famously disjointed incentives between owner, architect, and engineer, towards a given outcome (e.g. LEED or energy per square foot) rather than simply lowest time and cost to delivery. The second offers a 3D technology-based process to support decision-making throughout the retrofit and build process.
a. H u m a n s h a v e b e c o m e primarily an indoor species, and we've also become a “plugged-in” species. So the majority of our thirst for electricity, heating and cooling manifests in buildings. b. Hundreds of years ago our buildings were designed based upon local climactic zones, weather, and future adaptive reuse. Today, buildings are built so rapidly and at such scale that they tend to be cookie-cutter structures that bear no relevance to the buildings, climate, or energy source around them. So when policy-makers scour the economy for the most promising areas to reduce waste and increase jobs, they typically land squarely on building retrofits. One can find evidence of this in any part of the world. The European Union has committed to cut energy use from buildings by 20% by 2020 and the UK's national climate legislation requires existing buildings to be net zero energy by 2020. China's 12th Five Year Plan, released this March, dictates a 16% reduction in energy intensity nation-
wide, with a strong emphasis on improving buildings to achieve that goal. All US federal agencies, including the largest portfolios in the world, the General Services Administration and Department of Defense, must implement energy efficient practices for at least 15% of their inventory by 2015, alongside annual reductions targets for energy, water, and greenhouse gas reductions. In part due to these mandates, Pike Research predicts a $400 billion US market in energy retrofits by 2030, which one can extrapolate to a global market of roughly $1 trillion by that same date. The sheer number of existing
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011
Building Information Modeling
For existing buildings, BIM enables the team to more quickly and easily to create a basic building model to simulate the performance and cost of renovations. The digital model includes data components that represent building elements and characteristicssuch as materials, weight, thermal resistance, and other physical propertiesthat contribute to building performance. With BIM, one can analyze and assess the energy performance of individual buildings -for example, what generates a better economic and energy-efficient return for our headquarters, installing higher R-value wall insulation, or modifying a heating system? One can then scale up to multiple buildings to evaluate, and rank the environmental and financial impact of proposed renovations for example, which buildings within the portfolio would benefit the most from an HVAC upgrade? With a more comprehensive understanding of the relative performance of the property portfolio, one can craft a strong inventory modernization program, and focus detailed design efforts and construction on the projects with the
greatest impact. So BIM helps to tackle the issue of scalability, because it is just as applicable at the level of thousands of buildings as it is at the level of one building. The basic steps are as follows: 1. Get Pickin': Collect basic building informationincluding wall, floor, roof, and ceiling dimensionson each building within the portfolio. This can be done the old-fashioned expensive way (i.e. a walk-through audit), but more recently software has come about that allows you to stitch together the model from digital photos and satellite images from the web. 2. Get Sketchin': Create basic BIM m o d e l s fo r e a c h b u i l d i n g ( o r “prototype” for commercial stores) in the portfolio. You can generate a comprehensive BIM modelincluding floor plans, elevations, sections, and 3D views from the most basic building dimensions in just a few hours so don't over-do it here. Even with minimal upfront effort, you can generate a basic model that represents the form and geometry of the building and begin
analyzing and prioritizing building improvements with a surprisingly high level of accuracy. Also at this stage, one can begin selecting building materials from within the BIM tool itself, perhaps prioritizing recycled, renewable, or locally sourced materials. 3. Get Testin': Analyze multiple attributes to improve environmental and economic performance. For example, use Revit to analyze heating and cooling load for a typical schedule of operation. Then explore creative options to shed that load through natural ventilation (uses weather data), shading (uses sun path data), onsite renewable generation potential (uses wind and sun data), and water catchment potential (uses precipitation data). A water catchment system may inspire the use of nonpotable water for irrigation or even a plant-based gray water filtration plant on site, reducing wastewater service costs. With sister civil engineering tools, the building site can be evaluated for storm-water system needs and to maximize the water returned clean to the aquifer.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd
Building Information Modeling
4. Get Busy: Compare and then prioritize projects or investment alternatives based on conservation objectives, such as water or fossil fuel usage, or financial goals. Before signing an Energy Service Performance Contract, use BIM to perform internal reviews of the service provider's proposals to confirm key predictions and assumptions. Not only will this keep them honest, you will also likely unearth additional savings opportunities they missed because BIM optimizes for the entire building, not its component parts. All of these steps are increasingly enabled through the power of cloud computing, where general contractors, MEPs, and architects can yank from the cloud the key data points they need to assess a building's potential for net zero energy or carbon neutrality. In addition to acting like a huge data repository in the sky, cloud computing has brought down the price of computing to the point where design software will soon iterate on your behalf, until it lands on the optimal design based on the parameters you set. So with our new armament of tools, Integrated Project Delivery and Building Information Modeling enabled by cloud computing, we're finally well equipped to face the cross-hairs of regulators, and beyond them, the dual crises of economic and environmental decline.
i ii iii International Energy Agency (2010) “World Energy Outlook” Pike Research (2009) “Energy Efficiency Retrofits for Commercial and Public Buildings” Lux Research (2010) “Diamonds in the Rough: Uncovering Opportunities in the Green Buildings Market”
Exposed portion of T box, once layed
Device to Capture
Wind from Trains
Trains, as they run, are known to generate quite a bit of wind energy. Scientists are now researching the possibilities of using this wind energy as a potential source of power. A device developed by the industrial designer duo of Qian Jiang and Alessandro LeonettiLupariniwill aim at doing just that. The device was designed to fit in-between the sleepers of the tracks to funnel the wind generated by the train onto a turbine which can be turned to generate power. The device, aptly coined the “T-box”, can be placed alongside railway or metro lines to harness the otherwise wasted wind generated by these trains. T box, unlike other conventional devices, makes use of artificially generated wind instead of depending on natural sources. The device contains of a vent showing on the surface, with a majority of its working taking place underground. The blades in the device are designed to rotate along a central axis within a cylindrical housing. The device was made popular when it won the silver medal at the Lite-On awards, last year. With the number on rail projects packing by the double, coupled with the number of trains already running, one could only imagine the amount of power that could be generated using this device.
Emma Stewart, Ph.D., is currently the Senior Manager for AEC Sustainability at Autodesk where she leads the design software company's efforts to make sustainable design easy, cost-effective and routine across the building and infrastructure industries. Emma holds a Ph.D. in Environmental Science and Management from Stanford University and a B.A. Honors degree in Human Sciences from Oxford University.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
The Supreme Industries Ltd
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
his paper presents the nonlinear seismic analysis, development, and implementation of an innovative seismic retrofit strategy for a six-story nonductile reinforced concrete 145,000-sf (13,470 m2) historic building. Dynamic and nonlinear static analytical results verified that the building had a weak soft-story with inadequate postyield capacity, and large torsional response. The analysis indicated that the existing building is not seismically adequate to withstand anticipated lateral forces generated by earthquake excitations at the site. A "collapse prevention" performance upgrade for a 475-year return event was desired. Nonlinear fluid viscous dampers were placed at the first story level to reduce the seismic demand and obtain a more uniform response. Visco-elastic fluid viscous dampers
were strategically placed at one side of the building to reduce the torsional irregularity of the building. The proposed cost effective, state-of-the-art retrofit will improve the seismic performance of the building. This paper presents the performance-based evaluation and retrofit design of the Hotel Stockton. The 145,000-sf (13,470 m2) reinforced concrete building, built in 1910 in Stockton, California, is a torsionally irregular structure comprised of a six-story portion connected to a two-story portion. There was significant concern that the building will not be able to withstand the level of earthquake shaking expected at the site for two reasons: a weak and soft lateral force resisting system at the first floor level, and the inadequate confinement of reinforcement in the first story columns. To assess the performance of
44 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Schwing Stetter (I) Pvt.Ltd
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
the structure, a detailed mathematical model of the building was prepared based on FEMA 273 guidelines. Dynamic and nonlinear static analytical results verified the presence of the soft-story response, inadequate post-yield capacity, and large torsional response. The analyses indicated that the existing building is not seismically adequate to withstand anticipated lateral forces generated by earthquake excitations at the site. The existing structure will suffer substantial damage and possible collapse in the event of a major earthquake. To address the above-mentioned inadequacies, the Owner decided to undertake a voluntary seismic upgrade of this building. The focus of the seismic rehabilitation was to address the major deficiencies of the structure, namely the soft-story and torsional response of the building. The main objective was to provide a "collapse prevention" performance goal during a 475-year return event. Nonlinear fluid viscous dampers were placed at the first story level to reduce the seismic demand and obtain a more uniform response. Visco-elastic fluid viscous dampers were strategically placed at one side of the building to reduce the torsional irregularity of the building. Finally, the first story interior columns supporting the six-story portion of the building were wrapped with a fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRP). A new mathematical model was prepared incorporating the seismic upgrades, and was subjected to nonlinear time history analyses using three sets of twocomponent, independent acceleration histories derived from a site-specific acceleration spectrum. Evaluation of the analytical results of this model showed that the story drift for the first floor was significantly reduced, the torsional response was nearly eliminated, and all structural members remained elastic. Description of Structure The Hotel Stockton, built in 1910 as a 252-guest room hotel, is a historic landmark building in Stockton, California. The building, also referred to as The Stockton, measures approximately 300 ft (91.4 m) in the E-W direction and 100 ft (30.5 m) in the N-S direction. In elevation, it is comprised of a sixstory portion on the east side and a two-story portion on the west side, and has a full basement. The first story is 18 ft (5.5 m) high and the remaining floors have a story height of 10'-3" (3.1 m). Figure 1 below shows a south elevation of the eastern portion of the building. In the E-W direction, the building consists of 15 bays at approximately 20-ft (6.1-m) spacing. In the N-S direction, there are five bays at approximately 20 ft (6.1m) per bay, see Figure 2. The structure is a cast-in-place reinforced concrete building. Reinforced concrete columns, beams, and shear walls comprise the gravity and lateral load resisting system. The basement columns are 18- and 20-in. (457 and 508 mm) square for the twostory and six-story segments of the building, respectively. At the ground floor and above, column sizes vary from 18-in. (457 mm) square at the first story to 14-in. (356 mm) square at the fifth story. There is a full 9-in. (229 mm) thick concrete perimeter wall between the basement and the first floor, and there are numerous 6-in. (152 mm) thick concrete walls between the floors above the second floor. However, there are no structural walls between the ground and the second floor levels. Typical floors consist of 4-in. (102 mm) concrete slabs with a 2-in. (51 mm) topping slab supported by EW concrete beams, and N-S concrete girders. Although the as-built plans of the structure are not available, field investigations have shown that the columns typically have four and eight longitudinal reinforcing bars around the perimeter of columns at the two-story and six-story segments, respectively. Typical minimum concrete cover for the reinforcement is approximately 2 ½ to 3 in. (64 to 76 mm). The groundto- first story columns have eight 1-in (25 mm) square bars. Typical transverse ties consist of 1/8-in (3.2 mm) thick by 1-in (25 mm) wide bars at 8 in. (203 mm) spacing. Analytical Model of Existing Structure
Figure 2: Plan View at 2nd Floor
46 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
The computer program ETABS (CSI 2001) was used to prepare a mathematical model of the building, see Figure 3 for a schematic of the model. Key features of the mathematical model are summarized below. o Material properties. A concrete compressive strength of 3 ksi was used. This value is consistent for concrete strength of buildings constructed in the early part of the last century (FEMA 273), and corresponds to the values obtained from field investigations. Tensile testing of sample reinforcement indicated yield and tensile strengths of approximately 65 and 72 ksi (450 and 500 MPa), respectively. Field studies indicated that the column longitudinal reinforcement splice lengths varied from 26 to 28 inches (660 to 711 mm) for 1-in (25 mm) square bars. Therefore, the yield properties of the longitudinal bars were reduced to 42 ksi (290 MPa), per FEMA 273. A yield value of 36 ksi (250 MPa) was used for the column ties. Frame elements. All columns were modeled as square sections with longitudinal bars in a circular pattern. Girders and beams were modeled as rectangular sections with the section depth measured from the top of the topping slab. Tbeam action from the floor slab was neglected. All dimensions were specified as centerline-tocenterline - (i.e. no rigid end offsets were specified). The perimeter basement walls and wall segments between the floors were modeled as shell elements. Similarly, the floor slabs at all levels were modeled as shell elements. FEMA 273 recommends using a value of 50% of the gross moment of inertia (Ig) for the cracked moment of inertia (Icr) of the flexural members. This reduction factor was applied to the beams, columns and shearwalls. Parameters for nonlinear analysis. For this softstory structure, the nonlinear behavior will be entirely limited to the first story columns. As such, nonlinear hinges were defined and placed on these columns. To capture the complete nonlinear response of these columns, two types of hinges were used: shear hinges placed at mid-height of
Figure 4: Response Spectra
Figure 3: Schematic of The Mathematical Model of The Building
the columns, and biaxial-force (PMM) hinges near the top and bottom of the columns. The location of the PMM hinges was determined by assuming that the plastic hinges would form at a distance of 2b/3 (where "b" equals the width of the column) from the top and bottom of column-to-floor connections. For the PMM hinges, interaction curves based on ACI 318-99 were used to determine the axial forcebiaxial moment yield surface. For the nonlinear analysis, the column plastic hinge properties are a function of column slenderness, transverse reinforcement (size, spacing, and anchorage), and axial and shear demand. For the columns under consideration, the axial force ranges between 10-15 percent of the nominal compressive strength, and flexure is the controlling response. The shear force is less than three times the nominal shear strength, and the columns have poor confinement (transverse reinforcement). Since the lap splices for the longitudinal reinforcement are not fully developed, sudden strength degradation may occur after the onset of the nonlinear behavior. Therefore, hinge formation (yielding) should be
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 47
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
avoided, and subject columns should remain elastic.
Gravity loading. Gravity loads used in the model consisted of the self-weight of the structure, 0.02 ksf (0.96 kPa) for partitions, 0.025 ksf (1.20 kPa) for weight of the 2-in. (50-cm) topping slab, and 0.005 ksf (2.40 ksf) for miscellaneous (e.g., fans, vents, plaster). Live loads consisted of typical code prescribed floor loads. Inertial mass. The mass of the structure consisted
Figure 6: Modes 1 & 2 (Elevations)
earthquake records to the target spectra, and then base-line correcting in the time domain. The records were derived from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (0- and 90-degree components recorded at Agnews, 0- and 90-degree components recorded at Gilroy, and 270- and 360-degree components recorded at San Marino). Figure 5 shows the DBE acceleration record and the computed acceleration spectrum for the xcomponent of the Agnews record. The y-component of this record and the x- and y-components of the other two records have similar acceleration spectra. Analytical results of the existing b building Dynamic analysis. A modal analysis of the building was conducted to determine the fundamental period and mode shapes of the structure. Table 1 summarizes the results for the first three modes obtained. The first two mode shapes of the building are shown in Figure 6a and 6b. It is noted that the response is that of a soft-story structure with nearly all the deformation concentrated in the first story columns. Figure 7 shows the deformed shape of the second floor in plan for the first mode. It is noted that due to the lack of symmetry in the N-S direction, there is a large torsional component to this mode. In particular, the largest deformation occurs at the far right (east) side of the building. This torsional response will place additional demand on the columns at this side of the structure. Nonlinear pushover analysis. To asses the
Figure 5: Acceleration Record & Spectrum
of all structure dead loads and one half of the partition loads. The code-mandated 5-percent eccentricity was achieved by offsetting the floor mass. The total inertial weight (mass) of the structure is approximately 14,000 kips (64,050 kN). Earthquake Histories Site investigations were used to determine the sitespecific acceleration spectra. The Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) spectra (10% probability of exceedence in 50 years) used for the studies presented herein is shown in Figure 4. In the same plot, the response spectrum for the Maximum Considered
Mode 1 2 3 Period (sec) 1.2 1.0 0.9 Table 1 Principal direction Transverse (N-S) Longitudinal (E-W) Torsion
Earthquake (MCE) (2% probability of exceedence in 50 years) is also shown. Three sets of time histories were prepared by J. P. Singh (Singh 2002) by matching the response spectra derived from the horizontal components of each of the three recorded
Figure 7: Mode 1 (Plan)
48 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
performance of the building to seismic loading, a nonlinear static analysis was conducted. The structure was initially loaded to a gravity loading equal to 110% of the dead load and 27.5% of the unreduced live load. Next, step-by-step lateral loading in the x- and y- directions were applied to the structure. Two separate and independent lateral load patterns were considered: (1) a force pattern matching the mode shapes with 100% and 30% loading in each direction and (2) uniform force pattern with 100% and 30% loading in each direction. for the governing load case, the demand and capacity curves do not intersect. Therefore, collapse of the structure is predicted. Two particular events of interest were studied: (1) when does the first plastic hinge form in each direction, and (2) what is the ultimate configuration of the plastic hinge? (The plastic hinges are identified by circles on the columns.) The displaced shape of the structure at the formation of the first column plastic hinge is shown in Figure 8. The frame elevation on the left corresponds to the formation of the first plastic hinge when the structure is pushed along the longitudal-direction. This yielding response occurs at a displacement of 0.84 in. (21 mm), measured at the second floor level. The frame elevation on the right corresponds to the formation of the first plastic hinge when the structure is pushed along the transverse-direction. This yielding response occurs at a displacement of 1.44 in. (37 mm), measured at the right (east) side of the second floor level. In summary, as long as the second floor displacements are limited to the values specified above, it is expected that the column response for the critical first story columns will remain in the elastic range. The displaced structure at a story displacement of 1.5 in. (38 mm) for loading along the longitudinal-
Figure 10: Progressive Hinge Formation (Plan)
axis (Figure 9a), and 2.5 in. (64 mm) for loading along the Transverse-axis are shown (Figure 9b). Note that many of the first story columns have formed plastic hinges atthe top and bottom. The soft-story behavior of the building is made clear in the figures; all the floors above the second floor have a nearly rigid behavior, while the first story columns experience substantial deformation. Figure 10 shows the second floor plan view of the structure at the deformation level of 2.5 in. (64 mm) as the structure is pushed in the transverse-direction. It is noted that all the nonlinear behavior is concentrated at or close to the right (east) side of the building. As previously noted, the building is torsionally irregular in the transverse direction. Linear time history analyses. To investigate the performance of the building during a 475-year return
Figure 11: Displacement History of Existing Structure (Linear Model)
event (DBE), the structure was subjected to acceleration time histories. Study of the three motions revealed that the San Marino record produced the most severe test for the structure (i.e., the largest values of column stress and story drift). As such, this record will be used for the remainder of this paper for comparison purposes. The three dimensional linear model was subjected to this accelerogram. Figure 11 shows the second floor displacements as measured at the lower-right
Figure 9a & 9b: Progressive Hinge Formation (elevations)
50 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
(S.E.) corner of the building. Using equal displacement assumption, a comparison of the time history response of the existing building with that of the nonlinear pushover analysis indicates that the story drifts will cause significant plastic rotation in the hinge regions of the columns, and cause probable collapse of the building. Performance Goal. Since this is a voluntary seismic upgrade, the focus of the seismic rehabilitation is to address the major deficiencies of the structure, namely, the soft-story and torsional response of the building. The retrofit will limit the response of the structure to linear elastic behavior; that is, limiting the maximum xand y-components of the second floor displacement to 0.85 in. (22 mm) and 1.44 in. (37 mm), respectively. This will give an adequate level of confidence against collapse of the structure. The main performance goal is to provide a cost-effective "collapse prevention" performance upgrade during a 475-year return event (DBE). Retrofit method To meet the selected performance goals for the upgrade of this structure, a retrofit approach combining several state-of-the-art strategies was utilized. Reduce the soft-weak story effects by increasing the effective damping of the structure. This objective was achieved by employing Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVD) at the first floor. Reduce the torsional response of the building without increasing acceleration demand of the super structure. This was achieved by adding fluid viscoelastic dampers at the east side of the structure. Provide a more redundant story shear capacity in the upper floor transverse direction. In the transverse direction, the building has structural walls at the exterior walls only. Therefore, wood shear walls were added for the upper six story portion of the building. These walls will act in a fashion analogous to cross-walls in an unreinforced masonry (URM) bearing wall building. Provide redundancy for the gravity load-carrying capacity of the columns along the right (east) side of the structure. Addition of steel columns for the FVD braces adjacent to all the columns along this gridline met this goal. Increase ductility of all the interior first story columns for the 6-story segment of the building. To meet this criterion, fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRP) was wrapped around the hinge regions (top and bottom) of the columns.
Device FVD FVED No. DBE Capacity, c, k-sec/in kip (kN) (kNsec/ mm) 16 4 210 (934) 300 (1334) 100 (35) 125 (44) 0.5 0.5 K, k/in (kN/mm) 100 (35) 125 (44)
Table 2: Damper Properties
Structural upgrade FVDs have been extensively researched (Constantinou and Symans, 1992) and implemented
Figure 12: Damper Frame Elevation
in the upgrade of many structures, including the seismic retrofit of the historic Hotel Woodland (Miyamoto and Scholl 1996). FVDs provide an economical way of improving the structural response without losing any floor space. This was the chosen seismic improvement method for this building for two reasons: (1) it reduces the second floor
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
displacement by increasing viscous damping, and (2) it reduces the seismic demand of the superstructure. Damper selection. FVDs were strategically placed in the structure to optimize their effectiveness without blocking access to the architecturally sensitive areas of the ground floor. A total of 20 damper bays were utilized. Initially, only linear fluid viscous dampers were considered for the upgrade, however, this approach necessitated using relatively large devices to meet the performance criteria. In addition, this did not address the torsional irregularity of the building. To mitigate these problems, two types of devices were utilized: nonlinear fluid viscous dampers were used in 16 braced bays, and a combination of nonlinear fluid viscous dampers in parallel with elastic elements (herein referred to as fluid visco-elastic dampers, or FVEDs) was utilized in four braced bays. The table below summarizes the pertinent properties of the devices. Additional columns at either end of the diagonal devices will prevent the transfer of the damper forces to the existing building columns. Figure 12 shows a typical damper frame elevation. Fluid Visco-Elastic Damper A combination of fluid viscous dampers and polyurethane elastomers have been successfully used in the aerospace industry. The mechanical characteristics of this elastomer are as follows: (Gallagher Corporation, 2002) Urethane Elastomers provides consistent mechanical properties through a temperature range of 0ºF to 225ºF (-18ºC to 107ºC). Urethane exhibits compressive capacity of 80 ksi (552 MPa) without molecular damage and
Figure 14: Displacement History of Damped Structure
elasticity. Aging under static stress has no effect on mechanical properties if protected from ultraviolet light. Flame resistance is sufficient to meet Federal Aerospace Regulation 25.853B. See Figure 13 for FVED and FVD construction. Prototype testing per FEMA 273 will be conducted to verify response and durability. Response of the retrofitted structure To assess the effectiveness of the proposed building upgrade, nonlinear time history analyses of the structure incorporating the dampers were performed. The mathematical model of the existing building was modified by adding the sixteen FVDs and the four FVEDs. Two time history cases were considered. In one case, the mathematical model was preloaded by a static load equal to 90% of the total dead load prior to being subjected to the lateral accelerations. In the
Figure 13: FVED & FVD Devices
52 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd
Seismic Retrofit: Case Study
kN) and 90 kips (400 kN), respectively. Spectra acceleration of this structure was 0.17g. Conclusion Analytical studies of the Hotel Stockton revealed that the structure would not be able to withstand the seismic loading resulting from the anticipated site-specific earthquakes. To mitigate this seismic deficiency, the structure was upgraded with a combination of sixteen nonlinear fluid viscous dampers, four nonlinear fluid visco-elastic dampers, and fiber reinforced polymer wrap at selected columns. The analytical studies predict that the retrofitted structure will have a significantly improved performance when compared to the existing structure. In particular, the upgrade will limit the response of the existing members to the linear range by limiting the expected seismic demand on the structure. This upgrade will reduce the risk of building collapse. Total seismic upgrade cost was $1.3 million ($9/ft2, $96/m2), which was about 5% of total construction budget ($24 million, $165/ft2, $1780/m2). References
Computer and Structures, Inc., 2002, "ETABS 7.2.2, Linear and nonlinear static and dynamic analysis and design of building systems," Berkeley, CA FEMA 273, October 1997, "NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings," Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, D.C. Miyamoto, H.K. and Scholl, 2002, "Seismic Rehabilitation of an Historic Non-Ductile Soft-Story Concrete Structure using Fluid Viscous Dampers," Proceedings of the 11th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Constantinou, M. and Symans, M., 1992, "Experimental & Analytical Investigation of Seismic Response of Structures with Supplemental Fluid Viscous Dampers," State University Of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, NCEER-92-0032 Sing, 2002, Site Specific Time Histories for Hotel Stockton, Richmond, CA Gallagher Corporation, 2002, "The Engineering Properties of Urethane Elastomers," Gurnee, IL
Figure 15: Typical FVED response
second case, the preload equaled 110% of the dead load and 27.5% of the unreduced live load. The envelope of response quantities was then obtained by selecting the maximum values from the two load cases. Response evaluation. To evaluate the seismic response of the upgraded structure, the displacement response of the second floor was examined and a stress check of all first story columns was performed. Figure 14 shows the second floor displacement responses for the lower-right (S.E.) corner. It is noted that the maximum computed displacements are approximately 0.56 in. (14 mm) and 0.85 in. (22 mm) in the longitudal transverse directions, respectively, which is well below their target values. This corresponds to story drift ratios of approximately 0.003 and 0.004, respectively. A comparison of the displacement response for the original structure and this figure shows that the maximum response was reduced by more than a factor of five by the addition of FVD and FVED elements. Finally, the computed axial force in the columns was examined. No net axial tension was found in the existing columns. The maximum force in the FVD was less than 200 kips (890 kN). As such, the 200kip (890 kN) dampers used are adequate for these 16 damper bays. Figure 15 depicts the response of a typical FVED. It is noted that the maximum damper and spring forces are approximately 250 kips (1112
54 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
Design Considerations for Durability of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Marine Environments
M N Ramesh
Atef Cheaitani Chief Technology Officer Savcor Group Ltd Sydney, Australia M N Ramesh Chief Executive Officer Savcor India Private Limited, Bangalore, India
n recent years, durability requirements are often specified for new reinforced concrete structures especially for those to be built in marine environments. It is evident today that the use of high performance concrete, good concrete cover, corrosion inhibitors and protective coating is not sufficient to provide corrosion prevention for reinforced concrete structures in severe conditions of marine environments. Various corrosion prevention measures such as the use of corrosion resistant reinforcement and cathodic prevention have been used in the past 20 years to reduce the corrosion of reinforcement for new reinforced concrete structures in marine environments. This paper will provide a brief review of these measures and highlight their applicability under various circumstances. Reinforced concrete is a composite material that relies on the high compressive strength of concrete and the high tensile strength of steel for its mechanical performance. Steel has poor corrosion resistance and concrete has good anti-corrosion properties. The hydration process of concrete leads to the formation of hydroxides which raises the pH level of the cement to around 12.5 and provides a stable oxide layer on the steel surface, which prevents the anodic dissolution of the steel. Reinforced concrete failure is caused by the corrosion of the steel reinforcing bars as a result of the destabilisation of the oxide layer. When the passivity of the steel partly or completely breaks down, either as result of carbonation or chlorides, the corrosion will start. This
means that the electrochemical potential of the steel locally becomes more negative and forms anodic areas, while the other portions of the steel which have the passive layer intact will act as catchment areas for oxygen and will form cathodic areas. In spite of the development of high performance concrete from the early 1970s until today, it is evident that the application of high performance concrete in conjunction with measures such as protective coating, thick concrete cover and corrosion inhibitors is not necessarily good enough for ensuring high durability of concrete structures in marine environments. For this reason, various corrosion prevention measures have been used and specified for new reinforced concrete structures to be built in marine environments. This paper will provide an overall review of these measures. Corrosion Prevention Measures Corrosion prevention measures in vogue include: modifying the concrete mix design to decrease concrete permeability and provide an adequate cover to reinforcement; coating application to limit
Fig.1. Mechanism of chloride induced corrosion
56 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
chloride ingress into the concrete; use of corrosionresistant reinforcement; addition of inhibitors to the fresh concrete; and cathodic prevention by impressed current. Mix design, concrete cover and coating application The quality of concrete is of major importance in determining the durability of reinforced concrete structures. Although concrete is a dense material, it contains pores and many of these pores are interconnected to form a network of channels that allow water and oxygen, both important to steel corrosion, to penetrate into the concrete. For this reason, a low water/cement ratio will lead to either a lower number of pores or smaller pores in the concrete, both of which can lead to a reduction of concrete permeability and to conductivity of the concrete. In addition to selecting a lower cement ratio in the concrete, the selection of the cement type and the addition of mineral admixtures such as silica flume, fly ash and slag will play a significant role in reducing the corrosion rate of reinforcement in concrete. An adequate layer of concrete to the first layer of reinforcing steel may under some circumstances, delay the ingress of chloride ions. The adequate depth of concrete cover is normally stated in various standards, subject to the exposure condition of the structure. The minimum depth of concrete cover must be adjusted to allow for tolerances caused by construction practices. For dense, high quality concrete with adequate concrete cover, carbonation induced corrosion of the embedded steel is not considered to represent a major problem, however, for concrete structures in marine environments, regardless of the quality of concrete and the thickness of the concrete cover, it appears that it is only a matter of time before detrimental amounts of chloride reach the embedded steel through the concrete covers or concrete cracks and cause reinforcement corrosion and concrete spalling. The penetration of chloride takes place through uncracked concrete mainly by capillary absorption and diffusion. When a relatively dry concrete is exposed to salt water, the concrete will absorb the salt water relatively fast and wetting and drying of the concrete especially in tidal zones can accelerate the accumulation of high concentration of salt in the concrete. Furthermore, similar areas of concrete with similar exposure conditions will have variation in the concrete deterioration process as it is very difficult to ensure homogeneity of concrete after being placed. In certain applications where a 100 year design life requirement is specified for structures located in marine environments, the use of various chloride diffusion modelling, carbonation modelling and durability assessment of other deterioration mechanisms may lead to the theoretical development of concrete mixes and design covers that may provide theoretically a 100 year design life. Typical concrete used for such applications is 50MPa compressive strength concrete with, for example, a binder combination of 52% Shrinkage Limited (SL) cement, 25% fly ash, 23% blast furnace slag, 600Kg/m3 cement content, 0.38 W/C ratio, 75 mm concrete cover and 500 microstrain drying shrinkage at 56 days. There is no doubt, that the use of such concrete will lead to a substantial increase in the design life of a structure in a harsh marine environment, however there are many other factors that could not be considered in the modelling process, such as concrete cracking; wetting and drying effect in accelerating the rate of chloride penetration; early-age exposure to seawater before the concrete has gained sufficient maturity and density; high temperatures during concrete placement; homogeneity of the concrete; workmanship problems especially in relation to concrete cover; and finally, the nature of the formation of the corrosion cell due to chloride ingress within the structure which only requires ingress of chloride to the steel level at various crack locations to start the development of unlimited numbers of corrosion cells within the concrete itself. Coating the external surfaces of concrete may in some circumstances, assist in delaying the onset of reinforcement corrosion. In a marine environment, especially in the tidal and splash areas, it is unlikely that such a measure will be effective in preventing reinforcement corrosion.
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 57
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
Corrosion resistant reinforcement The final and most important line of defence against corrosion is the reinforcing steel. As a measure for preventing the corrosion of steel in building concrete, various types of corrosion resistant reinforcement have been used in the past. Epoxy coated reinforcement Epoxy coated rebars are carbon steel coated with stable organic coatings (epoxies) to serve as a barrier for isolating the steel from moisture, chloride ions and oxygen to prevent corrosion. Epoxy coated rebars were introduced in the mid 1970s in the United States as means of extending the useful life of reinforced concrete bridge components by minimising concrete deterioration caused by corrosion of the reinforcing steel. The epoxy coatings are intended to prevent moisture and chlorides from reaching the steel. There are various documentations regarding this subject with some of the documents showing favourable performance of epoxy coated rebars especially when used in areas of low corrosion risk. When epoxy coated rebars have been used in substructures that are exposed to a severely corrosive environment, the epoxy coated rebars did not perform well. Significant premature corrosion of the epoxy coated rebars was observed in many structures after 5-10 years from the date of construction. The main reasons for the failure of the epoxy coated rebars are: Under-film corrosion because of the migration of water, oxygen and chlorides through the concrete and epoxy to the steel surface; Wet adhesion loss resulting in the separation of the coating from the substrate; and Disbondment of the epoxy coating from the reinforcing steel which starts at coating defects. It is the authors' opinion that the use of epoxy coated rebars for corrosion prevention should not be considered under any circumstances. In areas of low corrosion risk, the use of carbon steel with high performance concrete and good concrete cover is sufficient to prevent any corrosion from occurring. If the oxide layer which forms around the steel is not damaged due to carbonation or chloride ingress, there should be no issues with corrosion. For the areas of high corrosion risk in marine environments, the use of epoxy coated rebars will not under any circumstances provide the adequate corrosion prevention to extend the life of the structure. Galvanised steel reinforcement Steel reinforcing bars can be protected with a coating applied by dipping properly prepared steel bars into a molten bath of zinc. Hot-dipped galvanised coatings for reinforcing bars have been used over the last fifty years in many countries to improve the service life of concrete structures. Galvanising constitutes a means to extend the service life of rebars in concrete structures that will be subjected to carbonation. A substantial increase of the service life of the structure can be achieved by using galvanised steel. For marine structures, where the primary problem is chloride-induced corrosion, the increase in service life could be too short to justify the extra cost required for the use of galvanised reinforcement. Rapid corrosion will occur when galvanised and black steel is used in the same structure and is electrically connected in chloride-contaminated structures. Stainless steel reinforcement The term stainless steel refers to a group of corrosion resistant steels containing a minimum of 12% chromium. Various alloying additions (nickel, titanium, nitrogen.etc) can be added to provide different mechanical and corrosion properties. The use of stainless steel in concrete is related to its capacity to resist corrosion in chloride-contaminated structures. Stainless steel reinforcement has been used in various countries in structures that are located in aggressive environments. Stainless steel has been used in construction joints or critical gaps between
58 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Cico Technologies Ltd
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
columns and decks. There are no extensive performance data available from long-term use of stainless steel as reinforcement in concrete. Because of the very high cost of stainless steel reinforcement, it is not likely that the entire reinforcement for a large marine structure would be made from stainless steel. A more likely use of stainless steel would be for the outer rebar layer of a reinforced concrete element in the tidal/splash zone. Galvanic corrosion in this case between stainless steel and carbon steel should be investigated. Corrosion inhibitors Corrosion inhibitors are chemicals that can be added to the concrete to decrease the corrosion rate. The inhibitors can be subdivided into three categories, anodic inhibitors, which are used to reduce the anodic reaction rate, cathodic inhibitors, which are used to reduce the cathodic reaction rate, and mixed inhibitors which are used to reduce cathodic and anodic reaction rates. The inhibitors are used as a preventive measure for new reinforced concrete structures in aggressive environments with a known future risk of chlorideinduced corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors are marketed separately as admixtures or they are present in the repair product used for conventional patch repair. There are various questions in relation to the application of corrosion inhibitors as admixtures to reinforced concrete. Some of these questions are related to the long-term experience with corrosion inhibitors, the effect of corrosion inhibitors on concrete properties, the acceleration of corrosion when the corrosion inhibitors are used with inadequate dosage, and other issues related to the leaching out and evaporation of the inhibitors from the concrete. In general, it appears that if inhibitors are used in suitable concentration, they may delay the initiation of corrosion, however there is no established evidence that the commercial inhibitors available at present are able to reduce the corrosion rate after the initiation of corrosion. Cathodic prevention Steel embedded in alkaline-free chloride concrete is in the passive condition. This passivity breaks down when the level of chloride content exceeds the threshold and pitting corrosion can initiate. Cathodic prevention is an electrochemical technique that involves the application of a small electrical current using anodes that have been embedded in the concrete during construction. This system can be applied to an entire structure or to selected elements of a structure with the aim of preventing reinforcement corrosion when chloride penetration from the environment takes place during the service life of the structure. The basic philosophy of cathodic prevention is that a much smaller cathodic prevention current is required to prevent pitting corrosion compared to a higher current requirement to suppress ongoing corrosion. The cost of the application of cathodic prevention is substantially lower than the cost of the application of cathodic protection. The conditions for pitting initiation and propagation were pointed out by Pourbaix who during the 1970s introduced the concept of "imperfect passivity" and "perfect passivity" intervals. The different domain of potentials is shown below. As can be seen from the graph, for cathodic prevention, a modest lowering of the steel potential can produce a significant increase in the critical
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 59
Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd
Corrosion Resistance: Marine Structures
chloride level. The free corrosion potential of steel ranges from -200mV to 0mV versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Pitting corrosion can take place if the chloride level exceeds 0.4%w/w cement. If a cathodic prevention current is applied to steel in chloride-free concrete, this will allow the steel to remain passive even when the chloride reaches a considerably high content. The cathodic prevention current produces hydroxide ions at the steel surface and causes the chloride ions to move toward the anode away from the steel. When cathodic prevention is applied, the initiation of a new pit is prevented but pitting can propagate. For this reason cathodic prevention has to be applied before corrosion initiates and must be maintained throughout the service life of the structure. If pitting corrosion has initiated, the current capacity typical for cathodic prevention will no longer be sufficient and cathodic protection current would be required. Graph showing: cathodic prevention (1-2-3-); cathodic protection restoring passivity (1-4-5-); and cathodic protection reducing corrosion rate (1-4-6-) The use of cathodic prevention for prestressed steel will eliminate the risk of hydrogen evolution because a lower current is required to prevent the initiation of pitting corrosion. A typical operating current for cathodic prevention ranges from 1-2mA/ m² of steel. The cathodic prevention design current density is normally 10mA/m² of steel surface. The design for a cathodic prevention system, system monitoring and operation is similar to cathodic protection. The main difference is related to the lower current density requirement and the ease of installation during construction. Conclusion In order to improve the corrosion resistance of reinforced concrete structures to be built in marine environments, it is essential to undertake durability assessment, durability design and durability planning as a part of the design phase and construction phase in order to minimise the risk of long term deterioration of the structure. For any structure located in a marine environment, the exposure conditions should be established and the elements of the structure should be classified based on corrosion risk. It is the authors' opinion that for any elements of the structure that are classified in the low corrosion risk category, a combination of the use of high performance concrete, good concrete cover and external coating can be used to ensure long term durability of the structure and to increase its life with minimal maintenance. For any elements of the structure that are classified as high corrosion risk areas, such as the tidal and splash zones, the only economically viable option that can be considered is the use of high performance concrete combined with the use of good concrete cover and the installation of a cathodic prevention system. It is important to note that any cathodic prevention system should be maintained for the life of the structure as an integral part of the maintenance program of the structure. The use of a suitable type stainless steel reinforcement can also be considered to improve the corrosion resistance of reinforcement. However, this should only be considered only if stainless steel is used for the entire structure and no stainless steel is used in conjunction with carbon steel in order to avoid potential galvanic corrosion problems. References
Tettamanti, M., Rossini A., and Cheaitani, A., "Cathodic Prevention and Cathodic Protection of New and Existing Concrete Elements at the Sydney Opera House", Corrosion/97, Paper No.255, NACE, 1997. Cheaitani, A., "Corrosion Prevention for Marine Structures", Coast and Ports Australasian Conference 2003, New Zealand. Cheaitani, A., Karajayli, P., and Chun-Ni, J., "Application of Cathodic Prevention to Sea Cliff Bridge, Lawrence Hargrave Drive", Corrosion & Prevention 2006, Paper 006. Cheaitani, A., Pedeferri, P., Bazzoni, B., Karajayli, P., and Dick, R., "Performance of cathodic prevention system of Sydney Opera House underbroadwalk after 10 years of operation", Paper No. 06342, NACE 2006. Zhou,H., and Cheaitani, A., "Corrosion prevention of new reinforced concrete structures", Chengdu Conference, China 2006.
