Condensate Polishing Guidelines for Fossil Plants

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Technical Report
Net Levelized Annual Savings Versus Economic Parameters
Net Levelized Annual Savings, $1,000's'

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Offsite Regeneration Onsite Regeneration Powdered Resin

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1200

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1100 1 2 3 Economic Factor Condition 4 5

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Condensate Polishing Guidelines for Fossil Plants
1010181

Final Report, March 2006

EPRI Project Manager K. Shields

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1395 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 • USA 800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES
THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI Black and Veatch Corporation Frances M. Cutler Michael A. Sadler Eli Salem

NOTE
For further information about EPRI, call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800.313.3774 or e-mail askepri@epri.com. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by EPRI 3420 Hillview Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94304 Principal Investigator K. J. Shields Black and Veatch Corporation 11401 Lamar Overland Park, KS 66211 Principal Investigator B. A. Larkin Frances M. Cutler EPRI Consultant 6778 Fiji Circle Boynton Beach, FL 33437 Michael A. Sadler EPRI Consultant 300 Down Road Portishead Bristol, BS20 8JT, England Eli Salem EPRI Consultant E. Salem & Associates 80 Roseld Avenue Deal, NJ 07723 This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Condensate Polishing Guidelines for Fossil Plants. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2006. 1010181.

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PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Fossil plants employ condensate polishers to remove ionic and suspended impurities from the condensate in order to provide high purity feedwater. In the process, the polisher enhances fossil unit availability, reliability, and performance. In 1996, EPRI produced Condensate Polishing Guidelines (TR-104422), the first comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishers used in fossil units. Extensive investigations of condensate polishing technology followed. These guidelines reflect the latest thinking on the technical and economic aspects of currently available condensate polisher designs and effectively replace the 1996 guidelines. Results & Findings The new guidelines on condensate polishing provide a comparative analysis of available technology options and identify the fossil unit application conditions in which they can best be applied. Specifically addressed are deep bed condensate polishing systems and precoat filter/demineralizer systems, with comprehensive discussions of design factors, operating and maintanence factors, and a summary of requirements for optimized performance. The guidelines compare the economics of the most widely used options and present a justification methodology based on assessment of value and costs. Challenges & Objectives Despite compelling evidence that condensate polishers can represent a substantial source of value, polishers are often regarded as not being essential components of fossil steam-water cycles. Polishers are instead often viewed as a design feature that cannot be economically justified. The objective of these guidelines is to provide clear direction with respect to polisher design suitability and identify key design features. The guidelines also include updated cost and value analyses, showing that available polisher system designs offer significant payback both in new-unit and retrofit applications. Technical aspects of polishing are discussed further in other publications, including EPRI’s Condensate Polishing Training Manual (1004933). Applications, Values & Use The justification assessment presented in the guidelines considers the many sources of value provided by condensate polishers. These value sources are considerable and apply to units that are not subject to contamination as a result of cooling water ingress. Also considered are the benefits associated with operation of deep bed polishers in the ammonium form as well as the increasing importance of reliable and simple system designs and operating requirements. Availability of off-site regeneration of deep bed resins cuts initial capital costs, reduces system footprint size, simplifies operator responsibilities, and eliminates the need for storage and use of regenerant chemicals at the plant site. Such separate bed polisher designs, now in limited use worldwide, offer another approach that shows promise at plants where simplicity of design and operation is a priority. v

EPRI Perspective Condensate polishing provides a number of advantages in fossil units that include polishers in the design. It is no coincidence that the better cycle chemistries, oxygenated treatment, and oxidizing all-volatile treatment, are only applicable to units with polishers, and that these units consistently receive cycle chemistry benchmarking scores that are world class or above average. These scores have been shown to represent a significant level of value to the organizations that achieve them. Approach The EPRI Condensate Polishing Team, a group of recognized experts in this area, prepared these guidelines. The authors have been involved in development of numerous reports produced under EPRI’s Boiler and Turbine Steam and Cycle Chemistry Program (Program 64) over the last decade. Keywords Condensate Polisher Cycle Chemistry Fossil Unit Condensate Polishing Condensate Filter

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ABSTRACT
Condensate polishers are employed in fossil plants to remove ionic and suspended impurities from the condensate, to provide high purity feedwater. In so doing, the polisher enhances fossil unit availability, reliability and performance. In 1996 EPRI published Condensate Polishing Guidelines (TR-104422) a comprehensive summary of information on condensate polishers relevant to fossil plant applications. Since that time, EPRI has been instrumental in the condensate polishing area through advancement of techniques to make operation of existing deep bed polishers simpler and more cost effective. Key examples include preparation of guidelines for ammonium form operation of deep bed polishers and off-site regeneration of resins. Effort has also been directed towards identification and development of innovative condensate polishing technology concepts; included here are development of a radial flow polisher vessel design and construction of the EPRI Resin Tester, a device that permits on-site testing of resin kinetics. Technology transfer to plant personnel has been enabled through development of a Condensate Polishing Workshop, which allows plant staff to gain a better understanding of condensate polishing so as to improve and optimize the performance of existing polisher systems and assess the value of inclusion of polishers as part of the fossil unit design. A companion document, Condensate Polishing Training Manual (1004933) was designed for use by workshop participants and as a general source of information on condensate polisher technology. These new guidelines compliment the other EPRI publications introduced since 1996. They effectively replace the 1996 Guidelines report. The new Guidelines provide discussion of available polishing technology options and their suitability for use in fossil plant units under various conditions. Guidance is also given on technical aspects of naked mixed beds the most commonly employed design worldwide and precoat filter/demineralizer designs, in use at a significant number of plants. Most importantly, an updated presentation of condensate polishing costs and benefits is provided. A value analysis is presented which suggests that any of the polisher designs now commonly used are economically justified for in new units or as a retrofit to existing units regarded as important generating assets and projected to have a sufficiently long service life.

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CONTENTS

1 CONDENSATE POLISHING IN FOSSIL CYCLES ................................................................1-1 1.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................1-1 1.1.1 Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry..................................................................................1-1 1.1.2 EPRI Program Philosophy and Key Cycle Chemistry Guidelines...........................1-2 1.2 EPRI Activity in Condensate Polishing............................................................................1-4 1.2.1 Off-Site Regeneration (OSR)..................................................................................1-6 1.2.2 Ammonium Form Operation (AFO) ........................................................................1-6 1.2.3 EPRI Resin Tester..................................................................................................1-7 1.2 4 Radial Flow Condensate Polishing (RFCP)............................................................1-7 1.3 Condensate Polisher Improvement Program ..................................................................1-8 1.4 Revised Guidelines for Condensate Polishing in Fossil Plants .......................................1-9 1.5 References ....................................................................................................................1-10 2 CONDENSATE POLISHING BENEFITS, TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS AND SELECTION GUIDELINES .......................................................................................................2-1 2.1 Benefits of Condensate Polishing ...................................................................................2-1 2.1.1 Reduced Startup Time.............................................................................................2-3 2.1.2 Corrosion Product Capture......................................................................................2-4 2.1.3 Boiler Protection from Deposits and Corrosion .......................................................2-5 2.1.4 Reduced Boiler Blowdown in Drum Type Units .......................................................2-5 2.1.5 Reduced Cycle Makeup ..........................................................................................2-6 2.1.6 Less Frequent Chemical Cleans .............................................................................2-6 2.1.7 Maintenance of Attemperation Water Quality..........................................................2-7 2.1.8 Reduction of Sulfate Deposition in Reheaters.........................................................2-7 2.1.9 Turbine Protection from Deposition and Corrosion .................................................2-7 2.1.10 Reduced Need for Replacement Power ................................................................2-8 2.2 Condensate Polishing Technology Options ....................................................................2-8 2.2.1 Deep Bed System Designs Employing Mixed Beds ................................................2-8

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Naked Mixed Beds.......................................................................................................2-9 2.2.2 Separate Bed Systems.........................................................................................2-10 Shallow Layers of Ion Exchange Resins in Single Service Vessels ..........................2-11 Applicability of Separate Bed Polisher Designs to Fossil Cycles...............................2-13 2.2.3 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Designs ...................................................................2-13 Condensate Filter Applications ..................................................................................2-14 2.2.4 Combination Designs ............................................................................................2-14 Cation-Mixed Bed Designs ........................................................................................2-15 Filter-Mixed Beds .......................................................................................................2-16 2.3 Impacts of Condensate Polisher Operations on Cycle Chemistry................................2-17 2.3.1 EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines ........................................................................2-18 Cycle Chemistry Monitoring Parameters ...................................................................2-18 2.3.2 Polisher Performance Criteria for Effluent Water .................................................2-19 Sodium.......................................................................................................................2-20 Chloride and Sulfate ..................................................................................................2-21 Silica ..........................................................................................................................2-22 Specific and Cation Conductivity ...............................................................................2-22 Iron and Copper .........................................................................................................2-23 Organics ....................................................................................................................2-24 2.3.3 Performance of Deep Bed Systems ......................................................................2-26 2.3.4 Performance of Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Designs .........................................2-27 2.4 Condensate Polisher Evaluation and Selection ...........................................................2-27 2.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology Options .......................................2-28 Risk of Contaminant Ingress and Effects on Cycle Chemistry...................................2-29 Frequency of Unit Startup and Filtration Needs.........................................................2-33 Choice of Feedwater Treatment ................................................................................2-34 Equipment Design and Operation..............................................................................2-35 2.4.2 Technology Evaluation and Selection Methodology..............................................2-36 2.4.3 Technical Assessment of Polisher Design Options ...............................................2-37 Step 1: Assess Condensate Ionic Contamination Potential.......................................2-37 Step 2: Assess Condensate Filtration Requirements ................................................2-38 Step 3: Assess Feedwater Chemistry and Condensate pH.......................................2-38 Step 4: Assess Space Requirements and Availability ...............................................2-38 Step 5: Assess Design and Operational Requirements.............................................2-39

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Step 6: Select Polishing Options for Value Assessment............................................2-39 Polisher Systems for New Fossil Units ......................................................................2-41 Polisher Retrofits to Existing Fossil Units ..................................................................2-42 2.4.4 Economic Assessments to Justify Provision of Condensate Polishing.................2-43 2.5 References ....................................................................................................................2-44 3 GUIDELINES FOR DEEP BED CONDENSATE POLISHING SYSTEMS .............................3-1 3.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................3-1 3.2 Design Factors ................................................................................................................3-1 3.2.1 Service Vessels .......................................................................................................3-2 Inlet Water Distribution Systems..................................................................................3-2 Treated Water Collection Arrangements......................................................................3-5 Summary of Important Service Vessel Design Features .............................................3-7 3.2.2 Regeneration Systems ..........................................................................................3-11 3.3 Operating and Maintenance Factors .............................................................................3-17 3.3.1 Resin Selection......................................................................................................3-18 3.3.2 Resin Testing.........................................................................................................3-22 Closing Comments on Resin Testing.........................................................................3-26 3.3.3 Regeneration and Waste Handling........................................................................3-27 Handling Regenerant Wastes ....................................................................................3-29 Off-Site Regeneration of Resins ................................................................................3-29 3.3.4 Polisher System Instrumentation and Monitoring ..................................................3-31 Cycle Chemistry Monitoring Practices .......................................................................3-32 Other In-service Monitoring Parameters ....................................................................3-33 Regeneration Monitoring ...........................................................................................3-35 3.3.5 System Inspection .................................................................................................3-36 3.4 Summary of Practices for Optimizing Deep Bed CP Performance ...............................3-38 3.5 References ....................................................................................................................3-41 4 GUIDELINES FOR PRECOAT FILTER/DEMINERALIZER SYSTEMS.................................4-1 4.1 Introduction .....................................................................................................................4-1 4.2 Design Factors ................................................................................................................4-1 4.2.1 Service Vessels ......................................................................................................4-1 Bottom Tubesheet Design ...........................................................................................4-3 Top Tubesheet Design.................................................................................................4-4

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Sight Glasses...............................................................................................................4-6 Septa Element Design .................................................................................................4-6 Flow Distribution Devices.............................................................................................4-7 4.2.2 Precoat Application System....................................................................................4-8 Body Feed Application System ..................................................................................4-10 4.2.3 Precoat Removal and Septa Element Cleaning System ......................................4-12 Bottom Tubesheet Backwash ....................................................................................4-13 Top Tubesheet Backwash .........................................................................................4-14 4.2.4 Other System Mechanical Components ................................................................4-16 Precoat Pump ............................................................................................................4-16 Hold Pump .................................................................................................................4-16 Precoat Material Strainers/Traps ...............................................................................4-17 Flow Balancing ..........................................................................................................4-17 Controls/Instruments/Valves and Piping ....................................................................4-17 4.3 Operating and Maintenance Factors .............................................................................4-18 4.3.1 Precoat Media .......................................................................................................4-18 Powdered Cation Ion Exchange Resin ......................................................................4-19 Powdered Anion Ion Exchange Resin .......................................................................4-19 Fiber Material .............................................................................................................4-20 Declumping Agent .....................................................................................................4-20 Resin Media Testing and Storage..............................................................................4-21 4.3.2 Precoat Selection, Preparation and Application ....................................................4-21 Use of Separate Cation and Anion Resin Media .......................................................4-22 Precoat System Operation.........................................................................................4-24 Use of Premixed Resins ............................................................................................4-25 Summary ...................................................................................................................4-25 4.3.5 Service Operation..................................................................................................4-25 Effects of Unit Conditions on Polisher Service...........................................................4-25 High Pressure Drop ...................................................................................................4-26 Low Flow Operation ...................................................................................................4-26 Operation with a Body Feed System .........................................................................4-27 Service after Outages ................................................................................................4-27 Contamination Due to Condenser Leaks or Other Causes........................................4-28 Air Inleakage ..............................................................................................................4-28

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High Temperature Service .........................................................................................4-28 4.3.4 Backwash for Spent Precoat Removal and Septa Element Cleaning ...................4-29 Bottom Tubesheet Design .........................................................................................4-29 Top Tubesheet Design...............................................................................................4-30 Chemical Cleaning of Fouled Elements.....................................................................4-30 4.3.5 Monitoring Requirements .....................................................................................4-30 4.3.6 Inspection and Maintenance.................................................................................4-31 Condition of Precoated Septa/Cleaned Septa ...........................................................4-31 Precoat Leakage through Septa Elements ................................................................4-32 4.4 Summary of Requirements for Effective Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Performance ....4-33 4.5 References ....................................................................................................................4-34 5 CONDENSATE POLISHER JUSTIFICATION AND ECONOMICS .......................................5-1 5.1 Condensate Polishing Benefits and Value ......................................................................5-1 5.1.1 Improved Unit Availability ........................................................................................5-2 Reduction in Boiler Tube Failures................................................................................5-2 Reduction in Chemical Cleaning Frequency................................................................5-3 Reduction in Chemical Excursions ..............................................................................5-3 5.1.2 Reduction in Turbine Efficiency Losses...................................................................5-3 5.2 Comparison of Polishing Technology Options ................................................................5-4 5.2.1 Condensate Polisher Type Comparisons ................................................................5-4 5.2.2 Others Systems .......................................................................................................5-5 5.3 CP System Features - Cost, Value, and Benefits ...........................................................5-6 5.3.1 System Issues .........................................................................................................5-6 Flow Capacity ..............................................................................................................5-6 Bypass .........................................................................................................................5-6 Direct Polishing ............................................................................................................5-7 Booster Loop ...............................................................................................................5-7 Condensate Side Stream Treatment ...........................................................................5-8 Ammonium Form Operation System Features ............................................................5-9 Spare Vessels..............................................................................................................5-9 5.3.2 Cost Reduction Approaches....................................................................................5-9 Number of Vessels ....................................................................................................5-10 Shared Service Vessels.............................................................................................5-11 Shared Regeneration Facilities..................................................................................5-12

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Off-site Regeneration.................................................................................................5-12 5.4 Comparative Condensate Polishing Costs....................................................................5-13 5.4.1 Basis and Assumptions .........................................................................................5-13 Polisher for New 700 MWe Unit with a Once-through Supercritical Boiler ................5-13 Retrofit Polisher for an Existing 600 MWe Unit with Drum Boiler ..............................5-15 5.4.2 Capital Costs .........................................................................................................5-17 5.4.3 Operating Costs.....................................................................................................5-19 Mixed Bed Systems with On-site Regeneration.........................................................5-19 Mixed Bed Systems with Off-site Regeneration.........................................................5-19 Powdered Resins used in Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems..............................5-20 5.4.4 Rationale for Condensate Polisher Justification ...................................................5-21 Approach ...................................................................................................................5-21 Benefits and Value.....................................................................................................5-22 Turbine Efficiency Benefits ........................................................................................5-23 Use of Better Cycle Chemistries ................................................................................5-23 Unit Availability ..........................................................................................................5-23 Unit Startups ..............................................................................................................5-24 Chemistry Outages, Reductions, and Holds ..............................................................5-24 Boiler Chemical Cleaning Frequency.........................................................................5-24 Reduction in Boiler Blowdown ...................................................................................5-24 Cumulative Benefits ...................................................................................................5-25 5.4.5 Sensitivity Analyses..............................................................................................5-27 Equipment Cost .........................................................................................................5-28 Off-site Regeneration Costs.......................................................................................5-29 Economic Factors ......................................................................................................5-29 5.4.6 Conclusions ...........................................................................................................5-31 5.5 References ....................................................................................................................5-31

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Overall Philosophy of EPRI’s Cycle Chemistry Program..........................................1-3 Figure 1-2 “Continuum of Treatments”. Summary of possible boiler water and feedwater treatments for conventional and combined cycle fossil plants, expressed as a function of their design characteristics and equipment capabilities....................................1-5 Figure 2-1 Tripol Separate Bed Service Vessel as used at Stanwell Power Station, Australia ...........................................................................................................................2-12 Figure 2-2 Some Possible Combination Designs for Condensate Polishing ...........................2-17 Figure 2-3 Calculated Equilibrium Capacities of Strongly Acidic Cation Resin for Sodium under Ammonium Form Operation Conditions Showing Dependence on pH and (7,21) Inlet Sodium Levels .....................................................................................................2-30 Figure 2-4 Equilibrium Leakage of Sodium from Strongly Acidic Cation Resin at a Range of pH Values @ 25°C. (Assuming volume capacity = 2 eq/L and selectivity (7,21) coefficient = 0.8) ..........................................................................................................2-31 Figure 2-5 Guidance Road Map for Condensate Polishing Technical Assessment Activities ...........................................................................................................................2-40 Figure 3-1 Schematic Diagram of Cylindrical Condensate Polishing Service Vessel ................3-3 Figure 3-2 Internal Schematic of a Spherical Condensate Polisher Service Vessel Employing Wedgewire Bottom Support Screens ...............................................................3-4 Figure 3-3 Condensate Polishing Service Vessel Distributor Design – Inlet Splash Plate Arrangement ......................................................................................................................3-4 Figure 3-4 Condensate Polishing Service Vessel Distributors – Other Designs........................3-5 Figure 3-5 Collection Nozzles Installed in Bottom of Polisher Service Vessel...........................3-6 Figure 4-1 Typical Precoat Filter Demineralizer System ..........................................................4-2 Figure 4-2 Typical Top Tubesheet Filter/Demineralizer System ..............................................4-3 Figure 4-3 Internals of Bottom Tubesheet Vessel
( 2) (3) (2) ®

..................................................................4-4
(3)

Figure 4-4 Internals of Top Tubesheet Vessel with Flow Straightener Plate Figure 4-5 Closed Loop Precoat Application System
(3) (3)

..........................4-5

.............................................................4-9

Figure 4-6 Open Loop Precoat Application System ................................................................4-9 Figure 4-7 Body Feed System
(3)

..............................................................................................4-12
(23)

Figure 4-8 Air Surge Backwash – Bottom Tubesheet..............................................................4-14 Figure 4-9 Air Bump – Top Tubesheet – Pressurize Step ....................................................4-15 Figure 4-10 Air Bump – Top Tubesheet – Discharge Step ...................................................4-16 Figure 5-1 Condensate Polisher Direct Polishing Configuration ................................................5-7 Figure 5-2 Condensate Booster Loop........................................................................................5-8
(23)