60 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd
Repair : Polymer Modification
olymer modification of cement paste increases the tensile and flexural strength of mortars and concrete and reduces their brittle nature. Since the polymer-modified cement is a composite of two entirely different types of materials, the characteristics of the key components, cement and polymer, will be briefly described. Classification of the polymers used in modification is followed by a description of the main characteristics of flexible polymer-modified cement composites and their applications in concrete repair.
Portland cement based concrete and mortar are among the most widely used construction materials. Low cost, high stiffness, high compressive strength, non-flammability and ease of fabrication are the most obvious advantages of concrete, whilst low tensile strength, brittleness and, to some extent, long term durability represent its most serious limitations. Reinforcing the concrete with steel provides the necessary tensile strength and the incorporation of
fibres increases its toughness (resistance to crack propagation). Polymer modification of cement paste increases its tensile and flexural strength and reduces its brittle nature by increasing toughness of mortars and concrete. In this presentation we will briefly review the field of polymer modified concrete and mortars. Since the polymer modified cement is a composite of two entirely different types of materials, the characteristics of the key components, cement and polymer, will be briefly described. Classification of the polymers used in modification is followed by a description of the main characteristics of polymermodified cements and their applications in concrete repair. The presentation will then describe performance characteristic and applications of novel highly flexible, polymer modified cement composites. We will conclude by showing that future use of polymer modified cement composites will likely be in the area of durability and performance improvements of cement materials applied in thin sections.
64 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Repair : Polymer Modification
Brief History The ancient history of using natural polymers including asphalt to modify lime and clay mortars goes back to the Babylonians, Egyptians and ancient India. Europeans in the Middle Ages knew how to use ox blood and egg white to increase the toughness and durability of lime mortars. The modern history of man-made modifiers starts in the late fifties with the development of butadiene styrene, polychloroprene and acrylic latex and their use in modifying mortars and concrete. The main application of latex polymer modified cements at that time was in concrete repair. The use of polymers in the fabrication of bridge and parking garage overlays was developed in the USA and Canada in the early seventies. The function of the polymer was mainly to reduce concrete permeability and to increase resistance to chloride penetration, toughness and adhesion. Dry polymer modifiers, so called redispersable powders, based on ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinyl acetate-vinyl carboxylate, (VA/ VeovVa), acrylics, styrene-acrylics and others were introduced in the early eighties. Dry polymer modifiers allow the formulation of one-component systems. Initially dry polymer modifiers were inferior in many aspects to polymer emulsion (latex) but more recently the dry polymers are becoming as effective as their chemical equivalents in the latex form. Classification Polymer modified Portland cement paste is a composite material consisting of an inorganic cement paste and polymer. Each material is different and it is beyond the scope of this presentation to discuss the individual characteristics of these two components. We will only define Portland Cement, Polymer and Composite Material (Encyclopedia Britannica). "Portland cement is a binding material in the form of a finely ground powder, usually gray, that is manufactured by burning and grinding a mixture of limestone and clay or limestone and shale. When mixed with water, the anhydrous calcium silicates and other constituents in the Portland cement react chemically with the water, combining with it (hydration) and decomposing in it (hydrolysis), hardening and developing strength". "Polymer is any of class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macro-molecules, that are multiples of chemical units called monomers". "Composite Material is a solid material that results when two or more different substances, each with its own characteristics, are combined to create a new substance whose properties are superior to those of the original" For the purpose of this paper we are using the word "cement" to describe "mortars" based on Portland cement binder, but the word "cement" does not exclude other cement binders and pozzolanic or other inorganic admixtures, that can be used as part of the mortar composition. The performance characteristics of polymer-modified cement are controlled by the characteristics of its individual components. The main characteristics of hydrated Portland cement paste and polymer are summarized in Table 1.
Polymer Organic Low modulus of elasticity High tensile strength High elongation High fracture toughness Temperature sensitive Hydrated Cement Paste Inorganic High modulus of elasticity Low tensile strength Low elongation Low fracture toughness Temperature insensitive
Table 1. The basic characteristics of polymer and hydrated Portland cement paste.
The type of cement, the type of polymer and their respective quantities mainly control the properties of polymer-cement composites. Other influences controlling the final properties of the composite include the type of surface-active agents used, mixing, curing, etc. There are a large number of polymer (monomer) types that are used in modification of Portland cement paste. Figure 1, (Chandra & Ohama 1994), shows the main classes of materials available. For the purpose of this presentation we will direct our attention primarily to polymer latexes. These types of polymers can be further classified by their chemical nature. Since we
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paste particles start to hydrate and cement gel begins to form on the surface of the cement particles. The mixture of cement gel covered un-hydrated cement particles is enveloped with a close-packed layer of polymer particles. In the third step, the removal of water by hydration and evaporation, the closely packed polymer particles start forming polymer films (membranes).
Figure 1. Classification of polymer (monomer) modifiers of cement paste.
Properties of Flexible Polymer Modified Cement (FPMC) Polymer modification of cement paste changes the properties of mortar and concrete. These effects depend mainly on the polymer content, expressed as polymer/cement ratio, the type of polymer and also the design of the mortar or concrete. Typical effects are summarized in Table 2.
Property Compressive strength Tensile strength Fracture Toughness Adhesion Modulus of Elasticity Drying shrinkage Water vapor permeability Hydraulic permeability Creep CO2 permeability Chloride penetration resistance Chemical resistance Effect Decreased or increased Increased Increased Increased Decreased or increased Decreased or increased Decreased Decreased Decreased of increased Decreased Decreased Increased in some chemicals
are mainly interested in flexibility of polymer cement composites, we need to introduce the term "glass transition temperature "Tg" of a polymer. Below the Tg temperature, polymers exhibit "glassy" behavior and are relatively brittle with limited flexibility. At temperatures above Tg, the polymer is more flexible and tough and exhibits a larger elongation in tension. At Tg properties such as specific volume, specific heat, dielectric coefficient, rates of gas/liquid diffusion through the polymer and conductivity change as shown in Figure 2.
Table 2. Typical effects of polymer modification on perform-ance of Portland cement mortars and concrete.
Figure 2. Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) of an amorphous (noncrystalline) polymer.
Polymer Modification Mechanism The mechanism of polymer modification of Portland cement paste is complex but can be schematically described in three separate steps: Immediately after mixing with water, the cement
The first commercially available latex modifiers for Portland cement exhibited Tg in the range of 1020 oC. This relatively high Tg of the modifier results in an increase in the compressive, tensile and bending strengths as well as increase adhesion and impact strength of Portland cement based mortars and concrete up to a certain level of polymer cement ratio. The tensile elongation is also increased, but the ultimate tensile strain does not increase much over 1%. The typical relationship between the polymer content, expressed as polymer/cement ratio (meaning the weight of polymer solids divided by the weight of
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Greaves Cotton Ltd
Repair : Polymer Modification
cement solids), is shown in Figure 3. The Tg of the acrylic polymer used in the study presented in Figure 3, was +13 oC. relationship of a non-reinforced and a polypropylene fabric reinforced, proprietary FPMC. The addition of short fibre reinforcement generally increases the tensile strength but may reduce the tensile elongation. The reinforcing fabric increases the tensile strength properties without significantly reducing the tensile elongation. The type of fibre or fabric, their moduli of elasticity, fabric design and volume fractions will affect the tensile stress/strain behaviour of such a composite, but it is beyond the scope of this presentation to cover this area. The tensile stress/strain properties and other mechanical properties of FPMC composite are affected by temperature. With decreasing temperature the flexibility of the FPMC composite decreases and this decrease becomes critical around temperatures below the Tg of the polymer used. The tensile stress/strain behaviour is also affected by the wet or dry state of the composite material. A non-reinforced composite will exhibit lower ultimate tensile stress and ultimate elongation in a wet (water saturated) state than those of dry material. Tensile properties of flexible polymer modified cements may decrease with time but this decrease is also dependent on the type of exposure such as continuous "wet", continuous "dry" or "wet and dry". The decrease in tensile elongation is usually accompanied by an increase in tensile strength but it can be to some extent controlled by the formulation of the cement mortar. Compression properties The compressive strength of polymer-modified
Figure 3. Compressive and flexural strengths of polymer modi-fied mortars vs polymer cement ratio (p/c).
Tensile Properties Decreasing the Tg of polymer modifier and increasing the polymer content in the mortar increases the tensile elongation. The ultimate tensile elongation may vary anywhere from 5% to 100% depending on the level of polymer modification, the type of the polymer used (even for a given Tg), and the type of mortar used. The ultimate tensile stress may vary from 1 MPa to 6-7 MPa and more, but
Figure 4. Tensile stress/strain curves of non-reinforced and re-inforced FPMC.
typically with increasing tensile strength the tensile elongation decreases and vice versa. The addition of fibres or use of reinforcing fabric affects the tensile stress/strain behaviour of flexible polymer cement composite. Figure 4 shows the stress/strain
Figure 5. Compressive strength of mortars modified with polymer latexes of varying Tg. (w/c=0.6, p/c=0.3, sand/cement ratio =2, the control compressive strength of unmodified mortar 41.6 MPa, test temperature 180C).
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Repair : Polymer Modification
mortar is also affected by polymer modification. Figure 5 shows the ultimate compressive strength values of mortars modified with polymers of varying Tg temperature. Modulus of elasticity in tension The tensile modulus of elasticity of flexible polymer cement will vary considerably depending on the polymer content, Tg of the polymer and the composition of the cement matrix. Thus the moduli of elasticity may reach values as low as 300-500 MPa for highly flexible composites. Crack Spanning One of the reasons for using FPMC is their flexibility, allowing waterproofing of concrete structures with "moving cracks". The crack bridging capacity of a non-reinforced and fabric reinforced proprietary product in a thickness of 2.5 mm at different levels of polymer modification is shown in Figure 6. permeance, a thin 2 mm layer may act as a very efficient vapour retarder with permeance around 5060 ng/Pa.s.m2 (or approximately 1 perm). On the other hand, flexible polymer modified cements can be formulated at the same thickness of 2 mm to exhibit permeances, in excess of 500-600 ng/Pa.s.m2, (or 10 Perms), thus providing a highly "breathable" waterproofing and protective layer. Carbon dioxide and chloride penetration resistance Data available from technical information on commercial products show that polymer modified cements, including flexible cements, exhibit excellent resistance to carbon dioxide penetration and are very effective protection for reinforced concrete structures against carbonation and consequent corrosion of the reinforcing steel. Similarly the resistance to chloride penetration of these materials is also very good (Coppola et al. 1997). Abrasion resistance Properly formulated FPMCs exhibit very good abrasion resistance mainly because of their toughness. Figure 7 shows "wet" abrasion resistance of several materials: conventional sand cement/mortar, high Tg polymer modified mortar, a "dry" polymer modified proprietary repair mortar, a proprietary FPMC and a polyurethane membrane - the type used in protection of balconies. The Taber Abrader was used to determine the abrasion rate and the results show that the polymer-modified cement with low Tg is superior to conventional and polymer modified mortars and has similar abrasion resistance to that of polyurethane membrane. The testing was carried out under both dry and wet conditions. Under wet (water saturated) conditions the abrasion is higher for all the materials tested in very similar proportions. Salt Scaling Resistance The salt scaling resistance of FPMC is generally very good, most likely due to the flexibility of the materials. Chemical Resistance Due to their high polymer content, FPMC exhibit
Figure 6. Crack-bridging capability of reinforced and non-reinforced proprietary FPMC as a function of polymer content.
Hydraulic Permeability FPMC exhibit very good hydraulic impermeability. A relatively thin layer, 1.6-2.00 mm thick, applied to concrete will resist water head pressure in excess of 30-40 meters on both negative and positive sides. Water vapor transmission Depending on the polymer/cement ratio, type of polymer and formulation of the modified mortar, the FPMC will exhibit a wide range of water vapour transmission. When expressed in terms of
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covered using a galvanized welded fabric (1.7 mm wire diameter, 30 cm wide strip with opening 5 cm by 2.5 cm) mechanically fastened to the concrete. After the placement of the welded wire fabric, a 12 mm thick layer of fibre-reinforced mortar was applied to the concrete surface of the tank. The material was mechanically applied using the wet process shotcrete method. The following day the surface of the primary layer was thoroughly cleaned with high-pressure water. Then an approximately 3 mm thick layer of FPMC was rolled on in two coats. The waterproofing, protective system was air cured for approximately one week before the tank was put back into use. The performance of the repair has been excellent. The interior of the tank was inspected in 1997, 4 years after the installation, and no leaks or deterioration of the waterproofing system was found. Further inspections in 2000 and 2003 also revealed no leaking. Municipal and Industrial Land-fill sites, Chemical Protection of "Dry" Pre-Cast Manholes, Brantford, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada Extensive investigation of concrete manholes and concrete drainage pipes of a municipal land-fill site in Ontario using robotic TV camera investigation showed that after 25 - 30 years of service, there is approximately 12-15 mm deep concrete deterioration in many areas due to chemical attack. Since the specified design life of such structures is presently being changed from 30 to 100 years, the design engineers have been looking for various methods to increase the chemical resistance of wet or dry cast concrete pipes and manholes. The commonly used epoxy coatings exhibit high chemical resistance but in negative side applications where the water is also getting behind the coating the epoxy coatings debond. FPMC with a high content of a low Tg polymer provide considerable improvement in chemical resistance to that of Portland cement mortar. This improvement is sufficient to increase the service life of the pre-cast concrete components to presently specified levels and beyond. In addition they do not exhibit the problem of de-bonding as in case of epoxy coatings. They are easier to apply and less expensive than the epoxies. The dry-cast concrete pipes were cleaned using high-pressure water. The
Figure 7. Abrasion resistance of various mortars in wet state - Taber Abrador Model # 503, abrador wheel, Calabrase H-22, mass on each arm =500g.
a considerably higher chemical resistance, even in acidic environments, than conventional Portland cement mortars or concrete. Applications of FPMC Composites Repair of Concrete Digester Tank, Bedford, Nova Scotia, Canada In 1993 the concrete roof of a digester tank in Bedford, Nova Scotia, Canada collapsed. The concrete roof was replaced with a "gas holding" steel roof. Over the years and due to excessive pressure the reinforced concrete tank, which measured 10 m in diameter and 7 m high, had developed vertical and horizontal cracks. The repair required long term sealing of the cracks in the reinforced concrete wall as well as concrete protection. The designer selected two materials for the repair: alkaline resistant glass fibre-reinforced, micro-silica enhanced mortar as the primary waterproofing layer and a FPMC as the secondary waterproofing and protective layer. Tests and practical experience with the fibre-reinforced mortar had shown that if the crack telescoped through the layer it would be only hairline. But since it was difficult to accurately determine the movement of the cracks in the reinforced concrete wall of the tank under the fully loaded condition, it was conceivable that the primary waterproofing layer would develop fine through cracks due to movement of the substrate cracks. Therefore an additional protective coat of FPMC was applied as a secondary waterproofing and protective layer. The high flexibility allowed crack spanning of fine cracks and the high polymer content provided improved chemical resistance. After cleaning the tank by sandblasting the vertical and horizontal cracks were
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Terex India Pvt.Ltd
Repair : Polymer Modification
FPMC layer was applied by spraying and brushing. A brush was used to provide a pin-hole free coating approximately 1 mm thick. The second coat was applied in the same manner and thickness and air-dry cured. Underground, reinforced concrete tanks, Port of St. John's, Newfoundland Canada Large volume underground reinforced concrete tanks were built during the Second World War and used for storage of bunker oil. In 1997 it was decided to refurbish the tanks and use them as storage tanks for drilling "mud" used in off shore oil drilling in Newfoundland. The tanks had extensive cracking but. the most serious problem was the contamination with oil residues and an originally applied bituminous protective coating. The surface of the concrete was cleaned using high-pressure water with sand in combination with industrial degreasers. The degreasing of the surface was carried out several times. The cracks were treated with a FPMC layer, reinforced with approximately 15 cm wide polypropylene reinforcing fabric. The remaining areas were coated with a different type of FPMC designed to provide long-term chemical resistance to the drilling mud. Cooling tower interior, Bishan, People's Republic of China The cooling towers at a thermal power plant in Bishan, China, were built in the mid Eighties. The original coal tar epoxy applied to the interior side of one of the cooling tower wall had failed after approximately 10 years of service. In 2000 the original epoxy coating had been removed and another epoxy coating had been applied to the interior. This application failed completely, by severe delamination of the epoxy, in about three to four years. In 2004 it was decided to use FPMC as waterproofing. There were a number of reasons for changing the widely used very low permeability epoxy system but the main reason was the historically poor performance of epoxy systems in these types of applications throughout northern China and elsewhere. A thorough computer analysis of the moisture content in the concrete wall, the climatic conditions and all modes of moisture and heat transfer, showed that having a very low water vapor transmission coating (vapor barrier) on the interior was not necessary, since its water vapor permeability has relatively little effect on the overall moisture content in the concrete wall of the cooling tower. The lower cost of the polymermodified cement versus the epoxy coating and the ease of application were also important considerations is selecting the FPMC over the epoxy. The total interior area was approximately 8,000 m2. The most difficult task was to remove the existing epoxy coating since only some of the epoxy was completely de-bonded and considerable areas of the epoxy remaining well adhered. Rotating, mechanical, hand held grinders were used to remove the epoxy. Due to time and economic constraints, well-adhered epoxy was not removed. The FPMC was brush applied in two coats to a total thickness of 2 mm. Conclusions Polymer modification of mortars or concrete increases the toughness and, to some extent, the tensile and bending strengths of these materials. By using a higher level of polymer modification with a polymer exhibiting a low Tg, a high flexibility in such composites can be achieved. The main use of these materials is in thin section applications, in waterproofing and protection of concrete structures. The high flexibility allows the spanning of substrate cracks and provides waterproofing and protection that cannot be achieved using conventional mortars or high Tg polymer modified mortars. References:
Chandra, S. & Ohama Y. 1994, Polymers in Concrete, Boca Raton, CRC Press Coppola, L. at al. 1997, Properties of Polymer-Cement Coatings for Concrete Protection, Fifth Canmet/ACI Conference, Superplasticizers and other Chemical Admixtures in Concrete, ACI SP - 173: 267-286
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Corrosion Control: Technologies
Emerging Corrosion Control Technologies for Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures*
Dr. Qiu Jianhai, BEng PhD CEng MIMMM FICorr NACE Certified Corrosion Specialist (#5047) WebCorr Corrosion Consulting Services
echnology always advances faster than the development of codes, specifications, and standards. Recent innovations in materials, processes and corrosion control technologies have enabled designers and architects to meet performance-based specifications at lower life cycle cost. This paper focuses on the recent developments and applications of state-of-the-art emerging technologies for repair and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures. These technologies include: press-on zinc hydrogel anode CP system, snap-on zinc mesh anode CP system, pre-packaged zinc sacrificial anode system, conductive concrete, electrochemical chloride extraction (CE) or electrochemical chloride removal (ECR), electrochemical realkalisation (ER), duplex/stainless steels and alloys reinforcements. Most of these emerging technologies are also increasingly used for corrosion prevention in new concrete structures. Some application examples are also cited to demonstrate the potentials of these promising technologies in the new millennium. Primer on Concrete Corrosion General Reinforced concrete is the most versatile and potentially one of the most durable materials that a designer can choose to build almost any type of structures. Under normal conditions, the reinforcing steel is in a passive state - it is protected from corrosion by a rather inert oxide film (passive film) on its surface. The formation and the subsequent breakdown of such an oxide film are mainly determined by the pH and the chloride content of the concrete. When the local environment at the
rebar/concrete interface cannot maintain the passive state of reinforcing steel, active corrosion in either uniform or localized form (pitting) will occur. Because of the widespread use of reinforced concrete, today corrosion of reinforcing steel is rapidly becoming a major problem throughout the world. Bridges, marine structures, buildings and other concrete structures are being severely damaged by corrosion. Carbonation Carbonation refers to the interaction of carbon dioxide in atmosphere with the hydroxides in the concrete. Carbonation is detrimental to the corrosion resistance of reinforcing steel as it destroys the passive film. Ca(OH)2+CO2=CaCO3+H2O CaCO3+CO2+H2O=Ca(HCO3)2 soluble bicarbonate Leaching of Ca(OH)2 due to carbonation causes the pH of the concrete to fall below 9 and this leads to the depassivation of the reinforcing steel surface. Chlorides Chlorides are well known for their ability to penetrate and destroy passive films on steels and alloys. Fe => Fe2+ + 2eFeCl2+2H2O=2HCl + Fe(OH) Chlorides may come from an external source such as seawater or exist as mixed-in. The local acidification due to the hydrolysis of metal chloride
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Corrosion Control: Technologies
creates an auto-catalyzing situation for the corrosion of steel. Chlorides either alone or combined with carbonation are the primary cause of concrete corrosion. Corrosion Products As corrosion continues, corrosion products build up around the reinforcing steel. Corrosion products commonly observed when concrete cores containing corroding rebar were broken open were ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2), hydrated ferrous chloride (FeC12H2O), and black ferrous oxide (Fe3O4).The exact product formed depends on the availability of oxygen, water, and chloride ion, but the result is essentially the same. These corrosion products occupy from 2 to 14 times the volume of the original steel, creating an expansive force that is sufficient to cause the concrete to crack. Propagation of the cracks leads to staining, spalling and delamination of concrete. Innovative Cathodic Protection Systems for Concrete Repair and Rehabilitation Introduction Zinc, as a sacrificial anode, has been used to catholically protect ship's hulls for more than a century now. It has become a common practice to use cathodic protection either alone or in combination with coatings for buried pipelines, storage tanks and offshore structures. It has been well established both in theory and in practice that the process achieves an immediate reduction in corrosion rate by making the reinforcing steel the cathode, inhibiting its tendency to oxidize. In addition, the cathodic reactions at the steel/concrete interface increase the alkalinity (raise the pH) by hydroxyl ion (OH-) generation and drive chloride ions (Cl-) away from the steel as a result of the negative charge on the ions being repelled by the negative polarity of the reinforcement and attracted to the positive polarity of an installed anode. Thus Cathodic Protection of steel in concrete has always incorporated some degree of Realkalisation (increase in pH) and Chloride Extraction (redistribution of chlorides). Both these processes reduce the risk of corrosion of steel in the concrete and also achieve further protection. Recent innovations in materials and design have made CP - the old remedy, ever , more attracting and promising today. Pressure-sensitive Zinc-Hydrogel Anode For conventional CP systems (SA or ICCP) to function properly, it requires the presence of a continuous conductive electrolyte between the anode and the cathode. This is to form a closed circuit such that the reinforcing steel is indeed made the cathode. In areas of electrical discontinuity, reinforcing steel would not be cathodically protected. One of the recent innovations is the self-adhesive and conductive zinc-hydrogel anode that provides a continuous electrolyte contact between the anode and the reinforcing steel embedded in the concrete structure. The pressure-sensitive zinc-hydrogel anode is essentially a sheet of zinc foil coated with an ionically conductive hydrogel pressure-sensitive adhesive (Figure 1), which serves as the electrolyte between the anode (zinc foil) and the cathode (reinforcing steel in concrete). The hydrogel is covered with a liner to help protect it from contamination. At time of installation, the protective liner is removed from the hydrogel by hand, and the zinc-hydrogel anode is adhered to the clean, bare concrete surface. This zinc foil anode coated with hydrogel is provided in roll form for coverage of the concrete surface to be protected. The ionically conductive hydrogel performs two functions: (1) to enable the anode to be securely adhered to the exterior surface of the concrete structure, and (2) to serve as a continuous conductive electrolyte between the anode and the concrete structure. How It Work As illustrated in Fig. 2, the zinc foil is applied to the surface of structurally sound concrete structure. The pressure sensitive adhensive (conductive hydrogel) bridges the gap between the zinc anode (foil in this case) and the concrete surface - making possible the electrolyte continuity across the anode and cathode (rebars). The zinc foil must be electrically connected to the rebar network by wires so that electrons can flow through the wire from zinc (anode) to rebars (cathode). Conventionally, current flows in the opposite direction of electrons, i.e., from cathode to
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network, ELECTRONS flow from zinc foil into steel rebars, thus reducing the steel's tendency to lose electrons and hence reducing the rate of corrosion (oxidation). This is because zinc is a much more reactive metal than steel, it has a much greater tendency to lose electrons than that of steel. Since electrons carry negative charges, the accumulation of electrons within steel rebar makes steel more negatively charged, leading to cathodic polarisation, the shift of rebar potential in the negative direction. In general, the greater the tendency for the anode to donate electrons to the cathode, the greater the degree of protection rendered to the "cathode" (the steel rebar network). However, one must remember that when an anode donates electrons to the cathode, the anode material "sacrifices" itself. What this means is that the useful life of the anode is both limited by the chemical/electrochemical surface reactivity and the amount of physical material available. Potential Applications The nature of the zinc hydrogel anode makes it a perfect rehabilitation option for structures or certain sections of structures exposed to atmospheres. The conductive hydrogel ensures the continuity of electrolyte across the rebar-concrete-hydrogel-anode, and hence cathodically protects the rebar network. Tips: It is a good idea to paint the zinc surface to preserve the anode material by reducing corrosion of zinc from external atmosphere. Pre-packaged Zinc Sacrificial Anode Conventional patch repair of corroded concrete structures inevitably introduces "incipient anode" effect due to the different electrochemical behavior of the "new" and "old" rebar/cement. The newly patched area has a higher potential than the neighboring area (which may still be contaminated with chloride) and is the cathode in the corrosion process, while the rebars in the neighboring areas become the anode and start to corrode. Conventional patch repair treats only the symptoms not the cause and the incipient anode effect makes this repair a never-ending process. One innovative product that uses pre-packaged zinc sacrificial anode (commercially known as
Fig. 1 Pressure-Sensitive Zinc-Hydrogel Anode (Illustration copyrighted by 3M)
Fig. 2 Installation of Zinc-Hydrogel Anode (Illustration copyrighted by 3M)
anode. Ionic current is carried by charged species such as Cl-, Na+, OH-, Ca2+ etc. across the electrolyte (concrete + hydrogel). The potential of rebar and the current flowing between the zinc foil and the rebar can give some indication about the degree of cathodic protection. Why It Works Corrosion of rebar is the process involving the following oxidation reaction: Fe ==> Fe2+ + 2e A neutral iron atom lost 2 electrons and became a positively charged ion. The tendency of a metal to lose electrons can be considered as the tendency of metal to corrode. When zinc foil is applied to the concrete surface but not connected by wire to the rebar network, the steel rebar continues to corrode at a normal rate. When zinc foil is electrically connected to the rebar
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Corrosion Control: Technologies
Galvashield XP - registered trademarks of Fosroc international) can provide solution to the incipient anode induced corrosion (Fig.3). Since zinc is prepackaged in a specially formulated mortar that maintains the surface reactivity of zinc, electrons released from zinc will be readily transferred to the neighboring steel rebar network. The effective protection distance by such an embedded unit is sufficient to suppress the incipient anode effect. Installation of such an integrated system is easy and flexible. There are no special techniques required. The self-contained wire ties allow attachment to vertical, horizontal and overhead positions (Fig.4). The effectiveness of the pre-packaged zinc sacrificial anode on the preventing rebar corroison is demonstrated in Figure 5.
Fig.5 Effectiveness of pre-packaged zinc sacrificial anode on the corrosion of rebar Photo copyrighted by FOSROC International
Fig.3a Zinc encased in special mortar 3b Cross-sectional view the zinc anode Photos copyrighted by FOSROC International
cathodic protection system. The principle behind the system is exactly the same as that used by the zinc hydrogel anode system and the pre-packaged zinc anode system. This product was originally developed as "Lifejacket" by Alltrista Zinc products Company in North America and is marketed by FOSROC International as "Galvashield LJ". The all-in-one system (Fig.6) is based on the installation of 2-piece, snap-together jackets (Fig.7) lined with expanded zinc mesh (Fig.8). Each jacket assembly is supplied with a minimum of 8 non-conductive standoffs per face. These standoffs secure the zinc mesh in place while achieving the optimum position of the jacket in relation to the piling.The self-contained system provides an innovative solution to the corrosion problems of both new and existing concrete structures subject to periodic wetting and drying as experienced in the splash and tidal zones (Fig.9). Life Expectancy As in any other sacrificial anode CP system, the life expectancy can be calculated if current output of the anode is known. It is mainly determined by the amount of zinc anode material and the rate (current
Fig4. Installed zinc anode (Galvashield XP) Photos copyrighted by FOSROC International
Laboratory experiments showed that the zinc anode can suppress the formation of incipient anodes around the repair (Fig.5). Field applications include car parks, buildings, bridges and any other reinforced concrete structures where conventional patch repairs can not provide acceptable performance. Snap-on Zinc Mesh Anode CP system System Description This is yet another innovation in sacrificial anode
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Ajax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt.Ltd
Corrosion Control: Technologies
output) at which zinc "sacrifices" itself (in order to protect the cathode): Major Attractions and Applications Compared with conventional CP system, the snap-on zinc mesh anode jacket has the following attractions: All-in-one, self-contained sacrificial anode CP system Snap-on type quick, easy installation Low cost effective repairs Maintenance-free No need for external power Long life protection Jackets are available in a wide range of sizes and can accommodate both square and round pilings (Fig.10) Major applications include splash and tidal zones of steel reinforced concrete structures. Optional Cast bulk zinc anode can be used on fully submerged structures.
Fig.6 Snap-on Zinc Mesh Anode CP System (Galvashield LJ) (Photo copyrighted by FOSROC International and Alltrista Zinc products Company)
Manufacturer's data sheet suggests that the zinc mesh embedded in the snap-on fibreglass jacket has a projected life of 46 years.
Electrochemical Treatment Principles In all electrochemical restoration techniques a direct current is applied between the reinforcement (cathode) and an external anode in electrolytic contact with the concrete. Cathodic protection (CP) is a permanent installation with design currents below 10 mA/m2, electrochemical chloride extraction (or removal, - EC or ECR) and electrochemical realkalisation (ER) are applied only on a temporary basis and use currents up to 1 A/m2. In all three cases the electrochemical reactions at the cathode (the rebars) produce hydroxyl ions leading to an increase of the pH near the rebar. This facilitates passivation of the steel. Reaction (1b) is possible at very high current densities and produces hydrogen and especially high tensile steels under load could suffer hydrogen embrittlement. 2 H2O + O2 + 4e ==> 4OH- (1a) current density) 2 H2O + 2e- ==> 2OH- + H2 (1b) current density) (at low (at high
Fig 7 & 8 The two-piece fiberglass jackets snap together (Photo copyrighted by FOSROC International and Alltrista Zinc products Company)
Fig.9 Zinc Mesh Anode Installed on Bridge Pilings (Photo copyrighted by FOSROC International and Alltrista Zinc products Company)
At the anode the possible oxidation reactions are
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Corrosion Control: Technologies
decrease. The acidification of electrolyte and formation of chlorine gas are considered to be undesirable. An acidic solution may attack the concrete and chlorine gas is toxic. Using alkaline electrolyte such as saturated calcium hydroxide solution or a sodium borate solution can prevent acid attack on concrete and chlorine gas formation. At pH above 7, practically no chlorine gas is formed as the reaction on the anode is predominated by reaction indicated by equation (2a'). Summary (if tap Electrochemical chloride removal and electrochemical realkalization lead to an increase in pH at the rebars and to repassivation of corroding steel. The durability of ECR has been proven on different site jobs with a track record between five and eight years if further chloride ingress is avoided by applying a coating on the concrete surface. Several reinforced concrete structures treated with ER showed good performance over several years without applying a coating. To avoid adverse side effects the current density during the treatments must be limited to < 2 A/m2 steel surface. Methods and quantitative criteria to assess the efficiency and durability of the electrochemical repair methods should be improved and defined in an international standard. Conductive Concrete The Nature of Conductive Concrete Conventional concrete is excellent in durability and mechanical properties but is a poor electrical conductor, especially under dry conditions. Durable concrete that is excellent in both mechanical and electrical conductivity properties may have important applications in the electrical, electronic, military and construction industry (e.g. for CP system, de-icing road from snow). Conductive concrete may be defined as a cementitious composite which contains a certain amount of electronically conductive components to attain stable and relatively high electrical conductivity. The principle behind it is the use of cement to bind together electrically conductive
Fig.10 Jackets for square and round pilings (Photo copyrighted by FOSROC International and Alltrista Zinc products Company)
oxygen evolution, chlorine evolution or water decomposition: 2 H2O ==>O2 + 4H+ + 4ewater is used) 4OH- ==> O2 + 2H2O + 4ealkaline solution is used) 2 Cl- ==>C12 + 2e(2a)
(2a') (if (2b)
H2O + C12 ==>HCl + HClO (2b') These reactions lead to an acidification of the electrolyte around the anode (OH- ions are converted into O2; H2O is converted into H+). The decrease in pH value in the electrolyte around the anode depends on the current density applied. Anode and Electrolyte Selection Electrochemical Realkalisation: Anode material: Electrolyte: Chloride Extraction: Anode Material: Platinum-coated titanium wire (chlorine gas is prevented by using ion exchanger impregnated with saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The ion exchanger is placed between the concrete surface and the anode, Cl- ions escaped from the concrete into the electrolyte are exchanged for OH- ions); Copper wires (copper dissolves on the anode and combines with Cl- to form CuCl2; Aluminum foil Electrolyte for CE: Saturated calcium hydroxide; Sodium borate; Sodium hydroxide; Tap water Due to reactions on the anode (equations 2a, 2a', 2b), the pH of solution around the anode will Steel mesh 0.5M ~ 1.0M LiOH solution
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materials such as carbon fiber, graphite and 'coke breeze' - a cheap by-product of steel production - to make a continuous network of conducting pathway. The design formulation is based on the 'electrical percolation' principle by which the composite conductivity increases dramatically by several orders of magnitude when the content of the conductive phase reaches a critical 'threshold' value. Further increases in the conductive phase content boost composite conductivity only slightly. The design specifies an amount just over the threshold content, assuring high conductivity and mechanical strength as well as good mixing conditions. Concrete bridge decks are prone to ice accumulation. The use of road salts and chemicals for deicing is cost effective but causes damage to concrete and corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete bridge decks. This problem is a major concern to transportation officials and public works due to rapid degradation of existing concrete pavements and bridge decks. The use of insulation materials for ice control and electric or thermal heating for deicing have been attempted and met limited success. Based on the results of a transient heat transfer analysis, a thin conductive concrete overlay on a bridge deck has the potential to become a cost effective deicing method. When connected to a power source, heat is generated due to the electrical resistance in the cement admixture with metallic particles and steel fibers. Small-scale slab heating experiments have shown that an average power of about 520 W/m2 (48 W/ft2) was generated by the conductive concrete to raise the slab temperature from -1.1oC (30oF) to 15.6oC (60oF) in 30 minutes. This power level is consistent with the successful deicing applications using electrical heating cited in the literature. Applications of Conductive Concrete The conductive concrete can be used as a structural material and bonds well with normal concrete. The conventional mixing type is lightweight, with only 70 per cent of normal concrete weight. Thermal stability is comparable to normal concrete, production employs conventional mixing and casting equipment, and application of the conductive concrete is similar to that of conventional concrete. The conductive concrete could be used along with specially configured electrodes and an electric power supply to provide de-icing on roads, sidewalks, bridges and runways. Placed as an overlay, conductive concrete with very low resistivity can be used as a secondary anode in existing cathodic protection systems, providing uniform current distribution over its large surface area and reduced anodic current density. At the same time, it provides excellent mechanical stability due to its load-bearing capacity and its bond strength as an overlay. And because conductive concrete attenuates electromagnetic and radio waves, it can be used to shield computer equipment from eavesdropping efforts and protect electrical installations and electronic equipment from interference. The Benefits
Sydney Opera House Type 316 stainless steel rebar and mesh replacing carbon steel reinforced concrete which failed after about 25 years of service (Photo copyrighte dby NiDI)
Conductive concrete has excellent mechanical and electrical conductivity properties. It is much lighter in weight than conventional
84 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Liugong India Pvt.Ltd
Corrosion Control: Technologies
concrete. It can be produced easily, without special equipment. It will reduce the need of salts and save millions in dollars in snow removal costs. It warms by power taken off-line, it uses an AC current. It is also safe for a person crossing a charged concrete pathway. It can also be used for protecting structures against static electricity and lightning, and preventing steel structures and reinforcing layer of steel in concrete structures from corroding. It absorbs over 90% of the electromagnetic energy and it is cheaper and more convenient than the existing ways of blocking out electromagnetic energy. Stainless Steels and Alloys Reinforcements The Difference Between Black Rebar and Stainless Steel Rebar Stainless steel differs significantly from carbon steel in its composition, structure and properties. As its name suggests, stainless steel is stainless and has superior corrosion resistance when compared with the carbon steel. The most fundamental difference lies in the composition. By definition, steel is considered to be stainless when it contains at least 12% chromium. This is the minimum amount of chromium required in an alloy/steel to maintain its "stainless" surface appearance. The superior corrosion resistance of stainless steel is due to the stability of an ultra thin surface oxide (mainly chromium oxide) - the passive film. If the passive film is broken or damaged due to chemical or mechanical actions, the chromium element in the steel substrate can almost instantly repair the damaged area by re-oxidization (repassivation). It is this unique self-healing process that makes stainless steel "stainless". Type of Stainless Steels and Alloys Chromium is the essential element in all types of stainless steels and alloys. Other alloying elements such as nickel and molybdenum are also used to achieve certain required properties. The properties of a stainless steel are determined by it structure which is in turn determined by its alloying composition. There are three types of stainless steels according to the structure: ferritic, austenitic and martensitic. Austenitic grades 304 and 316 are the widely used reinforcing material. It has long been well established that stainless steels have superior corrosion resistance than carbon steels. Stainless steels and alloys can maintain their natural passivity in seawater or 3.5% NaCl solution. In comparison, the passive behaviour of carbon steel rebars observed in concrete will be totally lost when carbon steels are immersed in seawater or 3.5% NaCl solution, leading to active dissolution and hence continuous loss of material. Research has shown that when the pH of concrete pore water falls below 9, carbon steel rebar will depassivate. Stainless steels can even maintain their passivity in acidic environment. Carbonation and/or chloride ingress would not be able to destroy or depassivate stainless rebars as the chromium oxides (the passive film on
140 tonnes of Type 304 stainless steel rebar being installed in an addition to the historic Guildhall, London (Photo copyrighte dby NiDI)
86 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Corrosion Control: Technologies
and the structure will remain sound. It has been estimated that the stainless steel content on prestigious structures would be as little as 7~20%. The same concept can be used in other structures such as general building where peripheral or external walls could be constructed from stainless steel rebar linking in to carbon steel rebar for the internal structures where corrosion is not a problem. Applications
Type 316LN rebars being installed in a bridge deck on highway 407 just north of Toronto, Canada (Photo copyrighte dby NiDI)
Ranking Of The Emerging Technologies For Corrosion Control In Concrete Structures Based on the effectiveness in reducing or stopping the corrosion of steel reinforcement, the following ranking is suggested: Conclusions The emerging technologies are increasingly used for the repair and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures due to their effectiveness and ease of installations. For long-lasting cost effective structures and facilities, these emerging technologies are already used for corrosion prevention in new concrete structures exposed to more corrosive environments. If you want to know more about this topic presented here, there is a short course entitled "Emerging Corrosion Control Technologies for the Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Structures". It can be taken as in-house training course, online course or distance learning course at www.corroosionclininc.com Acknowledgement The author wishes to thank the following organizations and companies for the permission to use copyrighted photographs, drawings and illustrations in this paper: The Nickel Development
1 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) For repair /rehabilitation For new structures For repair /rehabilitation For new structures For repair/rehabiliation For repair/rehabiliation Base for comparison
stainless steel surface) is much more stable and hence has much greater resistance to corrosion than the iron oxides (the passive film on carbon steel surface). In recent years, more designers and engineers have realised that solid stainless steels offer highest protection against corrosion in concrete structures. With many other alternative CP systems and coated products, the ultimate failure has often been due to over-reliance on that lowest common denominator at construction site level, namely the unskilled labour. This is particularly so for coated/galvanized rebars which, unlike solid stainless steels, are not homogeneous. Careless handling and installation (cutting, bending) can serously impair their corrosion resistance. With solid stainless steel rebars, however, the integrity and durability will not be affected at all. Intelligent Use of Stainless Rebars Stainless steels offer almost maintenance-free solution to the problem of long-term durability of concrete structures and can be used within existing design codes and practice in two ways. The simplest but more expansive option would be to use 100% stainless rebar to replace existing carbon steel rebar. This would eliminate corrosion and enable a design life in excess of 120 years. The total cost can be competitive when life cycle costing is taken into account. To reduce the cost, stainless steel rebar can be used intelligently in areas of a structure such as bridge joints, splash zones, support structures and column heads where carbon steel rebars are judged to be at high risk of corrosion. If stainless rebars are used in vunerable areas where cracking occurs and water enters, there will be no significant corrosion
2 Stainless steel / duplex stainless steel 3 4 5 Sacrificial Anode (SA) system Electrochemical Treatment ER/ECR (or CE) Conventional patch repair
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Corrosion Control: Technologies
Institute, 3M Company (S) Pte Ltd, Fosroc International. References
Peter Pullar-Strecker, Corrosion Damaged Concrete, Butterworths 1987 Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, Eds P. Schiessl, Chapman and Hall, 1988 Corrosion of Reinforecment in Concrete Construction, Eds Alan P. Crane, Ellis Horwood, 1983 Corrosion Rate of Steel in Concrete, ASTM, STP 1065, 1988 Cathodic Protection of Reinforcement Steel in Concrete, Eds K. G. C. Berkeley, Butterworths, 1990 Controlling Concrete Degradation, Proc of the International Seminar, University of Dundee, Scotland, 1999 Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete, Eds C. L. Page, K. W. J. Treadaway and P. B. Bamforth, 1990 Corrosion of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete and Its Prevention by Cathodic Protection, J. Bennett, 1986 Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Construction, Eds C. L. Page, P. B. Bamforth and J. W. Figg, 1996 C. J. Abbott, Concrete, May 1997 A. Lewis, Concrete, September 1997 B. Elsener, M. Monila and H. Bohni, Corrosion Science, Vol.35, p1563 (1993) J. Parker, Concrete, September 1997 P. Whiteway, Nickel, Vol.14, September 1998 R. J. Kessler, "Zinc Mesh Anode Cast into Concrete Pile Jackets", Materials Performance, December 1996 G. Sergi and C. L. Page, Sacrificial Anodes for Cathodic Protection of Reinforcing Steel Around Patch Repair Applied to Chloride-Contaminated Concrete", EuroCorr' 99 J. Flis et al, Corrosion, Vol.49, 1993 "Concrete Conductor", Construction Materials, Chemistry & Industry News, 17 March 1997 P. Xie, P. Gu and J. Beaudoin, Electrical Percolation Phenomena in Cement Composites Containing Conductive Fibres", Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 31, 1996 Renderoc Galvashield XP - Sacrificial Anodes for Sustaining Localised Concrete Repairs, system guide of FOSROC limited. Galvashield LJ for Marine Structures, Product Guide of FOSROC limited. Rob W. Lambe and Nigel Davison, Enhancing the Durability of Concrete Repair Systems, Concrete' 99, 6th International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology, 29 June 1 July 1999, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Zinc-Hydrogel Anode 4727, Product Guide, 3M. R. B. Hartman and J. E. Wehling, "A Galvanic Zinc-Hydrogel System for Cathodic Protection of Reinforced Concrete Structures", 3M Company
88 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
RD Mining Equipments Pvt.Ltd
Post Event Analysis
Speakers Highlight Role of Construction Chemicals for a Sustainable Tomorrow
2nd International Conference on
he importance of construction chemicals can never be overemphasized, especially in a developing country like India where awareness levels about them is comparatively lower. The 2nd International Conference on Construction Chemicals “ Construction Chemicals Conclave -2011 , organized by FICCI and the Dept. of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Govt. of India, was therefore an important event, with several industry luminaries highlighting the advantages of construction chemicals and the way forward for the country in the field. The conference was held at Hotel Le Meridian, Bengaluru, from March 17-18. The conclave featured high profile speakers from both and abroad talk on the entire spectrum of topics connected to the construction chemicals industry. Going into the current status of the industry, Mr.R .K.Bhatia, Head-Chemicals Division, FICCI, observed “Construction chemicals is estimated to be an Rs.1, 800 crore industry in the country. About 85 percent of contractors aren't aware of the advantages of construction chemicals,” a fact that was agreed to by almost all the speakers. However, there is no denying the fact that awareness levels about construction chemicals is on the rise in the country. The rapid advancements in building technology owe a lot to the d eve l o p m e nt s i n t h e f i e l d o f
construction chemicals in the last two decades. Surging construction activity, spurred on by the continued impetus to infrastructure development activities and the booming real estate market are giving fillip to the construction chemicals market in the country today. Talking about the challenges ahead Mr.R.Mukundan, Managing Director, Tata Chemicals Ltd, in his welcome address said “The construction chemicals market is right now small but we can expect rapid growth rate of 25-35 %. This is not going to be sufficient. Why can't we think of making it a ` 10,000 crore industry? This conference has been organized to address such challenges. For instance, how can we improve quality standards, etc.” The growth potential for the construction chemicals industry is huge
in India to say the least. To put things into perspective, one just needs to look at the market in comparison with that of a development nation like the United States where the market is valued at US $ 7.7 billion. While the overall market is fairly consolidated, there is considerable fragmentation when it comes to application areas. While admixtures form the largest selling products at 35 percent, flooring chemicals follow second with a 15 percent market share. Another interesting fact is that the top five players account for about 50 percent of the market, while the rest of it is taken care of by the smaller, unorganized players. Speaking further about the challenges faced by the industry, guest speaker, Dr.Paul J.Tikalsky, Chairman & P ro fe s s o r, D e p t . o f C i v i l a n d
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Post Event Analysis
Environmental (Nuclear) Engineering, The University of Utah, USA, remarked in his address, “Development of infrastructure in a sustainable way is the challenge for the construction industry. We must therefore find inorganic and organic chemicals for a sustainable environment.” Dwelling on the way forward for the industry, Mr.Sanjay Bahadur, CEO, Pidilite Industries, said in his keynote address that diminishing natural resources, demands of mass housing, high-rise construction, high speed construction, etc, are all challenges for the construction chemicals industry. “Propagation of the multiple benefits of construction chemicals is the need of the hour,” added Mr.Bahadur, emphasizing the role that major brands have to play in this industry, which is still at a nascent stage in India. As part of the vision statement, M r. D . S i t a r a m i a h , E x p e r t a n d Consultant, spoke about history of construction chemicals in India, its current status and where it is headed. This was followed by the inaugural
address by Mr.S.C.Gupta, Joint Secretary, Dept. of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, GoI, who during his speech observed that the construction chemicals industry is potentially a US $ 1 billion industry by 2020.” According to estimates, construction chemicals cost less than 2 % of the total construction cost, but offer immense benefits,” Mr.Gupta quipped, speaking about the advantages of construction chemicals and the lack of awareness about them in the country. He also pointed out that things are changing for the better and it is only a matter of time before the country catches up with the rest of the world in the field. The session on “Overview of Construction Chemicals” was chaired by Dr.Y.P.Kapoor, a doyen in the construction chemicals industry and Director, Editorial, Construction Chemicals, The Masterbuilder. The eight sessions saw over 30 eminent speakers from the industry speak on an entire gamut of topics pertaining to the construction chemicals industry. A key undertone in almost every speaker's
address was the emphasis on sustainability and how construction chemicals can contribute towards a green tomorrow. Under the topic of “Role of Construction Chemicals in making S u s t a i n a b l e S t r u c t u r e s ”, Dr.S.K.Manjrekar, Chairman and Managing Director, Sunanda Specialty Coatings Pvt Ltd, highlighted the crucial role of construction chemicals in today's world, where sustainable structures are the norm. Giving an architect's perspective on the issue, Ms.Meghana Dutta, Principal Architect, Studio Decode, observed that, “Every building presents an opportunity for sustainability.” The session on “Green Chemistry of Construction Chemicals for Sustainability” also saw speakers including, Mr.K.Padmakar, HeadP ro d u c t M a n a ge m e nt , P i d i l i te Industries, and Mr.Ravindra Babu, Marketing Manager, Fosroc India speak on the relationship between sustainability and construction chemicals.
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Revathi Equipment Ltd
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
ndia has an ambitious target of power production by Nuclear Power Reactors to meet future energy needs of the country. Two Indian companies, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) and Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI) are responsible organization to construct thermal reactors and fast breeder reactors respectively in the country. NPCIL is currently operating seventeen nuclear reactors and constructing five reactors. Many more reactors are at anvil. Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited formed as a
company and registered under Companies Act, 1956 on 22nd October 2003 under the administrative control of Department of Atomic Energy is presently involved in construction and commissioning of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam. Kalpakkam is an important nuclear establishment of Department of Atomic Energy of India and this coastal site is situated 70Km south of Chennai. The PFBR is the forerunner for the future Fast Breeder Reactors to be constructed in various parts of our country including two more reactors at
94 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
Fig-1: Location of PFBR and MAPS at the beach of Bay of Bengal
The entire PFBR plant is divided into nuclear and power islands. The reactor location with respect to MAPS is governed by minimum recirculation of water discharge from condenser to sea. The PFBR plant located on the shore takes condenser cooling water from sea. Sand transportation and littoral drift are large at sandy beach profile and at sea bed near PFBR. The intake structure in PFBR was therefore required to be engineered to avoid the sand entering the pump house and clogging the intake passage to condenser cooling water. The intake structure was
Kalpakkam to meet the future energy needs of India. BHAVINI is constructing Mega Project PFBR and the reactor is now in advanced stage of construction. Preface: PFBR is situated on the south of existing twin units of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS). The centre lines of MAPS unit 2 and PFBR are only 500 meter apart. PFBR and MAPS locations on the beach of Bay of Bengal, is shown in Figure-1.
Fig 2(a) Integrated layout of shore protection &PFBR Intake &Outfall
designed to draw sea water from off-shore location above sea bed, where depth of water is approximately 10 metres. Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS) has developed the scheme of drawing condenser cooling water, the length of intake submarine tunnel, position of intake shaft, the depth at which the water should enter the intake shaft, and has finalized the hydraulic parameters of intake. CWPRS finalised these parameters based on extensive study of several factors including the height
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Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
of tide, Highest Water Level (HWL) and Lowest Water Level (LWL), wind velocity and sea current in different months of the year, effect of outfall water on the temperature of intake water for Madras Atomic Power Station and for the intake water temperature of PFBR. The integrated layout of the Intake and out fall structures of MAPS and PFBR is given in Figure2(a) and 2(b). surface. The intake is designed to draw 29m³/sec sea water for condenser cooling for the 500 MWe PFBR. This has been computed from the _T of 7° C across condenser of PFBR. The approach jetty is provided to facilitate approach to intake shaft. For coastal sites, the Ministry of Environment and Forest has the following guidelines: "Temperature Limit for Discharge of Condenser Cooling Water from Thermal Power Plant: New projects in coastal areas using sea water. The thermal power plants using sea water should adopt suitable system to reduce water temperature at the final discharge point so that the resultant rise in the temperature of receiving water does not exceed 7oC over and above the ambient temperature of the receiving water bodies. Existing thermal power plants. Rise in temperature of condenser cooling water from inlet to the outlet of condenser shall not be more than 100C. Guidelines for discharge point: The discharge point shall preferably be located at the bottom of the water body at mid-term for proper dispersion of thermal discharge. In case of discharge of cooling water into sea, proper marine outfall shall be designed to achieve the prescribed standards. The point of discharge may be selected in consultation with concerned State Authorities/NIO. No cooling water discharge shall be permitted in estuaries or near ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves, coral reefs/spawning and breeding grounds of aquatic flora and fauna". (Source: Ministry of Environment & Forest, Notification, New Delhi dated 22nd December 1998) Since MAPS is the old unit, the system is maintained in such a way that the resultant water temperature at the final discharge point for the
Fig 2(b): Intake / Outfall Arrangement for MAPS and PFBR
General Features of Intake Structures: The PFBR Intake structure consists of: Outlet Shaft on the shore Intake Shaft off the shore Submarine Tunnel Approach Jetty for the Offshore intake shaft
Fig 3: General layout of sea water intake system
Fig 3 above shows general layout of sea water intake structure. The off shore intake shaft is of 4.25m dia, Tunnel is horse shoe shaped submarine tunnel of 3.6m dia and on the shore out let shaft is of 6.0m diameter. The horse shoe shape tunnel size has been arrived based on the adequacy of cross section even after 40 years of barnacle growth on the tunnel
96 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Unisteel Engineering Works
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
combination of MAPS and BHAVINI outfall is maintained at 10° C. Outlet Shaft on the shore: This is 6m diameter vertical shaft at the shore which is 55m deep.
Fig 6a: Submarine tunnel
Fig 4: outlet shaft
Intake Shaft off the shore: This is 4.2m diameter which has a depth of 50m.
Fig 6b: Top view of the tunnel
Fig 5: Sectional elevation of intake structure
Submarine Tunnel The submarine tunnel has a length of 556m and a diameter of 3.6m
Fig 6c: Inner view of the tunnel
Approach Jetty for the Offshore intake shaft Approach jetty has the length of 567m width is 3.52m and diameter 7.1m Geotechnical Investigation along the length of
Intake Submarine Tunnel Exploratory bore holes were drilled along the centre line alignment of the proposed submarine tunnel well before the tunnel construction was taken
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Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
depth of 65m below the sea bed for fixing the tunnel Invert level for safe tunneling. Further, tests were also carried out for finalizing the design of tunnel supports, lining thickness etc. These 13 numbers of bore holes were drilled from fore bay location to offshore intake location (600m length). Out of 13 core samples collected along the length of the tunnel, five boreholes namely TBH-1 to TBH-5 were on shore boreholes and eight boreholes namely TBH-6 to TBH-13 are off shore boreholes. The intake well is located at the bore hole No.13. The bore holes drilled at 50m intervals indicate that the hard rock levels closely follow the sea bed profile (expect bore hole No.7). Apart from these, 13 bore holes for geotechnical evaluation, two numbers of receiver boreholes were also drilled which are on shore bore holes, for cross hole tests. All the fifteen boreholes including on shore and offshore were plugged using grout material consisting of cement and bentonite in 1:1 proportion.
Fig 7a: Construction of approach jetty
Fig 7b: overall view of Construction of approach jetty
Fig 8: Original layout sea water intake structure, approach jetty, seal pit & outfall structure
Fig 7c: View of construction of approach jetty from shore side
The jetty runs parallel to the submarine tunnel and is located 15m towards north of the tunnel. Thus the jetty axis is 15 meters north of the 13 number of borehole alignment. The jetty is supported on 36 sets of piles located at 15m intervals. The piles have been taken into the hard rock upto 2m depth for socketing. The profile of rock encountered along the jetty alignment confirms generally the profile similar to the bore holes along
up. Geotechnical Investigations were carried out on core samples from these bore holes taken along the central line of the proposed tunnel alignment by drilling of the 13 numbers of boreholes of 76mm dia (NX) at 50m intervals. Boreholes were drilled upto a
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Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
the centre line of the tunnel and this is true even at TBH-7 where the hard rock was found at much deeper depth. M/S Design Group Project Consultants (P) Limited, Bangalore have provided the entire design and construction detailing for the submarine tunnel after analyzing the geotechnical investigation data. They have also analysed the rocks, produced geological mapping, decided on rock anchoring, taken decision on geological issues encountered during construction and have produced detailed reports of the incidents. Geological Characterisation of the Lithological Units: All boreholes reveal similar stratification. Four distinct layers were noted in all the bore holes, these are Sandy soil, Clay layer, Weathered rock and Hard rock. Geological characteristics of the lithological units encountered was analysed by experts and the detailed description of the lithological units are given below: Upper Brown Granular Zone This is upper most zone which comprises of fine to medium to coarse grain brown sand, with angular / assorted grains of transparent and opaque quartz, minor specks of mica flakes (biotite) and mafics (hornblende, etc). There is a strand line close to the shaft. This indicates that it is an area of regression. The grain size variation is not uniform. Thickness of this lithological unit ranges between 5.5 - 10.5 m. Argillaceous Horizon This lithological unit has a thickness of 2 to 9.7 m (approx.) and its color is greyish / greenish. This clay is highly sticky and plastic, with rare shell fragments. This horizon can be taken as a marker horizon. It can also be considered as an aquiclude and groundwater below this unit is likely to occur under semiconfined and confined conditions. This clay occurs like a plug and its origin is not confirmed as there is no zone of transition above and below in its spatial distribution. This shows a break in sedimentation and deposition environment. Because of its pale green color, chemical composition study, plasticity, engineering property etc., were planned to be conducted. Weathered Rock This zone is encountered immediately below the clay horizon. This zone consists of broken core of garnetiferous charnockite and chloritised charnockite / migmatite. Thickness of the weathered zone ranges from 0m to 15.6 m (approx.). Hard Basement Rock This zone occurs immediately below the weathered rock zone without any transition to fresh rock. The hard basement rock has been encountered in all the Bore holes between 10.5 m to 18 m depths from ground level except for Borehole 7 (TBH-7), where hard rock is encountered at a depth of 29 m below ground level. Depth persistence and lateral prevalence of the hard rock has been established as seen from the correlation of the sub surface lithological data. Hard basement rock encountered in this strata belongs to the Archean Charnockite group of rocks and Migmatite complex comprising igneous intrusive rocks and metamorphic rock. The charnockite group of rocks is made up of quartz, pyroxene, feldspar, and garnet. The charnockite group of rocks is also migmatised to varying degrees resulting in retrogression and conversion into migmatite complex comprising different types. (Reference Geological Survey of India (GSl) map,1998). The migmatite complex comprises of different types of gneiss, such as garnetiferous, biotite gneiss, hornblende gneiss, augen gneiss and garnetiferous quartzo-felspathic gneiss. The magmatite are generally grey coloured. In addition to this the mineralogical composition and its assemblage manifested in the form of micro joints, slips, shears, slickensides, rock alteration, fracture filling, confined only to zones of thin partings, foliation and joints at different depths. Excepting for these thin weak zones, the host rock / country rock appears to be homogeneous, medium to coarse grained, migmatitic at places; as such there is no major zones showing any effect of intense shearing. A deeply weathered zone encountered in TBH-7 is an exception.
100 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
Geotechnical Stratification All the thirteen boreholes (TBH-1 to TBH-13) revealed similar stratification but thickness of layers vary depending on the location. Ground water was encountered at 2.5 to 9 m below ground level at different borehole locations during the investigation. General stratification of the site and its characteristics area as follows: Stratum 1: Loose to medium yellowish Sand This layer is present in all boreholes. This layer extends upto 2.5 m depth in TBH-1 & 2 to maximum 7.0 m in TBH-7. In some boreholes this layer is again encountered at 5.5 m and 6.75 m after dense to very dense sand layer. SPT values vary 11 to 30. This range of N values shows loose to medium dense relative density of cohesionless soil. The soil is classified as SM-SP, SP and grain size distribution shows gravel 0 to 6%, sand 88 to 98% and silt + clay 1 to 10%. Stratum 2: Dense to very dense Sand This layer is present in all bore holes except TBH7. Thickness of the layer varies from 1.25 to 4.8 m. SPT values varies from 30 to 71. This range of N values shows dense to very dense relative density of cohesion less soil. This soil is classified as SP-SM, SM, SC, SP . Stratum 3: Yellowish brown Silty Clay of medium to Stiff This is present in some bore holes like TBH-2 and TBH-3 at depth 7.2 and 8.5 m respectively below ground level. Thickness of the layer is varying from 1.8 to 4.0 m. SPT values vary from 9 to 12. Soil is classified as CH. Grain sizes are gravel 0 to 4%, sand 1 to 37%, silt 23 to 41%, clay 37 to 64%. Stratum 4: Very stiff to hard Yellowish brown Silty Clay This layer is present except in TBH-8. Thickness of the layer varies from 1.1m to 9.75m. N value ranges from 18 to 57. Soil is classified as CH. Grain sizes are gravel 0 to 1%, sand 2 to 50%, silt 17 to 45%, clay 33 to 66%. Stratum 5: Highly Weathered rock This is moderate to highly weathered rock. Thickness of this stratum varies from one meter to 15.6 m. N-value exceeded 100 and in some cases rebound of SPT hammer was observed. Stratum 6 : Moderately Weathered rock A small layer of moderately weathered rock is present below highly weathered rock. It varies from 0 to 5.5 m. Stratum 7 : Charnockite Bedrock This stratum is medium to coarse grained hard rock comprising of Charnockite and gneiss with garnet crystals. Generally between 10 m to 18 m depths, from ground level the hard basement rock has been encountered in all the boreholes except Borehole BH-7 where hard rock is encountered at a depth of 29 m below ground level. The Rock Quality Designation in this layer is generally in the range of 40 to 100. Weighted average of RQD in each borehole varies from 71 to 85. Core recovery varies 81 to 90. The Rock Mass Rating of this bed rock is 63.8 and it is classified as Class II (good) rock as per Bieniawski 1979 & IS: 12070- 1987 (Table 7). Compression wave velocity for the rock strata varies from 3659 m/sec to 4762 m/sec. Value of shear wave velocity for this layer ranges from 2000 m/sec to 2300 m/ sec. Dry density and bulk density varies from 2.66 to 2.99 gm/cubic cm and specific density varies from 2.69 to 2.99. Outlet Shaft on the Shore: The excavation of the onshore shaft and the submarine tunnel was commenced by the M/S Gammon India Limited at PFBR site in February 2008. 3D geological log of the same was carried out to confirm the parameters for design of lining and to decide upon the reach where consolidation grouting is required. The log indicated that generally the bed rock met was Charnockite / Garnetiferous Charnockite Gneiss with joints tight and incipient, while the prominent joints were continuous for 5 to 10m in length in some places. These joints got exposed as a result of blasting while excavation.
102 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Unipave Engineering Products
Infrastructure: Nuclear Plants
Seepage was noticed at the contact of overburden and excavated rock surface. However, necessary precautions were taken which included channelizing the seepage water and monitoring of seepage in the shaft. The outlet shaft construction was incidence free and was completed without major difficulty with all the temporary supports. Submarine Tunnel: The horizontal horse shoe shaped excavation in rock for submarine tunnel of size varying from 3.6m to 4.2m is 560 meter long with Chainage 0.00 starting from centerline of vertical outlet shaft. Conventional blasting using controlled charge was deployed for the tunnel boring. not have been closely maintained to submarine tunnel axis. This conclusion governed decision making process for further commencement of tunnel boring. TBH-4 was encountered during blasting on previous day of the incidence i.e on 12.01.2009. Small quantity sand had fallen down into the tunnel from the hole when the zone of TBH-4 was blasted. On 13-1-2009 at 4am further blast of 3m length was taken up. De-mucking operation of excavated rock was completed around 11am. At 11.15am subsidence of sandy soil occurred at grade level (GL) exactly above the bore hole No.TBH-4. People working on the grade level noted that sinking of ground over TBH-4 location and formation of a funnel shaped chimney at the grade level, and people working in the tunnel informed that certain slush along with sand is falling through TBH-4 hole. On further inspection of the tunnel it was observed that 76mm dia TBH-4 bore has got unplugged of grouted material (cement and bentonite in 1:1 proportion). The slurry of grouted material along with about 12meter cube of sand has fallen down from the hole on to the invert level of tunnel. Slight water too was found dripping through the hole. A rod of 25mm dia and about 4m length could be easily penetrated into the unplugged hole of TBH-4 from inside the tunnel bore. Immediate action taken by BHAVINI after the incidence-1: As a safety precaution the tunnel rock excavation work was stopped forthwith. The matter was also referred to the experts who arrived at site for assessment within hours of the incident. Decision making process following the incidence: The tunnel site was inspected by various experts. Several rounds of reviews and discussions were held. Experts expressed apprehension that minor water seepage from TBH-1 and unplugged of grouted material from TBH-4 does not provide enough confidence that such incidence (seepage from grout or unplugging of the grout borehole) will not happened
Fig 9: Photos of Submarine tunnel
Two incidences were encountered during the submarine tunnel construction. Incidence-1: Observation: On completion of CH11500 on 13th Jan 2009 it was noted that the grout in TBH-4 collapsed and crumbled into the excavated tunnel. It also was noted that while carrying out the rock excavation for tunnel only 3 boreholes TBH-1, TBH-2 and TBH-4 have been encountered within the alignment of tunnel but not in centerline of the tunnel; rather they were away from central axis to varying extent; from 0.5 m to 1.5m. TBH-3 could not be traced inside the tunnel. This lead site to reach a conclusion that the boring tool might not have taken exact gravity line while drilling and/or the position of the drilling rig might
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Hence: Either the tunnel should be diverted in further span to avoid encountering grouted before bore holes during the further tunnel construction. Or the grouting should be improved before further blasting for tunnel bore. The bore hole size is only 76mm diameter and the over burden over the roof of the tunnel is about 50m. In case of unplugging of borehole below the sea water, the pressure of sea water that could gush into the bore hole will be 5Kg.cm2, the velocity of water will be about 25m/sec and the discharge will be in the order of 7000LPM. If dewatering pump capacity is augmented to suit above as well as if the bore holes are re-grouted from 3m before reaching such boreholes location by injecting appropriate cement / chemical grouts like polyurethane through horizontally or upward inclined holes towards the roof of tunnel, it is possible to maintain the same alignment of tunnel in the further construction too. However this proposal was dropped for the following reasons: Out of balance nine bore holes yet to be encountered during tunnel construction, one is on the shore edge and eight are below sea water. Since no casing pipe has been left while drilling the boreholes, it may be difficult to identify the location of the drilled boreholes from the top surface and take measures to grout the area around the bore hole. Technologies / methods to identify the borehole in advance where casing pipe is not left are not well established. In this case, the location of borehole can be identified exactly only after blasting and excavating the underground tunnel. Even if the grouted bore holes are identified when the tunnel excavation is approaching the bore hole location using radar technology, grouting the already plugged borehole may poses complexity. The pressure grouting from consolidation of areas around the bore hole may not be effective as the grouting is to be done in hard rock strata under higher pressure than the tunnel consolidation pressure (grouting prior to excavation of tunnel is being done for strata to plug fissures, water leakage etc). Therefore, tackling the situation if the borehole in the sea location gets unplugged during blasting for the tunnel excavation is complex. The experience of tackling the flooding of sea water in the tunnel is not readily available. It is possible that more than one borehole may give in, during the blasting / de-mucking in which case dewatering of tunnel may become difficult. The project does not have cushion of time to face a situation of flooding of tunnel which will involve complex remedial measures. Keeping safety of workmen into as prime consideration in decision making, it was decided to take diversion for further course of tunnel. Deviation of the alignment of the Tunnel: Factors that were considered for deciding the extent of deviation of tunnel are as follows: The deviation of TBH-1, TBH-2, TBH-4 opening in tunnel from axis of the tunnel and non detection of TBH-3 suggests that the deviation of the axis of the tunnel should be large enough to avoid meeting the TBH-5 to TBH-13 during further tunnel construction. The deviation should be as small as possible to reduce additional length of jetty required to approach the new intake shaft. Further for the shifted location of the intake structure, sea conditions such as littoral drift, current etc. considered for the study for the original design has to remain unaltered. Irrespective of the uncertainty of the bore hole alignment (deviation from verticality) and positional tolerance, the distance of the existing bore hole from the blasted contour of the tunnel should be minimum two meters (cover rock between bore and blasted surface should be min two meters).
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The tunnel has to be deviated to south-east and after certain distance made parallel to existing alignment as jetty on north of tunnel prevents deviation of alignment to north. The rock profile in deviated contour should be predictable from already completed geo-technical studies. The water pressure drop should have only marginal increase even after addition of two bends in the tunnel. The existing sea water pump supplying cooling sea water to the condenser should be checked for its capability to cope up with the increase flow path resistance. The bio-fouling concern should not enhance due to the deviation in the flow path of the tunnel. It was decided to divert the tunnel towards southeast from the location of borehole No.TBH4 which is at a distance of 115m towards east from the fore bay shaft which is located on land. The straight line lengths of the tunnel upstream and downstream of the bends were checked for compliance to Bureau of Indian Standard, IS 2951. Based on the requirement of straight length between the bends as per standard IS 2951, it was decided to deviate the alignment of the tunnel keeping the angle of deviation as 11º from TBH-4 and incline length to be maintained to 110m. The tunnel bore will be again diverted by 11º at the end of 110m diversion to make it parallel to the original alignment. The southward shift in the tunnel alignment thus works out to 21m. With the deviation of tunnel from the location of borehole No.4, involving horizontally shifting the tunnel by 21m southwards at the end of an inclined length of 110m, the increase in total tunnel length will be around 2m in addition to introduction of two bends. For deviated alignment of submarine tunnel plan (general arrangement please refer Annexure - 1). CWPRS that estimated the head loss due to shifting of the tunnel by 21m and two angular deviations of 11º and at two end of an inclined length of 110m as 0.023mwc (meter of water column). Thus the head loss due to change in the layout of the submarine tunnel is insignificant compared to the total pressure drop computed for the original layout which is 1.9mwc. Hence, the additional drop in pressure because of two bends and increase in length of the tunnel by two meters does not change the pumping head requirement of the cooling water pumps. The pressure drop calculations were based on IS 2951 (Part-II). Since, the pressure drop due to the deviation in tunnel alignment is insignificant, increase in head loss does not result in lowering of water level in the forebay sump. Therefore, the water level in the forebay would not fall below the designed minimum water level. Hence, the submergence required for the pumps is not altered. This was also confirmed by DCPL who had carried out initial design of the tunnel. M/s IGCAR assessed and confirmed that there is no impact on biofouling due to the proposed change in the tunnel alignment by deviation. M/s CWPRS, Pune has confirmed that for the shifted location of the intake structure, sea conditions such as littoral drift, current etc. considered for the study for the original design will remain unaltered. With the above deviated alignment of the tunnel, the new axis of the tunnel with perfect drilled TBH-5 would be about 10.5 meter. Even after considering TBH-5 alignment shift by 5.5 meters towards south, the northern boundary of the deviated tunnel will be 2.5 meter from TBH-5. Therefore any opening of TBH-5 in the deviated tunnel path and consequent grouting of TBH-5 was not envisaged. The geologists confirmed that the hard rock profile at PFBR site generally follows the natural ground profile. The slope is only form west to east and the rock profile follows the ground profile as proved by the TBH bore holes. With the decision of shifting the tunnel by 21 meter towards south beyond TBH-5, no change is expected in the hard rock strata or the profile compared to initial prediction based on geotechnical investigation. It may be noted that for the original geotechnical investigation itself the bore holes were taken at distance of 50m; each borehole representing the strata over a radial distance of 25m. The new alignment is adjudged to be safe and the deviated alignment of tunnel will also have adequate hard
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rock cover. The available rock cover for the tunnel from the crown is expected to be 4D on south of TBH-7 as at this location, the hard rock level is comparatively at a lower level than the other bore holes. Whereas at the other borehole locations indicate rock cover of more than 6D. Internal pressure due to water at submarine tunnel level is about 5kg/sq.cm. (50m water column), where as external pressure due to weight of rock and over burden soil is about 11.4kg/sq.cm. As per IS standard 4880 Part-IV, maximum rock cover required is H i.e. 5Kg/Sq.cm. With this 21m shift of the off-shore Intake structure towards south from the original location, the jetty length has also to be increased by another 21m towards south. The grouting of already exposed boreholes i.e. TBH-2 & 4 located on land was also undertaken and effected successfully.
Depth (in m) 0.0 – 7.0 7.0 – 13.40 13.40 – 25.05 25.05 – 26.0 26.0 – 29.0 29.0 – 30.0 30.0 – 60.0 Lithological Details Medium grained yellowish brown sand Very stiff to hard brown sandy clay Yellowish grey completely weathered rock Highly weathered Charnockite. Poor recovery. RQD Nil. Highly weathered grey fractured Charnockite. Poor Recovery. RQD Nil. Moderately weathered Charnockite. Poor Recovery. RQD 20% Slightly weathered Charnockite. Recovery good, RQD Fair to good.
From 13.4 m to 25.05 m the rock is highly weathered. Further from 25.05 m to 30.0 m the rock is highly weathered to moderately weathered Charnockite with poor core recovery and nil RQD had been obtained. From 30 m to the end of the hole (65 m) slightly weathered Charnockite with good core recovery and fair to good RQD had been recorded. The occurrence of deep weathering in a single lithologically similar hole is intruguing. In view of the completely weathered to highly weathered rock with very poor core recovery, shattered rock and zero RQD in TBH-7 alone, it was inferred that the reason for this may not be lithological but structural infirmity. With only scanty subsurface data available, the experts took recourse to the regional geology and also the geotechnical investigation done for Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) tunnel bore holes which is existing 500meter north of PFBR submarine tunnel and was constructed around forty year back. The absence of dolerite in any of the PFBR boreholes and the occurrence of dolerite in the MAPS tunnel bore holes was had suggested to the possibility of an east-west fault between the two tunnels before actual tunneling work started. Since, the dolerite rock is now encountered after the shear zone this possibility is now ruled out. Possibility-1 Regionally the foliation trend in the gneissic rock is N25º to 50º ES25º to 50º W with a dip of 60 to 80 degree in easterly direction. N30º E - S30º W joints (Foliation joints) are dominant. Hence, probably the shear zone encountered in TBH-7 could be a foliation shear. Possibility-2 Dolerite with sheared contact is reported in the off shore bore holes drilled at MAPS. The dip of the dyke is estimated to be 70º close to Kalpakkam, at Punjeri a N.W .-S.E. dyke is traceable for about 1 km. In the area around Anaikattu about 15 km south west of Kalpakkam several WNW-ESE dykes are reported. In MAPS Reactor I pit a N60º W - S60º E dyke was reported. It could be seen that the dykes in the area trend WNW-ESE to NW-SE direction with
Incidence-2 (Shear Zone Encountered between Ch243 and Ch264) (Rock condition at TBH-7) From the analysis of borehole log details of 13 numbers of boreholes it was evident that low rock will be encountered while tunneling at TBH7 and site will have to take cautious approach during tunnel excavation between TBH-6 and TBH-8. Rest other bore log predicted trouble free construction while advancing blasting for creation of submarine tunnel bore. The following are the lithological, core recovery percentages and RQD details of TBH-7 core samples as prepared by M/S Geotechnics & Constructions Pvt. Ltd.
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a dip of 65º to 75º towards S30º W The contacts of . many dykes are sheared; the shear zone trend is also in the same trend. If the structural infirmity in TBH7 could also have the same trend and dipping towards SW Strike trend and apparent dip were . projected on to the new alignment. Thus it was predicted that rock in the shear zone and adjacent area will be closely jointed and could render the crown of the tunnel weak where it intercepts. A horizontal diamond drill hole was planned to be drilled with double tube core barrel as tunnel advanced. It was planned in advance that if drilling data confirms the prognosis, tunneling in this hazardous zone has to proceed cautiously. The zone may be under a hydrostatic head. A similar zone in Naptha Jhakri HEP in Himachal Pradesh (Himalaya range) was tackled through DRESS Methodology i.e Drainage, Reinforcement, Excavation and Support. The method consists of drainage beyond the heading by drilling holes with simultaneous insertion of partly perforated steel pipes, improving the heading by grouting and shotcreting. Before starting the work supports (as dictated by design considerations) was planned to be kept ready and placed as soon as possible taking care to provide laggings between the supports and crown. The above details were brought to the notice of the field staff and they were kept in readiness to face the situation. To conform this and take precautionary measures, a horizontal diamond drill hole was drilled with double tube core barrel as tunnel advanced. Great precaution and cautious approach was taken from Ch.250 to Ch.290. Observation during sub marine tunneling operation: As predicted earlier, during the excavation of tunnel the shear zone was encountered at Ch.245 continued up to Ch.257.5. The material in the shear zone consists of highly crushed leucocratic Charnockite. Although most of it is granular and non-cohesive, in places it is completely clayey. No water seepage was notice in the shear zone portion. From Ch: 257.5 onwards and up to the face of the excavation at Ch.270 Dolerite was encountered. The dolerite Dyke although hard and fresh was found to be blocky and seamy. To the left of the crown damp surface and dripping conditions prevailed. The absence of dolerite in any of the bore holes (as per data provided) and the occurrence of dolerite in the MAPS tunnel bore holes was referred to and the possibility of an east-west fault between the two tunnels was predicted earlier, even before start of tunnel excavation boring. Since, the dolerite rock is now encountered after the shear zone this possibility is now ruled out. In the MAPS tunnel boreholes, the dolerite is found to be at least 54 m wide. As per bore hole details, dolerite was not encountered even in TBH-7, the logs of TBH-8 also indicate only charnockite and not dolerite. Hence, it is probable that the dolerite now encountered is less than 50 m wide. Remedial measures taken in PFBR tunnel in the shear zone. The entire excavation was geologically mapped From Ch. 243m to Ch 264m (in the shear zone and blocky and seamy dolerite portions), 75 mm thk. shotcrete of M35 grade with wire mesh was applied. Wherever dolerite was found blocky, it was stitched by 10mm thick plate anchored 3m deep into the rock using 25mm diameter rebar. ISMB 600 @ 600 c/c with steel lagging was provided in this stretch of submarine tunnel. The entire inner surface (top, sides and bottom surfaces) of this dolerite region was supported with the above referred structural members. After the 3D geological logging of the submarine tunnel, consolidation grouting was carried out between Ch.15m to 30m, Ch.75m to Ch.85m and Ch 240m to Ch 270m. Before any blasting for the tunnel, probe holes, 6m deep were drilled from the blasted face to determine the rock strata ahead of tunnel face. This was done either by diamond drilling or jack hammer drilling. The work of tunnel excavation is under progress and as of 15th September, 2009, 515 meter out of
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Sleek Boards India Ltd
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560 meter of tunnel was already excavated. Concluding Remarks: The PFBR intake structure is a design and construction marvel. True to the type of activity, the construction has met several surprises which were quickly addressed with the help of experts within India. The job has progressed well as per schedule despite the above mentioned difficulties. Acknowledgement: This detailed technical paper is prepared after drawing technical contents from various reports prepared by experts and organizations engaged by BHAVINI for intake structure design, construction, trouble shooting and remedial actions. This report has also major inputs from the agencies who have carried out geo-technical investigation, construction and inspection activities. The authors thankfully acknowledge them. The credit of this report goes to: Dr. S.K. Jain, Chairman and Managing Director, M/s Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited & M/s Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited Dr. Baldev Raj, Distinguished Scientist and Director, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam Shri S.C. Chetal, Director, REG, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam M/S IGCAR who have conceptualised and conceived entire scheme. Carried out bathymetric studies, analysed the results produced by various experts The entire civil team of M/S BHAVINI Ltd M/S CWPRS, Pune have designed and done model studies of Intake Structures and finalised blasting charge M/S Gammon India Limited who have finalized construction and inspection schemes and done field construction of Intake Structures M/S DGPCL, Bangalore who have provided the entire design and construction detailing for the submarine tunnel after analyzing the geotechnical investigation data. They have also analysed the rocks, produced geological mapping, decided on rock anchoring, taken decision on geological issues encountered during construction and have produced detailed reports of the incidents M/S DBM Geotechnics and Constructions Pvt Ltd., Bombay who carried out Bore Hole drilling and Geotechnical Investigations M/S Anna University, Chennai who gave expert analysis on geotechnical analysis. M/S NGRI who carried out cross hole tests M/S Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai M/S National Institute of Ocean Technology, NIOT, IIT, Chennai who have done HWL and LWL studies Dr. D.N. Seshagiri, an experienced Engineering Geologist and Dr. S.R. Gandhi, a Senior Geologist and Professor at IIT Chennai, who have contributed significantly in preparation of this paper. Few names of organisations and experts have been brought out above. The contribution of those whose names do not appear is also not less and is thankfully acknowledged. References:
Geotechnical Investigation Report for Sea Water Intake Structure at Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu State for FBR-Project, BHAVINI-DBM Geotechnics and Construction Pvt.Ltd. Report from Design Group, Bangalore Titled Paper on Geotechnical Problems faced during execution of Submarine Tunnel and Remedial measures carried out. Physical Thermal Model Studies for Locating Intake/ Outfall of 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)-CWPRS Mathematical Model Studies for Location of Intake/ Outfall of 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)-CWPRS Flow Model Studies for Intake Structure of Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)- CWPRS "Supplementary Mathematical Model Studies for Littoral Drift and Thermal Recirculation for Sea Water Intake/ Outfall of 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)-CWPRS" Physical Wave Model Studies for Sea Water Intake/ Outfall of 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)-CWPRS Field Data Collection and Analysis for Condenser Cooling Sea water System (CCWS) of 500MWe Fast Breeder Reactor Project (PFBR)-CWPRS
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Machines & Engineering Company
Infrastructure: Nuclear Power Plants
Opting for Nuclear Power ?