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Figure 5-3 Sensitivity to Equipment Cost.................................................................................5-28 Figure 5-4 Sensitivity to Off-site Regeneration Costs ..............................................................5-29 Figure 5-5 Net Levelized Savings for Five Assumed Economic Conditions Defined in Table 5-9 ..........................................................................................................................5-31

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 Key Cycle Chemistry Guidelines ..............................................................................1-4 Table 2-1 Summary of Monitoring Parameters Guideline Target Values and Action Levels for Condensate Polisher Outlet for EPRI Guideline Chemistries…. .………………………… 2-20 Table 3-1 Service Vessel Design Elements ...............................................................................3-7 Table 3-2 Regeneration System Design Features...................................................................3-11 Table 3-3 Properties of Ion Exchange Resins used in Condensate Polishing .........................3-19 Table 3-4 Tests for New Condensate Polisher Resin
(10-12)

........................................................3-22

Table 3-5 Test Parameters to be Considered for Inclusion in a Polisher Resin Testing (1,10-12) Program ....................................................................................................................3-25 Table 3-6 On-Line Instrumentation for Deep Bed Condensate Polisher Monitoring ................3-33 Table 3-7 Surveillance Techniques for Deep Bed Regeneration Systems ..............................3-35 Table 4-1 Precoat Preparation and Application Parameters....................................................4-23 Table 4-2 Typical Condensate Polisher Operating Data..........................................................4-26 Table 5-1 Total Installed Cost of Alternate Service Vessel Configurations..............................5-11 Table 5-2 Capital Cost Comparison: New Polisher..................................................................5-18 Table 5-3 Capital Cost Comparison: Retrofit Polisher .............................................................5-18 Table 5-4 Comparative Annual Operating Costs: New Polisher ..............................................5-20 Table 5-5 Comparative Operating Costs: Polisher Retrofit ......................................................5-20 Table 5-6 Condensate Polisher Benefits Summary .................................................................5-26 Table 5-7 Net Costs and Benefits Summary for New Condensate Polisher Units...................5-27 Table 5-8 Net Costs and Benefits Summary for Retrofit Condensate Polisher Units ..............5-27 Table 5-9 Present Worth Discount Rates and Levelized Fixed Charge Rates ........................5-30

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1
CONDENSATE POLISHING IN FOSSIL CYCLES
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Availability and reliability have long been recognized as key factors that influence the performance and profitability of fossil plant unit operations. Operating experience and industry statistics reflect the adverse effects of improper water chemistry on fossil unit availability and reliability, as represented in the frequency of chemistry-related failures and associated unscheduled outages. Further, deficient chemistry practices reduce the efficiency and performance of fossil plant components in contact with water and steam and shorten the useful service life of these components. The EPRI Cycle Chemistry Program was established in 1984. The overall objectives of the program are to provide guidelines, innovative research and development of the underlying science and technology transfer materials, which together will assist organizations in avoiding fossil plants availability and reliability losses. The following program goals have been shown to be attainable in conventional fossil plant units: • • No boiler tube failures related to cycle chemistry No turbine problems involving the cycle chemistry, specifically: – – – • – – • – – • – no corrosion fatigue in low pressure turbine components no stress corrosion cracking in disks minimum deposits (no availability losses or performance concerns) eliminate serious flow-accelerated corrosion failures minimize iron and copper transport (each to less than 2 ppb in the feedwater) selected to protect boiler and turbine customized for each unit minimum (“core”) levels of instrumentation for all units and treatments 1-1

Optimized feedwater treatment to:

Operational guidelines for all unit designs and operating conditions

Simple and reliable chemistry instrumentation and control

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles

– • •

continual chemistry surveillance, control and alarms for all units

Optimized procedures for unit shutdown and layup Eliminate unneeded chemical cleanings – – appraise need to clean establish effective approaches and procedures training of staff benchmarking assessments of plant chemistry programs value and risk-based management tools for assessment of cycle chemistry improvements

Optimum managerial approach and support for cycle chemistry – – –

Despite the fact that such performance has been proven possible, far too many organizations continue to suffer availability and reliability losses directly related to the chemistry. Conversely, there are already a number of excellent or world class utility organizations that enjoy the benefits of operating without chemistry-related boiler and turbine failures, with minimal rates of corrosion product transport, requiring few (if any) chemical cleanings, etc. Many other organizations are working with EPRI to improve their chemistry programs and making measurable progress, with commensurate changes in unit availability and performance. A substantial majority of the world class fossil units have condensate polishers; these units typically have no turbine corrosion problems and very few chemistry related boiler tube failures. 1.1.2 EPRI Program Philosophy and Key Cycle Chemistry Guidelines The overall philosophy of the program is schematically depicted in Figure 1-1. As indicated in the figure, a wide spectrum of activities contribute to improvement of the overall understanding of the science of water chemistry and how to optimally apply it to individual fossil plant units. Findings of research conducted under the program enable development of products for use at plant. As indicated in the figure, the main products consist of cycle chemistry guidelines, a cycle chemistry advisor (EPRI ChemExpert), and various training and improvement programs and workshops that ensure proper technology transfer to end users.

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Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles

Figure 1-1 Overall Philosophy of EPRI’s Cycle Chemistry Program

There are nine key cycle chemistry guideline documents that should be used by personnel responsible for fossil plant water chemistry. These publications are the “crown jewels” of the EPRI Cycle Chemistry Program, reflecting the cumulative findings of over two decades of research. Included are three operating guidelines,(1-3) three selection, process and transient guidelines,(4-6) and three cycle support guidelines.(7,8) Table 1-1 indicates the subject matter of these guideline publications, the year of publication, and the year in which publication of guidelines revisions and updates are planned. This report represents the first revision of the (9) original condensate polishing guidelines. As shown in Figure 1-1, these nine key chemistry guideline documents are integral to the content of the technology transfer programs and other tools developed for use by personnel responsible for chemistry in fossil units. Updated guidelines serve as the initial conduit through which the findings of research and development efforts are transferred to users. Technology transfer program activities enable end users to become more familiar with information in the guidelines, introduce strategies to introduce and apply it, and introduce benchmarks that may be used to measure improvements.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles Table 1-1 Key Cycle Chemistry Guidelines Guideline Type/Subject Operating Guidelines • Phosphate Continuum (PC) and Caustic Treatment (CT) • All-Volatile Treatment (AVT) • Oxygenated Treatment (OT) Selection, Process and Transient Guidelines • Flow-Accelerated Corrosion • Cycling/Startup/Shutdown/Layup • Control of Copper in Fossil Plants Cycle Support Guidelines • Makeup (Revision 1) • Chemical Cleaning (Revision 2) • Condensate Polishing (Revision 1), this report 1999 2001 2006 2008 1997 1998 2000 2007 2004 2002 2005 2008/2009 Year Published Planned Updates

The Cycle Chemistry benchmarking methodology developed by EPRI has now been applied to over 100 organizations around the world; results of benchmarking indicate that most of the units with the best or world class benchmarking scores feature a condensate polisher in the design. Consistent with the benchmarking findings, use of the better cycle chemistry treatments, such as oxygenated treatment (OT) and all-volatile treatment (AVT) generally requires that a polisher be included in the cycle design. Drum-type fossil units without polishers should apply solids based boiler water treatments, either phosphate continuum (PC) or caustic treatment (CT) to provide some protection against feedwater contamination. Figure 1-2 correlates fossil cycle design characteristics and treatment choices.

1.2 EPRI Activity in Condensate Polishing
Initial guidelines for condensate polishing in fossil plant units were published in 1996 (9). The 1996 guidelines were developed in recognition of the importance of condensate polishing in achievement of EPRI Cycle Chemistry Program Goals and in avoidance of component degradation and performance losses over the life of the unit, as are needed to ensure satisfactory fossil unit availability and reliability.

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Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles

Figure 1-2 “Continuum of Treatments”. Summary of possible boiler water and feedwater treatments for conventional and combined cycle fossil plants, expressed as a function of their design characteristics and equipment capabilities

Following publication of the 1996 guidelines, consideration was directed to barriers that appeared to limit the use of commercially available polishing technology in fossil cycles. Subsequent research initiatives were implemented to address them. Initial thoughts on this subject were summarized in a 1997 conference paper (10), which concluded that economic factors appeared to represent the primary barrier and described some ways that costs might be reduced. Subsequently, an EPRI Strategic Science and Technology Project was established, and known as the “Innovative Condensate Polishing Project”. A team of condensate polishing specialists was assembled to evaluate options for reducing the cost of deep bed condensate polishing systems. As a result of this process, several topics were recommended for additional assessment and development activity. • • Development of procedures and specifications for off-site regeneration (OSR) of condensate polishing resins Establishment of guidelines applicable to ammonium form operation (AFO) of polishers 1-5

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• •

Development of a resin kinetics testing device that could be used to support condensate polishing operations at fossil plants Investigation and development of radial flow (RF) ion exchange technology for fossil plant condensate polishing applications

Research initiatives recommended by the team working on the “Innovative Condensate Polishing Project” were subsequently evaluated within the Cycle Chemistry Program, in a project entitled “Guidelines for Advanced, Cheaper, More Compact Condensate Polishing”. Summary discussions of investigations of these topics are provided in ensuing subsections of the report. 1.2.1 Off-Site Regeneration (OSR) For traditional deep bed polisher designs, the regeneration facility represents a substantial portion of the system capital cost. Further, plants are under continually increasing pressure to minimize or eliminate on-site storage of hazardous chemicals and discharges associated with waste treatment operations. Another issue for some organizations is that of storing and handling the regeneration chemicals on the plant site. These concerns, in combination with the observation that many plants with polishers are facing eventual replacement of existing regeneration and waste treatment systems, contribute to growing interest in alternatives to the conventional polishing approach, where resin inventories are managed at the individual plant site. In response to these needs, the concept of OSR was established. It was initially envisioned that the off-site transport and regeneration of resins would be performed by contractors, such as service companies that specialize in portable filtration, membrane technology and ion exchange systems. For some organizations, it may be preferable to establish a single OSR facility for all of the generating plants that they own, operate and maintain. Guidelines describing the technical requirements and costs of OSR were published in 2001. (11) A large utility organization in the US is now teaming with a service company for OSR support , and an organization in Canada has built a combined cycle unit that included a polishing system designed to utilize OSR. Other organizations are beginning to evaluate the benefits and value of OSR as part of long range plans to retrofit polishers, to avoid replacement of aging regeneration facilities, and to configure future generating units. In 2003, an assessment was initiated to retrofit (13) condensate polishing systems on critical units with drum-type boilers ; this was necessary since there was interest in improvement of unit availability by operating with oxygenated treatment (OT). This effort concluded that deep bed polishers, operated in the ammonium form and regenerated off site, offered the lowest life cycle cost of the various options covered during the assessment. Additional discussion of OSR technical aspects is included in Section 3; cost impacts are considered in Section 5. 1.2.2 Ammonium Form Operation (AFO) AFO does not represent new technology as it has been used successfully in some plants for over 30 years. However, industry experience with AFO has been variable, this due to several areas of 1-6
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misunderstanding with respect to the unit operating and polishing system attributes required to successfully implement AFO. Included here are misconceptions about how to respond to contamination incidents when using AFO. Comprehensive guidelines for proper application of AFO were published in 2001.(14) Workshop discussion sessions conducted by EPRI with its member organizations have concluded that some organizations could make improvements that would allow them to use AFO, while some of the organizations using AFO are not deriving the expected benefits. Ammonium form operation of deep bed polishers is discussed in Section 3 and the cost is assessed in Section 5. 1.2.3 EPRI Resin Tester In assessing the technical feasibility and overall practicality of OSR, it was noted that reliability of the regeneration process and the resin kinetic performance during service must both meet high standards so as not to pose a barrier to development of an OSR service industry that fossil plants could depend on. Development of a device that could quickly and reliably assess the kinetics of regenerated resin media without the need to rely on highly trained laboratory personnel was identified as a means of minimizing these concerns. A device of this type could also find use in stations operating on-site regenerated polishers, in system laboratories, and elsewhere. Review of relevant theory on resin kinetics and kinetics testing led to establishment of a prototype tester design, which also may be applied as a tool for other resin testing needs. EPRI publications detail the development work and construction and field assessment of the EPRI Resin Tester.(15, 16) 1.2 4 Radial Flow Condensate Polishing (RFCP) Research to conduct simulation studies and model experiments with RFCP is now complete and reports on the findings of these efforts have been published (17.18). However, much additional work remains to be done in order to develop and demonstrate the technology and determine exactly what role RFCP should play in fossil units. A brief summary of the RFCP concept, available results and remaining challenges follows. With RFCP, flow passes through the bed in the radial, as opposed to the axial, direction. In theory, the direction could be either inward or outward; each direction has possible advantages and presents design challenges. Flow distribution must be very uniform so as to attain the advantages that appear possible with the radial flow approach. Interest in RFCP relates to the fact that smaller vessel diameters can be employed than with conventional axial flow designs to achieve the same capacity. Unlike axial flow, with which vessel diameter must be increased as flows increase so as to maintain suitable bed hydraulic conditions, with radial flow, increased flows are accommodated by extending the length of the service vessels. This results in lighter, thinner, and potentially less costly service vessels.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles

Theoretical modeling assessments of RFCP suggest it could have better resin utilization characteristics than conventional axial flow units; a capacity advantage of around 10% appears possible, while producing water of at least comparable purity. Follow-up development involved a series of bench top experiments conducted to assess the theoretical model for RFCP. Results of this work confirmed most of the model predictions. Pilot testing is needed to evaluate RFCP performance under power plant conditions and to assess engineering options available to establish and maintain uniform mixed resin and flow conditions across the bed. Findings of the bench scale tests were used in preparation of a design specification for a pilot scale test unit (19) suitable for use evaluation at a power plant.

1.3 Condensate Polisher Improvement Program
To facilitate technology transfer on condensate polishing to its members, EPRI developed and implemented a Condensate Polisher Improvement Program (CPIP) in 2002. On-site workshops are conducted upon request at member facilities. These sessions are conducted by members of EPRI’s Condensate Polishing Team over a three day period. The workshops consist of structured training sessions suitable for both experienced and inexperienced staff involved with condensate polishing at all levels plus open discussion periods to review material presented earlier and ask specific questions related to their polisher systems. During open discussion, the participants are challenged to identify areas of possible improvement for condensate polishers in their units. It is suggested that CPIP teams be established to communicate the findings to management and prioritize, investigate and implement improvements. In many instances, the organization also participates in EPRI’s Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program (CCIP) and may elect to include CPIP activities through existing CCIP Teams. Upon request, CPIP participants can receive additional support through follow-up workshops and polisher system benchmarking activities. The workshop presentation materials were based on information from earlier publications, including the 1996 Guidelines, the AFO Guidelines, the OSR Guidelines, etc. Where necessary, the content was supplemented by information available in EPRI Conference proceedings and the open literature. In 2003, a new product, Condensate Polishing Training Manual, was introduced.(20) This publication was developed primarily as a “hard copy” of information included in CPIP workshop training sessions. It also captures the most important aspects of condensate polishing theory, equipment and operation of use and interest to technical and operations personnel. It thus serves as a primary reference for plant personnel responsible for day to day condensate polisher operations and performance, while providing linkage to other publications of possible interest. The workshop sessions have now been conducted at a number of organizations worldwide. The process followed in developing prioritized improvement needs has resulted in determination of many deficiencies common to more than one organization. Detailed discussion of these subjects is provided in the Condensate Polishing Training Manual available from EPRI.(20) • Area of Knowledge Deficiency: Deep Bed Polishers – Resin Specifications

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– – – – – – – – – – • – – – – – – – • – – – – – – –

Pre-service Conditioning of New Resins Resin Sampling and Testing Regenerant Chemical Requirements Resin Separation Techniques to Minimize Cross Contamination Cleaning Techniques for Removal of Crud from Resins Ammonium Form Operation Benefits and Requirements Resin Kinetic Performance Standing of Regenerated Bed Following Regeneration Rinse Requirements Resin Transfer Requirements Preparation of Precoat Slurry Transfer of Slurry and Precoating of Septa Elements Requirements to Clean Septa Elements Importance of Uniform Precoating Importance of Uniform Flow Distribution during Precoating and Service Optimal use of Resin and Fiber Media Media Specifications System Troubleshooting based on Interpretation of Operating Data System Monitoring Requirements Benefits and Value of Condensate Polishing Polisher Justification Requirements for New and Retrofit Applications Procedures for System Operation Procedures for Media Handling Need for System Specific Operational Training

Areas of Knowledge Deficiency: Precoat Filter/Demineralizers

Areas of Knowledge Deficiency: General

1.4 Revised Guidelines for Condensate Polishing in Fossil Plants
The 1996 Guidelines represented the initial product on condensate polishing for use by fossil plant personnel. Because of this, the guidelines covered a wide spectrum of topics. As indicated earlier, much of the information from the 1996 Guidelines has been included in the 2003 Training Manual. However, this process identified important areas where existing information needed to be updated. Included here is the rationale for selection of condensate polisher systems for fossil plants, chemistry monitoring requirements, and assessments of polisher benefits, costs 1-9

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing in Fossil Cycles

and value. Also, the 1996 guidelines could not consider the changes to cycle chemistry guidelines that have been introduced since their publication. In response to the need for updated information in these areas, this revision was produced. It was purposely designed to compliment the 2003 Training Manual in that this version of the guidelines focuses on management concerns while the Training Manual is intended for use primarily by technical and operations staff. The manual consists of five sections. Section 2 identifies and reviews the commercially available CP approaches (deep bed systems, precoat filter/demineralizer systems and condensate filtration systems) and defines the attributes and limitations of each and characterizes their effects on fossil plant cycle chemistry. This section should be consulted when there is interest in installing new polishing systems. It includes presentation of the EPRI rationale for evaluation and selection of CP systems for application to new and existing (retrofit) units and provides guidance applicable to this process. A road map approach is used to illustrate the evaluation and selection methodology. Section 3 provides guidelines for design and operation of deep bed polishing systems; the primary focus is on naked mixed beds, the deep bed system design most widely used in fossil cycles. Section 4 provides comparable guidance for precoat filter/demineralizer polishing systems. These sections may be used to possible identify possible areas of deficiency in existing polishing systems. Complete resolution of deficiencies may require further investigation and referencing of other publications. The benefits, costs and value of condensate polishing are discussed in Section 5. Included here is a complete update of information on economic and cost analysis provided in the 1996 guidelines report. The information in this section is for use in consideration of providing polishers in fossil units, based on an objective of costs and benefits.

1.5 References
1. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Phosphate Continuum and Caustic Treatment, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004188. 2. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: All-volatile Treatment, Revision 1, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2002. 1004187. 3. Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Fossil Plants: Oxygenated Treatment, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2005. 1004925. 4. Guidelines for Controlling Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Fossil Plants, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1997. TR-108859. 5. Cycling, Startup, Shutdown and Layup Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Operators and Chemists, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1998. TR-107754. 6. Guidelines for Copper in Fossil Plants, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2000. 1000457. 7. Revised Guidelines for Makeup Water Treatment, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR-113692. 8. Guidelines for Chemical Cleaning of Conventional Fossil Plant Equipment, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1003994. 1-10

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9. Condensate Polishing Guidelines, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1996. TR-104422. 10. M. A. Sadler and R. B. Dooley, “Possible Methods of Reducing the Cost of Condensate Polishing on Fossil Stations”, Fifth International Conference on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1997. TR-108459. 11. Guidelines for Off-site Regeneration of Condensate Polishing Resins, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1001502. 12. G. L. Bartley and R. T. Taylor, “Off-Site Regeneration Services for Condensate Polishing Resin”, Seventh International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2003. 1009194. 13. B. A. Schmidt and B. A. Larkin, “Condensate Polisher Evaluations for AmerenUE Drum Units”, Seventh International Conference on Cycle Chemistry in Fossil Plants, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2003. 1009194. 14. Condensate Polishing Guidelines: Ammonium Form Operation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1004322. 15. EPRI Resin Tester, A Simple Tool for Monitoring Resin Kinetics, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2003. 1004541. 16. Field Demonstration of the EPRI Resin Tester: Prototype Development and Initial Field Usage, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2004. 1008084. 17. Radial Flow Condensate Polishing, Radial Ion Exchange Simulation Studies, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2001. 1001409. 18. Radial Flow Condensate Polishing, Radial Ion Exchange Physical Model Experiments, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2002. 1004542. 19. Development of a Radial Flow Condensate Polisher Pilot Scale Test Vessel Design Specification, EPRI, Palo Alto CA: 2004. 1004543. 20. Condensate Polishing Training Manual, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004933.

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2
CONDENSATE POLISHING BENEFITS, TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS AND SELECTION GUIDELINES
As discussed in Section 1, fossil units with condensate polishers are able to operate the simpler and more effective water treatment regimes such as All-volatile Treatment (AVT) or Oxygenated Treatment (OT). They are also likely to have benchmark scores in the very good to excellent/world class range and thereby exhibit high levels of availability. Provision of a condensate polisher should be considered on any new generating unit. Polisher retrofit to existing units should also be considered for existing units regarded vital from the standpoint of availability and performance. Under either scenario, the decision process should take into account benefits and technical aspects of condensate polishing. These topics are the subject of this section. Evaluation of the costs and value of condensate polishing are also important as this ensures that provision of a polisher is a sound business decision. These topics are presented in Section 5 of these Guidelines.

2.1 Benefits of Condensate Polishing
The benefits of condensate polishing systems are numerous and are detailed in the following subsections. They include those to which a net economic return can be associated, e.g.: • • Elimination or considerable reduction in delays at startup of units attributable to inappropriate water chemistry such as contaminated condensate. Reduced use at startup of the condensate dumping that is often carried out to accelerate the achievement of acceptable condensate quality. With this reduction there is obviously a saving in the makeup water required to replace the discharged contaminated condensate. Reduced use of blowdown on drum boilers that is often necessitated by the gradual concentration of impurities brought into the system in the feedwater. Reduction or possibly elimination of the need to chemically clean steam/water circuits thus making significant savings in the costs associated with such cleaning and the unit outage times involved. Protection of the steam/water circuit against the effect of impurity ingress incidents. These are typically condenser leaks but can include incidents such as the return of contaminated drains. In less severe contamination incidents units that would have otherwise been taken out of service can, with condensate polishing, continue to generate until an economic and convenient time for off-loading is found. In more serious incidents, polishers allow controlled shutdowns and prevent contamination of the steam water circuit. Thus, they 2-1

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

facilitate a more rapid return to service of the unit after repair and minimize the need for time consuming decontamination procedures. • The ability to safely use simpler and more effective forms of water treatment both on drum and once-through boilers such as AVT or OT. The latter treatment in particular has been proven to minimize corrosion and deposition in the steam/water circuit thus maximizing availability and minimizing cleaning and repair costs. A significant reduction in the rate in which turbine efficiency deteriorates owing to deposition on blade surfaces. This improvement is attributed to the higher steam purity achieved on units with full flow condensate polishing and should be particularly noticeable on those units that have adopted OT.

It is necessary to consider if there are disadvantages in using condensate polishing. Critics of polishing often point to the fact that there are significant capital and operating costs involved in the provision and use of polishers and the relative costs of the various designs are considered in Section 5. However, many assessments clearly show that there are net economic benefits even on units not experiencing condenser leaks. The concern that at some stations the space required for condensate polishing has to be provided, so adding to the overall cost, can be true on some fossil stations. However, relative to the benefits derived this is usually not a serious matter. Precoat filter/demineralizer systems occupy less space and do not require resin regeneration facilities. They are not appropriate for all power stations but some use them to advantage. Space requirements of conventional deep bed polishing plants can be minimized by adopting off-site resin regeneration, but again this approach is not suitable for all plants. The provision of space is therefore one of the factors that has to be taken into account when considering a condensate polishing retrofit. Apart from economic considerations, the other most frequently heard concern is that condensate polishers can act as a source of ionic impurities such as sodium, chloride and sulfate. It is true that some badly designed, installed and/or operated polishers have been shown to contribute such impurities. Some have also been shown to release small amounts of fine ion exchange resin particles that eventually decompose yielding sulfate or other sulfur containing compounds. A few power stations have felt obliged to limit the use of such poorly performing polishers to being an aid only at startup or in the event of a condenser leak. It must be understood that such leakage situations all indicate the existence of faulty design and/or operational conditions. Such poor behavior is a clear sign that a problem or problems exist and is certainly not to be accepted as normal behavior. As discussed in detail in later sections, these difficulties can arise from faults in the original design, plant installation, and equipment maintenance practices or in system operation. The achievement of polished condensate to a quality suitable for fossil power stations is not a demanding task compared with that successfully faced by most designs of nuclear power station where far higher polished water qualities are demanded and routinely achieved. There are many accounts in the technical literature detailing the behavior on fossil power stations of relatively simple polishing plants over decades of use with polished water qualities consistently being comfortably below the required chemistry targets. The fact that condensate polishers of all designs can potentially, under adverse conditions act as a source of impurities must be realized. This risk is minimized by following the advice given in these guidelines but as already pointed out impurity release from polishers depends upon design, 2-2

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mechanical condition, the condition of the ion exchange resin being used and competent operation. Problems, if any, must be solved quickly with the aid of specialists if necessary. The basic theory underlying the preparation of very high purity water has been known since the 1960’s with more recent studies continuing to add to this knowledge. Operators need to be trained in the basics of condensate polishing so that they are aware of the capabilities of their systems and know when to seek assistance should its performance deteriorate. To assist them adequate on-line instrumentation such as simple sodium and conductivity monitors are essential. To compliment the on-line instrumentation, regular checks on polished water quality by use of more sensitive instrumentation such as ion chromatography is highly desirable. Such capability is particularly useful in performance troubleshooting. This is a practice long established in nuclear plants. With the development of simpler less expensive instruments, it can be used in suitably staffed fossil plants. Ion chromatography analysis can also be performed at a central or private laboratory facility as needed and appropriate. Through use of ion chromatography the control of condensate polishing plants on fossil power stations in many parts of the world has been made easier even on stations that are lightly staffed and in remote locations. The leakage of impurities from polishing plants above the target levels generally agreed is therefore completely unacceptable and unnecessary but is thankfully now an uncommon event provided stations take the trouble to train their staff. 2.1.1 Reduced Startup Time The use of condensate polishing during cold or hot startups plays a vital role in ensuring that condensate is quickly conditioned to meet the targets for forward feeding to begin. A 1998 EPRI Guideline on fossil plant startup, shutdown and layup describes condensate polishing as a definite asset for all operating units as its use can minimize the need to dump contaminated water (1) from the condenser hotwell and the consequent need to add makeup water. The economic need to meet generating commitments in a timely way provides an important incentive to remove all obstacles to rapid startups. Impurities found in condensate at startup include the following: • • • • • • Iron oxides, possibly with lower quantities of other metal oxides, derived from corrosion of the steam/water circuit Silica arising from the wash-off of turbine blades during the shutdown process Sodium, chloride, sulfate and potentially other salts from cooling water in-leakage into the condenser hotwell during the shutdown period Carbon dioxide from air ingress Products of combustion, including sulfur oxides, if reheater leaks are present Silica and other miscellaneous impurities arising from repair and inspection procedures after a maintenance shutdown

If EPRI Chemistry Guidelines are being followed the concentrations of impurities in condensate being fed forward to the boiler should be within well defined limits. These limits are arranged as

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

Target Values with up to three successive Action Levels that also indicate the maximum time that it is considered advisable to operate with the impurity concentrations involved. Water purity from condensate polishers, even when treating condensate under startup conditions, should be able to meet most the Target Values and reduce the time chemistry parameters are in Action Level ranges. Under normal startup conditions it is found that the quality of the incoming condensate rapidly improves with time and as the rate of forward feeding increases. With it the quality of the polished condensate will improve so that even if a very short term excursion above Action Level 1 should rapidly be corrected. Nevertheless, operators must be vigilant to ensure the polishers are performing properly and are not in need of attention. 2.1.2 Corrosion Product Capture The term “crud” is a general term used to describe the particulate corrosion debris that is formed and circulates within the steam/water circuits of power plants. It is mainly composed of iron oxides with the exact composition varying with the materials used in the individual steam/water circuits and chemical conditioning regime used. It can be carried forward to the boiler where it plays a role in assisting corrosion processes. Crud is most certainly an undesirable impurity and uncontrolled shutdown, layup and startup can allow a significant mass of crud to enter the boiler where, in addition to its contribution to corrosion processes, it leads to the need for frequent chemical cleaning. Units vary in the extent to which crud forms and collects in the condenser hotwell. The use of more effective water treatments such as Oxygenated Treatment (OT) allied with effective shutdown procedures should reduce the production of crud. The contamination of hotwell condensate during the shutdown period will, of course, also depend on the type of start-up and the precautions taken against off-load corrosion. Shutdowns vary from brief overnight shutdowns during which the system remains hot, to longer periods which if properly controlled could include drying the system or employing the advised wet lay-up procedures to very long term dry storage.(1) On many units the task of reducing crud levels in condensate at startup still poses a problem unless condensate polishing is employed. Total iron concentrations can rise to hundreds or even thousands of ppb during a startup. Simple naked mixed bed polishers will, at the best, only remove about 90% so that for a short time >100 ppb could, if so allowed, go forward to the boiler. This filtration efficiency decreases with reductions in the input crud levels so that at very low total iron concentrations it can perhaps be a low as 50%. Precoat filter/demineralizers will act as more effective filters with crud removal capabilities normally above 90% but have a very much lower capacity for the removal of ionic impurities relative to that of deep bed polishing system designs. The efficiency with which deep beds remove crud is also dependant on the type and particle size of oxide being filtered. Much lower levels of crud are normally seen under steady state operating conditions, typically about 2 ppb or lower assuming the chemistry is properly selected and has been optimized. These lower levels of crud are less effectively removed by deep bed polishers and precoat filter/demineralizers are very effective filters and performance is not less significantly influenced by influent levels. The precoat designs are generally more useful on 2-4

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units that demand this high filtration performance providing there are not concerns about the significantly lower capacity for the removal of ionic impurities. In some instances, the filtration ability that filter/demineralizers offer becomes important in controlling silica levels as this impurity can exist, at least in part, in a colloidal form that will not exchange but may be filterable to some extent. 2.1.3 Boiler Protection from Deposits and Corrosion The removal or reduction of crud being transported around the circuit is a clear benefit. Condensate polishing makes a significant contribution to the cleanliness of the boilers so helping to reduce boiler corrosion, surface fouling and other problems associated with iron oxide deposition. It use also minimizes the need for the periodic use of costly and time consuming chemical cleaning procedures of the plant and the loss of availability that is inevitably associated with such procedures. If crud enters the boiler system it will remain entrapped unless removed by chemical cleaning although, on drum boilers, a small quantity may be removed in blowdown. Even if the crud carried in condensate is largely removed, further crud can derived from ongoing corrosion processes in the feedwater system and this also contributes to any problems. The drains from the steamside of the HP feedwater heaters are fed forward, unpolished, to the boiler. Those from the LP feedwater heaters are returned to the condenser hotwell so that any crud that they contain is subsequently removed by the polishers. The use of condensate polishing therefore helps to reduce iron transport to the boilers but does not prevent it completely. Crud transported into a boiler can form deposits in high heat flux areas. This crud allows other impurities to concentrate underneath, at the sensitive metal/deposit boundary. The actual mechanisms of attack of the resulting corrosion processes are complex but are well known and (2) generally understood. Underdeposit corrosion attack is responsible for many of the boiler tube failures in drum type boiler units that occur with acid phosphate, sodium hydroxide and chlorides all being capable of concentrating and causing corrosion. It should be noted that aggressive concentrates of phosphate and sodium hydroxide are usually derived from deliberately added conditioning chemicals. Crud also forms deposits that interfere with heat transfer and it can deposit on valve surfaces so interfering with their operation. It can also cause an increase in the pressure drop across oncethrough boilers so reducing their output. On units with mixed metallurgy the crud that is formed and transported to the boiler usually contains a proportion of oxides of copper and other metals present. The relatively high solubility shown by copper in steam leads to it being carried over in steam and depositing on the blades of the HP turbine, possibly causing a significant loss of efficiency and even capacity. 2.1.4 Reduced Boiler Blowdown in Drum Type Units Non-volatile soluble impurities entering drum boilers in feedwater largely accumulate in the boiler water with a small proportion escaping in the steam by means of physical carryover or in steam solution. To reduce and control the levels held in solution, in boiler water, the process of blowdown is employed, i.e. a small quantity of boiler water is periodically released with the loss 2-5

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

being replaced by makeup water. The blowdown process is wasteful in that water, treatment chemicals and heat are all lost. It does not reduce the quantity of nominally soluble impurities that can “hide out” in the boiler in a solid form, or as concentrated solutions in crevices and under deposits, unless special steps are taken such as reducing load and pressure. However, for power stations without condensate polishing, blowdown is the only procedure that can be used on drum boilers to control levels of soluble non-volatile impurities in boiler water. The use of condensate polishing substantially reduces or eliminates the need to use blowdown. However, the main benefit is the ability that it gives to maintain optimum waterside conditions within the actual boiler and, as this strongly affects the steam/water circuit, within the whole unit. Blowdown cannot be used on once-through boilers although at startup and shutdown some have a very limited opportunity to discharge feedwater to waste. For these boilers the use of full flow polishing becomes of even greater importance as is evidenced by its wide scale use by plants of this type. 2.1.5 Reduced Cycle Makeup The quantity of makeup water supplied to any conventional boiler unit will be largely determined by its pattern of operation. Units enjoying base load operation should have the lowest demand and units subjected to frequent, i.e. daily, starts without the aid of condensate polishing, the highest. This increased demand for makeup by cycling units without polishers is partly attributable to the need to overcome the condensate contamination that is so frequently seen at startup. If water or steam is passed out of the steam/water cycle for steam soot blowing, for export to a cogeneration host facility or for uses such as NOx control on gas turbines then these uses will significantly increase the demand for makeup water. 2.1.6 Less Frequent Chemical Cleans The need for chemical cleaning of boilers is dependent control of the levels of deposit on tube waterside heat transfer surfaces as determined by criteria such as deposit mass loading, deposit (3,4) thickness or changes in boiler pressure drop. Cleaning should be performed as needed to minimize the risk of tube damage and failure, and to avoid performance losses associated to increases in pressure drop. Cleaning is also indicated as a necessary corrective action when certain boiler tube failure mechanisms become active. Whatever the exact concern, it is well known that boiler cleanliness is dependent of feedwater purity. Reductions in the crud content of the feedwater are possible by optimization of the chemistry and use of condensate polishing to remove oxides from the inlet condensate. These actions will slow the fouling process on waterside heat transfer surfaces of both once-through and drum boilers. Condensate polishing plays a very useful role in reducing crud transport during startups. It has another important role in facilitating the safe adoption of OT for the treatment of feedwater both for once-through boilers and for drum boilers. This treatment regime has led to dramatic decreases in iron transport levels and consequently in the need to chemically clean boilers of both types; in many instances the need for cleaning has been eliminated. 2-6

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2.1.7 Maintenance of Attemperation Water Quality The water used in attemperators to control the temperature of superheated steam is normally taken just after the boiler feed pump. It is important that this spray water should be of high purity for any contaminants contained in this water will be carried to the turbine system where they could deposit and cause corrosion. Without condensate polishing the quality of feedwater can be variable depending on whether a condenser leak is present or if any ingress of impurities is taking place by another route, e.g. by contaminated drains that are being recovered to the condenser hotwell. If the feedwater is contaminated by 1 ppm of sodium then, assuming a 1% attemperator spray flow, sodium levels in superheated steam treated by attemperators will increase by 10 ppb; this value is approaching EPRI’s Action Level 3 for steam. Attemperators normally contribute about 1-2% to the steam flow but on some stations, due to furnace design or other problems, these spray rates are significantly higher making them even more susceptible to spray water contamination. 2.1.8 Reduction of Sulfate Deposition in Reheaters Sulfate has a very low solubility in steam. To the sulfate in steam from solubility effects must be added that contribution derived from mechanical carryover, an effect that varies from unit to unit and with load. By a combination of these mechanisms a small proportion of the sulfate held in boiler water is therefore carried further round the steam/water circuit. However, the steam solubility of sulfate is pressure dependent and as the steam pressure decreases in its passage through the turbine system, sulfate begins to deposit on surfaces. This does not present a corrosion risk in service but during shutdown periods, when such deposits become wet, corrosion processes can occur depending on actual conditions and the metals involved. Of particular concern is the deposition that occurs in reheaters for it can, if humid conditions are allowed to occur during unit shutdown, give rise to pitting corrosion of the steel. These pits then develop so that reheater tube walls become perforated allowing steam to escape when the unit is on-load. They can also allow combustion gases to be sucked into the steam piping and through the IP and LP turbines during the early stages of unit startup. The problem of sulfate pitting of reheaters is difficult to solve completely by reducing sulfate levels in boiler water so that for effective protection care must always be taken to ensure that (5) reheaters are stored dry. 2.1.9 Turbine Protection from Deposition and Corrosion The steam solubility behavior of impurities such as sodium, copper, chloride, sulfate and silica is of interest and varies according to the forms in which they are transported and in the extent to which their solubility decreases as the steam pressure decreases through work done in the turbine. Copper deposition is of particular concern in cycles with copper alloy feedwater heaters and high turbine throttle pressures.(6) Operation in conformance with EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines avoids contamination of steam to levels at which these impurities will cause problems. Use of condensate polishing will remove ionic impurities and reduce levels of copper oxides in the condensate exiting the condenser hotwell.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

2.1.10 Reduced Need for Replacement Power Many of the benefits discussed in prior subsections directly and collectively contribute to improvements in the availability of units and hence a reduced need for replacement power. In many situations this reduced need for power represents a significant net value. The important contributors can be summarized as: • • • • Better control that the use of condensate polishing offers during startups should minimize the occasions that units are unable to meet loading patterns Minimization of corrosion leads to fewer unplanned outages and periods when the unit is unavailable as it is undergoing repairs Improvements in the rate in which the formation of boiler waterside deposits are formed, which should lead to fewer outages for chemical cleaning Improvements in attemperator spray water help to minimize turbine corrosion outages

2.2 Condensate Polishing Technology Options
Several approaches have been followed to clean up the condensate in the steam-water cycles of fossil plant units. Deep bed polishing includes both commonly used mixed bed designs, introduced here and discussed further in Section 3, and less frequently used separate bed technologies. An alternative to deep beds is the use of systems that apply a thin coating of ion exchange and/or filter media to filter elements; these systems, introduced here and discussed further in Section 4, are known as precoat filter/demineralizers. Combination designs are also available and have seen some limited use in fossil plants. 2.2.1 Deep Bed System Designs Employing Mixed Beds The basic design of down flow (axial flow) deep bed service vessels has evolved from earlier designs used in water treatment plants. Nevertheless, in its present highly developed form, axial flow beds of ion exchange resins provide an extremely effective means of bringing water to be treated into close contact with resin beads and of making good use of the available ion exchange capacity of the resins. Water flowing through condensate polishing service beds travels downwards at much higher velocities than employed in normal ion exchange. Deep beds of ion exchange resin are supported by one of several different systems that act to collect the polished water and ensure, along with the influent distributor, an effective flow distribution through the bed. The bottom support/collection system must also allow the virtually complete removal of the resins for regeneration purposes as and when required. Top distribution systems can be very simple employing, say, four or more inlets with internal extensions each terminating above the resin bed in a splash plate to distribute the flow and to avoid direct impingement of then incoming water on the resin. More complex designs are also in use so that together with an effective bottom collection design the influent water is well distributed for its passage through the bed.