Be Clear & Design Smart
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment
ne of the greatest challenges facing our planet is how to supply electricity to a rapidly growing population with ever increasing need for electric power. Limited resources and irreversible changes to our climate threaten catastrophic consequences unless intelligent decisions are made. The need of the hour is to gather a proper perspective to make appropriate choice of resources and develop technologies in order to generate safe, clean and optimal cost energy. A Double-Whammy Predicament The renewed focus on the nuclear industry world over subsequent to the earthquake-tsunami double-whammy in Japan is understandable. India is no exception where on one hand its proponents are vehemently trying by all means to convince all and sundry that nuclear power is safe and clean, while environmentalists are crying hoarse predicting doomsday. The safety credentials of nuclear power plants (NPPs) once again have come to the global platform for each one's introspection. N u c l e a r ex p e r t s m ay a s s e s s probability of an earthquake-tsunami striking a nuclear facility as perhaps just once-in-a-million-years. It offers no solace as this once event can even happen tomorrow! If the theory of a Fukushima occurring because of a earthquaketsunami combo is bought, then what is the take on accidents at Three Mile Island (USA) and Chernobyl (USSR/
Figure 1 Indian Nuke Map: NPP Location & Seismic Zone Identification
Russia) both of which had neither earthquake nor tsunami. Safe and Cheap Energy? And the trade-off! The industry says nuclear power is safe, clean and cheap. But as in every design, construction and operation, here too an economically feasible choice is to be made which gets translated as the right choice. This is the “trade off”. In the nuclear case if the trade off taken in design falls short of what is demanded by an unfortunate event, it could spell a disaster!
The design takes into account the s afety, d eliver y, eff icien cy an d economics of delivery. Thus, a complex number of elements enter the design matrix with numbers to be chosen and frozen. These numbers decide the fate of unfortunate incidents being contained or ending up in disasters. Some fundamental elements that figure are: Structural safety in NPP is ensured by appropriate design and quality construction. In reality it is accomplished by a trade-off between
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structural safety; higher initial cost of the NPP (meaning higher cost of power generated). Operational safety is a function of periodic preventive maintenance that involves shutting down the reactor. This warrants a trade-off against the plant load factor (PLF) and thereby escalating cost of power generated. Routine operations involve removal and storage of spent fuel rods, which need be cooled by air and water in heavily shielded buildings for around 50 years so as to prevent overheating and fire. Then they are re-processed in a separate facility for separating plutonium, and encased in glass for deep geological burial. These steps are essential but increase cost of power generated. And risks & costs continue well beyond their useful life: Nuclear plants after their useful life cannot be simply abandoned. They have to be decommissioned, spending as much or more money than their construction cost itself. This includes cost of keeping facility
7 Major Accident 6 Serious Accident 5 Accident with wider consequences 4 Accident with Local consequences 3 Serious Incident
Below Scale / Level 0 No SAFETY SIGNIFICANCE
The INES Scale is a worldwide tool for communicating to the public in a consistent way the safety significance of nuclear and radiological events. Just like information on earthquakes or temperature would be difficult to understand without the Richter or Celsius scales, the INES Scale explains the significance of events from a range of activities, including industrial and medical use of radiation sources, operations at nuclear facilities and transport of radioactive material. Events are classified on the scale at seven levels: Levels 13 are called “incidents”and Levels 47 “accidents”. The scale is designed so that the severity of an event is about ten times greater for each increase in level on the scale. Events without safety significance are called “deviations” and are classified Below Scale / Level 0. Figure 3 INES
perennially beyond human access because it continues to be radioactive. For instance, India's Tarapur NPP life was long since over but instead of
Lighting Aircraft Crash Power Failure
decommissioning, its life was “extended”. The Three Mile Island costs of decommissioning or entombing Chernobyl NPPs must have been colossal. The costs of decommissioning the five Japanese NPPs are tentatively estimated at around Japan's GDP!. Realize real needs then Customize As tragically seen in Japan, a system is no better than its weakest flaws.
Sure, the containment shell worked well past its design parameters, but still not well enough to handle the loss of coolant. It remains to be seen if it indeed worked well enough to prevent a major disaster, or if it merely delayed a major disaster. As rightly said: The lesson is not that "most of the design worked, so we're safe", nor is it "nuclear power is fatally flawed, no
Figure 2 External Events
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View inside the Nuclear Power Plant A 1 2 3
matter what we do", the lesson is that “things happen that we don't plan for in ways that we do not anticipate”. The nuclear power industry is one where each country sets its own detailed quality and safety specifications within a framework of chosen consultants, safety bodies, main contractors and other stakeholders. For an energy technology to be viable, it must be economical and satisfy the policies that have been established by government to address social and environmental concerns. Only those technologies that lie in the nexus of the three disciplines - technology, policy and economics - can be deemed viable. Depending on location, each of these will va r y a n d t h e o p t i m u m e n e rg y technology for a given location will vary accordingly. Be clear about nuclear There are different designs doing the rounds. A lot of Pros & Cons on their absolute safety & workability beyond doubt persist. Structural safety has once again raised its head ominously in conjunction with our inability to have the foresight needed to choose the needed “factors of safety” prudently, justify it as essential to avoid “incidents” and work the costs based on these numbers to study feasibility of nuclear options. India should not become testing ground for others! Starting from the concrete containment (A), each of the areas in the nuclear facility (see view at Figure 4) becomes risk prone depending on where and how an incident occurs and develops. A look at events unfolding at Fukushima is an eye opener: Japan raised the severity rating of the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant to the same level as the Chernobyl disaster, weeks after it was criticized for downplaying the seriousness. Pointing to the large amount and wide dispersion of radioactive material from the stricken facility, the Nuclear and
B D E 7 4 6 5 C 14 8
9 10 13
1 Concrete containment 2 Steel liner 3 Steel pressure vessel 4 Reactor pressure vessel 5 Control rod drive
6 Steam generator 7 Reactor main coolant pump 8 High-pressure turbine 9 Reheater 10 Low-pressure turbine
11 Generator 12 Transformer 13 Condenser 14 Feedwater tank
A Containment B Machine house C Control room D Fuel store E Fuel storage basin
Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan raised their accident assessment to level 7, defined as a "major accident" on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale. Junichi Matsumoto, an official with the plant's operator Tokyo Electric Power Co., said: "Discharge (of radioactive materials) has not been completely stopped and there are concerns that the amount released could equal or exceed that for Chernobyl." Earlier however just after the March 11 earthquake, NISA had rated the situation at Fukushima as a level 4 accident, meaning that radioactive materials had been released outside of the Fukushima nuclear plant. Then on March 18, the assessment was raised to level 5, the same as the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant in the United States. One standard used for a level 5 accident is the emission of radiation levels equivalent to several hundreds to several thousands of terabecquerels of radioactive iodine. One terabecquerel is a trillion becquerels. Subsequent estimates of the total
amount of radioactive materials released had levels of iodine between 370,000 and 630,000 terabecquerels. That is above the standard of several tens of thousands of terabecquerels that is used to define a level 7 accident on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale. The explosions and fire at the Chernobyl plant spread about 5.2 million terabecquerels across several countries. At Fukushima, radioactive material has been released into the environment in a series of separate incidents. Radioactive steam was initially deliberately vented into the atmosphere to reduce pressure within the core containment vessels. Subsequent hydrogen explosions at the buildings housing the No. 1 and No. 3 reactors blew away part of the ceilings and dispersed radiation. An explosion near the suppression pool for the No. 2 reactor and a fire at a storage pool for spent fuel rods at the No. 4 reactor are also believed to have released radioactive material. Keiji Kobayashi, a former lecturer of nuclear engineering at Kyoto University's Research Reactor Institute, said: "From
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Simpson & Co.Ltd
Infrastructure: Nuclear Power Plants
the time when a dry boil at the reactor core and hydrogen explosions occurred, it became difficult to stop the discharge of radiation. It was clear the accident was more than a level 6. There are also elements not found in the Chernobyl accident such as the release of radioactive materials into the ocean." A fresh Evaluation by revisiting is the minimum that decision makers owe the nation before finalizing the country's nuclear road map. It goes for all: GE, AREVA, WESTINGHOUSE and any other. Assurances The Indian heads in the nuclear establishment giving account of each facility have aired their assurance of design & operational safety of India's nuclear reactors besides their right siting too which is claimed to be reason for terming them as not vulnerable. The Nuclear establishment in India has assured that our systems are robust. Out of the 20 reactors, only two in Tarapur are based on the boiling water principle as the ones in Japan. Going by the statements of the Department of Atomic Energy, diesel power backups for our nuclear power plants, particularly in tsunami prone areas, have been constructed at high altitudes to avoid flooding by tsunami. Currently, very bold marked thrust is being seen in the country's nuclear programme, with the big nuclear powergenerating parks in five locations, all coming up with foreign technology. After the Japan event, India needs further reassurance in respect of proven technologies of partners, timely deliveries, operational safety, fail proof I&C before mega plans are put on track in the nuclear domain. BHAVINI The indigenously-developed PFBR is at an advanced stage of construction under the aegis of state-owned Bhartiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam (BHAVINI) and is expected to be commissioned by 2011 end.
From L to R: Managing Director of Nuclear Power Corporation of India S K Jain, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission Srikumar Banerjee, and Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board S S Bajaj e will not jump to say that our power reactors will not suffer a similar kind of situation but we are planning to revisit all the safety aspects of our plants after doing a complete analysis of the Japanese incident and share the entire safety means with the public in a transparent way,” chairman and Managing Director of Nuclear Power Corporation of India S K Jain said on Mar13.
Jain said, “The uniqueness of Indian system is that NPCIL has got centralized online monitoring system of all the power stations which are operating in Mumbai. We have all the emergency control centre where plants live parameters are online through satellite,” he said.
“Parameters are available for various safety and reactor systems where safety experts can Jain said, out of the 20 operating Indian assemble within few minutes can do the entire reactors, 18 are Pressurised Heavy Water parallel analysis and also in continuous Reactors, two are Boiling Water Reactors. The contact with the stations,” he said. two reactors of 1000 MW of Russian VVER“Design safety, safety analysis capacity are 1000 type under construction at Kudankulam available as a back up of operating plants in Tamil Nadu have Generation-3 plus designs. which is unique to India,” Jain said adding “it is Between BWR (Tarapur units 1 and 2 and the a big strength.” Japanese reactors at Fukushima Daiichi) and Inspite of all these, with open mind we will be PHWR there is a big difference as the PHWR revisiting the safety aspects and share them (Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor) reactor with the public, Jain stressed. has 100 to 200 tonne of cold moderator which surrounds all the coolant channels. Calendrias Meanwhile, seismologists (earthquake submerged in a cool water of canlendria vault specialists) here said, all Indian reactors are (1000 tonnes). not on coast and the Indian coastline is more than 1,200 miles away from Sunda trench There is a very big heat sink available in where mega earthquakes can occur. PHWRs and secondly, unlike the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor), the PHWR is also “Hence, similarity analysis of reactor cooled by naturally occurring siphon accidents incidents between Japanese mechanism.Since the steam generator reactors which are few hundred miles away located at a higher elevation, directly injecting from mega subduction zones and Indian water from the firefighting system into the coastal reactors which are few thousand miles generator is also available as a supplement, away from Sunda trench should be done objectively,” they said. he said.
"Our anxiety about technological challenges for the construction of the country's first 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is over and we are at the closure for technology delivery," said IGCAR Director Baldev Raj. The 500 MWe reactor, being developed by the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) here, uses a unique mix of uranium and plutonium which significantly enhances the capability to generate electricity per tonne of fuel utilised.
“470,000 MWe” - a pie in the sky? Physicist and research scholar at Princeton University M V Ramana's guess is that India will see one set of twin reactors from the big players, France, Russia and the US, at each of the sites allotted to these countries although the US gets two sites because of the civilian nuclear agreement it pushed with India. “It is plausible that the 20,000 MWe by 2020 might materialise, but I doubt if one
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Infrastructure: Nuclear Power Plants
Power Station Kaiga Kakrapar Kalpakkam Narora Rawatbhata Tarapur
Operator NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL
State Karnataka Gujarat Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra
Type PHWR PHWR PHWR PHWR PHWR BWR (PHWR) Total
Units 220 x 4 220 x 2 220 x 2 220 x 2 100 x 1 200 x 1 220 x 4 160 x 2 540 x 2 20
Total Capacity (MW) 880 440 440 440 1180 1400 4780 Figure 5 Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, Kalpakkam, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research
Table I : 20 nuclear power reactors produce 4,780.00 MW (2.9% of total installed base) Power Station Kudankulam Kalpakkam Kakrapar Rawatbhata Banswara Operator NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL NPCIL State Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Gujarat Rajasthan Rajasthan Type VVER-1000 PFBR PHWR PHWR PHWR Total Units 1000 x 2 500 x 1 700 x 2 700 x 2 700 x 2 8 Total Capacity (MW) 2000 500 1400 1400 1400 6700 Figure 6 Kundankulam Project in Tamil Nadu
Table II The projects under construction March 1993: Fire in Narora Atomic PP brought reactor core almost to partial fuel meltdown. The fourth level safety protection in design saved. Similar fires had occurred in Rawatbhata and Kakrapar plants. The 1993 fire occurred when two steam turbine blades broke. The blade fault had been detected by turbine designer GEC UK which had given revised blade design to the Indian manufacturer who, in turn, prepared drawings for new blades. DAE action: nil. May 1994: The Kaiga project delayed as containment dome collapsed during construction. Reasons: design deficiencies and lack of quality control (AERB had ordered stress tests in each reactor before start-up and complete simulator installation for operator training. The conditions were not met). June 1994: Flood water entered condenser pit and turbine building basements in the Kakrapar reactor Reasons: Absence of sealing arrangements. Similar flooding had occurred twice at other stations. Tsunami waves, five-metres high hit the power reactors at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu. A minor water leak was reported in the plant. Walls collapsed but were repaired by 2007. Table III. Let's not forget : Close calls
up nuclear power projects in the country want to pass on part of the liability to the suppliers and are thus stalling the passage of the nuclear liability bill. Among the companies that have expressed interest in entering the field are Reliance Industries and Tata Power. True, India does have a strong appetite for electricity but by no means at the risk of a la Chernobyl, TMI or Fukushima!!!!!!
The author leads our Delhi bureau. An Engineer and qualified ADR professional (NALSAR alumnus), Sadagopan Seshadri has been a senior Contract Management Professional in large national & International Companies. His domain experience is in Building Products, Cement plants and Mega Power project execution. He is expert visiting faculty for Contract Management at the SSAA, IP University, New Delhi. Being passionate about Environment he has now turned to Landscape Projects design teamed with likeminded architects & engineers for sustainable landscapes development He is vocal with his views on these areas through his writings. He can be reached at email@example.com
can have the targeted 40,000 MWe by 2020,” predicted Ramana. As of now PM Manmohan Singh's target seems a pie in the sky. “Construction of nuclear reactors has always taken much longer than, say, natural gas-based power plants,” said M V Ramana, physicist and research scholar at Princeton University. “The time period increased significantly after the mid-1980s following the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. As per the International Atomic Energy Agency's data the average construction
time is close to nine years. In most cases, the anticipated construction time was about five years,” he said. The liability aspect: who foots the disaster bill Issues such as who bears the liability make the Areva project and those by Americans shaky. The issue is not just the amount of compensation to be paid in the event of an accident but as to who will be landed with bill, the operators or the suppliers, and to what extent. Private Indian players who wish to set
122 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd
Show Lifts the Spirits of US Construction Industry
Resident Correspondent, USA
erhaps no other trade show had been so eagerly anticipated in US in the recent times, than the CONEXPO-CON/AGG, which was coorganized along with the IFPE 2011 exposition, from March 22-26 in Las Vegas. The continued uncertainty in the US construction market had meant that the exposition had a heightened curiosity factor, around the world, given the global reverberations of success or failure of the event. The overwhelmingly positive mood at the exposition meant, that the pale of g l o o m t h a t h a d e n g u l fe d t h e construction industry in the US had
been lifted. The success of the show came as a shot in the arm for global construction equipment manufacturers. The CONEXPO-CON/AGG and IFPE 2011 attracted nearly 120,000 registered attendees. It was the largest gathering in North America since 2008 for the construction, construction materials, and fluid power/power transmission/motion control industries. The CONEXPO-CON/AGG show organizers officially opened the show with a ribbon cutting ceremony led by its Chairman of Managing Committee of the event, Mr. Mike Haberman and the
Institute of Fluid Pipe Education (IFPE) Chairman Mr. Al Carlson. “Conexpo is the largest construction equipment show in the western hemisphere with more than 2000 exhibitors and the industry support makes it the great event that it is while the co-location with IFPE and ICON enhances the experience,” Mr. Haberman reportedly said in his opening speech. Dubbed the “American Bauma”, the show laid claim to being the largest trade show that is held in the US. Over 2,000 exhibitors are displaying latest
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construction equipment in the show. Mr.Haberman during his inaugural address touched upon the fact that no longer can the US be not affected by what he termed as “crumbling infrastructure”. He went on to add that the “show promises an entire host of new product launches,” a promise which was fulfilled by a vast majority of construction equipment manufacturers, who had lined up several new products and technologies, for launch during the show. Record International Participation According to the organizers, the international registrations accounted for a record 24 percent of the total. The i nte r n at i o n a l b u s i n e s s v i s i to rs represented over 150 countries. The show also hosted 42 official international customer delegations from 37 countries, which were organized by the U.S.Department of Commerce, as well as by other associations and related groups. The quality of attendees was evident from the fact that around 44 percent of the business visitors had top titles of president/owner and vice
president/general manager/chief financial officer. Exhibitors on their part have reported strong purchases and sales leads, apart from enhanced networking opportunities for technology sharing initiatives because of the show. The all pervading atmosphere of optimism was bought out aptly by Mr.Megan Tanel, Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM), Vice President of Exhibitions and Events, who has been quoted in the official website of the show stating "The construction industry has been through some very tough times, with record u n e m p l o y m e nt , s i n c e t h e l a st CONEXPO-CON/AGG and IFPE in March 2008. With these positive numbers and the industry support of the shows, we're optimistic about the future and looking forward to seeing these new sales orders fulfilled, “ before adding "The increased global participation by attendees and exhibitors underscores the importance of world markets to our industry. The U.S. economy is slowly improving and we have a ways to go, especially in construction, but after 18 to 24 months there is more pent-up
demand for equipment to be ready for the upturn.” More than 860 co-located events, educational programs and pre-planned meetings, were held along with the show. ICON Expo for concrete products industry was among the key colocations that took place during the show. The expositions also saw the conduct of several annual conferences of national industry associations, which assume significance, given the buoyancy in the U.S construction i n d u s t r y, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e announcement of the infrastructure stimulus package by the Obama administration. The event saw more than 2,400 exhibitors taking more than 2.34 million net square feet of exhibit space. While IFPE 2011 was the largest ever, CONEXPO-CON/AGG's exhibit space was the second largest in its history, according to the organizers. The global nature of the event was evident from the 10 international exhibit pavilions that were part of the shows. Pavilions from China, Finland, Italy, Korea, Spain, and United Kingdom
Aerial View of the Venue
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A Grand Inaugural Function
were major attractions in CONEXPOCON/AGG, while IFPE had pavilions from China, Italy and Taiwan. The growing importance of the software industry in the field of construction equipment came to the fore in the show with it featuring IT & Business Solutions pavilion, which was sponsored by the Associated General Contractors of America. Industry Focused Education One of the key components of the show was the record number of education, training, and certification programs that were on offer. There has always been criticism of lack of trained manpower to operate construction e q u i p m e nt e ve n i n d e ve l o p e d countries. The focus in this show
therefore of specific training program for construction equipment, was therefore welcome by the entire construction fraternity. A record 126 sessions across nine fields, were a unique feature of the show. Some of the most interesting sessions were on management and applied technology and industry trends. There was also a Green Roads Summit and a Crane and Rigging Conference that were held as part of the show. There was a specific program held during the show that focused on safety in crane and other aerial lift equipment. As part of the Crane and Rigging Conference, visitors were provided with training on safety and hands-on operational experience. The International Mixer Driver Championship organized
by the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association (NRMCA) was another highlight of the show. Although the construction equipment show attracted around 120000 visitors, figures which are about 16 percent lower than the 2008 show, the increase in the number of overseas visitors was a positive that organizers could take out of the event. Overseas visitors constituted about 24 percent of the total number of attendees, which was a significant 19 percent jump over the figures of the previous edition of the show held in 2008. The organizers have also announced that the next edition of the show would be again held at the Las Vegas Convention Center in Las Vegas, US on 18-22 March in 2014.
The Event Saw Numerous Industry- Client Interactive Sessions
A Record International Participation was another Highlight of the Show
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MM Castings (P) Ltd
Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
Ready for the Bull Run
n efficient road network system is a pre-requisite for a burgeoning economy like India. Hence, it does not come as a surprise that road construction and maintenance has been one of the major thrusts of the UPA government in its current and past stint. Our country has the third largest road network across the globe consisting of National Highways, State
Highways, Major District Roads and Village and Other District Roads. While the National Highways comprise only 2% of the total length of roads, they carry over 40% of the total traffic across four different corners of our country. Starting with the 9th Five Year Plan (1997-2002), road sector expenditures have gone up from 3% of the total Plan expenditure to almost 12% today. These expenditures were primarily for
national highway and rural road development programs. The Eleventh Plan indicates a total planned investment of about INR 2, 09,400 Crores in road infrastructure and road construction equipment contributes about 21-23 per cent of the total project cost in road projects. This should be ample evidence about the growth potential for road construction equipment industry in India. However,
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Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
since its early days. The 1960s heralded the mechanization of the entire process. The globalization of the Indian economy in 1991 also brought about the much required impetus to the road construction equipment industry. Indian manufacturers tied up with foreign partners for R&D and improvisation of their products. The modification of specifications as required by MORT&H also gave a boost to R&D, innovations and collaborations. Previously, while a single static road roller was used for the compaction of the sub grade, sub base, base and black topped layers, the practice is now to use a different type of road roller for each layer, like soil compactors, ta n d e m v i b ra t o r y ro l l e rs a n d pneumatic tyred rollers. The demand for hot mixed plants has moved from small capacities like 20-30 TPH to 120400 TPH in road projects. Conventional rigid paves are increasingly being substituted with slip form pavers in concrete roads. The market is already familiar with technology and machines like wet mix plants, cold and hot milling machines, pavers for the construction of base course and cold and hot recycling machines that can reduce the thickness of the road crust and also have the ability to recycle the used material during road construction. Here is a brief description of the road construction process. Any heavy infrastructure project begins with site clearance. Then, a motor grader makes the sub-base flat to a certain extent. The motor grader also helps in profiling the sub-base. After this, a soil compactor or a single drum compactor is used to compact the soil. This also helps in increasing the load bearing capacity. Generally, a smooth drum is used for non-cohesive soils and a padfoot drum with feet for soils such as clay or silt. Specially graded aggregate is then brought in to form the unbound
INDIAN ROAD NETWORK (Length in Kilometers) National Highways (NH) State Highways (SH) Major District Roads (MDR) Village and Other Roads (ODR & VR) Total Road Length 58,112 1,37,119 4,70,000 26,50,000 33,15,231
Source: National Highways Authority of India (NHAI)
base course. The next step involves laying the first bituminous base course a carefully designed and manufactured mixture of asphalt and aggregate - hot with an asphalt paver. It is essential that the asphalt remain at high temperatures up to the point of being laid. After this, a tracked or wheeled paver is used to put down multiple binder layers based on the traffic loads the road is expected to carry. The thickness of the first binder layers may vary from 100-150 mm. A tandem roller then follows behind the paver to compact each layer before the final wearing course of about 50mm of asphalt is put down.
the industry relies on the efficient and timely allocation of funds to national road development projects. Delays in the implementation of these projects will inevitably result in slowing down or delaying the expected industry growth. Road Construction Equipment Market From Evolution to Present The road construction equipment
“The market share for excavators as compared to all construction & earthmoving equipment is on the rise every year. With big projects coming in contractors are opting for specialized machinery like tracked excavators. Currently the market size is about 7500 machines”
AVP- Marketing & Business Development, JCB India
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Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
Units Asphalt Finishers Compaction Equipment Crawler Dozers Motor Graders Total Road Construction Equipment 920 2787 562 342 4611
2009 Rs. Crs 322 418.1 505.8 212 1100
Units 1150 3400 700 600 5850
2010 Rs. Crs 402.5 510 630 372 1915
Units 1350 3800 800 700 6650
2011 Rs. Crs 472.5 570 720 434 2197
Units 1500 4200 900 800 7400
2012 Rs. Crs 525 630 810 496 2461
Units 1600 4500 1000 900 8000
2013 Rs. Crs 560 675 900 558 2693
Units 1650 4800 1050 950 8450
2014 Rs. Crs 577.5 720 945 589 2832
Demand for Road Construction Equipment as per Off-Highway Research
Industry Structure and Players The key players in the industry include JCB, Gujarat Apollo, Wirtgen, CNH International, Volvo, Greaves Cotton, TIL, Fayat India, Ammann and DMI.
According to Mr. Amit Gossain, AV P - M a r ke t i n g & B u s i n e s s Development, JCB India, “The market share for excavators as compared to all construction & earthmoving equipment is on the rise every year. With big projects coming in contractors are opting for specialized machinery like tracked excavators. Currently the market size is about 7500 machines. “ According to Mr.Mario Gasparri, General Manager of CNH International, “The construction equipment industry in India has had several years of strong growth, in the range of 15-20% per year, and we see great potential for the future. There is no doubt that backhoe loaders and excavators will continue to represent the core products for the Indian market in the coming years. CNH, through its brand Case Construction Equipment, holds the market leadership for vibratory compactors and is the second player in the local backhoe loader market. CNH's objective is to consolidate both its leadership positions in the vibratory compactor and in the backhoe loader segments through product enhancements and improved service coverage.” Commenting on the industry's m a r k e t p o t e n t i a l M r. A . M . Muralidharan, Managing Director, Volvo India Pvt. Ltd states, “At present, the road construction equipment market in India stands at an industry volume of 2500 machines per year and
is growing at a rate of 5 10%. We expect the market to grow at a similar rate for the next five years.” The competition is certainly intense with global construction equipment majors eyeing India as one of the potential markets. This may put some pressure on the profit margins of existing players. Also, the recent budget initiative that allows for resale of specified machinery imported (under 0% import duty) for road construction before 5 years on payment of import duty at depreciated value may have a negative impact on the domestic construction equipment players as the contractors who
“The construction equipment industry in India has had several years of strong growth, in the range of 15-20% per year, and we see great potential for the future. There is no doubt that backhoe loaders and excavators will continue to represent the core products for the Indian market in the coming years. CNH, through its brand Case Construction Equipment, holds the market leadership for vibratory compactors and is the second player in the local backhoe loader market. CNH's objective is to consolidate both its leadership positions in the vibratory compactor and in the backhoe loader segments through product enhancements and improved service coverage.”
“At present, the road construction equipment market in India stands at an industry volume of 2500 machines per year and is growing at a rate of 5 10%. We expect the market to grow at a similar rate for the next five years.”
Mario Gasparri General Manager, CNH International
Managing Director, Volvo India Pvt. Ltd
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Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
C o m p a n i e s a r e p ro a c t i v e l y addressing issues like unavailability of spare parts and lack of skilled manpower that have plagued the industry for long. There is also a major thrust on increasing production capacities, R&D and innovation with more and more players introducing world class technology for Indian contractors.
“The typical Indian customer is no longer making buying decisions only based on the price. Customers are now looking for reliability, quality, prompt after-sales technical support and lesser downtime.”
preferred the domestic equipment or hiring of such equipment over the imports can now avail the choice to import the specified machinery at 0% customs duty and move to other similar projects in order to ensure full utilization. However, most industry players acknowledge the evolving maturity of the Indian customer. According to Mr.Rolf J.Jenny of the Ammann Group, “the typical Indian customer is no longer making buying decisions only based on the price. Customers are now looking for reliability, quality, prompt after-sales technical support and lesser downtime.” There have been concerns among the industry and its stakeholders that there is a huge gap between demand and supply for improved roads and the domestic construction industry is still in its initial stage to meet the future demand. Most industry experts also agree that timely execution and completion of projects is another aspect of concern, the underlying reason being undue delays made by the Government while making decisions.
The Wirtgen Group which has maintained a strong presence in India since 1995 with local sales and service centres in Mumbai, Ahmedabad, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Calcutta recently commenced the licensed production of Hamm singledrum compactors in Pune last year. In a press release accompanying the news, Ramesh Palagiri, Managing Director of Wirtgen India says “With the Hamm 311, we have developed a model that is designed specifically for the Indian market. This single drum compactor corresponds to the high standards of quality of the Wirtgen Group, but is manufactured locally so that the pricing allows us to prevail on this highly competitive market,” The company has also built a new training centre in the same facility that can even
“With the Hamm 311, we have developed a model that is designed specifically for the Indian market. This single drum compactor corresponds to the high standards of quality of the Wirtgen Group, but is manufactured locally so that the pricing allows us to prevail on this highly competitive market,”
Managing Director, Wirtgen India
accommodate a Wirtgen surface miner or a large asphalt paver from Vögele. Case New Holland (CNH) operates a production facility in Pithampur, Madhya Pradesh. This facility currently builds backhoe loaders and vibratory compactors. According to the company, the full acquisition of the Pithampur operations represents an
HAMM 311 Single Drum Compactor
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Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
CASE 752 Tandem Vibratory Compactors
Greaves Bomag Single Drum Compactor
important step in CNH's strategy aimed at creating a strong manufacturing base for our construction business and at further consolidating their presence in the country. CNH also plans to strengthen its Case dealer network in line with the growth of the market to further improve the level of the service for the construction industry in the country. Mr.Gaspari further elaborates that the R&D facilities for the construction equipment business in India will be further enhanced, as they benefit from CNH worldwide investments, resources and expertise in equipment and innovations. CNH will devote particular focus to fuel consumption, operational ease and precision, cab comfort and maneuverability. JCB, one of the leading construction equipment manufacturers in India, has a complete range of excavators, backhoe loaders and compaction e q u i p m e nt to m e e t t h e ro a d construction demands in India. In 2008, i t i n t ro d u c e d t w o m o d e l s o f compactors - Vibromax VM115 and VMT 850. The VM115 soil compactor has high amplitude of 1.95 mm, best in class centrifugal force, maintenancefriendly with a lifetime lubricated centre joint, comfortable operator station with weight adjustable seat, and zero greasing points. The 8.5 tonne tandem roller VMT 850 has dual
amplitude and dual frequency to meet requirements of asphalt and soil compaction and, dual drum driven by hydraulic motors. JCB has invested several crores in its Pune plants and Ballabhgarh in order to meet the ever growing demand for construction equipment in India. It has also invested in some of the largest and best parts, warehouse and training centers. Greaves Cotton which has a formidable presence in the road construction industry recently unveiled a new range of milling machines, pavers, loaders and twin shaft batching plants at BC India, 2011. The state-ofart BOMAG milling machines is equipped with features like front loading, track mount & steering and auto control & auto engine power regulation to enhance operator
efficie ncy and thus resulting in precision finish of roads. The range comes in 1 to 2 metres. The Paver offers 9.2 metres of paving width and comes with enhanced screed features offering superior compaction, resulting in high quality finish and undulation effect on roads. TIL has recently entered into an agreement with Astec Inc to introduce equipment meant for the road construction industry, including cone crushers, high frequency screens, and hot mix asphalt plants. Mr.R.Nandagopal, TIL-ASTEC, Vice President, Equipment & Project Solutions, explains, “India is currently a batch mix country. But with increase in road project size, you will need hot mix a s p h a l t p l a n t s w h i c h fe a t u r e continuous mix or double barrel
CASE 770 Loader Backhoe
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Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
technology. “. TIL's Hot Mix Asphalt Plant is used to properly proportion, blend and heat aggregate and asphalt to produce an HMA that meets the requirements of the job mix formula (JMF). There are Batch Type and Drum Type HMAPs. The Ammann Group which has already made its mark in countries like China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, Australia and New Zealand now has been making rapid inroads in the Indian market with its array of road construction equipment, ranging from high quality asphalt plants to compactors.
Ammann S 240-400 t/h Stationary Asphalt Mixing Plant
worldwide. Ammann also offers paving machinery, state-of-the-art compactors including single drum rollers and pneumatic tyre rollers. Fayat India's MARINI MAC Series of hot mix asphalt plants is aimed at improving productivity and at the same time reduce fuel consumption. It recently received recognition from a client due to erection and commissioning of the plant in 20 days' time instead of the usual 45-60 days. The plant is capable of producing futuristic and low carbon emitting mixes; recycled asphalt mixes with up to 35 percent RAP content with
traditional specification mixes. The plant is configured to work on the highly acclaimed heavy/waste oil firing system of MARINI to help customers realize huge savings on production costs. DMI Engineering and Manufacturing (DMI E&M) Co Ltd offers asphalt mix plants ranging in capacity from 40 TPH to 400 TPH. The entire asphalt plant can be erected within a week. The company's mobile asphalt mix plants have also been very successful in India. Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd (ST Engineering) recently announced that its land systems arm, Singapore Technologies Kinetics Ltd (ST Kinetics),
“India is currently a batch mix country. But with increase in road project size, you will need hot mix asphalt plants which feature continuous mix or double barrel technology.“
Vice President -Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL-ASTEC
The company has already installed over 3,000 asphalt mixing plants globally, being a pioneer in the field, with its strong R & D focus. The company's R & D Center in Switzerland has been successful in introducing technology with which asphalt can be produced at 115 degrees Celsius, instead of the usually 170 degrees Celsius translating to lesser energy consumption.” Ammann offers a range of asphalt mixing plants, ranging from mobile to semi-mobile and stationary high performance units, with capacities ranging from 80 TPH to 400 TPH
Marini MAC Hot Asphalt Plant
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Viki Industries (P) Ltd
Road Construction Equipment: Industry Analysis
JCB VM115D Compactor
Volvo - EC360BLC Excavator
has established a wholly owned Indian subsidiary, LeeBoy India Construction Equipment Pvt Ltd to market, manufacture and support a range of ST Kinetics' CE products, from road construction and maintenance equipment to excavators and off road dump trucks, to meet the growing needs of the Indian CE market. The acquisition of Ingersoll Rand's Road Development division in May 2007 allowed Volvo Construction Equipment to offer highway-specific equipment, as well as traditional construction equipment that are also needed in the road building process. Volvo Construction Equipment owns the RASTA (Resource Centre for Asphalt and Soil Training Academy) Center for
Road Technology in India that provides training and knowledge about the latest technology for road building and maintenance. In the road construction equipment market in India, Volvo has a market share of 22 24%. Volvo offers a range of products especially for road construction. This includes pavers, large asphalt compactors, small asphalt compactors, large soil compactors, small soil compactors, and milling equipment. To cater to the needs of customers in India, Volvo offers 5.5 meter pavers that are manufactured at its facility in Peenya Bangalore while pavers that are 9m and above are imported from Germany. Throughout the business cycle Volvo
consistently dedicated substantial sums to research and development. Mr A. M. Muralidharan further elaborates, “New technology doesn't have to mean complex systems sometimes the best ideas are the simplest.” Volvo is also ensuring that they meet all environmental standards set by the government of India including Tier 3 emission requirements. Volvo takes a holistic approach to fuel efficiency and is aiming at delivering fuel efficiency across all elements of their machines via engines, systems, operator behaviour and future technologies, while increasing the productivity for its customers. Hybrid technology is one part of this wider range of fuel saving solutions. Future Outlook The current UPA government had earlier set itself an ambitious target of developing 20 kilometers of new roads per day and building 35,000 km of new roads by the year 2014. However former surface union transport Minister Mr. Kamal Nath acknowledged openly that this may not be the case. Issues relating to land acquisition and awarding of contracts have marred the target reducing it to 12-13 kilometers per day as of Mar 2011. But the road for construction equipment market remains bullish.