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The performance of deep bed plants does not only rely on an effective hydro-mechanical design but also on the efficiency of regeneration of the exhausted resins. The most commonly used deep bed condensate polishing systems employ mixtures of anion and cation resins and for regeneration purposes the mixture has to be separated as completely as possible as the two components require treatment with different chemicals. In experienced hands even the simplest separation processes work effectively enough for fossil power station applications but in recent years other separation processes have been devised that not only give improved separations but are more robust and reliable in operation. These high efficiency separation processes can yield resins regenerated to the very high standards demanded by nuclear power stations. Importantly for the fossil sector, the high purity resins so derived also allow appropriate power stations, e.g. those on base load and not suffering from persistent condenser leaks, to operate their polishers in an economical and labor saving way with regeneration intervals increased from the conventional 3-5 days to many months. This way of operating deep bed polishers is termed ammonium form operation and for obviously reasons has become the polisher operating mode of choice for some utilities. It has its disadvantages and these are discussed later in these Guidelines and, more (7) fully, in a dedicated EPRI report. Other developments have also taken place with simple techniques for further purifying regenerated resins being devised and adopted, the so called post-regeneration purification processes. These are aimed at further improving the quality of regenerated resins and so the purity of the polished water produced when operating in the conventional mode and in the economical ammonium mode. In a few countries there is a movement back to simpler, but not necessarily less costly, polisher designs employing separate beds of cation and anion resins. They are claimed to be more robust and easier for staff on fossil stations to use as they avoid some of the problems associated with use of ammonium form operation in mixed beds. The vitally important resin regeneration processes have also evolved so that now there is a choice of on-site procedures available; most of these are proprietary. The use of specialist contractors that collect and regenerate exhausted resins off-site is now beginning to grow. It is important that any would be user of condensate polishing should be aware, even if only in (8) outline, of these options and their advantages and disadvantages. Naked Mixed Beds The naked mixed beds approach is widely used as it offers the lowest capital cost of the various deep bed options as discussed in Section 5. This design approach has been shown to be quite effective and reliable if attention is paid to: • • Achieving good flow distribution and collection patterns; these characteristics should be taken care of at the design stage but must be checked in operation and corrected if necessary. The physical and chemical condition of the resins; this includes the minimization of fine resin particles, monitoring of resin condition and maintenance of resin kinetics by replacement if necessary. Efficient resin movement in and out of service and regeneration vessels. Effective regeneration including efficient prior separation of the mixed bed into the anion and cation resin components with minimal cross contamination. 2-9

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

The important factors of design, resin condition, resin movement and regeneration are discussed extensively in Section 3. Designs that carefully consider these factors are necessary for the efficient use of any deep bed polishing plant. The main exception is that separate bed designs, discussed later, are not faced with the resin separation concerns of mixed bed polishers. The number of beds used primarily depends on the maximum volume of condensate to be treated. However, it also depends on design of the service beds and particularly on the linear velocities. A typical medium sized fossil unit, say 500 to 600 MW, will need to employ two 50% polishing beds with many plants preferring to use a 3x50% design. The latter provides a spare vessel that allows polishing to continue even when a bed is being taken out of service for regeneration. An alternative approach of simply providing a spare charge of resin goes some way to offering the same advantage at a lower capital cost as the reserve charge can reasonably quickly be moved into any empty service vessel. Thus there are several ways in which service vessels can be used. This subject is considered further from a cost standpoint in Section 5. 2.2.2 Separate Bed Systems Designs of deep bed condensate polishing plants also include arrangements involving individual vessels bedded with cation exchange, anion exchange and cation exchange vessels operated in series. (In a few installations the second cation bed is replaced with a small mixed bed, the resins of which are usually disposed of without regeneration.) This design is favored on some fossil power stations in Germany with use also reported in (9) neighboring countries including Denmark and the Netherlands. The fact that resin separation is not required enables in-situ regeneration to be used and this design variant has also been adopted in some but not all plants due to cycle contamination concerns. A further development that is claimed to improve the quality of the final polished water is the use of counter-current regeneration of the anion resin and also the cation resins in the trail bed. The lead cation bed cannot be counter-current regenerated as it needs to be backwashed for crud removal. There is unfortunately very limited detailed information about the quality of the polished water produced from in-situ regenerated separate bed plants. The condensate produced is reported to be suitable for fossil plants with sodium leakages of < 0.5 ppb and chloride leakages of < 1 ppb together (10) with cation conductivity of 0.06 µS/cm. Estimates of the costs of separate bed polishers (Section 5) would be greater than for a comparable naked mixed bed plant. At some large air-cooled power stations in South Africa existing cation-mixed bed polishers have been converted to cation-anion separate bed plants and are reported to operate successfully. The main role of these plants is that of filtration and to remove any carbon dioxide that enters the steam/water circuit via air leaks. A concern with the conversion was that the anion resin could release traces of sodium hydroxide if it was not effectively rinsed after regeneration. (The main purpose of the trail bed in the three bed design is to capture sodium leaking from the anion bed.) This concern has now been addressed by further purifying the newly regenerated anion resin by using special rinse circuit that includes a small cation resin bed.(11)

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Shallow Layers of Ion Exchange Resins in Single Service Vessels A different and innovative approach to the use of separate bed condensate polishers has been successfully used in Australia since the 1980’s. The design generally used is the proprietary “Tripol®” system, which was developed in the UK and was first described in 1980 by Smith and Peploe.(12) It involves the use of shallow beds of cation, anion and cation resins held in one vessel but separated by retaining screens, Figure 2-1. Resins are hydraulically moved to dedicated vessels in an external regeneration plant when exhausted. Design flows of 147 m/h (60 gpm/ft2) and greater are higher than the 100 to 120 m/h (41-50 gpm/ft2) conventionally used in deep bed polishers. This would appear to offer cost advantages in vessel design but also requires close monitoring of resin kinetics and the possibility of more frequent replacement of the resin media if fouling develops. A number of Australian power stations have adopted the proprietary design. The earliest was installed at Muja, Western Australia, and this has now been operating for about 20 years. Other plants of this design are in use at Callide, Loy Yang B and Tarong Power Stations with a later plant at Stanwell, Queensland, Australia. Polishing plants of this type have been installed in Singapore and NewZealand.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

Lead Cation Resin

Anion Resin

Trail Cation Resin

Figure 2-1 Tripol® Separate Bed Service Vessel as used at Stanwell Power Station, Australia Source: Courtesy Stanwell Corporation.

Based on available experience, separate bed in single vessel plant designs readily allow operation in the economical ammonium form and can yield a quality of treated water that is totally satisfactory for fossil power stations. Detailed information on the behavior of the Stanwell 2-12

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installation shows that when operating in the ammonium form at pH 9.32-9.35 the levels of sodium in polished water are in the range of 0.2-0.3 ppb with similar levels of chloride and sulfate. Cation conductivities were in the range of 0.06 to 0.065 µS/cm.(13) The actual design adopted by this 3x300 MW station is interesting in that it uses only one 100% flow vessel per 2 unit with a water velocity of 176 m/h (72 gpm/ft ). Later information details how the Stanwell normally runs its polishers for 10 weeks in the ammonium form before being regenerated.(14) Applicability of Separate Bed Polisher Designs to Fossil Cycles Overall it appears that the more conventional separate bed/separate vessel approach, as reported from Europe, is not cost effective compared with other designs of polishing plants due to high capital costs. Furthermore, the idea of reverting to in-situ regeneration sometimes used to reduce this cost is unlikely to be acceptable to most fossil stations. The separate shallow bed approach appears more attractive and more importantly seems to make ammonium form operation easier to control as compared to mixed bed systems. Ammonium form operation offers useful operating economies as compared to H-OH operation. It could also allow some plants to use off-site regeneration thus saving capital costs and avoiding local effluent discharge restrictions. The high service flow rates often employed relative to mixed beds are important as this will make the bed more vulnerable to ionic leakage as resin kinetics deteriorate over time. Limited information on performance and cost of these systems makes it difficult to make a complete comparison to naked mixed beds and other deep bed systems. Thus they are not considered fully in Section 3 of these guidelines and no comparative cost information is provided in Section 5. Further evaluation of this technology is needed to adequately define its suitability as an option worthy of more widespread consideration for specific fossil cycle applications. 2.2.3 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Designs A different technique using ion exchange resins to purify condensate and remove particulate impurities was introduced in the early 1960’s and termed precoat filter/demineralizers. Essentially it consists of the use of very fine particle size media (cation and anion resins as well as inert fibers) that are mixed and used to coat the septum type filter elements. These septa are normally tubular with the most common wrapping being continuously wound yarn or plastic or metal wire. The resins not only act to remove ionic impurities but also function as very effective particulate filters; when used, the inert fiber media enhances filtration performance. It is not possible to recover, separate and regenerate the ion exchange media. On exhaustion the media is stripped from the septa by backwashing and replaced by fresh media. Precoat filter/demineralizers therefore offer a simple system design as discussed further in Section 4. Their applicability to fossil plants is dependent on the ability to minimize condensate contamination, both by cooling water ingress and air in-leakage, this due to the limited capacity of the thin precoats that are used.

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Condensate Filter Applications Condensate filters were used to protect deep beds on the very early condensate polishing systems at fossil stations but in recent years have seldom been included in designs. Many of the stations with designs of condensate polishers that date to the 1960’s and early 70’s were originally provided with a prefiltration stage. In many cases these prefilters are no longer used because of the effort required to keep them working.(15) Thus, the use of the prefilters ahead of these early polishing plants at fossil units has largely ceased. However, crud control is extremely important on the major designs of nuclear power stations and particularly so on BWRs. In support of this application EPRI has sponsored studies of ways in which iron and other metal oxides carried by condensate on these stations can best be removed. These studies have considered the various types of coated prefilters (with designs like those used for precoat filter/demineralizers), non-coated backwashable filters and hollow fiber filters. Disposable filters are also available and are potentially of more interest to some stations in view of their lower capital costs. Operating costs will tend to be higher, particularly if plant regulatory requirements increase the cost of disposal of the spent filter elements. In recent years there has been some limited application of condensate filters in fossil plants using commercially available technology including that largely developed for and more widely applied in nuclear plant cycles. However, future interest in this technology could increase in view of the fact many fossil units are subject to cycling and peaking operation and could possibly benefit from such filter systems sized to handle startup flows. Increasing use of air cooled condensers in new units as also led to interest in condensate polishing and filtration, as these condensers feature large surface area, are subject to carbon dioxide ingress as a result of tube leaks and tubes are composed of carbon steel. Designs of filters and filter/demineralizers have evolved so that suspended oxides can be removed with over 99% efficiency being claimed for some types. The decisions to be made by fossil stations is whether they only need a condensate filter system that is applicable only the removal of particulates or a precoat filter/demineralizer system that also offers some limited ion exchange capability. 2.2.4 Combination Designs Use of cation resin beds ahead of mixed beds is used in some power stations. Early polishing system designs, consisting of precoat filters, which could be coated with ion exchange resin as well as other filter media, followed by mixed beds, represented the first example of a combination design. This design is still employed in some units, however, the cost and filtration capabilities of naked mixed beds has resulted in them being the most widely used design. Examples of possible combination design arrangements are indicated in Figure 2-2. Included are: a) Cation-mixed bed; b) Filter-Cation-Mixed Bed; c) Filter-Mixed Bed; d) Mixed Bed-Trail Filter; e) Filter-Mixed Bed-Trail Filter and f) Filter-Separate Bed. Widespread use of combination designs is constrained by many factors. These include system capital costs (described in Section 5), space requirements, and system complexity with associated needs for 2-14

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operator training. While technical aspects are not completely discussed in these guidelines, brief discussion of these designs and the advantages they offer follows. Theses options are also mentioned in discussions of advantages and disadvantages. Cation-Mixed Bed Designs The fact that naked mixed beds have become the most popular design of condensate polishers has not precluded the development of deep bed designs such as the cation-mixed bed that employ a deep bed of cation resin in front of the mixed bed as schematically depicted in Figure 2-2. It simply involves the use of a deep, typically 0.9 m (3 ft), cation bed followed by a mixed bed with both vessels usually being of the same size as schematically illustrated in Figure 2-2. The plant layout therefore consists of parallel streams of cation-mixed bed vessels, such as 2x50% streams or 3x50% streams so as to give a spare stream as already discussed. Additional parallel streams, of course, have to be used on larger units. The extra cation bed per stream requires the provision, in the regeneration plant, of a dedicated cation regeneration vessel in addition to the normal cation regenerator used for the smaller quantity of resin from the mixed bed. Additional valves and controls are also needed. The possible advantages of using a deep cation bed ahead of the mixed bed may be summarized as follows. • • • The cation bed acts as an effective filter protecting the mixed bed from crud contamination and fouling and possibly extending the lives of the mixed bed resins. It provides a significant increase in the quantity of cation resin, which to could be important for a unit using high levels of ammonia and needing to run its polishers in the H-OH mode. In view of the large increase in the cation resin inventory it is possible to use a mixed bed with a higher proportion of anion resin than the 2:1 (by volume) cation to anion mixture normally used. Thus a 1:1, or even a 1:2 cation to anion, mixture can be used. This could be important in the event of a condenser leak when the available anion exchange capacity often dictates the time a polisher can stay in service. The lead cation bed will remove virtually all the ammonia so that the impurities passing to the mixed bed are primarily anionic, i.e. acidic. Anion exchange resins theoretically show the best kinetic response under neutral to acidic conditions. In naked mixed bed plants, the water passing on to the mixed bed will initially be alkaline owing to the presence of ammonia. Cation-mixed plants can be operated so that the resin in the lead cation vessel is regenerated as and when it exhausts to a selected endpoint, say a direct conductivity of 0.1 µS/cm The mixed bed, assuming that impurity ingress problems had not been encountered, need not be regenerated every time that the resins in the lead cation bed exhaust. This will not only economize on the use of regenerants and in the waste produced but could also act to improve the quality of the polished water. Cation-mixed bed plants are not usually employed in the ammonium form but could in theory show advantages if operated in this way.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

In summary, it is a robust design with a flexibility that has still not been completely exploited. The main disadvantages cation-mixed bed designs are the extra space required and the higher capital cost. Filter-Mixed Beds Some power stations have and continue to operate polishing plant designs in which the mixed bed is protected from crud by a filter, often a powdered resin filter/demineralizer.(15) At least one separate bed single vessel design has included a filter sized for use during startup so as to avoid iron contamination and possible iron fouling of the lead cation resin bed. In some instances, filters have been positioned after deep beds to capture resin fines. It is now normal practice to remove fines from deep beds during regeneration and rely on resin traps to prevent gross loss of media from polisher service vessels. These approaches are normally satisfactory and as a result there is usually little need to include a trail filter in the design. Some general arrangements that have been used are shown in Figure 2-2. As discussed in Section 2.2.3, filter/demineralizers remove crud very effectively and used in this way will also add to the total ion exchange capacity of the plant. However, this increase in the total capacity is likely to be small, particularly for cations, as the powdered resins will be operating at high pH in the ammonium form irrespective of the service mode of the mixed bed. The use of a filter/demineralizer ahead of the mixed bed significantly increases the cost of the plant relative to the base line design of 3x50% naked mixed beds. However, the estimated cost of a filter/demineralizer-mixed bed system approaches the cost of the more robust cation-mixed bed design with the latter having more overall advantages.

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Figure 2-2 Some Possible Combination Designs for Condensate Polishing

2.3 Impacts of Condensate Polisher Operations on Cycle Chemistry
Use of condensate polishing is very beneficial in that it allows the unit to quickly meet EPRI Cycle chemistry guidelines following startup. Polishing also offers some capacity to remove impurities present in condensate during normal operation. This capability provides protection for the boiler and turbine. It also gives the operator greater flexibility in diagnosing and responding 2-17

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

to contamination. Shutdown of units due to contamination of units with polishers, when needed, generally can be more orderly while still protecting cycle components from deposition and corrosion. 2.3.1 EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines The various EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines provide guidance on many aspects of cycle chemistry selection, application, monitoring and control. For the available guideline chemistries, allowable normal (Target Value) concentrations of potentially corrosive impurities are provided. Corrective action should be initiated when the Target Values, preferably customized for the unit by the organization, are exceeded. EPRI Action Levels indicate the time that higher impurity concentrations should be tolerated without undue risk of corrosion damage. Thus, if any of the Action Level 1 limits are exceeded, and these vary according to the impurity of concern, it is recommended that the situation be corrected within one week. If condensate concentrations exceed Action Level 2 it is recommended that this situation should not be tolerated for more than 24 hours. It is advised that impurity levels above Action Level 3 be corrected within 4 hours or the unit be removed from service. It is therefore logical to base condensate quality requirements during the startup period on these same water purity/time recommendations. Guideline Target Values and Action Levels are designated for specific locations in the cycle. The EPRI guidelines values cover various chemistries and unit configurations. They should be further customized as needed for individual fossil units. Cycle Chemistry Monitoring Parameters Detailed discussions of water chemistry requirements for fossil units are provided in a number of EPRI Guidelines. The available guidelines for all volatile treatment, phosphate continuum, caustic treatment, and the revision guidelines on oxygenated treatment establish a set of Core Monitoring Parameters for all fossil units applicable to various sample points including condensate pump discharge (CPD), condensate polisher effluent (CPO), economizer inlet (EI), boiler water (BW), and reheat or main steam (RH or MS) These may be summarized as follows: • • • • • • • • Cation (Acid) Conductivity: CPD, CPO or EI,RH (or MS), BW Specific Conductivity: Makeup, CPD, CPO, BW pH (Drum Units): BW (Downcomer or Blowdown) Dissolved Oxygen: CPD, EI Sodium: CDP< CPO or EI, RH (or MS) ORP (in units with Copper FW Heaters): DAI Air In-leakage Carryover (Drum Boiler Units)

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Acid conductivity (more commonly called cation conductivity because sample is passed through a hydrogen form cation column) indicates the total anion concentration by removing the background conductivity of ammonia or other amine used for pH control. Cation conductivity also enhances the conductivity of trace levels of strong acid anions because they are present as their acids and the equivalent conductance of hydrogen ion is so much greater than that of any other ion. The condensate often includes impurities such as carbon dioxide and traces of volatile, weak, organic acids including acetic and formic acids and possibly very low concentrations of their homologues. Carbon dioxide enters the steam/water circuit with air ingress and the organic acids are breakdown products of more complex organic impurities often present as traces in makeup water. These impurities are considered unlikely to pose a corrosion threat but can, on circuits without full flow condensate polishing, be a nuisance in that they interfere with easy interpretation of cation conductivity readings. In systems with polishers, they will be exchanged by anion resin thus consuming capacity available for other anions, including chloride and sulfate. Additional chemistry parameters that may be monitored for troubleshooting and diagnostic purposes including but not limited to: • • • • Chloride: Makeup, BW, RH (or MS) Sulfate: Makeup, BW, RH (or MS) Silica: Makeup, CPD, BW, RH (or MS) TOC: Makeup, CPD, RH (or MS)

The cycle chemistry monitoring requirements for condensate polisher effluent, summarized in Table 2-1, vary with the treatment. Assuming that they are properly designed and operated, condensate polishing plants are capable of producing a product water of far higher purity than that of feedwater demanded by the various guideline values indicated in the table, which are set for cycle deposition and corrosion control purposes. In addition, condensate polisher effluent purity will ordinarily be much better for sodium and cation conductivity. Performance on silica should conform to guidelines assuming that proper control of silica in the treated makeup water is provided and that silica ingress due to condenser leaks is not excessive. 2.3.2 Polisher Performance Criteria for Effluent Water Fossil stations should also set their own operational criteria for expected levels of impurities in polished condensate based on system performance characteristics. Assessment of the polisher should begin whenever these criteria cannot be met. These performance based criteria are invariably tighter than the levels at which EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines, which indicate conditions under which action should be taken based on concerns on corrosion and deposition concerns.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines Table 2-1 Summary of Monitoring Parameters Guideline Target Values and Action Levels for Condensate Polisher Outlet for EPRI Guideline Chemistries Parameter Sodium, ppb Na Cation (Acid) Conductivity, µS/cm Silica , ppb SiO2 Normal < 2-3 < 0.15-0.2 < 10 Action Level 1 < 4-6 > 0.15-0.2 > 10 Action Level 2 < 8-12 Action Level 3 > 8-12

Note: Actual values within the indicated ranges are specific to feedwater chemistry in use.