DMI Asphalt Mix Plant
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Action Construction Equipment Ltd
A Chat with JCB's Chief Alchemist
he Masterbuilder recently spoke to JCB's MD & CEO Mr.Vipin Sondhi on the company's latest launch the ecoMax BSIII engine and future plans. An alumnus of Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi and the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmadabad Vipin Sondhi is the face behind JCB India's transformation to becoming the country's market leader for construction equipments. His business acumen have come to the fore in making JCB India much more than just a backhoe loader manufacturing company, as it was perceived before, to a company today, that offers an entire range of construction equipment. Matching his passion for heavy construction equipments is his penchant for playing the violin and his
enthusiasm for teeing off. This business strategist has played a key role in ensuring the growth of the company, which has now sold over 100,000 machines in India. Here are excerpts from the interview. How does the BS III emission compliant engine that you have recently launched in India compare with your range of other similar engines that you are producing elsewhere in the world? Worldwide over 150,000 JCB machines with JCB engines are proving their worth. The JCB Dieselmax engine which is built in UK is a Tier IV compliant state of the art engine which powers JCB UK's world beating range of construction equipment. The JCB
Engine ecoMAX has been built on the same platform as the Dieselmax engine. However the engines are customized for Indian conditions and emission norms. It has the same block, bedplate design and crankshaft dimensions and almost similar valve train. The fuel injection system was modified to suit Indian conditions. What are the features in the ecoMAX engine that help in maximizing its 'green' quotient? The engine is optimized for our construction equipment, to offer a package that produces maximized fuel efficiency while enhancing productivity and operating efficiency solutions. JCB respects the environment and designs all its products in a way that helps
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Action Construction Equipment Ltd
maximize the green quotient. 4 valves per cylinder ensure better mixing of fuel hence better combustion and lower emissions. Has the engine been specifically designed to suit Indian conditions? The JCB engine ecoMAX is based on the same platform as the JCB Dieselmax, the record breaking Engine that powered the car which holds the world's land speed record. It is also the first engine designed specifically for off-highway applications. A JCB m a c h i n e wo r k i n g i n s u b ze ro temperatures building roads in Leh might also be called on to work in the searing heat in the deserts in Rajasthan. Plus there are difficult off highway fuel conditions to deal with. The usage pattern in India is different from the American or European markets and the engine has been adapted specifically considering these factors. Will you be using the engine only for India or are you exploring export opportunities? The engine will be utilized only for JCB machines manufactured in India. Give us an overview about the production facility for these engines that you have in place. Our new engine plant at its Indian headquarters in Ballabgarh takes lean manufacturing to its finest levels. The engines produced by the plant ensure
Track excavator : JCB JS360LC
that they have zero defect levels across its life cycle so that the customer gets maximum equipment uptime on the capital investment made. The manufacturing process of the engines works on the 'no fault forward' production model. In accordance with this, the machine is minutely inspected at its every stage of production encompassing cutting edge technology providing optimum engineering value to the manufactured product. The inprocess verification of the engine during the production process includes a range of stringent tests. The engine being assembled is passed to the second stage only after it has qualified all the test parameters at first stage. The entire chain of in-process verification is completely computerized. The vital element of the assembly plant
is its air conditioning. This is in order to maintain high cleanliness levels so as to adhere to BS-III norms. Appropriate air quality would neutralize chance of foreign particles entering into the assembly plant. It's a state of the art facility which produces world class engines. How widespread is your service network, with respect to the new launched ecoMAX engine? JCB in India has the best network of over 370 dealer outlets which together cover India across its length and breadth. Nobody covers India like we do in the construction equipment sector. Secondly, we have highly trained personnel and a lot of focus on training and development of our employees. There are continuous hours of training for our dealer personnel. Extensive trainings were planned and executed for JCB engines. Over 1100 service engineers across all 370+ outlets have been trained on the new engine to serve our customers. It's an ongoing process and training continues. Thirdly, all engine related spare parts are stocked at our large JCB warehouses across India in Chennai, Ballabgarh, Faridabad, Kolkata, and Pune and at dealerships/outlets.
Unveiling of 100,000 JCB machine in India
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Action Construction Equipment Ltd
New Roll Out
JCB Rolls Out
t is one thing to be known as the best construction equipment manufacturer in the country and quite another to continue to live up to that reputation and still another to better the reputation time and again. This is where JCB India Limited proves it has what it takes as the company launches their diesel engine, the ecoMax. As the name suggests, the engine is fuel efficient and powerful, both. Difficult, one would think given the terrain, fuel quality and pollution levels machines used for construction purposes battle. But that's where the JCB team worked hard on the design
New Diesel Engine for Off-Highway Vehicles
and technological innovation to sculpt an engine especially suited for Indian conditions. Speaking at the launch of the engine in Pune on March 31, JCB India MD &CEO, Vipin Sondhi said, “Diesel engine technology is a major step for us. EcoMAX, for use on off highway vehicles has a 16 valve engine which means better combustion. Added to it is the fact that we have designed this BSIII compliant engine to suit Indian conditions. It means we have world class machines with world class engines tailored for Indian work
The EcoMax: Snapshot
76 hp to 150 hp range | naturally aspirated | High pressure rotary pump | Block bedplate and crankshaft dimensions similar to JCB Dieselmax engine Cold Side Features 14.5 psi cooling system | Fan belt auto adjuster | 6000 hours of belt life | State-of-Art Delphi fuel system Hot Side Features Heavy duty cylinder block | Aluminum alloy pistons | Centralized location of fuel injectors | Four cylinder 16 valves | Deep bed plate design|Low noise and improved sealing What you get as a customer High torque at lower rpm for better performance | Better operator comfort due to reduced noise and vibration levels | Low maintenance cost | Fuel efficiency | High reliability for longer life | One year unlimited hours warranty on Backhoe Loaders | The all important support from the JCB sales and service network
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New Roll Out
“Diesel engine technology is a major step for us. EcoMAX, for use on off highway vehicles has a 16 valve engine which means better combustion. Added to it is the fact that we have designed this BSIII compliant engine to suit Indian conditions. It means we have world class machines with world class engines tailored for Indian work conditions.” Vipin Sondhi
MD & CEO JCB India
however they will produce 20,000 units initially. Understandably, the engines will be used only on JCB machines. Since this is a different design, it cannot just be installed in older JCB machines. Choosing Ballabgarh as the production hub for the engines was essential simply because the facility there is better equipped to match the workflow. “We have invested Rs.135 Cr in the building, setting up of the assembly line and the plant equipment” adds Sondhi. ecoMAX is the fact that the oil and filter change window is of 500 hours each while the main filter change period is of 1000 hours. These, automatically reduce maintenance cost. Also in its favour is the attribute that you can put the engine on full load immediately. Low vibrations and noise make it an even more attractive proposition. Immediately, (April 1 onwards) all JCB backhoe models will be powered by ecoMAX. To be produced at their world class premises in Ballabgarh, they have a capacity to produce 40,000 engines True to their dedication to customers, service support is in place. Their 370 outlets across the country are already trained to meet customer requirements for machines using these engines. Currently, JCB India imports only crankshafts from the parent company JC Bamford Excavators Limited UK. On the export front, JCB is happy with their figures for 2010. “We exported 200 machines in 2010, besides our components are being exported,” stated Sondhi. JCB widely acknowledged in India as a largest construction equipment manufacture with a range of products including Backhoe Loaders, Excavators, Compaction Equipment, Wheeled Loading Shovel, Telehandelers, Liftall and Skid Steer Loaders, Lift and Carry Cranes among others. Speaking about JCB India, Amit Gossain, Vice President Marketing and Business Development said, ''It is important to keep our network expanding so customers do not need to go far to service machines.” Over the next few months, Sondhi confirms, “we have an exciting product plan.” Watch this space as they say in JCB, “where the best gets even better.” Www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 143
conditions.” Teams from India and the UK worked on the ecoMax design together to perfect it. Explaining further, Sondhi said, “If you look at the areas where our machines work, you will note that the fuel they get is not of the best quality, the dust is also a concern. Our team has worked on building and design optimization specifically to meet such difficult environments.” Powered by a high pressure rotary pump, with state of the art Delphi fuel system its range is impressive from 76 hp to 150hp. What also adds value to the
M.K. Prabhakar fter a relatively quiet period witnessed during 2008-09, the infrastructure development activities have picked up steam. Perhaps in no other area is it more evident than in the case of road construction projects. The National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is targeting around 100 road projects totaling a length of 11,000 km for
Extreme Utility Machines in LARGE
bidding during this fiscal. While road projects have been in the news for the past decade, one particular trend is hard to miss. The size of road projects, or for that matter other infrastructure projects such as bridges, flyovers, dams, etc, is getting bigger by the day. Aiding the process is the presence of construction equipment that is specifically meant for large earthmoving projects.
Leading manufacturers are coming out with bigger, tougher, and meaner machines that can take up the strain of large earthmoving projects, which are so typical of infrastructure projects, particularly in the road construction sector. These extreme utility machines category consisting of crawler excavators, wheel loaders, crawler dozers, motor graders and off highway
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CE: Road Construction
ground level of 15,120mm and a digging depth of 11,760 mm. Another leading name in the field that offers a range of powerful crawler excavators is JCB India. The company's JS Auto range features some of the meanest machines for large earthmoving projects. A good example is the JS 140 model which develops 92 hp of net power and offers a bucket tearout force of 7985 kgf and a dipper tearout force of 7404 kgf for high productivity and performance. Another model from the company that comes with power packed features is the JS 360, with maximum dipper tear out of 254kN. The boom in the model is available with a choice of dipper lengths 2.1, 2.63, 3.23 and 4.03, to suit the requirements of reach, so very crucial in large infrastructure projects. LiuGong India's 225 is another model in the range with its 21,500 kg operating weight and 108 kW of rated power, which makes it a preferred choice for huge earthmoving projects. Displaying similar powerful characteristics is the Volvo 210 B Prime, which was in fact on display in the recently concluded bC India 2011 show. The model from Volvo in the operating weight category of over 20 t, with a maximum digging
dumpers are playing a crucial role in the fast progress of large infrastructure projects. Let us take a look at these various types of equipment that are available, their key features and the technology behind , which makes them so very crucial for the success of large earthmoving projects. Trend towards Biggies Perhaps in no other product segment is the shift towards higher capacity more evident than in the case of crawler excavators. Today the higher capacity excavators with engine power ranging from 128 hp to over 200 hp have become the norm. The 'biggies' ranging from 14 to 20 tonnes and above are the preferred choice in large infrastructure projects. Excavators as a whole have witnessed rapid growth with figures released by Off-Highway Research stating that the country had seen sales of 11,300 units in 2010. A very large percentage of this sale is attributed to the increase in mega projects, with higher capacity machines being in demand. Some of the best examples for power-packed crawler excavators are ideally suited to take on large earthmoving projects can be found in
“Our machines are suitably reinforced structurally to cater to the arduous Indian working conditions and high usage cycles in India as compared to other parts of the world. All JCB excavators have the JCB Patented PLEXUS filtration system “
AVP- Marketing & Business Development, JCB India
the form of Hyundai India's 140 LC7, 140-LCD-7 and 140 LCM-7 models. These mean machines come equipped with a special Computer Aided Power Optimization System (CAPO) which enables them to take on tough jobs with relative ease. Another biggie from Hyundai stable is the 210-LC-7 long reach excavator with an operating weight of 24,500 kg. The machine comes with a maximum reach at
Large Crawler Excavators are Vital for Mega Highway Projects
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CE: Road Construction
reach of over 9 m and featuring the boom , arm and swing priority options , is ideally suited for a multitude of functions including site grading, trenching and backfilling. Another leading name that offers an excavator in this range is CHETRA Machinery India Pvt Ltd, whose EGP 230, with an operating weight of 23.6 t, features an engine that develops 7.5 hp power. Leading manufacturers have been coming out with specific technology features to suit the rigors of the Indian working conditions. Explaining the technology, Mr.Amit Gossain, AVPMarketing & Business Development of JCB India says, “Our machines are suitably reinforced structurally to cater to the arduous Indian working conditions and high usage cycles in India as compared to other parts of the world. All JCB excavators have the JCB Patented PLEXUS filtration system. “The specially designed system filters the entire tank every 4 hours and the entire system every 8 hours prolonging hydraulic oil life to upto 5000 hours. Going into detail about technology features in their range of crawler excavators Mr.Sunil Sapru, President of LiuGong India observed, “The USP of
“The USP of LiuGong crawler excavators lie in the simplicity, durability, and fuel efficient Cummins engine. Our excavators feature a unique bypass electrical system that allows continued machine operation in the unlikely event of a main CPU maintenance issue”
and heavy lift options for increasing lifting capacity, another important feature for projects which involve moving large amounts of material. Dozing their Way into the Market Crawler dozers have a crucial role to play when it comes to removing large amounts of material in earthmoving projects. The emphasis on increased power is evident from the range of crawler dozers that are available from different manufacturers in the country. BEML for instance offers the BD 475 model, which can develop 860 hp @ 2000 rpm, which makes it ideally suited for mega road projects. One name which offers a wide range of crawler dozers is CHETRA. Some of its models that are ideally suited for large earthmoving projects include the T-20.01, where the engine is capable of developing 397 hp and the T-25.01 where the corresponding figure is 419 hp. The company also offers the even more powerful T40.01 model that can develop 540 hp of power. Speaking about the growing relevance of dozers in large infrastructure projects in India, Ben Callow, CEO of Chetra Machinery India Pvt Ltd, had remarked during an interaction with The Masterbuilder,
President, LiuGong India
Liugong crawler excavators lie in the simplicity, durability and fuel efficient Cummins engine. Our excavators feature a unique bypass electrical system, that allows continued machine operation in the unlikely event of a main CPU maintenance issue,” a feature that makes the right choice for large infrastructure projects in remote areas. Besides this, Liugong crawler excavators also feature power boost
“The market is crying out for a new leader and we target to get to that position. The market size for dozers in India is around 500 to 600 nos per year and we hold its 10 % share now”
CEO of Chetra Machinery India Pvt Ltd
The Importance of Dozers in Large Earthmoving Projects is Proven
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CE: Road Construction
cubic metres. Speaking about the benefits of using their wheel loaders, Mr. Sunil Sapru of LiuGong India says, “One of the key advantages with them is the simplified hydraulic system, apart from the efficient and effective cooling system. We have developed a state of the art product line with various attachments sufficing multiple applications, therefore enhancing the efficiency and value for money”. Volvo had showcased its L 120F model in the recent bC India show. This model features the Automatic Power Shift (APS) feature, a system which adapts to the operator's operating style and saves fuel, by selecting the right gear.” The automatic system in our wheel loaders ensures optimum fuel efficiency, said Mr.A.M.Muralidharan, Managing Director of Volvo India Private Limited and Head of Volvo Construction Equipment Business in India. In Top Gear The increase in the number of mega highway and airport projects has mean that off highway heavy commercial vehicles are in great demand today. These heavy haulers could make all the
Wheel Loaders for Clearing Large Amounts of Material
“The market is crying out for a new leader and we target to get to that position. The market size for dozers in India is around 500 to 600 nos per year and we hold its 10 % share now.” The market is dominated by unorganized players, with the vast majority of the machines being used Chinese dozers finding its way into India. Fully Loaded on Features Just as in the case with China in the 80s and 90s, where wheel loaders quite
literally ruled the roost, it is now their time to be immensely successful in India. The trend that the wheel loader market has witnessed perfectly reflects a rapidly maturing market with demand for higher capacity machines being on the rise. LiuGong's ZL50CX is a perfect example for a model that can take on the rigors of large earthmoving projects. The machine from the world's largest producers of wheel loaders comes with a rated load capacity of 5,000 kg and a bucket capacity of 3.0
“After deliberate investigation into the market we have arrived at a conclusion that Indian customers tend to follow international trends, in the use of heavier and stronger trucks”
Denis E.Trifonoff CEO, Kamaz Vectra
Articulated Haulers are the key to Tackling Tough Terrain
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CE: Road Construction
Volvo G710B Grader
difference in timely completion of projects today. A good example for a power packed off dump truck model is the KAMAZ -6540 (8x4) which belongs to the family of heavy duty trucks with 19t legal payload, GVW up to 31t and comes with a host of attractive features, besides being well known for its productivity and efficiency. The KAMAZ-6540 is equipped with KAMAZ V8, 260 hp Euro 2 engine and the Cummins 285 hp Euro 3 engine. In addition, two fuel tanks of 210 litres displacement each allow for lengthy truck operation without the need for refueling. Speaking about the truck, Mr.Denis E.Trifonoff, CEO, Kamaz Vectra explained “After deliberate investigation into the market we have arrived at a conclusion that Indian customers tend to follow international trends, in the use of heavier and stronger trucks.” Man Force Trucks Private Limited is another name that offers a full range of heavy duty trucks with its 49 tonnes GVW version, ideally suited for large earthmoving projects. Asia Motor Works (AMW) is another company that offers its range of on and off highway tippers that are suited for the rough and tumble of the
construction and infrastructure industries. The 2523 TP models on offer by AMW come with a host of features including, Euro III engines that deliver 180/235 HP and 800 maximum torque. Heavy duty double acting shock absorbers and integral power steering with double UJ ensure a smooth and stable ride. Ashok Leyland is another leading name that offers tippers and tractor trailers for the construction sector in the 16 to 49 tonne segment. A good example from its range is the 'Hippo' tipper model with a GVW of 25,000 kgs and 16 cubic metres loading
capacity. Another good example for a real heavy duty model is Volvo's A40EFS, from its E-Series of articulated haulers. The truck with a loading capacity of 39,000 kgs is just about the perfect choice for large earthmoving projects. Making the Grade Mega highway projects have also pushed the demand for heavy duty motor graders. A typical example for a heavy duty motor grader is the G990 model from Volvo, the biggest from its range of G900 motor graders. The mean machine comes with an extra 3 855 kg (8 500 lbs) of blade pull and high-speed capability and can develop a net engine power of 225-265 hp. LiuGong India's 418 model too packs a punch with its rated power of 160 kW and maximum traction force of 86 kN. The model also features the largest grading blade in its class according to the company. TIPL, which is the wholly owned subsidiary of TIL Limited, offers the robust 658 B model, a wheel loader with a payload of 5,000 kg. The machine comes with a ZF Axle and SDEC engine for enhanced productivity and is ideally suited for large earthmoving projects.
”The Auto Power Shift feature in our wheel loaders ensures optimum fuel efficiency”
Head of Volvo Construction Equipment Business in India
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pecifications for road building are becoming increasingly sophisticated, corresponding to the heavy increase in the number of automobiles globally. Compounding the pressure on governments is the fact that road project sizes are also becoming bigger by the day. Nowhere are these two aspects more visible, than in India, which is now in the midst of its biggest road building spree. Faced with the challenges of lowering project costs, environmental protection and still obtain desired results, contractors today are looking at technology to bail them
ROAD BUILDING Intelligent Compaction Shows the Way
out of the tight situation. Intelligent Compaction (IC) is one such technology that has come to their rescue with its double advantage of helping in the avoidance of premature road failure due to insufficient compaction, while enabling low-cost compaction process. To put it in simple terms, the intelligent compaction system allows drivers to virtually 'see' key compaction data on a display screen, thereby dispensing off with the guesswork. This in turn means, unnecessary passes are avoided, leading to savings of both money and time. Pavement performance is
dependent on a variety of factors including, mix temperatures, mix designs, type of equipment used and most importantly rolling methodology being employed. Although proper asphalt rolling techniques and proper mix ratios can help build quality roads, any major improvement on the road surface is possible, only before the first layer of asphalt is laid. A uniform sub base forms the basic element so very essential for maximizing pavement performance. A uniform and well laid base enables to decrease permeability, reduce settlement and increase
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coded map of ground compaction properties. The location of compaction value and roller passes are mapped and recorded by using GPS. A typical IC system can collect and analyze data for execution at the rate of approximately 1,700 to 4,000 times per minute. How do IC Rollers Work? The rollers featuring IC systems are equipped with comprehensive instrumentation which is fed to a documentation and feedback control system. These systems process data in real time, which is then utilized by the operator. GPS is used to map the precise location of the roller, speed and the number of passes over a given location. Additionally, instruments known as 'accelerometers' are mounted near the drum to monitor the applied compaction effort, the response from the material being compact and the frequency of the passes that the roller makes over the surface that is being compacted. The readings are taken into consideration for determining the compaction process. In the case of an asphalt surface, the additional temperature instrumentation is used to monitor the surface temperature. This is important since vibratory compaction in
different temperature ranges can vary, sometimes leading to very poor compaction. Feedback controls are a key feature of the IC system which continuously adjust the force and frequency of the drum in order to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness, with the graphic display alerting the operator when desired compaction is obtained. The Technology behind the System Correct operation and handling of vibratory rollers involves the operator having knowledge of compaction equipment and 'compactability' of the asphalt mix, apart from experience. Vibratory rollers are also not often operated in a targeted manner, with vibration being continued for too long or on a mix that has already cooled down. With the result, too many passes with vibration and excessive amplitudes can happen leading to aggregate crushing or loosening of the base layer. Intelligent compaction systems are designed to support the operator with specific optimized output, giving an indication of the compaction process. Explaining the intricacies that are involved in the IC system, Mr. Hans-Josef Kloubert, Head of Application provide a
strength, aspects, which are crucial for highway projects. Globally a lot of research has been going in the field, with leading road construction equipment manufacturers with strong R & D focus such as BOMAG, Sakai America, Dynapac and Ammann, to mention only a few, doing pioneering work in the emerging field. Control systems and machine integrated systems that provide a record of machine-ground interaction form the key components of IC technology. The output is linked to GPS position and provides roller operators with a color-
'Intelligent' Rollers Help Cut Down Costs and Time
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011
consists of counter rotating eccentric masses. The system is generating directed vibrations which can be varied automatically from vertical to horizontal and therefore continuously can modify the compaction energy with the control system based on the material stiffness. I n a t y p i ca l I C syste m t wo accelerometers are mounted on the vibrating mass of the roller drum. The accelerometers record the drum acceleration continuously. The soil contact force, the energy delivered to the compacted material and the displacements are all calculated in a process taking into consideration the roller parameters, such as masses, amplitude, frequency, and centrifugal force. By plotting the force settlement curve of the roller drum for one drum oscillation, the slope of the curve on the loading portion can be calculated as the dynamic stiffness of the soil or asphalt surface being compacted. Further calculations are done in order to determine the dynamic modulus of the material being compacted. The data is then transmitted to an integrated control system, which manages the intelligent rollers automatically, based on two conditions, if the roller drum is entering an undesirable bouncing mode the compaction amplitude is immediately
“Intelligent compaction consists of continuous compaction control using rollers with adjustable compaction energy in order to achieve optimum and uniform compaction, continuous compaction measurement and monitoring of the roller generated material modulus as the roller proceeds over the layer and an integrated global positioning system to provide a complete recording of the job site”
Vibratory Energy from the Compacted Material is measured by the IC System
Head -Application Technology, BOMAG
reduced, and if the specified maximum fo rc e / m o d u l u s i s re a c h e d , t h e amplitude is changed so that applied force does not exceed the maximum limit. This control criteria is what makes the IC technology allow for optimized compaction and consequently, uniform compaction. Going into the principle behind the technology Mr. Kloubert explains “The principle of the intelligent roller is based on the analysis of the interaction between vibrating drum and the stiffness of the material being compacted.” According to Dr.Iris von Kirschbaum, Head of Communications, BOMAG, these systems are being offered in India, by their company, considered one of the pioneers in the
Technology, BOMAG observed “ Intelligent compaction consists of continuous compaction control using rollers with adjustable compaction energy in order to achieve optimum and uniform compaction, continuous compaction measurement and monitoring of the roller generated material modulus as the roller proceeds over the layer and an integrated global positioning system to provide a complete recording of the job site.” Stating that the IC system developed by BOMAG involved continuous research and is a result of teamwork, Mr.Kloubert dwelt into the technology behind the system, explaining that the company has introduced intelligent rollers such as VARIOCONTROL single drum rollers for soil and rockfill applications and Asphalt Manager tandem rollers for asphalt applications. The VARIOCONTROL and the Asphalt Manager roller are equipped with a directed vibrator exciter system which
Ground force [KN] B 150
F B max
50 3 2 1 -1 -2
Drum axle load -3
Vibration path (mm)
Force settlement curve of vibrating roller drum
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Cosmos Sales Corporation
“The principle of the intelligent roller is based on the analysis of the interaction between vibrating drum and the stiffness of the material being compacted”
Head -Application Technology, BOMAG
IC Display inside Cab
field. The technology can play a key role in the country since an IC system takes care of uniformity in road construction, which in turn helps in avoiding costly pavement failures, often an issue in India, resulting in obvious improvements in long term performance of roads.
A Technology Whose Time has Come The advent of the system has led to a debate among industry experts, as to whether IC is a new trend or just a product innovation that has enhanced an existing method of work. While the jury is not yet out on the long term
benefits of the technology, given that it has only recently made its appearance, there is no denying the potential of IC, both in its ability to cut down on road construction cost and maximizing accuracy by eliminating human error. Moreover, the data collected as part of the system, can also become design tools for future projects of road contractors. With further breakthroughs expected, the technology is all set to go places, one of which is India where it has already made an entry, what with the massive road building spree that the country has embarked on. The next few years could see several leading global compaction equipment brands coming to the Indian market with their own versions of compaction equipment featuring intelligent compaction.
WaterShed Marks its Entry into the Solar Decathlon 2011
he 2011 Solar Decathlon, from the Department of Energy (DOE), US, is all set to kick off later this year. Scheduled for September 2011, at the National Mall's West Potomac Park in Washington D.C., the event challenges 20 collegiate teams to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. Marking one of the earliest entries into the competition was the WaterShed, a structure designed to capture more than just energy from the sun.
The WaterShed is a design from the Solar Decathlon team of the University of Meryland. It uses two rectangular units joined by a central bathroom that is capped by a split butterfly roof that serves the dual purposes of capturing both sunlight and rainwater.A rooftop photovoltaic array harvests enough energy from the sun to power the building all year-round, while the green roof also retains rainwater to cool the house. Water captured from the roof is also used in an interior waterfall to provide humidity control. The University of Maryland's Associate Professor of Architecture, Amy Gardner was quoted saying, "This will be a lot more than just a great house think of it as a miniecosystem." In an effort to create a house that has the same effect on the environment as native wetlands the WaterShed's sustainable features extend beyond the structure's walls and are designed to protect and make the most of its Chesapeake Bay location. Constructed wetlands surrounding the building are designed to filter storm water and "greywater," which is a significant source of Chesapeake Bay pollution, while "edible landscapes" create support for community-based agriculture.
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Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd
in Earthmoving Equipment
he critical role being played by GPS in the earthmoving industry is something that is making contractors sit up and take notice. GPS when used in close tandem with earthmoving equipment has proven to be a viable asset, increasing overall jobsite efficiency, apart from helping cut down costs. GPS guidance systems or automatic navigation control systems have been gradually becoming part of heavy equipment since the late 1990s, when they first made their advent. The equipment operator can now use GPS position data to make decisions based
Automatic Navigation Control Systems
Breaking New Ground
on actual grade and design features. In fact, some of the guidance systems are so advanced that they can even operate the machine's attachments automatically from a preset design that was created for the particular job. With tolerance levels as minimal as two to three centimeters, GPS guidance systems can be extremely accurate. Globally Trimble, Caterpillar, and Topcon are some of the companies that have been doing pioneering work on automatic guidance systems. Automatic navigation control systems can be installed on virtually every type of earthmoving equipment including, diggers, dozers, excavators, scrappers, etc. and help in improving construction efficiency manifold. Types of Systems Automatic navigation controls systems that are used in conjunction with earthmoving machines can be broadly classified into two types (1) indicate only and (2) fully automatic. In the case of the former, the GPS positioning information is used as a guide by the operator. The earthmoving machine's position is displayed over a specific design site that is created for the
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Earth Moving Equipment: New Technology
two metre range. In the case of the presence of a base station, Real Time Kinematics (RTK) enables site specific corrections that can be transmitted to the machine, which increases the accuracy of the system to a mind boggling, two to three centimeters. Indicate only type of automatic guidance systems are usually used in earthmoving equipment like motor graders, soil compactors, and track- type tractors. Whenever precise levels of material need to be moved on a predetermined design or grade, fully automatic systems are used. These typical fine grading applications need the machine's implements to be controlled by the automatic navigation control system. Fully automatic systems rely on an onsite base station for their accuracy and consist of one or more GPS receivers that are mounted on a machine's blade. Typically, two receivers are used when the machine has to be controlled in a three dimensional design. While kits are available to retrofit fully automatic systems in existing machines, these days leading manufacturers also sell machines that have fully automatic
guidance systems integrated in the machine's implement controls. Giving examples about advanced GPS guidance systems, Mr. K.K.Sajan, Divisional Manager, Sitech India - South & West, which is Gmmco's dealership for Trimble Technology Solutions in South, Central and Western India, pioneering them in the country, states “Trimble and Cat 3D machine control systems are the most versatile grading technologies available and can be used on a wide range of machine types including excavators, dozers, motor graders, c o m p a c t o rs , m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s , trimmers, pavers and more. By putting design surfaces, grades and alignments inside the cab, the system gives operators unprecedented control over grading, excavating, compaction and paving applications, significantly reducing material overages, and dramatically improving productivity and profitability. The 3D systems can be operated in manual or auto mode and leverage of components that are fully portable and can be easily moved from machine to machine.” Output Generally speaking there are two methods in which the output from the automatic navigation control system is interpreted by the machine. In the first type, the machine's electronic control module is used by the operator for moving implements fo r t h e d e s i r e d result. The second method invol
particular earthmoving project. The operator then relies on the site design on display in order to steer and move the machine's implements. In the case of indicate only type, typically a single GPS receiver which is mounted on the machine, apart from an angle sensor is used. A base station that relays site specific corrections is another important component of the system. In certain cases, in the absence of a base station, satellite information is utilized by the machines. However, in the case of use of satellite information the accuracy usually suffers and is only in the one to e.
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Earth Moving Equipment: New Technology
“Trimble and Cat 3D machine control systems are the most versatile grading technologies available and can be used on a wide range of machine types including excavators, dozers, motor graders, compactors, milling machines, trimmers, pavers and more. By putting design surfaces, grades and alignments inside the cab, the system gives operators unprecedented control over grading, excavating, compaction and paving applications, significantly reducing material overages, and dramatically improving productivity and profitability. The 3D systems can be operated in manual or auto mode and leverage of components that are fully portable and can be easily moved from machine to machine.”
GPS guidance systems Enable Accuracy in Earthmoving Projects
GPS guidance systems are finding increasing use. Typically indicate only type of GPS guidance systems are installed in hydraulic excavators. The angle sensors are integrated in the bucket, stick, and boom of the machine. The operator can find out how deep the bucket is digging by comparing the bucket location with the site design on the control module inside the cab. Indicate only GPS guidance systems are also the choice when it comes to scrappers and motorgraders that are used in
road construction projects. Operators can compare the depth of cut and the actual site design using the inputs provided by the GPS antenna mounted on the machine. The process saves time and money since the operator knows the exact amount of material to be moved. Compactors are another piece of equipment where GPS guidance systems are now being used extensively. Typically the display will have various colors indicating the areas where compaction has to be done and the ones where it has been completed. Accuracy of the site design is another key to using GPs guidance systems. The
K.K.Sajan, Divisional Manager
Sitech India- South & West
valve parallel to the machine's pilot hydraulic valve. The automatic navigation system then controls the second valve. Application in Tandem with Earthmoving Equipment While automatic navigation control systems can be used with almost any type of earthmoving machine, tracktype tractors are the most popular machine platform where they are extensively used. One area where they are extensively used, especially smaller sized models, is in road construction projects. Hydraulic excavators are another type of earthmoving equipment where
Operator Friendly GPS Display in the Cab Ensures Increased Productivity
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JBA Concrete Solutions Pvt.Ltd
Earth Moving Equipment: New Technology
design can be imported into the earthmoving machine's GPS display. The latest versions of GPS guidance systems also have the ability to define a specific grade angle or elevation, even without a site design. The Indian Scenario With winds of change blowing across the Indian construction scene, it is only a matter of time before automatic navigation systems become a part and parcel of earthmoving equipment here. The encouraging response to these solutions is aptly summed up Mr.K.K.Sajan, who when asked about the market response to the products and solutions that Sitech India- South & West offers, observed , “The going so far has been very encouraging with most Heavy & Highway contractors eager to try and see the application benefits . The application benefits in terms of time and cost has been a driving factor when it comes to Contractor's willingness to try and use technology on their earthmoving
Automatic navigation guidance system mounted on the blade of the dozers
machinery especially the Motorgraders, for the final grading operation to derive maximum benefits. Also here it is very imperative to mention the wide acceptance for the Asset & Fleet management solutions and we are closely working with a few big fleet owners to take this forward.” The country being in the midst of its
largest ever infrastructure building spree, global players in the field of automatic navigation control systems is eyeing the booming Indian earthmoving equipment market. With rising awareness levels about the technology and with India already being a hub for software development, it is one area expected to grow exponentially in the coming few years.
and Mr.Kulbir Singh. The glittering award ceremony was held at Imperial Hotel on 8th April 2011. The Indian Institute of Economic Studies does research on various aspects of economic growth and industrial activities in the country and based on the data collect, select the awardees. The Hess Group's considerable experience in the concrete industry and its success in this field has led to this achievement. The group has enjoyed major success in India, implementing major industrial projects with industrial majors like Jindal, Ahluwalia, JK Lakshmi, Ecologic, A & P Group, etc. The use of latest technology and quality material in the construction industry helps in the completion of projects within the time frame and offers benefits in the form of thermal insulation, sound insulation, more usable area and in structural and foundation loads. Moreover, it also helps in reducing pollution, being an environment friendly process. Fly ash is an industrial by product, a small percentage of which is used by the cement and readymix industry. This ash can create a lot of environmental issues if left unutilized. Hess equipment and technology can convert fly ash into building material. The entire conversion, production, and transportation process is done in a scientific manner using the latest technology to avoid any hindrances. It is time government agencies and firms like NTPC and others, look at these kind of systems to convert the massive amounts of ash for a better tomorrow for the country. More needs to be done by the environment ministry on the issue. Similarly, universities and other educational institutions need to spread awareness about the subject, in collaboration with international experts in the field. A professional approach from concerned agencies holds the key to the success of the government's 5 year plans.
HESS GROUP BAGS UDYOG RATTAN AWARD
he prestigious 'Udyog Rattan' awards are given to individuals and institutions for their contribution to national growth by the Indian Institute of Economic Studies. This year the awards were given for contribution to the construction, and in particular concrete industry. The Hess Group, which is a globally renowned concrete machinery manufacturing company, has bagged the prestigious award this year. The award was presented by Dr.BhishmaNarain Singh (former Governor of Tamil Nadu and Assam). Present in the dais along with him were Mr.Virender Singh, Dr.ReetikaKohli, Ms.SujathaDev, Mr.S.P.S.Bakshi (Chairman & MD EPI India Ltd)
160 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
PAVING THE WAY
TO THE FUTURE
he progress made by a country can be gauged from the condition of its roads they say. Perhaps nowhere is this statement more suited than to India. While the country has made rapid progress with respect to the development of road infrastructure, a lot still needs to be done. The country now has the world's second largest road network aggregating over 33 lakh kilometers, with 70,548 km of National Highways, 1,31,899 km of state highways, 4,67,763 km of major district roads and 26,50,000 km of rural and other roads.
The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) has after a period of lull experienced last year, which also saw a change at the helm of affairs in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, reportedly planned aggressive plans, and is targeting 100 road projects during the fiscal. The authority is planning awarding road projects totaling a length of 11,000 km for bidding, out of which 2,000 km are expected to be awarded during the first quarter of the financial year. The authority had awarded around 5,000 km of road projects in
the last financial year, which though below the targeted 9,000 km mark, was the highest during the history of National Highway Development Program (NHDP).“ This is the highest awarding done so far in the history of NHDP. This translates into approximately 14 km per day, versus the initial target of 20 km per day,” said a Sharekhan report recently on the progress made during the last financial year. The government targets to construct 35,000 km of highways in the next 12th Plan period under the National Highways Development Programme
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under increasing criticism for the mechanism of awarding road projects, with allegations of rampant corruption from all quarters. The ministry had been blamed for the unholy nexus between corrupt officials and contractors which had resulted in inordinate project delays. "What worries the committee the most is the general sense of helplessness in fighting out this unholy nexus and the consequent alarmingly high 'delivery leakages'. The committee did not find any serious attempt made or proposed against such a nexus in the road sector," said a Parliamentary Standing Committee on Transport said in its 163rd report, a damning indictment of the state of affairs. However, it is not all gloom and doom, with the things taking a turn for the better and the NHAI now seemingly in the fast track mode. With the country's infrastructural development at a crucial juncture, where it is entering the next 'growth ' stage from the earlier 'beginning', stage, all eyes are on the authority and the road ministry, since the government's ambition of attaining double digit GDP growth or at least sustain the existing 89 percent growth rate depends on
“Making quality roads and greater transparency in the functioning of the ministry will be my main priority. It is a challenging portfolio”
Union Minister for Road Transport & Highways
quality highways. The much needed momentum to the growth story of the road sector is being provided by the continued interest in mega highway projects that promise to transform the road network in the country. Mega Highway Projects Mirroring the developments in several other developed countries, the country is gearing up to meet its increased traffic through mega road projects. Generally speaking, road projects costing around US $1 billion are classified under the mega projects category. It was in December 2009 that
(NHDP).This endeavour would require an estimated investment of about $60 billion (around 2.75 lakh crore), of which $40 billion (Rs 1.83 lakh crore) is expected to come from the private sector. The pace also seems to have picked up with the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Mr.C.P.Joshi, clearly spelling out his priorities by stating that, “Making quality roads and greater transparency in the functioning of the ministry will be my main priority. It is a challenging portfolio,” a statement he issued while assuming office, a few
Mega Highway Projects hold the Key to Sustained Economic Growth
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the Lok Sabha was informed about ten key mega highway projects. These projects according to industry analysts will hold the key to speedy economic growth of the country. In a press release issued by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, it was stated that the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) had made initial identification of 10 mega highway projects , costing an estimated Rs.45,000 crore in nine states for implementation in a phased manner. The press release went on to give details of the stretches these projects would be implemented in. These include: 1. Six laning of Kishangarh-UdaipurAhmedabad section of NH-79A, NH-79, NH-76, and NH-8, totaling a distance of 557 km in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat. 2. Six laning of Ichapuram - Srikakulam - Vishakapatnam Ankapalli Rajahmundry section of NH-5, totaling a distance of 436 km in the state of Andhra Pradesh. 3. Four laning of Gujarat-Maharashtra border - Dhule - Jalgaon - Akola Amravati section of NH-6, totaling a distance of 485 km. 4. Four laning of Gwalior-ShivpurBiaora-Dewas section of NH-3, covering a distance of 450km in Madhya Pradesh. 5. Two laning with paved shoulder of AmristsarGanganagar Bikaner Nagaur - Jodhpur Pali section of NH15, 89 & 65, totaling a distance of 700km in the states of Punjab and Rajasthan. 6. Two laning with paved shoulder of Kolhapur Sangli Sholapur Latur Nanded Wardha Nagpur section of NH-7 & State Highway the state of Maharashtra, covering a distance of 475 km.
"What worries the committee the most is the general sense of helplessness in fighting out this unholy nexus and the consequent alarmingly high 'delivery leakages'. The committee did not find any serious attempt made or proposed against such a nexus in the road sector"
the public private partnership (PPP) basis, based on the procedures that are laid down for the purpose. Change in Bidding Norms There seems to a distinct shift in the bidding patterns, with the government trying to actively expedite the construction of major infrastructure bottleneck in the country's progress. The spate of criticism that the road transport ministry had faced in recent times meant that rules were modified so as to allow only major players to bid for these mega highway projects costing over US $ 1 billion. The NHAI modified some of the norms in 2010 during the term of Mr.Kamal Nath, as the Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, for the bidding process. The authority modified some of the norms in model documents for BuildOperate-Transfer-(BOT) Projects and Request for Qualification and Request for Proposal (RFQ/RFP) in order to address issues which had been blocking projects. The changes to the bidding norms had been done in acceptance of recommendation of the B.K. Chaturvedi Committee's first report set up to recommend ways to implement road projects faster and more efficiently. To cut the long story short, the new norms are an obvious attempt to keep non-serious and less-
Parliamentary Standing Committee on Transport in its 163rd Report 7. Four laning of Panvel Goa / Maharashtra Border section of NH17, totaling a distance of 475 km. 8. Fo u r l a n i n g o f A h m e d a b a d Bamanbore Samakhiali & Bamanbore - Rajkot Gondal section of NH-8A & B totaling a distance of 425 km. 9. Six / Four / 2 Lane with Paved Shoulders of Bhavnagar Pipavav Porbandar - Dwarka section of NH8E, in Gujarat, with the stretch covering a distance of 445km. 10. Six laning of Aurangabad Barwa adda Panagarh - Dhankuni section of NH-2 .totalling 475 Km, in the states of Bihar & West Bengal. The formulation of the projects and the process of invitation of bids of these projects are based on the preparation of Feasibility Reports and their appraisal for implementation on
World-Class Roads in India are no Longer a Mirage
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Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd
years, much of it in the mega projects. This is apart from enthusiastic participation from majors such as Larsen & Toubro, GMR, Reliance Infra, IRB Infrastructure, etc, being in the fray. North- East Focus The government has in a bid to improve the infrastructure for speedy development of the backward North East region of the country, approved road projects worth Rs.434.23 crore, as part of the ongoing 11th Plan Projects for the North Eastern Council (NEC). Mr.Bijoy Krishna Handique, Minister of Development of North Eastern Region has been quoted in press reports stating “The NEC is committed towards channelizing similar quantum of funds for improving the road sector in the region.” The projects would include improvement of the Jowai-NartiangKhanduli-Biathanlangsu Roads, a crucial link between Assam and M e g h a l ay a . C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d improvement of Simchuthang-PabongYangyang Roads in Sikkim and Kangokpi -Tamei Road in Manipur are the other important projects that can have a major positive impact on the economic development of the region. Expressway Scene The countr y could also be witnessing the completion of a few
“The NEC (North Eastern Council) is committed towards channelizing similar quantum of funds for improving the road sector in the region”
Bijoy Krishna Handique
Minister of Development of North Eastern Region
”The size of the road projects has been growing under PPP / BOT etc and this has translated into higher capacity and the better mobility of the plant and machineries to fully optimize the investment cost.“
Vice President, Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL
creditworthy players out of the bidding process with respect to mega highway projects. International Interest One of the interesting facts to emerge from the growing opportunities in the Indian road construction sector was the increasing presence of international companies. A consortium of 20 UK companies had for instance formed the British-India Roads Group to participate in the sector. Similarly, news reports suggest that Canadian firms are likely to invest over Rs.20, 000 crore in the road sector in the next five
expressways in the next five years. The Centre had recently in the month of April 2011 announced plans for building two new expressways linking the national capital to Jaipur and Chandigarh. The ventures are likely to entail a cost of nearly US $ 3 billion.” The Centre has decided to build Delhi Jaipur and Delhi-Chandigarh expressways. Ministry officials will take up the issue with states of Delhi, Rajasthan, and Haryana. Once they come on board, we will get the detailed project report," Road Transport and Highways Minister Mr.C.P.Joshi had been quoted saying in media reports o n t h e p ro j ec t s . T h e Ya m u n a Expressway, in Uttar Pradesh, with the draft phase-I masterplan finalized by the Yamuna Expressway Industrial Development Authority (YEIDA), is another key expressway project that could set the trend for similar projects elsewhere in the country. The government is reportedly examining a proposal to set up a Expressway Authority of India (EAI) on the lines of NHAI for facilitating the construction of over 18,000 km of expressways which would need an
Expressways on the fast lane
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that in the next five years the market for road construction equipment is expected to touch US $ 8 billion. Entry of New Technology The evolution of the Indian road construction equipment market makes for fascinating reading. The market has gradually evolved from one that was driven by cost to one that is now being driven by technology. The typical Indian client is taking into consideration factors such as the type of transmission, controls, hydraulics, safety, even aesthetics, before making a purchase decision. With rising awareness levels newer technology is now being accepted with respect to road construction equipment. One such technology that has been in the news in recent times is the double barrel or continuous mix technology in asphalt mix plants. The technology is particularly suited for mega road projects, with the mix not being limited to particular batches, as in the case of batch mix plants. What this means is continuous supply of asphalt mix for the project, which is crucial for the timely completion of mega road projects. Explaining the technology in detail Mr.R.Nandagopal of TIL ,which is offering batch mix plants featuring the technology in India says” The size of the road projects have been growing under PPP / BOT etc and this has translated into higher capacity
”Once the roads are built, they need to be maintained, and this is where the 100 % recycler, which we launched has a role to play”
Rolf Jenny Senior Vice President, Corporate Development, Ammann Group
“Recycling is going to be the future”
Managing Director, Vimtech Corporation
estimated Rs.4,50,000 crore, according to industry experts. Role of Road Construction Equipment One of the key driving factors behind the rapid growth witnessed in the road construction industry is the availability of a wide range of road building machinery. While the density of India's road network at 0.66 km of highway per square kilometre compares favourably with other countries such as China and Brazil, the major difference lay in the fact that most of our highways were narrow, congested, and was infamous for the poor surface quality. With the advent of world-class road building machinery, things have taken a turn for the better now. The pace of growth has been such
and the better mobility of the plant and machineries to fully optimize the investment cost. “The double barrel plant with portable options up to 400TPH and stationary options up to 600TPH will meet up with the growing demands of infrastructure. Double Barrel is a combination aggregate dryer and mixing unit separated from each other uses sequential mixing to produce larger volumes of consistent and homogeneous hot mix in shorter time than any other plant. It is equipped to provide multiple job mixes at a very short notice. Road Recycling The increased emphasis on road recycling is another heartening aspect that is being seen in the country today. The driving force behind this emphasis
TIL-Astec Double Barrel Hot Mix Asphalt Plant
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Road recycling will play a critical role in the mega highway projects of tomorrow
“Infrastructure is critical for our development,” Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee had said while tabling the Budget 2011-12 in the Parliament. The government proposes to spend Rs 2.72 lakh crore on the transport and the energy sectors out of Rs 5.92 lakh crore earmarked in the Central Plan for 2011-12. The allocation for the sectors account for 45.95 per cent of the plan outlay. Increased allocation to the transport sector automatically entails huge investments in the road sector. Similarly, the government had also spelt that the
is again the availability of specialized equipment for asphalt recycling. Commenting on the technology Mr. Parag Shah of Vimtech Corporation, which represents DMI Engineering, a global leader in asphalt mix plants, said, “Recycling is going to be the future.” The company offers a recycling plant that offers a unique advantage of being attached to plants of any other make. Ammann is another global leader which has recently come out with its 100 % recycler.” Once the roads are built, they need to be maintained, and
this is where the 100 % recycler, which we launched in Bauma Munich, has a role to play,” said Mr. Rolf Jenny, Senior Vice President, Corporate Development, Ammann Group in an interaction with The Masterbuilder. According to Mr.Jenny, the company may launch the product in India too if demand picks up. The MARINI MAC Series of green asphalt plants are another example for plants that are ideally suited for aggregate recycling. Explaining the advantages of these machines, Mr.Blesson Varghese, MARINI Fayat India's National Director, quipped,” Our asphalt plant designs represent the latest innovations in asphalt plant design. Customers in India are now beginning to realize the importance of productivity and green technology.” Road recycling, with a slew of players offering specific equipment for the same, looks likely to be a major area of focus in the country's road construction sector in the near future.
“Infrastructure is critical for our development”
Pranab Mukherjee Union Finance Minister
infrastructure investment envisaged in the 12th plan period would be to the tune of US $ 1 trillion, a major part of which would be on road projects. All these factors point out to the impending massive growth phase that the road sector is expected to undergo in the near future. The positive sentiments, a buoyant economy, the proactive policies of the Centre, streamlined bidding for road projects and availability of world-class road building machinery, plus the famed pool of engineers, for which the country is known for; the road construction industry is heading perhaps towards its most exciting phase ever in India.
”Our asphalt plant designs represent the latest innovations in asphalt plant design. Customers in India are now beginning to realize the importance of productivity and green technology.”
Most Exciting Phase Ahead After the period of lull and subsequent period of uncertainty witnessed during the time of change at the helm of affairs, things seem to be moving in the right path, as far as the Union Ministry for Road Transport and Highways and the NHAI go.
MARINI Fayat India's National Director
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Reliance Industries Ltd
Hoover Dam Bypass
An Engineering Marvel
he Hoover Dam Bypass has the fourth largest concrete arch in the United States and is the longest arched concrete bridge across the globe. It is also considered to have
the world's tallest concrete columns of their kind. However, what adds to the significance of the construction of this magnificent steel and concrete structure is its location. The Hoover
Dam Bypass is almost 900 feet above the Colorado River and lodged between rock cliffs that form the Black Canyon spanning the states of Nevada and Arizona.
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Hoover Dam bypass bridge
Daily Vehicle Traffic Hoover Dam: 11,500 in 1997 Hoover Dam bypas: 21,100 forecast for 2017
Arches: Each is made of 53 concrete segments poured in place from hoses running from the canyon walls.
Statue of Liberty 305 ft.
Contractor: Obayashi Corp./PSM Construction USA Inc. Joint Venture. Bridge: $114 million Total bypass cost: $240 million. Concrete: Approximately 9,000 cubic yards, enough to bury a football field more than 4 feet thick.
Sources: Google maps, federal Highway Administration
Steel: Approximately 4 million pounds, enough for 32 M1 Abrams tanks (left). Towers: Hold up the bridge roadway. They will be made of 440 individual concrete blocks. The tallest will be 280 feet tall with 28 segments.
THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC
The Hoover Dam bypass is a fully fixed, 323 meters in length under arch supporting the central span of 580 meters length and continuous beam deck via vertical piers at 35 meter intervals. Four form travelers advanced to the crown of the cast-in-place arch supported by 88 carefully tuned stay cables, while precast segmental construction was used for the tallest precast columns. The objective behind the Hoover Dam Bypass project, also known as the Mike O'Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge, is to alleviate the traffic congestion on the U.S. 93 highway in the vicinity of Hoover Dam. The U.S. 93 is also has an important economic role to r
play as it is on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) route between Mexico and Canada. It is also the major commercial route between the states of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. The design and construction budget allocated for the entire project was USD 240 million and the bridge was built in a budget of USD 116 million. Mike O'Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge After completing the environmental impact analysis in 1998, the contract was awarded in the year 2001. While the project's initial timeline had a deadline of 2008, in September 2006, the project suffered a major setback
when the contractors' tower cranes, located on opposite sides of the Colorado River Bridge, fell. While there was minimal damage, the timeline was revised to Oct 2010. The bridge was opened to general public on Oct 20, 2010. Major Design Features During the design phase, a feature impact analysis was carried out to understand which bridge type would suit the most. Factors like structural redundancy, height and mass on Viewscape, rock excavation/canyon impact, engineering cost, technical stability for site, construction cost, construction wind risk, inspection and
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011
Mike O'Callaghan-Pat Tillman Memorial Bridge Owner Bridge Design Contractors Construction Engineer Form Travellers for Cast In Place Segments Post Tensioning Materials Stay Cables Central Federal Lands Highway Division T.Y.Lin International with HDR Obayashi/PSM Construction USA. Inc ( JV) OPAC and McNary Bergeron & Associates NRS-USA Schwager Davis Inc Schwager Davis Inc
for superstructure steel fabrication, with relative independence between these operations. The design team then arrived at the twin rib framed structure. The unique topography of the site led to a project specific probabilistic seismic hazards analysis and a 1000 year return period was selected. Wind was considered as on one of the significant environment factors from the outset of design. Two factors favored the twin rib layout vis-àvis the typical single box section for the arch. Since the latter would have a width of 20 meters and also weigh almost 30 tones per meter, precast segmental option was ruled out. Also, the twin ribbed frame was expected to perform better under extreme lateral forces. The composite superstructure was selected for girder erection and to lower weight on the arch. An open spandrel crown was selected instead of an integral crown. Integral concrete pier caps were selected over steel box cap sections in order to develop the diaphragm action of the deck used to avoid lateral bracing of the spandrel columns. This would also provide ultimate stability to the flexible columns along station through direct diaphragm action. Concrete was chosen instead of steel since a fracture critical steel diaphragm generally has a higher maintenance and inspection costs despite having a lower first cost. Construction Construction began on-site and in
maintenance requirements and architectural potential were considered across bridge options like truss, box guides, cable stayed, suspension, deck arch and thru arch. Spanning the canyon or arching against the canyon walls came out as a favorite. However, since the clear spanning suspension choice could suffer from structural vulnerability and high life cycle cost, it was decided to proceed with the deck arch option. The design team then settled upon the Concrete Composite solution based on the cost, schedule and architectural and technical criteria to address the specific design issues inherent to the Hoover Dam site. Some of the key advantages of the concrete composite alternative were: It combines the best of both concrete and steel, the concrete being effectively used in compression for the arch, and lighter steel for the upper structure. Concrete can also be efficiently placed using a form traveler system that is a proven construction technology for this type of work.
Since the concrete arch can follow on an early foundation excavation contract without the wait for fabrication of arch steel, schedules can be accelerated. Not only does the concrete composite alternative has the lowest projected cost for the favored solid rib alternatives, the blend of concrete and steel design detail provides greater flexibility to design for cost efficiency. The composite distributes construction risks in terms of costs, quality control and schedule. Concrete casting is completed in a confined form, and runs in parallel with steel fabrication. The steel superstructure reduces the risk of delays and eliminates many quality control issues inherent with a castin-place concrete superstructure in the open environ over the gorge. The composite structure utilizes concrete where it is most efficient and steel where it is most efficient. The composite structure allows progress to occur in parallel on site during arch erection and in the shop
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Rockwool (India) Ltd
Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd
concrete placement for the arch was MX 32/36Z and MX 36/38Z placing booms and BSA 2107 HP-E and BSA 2109 H-E trailer pumps. For construction of the twin arches, one trailer pump was positioned near the base of the Nevada arches and one on top of the arch footing in Arizona. A placing boom was also positioned on each the Nevada and Arizona side of the twin arches. The separate placing booms and their pedestals were flown via crane to each of the twin arches for mounting on their specially-designed platforms. All of the concrete mixes used for the arch were advanced concrete mix designs using harsh aggregates. Liquid nitrogen was used extensively for precooling of the concrete in order to reduce the temperature the concrete reaches during curing. For the arches, a high-strength 10,000-psi concrete mix was used, and for the columns and pier caps a high-strength 6,000-psi mix was used. In order to avoid the intense heat and avoid traffic congestion, most of the concrete placements occurred at night. About 8199 cubic yards of 10,000-psi concrete in the arches, 8364 cubic yards of 6000-psi concrete in the pier columns and caps, 5484 cubic yards of 4500-psi concrete in the bridge deck, 6679 cubic yards of 4000-psi concrete in the footings and abutments and 2060 cubic yards of 3000-psi for the column infill. On April 1, 2011 the TYLI received the Grand Conceptor award, the competition's highest honor, at ACEC's 45th Annual Engineering Excellence Awards (EEA) Gala held in Washington, D.C. The EEA awards is known as the “Academy Awards” of the engineering industry, recognizing engineering firms for projects that demonstrate a high degree of innovation, technical complexity, achievement, and value. The Hoover Bypass Dam certainly deserves to be one of them.
the contractor's pre-cast yard set up in the outskirts of Boulder City, Nevada. Trucks carried column sections to the site as and when required for erection. High line cranes and conventional cranes were used to set them into place. The arch was closed in August of 2009 within an impressive 20mm tolerance at closure. Spandrel columns were erected using the high line crane. On both sides, the arches were concurrently built up in cast sections with the concrete being pumped directly from either side. Traveling formwork was used to maximize speed of construction. A sky cable was used to supply the workforce with reinforcement and other significant materials that could not be pumped. In view of the financial and schedule consequences, the Obayashi/PSM JV construction team decided to setup a portable batch plant incorporating a 5cubic-yard pan mixer onsite. While pan mixers are generally used in precast yards, they were suitable for this application as quality was priority over volume per hour. The proximity of the plant also made it easy to adjust flow rates during a pour. The team had to choose between delivery by buckets or a pumping system
for delivering concrete. The team chose a pumping system as the cableway hook would become a critical bottleneck if it was used for hauling buckets of concrete. However, the pumping system had its own challenges. The team had not only to work around the large aggregate size of the mix but also find the means to place in the restricted pour windows because of high temperatures, and delivering concrete to the pump. A typical arch segment pour took four to five hours. Consolidation of the concrete in the forms was a major concern. The geometry of the arch (many segments were poured at 45-degree angles) required the use of top surface forms for all pours. Pour windows were established in the forms not only for placement, but also to allow use of highcycle concrete vibrators. In addition, external vibrators were mounted under the bottom soffit form and along the side forms to ensure good consolidation. Concrete placement was critical and Putzmeister, the pump manufacturer helped their team determine how and where to mount the placing booms and position the trailer pumps for all portions of the project. The placing system they chose to maximize their
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Rockwool (India) Ltd
Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd
and the USGBC's LEED™
Continuarion from March 2011 Issue, Page No. 74
Part - 2
Materials and Resources and Modular Building LEED rewards projects for recognizing where materials come from, how they are used on site, whether or not they are salvaged during renovations, and how the residual waste stream is managed. Special recognition is given to using existing buildings, materials with recycled content and those that are mined, harvested, extracted and assembled within 500 miles of the construction site. Finally LEED rewards projects that use products grown using good stewardship practice, and are lightly processed or have low embodied energy. LEED wishes to confirm that There are no LEED certified products A product cannot give a LEED project points A product can contribute toward or comply with LEED credit requirements In LEED products fall into two categories:
Contribution Credits and Compliance Credits Contribution Credits require a calculation to determine what percentage of the project materials meets the requirement set forth by the LEED rating system that the project team is applying for certification. Compliance Credits require all related materials to meet a certain requirement set forth by the standard. All products related to the credit must all pass the standard. These credits are pass or fail. The Prerequisite and LEED Credit opportunities in the Materials and Resources section are: MR Prerequisite 1 Storage and Collection of Recyclables The project team must illustrate how glass, aluminum, paper, corrugated cardboard, and plastic are collected, stored and then removed from the project site whether or not a municipal waste collection program is in place. This is typically the responsibility of the design team.
MR Credit 1.1 Building Reuse, Maintain 75% of Existing Walls Floors and Roof MR Credit 1.2 Building Reuse, Maintain 95% of Existing Walls Floors and Roof MR Credit 1.3 Building Reuse, Maintain 50% of Interior Non Structural Elements These credits only apply to LEED projects that involve existing buildings that may be a modular building or involves adding modular buildings or new construction that contains modular components to an existing building. In each case an inventory of the building(s) is conducted to calculate the percentage of each involved. These credits stay in play unless the new construction being added to the existing building (if any) exceeds the size of the existing building by two hundred percent, at which point these credits drop out and the existing building materials segue into MR Credits 2.1 and 2.2, Construction Waste Management.
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Modular Building: Rating
MR Credit 2.1 - Construction Waste Management, Divert 50% from Disposal MR Credit 2.2 - Construction Waste Management, Divert 75% from Disposal One of the significant economies associated with modular construction is the ability to manage construction waste. LEED rewards construction waste management at the construction site by being able to account for the materials, by weight or by volume, that are diverted from landfills. This includes all nonhazardous materials excluding cut and fill and organic material removed from the site. One direct benefit of reducing the overall waste stream is the simplification of construction waste management at the site and the attendant reduction in dumpster costs and hauling fees. In the case of modular building overall construction waste generated at the site can be reduced significantly. MR Credit 3.1 - Material Reuse, 5% MR Credit 3.1 - Material Reuse, 10% LEED rewards incorporating used building materials in new construction and major renovation. To date this practice is very limited in the manufacture of new modular building components or
modular units. However, it is quite possible that modular building practices could be used in LEED projects where other aspects of the overall construction could feature these materials. The percentages listed refer to the percentage of Divisions Two through Ten material costs of that are represented by reused materials. MR Credit 4.1 Recycled Content, 10% (post consumer + ½ pre consumer) MR Credit 4.2 Recycled Content, 20% (post consumer + ½ pre consumer) Modern modular building construction uses a full range of materials with high recycled content. These materials are recognized for there relatively high strength to weight ratios, moisture resistance and cost effectiveness. LEED recognizes the contribution of material manufactures that use both post consumer and pre consumer recycled content. MR Credit 5.1 - Regional Materials, 10% Extracted, Processed and Manufactured Regionally MR Credit 5.2 - Regional Materials, 20% Extracted, Processed and Manufactured Regionally These Credits recognize the economic and environmental benefits of building with materials that are found in
proximity to the construction site. The percentages listed refer to the portion of the total material cost less labor and transportation of materials in Divisions Two through Ten. In order to qualify for these points, the modular building manufacturer must then be able to identify what building products used in the construction of the component or modular building unit were extracted, processed, manufactured and purchased within that same 500 mile radius. MR Credit 6 - Rapidly Renewable Materials Rapidly renewable materials and products are those which are derived from raw materials that come to market in a ten year cycle or less. These are typically such materials as bamboo, Agrifiber, linoleum, cork, wool and cotton. LEED awards a point to LEED project teams that can identify and quantify that at least 2.5% of the cost of the materials in Division Two through Ten in the entire project is represented by materials that have these attributes. MR Credit 7 - Certified Wood Certified wood is that which comes from sources certified by the Forest Stewardship Council's Principles and Criteria. These include but are not limited to structural framing, sub-flooring, wood doors and finishes. In order to qualify for this
MARKETS CURRENTLY SERVED BY COMMERCIAL MODULAR CONSTRUCTION Manufacturers: Major Markets Served
Kiosks, guardhouses, and Communication shelters 4% Healthcare 5% Military, emergency and government 10% Industrial or Workforce housing 2% Healthcare 4% Military, emergency and government 8%
Dealers: Major Markets Served
Kiosks, guardhouses, and Communication Industrial or Workforce housing 3% shelters 4% General Office (includes construction site) 35%
Retail, restaurant and Commercial 10 %
General Office (includes construction site) 46%
Commercial, retail, restaurant and convenience stores 23 %
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Modular Building: Rating
rooms and other core learning spaces must achieve an RC (N) Mark II level of 37 with HVAC equipment and installations as defined in the 2003 HVAC Applications ASHRAE Handbook, Chapter 47. Modular building units can be optimized to meet these criteria as they are seldom fabricated of heavy masonry construction or massive materials that reflect sound. The strategy for meeting this Prerequisite and the associated EQ Credit 9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance can be formed around materials and construction techniques commonly used in the modular building industry. EQ Credit 1: Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring This Credit is intended to insure occupant comfort by monitoring the amount of air mechanically delivered to spaces with a density of 5 people per 1000 square feet or less, keeping it within 10% of designed air flow rates. 15% must be maintained in spaces that are not defined as high density. Spaces that are naturally ventilated must have CO sensors in each space located between three and six feet above the floor. Modular building manufactures must confirm these rates are achievable and install the proper sensors and associated limit indicators to inform building operators and occupants when design conditions are not being met. EQ Credit 2: Increased Ventilation LEED rewards project teams for providing a minimum of 30% additional ventilation air to the regularly occupied areas of the building. The benefit is additional fresh air and increased assurance that any residual pollutants will be removed with additional ventilation and, hopefully, effective filtration. This credit can be applied to modular construction the application of which must be modeled in EA Credit 1: Optimum Energy Performance. EQ Credit 3.1 Construction IAQ Management Plan During Construction Obtaining this Credit requires understanding the Credit intent with respect to
Credit and the point, the modular building supplier should be able to identify and quantify that 50% of the value of the wood based products in the completed project that are permanently affixed are FSC certified. If the FSC certified source is within 5oo miles of the construction site credit can be taken for MR Credit 5.1Regional Materials. Indoor Environmental Quality and Modular Building Next to overall energy efficiency, effective daylighting and natural ventilation, superior indoor environmental quality is one of the most desirable and important attributes of high performance green buildings. The following is a discussion of modular building as it relates to the LEED Indoor Environmental Quality category. EQ Prerequisite 1: Minimum IAQ Performance This prerequisite is based on ASHRAE 6 .1- 2007, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality with separate consideration of paragraph 5.1 for buildings that are naturally ventilated. Generally ASHRAE 6 determines the amount of ventilation air required as well as standards for the quality of ventilation air and how it is best distributed.
EQ Prerequisite 2: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control The Prerequisite to eliminate or strictly control environmental tobacco smoke is applicable to all building types. The LEED reference guide gives specific requirements for the design, construction, commissioning and control of smoking areas inside LEED certified buildings if they are to be included. EQ Prerequisite 3: Minimal Acoustical Performance (LEED for Schools only) LEED for Schools contains this prerequisite which is intended to provide minimum acoustic performance in core learning spaces in academic buildings. Attaining the credit is based on designing classrooms and other learning spaces to meet the Reverberation Time (RT) requirements of ANSI standard S12.60-2002, Acoustical Performance Criteria, Design Requirements and Guidelines for Schools. Also, classrooms and other core learning spaces must meet Sound Transmission Class (STC) requirements except for windows which must meet an STC rating of at least 35. In addition a background noise level of 45 dBA must be met using the methodologies described in annexes B through D of ANSI Standard S1 .60- 00 . Or, class-
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Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equip.Pvt.Ltd
Modular Building: Rating
are governed by organizations that set maximum allowable limits for VOCs in the products eligible for credit consideration. In essence LEED project teams are challenged to use only benign products with low or zero VOC content. The modular building industry has two unique situations that impact achieving LEED points for these credits. The first is by assembling modular building components and units in controlled environments it is possible to critically meter and effectively apply only the amount of material necessary. Material off gassing and airborne overspray can be controlled. The second is technically these credits only consider materials applied on site. As in all credit categories only the finished LEED project is considered. If none of the materials evaluated in EQ Credits 4.1 4.4: Low Emitting Materials are applied on site then the Credits and associated points are not available. Conversely, if even small amounts of the subject materials are applied in the field, perhaps in touching up or final installation, then the entire application of the material in question must be evaluated. EQ Credit 5: Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control This Credit recognizes the importance of keeping finished buildings clean and uncontaminated during their service life. To obtain this credit and the associated point the following features and products must be in place: 1. Walk off grates or removable mats in the main entrances 2. Code based solutions to properly venting hazardous gases out of the building 3. The inclusion of Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV) 13 filters in the permanent HVAC system(s) EQ Credit 6.1: Controllability of Systems Lighting This credit requires individual lighting controls for 90% (minimum) of the building occupants and lighting system con-
modular building manufacturing environments and conditions. The criteria for maintaining acceptable IAQ during construction are based on the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings Under Construction, 1995, Chapter 3. In modular building manufacturing plants the conditions are often ambient, reducing the need for supplemental space conditioning during construction. EQ Credit 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan Before Occupancy LEED rewards project teams that build with allergy free non toxic material and building practices as defined in EQ Credits 4.1 through 4.6 described below. As an extra precaution EQ Credit 3.2 Construction IAQ Management Plan Before Occupancy is available to insure that any residual indoor air pollutants are removed. This is done by either flushing out the completed building or measuring the same using IAQ testing procedures focused on the following: 1. Formaldehyde (HCHO) not to exceed 50 parts per billion 2. Particulates not to exceed 50 microns per cubic meter 3. Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) not to exceed 500 micro-
grams per cubic meter 4. Carbon Monoxide (CO) at 9 parts per billion and no greater than parts per million above outdoor levels 5. 4-phenylcyclohexane (4-PCH) not to exceed 6.5 micrograms per cubic meter EQ Credit 4: Low Emitting Materials In LEED 2009 the following four Low Emitting Materials Credits are contained in this Credit grouping in LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations: EQ Credit 4.1: Low Emitting Materials Adhesives and Sealants EQ Credit 4.2: Low Emitting Materials Paints and Coatings EQ Credit 4.3: Low Emitting Materials Flooring Systems EQ Credit 4.4: Low Emitting Materials Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products In LEED for Schools these Credits are also available: EQ Credit 4: Option 3 Flooring Systems EQ Credit 4: Option 5 Furniture and Furnishings EQ Credit 4: Option 6 Ceiling and Wall Systems Each of the above material categories
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Modular Building: Rating
rior environment. This point is obtained by providing views to the exterior from 90% or more of the regularly occupied spaces. This is a matter of room configuration, or shape, and the strategic placement of vision glazing assumed to be between 2'-6” and 7'-6” above the floor. EQ Credit 9: Enhanced Acoustical Performance (LEED for Schools only) EQ Credit 9 builds on the foundation of EQ Prerequisite 3 Minimum Acoustical Performance and rewards a point to LEED project teams that can achieve a higher level of acoustic performance in primary learning spaces. Essentially, teams must follow the design goals and criteria set forth in ANSI Standard S12.60 2002 to achieve more stringent acoustic performance goals than those associated with the Prerequisite. It must be noted that windows with a minimum STC rating of 35 may be required in the modular unit or incorporate acoustic ceiling tile or other sound attenuating material for the overall unit to qualify. EQ Credit 10: Mold Prevention (LEED for Schools only) Modular buildings used for classrooms and other similar purposes will continue to be the subject of reviews regarding IAQ issues in general and mold in particular. LEED rewards finished building projects that address Mold prevention by doing the following: 1. Earning EQ Credits 3.1: Construction IAQ Management Plan During Construction, EQ 7.1: Thermal Comfort Design, and EQ Credit 7.2: Thermal Comfort Verification 2. Provide HVAC Systems and controls designed to limit space relative humidity to 60% 3. Develop and implement on an ongoing basis an ISAQ management program for buildings based on the EPA's “Building Air Quality: A guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers”, EPA Reference Number 40 .F-91102 , December, 1991.
trols for all shared multi-occupant spaces. Modular building manufacturers simply need to be aware of the lighting system design requirements and be sure they are incorporated into the finished project. EQ Credit 6.2: Controllability of Systems Thermal Comfort Thermal comfort system control, for the purpose of this credit, is defined as the provision of control over at least one aspect of thermal comfort air temperature, radiant temperature, air speed and humidity. The influence of these variables and acceptable strategies for controlling each are set forth in ASHRAE 55004. To obtain this credit at least 50% of building occupants must have access to comfort controls and be able to control at least one of the variables. All shared occupancy spaces must have accessible controls. This consideration also extends to operable windows if the parameters set forth in ASHRAE 6 .1 007, paragraph 5.1 are met. EQ Credit 7.1: Thermal Comfort Design The point for this credit is attained if the LEED project team can illustrate the building envelope and space conditioning systems can meet the comfort standards set forth in ASHRAE 55- 004. The comfort parameters temperature, humidity, radiant comfort and air velocity - are the same as those in EQ Credit 6.2.
EQ Credit 7.2: Thermal Comfort Verification Project teams can obtain this credit and point by agreeing to conduct an anonymous survey six to eighteen months after occupancy to determine whether the comfort goals of the project have been met. It is typically conducted by the Owner or the Owner's agent. EQ Credit 8.1: Daylight and Views Daylight 75% of the Spaces Effective daylighting is one of the signature characteristics of high performance green buildings. LEED rewards effective daylighting through its inclusion in the calculations for EA Credit 1: Optimum Energy Performance. This credit acknowledges the importance of daylight in reducing the dependence on electric lighting and its positive influence on the psychology of space. LEED permits three different calculation methodologies to determine whether a minimum daylighting contribution has been made to a sufficient number of spaces. In essence project teams must balance the relationship of properly selected and placed glazing, and provide effective shading and glare control to meet minimum daylighting requirements. EQ Credit 8.2: Daylight and Views Views for 90% of the Spaces LEED recognizes the importance of connecting building occupants with exte-
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011
Modular Building: Rating
Innovation and Design Process and LEED Perhaps the best feature of the LEED building rating system is the invitation to be innovative. In LEED 2009 The Innovation & Design Process includes five credit opportunities to score points in what are called ID Credit 1.1 through 1.5. These credits can be achieved by accomplishing exemplary performance in the pursuit of any credit that is eligible for that approach. In LEED Version 3 2009 those three ways are: 1. Exemplary performance. This means the project team has gone beyond the last increment of the credit's graduated requirements by the next full increment. 2. Repeat a previously awarded Innovation in Design Credit. 3. Be truly innovative. The LEED team using modular building components or modular units is encouraged to explore ways to achieve Innovation and Design process points both in the manufacturing facility and in the field. Lastly, LEED projects that involve LEED Accredited Professionals, LEED APs, are also eligible for a point in this category. The GBCI has implemented a two-tiered LEED 2009 exam structure.
Those who pass with the LEED AP Plus accreditation will be able to claim ID Credit LEED AP. Those holding a LEED AP Associate status will not be eligible for the ID Credit 2 LEED AP ID Point. New Category: Regional Priority The Regional Priority Credits category is new to LEED 2009. The category was introduced in response to the USGBC members who felt LEED should evolve toward something that could address local issues. The Regional Bonus Credit Category contains four possible Regional Specific Environmental Priority credits. A database of Regional Priority credits is available on the USGBC website www.usgbc.org. Each is indexed to the project location via zip code. Conclusions In conclusion, the evolution of LEED is a reflection of the paradigm shift undergoing in the green building movement in terms of innovation, creativity and market opportunities. The modular building industry should note the increased sophistication embedded in the evaluation of the credits and their associated point scores in LEED 2009. In order for the Modular Building Industry to capitalize on these trends a number of issues must be addressed. Among these are:
1. The ability to embrace change and recognize how the qualities and attributes in modular building can be used to gain market share. 2. The need to overcome the negative impressions many design professionals have regarding the limits to creativity and adaptability of modular building techniques by positively promoting the unique qualities and attributes of modular building, especially as they relate to green building. 3. Continue current practices and activities such as conferences and design competitions in a way that positively promotes the modular building industry. The ability to speak with a unified voice to the AIA, ASHRAE, BOMA, the US Green Building Council, the Collaborative for High Performance Schools, and the Association of School Board Officials is critical to promoting the interests of the Modular Building Industry. It is in the best interest of the members of the Modular Building Industry and the environment at large that we work together to promote energy, material and resource efficient buildings that are optimized for the health and productivity of building occupants and users.
182 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Design of Place Lalla Yeddouna
in Fez - Competition Winners Announced
ossessian & Partners and Yassir Khalil Studio were declared the winners of 'Design of Place Lalla Yeddouna in Fez', a two stage competition, launched with the support of the International Union of Architects. Mossessian & partners (London, United Kingdom) with Yassir Khalil Studio (Casablanca, Morocco) walked away with the first prize in the competition for the 'Rehabilitation of Place Lalla Yeddouna in the Median of Fez, Morocco. The location is a vibrant community hub and a central tourist point of the Medina. The competition was conducted by the Agency of Partnership for Progress (APP) with its implementing partner, the Agency for the Development and Rehabilitation of the city of Fez (ADER-Fes). The competition site was approx 7,400 sq m located in the Medina of Fez, which has been listed as a UNESCO
world heritage site since 1981. Place Lalla Yeddouna is a strategic location at the nucleus of this oldest part of Fez. The Medina is a mosaic of small-scale, modest, sand-colored houses, and its endless labyrinth of narrow streets, where we can find still preserved as a living museum, an antique mode of life, full of history and shrouded in mystery. The Place of Lalla Yeddouna is expected to be a vibrant mixed-use urban hub for the community as well as visitors to the Medina in the future. The site is expected to be a major catalyst for artisan development, with exclusive space available for educational p ro g ra m s , re s i d e n c e s , a r t i s a n workshops, retail outlets, cafes, and other services. The competition task comprised of urban design for the Place Lalla Yeddouna, the preservation of historic buildings, as well as design of new buildings. Close to 1,400 architects registered in the competition and 175
projects were submitted to the jury at the end of the first stage. Among them eight projects which showed the greatest development potential were selected for the second phase. While Michel Mossessian with Yasir Khalil were the first prize winners, Laura Valeria Ferretti, Maurizio Marcelloni and Valeria Botti (Rome, Italy) with Bahia Nouh (Fez, Morocco) got the second prize and Moxon Architects, Benn Addy ( London, United Kingdom) with Aime Kakon (Casablanca, Morocco) got the third prize. The international jury comprised of eminent personalities representing architects including Marc Angelil, Switzerland-USA, Meisa Batayneh Maani, Jordan, Stefano Bianca, Switzerland, David Chipperfield, United Kingdom, Omar Farkhani, Morocco, Rodolfo Machado, USAArgentina and Matthias Sauerbruch, Germany. Bruno Sauer, Spain, and Mohamed Habib Begdouri Achkari of Morocco sat as deputy jurors.
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 183
One Day Flooring
Subash Cipy, Managing Director, Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt. Ltd
he word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed), the perfect passive participle of "concresco", from "com-" (together) and "cresco" (to grow). Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a robust stone-like material. Concrete has been used for construction in various ancient civilizations. An analysis of ancient Egyptian pyramids has shown that concrete may have been employed in their construction centuries ago. Also during the Roman empire, Roman concrete (or opus caementicium) was made from quicklime, pozzolana, and an aggregate of pumice. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as the modern Portland-cement concrete (20 N/mm2).
However, due to the absence of steel reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than the present concrete. Like today, concrete additives have also been used since Roman and Egyptian times, when it was discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set under water. Similarly, the Romans knew that adding horse hair (polypropylene fibres,today)made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened, and adding blood made it more frost-resistant. In 1756, a British engineer, John Smeaton made the first modern concrete (hydraulic cement) by adding pebbles as coarse aggregate and mixing powered brick into the cement. In 1824, an English mason, Joseph Aspdin invented the first true artificial cement by burning ground limestone and clay together and patented as Portland cement, which was named because of its similarity in colour to Portland limestone, quarried from the English Isle of Portland.