For example, Eskom of South Africa has formalized such an approach in their internal operating specifications. Their limiting values of 1 µg/kg (ppb) are well within the capabilities of polishing plants to achieve. Their operational targets of 0.5 µg/kg (ppb) are also routinely achievable from polishers operated in the conventional mode given a normal degree of care and (16) attention. Slightly higher operating targets are usually set for silica with those for total iron depending on the water treatment regimes being used. It must again be stressed that operating targets are set locally and used for guidance in the operation of polishers. The following subsections discuss polisher performance considerations with respect to individual chemistry parameters. Sodium In the absence of cycle contamination, sodium levels in condensate normally should be <1 µg/kg (ppb). EPRI Target Values for sodium in the condensate vary from 2-3µg/kg (ppb) without polishing to 6µg/kg (ppb) with polishing depending on the plant characteristics and the treatment in use. Similarly, the feedwater and steam Target Values are <2-3µg/kg (ppb). It must be stressed that these are levels at which operators must take action and are not a guide to contaminant levels considered to be normally present in fossil units. Maintaining the sodium levels as low as possible and preferably <1µg/kg (ppb) at all times provides the best protection from deposition and corrosion. Further, this approach minimizes reliance on boiler blowdown for control of boiler water impurity levels in units with drum boilers. Under some boiler water treatment regimes sodium is deliberately added to boiler water of drum boilers in the form of sodium hydroxide or sodium phosphate. On boilers using such treatments the application of strict targets controlling sodium levels in their condensate and feedwater may appear unnecessary. However, the fact that a portion of the feedwater flow is directly sprayed into steam as a means of controlling superheat temperature, and that any impurities in the attemperator spray water may thus pass directly to the turbine, means that feedwater quality must be maintained irrespective of the boiler water conditioning regime. The least that a polishing plant must achieve in the way of sodium control is to maintain polished condensate levels at and preferably well below the EPRI Target Values.

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Ionic impurities such as sodium are very effectively removed by cation resin in a mixed bed operating in the conventional H-OH mode with the resin showing a capacity that allows beds to be in service for a reasonable number of days before regeneration is required. Similarly cation resin when used in a separate bed plant also shows a useful capacity and effectiveness for its removal. If operated in the ammonium mode, mixed bed and separate bed polishers can, in the absence of condenser leaks or startups, operate for many months thus significantly reducing the number of regenerations required and also the quantity of effluent requiring disposal. Ion exchange resins of polishers operating in the ammonium form still show an acceptable capacity for removing the common ionic impurities and have been observed to function effectively in removal of crud from condensate. Chloride and Sulfate The Target Values and Action Levels for chloride and sulfate in condensate are set in recognition of their well established roles in causing or promoting corrosion in the steam/water circuit. These roles include: • Causing chloride based on-load pitting corrosion of boiler tubes that can include hydrogen damage. This type of attack can lead to sudden failures of tube walls that are both dangerous and very damaging. Chloride based corrosion fatigue, stress corrosion and pitting corrosion in turbines Synergistic effect of chloride on drum boiler waterwall corrosion in the presence of oxygen and copper Off-load corrosion of steamside components such as reheaters caused by sulfate Acid sulfate corrosion of boiler and turbine components

• • • •

Chloride and sulfate have no useful role to play in the steam/water circuit. Levels of these impurities must be controlled as they are capable of causing significant damage to boilers and steam turbines. Mixed beds operating in the conventional H-OH mode have been shown, under test conditions, to be capable of achieving chloride and sulfate levels in polished water to two to three orders of magnitude lower than the first Action Level in condensate. More typically, values routinely achieved from well run plants operating in the H-OH mode are in the range of 0.1 to 1 ppb. Chloride and sulfate levels greater than 1 ppb generally indicate a deficient design or operating condition such as poor flow distribution or ineffective regeneration. In the economical ammonium form of operation it is again possible to achieve chloride and sulfate levels in polished water of well below 1 ppb even when operating at high levels of ammonia. This has been shown by years of successful operation at a number of fossil stations. Powdered resin filter demineralizers should also have a reasonable capacity for the removal of these impurities although from their design, and the fact that their resins normally operate in the ammonium form, the capacities offered will be lower than that of polishers employing deep beds.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

Silica Silica does not present a corrosion problem but its high steam solubility allows it to be easily transported in steam from boiler water to the turbine where it can deposit causing capacity and efficiency losses. Fortunately, makeup water processes are now usually effective in removing silica from raw water. This capability together with the action of the condensate polishing plant means that turbine silica deposition problems are now rarely seen. Silica is sometimes present in colloidal form in the source water to the makeup system and in the condenser cooling water. Colloidal silica, if present in the makeup supply, may be removed using a suitable membrane technology such as reverse osmosis. In the absence of polishing colloidal silica in the condensate can reach the boiler, where it breaks down into soluble forms of silica that can be removed by ion exchange. A portion of this steam borne silica may then deposit on turbine blades or on other components in the steam/water circuit. The remainder can travel around the steam-water circuit. Deep bed polishing systems, though not capable of removing colloidal solids effectively, are useful in capturing the any ionized silica produced during thermal breakdown that passes through the steam path and present in the condensate. Precoat filter/demineralizers can remove both ionized and colloidal silica though efficiency is dependent on many factors and thus hard to predict. Specific and Cation Conductivity Specific (or direct) conductivity, in the absence of contamination, is an indicator of the levels of treatment, typically ammonia, in the water. Monitoring of specific conductivity is generally used to control chemical dosing. The term cation conductivity is widely used in the power industry to describe the measurement of the conductivity of a water sample after cations have been removed by passage through a column of cation exchange resins prior to the conductivity cell. A more accurate functional description would be to term it “anionic conductivity” but custom and use have established the term cation conductivity which, of course, derives from the abbreviation of “cation exchanged conductivity”. In water samples that have been stripped of cations by ion exchange the remaining anionic impurities will exist as their acids which are more conductive, thus making the conductivity measurement well suited to detection of anionic contaminants. Thus, there will be strong acids such as HCl, H2SO4, weaker acids such as H2CO3 as well as traces of some simple + organic acids. The strong acids will dissociate almost completely, giving H ions and the relevant anions, with the dissociation of the weaker acids being incomplete although these too will yield some H+ ions and the respective anions. The H+ ions so produced have a very high equivalent conductivity so that the process of removing all cations serves two purposes: • • It removes the high background conductivity of the ammonia that is normally present together with any impurity cations. It effectively magnifies the conductivity of the remaining anions.

Thus, cation conductivity is an excellent simple and robust measurement that is ideally suited to being used as an on-line instrument for monitoring the presence of anionic impurities and their trends. It is not specific for any one anion but it is capable of providing early warning of any 2-22

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general increase in levels of anionic impurities in the steam/water circuit. Theoretically, it should be sensitive enough to show an increase in less than 1 ppb of impurities such as chloride and sulfate. However, interpretation of readings from this valuable and virtually universally used measurement can be made difficult if significant quantities of carbon dioxide and/or weak organic acids are present. They simply increase the conductivity reading potentially masking any increase due to chloride and sulfate. Carbon dioxide can be removed by one of the several procedures available for degassing the sample but, as yet, there is not a procedure for removing or compensating for the presence of organic acids. Fortunately, carbon dioxide and weak organic acid levels are effectively removed by condensate polishers operating in the H-OH mode. EPRI Action Level 1 for feedwater cation conductivity is typically set at or below values ranging from 0.15-0.2 µS/cm, depending on the chemistry in use. Operating targets should be set at a lower value. Designated cation conductivity values are intended to reflect situations where a number of anions will be present with each contributing to the overall conductivity. It is however worth noting that a chloride concentration of approximately 16µg/kg (ppb) would result in a measured conductivity value of ~0.2 µS/cm as would a sulfate concentration of 22 µg/kg (ppb). Thus, if a high cation conductivity is seen there is uncertainly over whether it represents unacceptable levels of corrosive chloride and/or sulfate or whether it simply shows high levels of the nuisance anions such as carbonates and organic acids. Nevertheless, it does alert operators to the fact that high levels of anionic impurities are present and prompts them to investigate further. It is clearly sensible, in order to meet cation conductivity targets to take steps to maintain levels of carbon dioxide and organic acids as low as reasonably possible. Carbon dioxide contamination can usually be traced to air ingress although a proportion is derived from the breakup of traces of complex organic impurities entering the steam water in makeup water. The weak organic acids are believed to be also derived from the same complex organic impurities so that control over the quality of makeup water is very important. However, all designs of condensate polishing systems will effectively remove carbon dioxide and deep bed designs operating in the H-OH mode will take out weak organic acids such as acetic and formic. Designs operating in the ammonium form, and this includes precoat filter/demineralizers, will also take out these weak acids but there are indications that their capacity to do this could be limited. Iron and Copper Oxides of iron are invariably found in condensate being derived from the corrosion processes that are taking place around the circuit; oxides of copper and other metals will also be present when the cycle includes copper-based and other non-ferrous alloys. They mainly exist in particulate and colloidal form although a small percentage appears to be present in solution. Usually, iron contamination of condensate and feedwater measured as total iron with wet analytical procedures including a dissolution stage. If it is necessary to identify soluble and suspended iron contents this is usually performed by an arbitrary method using a filter of known pore size, say 0.45 µm, and reporting any iron that passes through as “soluble iron”. Several different types of iron oxide are found in condensate with magnetite, Fe3O4, and hematite (αFe2O3) being the most common although other types have been described, i.e. α-FeOOH (goethite), χ-FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and “amorphous” iron oxide. From the water purification viewpoint the type of oxide present is of interest as this influences the effectiveness by which it can be removed by filtration. Early work by Pocock and Stewart, using specially prepared oxides 2-23

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

added to condensate, showed that magnetite and hematite were both removed by a deep bed of mixed resin and claimed that the greater part of the oxide was removed by the cation resin.(17) They also claimed that the filtration process takes place in depth and without solids buildup across the top surface of the resin bed. Japanese workers, again using specially prepared “model” oxides, concluded that the filtration mechanism is not a simple bulk filtration effect but involves electro-kinetic interactions and that this depends on pH.(18) There is little doubt that deep resin beds act as reasonably effective filters but that their efficiency is very dependent upon the crud concentration of the condensate being treated and the type and particle size of the oxide concerned. At high crud loads, removal efficiencies of over 90% have been shown but at very low crud inlet levels, say less than 10 µg/kg (ppb), this efficiency can fall to less than 50%. The removal of iron oxides on beds of resins is not believed to involve ion exchange, at least in the first instance. Pocock and Stewart showed that at a flow 2 rate of 122 m/h (50 gpm/ft ) the ability of a mixed bed to retain “model” iron oxides varied both with the level of input and the type of oxide.(17) The highest capacities seen relate to experiments in which 2000 to 5000 µg/kg (ppb) of oxides were used. Variations in the condensate flow velocity through a bed heavily contaminated with particulates are reported to result in oxides being released. Although detailed information about such crud release incidents is not available it seems prudent to ensure that beds are cleansed of any particulates that they have collected as frequently as reasonably possible. A further reason for keeping ion exchange resins as free as reasonably possible of iron oxides is, as already mentioned, the risk that they could assist in oxidative attack on the cross linked polystyrene matrix of the resin. For those power stations with copper in their steam/water circuits there is also very real chance of copper oxide particulates being present in their condensates in addition to soluble copper. The removal of copper containing particulates has not been studied to the same extent as the removal of iron oxides but filtration behavior of deep beds is expected to be similar. While the ability of polishers to remove oxides of iron and copper is of importance as this will extend the time interval between boiler chemical cleanings, it should also be recognized that metals can foul the resins and catalyze oxidation reactions which serve to reduce the useful service life of resins used in deep bed systems. It is clear that attention should also be given to protecting the water and steam touched surfaces from corrosion while in service and especially during shutdowns. Organics For their protection, modern high pressure boiler units need to employ very high purity water in their steam/water circuits. The definition of water purity varies with the industry or application for which it is being used. For the power industry the emphasis is placed upon ionic impurities that are known to cause corrosion and those impurities that assist these corrosion processes or lead to troublesome deposits being formed on sensitive components. The traces of organic impurities also remain in the water used in steam/water circuits despite the extensive purification processes to which makeup is subjected. The term “organics” is all embracing and is generally interpreted as those impurities with, at least in part, a carbon chain structure. Those found in makeup water mainly originate from natural sources, i.e. from the products of decay of vegetation that are contained in many of the raw waters that are used for makeup purposes. It is 2-24

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also now taken to include organic impurities such those traces arising from the decomposition of ion exchange resins and from materials introduced owing to activities such as nondestructive examinations of the boiler. The raw water used for makeup can also contain traces of industrial effluents so it is difficult to individually quantify the many different types of organic materials that may be present. They are therefore grouped together under the general term “Total Organic Carbon” (TOC) and measured as such. EPRI Cycle Chemistry Guidelines indicate that TOC levels should be: < 300 µg/kg (ppb) in makeup water; < 200 µg/kg (ppb) at the condensate pump discharge and; < 100 µg/kg (ppb) in reheat steam. The fact that these advised limits are two orders of magnitude above those set for known corrosive or deposit forming impurities is to be noted. A wide range of TOC levels in steam of fossil cycles has been reported. Makeup water is usually the main route by which traces of naturally occurring organic impurities enter fossil steam/water circuits. With the methods of purifying raw water now available it is possible to virtually eliminate this source but not all power stations are fortunate enough to be able to use such processes. The natural vegetation decay products mentioned above consist of a multitude of discrete compounds of differing molecular weights and surface charge characteristics; these are commonly referred to by the very broad but convenient yet non-specific and collective terms of “fulvic” and “humic” acids. Some of the macromolecules that are covered by the general descriptions of fulvic and humic acids can be removed by anion exchange resin. Unfortunately, some types of these organic impurities are then difficult to strip from the resin by normal regeneration processes, i.e. they foul anion resins. This is obviously of concern and so is the behavior of other organic macromolecules, believed to be those with extremely high molecular weights, of being able pass through resin beds. A simplistic view of the ion exchange behavior of the wide range of vegetation decay products that are collectively labeled humic and fulvic acids is therefore that those with: • • • Lower molecular weights can be removed by ion exchange resins and then regenerated from the resins in the normal way Organic impurities with higher molecular weights can foul ion exchange resins with the effect being particularly noticeable on anion resins Very high molecular weights can pass through ion exchange resins

Organic impurities such as humic and fulvic acids entering the actual boiler system will be thermally and hydrolytically degraded to simpler organic compounds. Products of this degradation include weak organic acids such as the volatile acetic and formic acids. However, Harries and McCann point out that although organic macromolecules do, on breakdown, yield simple organic acids, and probably carbon dioxide, the main products appear to be non-reactive (19) organic carbon. This was shown by measuring the concentrations of acetic and formic acids in the steam/water circuits of a number of stations and also the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the water samples. The results indicated that acetic and formic acids and their homologues only amount to about 10% of the measured TOC. The composition of remaining 90% of the TOC remains to be identified but does not seem to contribute to cation conductivity or corrosion. The role that the simple, weak, acids themselves have on the corrosion processes within the steam/water cycle is still a matter of debate but the consensus view is that they should not pose a

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threat provided sufficient volatile alkali, e.g. ammonia, is present. As already discussed, their presence interferes with the interpretation of cycle cation conductivity readings. 2.3.3 Performance of Deep Bed Systems From the points of view of operators on fossil power stations, the quality of polished water produced by naked mixed bed, cation-mixed bed or filter-mixed bed systems when operating in the conventional H-OH mode is essentially the same. It is more influenced by local considerations, such as the effectiveness of regeneration and condition of the ion exchange resins than whether any form of pretreatment is used. Theoretically, cation-mixed bed and filter-mixed beds should be capable of producing a higher quality of polished condensate than naked mixed beds. While this may be true it has not been convincingly demonstrated in the field. Cationmixed bed and filter-mixed beds do offer systems that protect resins from iron fouling and may prolong the lives of the resins. The cation-mixed bed also offers advantages such as greater capacity and hence longer bed runs as well as greater flexibility but, as already discussed, these come at a cost. Using sophisticated regeneration techniques, it has been shown that an H-OH form naked mixed bed can produce condensate containing less than < 0.01 ppb of sodium and chloride. Under power station routine conditions the same polishing plant has been shown to achieve 0.02 to 0.05 ppb of sodium and 0.01 to 0.03 ppb of chloride in its polished condensate. It was also able operate its 270 MW, 16 MPa (2320 psig) once through boiler for 19 months in the face of a continuous steady condenser leak introducing 80 ppb of sodium into the incoming condensate.(20) Even better results have been reported being consistently obtained from some nuclear power stations when running under leak free conditions. The precision and bias of analytical methods in the low parts per trillion (ppt) range in the fossil plant environment is still to be established but nevertheless the procedures used certainly give a good guide to the levels of trace impurities in water. There can be little doubt that deep mixed bed polishing plants operating in the conventional H-OH mode can yield polished condensate containing levels of sodium, chloride and sulfate one to two orders of magnitude lower that those necessary for fossil cycles. For reasons ranging from lack of resources to fine tune the performance of polishers to minor problems in design many stations do not achieve these high levels of performance but still comfortably meet their own selected performance targets for product water purity; these are generally below the purity requirements for cycle protection indicated in Table 2-1. There is great interest in employing deep bed polishers that can be operated in the ammonium form. This not only offers the convenience and economy of operating beds for several months but also significantly reduces the quantity of chemical effluents needing disposal. Ammonium form operation is however a mode of operation that cannot be usefully employed by all power stations and these restrictions are fully discussed in other EPRI publications.(7,21) The levels of impurities in polished water from ammonium form plants are very dependant on the effectiveness of the regeneration of the resin and on the pH of operation. In the event of a condenser leak operators of ammonium form polishers should revert to H-OH mode operation until the problem is resolved. Reports from stations operating in the ammonium form at pH 9.59.6, using resins containing very low levels of impurities (i.e. very highly regenerated resins) show that sodium, chloride and sulfate levels of 0.3 to 0.5 ppb can be consistently achieved in the absence of condenser leaks. 2-26

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Separate bed polishers operating in the conventional H-OH form do not produce the same high quality water as that achievable from mixed bed plants. Nevertheless, work on a pilot scale separate stacked shallow bed polishing plant showed that levels of <0.1 ppb sodium and chloride can be achieved and these results were subsequently supported by those obtained at a large, 2.8 (15) m (110 in) diameter stacked separate bed installation at Stanwell Power Station in Australia. Reports on the performance of separate bed/separate vessel plants in Germany showed that those using in-situ counter current regeneration could achieve leakage levels of < 0.5 ppb when running in the H-OH mode with a cation conductivity of 0.06 uS/cm.(10) Thus, the evidence shows that separate bed plants can meet the requirements of fossil plants when operating in the H-OH mode. The ease with which they can be used in the ammonium form of operation is potentially of even greater interest. This has been demonstrated by the five Australian stations now using the stacked separate bed design of plant. Robinson and Chapple(15) claim that when operating in the ammonium form at pH 9.35 sodium leakages in the range 0.2-0.4 µg/kg (ppb) were seen. This performance must be compared with sodium leakages of 0.1 µg/kg (ppb) achieved when operating in the conventional H-OH mode. 2.3.4 Performance of Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Designs The design of filter/demineralizers has already been outlined. The resin used as a coating of the septa presents a large surface area through which the condensate to be treated flows at a low 2 speed, 7.2 m/h to 11 m/h (3.0 to 4,5 gpm/ft ). Despite this advantage, the fact that they only employ thin layers of resin leads to them having a low operational capacity. Their operation in the ammonium form, as most powdered resins filter/demineralizers on fossil stations are used, further reduces their capacity with respect to some ionic impurities such as sodium and silica and leakage is a concern at elevated condensate pH (see Section 4). However, in suitable applications with infrequent condenser leaks and good control of air in-leakage they have been used effectively. The crud removal ability of filter/demineralizers is however superior to that shown by naked mixed bed polishers. As has already been noted, the efficiency with which particulates are removed is very dependent on the actual oxide type, its concentration and its particle size. Thus, any estimates that are given are purely indicative but show typical crud removal capabilities of 90% and higher depending on service conditions. The actual mechanisms controlling this filtration behavior have been closely studied and the various processes that are involved have been identified. These include the effect of water velocity, the precoat compaction that takes place and the beneficial effects of including fiber media in the precoat.