Concrete that includes imbedded steel is called reinforced concrete, which was invented by Joseph Monier, a Parisian gardener who made garden pots and tubs of concrete reinforced with an iron mesh. Reinforced concrete combines the tensile or bendable strength of metal and the compressive strength of concrete to withstand heavy loads. Today reinforced concrete is used more than any other man-made materials in the world and more than 10 cubic kilometres of concrete are made every yearmore than one cubic metre for every person on Earth. Like concrete structures we see everywhere in the world, concrete floors are all also incredible investments that are meant to last for decades under tough working conditions. Concrete floors create dust with fork lift traffic or even human traffic because of its rather poor tensile and flexural strengths, which we call as concrete
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dusting. This dust can be harmful to today's computerized equipments and may aggravate health conditions of the people and more over, it settles down on the finished goods. Concrete dust is concluded to be the major source of dangerous air pollution and in order to get rid of this undesirable concrete dusting, the surfaces need to be sealed or coated. The natural porosity of even wellcured high-strength concrete allows the absorption of liquids and adhesion of stains and dust, creating an unsightly appearance. Uncoated concrete also presents great difficulties for cleaning and maintenance, as its porous nature makes the complete removal of spills and stains from the substrate, practically impossible. The concrete deficiencies like dusting and the porous capillaries are overcome by sealing the porous surface and filling the profile of the concrete floor, thus creating a smooth, easily cleaned and maintained floor. The untreated or uncoated concrete generally has a low light reflectance value, absorbing light energy and emitting little and the application of a smooth, light-coloured floor coating increases the light reflectance value of the floor and increases lighting efficiency and improving visibility, creating a brighter, safer working environment. Clean, shiny floors have a dramatic impact on employee morale, customer confidence, and are more enjoyable to work on than the dull, dirty, bare concrete floors. There are many different kinds of concrete sealers, densifiers and coatings in the market place today, all with specific advantages and disadvantages. Sealers are generally classified as a thin coating which is of 5-10 microns in thickness and designed to inhibit absorption of liquids into the concrete. Acrylic sealers are the most common type of sealers that are very economical and easy to install. Hardeners or densifiers are classified as products that penetrate into the concrete to create a more watertight
surface and strengthen the concrete. Concrete hardeners are usually sodium silicate, potassium silicate, metallic fluorosilicates and Lithium silicate, being the latest entrant in this segment. The densifier reacts with the free lime available in the concrete and gets crystallized in the pores. Over the time, these floors develop a very attractive gloss and are excellent for warehouse areas where cost is the first priority but appearance is also important. A new method emerging in the industry is the polished concrete where the concrete substrate is ground and polished to expose the aggregates, thus giving a terrazzo look. Coatings impart more dry film thickness than sealers and deposit a thick film on the concrete that is hard, chemical and abrasion resistant. The coating thickness varies from 50 microns to a few mm thicknesses. Although there are a myriad of technologies employed in the floor coatings, the most traditional and widely available products include acrylic, MMA, epoxy, polyurethane, vinyl ester, polyurea and the most latest of all, polyaspartic coatings . Acrylic co-polymers based waterborne coatings have excellent water, weather and UV resistance, but having lesser mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and adhesion. MMAs are fast curing acrylic coatings e in
that are resistant to weak acids and alkalis, but have moderate resistance to solvents. Fast curing is the big advantage of MMAs, especially at low temperatures. At room temperature MMA has a working time of 10 to 15 minutes and reaches a full cure in 1 to 2 hours. Vinyl esters are a type or subset of polyester resin, in which the prepolymers are formed by reaction of epoxy resin with acrylic of methacrylic acid. Vinyl ester resins provide the best performance in chemical / corrosion resistance among all other coatings available today. Epoxies are the industry's workhorse floorings in India today. 99 % of the floor coating companies provide epoxies, as the epoxy flooring technology is provided by the resin manufacturers and thus there is a mushroom of epoxy formulators in the market. The standard formulation is based on Bisphenol A type resin, reactive diluent, defoamers and other additives with cyclo-aliphatic amine as the curing agent. Many of the formulators do not think beyond this standard chemistry. Epoxy polymer has an open molecular structure and hence higher amount of filler loadings is possible than any other polymer, thus filler-rich varieties are flooded in the market. Epoxy-urethane coatings have made a big impact in the Indian flooring industry, where hybrid polymer technology is employed. These products are either called urethane modified epoxies, EPU or EPPU where epoxy polymers are modified by incorporating urethane linkages to provide elongation in addition to the normal properties. Water borne epoxies are used as self levelling floorings as well as thin-micron coatings. Breathable self levelling compositions are formulated with these types of emulsified resins and hardeners, imparting a matt finish. Novalac epoxy is fast curing and offers excellent protection to strong alkalis, acids, and solvents. Novalacs have a higher cross-linked density than conventional epoxies which
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makes them more rigid and chemical resistant, and allows them to withstand higher service temperatures. desirable properties, including fast cure times, high a b ra s i o n re s i s t a n c e , f l ex i b i l i t y, toughness, and good chemical resistance. Urethanes perform best when placed on dry concrete as moisture inhibits the cure of two-component systems and can cause blistering because of its undesirable reaction with water, ge n e rat i n g ca r b o n d i ox i d e ga s . Polyurethanes, both aromatic (yellowing) and aliphatic (non-yellowing) are used as thin coatings as well as self levellings. The moisture cured urethanes are single components and dry through reaction with the moisture or humidity in the air, forming polyurea linkages. They perform exceptionally well because of their remarkable properties such as abrasion resistance, flexibility, toughness and chemical resistance. “Odorless” urethanes have come about as a result of the restrictions on solvent use in manufacturing facilities and are based on polyurethane dispersions, one component and more recently two component where the -OH groups of PUD are reacted with hydrophillic isocyanates. Urethane mortars combine cement with water based urethane technology to produce a mortar product exhibiting properties of both. Designed to exhibit a high cross-linked density, urethaneconcrete systems are non-toxic, nonhazardous, highly chemical resistant, thermal shock resistant and are the most preferred systems for the most demanding applications. This has the similar modulus of elasticity to that of concrete, which eliminates differential flexing that is prevalent with most other resins. Polyurea is a subset of polyurethane when isocyanates are made to react with amines to form fast setting polyurea linkages. They have tremendous advantages over other flooring systems due to their rapid cure (usually in less than a few seconds). Higher elongation (>300%), abrasion resistance (<10mg loss
can be applied at nearly any temperature, bonds easily to nearly any concrete surface, cures to full strength within half an hour, is flexible enough to bridge small cracks, can withstand high temperatures when cured, has superior stain and UV resistance and impart bubble-free, high gloss films.The tremendous advantage of polyaspartic is its fast cure time which means that there is virtually no down time and reduces the number of trips to and from the job site. When comparing polyaspartics to epoxies, polyaspartic coatings are far superior. Polyasartics have almost three times the abrasion resistance of epoxies, they are more flexible, have better adhesion properties, and are UV stable. When comparing polyaspartics to urethanes, polyaspartics have the advantage in high build properties, they are not as sensitive to moisture as urethanes and are far less likely to bubble and impar a high glossy like epoxies. Polyaspartic coatings replace can replace the two component system of applying an epoxy base coat and a urethane top coat with a one coat system which is both faster to apply a provides a superior product over any concrete flooring or concrete overlay surface. So we have a myriad of coatings to choose from. All have advantages and disadvantages and so the perception and expectations of the customer are of paramount interest in selecting the right product for the right application. Let us review the coatings one by one. Acrylic sealers do not offer long term protection. Liquid floor hardeners or densifiers will definitely give sheen over a period of time, but at the same time the closed pores of the concrete will get opened up due to traffic impacts and the oils and chemicals will start penetrating into the floor, posing grave risks. Dry shake floor hardeners, metallic and non-metallic, offer just temporary protection offered normally by the civil contractors which later creates big head aches to polymeric overlays. MMA and Vinyl ester are very fast curing having very good mechanical
in a Taber abrasor test), excellent shear strength (>50N/mm) are some of its pertinent properties. Rapid setting polyurea, and more over, due to its extremely fast cure, sophisticated plural component spray equipment is needed for application and hence the need for a coating having the properties of polyurea which can be applied by conventional methods has arisen and hence the birth of a third generation (3G) coating, called Polyaspartics. Polyaspartic polyurea (or simply polyaspartics) overcomes many of those difficulties, while retaining the advantages by combining the best properties of polyurea and aliphatic urethanes. Polyaspartic is a type of polyurea (actually a polyaspartic aliphatic polyurea) where the NCO terminated prepolymer is reacted with secondary or hindered aliphatic diamines, resulting in polyurea linkages, but giving ample time (20-30 minutes) for application by conventional methods like brushing or rolling. Polyaspartics generally have very low viscosity, equivalent to water, which gives it outstanding wetting ability to apply a high build in one coat, UV stability, and excellent chemical and abrasion resistance thus providing some of the best properties of epoxy resins and urethane resin technology. This material
186 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
SEC-RJMT Engineering Pvt.Ltd
distinct polymer groups, one will now be able to install a full coating system comprising of primer, screed and top coat within a day with the obvious performance benefits of the fast cure times, improved abrasion and chemical resistance, high flexibility, UV stability, and terrific gloss retention. That is the brand new concept in the flooring industry today : 1day flooring. Today, the facility owners do not have sufficient time to allot to the flooring contractors because of the fear of the slow return to service, which ends up in production losses and so are wary of the contemperory floorings which take a minimum 3 days to return the coated floors back into service. They are all looking towards an effective flooring solution which has the least time consumption. 1 day floors are the answer to their prayers : Install the floor today, use it next day. 1 day floors are the 3G floorings employing multi-polymer networks to achieve amazing floor coating results with minimal down time. A modified epoxy prime coat, polyurethane screed and a polyaspartic top coat form the three key ingredients of this wonder 1 day flooring. After proper surface preparation, the fast curing epoxy primer is applied and within 30 minutes, the ultra fast polyurethane screed is laid with a thickness ranging from 1-6 mm. The screed is allowed to cure for 6 hours over which the rapid setting Polyaspartic self levelling is laid. The whole system is returned to service within 6 hours and the total installation and usage time is within 24 hours. A site handed over to the applicator in the evening hours can be installed and returned back to the facility owner next day morning, thus saving valuable process hours, which means that there is virtually no down time. Traditionally, either epoxies or urethanes or a combination of both have been the sealer of choice for most commercial or industrial applications. The unique and adjustable reactivity
properties, but do not offer good aesthetics. Moreover, they give away obnoxious order while application. Epoxies are better in aesthetics, but poor in properties, especially the very low % elongation (<3%) and they take a very long time to cure and the return to service takes more than 3 days. Urethanes are fast curing, have all the desirable properties needed, but are not good self leveling and are very sensitive to moisture. Polyurea, due to its rapid curing, has a tendency to follow the contours of the surface to which it is applied without leveling or filling in depressions or ridges, thus giving a textured look. Polyaspartics overcome all these deficiencies. It is rapid setting, but has enough pot life to do application by brush/roller/trowel comfortably, return to service within a few hours, aesthetic looking like self leveling epoxy, but the price is the major discerning factor. The entire focus of the floor coating industry today is to provide the customers and contractors with a user friendly, dependable multi component, multipolymer coating system that they can install with consistency and speed. Concrete floors are notorious for cracks and joints. This presents a unique
problem to rigid polymer floor systems when continued movement either from thermal factors or load transfer factors cause reflective cracking in the polymer floor systems. These cracks are then subject to increased wear from mechanical traffic and serve as a collection point for liquids, dirt and debris leading to undercutting and progressive damage to the flooring system.several factors are important in determining the proper design. Among those factors are floor thickness, joint design, and termination details. Although polyurea elastomeric characteristics are capable of bridging 1/8” movement at cracks, construction joints and contraction joints, there are often isolation and expansion joints in concrete slabs that are capable of movement far in excess of 1/8”. A professional engineer should design isolation and expansion joint treatment. Recoat windows are a concern when applying multiple coats. As would be expected for rapid curing products the recoat window will be relatively short and dependent on time, temperature, humidity, and formulation. Employing various polymer technologies and combining three
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good where you need immediate vehicular and equipment back in service times in 24 hours. Typical applications for UltraFast-PS are garages (where you can't leave personal posessions outside overnight), commercial kitchens, etc. UltraFast is UV stable for outdoor use and can be used outdoors and can be applied down to 45-50 degrees. Deco On the other hand, the elastomeric properties of high tensile elongation and high tensile strength of polyurea provide a system capable of bridging contraction joints, construction joints and shrinkage cracks in concrete slabs up to 1/8”. These features coupled with high abrasion and impact resistance of polyurea, make for a tough floor system. This provides the added benefit of reduced maintenance and a smoother transition for wheeled traffic. of the polyaspartic esters allows for the design of fast-curing coatings tailored to the needs of the application. The fast curing feature of these coatings can provide significant, money-saving productivity improvements, along with high-build, low-temperature curing, and abrasion and corrosion resistance. Aesthetics of flooring systems are usually an important factor to consider in designing a polymer system. There is one key feature of polyurea that defines the essence of the benefits derived from this technology. For almost every benefit we can think of, there is a polymer flooring technology that can provide similar benefits. However, none can provide the rapid return to service that is provided with polyurea. Once it has been established that a polyurea floor system has been chosen, Typical ranges are 1-16 hours. Alwa Polyurea is relatively new to the polymer flooring business and the polymer flooring business is relatively new to the construction industry. Advances in polyurea formulations have led to advances in application equipment technology. Jointly, these advances have helped By following existing industry guidelines that define the “Design, Installation, and Maintenance of Protective Polymer Flooring Systems for Concrete”8, the success of polyurea flooring systems can be assured. Concrete floors are an incredible investment that's meant to last for decades under tough working conditions. Even these durable designs, however are subject to staining, cracking and disfiguration over time. From polished concrete to polyaspartic. Choosing a coating or treatment, you are making a conscious decision to protect your flooring: a decision that will improve the aesthetics and value for the money. Concrete stains, concrete sealers, polished concrete, liquid hardeners, dry shake This is a special polyurea / polyaspartic system in which both layers cure quickly (Same day dry time). UltraFast-PS is a 2-layer system and midpriced in the $3.00 per square foot range. The first layer, the 'epoxy' goes down and cures in 1-2 hours, and the protective topcoat cures in 2-3 hours. This system mixes and applies like traditional epoxies, but has very short working times and is There is one key feature of polyurea that defines the essence of the benefits derived from this technology. For almost every benefit we can think of, there is a polymer flooring technology that can provide similar benefits. However, none can provide the rapid return to service that is provided with polyurea. The time has come now to shed off redundant formulae and embrace newer technologies that can rapidly decrease the return to service time required for polymer floor system installations. In summary, the one day floors have all the key features for a perfect floor coating system. It doesn't blush in winter, unlike epoxies. It doesn't react with moisture, unlike polyurethanes. It doesn't cure in seconds, unlike polyureas. It doesn't yellow, unlike epoxies and aromatic urethanes. It doesn't smell, unlike MMAs and Vinyl esters. But it is like epoxies in looks and aesthetics. It is like polyurethanes in abrasion resistance and crack bridging properties. It is rapid setting and quick return to service like polyureas and is affordable to the facility owners. And it is green, with no VOCs which comes handy while working indoors.
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Face to Face
he Supreme Industries Ltd., founded in 1942, has been in the forefront when it comes to the introduction of many path-breaking products in the country. The company has become a trendsetter in plastic products by introducing many advanced solutions for various different applications and industries. Speaking exclusively to The Masterbuilder, Mr.Ajay Mohta, General Manager, Construction Accessories Division, of the company, gave an overview about the company's flagship product, DURAmembrane and its applications in the industry. Here are the excerpts from the interview. Could you please give us an overview of your company? Founded in 1942, Supreme Industries is the leading and largest plastics processor in the country offering the widest and the most comprehensive range of plastic products. Supreme is an acknowledged leader in India's plastic industry, handling over 130,000 tonnes of polymers annually and the group turnover in excess of Rs 3500 crores. Supreme has 17 state-of-the-art manufacturing units strategically located across India. Each of these plants has world class amenities, ISO 9001: 2000 Certification and features a large production capacity. The Company is powered by technology from world leaders that complement the extensive facilities for R&D and new product development. It is backed by dynamic and resourceful marketing
“DURAmembrane is a versatile material”
Mr. Ajay Mohta, General Manager
Construction Accessories Division, The Supreme Industries Ltd.
team and committed top management to ensure customer satisfaction and continuous growth. With a business p h i l o s o p hy o f a c h i ev i n g to ta l commitment in quality and service, we are serving the major growth impulses of the Indian economy. Our product portfolio includes: Moulded furniture Cross laminated films Plastic piping systems Protective packaging products Material handling products Industrial moulded products Performance films Tell us about the Protective Packaging Division of Supreme. The Protective Packaging Division (PPD) offers a large basket of products manufactured in-house. However, we are willing to import material from international sources, wherever necessary. With 3 manufacturing plants and 8 converting facilities spread countrywide, the Division is ideally placed to provide a complete range of solutions. These units are equipped with high-tech fabrication equipments. We have offices in all the metros with distribution network all over India backed by a complete team of techno commercial professionals. A powerful synergy of men, material and machines, backed by unrivalled experience and expertise, and a huge infrastructure that encompasses production, warehousing and logistics facilities, enables the Division to render
professional services of the highest order. We have vast experience of six decades, serving diverse industries and a track record of successfully partnering blue chip Indian and international clients. Do you also offer solutions for insulation? Yes. The Insulation Division (INSU) of PPD offers superior insulation products specifically for the insulation requirements of various industries, with the sole purpose of improving the energy efficiency, and thereby helping in conserving energy. Give us an overview of The Construction Accessories Division and DURA range of civil products from Supreme. We, at supreme, work continuously and diligently to understand your needs of having cost effective and efficient products for the construction industry. Supreme Industries always strives to give you products that are best suited to your needs. With these values and aspiration to give you products that are durable, we present our 'DURA range of civil products'. What are the product offerings of the Construction Accessories Division and their applications? The Construction Accessories Division of Supreme has developed customised solutions specifically for the construction requirements of
190 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Face to Face
various industries. We offer better alternatives to conventional sold materials including metals, wood etc., thus being cost effective. Many of these products have been pioneered by Supreme. A few of our DURA range products are: DURAboardHD100 (Formerly SILFLEX): A cross-linked, pre-moulded, high performance joint filler board for structural expansion joints in concrete brick and block work. DURArods (Formerly SIL SEAL): Expanded polyethylene foam rods. DURAvapourbarrier (Formerly SIL VAPOUR BARRIER): A high performance, multilayer microcell PE film for water vapour barrier application. Are these products environmentfriendly? We manufacture products in the most environment-friendly manner and constantly adapt our range of products to the current challenges and recommend you the best solution always. We do not use any CFC / HCFC
gases. All our products help in reducing consumption of available resources thus helping the environmental cause. Name some of the top projects you have been associated with since last year? We have been associated with several such projects. For e.g., NHAI, Airports, Power and many more infrastructural projects in India. Are you planning to offer any new products soon? Supreme has always been offering cost effective yet resilient solutions to construction industry. All our products have been developed after continuous interaction with our customers, market analysis and understanding thoroughly the needs and changing demands of the new generation structures. We are now introducing DURAmembrane A high performance waterproofing membrane. Tell us more about DURAmembrane. Since past few years, there was a continuous demand from all our satisfied customers to develop
waterproofing solutions to solve the leakage problems in their factories and offices. They were not very pleased with the current waterproofing systems available in the market. Hence about one year back, our R&D team started working full-fledged on this project to develop a composite of various polymers cross linked and fused resulting in this exclusive high performance membrane. DURAmembrane is a new offering in the portfolio of competent and durable p ro d u c t s o f t h e C o n st r u c t i o n Accessories Division. DURAmembrane is a new generation, cost effective solution for waterproofing of basements and roofs. It is a versatile material, capable of retaining the dryness of concrete, masonry, metal and wood structures and is resistant to salts, alkalis, and most acids. It is offered as a quick and easy-to-apply system, ensuring hassle-free maximum productivity. Supreme is the only manufacturer of this type of water proofing membrane in India. It can be used for applications like - concrete roof waterproofing , basement waterproofing, and also water proofing of bathrooms & terrace gardens.
DURamembrane application on concrete terrace
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Face to Face
DURAmembrane can not only be used in new constructions but also at the time of repair of a structure. What makes this product different from the bitumen based membranes available in the market? DURAmembrane is a high performance, composite polymeric membrane which is durable and lightweight. It is non-deteriorating, puncture resistant and is available in length up-to 50 meters.Talking about evaluation against bitumen based products we all know that bitumen disintegrates after contact with water. Further, over a period it catches fungi and also starts melting during summer, thus lowering its puncture resistant strength. The striking feature of DURAmembrane is that it has a very good puncture resistance of 199 N (Test method - ASTM E154: 1999) and being polymer based, it won't deteriorate also over a long period. Is DURAmembrane cost effective in comparison with other polymer based membranes and waterproofing chemicals? Ve r y m u c h . N o n e o f t h e waterproofing solution systems provide any added advantage except waterproofing whereas DURAmembrane apart from being 100% waterproof is also an excellent insulating material. Any roof treatment has to contend with the unrelenting assault of surface expansion and contraction due to daily / seasonal temperature changes. Other treatments have a tendency to absorb moisture and conduct heat. DURAmembrane does not absorb water at all. Its 'K' value does not deteriorate. Its inherent closed cell
structure ensures truly effective thermal insulation and waterproofing virtually for a life time. Will DURAmembrane stand up to the test against the extreme climatic conditions in India? Is it stable and resistant to wear and tear? Climate of India is most unreliable. India being a tropical country has diversity in climates. Some regions in India have hot tropical weather while some parts have heavy monsoons. When the ambient temperature varies between 0 to 50°C, the overlying treatment is called upon to withstand a corresponding variation of 1 to 65°C. DURAmembrane meets these challenge with complete and effortless ease and can withstand temperature ranging from 40 to 115°C. Roof treatments have to withstand more than just surface expansion and contraction. Like structural movements or the setting of the building with time. Sudden drops in temperature results into thermal shocks. DURAmembrane has excellent elongation and tensile strength that enables it to take all movements in its stride. It is fracture, crumble, shatter, and abrasion proof and resistant to most corrosive chemicals. How is the demand for water proofing membranes in India? Very high. With monsoons come problems like leakage, seepage in roofs, walls, basements, bathrooms etc. in buildings - commercial / residential and factories. After every shower of rain, structures tend to expose their limitations and flaws. The monsoon rains actually test the building with showers and reveals the defects that are not normally observed during sunny days. Leakage and seepage in roofs, walls, bathrooms, and basements are some of the typical
problems. Hence, to shield from the huge losses incurred due to the rains, people are determined to pay attention to the problems prior to the next rains. With the current focus on constructing green and sustainable buildings, what is your company's contribution in this area? We have accomplished very high standards in manufacturing, and we firmly believe in the protection of our environment. The Supreme Industries Ltd. follows the philosophy of S.A.V.E. Supreme Always Value Efficient. Applied intelligence and innovation, enabling cost-effectiveness and precision in delivery are the drivers of this belief. Every requirement is understood meticulously, various solutions are deliberated upon and the most appropriate one is selected and implemented flawlessly. Trust and reliability are the cornerstones of our delivery promise. Whatever be the value, whether its superior protection, energy saving insulation or durable and long-lasting solutions in the civil / thermal insulation industry our customers are assured of a solution from Supreme. Because at Supreme, every single solution we create is guaranteed to be Value Efficient. What is your vision for this product? This is a first of its kind of concrete roof and basement water proofing product, specially designed to withstand the hot and humid Indian conditions. Our membrane is going to solve problems and reduce huge losses arising out of water leakage. The entire construction industry will benefit from this product. For further enquiries please mail us at firstname.lastname@example.org or log on to our website: www.supreme.co.in
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MEET YOUR CONCRETE
DRY BLEND NEED
By Toshniwal Mixer
Mineral Admixture demands good mixing technology, it partly substitutes the OPC Cement and supply the cementicious concrete mix with cost effective building products.
oncrete is known for its workability, mouldability, viability and feasibility and it is used even for making thin elements like shells and folded plates achieving strength and stability through the inherent properties of the constituent materials and the form and shape of the structural member. However conventional concrete of ordinary Portland cement in different environmental conditions may not exhibit the required quality and durability and thus admixtures such as fly ash, silica fume and blast furnace slag are used to modify the concrete properties to make it more suitable for such aggressive environment. The great advantages in use of these admixtures are to improve the durability characteristics of concrete through the control of high thermal gradients, pore refinement, depletion of cement alkalies and the capability of continued long-term hydration by pozolanic reaction etc. Mineral Admixture in Concrete Mix The inclusion of mineral admixture in concrete blend process demand dry state of mixing. The complexity of dry blend is to handle the very lighter ingredients such as rice bran, silica fume and the other fly ash and Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), hence the concrete process demands a good mixing technology to pre blend the admixture homogeneously to include the same efficiently and to get good quality concrete mix. In many situation the demand of the building products are increasingly calling for lower costs in terms of material, energy, capital and faster completion of times of building projects. Hence the manufacturing OPC cements paved the way to seek alternative solution of blending fly ash, ground blast furnace slag in a customize proportion to meet ready mix concrete blend and supply the same with economic cost. Toshniwal Mixer The unique "Fluidized Zone" mixing action of the mixer which make all ingredients in a near weightless condition has enable the unit to handle lighter & heavier particles by way of nullifying the gravitational force in the fluidized zone allowing the irrespective of particle size / density / shape of the ingredients mix homogeneously in a perfect manner. Also these mixers had proven record for the building materials and construction care products like Building Material Dry Mortar Renders Wall Plasters Wall Putty (Dry) Floor Screeds Skim Coats Blended Cement Construction Care Integral Water Proofing Compound Grouts Flour Hardener Repairing Mortar Tile Joining Compound Thermal insulation products Fire Proof Cement Wall Paper Compounds
Toshniwal provides the customized blending requirement such as Pilot Scale Mixer Trials Production based product trials Contract blending operation, etc Further details from: M/S. Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt Ltd 267, Kilpauk Garden Road, Chennai - 600 010, India. Phone: 91-44-26445626 / 26448983 Email: email@example.com / Web: www.toshniwal.net
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Putzmeister Boom Pump to the Rescue
Putzmeister @ Fukushima Nuclear Plant
he recent tsunami and earthquake in Japan had left a trail of death and destruction in the country. Apart from the loss of lives, more disaster was awaiting, when news began to trickle in about the damage that has been done to some of the nuclear power plants in the country. This led to a dangerous situation as nuclear radiations could not only damage human life in Japan, but could also leak into sea water, reaching other parts of the world.
Among the damaged nuclear power plants, the worst affected was the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, which needed immediate attention. The nuclear power plants had to be cooled in order to contain the radiation. In order to stop the worst from happening, Japan requested Germany's help to supply machines that can help shut down the nuclear power plants. Germany in turn sent Putzmeister concrete machines to Japan for the rescue operations.
These Putzmeister concrete machines can pump concrete, as well as water, and therefore can be used to control nuclear reactors. The machines have excellent reach, apart from flexibility. The machines also are capable of very high pressures and pumping capability. Since they are run by the engine of the truck they are mounted on, another advantage with the machines is that they do not require any external source of energy.
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The concrete machines were loaded and taken to Japan in special wide-bodied 'Antonov' aircrafts. Among the Putzmeister machines sent to Japan, the most advanced is the Putzmeister M70, claimed to be the world's largest working concrete machine by the company. These Machines were modified for carrying out the rescue operations at Japan. Video Cameras & Radio Remote Controls were added to these machines, so that they could be operated from a distance of approx. 2 to 4 kilometres, as human beings cannot go near these nuclear reactors. They machines were covered with thick sheets of lead to protect them from radiations which could damage the electrical & electronic systems of these machines. At the reactor in Fukushima, workers used the M58-5 truckmounted concrete pump (produced in
Aichtal near Stuttgart) that has a vertical reach of 58 m and a 5-arm boom in order to support the cooling of the damaged cooling pools. The advantage of this is that cooling water can be fed a great distance over the destroyed buildings and can be fed to exactly where it is required. The pump has an output of 160 m³/h at a pressure of 85 bar and is driven by the truck's diesel engine. This means that it does not have to rely on any external power supply. The machine is operated using remote control which allows the distributor arm to have flexible movement. The Putzmeister M58-5 that is being used in Fukushima was actually intended for a customer in South-East Asia and was redirected to Japan so that it could quickly reach the nuclear power plant. Incidentally, this is not the first time that Putzmeister machines are being used in a rescue operation involving
nuclear reactors. Around 25 years ago, a similar disaster occurred in the then Soviet Union (Russia) in 1986, at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Putzmeister machines were the ones that came to rescue even then to control the nuclear reactors. Putzmeister makes some of the most technologically advanced concrete machines. Its machines were used for the construction of the tallest building in the world- Burj Dubai. Putzmeister is a German company with 14 subsidiaries across the globe. The company has its subsidiary in India, with its headquarters in Goa. The factory is located at Verna Industrial Estate and the MD of the Indian subsidiary is Mr.Michael Schmid Lindenmayer. According to the company, its Indian subsidiary also makes India's largest concrete machine the M46, as well as the smallest concrete machine the BSA702D.
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Industry Captains See Happy Days Ahead
he 2nd International Construction Chemicals Conclave was recently held in Bangalore. The conclave was organized by FICCI jointly with the Dept. of Chemicals & Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt of India. The virtual “who's of who” of the entire construction chemicals industry in the country was present during the event. Boasting delegates from around the world, the conference was nevertheless highly representative of the Indian construction industry, with approximately 95 per cent of attendees hailing from the sub-continent. Kryton Buildmat Co. Pvt. Ltd. was an Associate Sponsor of the 2nd International Construction Chemicals Conclave. Kryton Buildmat Co. Pvt. Ltd. is a subsidiary of The Kryton Group of Companies, Canada. Giving his views on the conclave Mr.Akhil Kakkar, General Manager, Kryton Buildmat, said “Over the twoday event, one thing became clear: the construction chemicals industry is growing exponentially in India, and tremendous opportunity awaits those who can navigate the complicated challenges we face.” Mr.Kakkar went on to add that with 14.5 per cent year-onyear growth, the construction chemicals industry in India outpaces the growth of the national cement industry by five per cent, and yet the construction chemicals industry is worth much less than it should be. If, in the building of structures in India, construction chemicals were used together with cement in the same
ratios as they are in developed countries such as the United States, it is estimated the construction chemicals industry in India would be worth 9,000 crores annually rather than 1,800 crores. According to Mr.Kakkar, one of the biggest challenges facing India's construction chemicals industry today is lack of awareness across the sector. The point was bought out by Mr. R. Mukudan, Co-Chairman of the National Chemicals Committee, FICCI, during the conclave, when he pointed out that a staggering 85 per cent of industry players are not fully aware of the benefits of construction chemicals. Crystalline waterproofing admixtures, for example, can reduce jobsite waste, speed up construction processes and eliminate the reliance on traditional waterproofing products that are tough on the environment. Another huge challenge, according to Mr.Kakkar “is how, as an industry, we can align construction chemicals with sustainable development. “ Although there are green products on the market, such as Kryton's Krystol Internal Membrane, surprisingly few companies have developed sustainable options for infrastructure and construction projects. Many speakers tackled this idea by exploring the co nfe re n c e ' s t h e m e , “ D u ra b l e Construction Using Construction Chemicals,” with the concepts of recyclable concrete and 'cradle to cradle construction' generating the most buzz.
"The construction chemicals industry is growing exponentially in India, and tremendous opportunity awaits those who can navigate the complicated challenges we face." Akhil Kakkar
General Manager, Kryton Buildmat
While the construction chemical industry in India also faces challenges that require more long-term solutions, including a shortage of natural resources and pollution, there are many that, as an industry, we can unite to overcome. Giving his views on the future pattern that the industry needs to follow Mr.Kakkar was of the opinion that durability through the use of sustainable products, generating awareness of the benefits of construction chemicals, and educating a new generation of skilled tradesmen in the use of construction chemicals will ensure the rapid growth, and help the construction chemicals industry in India remain durable and sustainable well into the future.
196 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd
Dextra India Pvt.Ltd
Simplifying Survey Engineering Drawings
he rapid advancements in the field of software development have not left any field untouched and there is perhaps no better example for it than in the field of civil and structural engineering. Several types of software packages are now aiding engineers in enabling efficient construction practices. E Surveying Solutions is developing software packages for Survey Engineering and have developed easy to use solution for Section Generation, Interpolation, Contouring, Earthwork Calculation, and Converter Survey data from Total Station data in to CAD Drawing. The software solutions offered by the company are extremely beneficial to Surveyors / Consulting Firms / Infrastructure Companies / Engineering Colleges / CAD Services / CAD Training Institutes and Govt. Organizations. Section & Interpolation Using ESS Products Sections module, Sections related to Road / Railway Lines / Irrigation Canal can be created either from Excel data or from CAD drawings. Ava i l a b l e S e c t i o n d a ta c a n b e interpolated along any alignment. Data can even be imported from Field book. Section Module allows the user to modify the sections graphically, Section presentation can be highly customized with features like changing Scales along Horizontal and Vertical directions. Earthwork calculation can be done between any 2 layer data and the software generates complete Area and volume reports. Interpolation can be done either using triangulation or using 3D lines. Output can be generated quickly as Designing both Horizontal Alignment and Vertical Alignment is simplified.
Contour Using E Contours, Contours can be generated at specified intervals and at specified levels. The software also generates grid levels along with the contour generation and can be done from within CAD Software. This software includes attractive modules like Area and volume report depending on Contour area. Earthwork Using E Earthwork, earthwork calculation can be done very quickly. It allows finding the volume of cutting / filling for a given set of data at a given elevation or it can find the earthwork quantities for any two surfaces. It generates all the required section drawings instantly along with calculation, and area and volume reports can be generated in Excel. TopoDraw Using E Topodraw, Topomaps can be created using Easting, Northing and Elevation data available in Excel or CSV File. Normally all the total station instruments output the data in CSV format i.e, Serial Number, Easting, Northing, Elevation and Code. Using Topodraw module converting this data
into to drawing with blocks is very easy as it will automatically insert required block diagrams in their respective places while generating the draw. E Survey Lisps E Survey Lisps is a collection of several extremely interesting small userfriendly programs written for meeting Survey drawing requirement. By using E Survey Lisp editing time of Survey Drawings can be brought down by up to 50%. Unique Features Works with 4 CAD Softwares AutoCAD / ZWCAD / GStarCAD & BricsCAD Software Trail CD available with Complete Video Tutorial The entire software trial version can be downloaded from www.esurveying.net E Surveying Solutions products are also supplied to Engineering Colleges as it bridges the gap between what is taught in college and what the industry practices. It is economically priced and users can buy only the required modules. Under 'Students Offer' students can avail up to 90% discount.
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Hormann India Pvt.Ltd
E Surveying Solutions
CE: Company Focus
Mobile Crushing, Screening and
owerscreen is one of the world's leading providers of mobile crushing, screening and washing equipment. It is part Terex Materials Processing segment of Terex Corporation. Terex is a diversified global manufacturer operating in four business segments: Terex Aerial Work Platforms, Terex Construction, Terex C r a n e s , a n d Te r e x M a t e r i a l s Processing. The company has scores of satisfied customers around the world that can vouch for the high standards of quality and performance of their construction equipment. One among them is Ghilotti Brothers, Inc founded in San Rafael, California, USA, in 1914 by James Ghilotti, a 23-year-old Italian immigrant, who began his business by carting rocks from the hills of Marin and Sonoma Counties with a horsedrawn sled and practiced his craft as a stone mason throughout the area. Today, Ghilotti Brothers is one of the largest employers of construction personnel in Northern California.
Washing Equipment from Powerscreen
“J a m es G h ilo tt i wa s my grandfather,” said Ghilotti Brothers President Michael M. 'Mike' Ghilotti. “He originally called his company James Ghilotti Contractor. In 1939 it became James Ghilotti and Sons and then Ghilotti Brothers, Inc. in 1950. In
2000, my brother Dante and I purchased the company from our father, Mario Ghilotti, who remained very much involved until his untimely death, November 20, 2010. “Throughout all that time and transition, my grandfather's original
Mike Ghilotti, Mario Ghilotti, Paul Campbell
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CE: Company Focus
Project Management - Highway 101-580, San Rafael - Early Aerial
philosophy has been paramount: 'Earn respect by doing a job well, treat employees with respect, and do good work for the community.' Doing a job well requires the very best people and the very best equipment. We've also found that the best quality equipment, even though it costs somewhat more, pays off that extra cost many times over in better and more dependable service, plus greater value when you sell it or trade it in, ” added Mike Ghillotti emplacing on the need for quality construction equipment. Some of the works of the company include paving San Francisco airport runways, heavy highway and road construction, parking lots, sidewalks, driveways, retaining walls; all kinds of commercial and residential projects. The company also does major grading, excavation and demolition work, as well as underground utilities, sewers
and storm systems. This also means that the company uses a lot of concrete and asphalt, and therefore, accumulates a lot of concrete and asphalt rubble. “In an emerging market in 1994, we were looking at how we could use materials most responsibly and not have to dispose of very many leftovers,” Ghilotti said before adding “One major thing we decided was to go in to recycling, for three basic reasons: to keep quarries from being drawn down; to save space in landfills; and to have fewer trucks on the road, which cuts fuel consumption and carbon footprint, reduces road wear, and lessens traffic and noise.” This is when their search for the right kind of equipment ideally suited for their requirement started. “After a thorough investigation, and in our quest for state-of-the-art equipment,
we bought the first Powerscreen® 4242SR tracked impact crusher delivered in North America. Powerscreen of California brought the machine in on demo. It performed so well we bought it right away. In 2010, we replaced the 4242SR with the first Powerscreen® XH320SR tracked impact crusher delivered in North America, which we believe is the new state-of-the-art in tracked impactors,” Ghilotti remarked. “We were very happy with the 4242SR and had no plans to get rid of it until Paul Campbell, Owner of Powerscreen of California, told us about its successor, the new 320SR.” As good as the 4242SR is, the 320SR comes with even more features. It is well designed for recycling and demolition applications, as well as aggregates. It is also compact and manoeuvrable.
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CE: Company Focus
Powerscreen - Quality Equipment story - Ghilotti Brothers
Going into the details of how they used the machines, Ghillotti quipped “ We a l s o b o u g ht a t ra c ke d Powerscreen® Chieftain 1400 doubledeck dry screen, which is very easy to transport and provides dependable, versatile operation. Much of the concrete rubble we recycle contains steel mesh and rebar. The 320SR impactor handles it well and has a quick-and-easy hydraulic hood opening if we need to clear any jams. Further, the modular conveyor has a raise-lower feature to aid in clearance of rebar.” Speaking about the performance of the crusher Ghillotti said “Our new impactor crushes up to 320 tons per hour, depending on the feed rate and materials. High production is critical, since much of our business comes from public works bids, where cost is king and the lowest bidder usually wins.” He also added that maintaining the machine is simple, as it they just need to follow the manufacturer's recommendations. The XH320SR is a horizontal shaft impact crusher plant with two full and two half blow bars, hydraulic overload protection, fully independent undercrusher vibrating pan feeder, PLC controls for crusher speed variation,
HFO clutch and fuel-efficient direct drive system. Power is supplied by a 230-hp Caterpillar C9 Tier III ACERT powerpack. An overband magnet is optional. Ghilotti Brothers uses the XH320SR for two basic types of applications. The first is at four crushing yards owned or leased by the company at Lakewood, Crockett, South San Francisco, and San Rafael. Concrete/asphalt rubble is trucked in by Ghilotti Brothers from their excavating, demolition and other sites to be crushed and used in the company's various construction jobs or sold on the market. Area contractors also bring in and leave rubble to be accumulated and crushed, and usually leave with truckloads of crushed materials. These normally include 3/4" base and drain (clean) materials, plus 1" and 1/2" materials. Sometimes a little asphalt is blended in to make a sub-base product. Secondly, the tracked crusher is used at various Ghilotti Brothers job sites such as road paving and demolition. The company also does contract crushing at customers' locations. Going into the details about the company's after sales support services Ghillotti observed “We're very
happy with Powerscreen of California. If we ever have an equipment problem, they're here at the drop of a hat. And we get good counsel from them, too. They've helped us solve problems and achieve greater production levels. We can call the owner Paul Campbell any time and get advice on all kinds of crushing situations, equipment, procedures or whatever.” Emphasizing on value added services Ghillotti said “When buying equipment, any equipment, you need to look at a lot more than just the initial price. You have to look at how much you are charging yourself for use of the equipment. You determine an internal rate based on initial price, maintenance, anticipated downtime; it's the unexpected downtime that wreaks havoc on equipment production capabilities, fuel consumption, parts, and salvage value.“ Powerscreen is a company that has been known for introducing various innovative concepts and technology from time to time. Recently , it has brought customers a new way to access its equipment through the launch of its new Powerscreen Appfor the iPad® and iPhone®, with a Blackberry® and Android® version planned for later this year.