2.4 Condensate Polisher Evaluation and Selection
The final choice of polisher technology and capability is still one for individual stations to make. The process should always consider local concerns such as the space allowed in new units or available for system retrofits and effluent discharge constraints. It should also examine the needs of the unit and the probability of contamination of the condensate. The guidelines which follow may be used to make overall technical comparisons of the available technology options and identify aspects which need to be carefully considered during the 2-27

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evaluation process. Technically viable options should first be determined, followed by an economic analysis to justify inclusion of polishing and determine the benefits and costs of those options considered technically suitable for use in the specific application of interest. Aspects of economic justification based on value assessment concepts are presented in Section 5. 2.4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology Options The condensate polisher design most widely used in fossil plants is that of a deep mixed bed without any other resin beds or filters preceding it, i.e. the naked mixed bed. Precoat filter/demineralizer systems are used on certain plants and when properly selected, specified and operated, have been proven both satisfactory and reliable. A comparison of the recognized advantages and disadvantages of deep bed (specifically naked mixed beds) and precoat filter/demineralizer systems follows. Naked mixed beds may be operated in either the conventional mode with the cation resin in the fully regenerated H+ form and the anion resin in the fully regenerated OH- form (H-OH form operation) or, where suitable, with the cation resin in the ammonium form. Ammonium form operation (AFO) is commonly practiced in many fossil plants around the world and will thus be included in the comparison discussion. Off site regeneration (OSR) of deep bed resins is a new development that is now in use at a small but growing number of fossil plants and of interest to personnel at many others. Cost effective use of OSR generally requires the use of AFO and appears to offer several advantages; economic aspects are addressed in Section 5 while the technical aspects are considered here. Other deep bed polishing technologies such as the separate bed, cation-mixed bed and filtermixed bed designs are not considered as extensively here though some general comparisons to naked mixed beds are provided. These approaches could offer advantages to some stations but their higher capital cost has led to their limited application to fossil plant cycles. Information on the behavior of cation-mixed bed plants is available from experience in the nuclear sector but further information is desirable to fully appraise the performance of the interesting separate bed approach. These alternative deep bed designs are only briefly discussed with respect to improvements these systems might offer over naked mixed bed designs in specific applications. Several technical factors exist which influence the applicability of the polisher technology to individual fossil plants and units. For purposes of this discussion the more important factors are defined as follows: • Risk of Contaminant Ingress and Effects on Condensate Chemistry: includes cooling water total dissolved solids level and frequency of condenser leaks (in units with water cooled condensers); air in-leakage levels; and other contaminant sources (particularly important in cogeneration plants). Frequency of Unit Startups and Filtration Needs: units in cycling and peaking service as well as units with air cooled condensers may have greater interest in polishing for filtering the condensate as opposed to removal of dissolved impurities. Use of turbine designs with steam cooled blades may also require high efficiency filtration of the condensate.

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Choice of Feedwater Chemistry: chemistry selection is specific to unit characteristics and the necessary use of high pH levels (high ammonia levels) in the treatment of the steam/water circuit strongly influences the selection of the most appropriate type of polishing system. For stations unable to operate deep beds in the ammonium form then a design of deep bed design with an adequate capacity for removing ammonia and sodium is essential. For those in which use of deep bed polishers in the ammonium mode is possible there is not such a pressing need for a high cation exchange capability. However, the effect of operating at high pH on the behavior of the polisher under in-leakage or other contamination situations must be appreciated. In selecting and designing a polisher intended to be primarily used in the AFO mode the possibility that at some stage in the life of the station it might revert to conventional H-OH operation of its polishers must also be considered. These concerns also apply generally to precoat filter/demineralizer designs. Equipment Design and Operation: encompasses many site-specific issues including space availability; staff size and training levels, willingness to handle chemicals on the plant site, etc.

Risk of Contaminant Ingress and Effects on Cycle Chemistry It is very important to consider the expected concentrations of impurities that could be present in the inlet condensate as a result of a condenser leak in water cooled units. This will depend on the cooling water chemistry, the condensate flow rate and the assumed leak size. Catastrophic leak incidents such as physical damage to several water cooled condenser tubes will quickly exhaust the capacity of any condensate polisher; immediate shutdown is required to protect the boiler and turbine. Smaller leaks, as are more commonly encountered, will have varying effects on condensate chemistry dependant on cooling water chemistry, leak size and type of polisher design in use. The possibility of leakage through a deep bed condensate polisher of any of the common ionic impurities is of concern with that of sodium and chloride probably being considered the most hazardous. Theory and experience both show that cation resins operating in the H-OH form (at pH 7) should, within the capacity of the particular deep bed, effectively remove sodium so that significant leakage does not occur. This of course assumes that the resins are in good condition and have been well regenerated. Kinetic leakage can be avoided by regularly checking the conditions of the resins by observation and/or by simple tests as discussed further in Section 3 (7) and Reference 7. The theory governing ammonium form operation is more complex than that controlling operation in the conventional H-OH mode and is discussed in the EPRI Guidelines for Ammonium Form (7,21) Operation and Condensate Polishing Training Manual reports. This behavior can be seen from the way in which the capacity of the ammonium form cation resin for sodium varies with both pH and sodium input levels. Figure 2-3 shows that at the high pH levels often used by plants operating their polishers in the ammonium form, say pH 9.6, that the capacity of the resins for sodium becomes a fraction of that offered by the same resins if used in the H-OH mode. Nevertheless deep beds operated in the ammonium form should be able to hold a leak for 2-3 days before breakthrough of sodium occurs. It is recommended that any beds that become contaminated in combating inleakage incidents should be removed from service and regenerated well before this breakthrough occurs. 2-29

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Should an ammonium form bed be left in service after becoming contaminated a release of sodium could occur despite the condenser leak having been sealed or reduced in magnitude. The most likely effect will eventually be a “throw” of sodium lasting for several days causing levels in polished water to significantly increase. The magnitude of this effect will depend on the pH of operation and the degree of contamination of the resin. It is caused by the resins readjusting themselves to the different equilibrium conditions that arise when inlet sodium levels fall as can be seen from Figure 2-4 and described in more detail in the EPRI reports already mentioned.

Figure 2-3 Calculated Equilibrium Capacities of Strongly Acidic Cation Resin for Sodium under Ammonium Form Operation Conditions Showing Dependence on pH and Inlet Sodium Levels(7,21)

In summary, the quantity of sodium that an ammonium form bed can hold (i.e. its sodium capacity) is determined primarily by the pH of operation and the sodium content of the influent condensate. Thus, any decrease in the influent concentration or increase in pH will result in sodium being eluted so increasing the levels in the final polished water. In real life the steady state conditions assumed in the above discussion rarely hold for very long and in most condenser leak incidents the inleakage varies making it even more difficult to predict exactly what is going to happen and reinforcing the advice to remove contaminated ammonium form beds from service as soon as possible.

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Figure 2-4 Equilibrium Leakage of Sodium from Strongly Acidic Cation Resin at a Range of pH Values @ 25°C. (Assuming volume capacity = 2 eq/L and selectivity coefficient = 0.8)(7,21)

In addition to the possibility of a large increase in the level of sodium in influent condensate, the case of a very small input of sodium (including sodium concentrations slightly in excess of EPRI Target Values for normal operation) to polisher beds that operate in the ammonium form must also be considered. No dramatic sodium breakthroughs or even “throws” should occur if the bed is left in service. In a time period dependent on the plant design and pH of operation, the inlet and outlet sodium levels should simply come to equilibrium so that eventually the sodium concentration in polished water becomes the same as in the influent condensate. For reasons of operating economy (Section 5) stations may wish to consider installation of deep bed systems that can operate in the ammonium form. Where there is such an interest, it is useful to specify maximum acceptable levels of sodium and chloride on the anion and cation resins at the point of them entering service either as mixed beds or separate beds. Suitable regeneration targets are included in earlier EPRI publications.(7,21) Inclusion of requirements for resin regeneration provides clear guidance with respect to the needs of the regeneration system that should be supplied. In the absence of condensate contamination, it is the degree of regeneration of the resins that controls polished water purity under operation in the ammonium form. The fact that the resins can subsequently become contaminated in service is a separate issue and one related to operation of the plant and not its design. With precoat filter/demineralizer designs, the small quantity of cation resin provided will begin to leak much more rapidly than deep beds operating in the ammonium form under equivalent inlet condensate sodium and pH conditions. The precise time to sodium breakthrough depends on a number of factors and is difficult to predict but would certainly be less than a day and possibly 2-31

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

as short as a few hours. Units that operate at low pH will have more time to sodium breakthrough than those operating at high pH. Deep bed designs offer much greater flexibility in dealing with ionic contamination introduced due to water cooled condenser cooling water leakage than precoat filter/demineralizers. This is due to the higher capacity of the regenerated resin bed as compared to that available from the thin layer of highly regenerated resin media applied in precoat systems. Air cooled condensers are not subject to water leaks but, as with water cooled designs, can develop air leaks. Precoat designs have generally been used in units with low solids surface cooling water supplies (including some used in cooling towers) though this design is never recommended for use in units cooled by sea water, brackish water or highly concentrated cooling waters. It should be understood they will generally be of very little benefit in contaminant removal whenever cooling water ingress occurs and these benefits diminish rapidly as the assumed dissolved solids content of the cooling water increases. With smaller leaks, it may be possible to operate for a short time before it is necessary to shut down or where possible reduce load, isolate the leaking condenser section and find and fix the leak. Until this can be done it is likely to be necessary to change the precoats on filter/demineralizer service vessels after very short run times (< 24hours). Great care must be taken to monitor cycle chemistry if it is decided to continue operating the unit with a condenser leak as the risk of precoat exhaustion and ionic leakage while in service is very high. Use of hydrogen form resin media for precoats will be of some help in extending the time between precoats as will reduction of inlet pH consistent with operating chemistry requirements. Nevertheless, with the precoat filter/demineralizer design it is most often necessary to handle a condenser leak as if the unit did not have a condensate polisher. Prospective users of precoat filter/demineralizers should thus have a low priority for dissolved solids removal when leaks do develop. While frequent leaks are undesirable with any polisher they will usually have the greatest impacts on performance and operating requirements (as well as costs) associated with precoat replacement in filter/demineralizers. Performance impacts will be less significant with mixed beds operated in the ammonium form and even less significant in mixed beds operating in the HOH form. If leak incidents are expected more than once or twice a year, use of AFO in deep bed systems with off-site regeneration of the resins is less likely to be economically attractive as (8) compared to its adoption in fossil units with a lower condenser leak frequency. Similarly, inability to control cycle air inleakage is important and particularly so in the case of precoat filter/demineralizers. As discussed earlier, any carbonate or bicarbonate ions present as a result of carbon dioxide entering the condensate will be exchanged in the anion resin, which can lead to it exhausting prematurely and thus necessitating more frequent replacement of the precoat. Effective control of air in-leakage (preferably to <1.0 scfm/100 MW of unit generating capacity) is considered a key to ensuring that operating costs of these designs remain low. Precoat run times may be reduced substantially when air inleakage control is deficient. Prospective users of a polisher system employing precoat filter/demineralizers must recognize this effect and should make a strong commitment to air inleakage control. The impact of carbon dioxide introduced with air inleakage is less significant with deep bed polishers by virtue of their higher anion exchange capacity. High air inleakage will not reduce the run length of polishers operated in the H-OH mode; generally, exhaustion of the cation resin 2-32

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by ammonia will still occur well before the anion resin exhausts. However, deep bed polishers operating for long periods of time (one month or more) in the ammonium form should be monitored for possible exhaustion of the anion media by carbonate/bicarbonate when air inleakage is not well controlled. In situations where other sources of condensate contamination exist, they should be evaluated on a case by case basis. Ionic contaminants are always better handled with deep bed designs while suspended solids contamination is better handled by precoat type polishers. Frequency of Unit Startup and Filtration Needs The design of precoat filters allows for more efficient filtration of suspended solids than is possible with deep beds. Further, they are reported to remove colloidal solids that will pass through deep beds. Filtration needs are generally greatest in those units that are in peaking and cycling service and often subject to significant metal oxide transport during startup, especially when the unit does not receive proper layup protection during shutdowns. Deep bed designs also provide a filtration capability and superior capability to handle ionic contamination. In cases where both filtration and ion exchange are desired to be optimal, a filter (precoat or other condensate filter), possibly sized to handle startup flow, and a deep bed designed for full load flow could be considered as well as one of the combination designs discussed earlier. The use of two or three service vessels in series, as in some separate bed designs, and the cation-mixed bed design will probably improve the overall filtration capabilities of a polishing plant although more evidence to support this conjecture is required. High filtration duty will contribute to fouling of the resins used in deep bed polishers. This will be less of a concern in separate bed and cation-mixed bed designs as the solids are primarily captured by the lead cation resins. Mixed beds that are subject to crud loading in service are often difficult and require extra time to separate and clean prior to regeneration. Operators of units with air cooled condensers must be aware of the possibility that any polisher design selected will have to treat condensate containing high levels of iron oxide particulate matter. These impurities arise from the high surface area of ferrous metal exposed in such condensers and also the possibility that flow accelerated corrosion may be occurring. Precoat filter/demineralizers act as efficient filters for suspended impurities and are also reported to remove colloidal solids that would pass through deep beds. Filtration needs are generally greatest in those units that are in peaking and cycling service and, as mentioned above, units with air cooled condensers. Significant metal oxide transport often occurs during startup, especially when the unit does not receive proper layup protection during shutdowns. It is to be noted that although the use of precoat filter/demineralizers is advantageous from the filtration viewpoint they have can, for many stations, have disadvantages in other respects, notably their lack of capacity for removing ionic impurities.

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Choice of Feedwater Treatment Feedwater treatment should be selected in consideration of the cycle feedwater materials and boiler type. Available choices include oxidizing and reducing all-volatile treatment, AVT(O) and AVT(R), and oxygenated treatment (OT). Allowable pH levels for the individual feedwater treatments are as follows: • • • • • • • AVT(R) mixed metallurgy, drum boiler: 9.0-9.3 AVT(R) mixed metallurgy, once-through boiler: 9.0-9.3 AVT(R) all ferrous metallurgy, drum boiler: 9.2-9.6 (still available in our guidelines but generally not desirable due to FAC concerns) AVT(O) all ferrous metallurgy, drum boiler: 9.2-9.6 AVT(O) all ferrous metallurgy, once-through boiler: 9.2-9.6 OT all ferrous metallurgy, drum boiler: 9.0-9.4 OT all ferrous metallurgy once-through boiler: 8.0-8.5

The indicated pH ranges correspond to those at which iron and cooper transport will be minimized when the treatment is properly selected and optimized. When polishing is used in these cycles, the effect of pH on the length of the service run of a deep bed polisher operating in the H-OH mode must be considered and adequate cation exchange capacity provided to allow a reasonable time for resin regeneration. This could involve the adoption of a deep bed design including an extra service vessel or at the very least a spare charge of resin held in the regeneration plant. For deep bed polishers operating in the ammonium form the effect of pH on the selectivity and leakage of impurities is of interest since leakage increases with pH which also affects the impurity release or “throw” sometimes seen on imprudently operated AFO polishers. It is these relationships and concerns that make operation in the ammonium form more challenging. In designing a deep bed polisher for AFO care must be taken that both the efficiency of resin transfer to and from service vessels to the regeneration facilities meets EPRI suggested targets and that the regeneration process allows the preparation resins to the purity required. These requirements can add to the original cost of a polisher but these should be offset by the considerable economic advantages gained from operating in the ammonium mode in units that are not subject to a high rate of startups or contamination incidents. Finally, it should be noted that even when a deep bed polisher system is designed for AFO it will need to revert to H-OH operation when faced with an ongoing condenser leak. Precoat systems are generally precoated with ammonium form cation media. If hydrogen form cation media is used as is normally advised when contamination is present it is quickly converted to the ammonium form. In effect the precoat resins operate in the ammonium form and are subject to the same ion exchange capacity restrictions as deep bed AFO polishers with the added constraint that the available volume of resin is much lower. The ion exchange performance of filter/demineralizers must be carefully monitored when contamination is present; otherwise, and particularly with insufficient instrumentation, contamination may pass through the polisher.

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Contamination entering drum boilers concentrates in the boiler water and these impurities can, to a point, be controlled through use of blowdown. When the cycle includes a once-through boiler there is no blowdown capability and thus less margin for error; impurities will either deposit in the generating tubes or enter the steam path. When the unit includes a once-through boiler and operates at high feedwater pH and has a polisher with resins in the ammonium form (deep bed or precoat) the instrumentation must be able to reliably identify contamination and the operator must take action to protect the turbine. Equipment Design and Operation Polishing systems require space and retrofit of a system to an existing fossil unit is often a challenge. As discussed in Section 5, the installation costs are always higher than for new plants; the cost differential will vary with individual plant and unit requirements. Condensate polishing system operating requirements can be very complicated and generally require that personnel responsible for equipment operation be trained. Precoat filter/demineralizer designs, as compared to the early naked mixed bed designs of the 1960s operating in the H-OH form and with on-site regeneration equipment, require a smaller footprint and are simpler to operate. As precoat media are used once and replaced, there was no need to handle regenerant chemicals. The precoat media can be conveniently stored in a warehouse or other suitable area until needed for use. Turnaround time to replace a precoat is on the order of one hour while a mixed bed separation and regeneration takes many hours to perform. Capital and operating costs were also lower. Advancements in deep bed polisher technology are now available that often lessen or eliminate the advantages the precoat filter demineralizers hold over earlier naked mixed bed system designs. Key among these is the recently considered and growing concept of off-site regeneration of deep bed resins. By performing resin regenerations off site, system operation is greatly simplified as plant personnel responsibilities are limited to resin transfers and to monitoring the in-service behavior of the polishers. Footprint size is also reduced as regeneration equipment is replaced by smaller and less costly resin storage and transfer facilities. Storage facilities for regenerant sulfuric acid and caustic as well as the concerns of storing these chemicals on site are also eliminated. For cost effective use of off-site regeneration, it is essential that the polisher be operated in the ammonium form. Ammonium form operation was developed for use in existing naked mixed bed polisher systems. The incentive to do so was entirely economic; the interval between bed regenerations could be increased from a few days (with H-OH service) to weeks and even months. However, successful use of ammonium form operation requires that the resins be consistently separated and regenerated to standards far higher than required for H-OH operation. Some existing systems cannot operate in the ammonium form without improvement of their equipment and operating procedures. Interest in this approach led to development and commercialization of several proprietary separation processes and equipment, the use of which help achieve the levels of regeneration required. Even with the use of this equipment, on-site regeneration of resins for use in the ammonium mode is a complicated process. While there are many success stories, there are also systems capable of operation in the ammonium form either as designed or with relatively minor and 2-35

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inexpensive changes in the equipment and/or in operating procedures that continue to operate in the H-OH form. Off-site regeneration of resins for ammonium form operation relieves plant personnel from the additional complexities associated with its use. Organizations considering use of naked mixed bed systems intended to operate in the ammonium form should be aware of the fact that on-site regeneration of resins for use in the ammonium mode is more complicated than for H-OH service. They should also be aware that some service companies now offer off-site regeneration services and others are likely to offer such services in the future as demand for such support at fossil plants increases. Operators of these facilities are aware of, and are now beginning to address, the challenges that they will assume for the polishers they are contracted to support, including any that need to operate in the ammonium form. It should also be mentioned that ammonium form operation is also being successfully used in separate bed systems. The separate bed design is of special interest for locations where off-site regeneration of mixed beds is not possible as regeneration is greatly simplified, even in comparison to naked-mixed bed/H-OH operated systems. AFO could also be considered for use in cation-mixed bed polishers and may possibly have advantages over naked mixed bed installations. However, as already mentioned plants of this design are more costly and already offers longer runs than naked mixed beds even when the mixed bed operates in the H-OH mod. Nevertheless, AFO operation would significantly extend their service lives in the absence of condenser leaks. Naked mixed beds which operate for long periods, either through operation in the ammonium mode or treatment of low pH condensate, e.g. units with once through boilers employing OT chemistry, or subject to frequent startups, e.g., cycling and peaking service, will accumulate relatively high inventories of iron between regenerations. Removal of the iron typically complicates and always extends the cleanup/separation/regeneration process. In these situations, a filter/mixed bed design may be useful. 2.4.2 Technology Evaluation and Selection Methodology Site specific assessments must first assess the various technology options in terms of plant characteristics and requirements. This should be followed by an economic assessment to evaluate benefits cost and overall value, as outlined in Section 5. The reasons for employing condensate polishing on fossil units essentially consist of the meeting the twin aims of: • • Maximizing the availability and hence the earning potential of a fossil unit Minimizing the repair and outage costs associated with corrosion, deposition and chemical cleaning, where provision of polishing is known to be beneficial

The benefits and associated value to the organization will be different in individual technical assessments. Value justification assessments of polishing will not be successful in cases where these aims cannot be met according to the financial performance metrics of the organization conducting the assessment, as discussed in Section 5. 2-36

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2.4.3 Technical Assessment of Polisher Design Options In selecting a design of condensate polishing system an initial assessment of design applicability is needed. Specific assessments should consider the advantages and disadvantages of available designs as outlined in Section 2.4.1. General technical assessment guidance is provided in the selection guidance road map shown in Figure 2-5. This road map is intended to determine if deep beds, specifically naked mixed bed systems, precoat filter demineralizer designs or either design should be considered for a particular application. It also provides guidance on the form of operation of naked mixed beds, where applicable may be operated in the ammonium form and comments on potential applicability of other available but less widely used polisher designs and vessel configurations. The road map guidance and discussions of Section 2.4.1 are applicable for assessment of polishing systems for possible use in both new units and for retrofit to existing fossil units. Technical assessment of the available options for polishing is a complex process. The Figure 2-5 road map may be used to identify the best polishing option for unique unit conditions. It may be used to identify polisher design approaches most applicable to the needs of individual fossil units that are worth a more detailed evaluation, including a benefits and value assessment. The road map process consists of six steps. Performance of each step results in identification of possible advantages or usage constraints for the available options. To condense the verbiage on the road map, the following abbreviations have been used: • • • • • • • • • NMB: Naked Mixed Bed PF/D: Precoat Filter/Demineralizer CF: Condensate Filter (No ion exchange capacity) SB: Separate Bed C-MB: Cation-Mixed Bed F-NMB: Filter-Mixed Bed F-SB: Filter-Separate Bed AFO: Ammonium Form Operation OSR: Off Site Regeneration

Step 1: Assess Condensate Ionic Contamination Potential In Step 1 the primary objective is to determine the risk and magnitude of condensate ionic contamination. This includes contamination caused by condenser cooling water leaks, air ingress, and any other sources considered relevant. Evaluating personnel need to make a realistic appraisal of likely contributions of contamination by all relevant sources. This assessment should consider conditions expected over the operating time period that will be used for any later benefits and value assessment activities. For example, it would be inappropriate to consider the expected tube leakage characteristics in a new water cooled condenser, whether included in a new fossil unit design or recently installed in unit to which retrofit of a polisher system is being 2-37

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considered. Similar considerations should be made for cycle air inleakage and other condensate contamination sources of relevance. For cooling water ingress and any other significant contamination events that could increase the sodium concentration in condensate it is useful to consider the event frequency and expected range of effects on condensate purity as this will influence the time that deep beds and precoats can be kept in service. Step 2: Assess Condensate Filtration Requirements In general, performance requirements for condensate filtration will not be as great as those for ion exchange to purify the condensate. The most likely exceptions are units with air cooled condensers and water cooled units that are required to operate in a peaking with a high frequency (several days per month) of startups and normally operated for fairly short periods. In these latter units a precoat/filter demineralizer or even a condensate filter with no ion exchange capability may be considered, particularly when there is little risk of ionic contamination of the condensate since frequent startup and associated corrosion product removal often determines the allowable time in service for the polisher. If there is a need to control ionic contamination such as in units that are needed to generate for several days after startup it may be better to consider a deep bed system or a combination design where the lead unit has good filtration capability. Step 3: Assess Feedwater Chemistry and Condensate pH This step should be followed to consider the effect of pH on bed or precoat capacity, leakage and run time when the condensate is contaminated. High pH generally favors deep bed designs with respect to ion exchange performance. Use of ammonium form operation of mixed bed (and other deep bed) designs is economically attractive at high pH as compared to H-OH operation where it can be effectively used. Precoat filter/demineralizers will require very frequent precoat changes and in many cases limited protection of the boiler and turbine when ionic contamination of the condensate occurs. With low pH operation bed and precoat service times will increase. The economic advantages of using AFO with deep beds are generally eliminated and somewhat more flexible operation of precoat filter/demineralizers is possible in those units where the Step 1 assessment indicates it to be a suitable option. Step 4: Assess Space Requirements and Availability There is always some cost associated with allocation of plant space for equipment. However, the costs are generally much higher when assessment of a possible polisher retrofit is under consideration. The smallest possible footprint is generally associated with precoat filter/demineralizers followed by naked mixed beds where resin regenerations will be performed at another location. Thus it is often very useful to consider the possibility of installing a deep bed polisher plant with off site regeneration (OSR) when other assessment findings argue against the use of precoat/filter demineralizer designs.

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Step 5: Assess Design and Operational Requirements In Step 5 it is necessary to assess the relative complexity of the design approaches considered potentially suitable following completion of the Steps 1-4 assessment activities. Precoat filter/demineralizer systems are the simplest to operate providing it is suitable for the intended application and the design provides the operator with sufficient flexibility. Deep bed designs that can utilize both AFO and OSR are also relatively simple from the operational standpoint. If on site regeneration is necessary, separate bed designs should be simpler to operate than designs with mixed beds, especially when use of AFO is possible and offers sufficient benefits and value. Mixed bed separation and regeneration by plant personnel is the most complex aspect of condensate polisher operation and especially so when AFO targets need to be met. However, experience has proven that it can be handled at many fossil plants worldwide. Step 6: Select Polishing Options for Value Assessment By working through Steps 1-5 objectively, it is usually possible to narrow the choice of polishing designs suitable for the application of interest and select those deserving of further assessment, with emphasis on expected capital costs, operating costs, benefits as needed to define the value of each. Guidance on value assessment is presented in Section 5.

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Figure 2-5 Guidance Road Map for Condensate Polishing Technical Assessment Activities

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Polisher Systems for New Fossil Units Three important questions must be carefully considered when evaluating technical aspects of the condensate polishing system design for a new unit. These questions directly link to Steps 1, 2, and 5 of the Figure 2-5 road map. It is assumed that the chemistry to be used (Step 3) has been selected previously and that available space (Step 4) is not a serious constraint on the selection process. Question 1: What is the risk of a condenser leak occurring and what level of circuit contamination is likely to be seen if a leak does arise? Generally the risk of condenser leaks in new units is minimized at the planning stage by proper choice of material to be used in the condenser construction, the velocity within the condenser tubes of cooling water, and other design considerations. Nevertheless, condenser leaks continue to occur with their effects on cycle chemistry often being dependant upon the TDS of the cooling water. Stations using air cooled condenser are, of course, free of such risks but experience shows that even with plant of this type air in-leakage leads to ongoing problems of high crud transport and potentially high levels of carbon dioxide in steam and condensate. Without the protection that condensate polishing has to offer, water and steam in fossil cycles can become contaminated, thereby increasing the risk of corrosion or deposition. Question 2: Is the unit designed for continuous operation or for cycling operation? Polisher resins on deep bed plants associated with units on cycling operation could potentially be exposed to condensate containing high levels of crud with the risk that the resins used may become fouled, as compared to units designed for continuous operation. They can also become contaminated with ionic impurities that have leaked into the condenser hotwell during the off load period. Because of this more frequent regenerations of resins may be needed on deep bed plants exposed to cycling operation of units. Similarly, powdered resin filter/demineralizer designs will require more frequent precoat changes resulting in increased operational costs. Question3: Will the geographical position of the power station allow the use of off-site regeneration? The use of off-site regeneration (contractor regeneration) of deep bed resins is still in its infancy but one major North American power producer has been using this approach to advantage for several years and others are beginning to use this service or are becoming interested. Its potential (8) advantages over on-site regeneration include: • • • A reduction in the work associated with operating a deep bed condensate polishing plant as the effort associated with resin regenerations is avoided Elimination of the need for on-site regeneration facilities including chemical bulk storage and effluent disposal facilities. A possible improvement in regenerated resin quality and consistency of regenerations. Any specialist contractor selected to undertake this task should, contractually, be held responsible for the quality of the resin that they provide. 2-41

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

Elimination of polishing plant effluents and plant effort demanded to ensure they comply with local legislation. Constraints on effluent disposal are increasing and ability to operate deep bed polishers without needing to dispose of waste chemicals could be of considerable benefit. Ability to operate deep beds in the economical ammonium form; while not necessary for polishers operated at low pH (specifically those with once-through boilers running OT chemistry), most cycles require higher feedwater pH. Where desired off-site regeneration should provide regenerated resins of the quality required to usefully run polishers in the ammonium form at the requisite operating pH. However, for satisfactory operation in the ammonium form stations must also be able to meet other criteria such as being free from frequent condenser leaks or frequent startups. A reduction in the capital cost of deep bed plants so that they now become more cost competitive with filter/demineralizer installations. Their space requirements are also reduced.

The type of condensate polishing systems selected by a new power station will depend on several factors. The majority will use conventional water cooled condensers and these, if well designed and built using appropriate metallurgy, will be less prone to condenser leaks than those installed a few decades ago. Nevertheless, leaks still occur so that an important factor to take into account is the type of cooling water used, i.e. whether it is seawater, brackish water, river water or a low dissolved solids content lake water. As already discussed, other factors will also influence the selection of a deep bed polishing system or whether a powdered resin filter/demineralizer is adopted. A relatively small number of power station employ air cooled condensers although this number could well grow given the increasing pressure to restrict the use of cooling water. Such stations can suffer from high crud levels in their condensates so that filtration becomes an important task of its condensate polishing plant but they can also suffer from air in-leakage making the use of deep bed polishers attractive. Although they have some advantages, cation-mixed bed plants are put at a disadvantage because of their higher cost and space requirements. Separate beds employing stacked cation-anioncation resin beds in a single vessel, are attractive because of their simplicity and ease of use in the ammonium form. Experience on six power stations in Australia has been encouraging with two other plants operating or planned in this region. Their cost is reported to be similar to that of a comparable naked mixed bed plant but more detailed information, both on cost and performance, would be welcomed. Utilities may, therefore, still prefer the more cautious approach of adopting the well known and explored naked mixed bed. If this is used with off-site regeneration, and other constraints tend to be encouraging this, then the capital costs could approach or even be less than those of filter/demineralizers. However, filter/demineralizer polishing system designs must not be ignored for they can be very useful where operating conditions allow their consideration and their advantages are of interest. Polisher Retrofits to Existing Fossil Units The retrofitting of condensate polishing plants to existing power stations is often motivated by an interest to improve unit financial performance by: 2-42

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• • • •

decreasing the time needed to achieve acceptable chemical conditions at startup allowing use better boiler water conditioning regimes such as OT or AVT improving circuit cleanliness so maintaining efficiency and/or minimizing the need for chemical cleaning providing short term control of small condenser leaks to prevent contamination of the steam/water circuit without having to immediately reduce load or shutdown the unit

In all of these cases a station will require a satisfactory economic benefit being derived from the adoption of polishing and this will influence its justifiable capital expenditure. They will probably be also keenly looking for the least costly way of employing polishing but in so doing they must be critically aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems as outlined in Section 2.4.1 and the Figure 2-5 selection road map. In retrofit situations, Step 4 of the road map is more likely to place some constraints on space availability and/or greatly increase the installed cost of the selected polisher. Thus the questions that should be asked when considering polishing for new fossil units (corresponding to road map Steps 1, 2 and 4) should all be answered and the plans for cycle chemistry following the polisher retrofit should be known when considering Step 3. Thus the Step 1-5 road map assessment activities all apply in the case of a retrofit assessment. If a risk of ingress of high TDS water from a condenser leak is perceived to be very real there will be a need for a system with a high capacity for removing ionic impurities. A deep bed design of polisher will meet these requirements with the least expensive being a naked mixed bed or possibly the proprietary single vessel with stacked separate bed design. A station with the intentions of operating at very high pH, but which is inhibited from using ammonium form operation, could opt to use the cation-mixed bed design as this will give conveniently long service runs in the H-OH mode. However, the higher cost and space requirements of a cation-mixed bed plant may act as a deterrent and focus their attention on the lower cost designs such as naked mixed beds. A polisher intended primarily for operation in the H-OH form will probably need to regenerate a bed every 1 to 5 days depending on its design and the pH of the condensate. Such a frequency will probably make the costs of employing a contracted off-site regeneration service unacceptably high but, as always, local conditions and constraints may well affect the decision. At the other extreme are stations on which the risk of high levels of impurities entering the steam/water circuit is judged to be low. They may wish to operate in the ammonium form and at the same time maintain the cation conductivity levels in feedwater and steam low enough to allow the use of the better feedwater and boiler water treatment chemistries. This demand can be met with deep beds, either naked mixed beds or separate beds, for which resins are very effectively regenerated using either on-site high efficiency separation/regeneration plant or using off-site regeneration. They can also be met with precoat filter/demineralizer designs, where its use is successful use is considered to be feasible. 2.4.4 Economic Assessments to Justify Provision of Condensate Polishing Justification of any proposed new or retrofit condensate polishing system should be done (as indicated in Step 6 of the Figure 2-5 road map) in accordance with all relevant criteria the organization uses to make any long range/high cost business decision. Determination of the 2-43

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polishing Benefits, Technology Options and Selection Guidelines

expected value should carefully consider all sources of benefit as well as the projected capital and operating costs. However, these value assessments should consider only those polisher design options of interest that appear suitable technically for the application of interest based on analysis of the system design technical requirements as outlined in the Figure 2-5 road map. Section 5 includes further guidance on condensate polishing justification through use of life cycle value assessments. It should be recognized that each design option will offer unique benefits and costs relative to other suitable choices when each design is considered in the context of the unit in which provision of polishing is under consideration and the value assessment criteria used by the organization.

2.5 References
1. Cycling, Startup, Shutdown and Layup Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Guidelines for Operators and Chemists. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1998. TR-10775. 2. Boiler Tube Failures: Theory and Practice, Volume 2: Water-Touched Tubes, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TR-105261-V2. 3. Guidelines for Chemical Cleaning of Conventional Fossil Plant Equipment, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1003994. 4. The ASME Handbook on Water Technology for Thermal Power Systems, ASME, New York. 5. Boiler Tube Failures: Theory and Practice, Volume 3: Steam-Touched Tubes, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TR-105261-V3. 6. T.H McCloskey, R.B. Dooley and W.P. McNaughton, Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice, Volume 2: Damage Mechanisms, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR-105261-V2. 7. Condensate Polishing Guidelines: Ammonium Form Operation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001, 1004322. 8. Guidelines for Off-site Regeneration of Condensate Polishing Resins, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1001502. 9. H. W. Venderbosch and R. Fresen, “Condensate Polishing with Cation-Anion-Cation Filters”, Kema Scientific and Technical Reports, 4 (3), pp27-33, 1996. 10. J. Falke, “Condensate Polishers in Separate Bed Configurations”, Proceedings: Fifth International Conference on Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, 1997. TR108459. 11. Personal communications between M. A. Sadler and J. D. Aspden, April 4, 2005. 12. J. H. Smith and T. A. Peploe, “The Tripol Process- a New Approach to Ammonia Cycle Condensate Polishing”, Proceedings of the 2nd British Nuclear Energy Society International Conference on the Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactors. 2-44
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13. R.N.R. Robinson and L A Chapple, “Ion Exchange Developments and Applications, Ion Exchange Developments and Applications”, Ed. J A Greig, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK 1996. 14. S. Kerr, “TripolR Condensate Polishing at Stanwell Power Station: Six Years of Operational Experience”, Power Plant Chemistry, 2000, 2(7). 15. K. Tittle, “Condensate Polishing at AGR Stations”, Chemistry and Industry, No. 4, pp110113, February 1987. 16. Eskom Standard GGS 0209, September 1993. 17. F. J. Pocock and J. F. Stewart, “Research on High-Flowrate Condensate Polishing”, Proceedings of the American Power Conference, 1964. 18. K. Ishigure et al, “Adsorption of Model Crud on Ion Exchange Resin Beads”, Proceedings of BNES International Conference on the Water Chemistry of Nuclear Reactors, Bournemouth, UK, 1983. 19. R. R. Harries and P. G. McCann, “The Degradation and Distribution of Organics in Steam/Water Cycles of Drum Boilers”, Power Plant Chemistry, 2003, 5(7). 20. D. J. O’Sullivan, “Experience with a Conesep Condensate Polishing Plant”, Proceedings of the EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop, Little Rock, Arkansas. May/June 1989. 21. Condensate Polishing Training Manual, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004933.