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Amogha Road Equipment
Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd
Columbia -Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd
Celebrate 25 Years of Partnership
The company has been catering to the needs of core sectors of the economy whether it is roads, airports, ports, urban development, granite, cement, iron ore, coal and other quarrying and mining activities, power , oil & gas , marine and other sectors of infrastructural activity. Mining Expertise The company's mining customers include Coal India Limited (CCL, SECL, WCL, NCL & MCL), Singareni Collieries Company Limited, Hindustan Copper Limited, Neyveli Lignite Limited, NMDC, MOIL, and GMDC. Many cement and iron ore mines have also valued Gmmco's capability to provide solutions to suit their needs. Some of the highlights of Gmmco's solutions to mining customers over 25 years include: Supplying 14 Cat 773D, 60T trucks mmco was formed in 1967 when the GP-CK Birla Group took over Blackwood Hodge Equipment, who were distributors for the Terex range of products. On February 26, 1986, a new chapter opened for the company when it signed up the dealership of Caterpillar Inc., USA, the globally renowned heavy machinery, and engine manufacturer for South, Central, and Western India. The company has made rapid strides over the last 25 years to grow into an INR 1600 Crore Company with 1500 employees operating out of over a 100 establishments today, including 75 full fledged branches. The India Inc. magazine, in their recent annual survey, recognized Gmmco for exemplary growth and sustainable success, and ranked the company in their Top 500 Best-Performing Mid-Sized companies list at an impressive 199.
valued at Rs. 25 Cr., to promote mining contractor for deployment in Malanjhkand Copper project in 2008-09 Supply of 22 large-capacity 240T Dumpers to South Eastern Coalfields Limited with a 12-year Maintenance and Repair Contract Largest bulldozers commissioned at NMDC, Donimalai Four 992K Front-end Loaders commissioned at NMDC Largest hydraulic excavator deal for 12 sealed for a pipe-laying application at Corrtech Intl First 988H Front-end Loader commissioned at Central Coalfields Limited's Kathara coalfields India's First CAT-certified Rebuild of Ambuja Cement's D9R Dozers
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by GMMCO and TIL, and so are over a 100 engines owned by private drilling contractors at any point in time in India, according to the company. These machines are used on the most critical operations like power packs on Jack up rigs and land rigs, emergency gensets, fire water pumps, cranes, well servicing, etc. The company has been taking up ambitious projects involving in-situ replacement of Caterpillar D399 Engines with Caterpillar 3512B Engines. The company offers its partners to utilize the varied services offered by its 5 Star Certified Workshop facilities to encompass activities like top, in-frame and major overhauls in the shortest possible time frame. Gmmco won a Service Rate Contract worth Rs.8 Crore for Caterpillar Engines on May 22, 2009, for maintenance of Caterpillar Engines in ONGC's sites in Western and Southern India. It also received a prestigious order from OPG Energy for the supply of 3 x 2 MW Natural Gas power plant. G m m c o Po w e r, w h i c h i s a subsidiary of Gmmco Limited, is Perkins' Distributor in India, and brings the complete range of Perkins Engines
H.Jayaram addressing the audience
3 4 , 0 0 0 + o p e rat i o n a l h o u rs achieved at Singareni Collieries Company Limited (SCCL) is an outstanding example of our Product Support Capability Breakthrough order for over 30 machines (15x962H, 8x966, 2xD9R, 6x140K) from Sesa Goa, one of the largest producers of iron ore in India Construction Solutions To meet and support the booming construction industry in India, the company offers a wide range of indigenously built and imported Caterpillar Construction Equipment, including: Backhoe Loaders, Hydraulic Excavators, Motor Graders, Off Highway Trucks, Track-Type Tractors (Dozers), and Wheel Loaders. Marine Solutions The company also offers worldclass total propulsion systems to meet unique requirements of its customers.The generator offered can be tailor-made for 'power management'. It also offers Diesel Electric Propulsion (DEP) units for Propulsion purposes. In a nutshell, the company offers engines for all applications and all types of vessels.
Gmmco is tied up with all the major shipyards in the country, with ongoing project execution with almost all of them. A dedicated Projects Cell renders specialized support to shipyards during the execution process. The company has provided several marine engines for Mumbai Coast Guard boats. Caterpillar engines will also soon be put to use by the Indian Navy and the Indian Coast Guard. Contribution to Oil & Gas Industry Gmmco has been a very successful and important partner of ONGC in their E&P effort. Over 400 Caterpillar Engines owned by ONGC are supported
Rob Charter presenting a memento to C.K.Birla
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to Indian users. This apart, the company also offers Wheel Loaders from SEM, Tires from Eurotire, Technology Solutions from Trimble, and other allied products, all supported by our strong product support and after-sale service infrastructure. State-of-the-art Facilities Over the last 25 years, Gmmco has absorbed, assimilated, and implemented many of Caterpillar's world-class facilities and processes to train our people. The company's focus in evident from its best in class Talent Management Processes, Leadership Development, Simulation based and hands-on Technical Training to build talent to provide top quality services its customers. Gmmco's 4 Star certified Learning Centre at Chennai helps train field personnel in support and service. Over 1500 dedicated and trained Gmmco-ites propel the partnership forward. Strong organizational values such as Passion for Product Support, Excellence in Action, Delivery on Commitment, Enduring Partnership, and Teamwork, have been the cornerstone of the partnership's success, according to the company.
The company continuously strives to improve its processes through 6 Sigma processes. Incidentally, the company has won several awards for excellence in implementing 6-Sigma Processes. A 5 Star certified contaminationcontrolled workshop at Nagpur and 4 Star certified contaminationcontrolled workshop at Chennai bear testimony to Gmmco's flawless service to its customers. Rental Stores and Yards at 8 different locations across the territory are fully equipped to serve and reach out to customers.
To further increase customer focus and market penetration across the territory, Gmmco recently formed Strategic Business Units in close consultation with Caterpillar. Celebrating Gmmco-Caterpillar Partnership An exclusive event was arranged to celebrate Gmmco's Silver Jubilee of the partnership with Caterpillar at Chennai on February 28, 2011. Several senior officials from Caterpillar participated in the celebrations and lauded the role played by Gmmco in building the Nation, as its partner. They were convinced that it is a very exciting future ahead for the partnership, the US $ 1 billion turnover for Gmmco in the next few years being another stepping stone ahead in the partnership. Several of Gmmco's customers too sent in their appreciation of Gmmco's services on the occasion. To quote "We have a committed dedicated team in Gmmco, we have the Caterpillar focus and we are sure that we will definitely make our journey from what we are today, which is $400mn to $1bn,” remarked Gmmco's ED & CEO, Mr. H. Jayaram on the partnership.
C.K.Birla addressing the audience
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Relyon Facility Services
SSA Techno Construction Pvt. Ltd.
Seven Hills Safety Equipments and Systems (P) Limited
The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Analysing Asphalt Plants
A Key Ingredient to Success
Blesson Varghese, Director, Marini in India n asphalt plant purchase is unlike any other purchase of road building equipment. Road building contractors are used to changing brands and models faster than their clothes for equipment like rollers, loaders or dump trucks. However an Asphalt plant purchase is quite vital and critical, while also being different. Asphalt plants cannot be dumped off, like rollers, loaders or excavators. Capital investments cannot be reversed quickly and are almost irreversible, especially when an asphalt plant will stay put with your company for the next fifteen to twenty years or more. Hence a hasty decision without critical thinking could prove costly in a fiercely competitive market and an ever-evolving environment.
As asphalt plant purchase involves substantial capital investment, most contractors & company managers do not get a lot of experience in buying them. Hence while undergoing the process of selection of plants, you are sure to be bombarded with several views from salesmen, each of them telling entirely different stories. The success of a road project, which again involves sizeable amount of investment, hangs on the performance of this particular equipment. No amount of trained or experienced manpower can correct, if the decision is wrong. Even long after the roads are built, improper mix, if produced and laid will continue to haunt and even damage a company's bottom lines. Therefore it is quite likely that purchase of a new plant would be one of the
most difficult decision you will make in your career. A clear perspective is what is required to get through the marketing stunts and to understand what rightly deserves your investment. Although your purchase decision is focused to meet your company's immediate need, the future of the market and competition must not be forgotten. Making a decision based on your company's future needs is one that calls for visionary eyes, and a truly discerning mind. Long term planning needs Visionary eyes We are all in our respective businesses to make decent profits, without cutting corners. Visionary eyes are those which are able to see beyond
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the present situation and able to look in to what the future will become. The simple formula to make profits without cutting corners is to reduce production costs. Ingredients that comprise the asphalt production cost a re R a w m ate r i a l co st , P l a nt maintenance costs and Energy costs (including Fuel & Power). This will be the turf on which the market will compete and where your profitability hangs. Productivity Matters: Productivity and efficiency are two key words that asphalt producers should never miss. It is easy to understand the savings that can result from asphalt plants which deliver capacities as promised by manufacturers. For e.g. when you buy a plant rated at 200 Tph, which delivers only 160 Tph in reality, the purchase may seem to be an absolute deal, however the final numbers will deny anything close. Lesser output means longer project duration, higher equipment running & operating costs and losses that could be turned in to profits, if you had just made one right choice. Demands of the Future: The costs of aggregate production is bound to increase, the dearth of natural resources, guarantees its further escalation. Our country is on the
building stage at the moment; however we are already facing the heat of raising costs. This will necessitate use of Recycled asphalt (RAP) in the mixes. Moreover we cannot be laying layers over layers, raising kerb heights; reduced clearances on underpasses, weight limitations on bridges would further force use of Recycled asphalt mixes. Presently technologies world-wide limit the use of Recycled asphalt to a maximum of 50-70%. If thoughtfully worked upon, RAP can help sustain our natural resources, and reduce our mix production costs greatly. Do note Recycled asphalt contains precious bitumen, the most expensive of all components in a mix, which can be revitalized ensuring high levels of profitability. The existing roads will become the future quarry in a future not very distant from now. A very important point that you must not miss here is: Only energyefficient plants with the technology to process RAP will benefit the producer in the future. If you are smart, your decision today hence must be geared to take up this challenge that you will surely face tomorrow. New plants hence must be able to produce up to 50 % RAP without additional energy costs, for you to stay competitive, when the market would be ready for recycled
asphalt. Simply put, you must be able to produce Recycled asphalt cheaper than all your competitors. In addition to conservation of natural resources and energy savings, the plants of the future must be able to meet increasingly strict environmental re g u l at i o n s . We a l re a d y h ave witnessed the trouble that various asphalt producers had to face, when they were forced to move out of New Delhi. Some additional points to be kept in mind include: Eco-Friendliness: The world is facing the heat of carbon emission. Carbon taxes are already in place, road construction activity is being closely monitored now for carbon emissions, this will necessitate that to stay in the race, carbon emissions from your asphalt plant must be controlled today. Alternative fuels: Reduction of carbon emission will force us to look at alternative resources for energy. While on the other side, raising fuel costs, will force us to look at using cheaper solutions. Asphalt producers hence must be able to find the right balance, which calls for a partner who can
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sustain you to face these challenges confidently. Night time readiness: Asphalt Plants must necessarily be able to operate silently at night, since much of the paving in urban areas will happen post sundown. To facilitate night time paving, plants must be equipped with large storage silos that can hold mix for longer durations. You will need to produce during the day hours, stock them in large storage silos, in order for you to be bang on for your night time laying operations. Low Downtime: As markets become more competitive, asphalt producers will be forced to look at each paisa that is spent. Manpower cost is increasing, investment costs will become more demanding, which in turn will make downtime costs unbearable and a serious threat to the profitability of the company. This is the reason we need plants, which must be built to perform, face tough site conditions, have high level of reliability, can be hooked up and serviced remotely and assistance must reach immediately. Future Ready: The world of asphalt is witnessing some massive changes. Each asphalt producer will be forced to meet the regulatory requirements. If your plant does not meet the norms, then it does not matter what it costs.
Some of these product features mentioned may not seem to be of tremendous importance to most asphalt producers today, they are sure to become inevitable in the near future. The facts mentioned here can be consolidated to reduce a plant's total operating costs. These facts must be considered by the asphalt producers to ensure sustainable profits and success for them and the generations. Profitable decisions require Forward Thinking We all know, the bitter taste of poor quality lingers long after the sweetness of low price is gone. Asphalt plants geared for the future do not come cheap, as these features require more than just steel. Years of experience, research and intuition along with technology can only deliver features that will help you face the future. To put things into perspective, a 20% price differential between two competing hot-mix plants is only about 2% over 20 years. But again, you can easily overcome this cost gap if you choose a plant that can give you increased energy efficiency, allow use high content RAP in your mixes, and operating savings of 10 to 20%. It doesn't need rocket science to understand this and that is exactly why
I encourage you to look beyond the price when buying a new plant. We a t M A R I N I h a v e b e e n developing technologies since over 100+ years to ensure that our asphalt plant not only delivers high quality asphalt but also help customers churn their expenses in to profits. Marini MAC is one such example, where we have tried to equip our clients to confidently face the future. We are convinced like our customers, that because of the increased costs of fuel, asphalt and electricity the MARINI plants have become the plant of choice. We have hence ensured that all plants delivered in India have the highest fuel efficiency compared to any other manufacturer, is Recycling ready up to 40 %, reflect green plant technology and are future ready. Selecting the right asphalt plant is a critical decision that calls for discernment, as this decision of yours will affect the success of your company and its future. It is a decision that should be based not on what your company's needs today, but what your company's needs in the future. Remember, profitable decisions aren't merely based on today. Blesson Varghese, is the Director of Marini in India, and also serves SAARC, SEA and Australasia. Send your comments to - firstname.lastname@example.org
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MB subscription form
Eyes US$ 175 Million Annual Revenue by 2012
iuGong India is a subsidiary of Guangxi LiuGong Machinery Co., Ltd., one of the top 25 largest construction machinery companies in the world. With over 50 years of manufacturing experience, LiuGong not only offers the booming Indian construction machinery market machines that are east to own and easy to maintain but machines that are built locally in its factory in Madhya Pradesh. “LiuGong's mission is to support customer with a total solution with our products and services. We believe there is great opportunity in India, especially in infrastructure as India is booming at least for next 15-20 years. LiuGong, with its full line of construction equipment & local dealer network, provides the right combination of products and service for the Indian market” says Sunil Sapru, President of LiuGong India. The company offers
wheel loaders (1.5 to 10 ton), excavators (6 to 35 ton), compactors, motor graders, cold planners and dozers, cranes, forklifts and multipurpose products like skid steer loaders, backhoe loaders. Presently LiuGong India with its head office in Delhi has a parts depot in Chennai and the manufacturing facility in Pithampur in Madhya Pradesh. LiuGong India's manufacturing facility is a milestone for a China company in India. The facility, covers 44 acres, will produce 2,000 wheel loaders and excavators annually in its first phase and other products will be launched in the future. LiuGong's association with India dates back to 2002, during these eight years, the company has demonstrated market competitiveness and the market performance has far exceeded the industry's average growth rate.
“LiuGong's wheel loader segment is expected to push LiuGong India's projected annual revenue to over US$175 million by 2012,” says Mr. Sapru. A Global Market Leader In the modern age, LiuGong Machinery Corp. is one of the vanguards of a new trade explosion between China and the remainder of the world. As the world's largest wheel loader manufacturer, LiuGong is the Chinese leader in quality construction
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machinery exports, and the company is successfully expanding around the world by marrying Chinese ingenuity to best practices of Western management. LiuGong Machinery Corp., headquartered in Liuzhou, China has produced high quality construction equipment for more than 50 years and is expanding throughout the world. The company has been named one of the top 100 brands in China, ranking 60th. With $1.49 billion USD in sales revenue in 2009, China's premier heavy equipment manufacturing firm is within the top 25 largest construction machinery companies globally. The firm employs over 11,800 including more than 650 R&D engineers, and produced more than 56,000 machinery units in 2010. LiuGong offers a full line of machines, including wheel loaders, bulldozers, backhoes, skid steers, forklifts, graders, excavators, rollers, truck mounted cranes, pavers and cold planners. LiuGong has a significant share nearly 15% of the total worldwide market share for wheel loaders, and growing share of the global market share for rollers. Several “Firsts” to its Credit The company claims many
important “firsts.” LiuGong was founded in 1958 in Liuzhou, China and built the country's first modern wheel loader in 1966. Currently LiuGong manufactures the largest wheel loader built in China, the CLG899. In addition, LiuGong became China's first publicly traded machinery company when it began trading shares on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 1993. LiuGong has 16 machine factories and in 2009, successfully opened its first overseas plant in central India, one of the few Chinese machinery companies to do so. The company's success rests in part, on elegant design and intense durability. LiuGong equipment is easy to own and easy to operate, as the company excels in providing features that customers demand, but also focuses on using only well-proven technologies that are easy to service. The result, customers report, is highly durable machines that stand up to the rigors of the tough operating environments customers face. Sound Growth Strategy LiuGong's approach to growth is tied to a strategy of carefully expanding its global footprint. In each country it enters, LiuGong first carefully courts
well-capitalized, experienced, and dedicated dealers. This means customers have access to a worldwide network of LiuGong dealers with locations in nearly every country. Eight LiuGong subsidiary companies are strategically located to provide expert support close to important markets. These regional offices are staffed with engineers, technical experts and sales and marketing support. The regional offices are located in USA, Brazil, Australia, The Netherlands, India, Dubai, South Africa and Singapore. LiuGong stands behind its dealers with eight highly sophisticated parts depots currently in operation around the world whose goal is to ship parts within 48 hours of the order. In India, the parts depot is located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. LiuGong's expansion strategy also includes the regular introduction of carefully designed, rigorously tested new machines. For example, in 2009, LiuGong introduced a bulldozer line and a truck mounted crane line, a forklift line, and new roller models. Several new models of wheel loaders were added to the machine line-up as well. LiuGong, as a company that has adopted and pursues Six Sigma quality standards, is continuously refining design, product support, customer service and other aspects of its business, based on customer feedback. The company is also expanding its manufacturing and support capabilities in an aggressive way. In early 2009, LiuGong opened a bulldozer factory in northern China, and opened the India wheel loader plant in July 2009 in Bangalore. The company also just completed a major investment in a state-of-the-art automated warehouse located in Liuzhou. The facility helps improve logistics, stocking quality, accuracy, and inventory information.
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TIL Barrel Technology to India Introduces Double
R Nandagopal, Vice President Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL Limited
[A part of material handling solutions division]
he road construction industry is witnessing rapid changes with the introduction of newer technologies by the day. Double barrel technology is one such technology that has been in the news recently. T h e M a ste r b u ild er s p o ke to Mr.R.Nandagopal, Vice President, Equipment & Project Solutions, TIL Ltd, about Astec asphalt batch mix plants, which the company offers, featuring this technology. Here are excerpts from the interview. What are the advantages of Double Barrel technology over batch mix technology? All over the world road construction authorities and the contractors tend to look at cost
effective methods to design, build, and maintain road infrastructure. The Double Barrel innovation is a result of the requirement of the customers and the authorities alike and the consistent superior performance of the same has made it 'the preferred choice' for the customers in many a countries and has replaced the conventional plants. The Double Barrel with its RAP friendly technology offers the following significant benefits to the customer and also leaves a lower carbon footprint Protects environment from pollutants and other toxic ingredients which are present in dumped milled bituminous pavement
Prevents afforestation and depleting mountains due to continuous mining of the same for production of aggregates required for hot mix asphalt Offsets increasing cost of fuel, bitumen and aggregate and overall lowering the project cost Reduces carbon foot print of the road construction Makes sustainable asphalt pavement With increase in road project size, what are the technical attributes that you feel that make your asphalt mix plants ideally suited for Indian conditions? The size of the road projects have been growing under PPP / BOT etc and
TIL-ASTEC Double Barrel Hot Mix Asphalt Plant
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Tunnel Design & construction (IQPC -Singapore)
makes the production of sustainable WMA a reality. How suitable are your asphalt mix plants for asphalt recycling? W h e n a re c l a i m e d a s p h a l t pavement is used in any plant following precautions need to be taken 1. Exposure of the RAP to the flame. 2. The RAP has to be introduced gradually to prevent a steam explosion when RAP comes in contact with super heated aggregates. 3. A bag house design to take care of the high exhaust fumes.
TIL -ASTECC Double Barrel HMA Plant
this has translated into higher capacity and the better mobility of the plant and machineries to fully optimize the investment cost. The double barrel plant with portable options up to 400TPH and stationary options up to 600TPH will meet up with the growing demands of infrastructure. Double Barrel is a combination aggregate dryer and mixing unit separated from each other uses sequential mixing to produce larger volumes of consistent and homogeneous hot mix in shorter time than any other plant. It is equipped to provide multiple job mixes at a very short notice. The features like, automatic aggregate gradation unit, dual fuel modulating burners, infrared sensors to maintain heating of aggregate at specified temperature, ability to handle larger dust/ exhaust volumes, ease of operation and maintenance, availability of spares parts, ability to run upto 50% RAP and option to produce warm mix asphalt with foamed bitumen provide the leading edge to this technology.
Technology-wise what are the 'green' features that have been incorporated in your asphalt plants? We have incorporated various features to maintain their green quotient:(i) Generous application of insulation throughout the bitumen storage tanks, bitumen pipe lines, hot oil pumps and piping, Double Barrel itself- all these results in heat retention significantly and reduces the carbon foot print. (ii) Ability to run upto 50% RAP (iii) Ability to produce warm mix asphalt (WMA) using bitumen foaming technology popularly known as “Double Barrel Green System”. The WMA foaming system is presently the industry standard for producing warm mix asphalt and is a giant step forward for the industry because it uses water as an additive to produce warm mix asphalt. It allows contractors to produce warm mix material that is equal to hot mix material in performance while requiring less fuel for drying and generating fewer emissions. Double Barrel Green
The Double Barrel technology takes into account all the concerns mentioned above and its design incorporates a combination aggregate dryer and heater, wherein heating / drying takes place in inner drum and mixing is carried out in outer drum away from direct flame of burner. RAP is added with heated virgin aggregates in outer barrel and thus Double Barrel technology offers users a unique ability to run high percentage of RAP upto 50% in their mixes without increasing fuel usage. In fact, when it comes to recycling Double Barrel's ability is unmatched. How does your asphalt mix plant compare with others with respect to ease of setting up the plant and operation? We have truly portable plants which has set industry standards for Portability and Productivity. Our Portable Six Pack Plant can be erected and commissioned within 36 hours of its arrival at site. No civil foundation, no carnage, etc. is required for erection of the plant. Our plants are also equipped with PLC based automatic controls operating on WINDOWS operating system making it easier to operate.
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Partnership contracting (Hongkong)
Profile: Shoring System
The Lightweight, Economical, Safe and Efficient Shoring System
frame geometry and well-balanced centre of gravity are further factors which facilitate the workflows. Add the system's logical assembly sequence and small number of separate parts, and it is clear why it achieves substantially faster erection and dismantling times. Thanks to its optimised frame construction, Staxo 40 can be set up much more quickly than single-leg shoring towers, as these often have up to 32% more weight and up to 78% more separate parts which slow down assembly. For Staxo 40, this is a crucial advantage when it comes to shoring large areas efficiently. Emphasis on Safety As well as being extremely light and efficient, the newly developed load-bearing tower system also comes
oka is a name that has become synonymous with formwork globally. The company, with its headquarters in Austria, has rapidly spread its wings across 150 sales locations around the world. It has also got its logistics centres in more than 65 countries. Doka has always been known for its strong focus on research and development, resulting in innovative solutions. The Staxo 40, which is a lightweight, economical, safe and efficint shoring system for the building construction industry is an example of the company's prowess for innovative products and solutions. The newly developed Doka load-bearing tower Staxo 40 is deliberately geared to meeting the requirements of the building-construction segment, and sets brand-new standards of speed, safety and efficiency. The system's significantly weight-reduced and ergonomically optimised H-frames make for very easy handling meaning fast erection and dismantling times combined with high stability and workplace safety. Innovative H-shaped Geometry By using the finite-element method in the constructional design process, Doka's engineers were able to greatly reduce the weight of the Staxo 40 frame while permanently improving its strength. The results speak for themselves: a standard-version Staxo 40 frame only weighs between 15 and 24 kg and so can easily be shifted by just one person. The innovative H-shaped
with a very high standard of safety. Features such as the tested anchorage points for personal fall arrest systems, integrated safety catches for fixing the diagonal crosses, gapless assembly decks in and between the towers, and a sturdy built-in ladder system, all ensure a safe working environment at any height. The facility for assembling the towers in the horizontal, with tension-proof connections between the frames so that the towers can be lifted into position by crane, gives a further boost to safety and to the speed of work. Enables High-Speed Working The H-shaped frame geometry of Staxo 40 makes it possible to have gapless, full-area assembly decks not only inside the towers, but also for
Light, sturdy and safe: The Staxo 40 H-frame was developed on the basis of the finite-elementZ method. It stands out for its low dead weight yet high strength, and for its many safety features.
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Profile: Shoring System
Tower assembly made easy: The low weight and ergonomically optimised geometry of the Staxo 40 frame allow the towers to be assembled very quickly and make work much easier.
the first time ever between them as well. This ingenious concept “puts all the pieces in place” for high-speed working combined with high safety. Beneath the towerframe superstructure, the 1.70 m of headroom provides the space needed for erecting and dismantling the formwork both quickly and ergonomically. The workdeck levels can also be extended beyond the scaffold itself, so as to ex t e n d b e n e a t h c a n t i l e v e r i n g superstructures. Safe, systematic working is ensured here by easy-toattach brackets. To adapt to different heights, Staxo 40 gets by with it three different sizes of frame, screw-jack Uheads and feet that can be adjusted with millimetre precision, each having a max. 75 cm extension length. Their novel thread geometry and threewing spindle nut permit effortless height adjustment, even under full load. Maximum flexibility and costoptimised equipment utilisation are the welcome results of the large interframe spacing of up to 3.00 m, using diagonal crosses of different lengths. When it comes to repositioning, too, Staxo 40 is designed to be highly costefficient and very fast. Staxo 40 towers can be travelled on shifting-wheels, or crane-lifted, in their entirety, i.e. without having to be dismantled. For further information contact Doka India Pvt Ltd. Mumbai: Hiranandani Business Park, "Sentinel" Building,2nd Floor, Commercial premises No. 201 & 202, Powai, Mumbai - 400 076. Ph:022-4026 4435 Delhi: 1203-1204, 12th Floor, Chiranjiv Tower, 43,Nehru Place, New Delhi - 19. Ph:011-4652 5695 Email: email@example.com Web: www.dokaindia.com
Fast and safe: the gapless, full-area workdecks inside and between the towers provide safe workplace access and speed up the assembly operations.
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 219
Construcion Chemicals: Company Focus
Don Construction Chemicals India Ltd now
Part of DCP International
CP international is a group of multinational companies which operates in the North American Continent, Europe, Middle East, and Asia. The Chairman of DCP international Mr. James F. Igoe launched the logo of DCP in India on 23rd March 2011 at a f u n c t i o n h e l d i n H o te l A c co rd Metropolitan at Chennai. Mr.Igoe appreciated the Indian market for opening up and allowing new range of products. He also spoke about the group's plans for infrastructure development, marketing and after sales technical support activities. Mr. Tawfic Ghandour, Global CEO of DCP International speaking on the occasion shared his excitement in exploring the Indian Market. DCP is operating in India with its head office and manufacturing Unit I at Chennai. Manufacturing Unit 2 is situated in Jaipur, Rajasthan. Mr. Feroze Chatelier, Managing Director, Indian Operations, in his speech said that the new product range of DCP will provide a suitable and complete solution for construction needs in India. Additionally he felt that the company's extensive network of operations will enhance its reach to all places in the country. Mr. Prashant Patry, the Director South East Asian operations, was also present on the occasion. DCP is a world leader in developing, manufacturing, and marketing advanced technology products to service professional customers in the construction industry and building maintenance. Don Construction Products has been serving the construction industry for
more than 80 years with experience in the manufacture of quality construction chemical products with operations in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The company's business lines are served by professional engineers that provide services for designers, consultants, and contractors alike. The group has its advanced R & D centre located at Jordan, which is equipped with facilities to test products in a wide range of climatic conditions to produce products that are ideally suited for different environments and climatic conditions. DCP serves customers in over 35 countries with a wide range of products.
All manufacturing sites comply with the highest quality standards and are committed to operate with no harm to the environment. The group has a dedicated in-house technical department which ensures that technical advice is readily available by phone, email, or site visit to all clients. DCP's specifications department provides specifications for projects to cover all site conditions and performance requirements. For more details, please visit the group's international website at w w w. d c p - i n t . c o m o r e m a i l : firstname.lastname@example.org
220 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Unitech Exhibitions - Roof India (Barter Ad)
Self-Repairing Automatic Flexible Door
The inverter system makes it easy to adjust speeds. The SOFT START and the SOFT STOP facilities avoid mechanical parts stress and wear, thus ensuring the reliability and long life of the door. Ho t galvan ized steel metal structure available in the RAL versions with oven baked epoxy coating with smooth finish or fine satin-finish AISI 304 stainless steel, complete with galvanized curtain winding pipe and vertical uprights fitted with special self-lubricating sliding guides installed on a shockabsorbing spring system. Provision for roll-up roller casing. DSC electronic safety device to reverse motion when door is closing if an obstacle is hit. Heavy duty motor: 3 phase 400V motor, complete with limit switch and electrically operated hand brake. IP55 rated electronic panel andhi Automations Pvt Ltd is a leading name in importing, distributing and installing, easy to operate, Entrance Automation Systems and Loading Bay Equipment. Smart Reset, a high performance and self-repairing heavy duty automatic flexible door is one of its product offerings. With the self-repairing system; should the curtain accidentally get dislodged, it will automatically be recovered with a simple opening and closing operation. Reliable and Compact Smart has been designed by the company in order to produce a practical and highly modular highspeed door to simplify installation and allow all the components to be operated easily. Sturdy and compact structure, scientific design and tested Ditec motors and components, are the key features that make Smart Reset a safe, aesthetic, easy and quick to fit door. Furthermore, the door is also practical and easy to inspect, check and requires minimal maintenance. The reduced size of the door allows it to be installed even where space is available at a premium. The motor outside the door can be supplied complete with the manual emergency re-opening device. Distinct Features The company can supply Smart Reset in different levels of design (basic and comfort) to satisfy the different operating requirements and to comply with different local standards. Some of the technological features of product include:
complete with push button panel with open-close-stop membrane control featuring an autotest function, compliant with 98/37/EC and 89/106/EC European Directives. Provision for manual opening device with operation rod. Full size flexible curtain made of class 2 self- extinguishing polyester, with no horizontal strengthening parts, which slides inside the side hinges and features self-repairing properties and high resistance to air and wind pressure: resistant to 120km/h wind. Control and Safety Systems RMM Microwave radar with function discrimination vehiclepedestrian direction of movement. TEL 2 RMM radar distance adjustment remote control GOL4 transmitters fixed code four channel-four function, with cloning option, or with rolling code system. LAB 9CS board detector with cable for magnetic loop XEL 22 C4- pair of columns H 2.5m with four synchronized precabled photocells, for general use. LAMP H 24V flashing light.
For further details contact Gandhi Automations Pvt Ltd 2nd Floor, Chawda Commercial Centre Link Road, Malad (W) Mumbai- 400064 Off: 022- 66720200/66720300 (200 lines) Fax : 022-66720201 Email : email@example.com Web: www.geapl.co.in
222 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Equipment: New Roll Out
New High Pressure Concrete Pump from REL
EL, a well known entity in the field of construction equipment , has in technical collaboration with Waitzinger Baumaschinen Gmbh, Germany, introduced the THP 45 D high pressure concrete pump suitable for high- rise pumping as well as horizontal pumping up-to 500 meters . The concrete pump features the latest 'S' valve technology and comes with a host of features including the Split type wear plat for lesser service time, apart from the PLC and sensor controlled operation with alternate pressure feedback as back-up option. The standard scope includes Air Compressor and the pump has optional automatic greasing system. The THP 45 D comes fitted with a 4 cylinder air cooled engine and boasts of high-rise pumping upto 100 metres vertical ( appx 30 floors) in the piston side pressurization, due to its robust design. A large hopper of 600 liter capacity and dual hydraulically driven agitator motor keep even the
concrete in the bottom most portion of the hopper also properly agitated, to prevent chocking of pipelines due to segregation. The THP 45 D concrete pump has been positioned as the ideal solution for the typical Indian contractor, who is on the lookout for economical and 'India-specific' products. The concrete pump has features that try and answer the issues of both high-rise and high output pumping with a lower operating cost. The stationary concrete Pump range of REL also has the THP 60 D model, with a 6 Cylinder Air cooled engine and concrete pressure of 120 bar. This model is suitable for vertical pumping up-to 175 meters. REL offers the full line of concrete equipment including concrete batching plants ranging from 30 to 120 cbm/hr, transit mixer, boom placer, and stationary concrete pump.
T h e co m p a ny h a d re c e nt l y augmented its range by adding two new products in the foundation equipment segment, namely, Hydraulic Piling Rig with TESCAR Srl, Italy, and Vibro-Hammers with Chowa Kogyo Co Ltd, Japan. The company had inaugurated its new manufacturing plant in Gummidipoondi, near Chennai, last year, enhancing its production capacity and also expanding its network across the country. Today REL CED has 7 strategically located offices with sales, service, and spare parts operations. Apart from their own network, REL CED also has their Tier II after sales support mechanism through their network of 16 dealerships spread across the country. For further details about the product, contact: SUNIL M, Associate Vice President REL -Construction Equipment Division Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
THP 45 D Stationary Concrete Pump
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 223
ERP for SMEs
Kunal Mehta, Managing Director,
SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd.
n the beginning ERP was considered out of reach by almost all the companies of SME sector and as a tool of fortune meant for 500 companies, who could spend huge sums of money on purchasing the s o f t wa re , i n sta l l i n g ro b u st I T infrastructure and could dedicate manpower, time, and money for its implementation. But with the change in time and with rise of more and more ERP solution providing companies the upper market got very competitive, now to grow and bear the growing expenditures the software companies have developed marketing strategies to target mid and small size market. This has initiated change in the design and structure of present day ERP to suit to the needs of SME market. As it is easily understood that the benefits of ERP are more realistic and practical to SME than large companies, as large companies can invest money and manpower to find out an alternative way of doing tasks, such cushion is not available with SMEs, the biggest disadvantage being the amount of money a mid- size company will have to invest to get the benefits of ERP. So the ERP solutions for SMEs need to be cost effective and easy to implement. The professional services which a large organization can avail a small or midsize company may not be able to. Cost effective ERP software with less complex implementation process is the most suitable option for SMEs.
Low cost of implementation alone cannot push ERP solutions down the throat of SME market. Some of the midsize companies might be small in size and business, but they might have been in the market for quite some time. And it has been noted, in most of the cases, that such companies have number of different types of systems working simultaneously in one organization. When ERP is implemented all of those systems either need to be integrated with the ERP or the old data has to be converted according to the format and design required by the ERP to understand, for smooth and trouble free transition and working. This calls for a flexible architecture of ERP software which should be able to integrate with different software, platforms, and operating systems. Most of the SMEs would like to deploy ERP in a step by step process where they will switch over one module after another, this makes the
process easier and less cumbersome. To target SME market companies have started offering ERP software in suite, which allows the buyer to purchase one application with complete functionality of a particular department of organization like SCM, CRM, Financial management etc and with smooth and easy integration facilities with other applications. Instead of buying whole ERP for the organization switching over in steps is more attractive for SME units. Hosted ERP, cloud computing, SaaS models have been promoted by almost every ERP company and with a primary aim of attracting more clients from the SME sector. These models take away most of the worries and deterrents of companies from the SME market regarding ERP implementation and cost. The availability of top ERP solutions in such models has been the major factor that has played its role in making ERP popular in the SME market.
To Subscribe Your Copy Today! Call: 044-28555248 / 044-28586703
224 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd
at work in Alakhnanda Hydro Project
utzmeister, a global leader in stationary concrete pumps, truck mounted concrete pumps and boom pumps has been part of several prestigious projects. The company's truck mounted concrete pump M32 with 150 mm pipeline once again proved their robust performance under strenuous working conditions at the Alakhnanda Hydro Project in Uttarakhand. The hydro electric facility being built by M/s GVK Projects presented a unique set of challenges due to the rugged terrain and extreme climatic conditions, where concrete had to be pumped in the right quantity at the right time. The project developers once again relied on the proven performance of Putzmeister's range of concrete pumps to adhere to project guidelines and schedules. The work site perched on the Himalayas, presented the engineers with a daunting set challenges because of the terrain. Adding to the complexity of the project was the flow of the Alakhnanda River.
The concreting process of the project required planned execution. The engineering team had to first of all plan the logistics part, involving the M 32 concrete pump and the location of the concrete batching plant. The company's truck mounted M32
concrete pump along with 150 mm pipeline was equal to the tough task at hand. The M32 model with its reach height and features including modul boom control and cable remote control proved its efficacy once again under conditions of extreme duress.
Intake Tunnel and Dam site
226 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Power House and Penstock Area
Putzmeister Truck mounted concrete Pump M 32 with 150 mm pipe line at job site - Pumping and conveying Aggregate up to 40mm
De silting Chambers site
360 CUM/Hr capacity Batching plant.
Construction Site of Power House
The team at the project had to plan everything in detail, right from the procurement of the raw material for the concrete to the placing of concrete. The concrete came from the stationary concrete batch plant that was specifically set up for the project. The work site consisted of different
types of work, which included construction of the intake and outlet tunnels, apart from the power house and penstock area. The desilting chamber site was where the M32 truck mounted concrete pumps were placed for pumping the concrete.
The team relied on meticulous planning for adhering to the project guidelines and schedules. The Alakhnanda hydro project is yet another milestone for Putzmeister's range of concrete pumps. The M32 truck mounted concrete pump has once again proved its mettle.
www.masterbuilder.co.in | The Masterbuilder - April 2011 227
Galleria Centercity, Cheonan, South Korea
Abandoned Oil Rigs Could Become Bustling Mini Cities
bandoned industrial infrastructure is increasing by the day and designers are now thinking of using them in an innovative way. A design by Ku Yee Kee and Hor Sue-Wern hopes to reclaim oil rigs and use them as habitation units, with common recreation areas. The concept however is not new, since the controversial 'Principle of Sealand' near UK, which has claims to be the world's smallest country, is in fact an old oil platform. The design consists of stacked units that offer great views of the vast ocean. The structure would also have labs for marine research beneath the water. Other features that will be incorporated include solar electric panels on the roof, wind turbines and tidal energy generators to power the structure.
new futuristic departmental store in South Korea now holds the distinction of having the largest illuminated façade in the world. Located in the Cheonan region, the Galleria Centercity boasts of an energy-efficient double skin that is as much part of its attraction as the goods that are stocked inside for avid shoppers. The designers have tried to maintain to match the social components of the design with the retail elements that are found in the building. Designed by architecture firm UN Studio, the building is public and private, open and intimate at the same time, according to its designers. The design is such that there are several places where translucent exterior lets daylight penetrate without overheating the complex. The entire building virtually glows like a lantern on nightlife, making it the cynosure of all eyes in town.
Renzo Piano's, 'Vulcano Buono'
jaw dropping piece of architecture has risen in Italy. This iconic structure has been constructed in the Italian city of Nola. Inspired by volcanoes, the structure in fact lies just a stone's throw away from the famous Mt.Vesuvius. Designed by architect Renzo Piano, the cone-shaped commercial centre has been christened 'Vulcano Buono', which translated from Italian means "good volcano". The sloping green roof is just one among the several sustainable features that have been incorporated as part of the building's design. The epic building is now the most important landmark in Nola, which is an important freight terminal hub in central Italy.
Building Rises in Italy
228 The Masterbuilder - April 2011 | www.masterbuilder.co.in
Kamaz Vectra Motors Ltd
Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd
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