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3
GUIDELINES FOR DEEP BED CONDENSATE POLISHING SYSTEMS

3.1 Introduction
For most fossil plant applications, deep bed designs represent the best condensate polishing technology option. As indicated in Section 2, most of the alternative deep bed designs, while offering certain operational advantages, are more costly than systems composed of solely of mixed beds. Thus cost considerations will usually constrain the design to use of naked mixed beds. Cost assessments for several deep bed arrangements are presented and compared in Section 5. This assessment includes the operational options of ammonium form operation and off-site regeneration of the resins which can, where feasible, markedly decrease polisher system capital and operating costs as compared to those for polisher systems that operate in the H-OH mode and are regenerated with on-site equipment. This section discusses technical aspects of deep bed polisher systems. Strong emphasis is placed on naked mixed bed designs as they are very widely used and proven effective in meeting the requirements of fossil cycles. Section 3.2 considers the design of service vessels and regeneration systems. Operating and maintenance factors mixed bed polishers are discussed in Section 3.3. Guidance on mixed bed polisher performance optimization is provided in Section 3.4. The Section 2 discussion also identified separate bed single vessel polishers as a possible alternative to mixed beds. Their chief advantage over mixed bed designs is their simplicity of operation, specifically the fact that separation and mixing of resins is not required during the regeneration process. Although more information is needed on their operational performance and costs to better define the conditions under which their selection and use should be considered they have been considered briefly at points in the discussions within Section 3 to point out the potential they appear to hold based on available field and test experience.(1)

3.2 Design Factors
The life cycle performance and reliability of a condensate polisher system begins with the design of system components and selection of appropriate condensate polisher resin. Poorly designed equipment and/or poor quality resin often produce inferior results and require greater effort and time to overcome shortcomings. In addition, a well-designed polisher system is more likely to be well maintained because station personnel expect the system to work. Although it is not 3-1

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

usually possible to replace an entire existing system, some upgrades or changes have a very high benefit to cost. Thus it is useful to consider upgrades to existing systems. The discussion that follows cites key design components for both service vessels and regeneration systems. 3.2.1 Service Vessels Most current condensate polisher service vessels at fossil units have a similar external appearance, typically a domed-topped cylinder holding a vertical column of resin with ~35-39 inches (~0.9- 1m) resin bed depth. Deep beds of ion exchange resin are supported by one of several different systems that also collect the polished water and ensure, along with the influent distributor, an effective flow distribution through the bed. The basic design of down flow (axial flow) deep bed service vessels has evolved from earlier designs first used in water treatment plants, an important difference being that the condensate flowing through condensate polishing service vessels travels downwards at much higher velocities than employed in the vessels used for demineralization of water. Nevertheless, axial flow beds of ion exchange resins provide an extremely effective means of bringing water to be treated into close contact with resin beads and of making good use of the available ion exchange capacity of the resins. Service vessels are normally fabricated from carbon steel and are rubber lined for protection although more advanced coatings are now beginning to come into use. It is important that a resin trap be provided on the outlet to retain resin in the event of a serious fault occurring. These traps are not intended to remove resin fines or any crude escaping from the bed and ideally should have a low pressure drop with wire mesh or wedge-wire screens with openings of about 0.25 mm (0.01 in) frequently being used. In addition to the design aspects discussed, above service vessels should be equipped with facilities that simplify monitoring of the behavior of mixed beds during service. They should include an adequate provision of sight glasses (windows) complete with safe access and lighting, resin sampling points and access for internal inspections. An example(2) of the various cylindrical polisher service vessels in use at power stations is shown in Figure 3-1. Spherical service vessel designs, an example(1) of which is shown in Figure 3-2, are sometimes adapted for use in cycles that operate at high pressures. Effective top (inlet) distribution and bottom (outlet) collection systems are design features very important to deep bed polisher vessel performance. Inlet Water Distribution Systems Top distribution systems can be very simple employing, in some cases, four or more inlets with internal extensions each terminating about 300 mm (12 inches) above the resin bed in a splash plate to distribute the flow and to avoid direct impingement of then incoming water on the resin, Figure 3-3. (1,3) Other designs in use and shown in Figure 3-4(1,3) include full top lateral systems, hub designs with radial lateral systems, and multiple inlet pipes. A relatively recent though not widely used design claimed to be effective employs cruciform types of distributors.

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Figure 3-1 Schematic Diagram of Cylindrical Condensate Polishing Service Vessel Source: Adapted from Reference 2.(2)

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

Figure 3-2 Internal Schematic of a Spherical Condensate Polisher Service Vessel Employing Wedgewire Bottom Support Screens

Figure 3-3 Condensate Polishing Service Vessel Distributor Design – Inlet Splash Plate Arrangement

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Figure 3-4 Condensate Polishing Service Vessel Distributors – Other Designs

Treated Water Collection Arrangements Early designs of bottom collection systems normally used perforated tubes arranged in a lateral or hub and spoke array. These tubes would be wrapped in gauze or wire wound to prevent the escape of resin although a proprietary type of perforated stainless steel sheet was also used. Some early plants employed a dished bottom to the service vessel with collection of the treated condensate taking place over this curved surface with the effect that the depth of the resin bed varied across its width. As discussed in detail in the EPRI Condensate Polishing Training Manual, collection over a dished surface can result in inefficient use of resin.(1) It has been shown that the collection of treated water is ideally carried out on a level parallel to the surface of the bed to ensure a consistent usable depth of resins so avoiding flow distortions within the bed. Nevertheless, nozzles set into a slightly dished bottom plate have, on some plants, been shown to be effective, with the sluicing system used in such designs helping resin removal, as shown in Figure 3-5. For use on fossil power stations the cost of the various systems available may prove to be an important factor but whatever design is adopted the need to ensure a good flow distribution must be recognized. It is also very important that the design of the resin support 3-5

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

and collection system should enable a virtually complete removal of resin for regeneration purposes. This is essential as any exhausted resin remaining in a service vessel could contaminate an incoming charge of fresh resin so affecting the quality of the treated water that will subsequently be produced. Incomplete transfers also lead to the resin ratios and inventories of various charges varying on any polishing system employing multiple service vessels. Such inequalities will affect the quality of the polished water and the operating capacities of some of the charges.

Figure 3-5 Collection Nozzles Installed in Bottom of Polisher Service Vessel Source: Courtesy of Christ-Kennicott Water Technology Group.

It is very difficult to generalize over expected performance for the various types of top distribution systems and bottom collection system designs commonly used in polishers used in fossil plants as individual experience and observations vary widely. It is of some interest that nuclear power stations have tended to a design that uses a flat wedgewire bottom collection system (such as in the service vessel depicted in Figure 3-2. It is claimed to encourage a uniform flow distribution over the whole bed, to allow a very effective removal of the resins for regeneration and at the same time to support the weight and hydraulic forces that are imposed. Resin removal of 99.99% is used as a target for satisfactory operation of polishers in nuclear 3-6

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Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

plants and is achieved by some stations using this approach; this transfer efficiency level cannot be met by the bottom collection system designs commonly used in fossil plant polisher systems. The polished water qualities required for fossil and the most common designs of nuclear power stations differ as the circuit metallurgies and physical conditions are different. However, the regeneration efficiencies required by those fossil stations operating in the economical ammonium mode are very close to those required by nuclear stations. Thus, in some instances, design interests of fossil and nuclear power stations coincide although the lower capital costs of some alternative approaches often act to persuade fossil stations to select the least costly. Ammonium form operation of polishing plants, on those fossil stations capable of employing it, is of growing interest as, in addition to the economic benefits derived from its use, it offers a reduction in the quantity of chemical waste requiring disposal and the possible use of off-site regeneration services. Summary of Important Service Vessel Design Features A summary of the many important vessel design factors for obtaining and maintaining optimum in-service deep-bed polisher performance with either a naked mixed bed or separate bed single vessel designs (such as the Tripol® design) is provided in Table 3-1. A more detailed discussion (1) is provided in Reference 1.
Table 3-1 Service Vessel Design Elements Component Manhole (Manway) Access Purpose and Impact on Performance A manhole >18 inches (46 cm) diameter should be provided (preferably at the top of the vessel) to allow for easier entering for inspection, relining, or repair. The purpose of the upper site glass is to allow observation of the resin bed to determine whether the bed level is correct (correct amount of resin) and whether there are any flow disturbances that create a domed, dished, or slanted resin surface. Too little resin in a polisher vessel will result in reduced pressure drop across that bed and higher flow that may also lead to premature polisher exhaustion. A non-level resin surface permits channeling and potentially higher contaminant leakage during a condenser leak. The site glass located at the Available Options Although manholes may be located elsewhere on the service vessel, other then top locations make it difficult to enter. Minimum option is one site glass at upper location and one at bottom location. Three site glasses, effectively lighted and set at 120o to each other at each location, offer more accurate viewing under difficult circumstances. Individual flow meters for each polisher and pressure drop across each bed are additional valuable tools for determining short or long beds or flow distribution problems.

Site Glasses: Positioned at top of correct resin bed location and at bottom of resin bed Site glasses should, where possible, be flush on the interior to avoid resin becoming trapped.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance bottom of the resin bed allows the operator to determine if all exhausted resin has been removed from the service vessel when the resin is transferred out of the service vessel for regeneration. It is critical to remove all of the exhausted resin before a freshly regenerated resin bed is transferred into the vessel. If exhausted resin is left at the bottom of the service vessel, unexpected contaminant leakage may occur, especially if ammonium form operation is employed. Good distribution of the influent condensate is critical since poor distribution will result in fluidization of resin in certain regions. This fluidization will result in influent water taking the easiest path (lowest pressure drop), potentially resulting in incomplete condensate polishing. A domed or dished resin surface viewed through the service vessel site glass indicates poor inlet distribution. Uniform flow distribution and collection lead to maximum utilization of available ion exchange capacity. The design of the collector, supports, and underdrain should enhance uniform flow distribution and permit complete resin removal. The underdrain system must also retain resins when the bed is in service, preventing them from getting into the feedwater system. When a polisher is removed from service and the resin is transferred out of the service vessel, it is critical to remove all of the exhausted resin before a freshly regenerated Available Options

Influent Distributor

There are many proprietary and non-proprietary designs using one or several condensate inlets that connect internally to one of various distributor systems. Distributor systems are generally constructed of stainless steel and may range from hub and lateral designs to full lateral systems or to diffusers attached to the end of multiple inlet pipes. Whichever design is selected, it is important that the selected vendor has proven internal designs giving uniform flow distribution and collection. Early condensate polishing plants used bottom lateral systems with fine plastic or stainless steel mesh (sized to retain resin) over pierced pipes. Some concerns with plastic mesh tearing and allowing resin to get into feedwater system. In some cases, space below laterals traps resin. Trapped resin is not effectively utilized and may contaminate new resin charge. (Tangential nozzles may be added to improve resin removal.)

Bottom Collection, Supports, and Underdrain For Tripol® polisher, a stainless steel wedgewire (flat plate) used to separate and support cation/anion/cation resin layers. (4,5)

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance resin bed is transferred into the vessel. If exhausted resin is left at the bottom of the service vessel, unexpected contaminant leakage may occur, especially if ammonium form operation is employed. Excellent resin removal claimed for flat bottom designs, especially wedgewire type. With nozzle plate design, nozzles set into flat plate that acts as false bottom and supports the resin. Another design consists of two perforated plates with holes offset from each other; the plates are tack welded together. Breakage of welds results in resin leakage. Because of cost, service vessels are generally constructed of carbon steel and thus must be rubber lined. Care should be taken to avoid linings that leach chloride or sulfate. Care must also be taken to avoid contaminants leaching out of the rubber when linings are repaired. Available Options Variations of this design include horizontal bottom lateral systems over flat rubber (or epoxy) lined concrete. Laterals are placed on top of the rubber lining eliminating space under laterals. Some problems reported with rubber lining failing while some horizontal lateral systems with stainless steel screens (wrapping) are still being successfully used. Flat bottom designs include nozzle plate designs, flat welded screens with offset perforations and stainless steel “wedgewire” that also acts as a support and allows uniform flow. Soft, semi-soft, or hard rubber can be used for lining vessels. Each has its benefits and drawbacks. Soft rubber is flexible and has lower sulfur content, but hard rubber is said to provide better protection to the underlying carbon steel. However, hard rubber tends to crack with age. It is also possible to use layered combinations of these rubbers or a relatively new ceramic and polymer composite. Good resin transfer techniques and well-designed transfer piping can minimize the tendency for mixed bed separation. Resin mixing capability may be provided in the service vessel. If long transfer lines with bends are present or offsite regeneration is used, it may be necessary to have resin mixing capability in the service vessel. Two criteria for mixing in the service vessel are a supply of oil free compressed air or nitrogen and protection against over

Service Vessel Lining

Resin Mixing Capability (in service vessel)

If a mixed bed becomes fluidized as it is transferred from the regeneration system to the service vessel, it will begin to separate. The tendency of the mixed bed to separate may be somewhat greater if uniform particle sized resins are used. If separation does occur, there will likely be a cation layer at the bottom of the bed and an anion layer at the top of the bed. The cation rich layer at the bottom of the bed may be responsible for an increase in sulfate leakage out of the

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance mixed bed (from rinse out of traces of sulfuric acid regenerant). Anion resin at the top of the bed is more likely to become fouled by corrosion products in the condensate. Remixing in the service vessel should only be utilized for newly regenerated resin and not to remix a bed that has been in service since exhausted resin is likely to be put at the bottom of the bed providing a greater tendency for contaminant leakage. Before being put into service, a newly regenerated mixed bed needs to be rinsed to the point that effluent cation conductivity and sodium meet in-service guidelines. Available Options pressurizing the vessel. Under some circumstances, oil free air may also be used in the service vessel during startup (with great care) to remove some corrosion products and reduce the pressure drop across the polisher vessel. Normally the resin is transferred back to the regeneration system for cleaning.

Rinse Outlet, Recirculation Capability

Resin Traps

The purpose of having resin traps on the outlet of every polisher service vessel is to protect against failure of the underdrain system. They are needed to protect against

Rinse to waste in the service vessel is normally done for some period because the flow rate is higher than can be achieved in the regeneration vessel. Recirculation in the service vessel requires a recirculation pump and puts contaminants back on top of the newly regenerated bed. Consequently, the bed should be well rinsed down before recirculating. On units with multiple polishers, rinsing to the condenser once the mixedbed effluent cation conductivity and sodium are below given set points allows the mixedbed to be put into service more quickly when needed because of the higher available flow rate. However, care should be taken when establishing appropriate set points and when using this option to avoid contaminating all in-service polishers. There are many strainer designs, but all must be capable of being backwashed and of protecting against massive resin ingress. A woven bag inside a holder is

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance massive resin ingress into the feedwater and boiler. They should be able to withstand full system pressure to minimize the risk of their failing. It should be noted that they are not intended to capture resin fines. Available Options an older and probably the least reliable option. Wire mesh or wedgewire strainer baskets with openings of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm) are better options with experts advising that “wedgewire” used in an inverted cone design is the superior option.

3.2.2 Regeneration Systems The proper design and operation of the condensate polisher regeneration system is critical to ensuring obtaining optimum condensate polisher performance. Regeneration determines the levels of contaminants remaining on the resin when the polisher is put into service. Acceptable levels vary considerably with the mode of operation, i.e., H/OH or ammonium form operation. Stringent requirements limiting the levels of sodium and chloride on the resin are necessary to operate beyond ammonium break when operating at high condensate pH.(1,6,7) Given the age of condensate polisher systems in many fossil plants, operators often have to expend a great deal of time and effort to overcome equipment design limitations or poorly operating equipment. However, some advances in techniques for reducing sodium, chloride, and sulfate leakage out of a newly regenerated polisher bed are relatively simple and inexpensive and can help minimize certain equipment limitations. If available and cost-effective post regeneration techniques (ammonia rinsing and resin on resin) are used in combination with a well designed polisher regeneration system, very low equilibrium leakage of sodium, chloride, and sulfate and long polisher run lengths can be routinely achieved. A discussion of these simple, (1) low cost and effective techniques is provided in Reference 1. In consideration of the inherent contamination risks of using sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide regenerants in a service vessel, essentially all condensate polisher regeneration is performed external to the in-service vessels. This requires polisher resin beds to be transferred between service vessel and regeneration system. Table 3-2 identifies the components often included in external regeneration system designs and summarizes the purpose and benefit of each component as well as available design options.
Table 3-2 Regeneration System Design Features Component Site Glasses: Positioned on all regeneration vessels including: separation tank, cation regeneration tank, anion regeneration tank, storage tank and interface Purpose and Impact on Performance Site glasses are essential on the mixed-bed separation vessel at the anticipated interface location to observe if the interface is located appropriately. On side take off Available Options Minimum option is one site glass at upper and bottom locations for all vessels but separation tank also requires site glass at interface. Three site glasses, effectively

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component tank Site glasses should be flush on the interior to avoid resin becoming trapped. Purpose and Impact on Performance systems, an improperly located interface will result in cross-regenerant contamination. There should also be a site glass at the top of the bed in all vessels to determine if the bed is long or short on resin. Site glasses located at the bottom of each vessel are needed to determine if all resin has been removed when the resin bed is transferred. Mixed Bed Separation Vessel The purpose of regeneration is to remove contaminants from the resin that were put on the resin during in-service operation. It is important to avoid adding contaminants rather than removing them during the regeneration process. If the mixed bed is not completely separated, cross- regenerant contamination will occur putting some cation resin in the sodium form and some anion resin in the sulfate or chloride form. Because of poor mixed-bed separation at some locations, only H-OH operation is possible to avoid equilibrium leakage of sodium and/or chloride. Post regeneration techniques such as resin-on-resin and ammonia rinse of the anion resin are used at many locations to compensate for inadequate mixed-bed separation and allow ammonium form operation. There are plants that, under carefully monitored conditions, routinely or occasionally skip anion resin regeneration to reduce sodium throw resulting from cross regenerant contamination of cation resin entrained with the separated Initial condensate polishing plants installed in the 1950’s and 1960’s utilized a single external tank for separation and for regeneration of both anion and cation resins. Even with blocking water and wellbalanced flows, it was found difficult to obtain sufficiently good separation for anything but H/OH form operation. Many regeneration systems were built with the separation tank also used for either cation or anion resin regeneration. With side or top anion resin take-off, the cation resin is left behind for regeneration. With bottom take-off of the cation resin, the anion resin is left behind for regeneration in the separation tank. There are many proprietary and nonproprietary designs with variations of the basic side anion resin take-off or bottom take-off of cation resin. One advantage claimed for bottom cation resin take-off is identification of the interface by conductivity or pH. Another is that the interface resin can be left in the transfer piping until the next regeneration. Another type of separation vessel uses a density separation process in a tall Available Options lighted and set at 120o to each other at each location, offer more accurate viewing under difficult circumstances.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance anion resin. Prior to mixed-bed separation, exhausted resin is transferred from the service vessel as water- resin slurry to the mixed-bed separation tank or a holding tank. Air scrubbing to remove corrosion products from the resin must take place before mixed separation regardless of the design of the separation vessel. For H-OH operation, resin is determined to be exhausted when ammonia begins to break through. Polishers are also removed if the final polished water conductivity or sodium exceeds limits for any reason. At many plants, resin beds are removed on a throughput basis especially if the polishers are operated in the ammonium form. Obviously, a mixed-bed separation tank is not needed for separate bed condensate polisher systems. Cation and Anion Resin Regeneration Vessels (for separate bed condensate polisher systems) Exhausted resin is transferred from each service vessel as water-resin slurry to the dedicated cation or anion regeneration vessel at the regeneration plant. With the exception of the cation/mixed-bed, separatebed polishers have the advantage of avoiding the potential problems of mixedbed separation. However, the mixed-bed in the cation/mixedbed design has several advantages over a naked mixed-bed. Some of these include, less impact from corrosion products because of the lead cation resin, longer There are several proprietary designs of separate-bed condensate polisher systems including separate cation and anion vessels, lead cation resin vessel followed by mixed-bed, and Tripol®, a single vessel with layered cation resin, anion resin, and secondary cation resin. This design is in use in Australia. Cation/mixed-beds are in use at nuclear plants in the U.S. and overseas. The Tripol® design may use dedicated regeneration vessels for each layer or combine regeneration of lead and secondary cation resin in one vessel. Available Options thin vessel whereby the anion resin is floated out the top and over to the dedicated anion regeneration tank. Extremely good separation results are reported for this system in addition to enhanced corrosion product removal.(1,8) Regardless of the specific design, it is preferable to use as tall and thin a separation vessel as feasible for the space to minimize the cation/anion resin interface and resulting cross contamination.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance run lengths, and increased anion to cation resin ratio possible in mixed bed. Aside from cost, the major concern relative to separate bed polishers is the potential for regenerant rinse out from the trail bed without any counter resin available to remove it before entering the feedwater. Very thorough rinses of the trail resin bed combined with high flow rate through the polisher (dilution) mitigate this concern. Resin Sampling Nozzles/Valves Resin sampling is necessary to determine condition of resin and effectiveness of regeneration. Occasionally, a resin sampling line is also useful for removing excess resin if beds have been inadvertently combined. Available Options For fossil plants, separate bed polishing requires additional pressure vessels that significantly add to capital costs. The Tripol® design might offer a cost-effective alternative to current mixedbed designs.

To obtain a core sample, the top manhole may be opened and a probe inserted through the bed. A sample nozzle with ball valve on the resin outlet line of each vessel is useful for collecting separate anion and cation resin samples or mixed bed sample to determine resin kinetics, capacity, or other needed resin parameter. Information is necessary to budget for resin replacement or to plan resin cleaning. Typically, anion resin would be drawn off far above the interface and transferred to the anion regeneration tank before a section of resin above and below the interface was transferred to the interface tank. The interface resin is held in the interface tank until the next resin bed is to be regenerated and then returned to the separation for reuse. The interface tank also makes it easier to get rid of cation resin fines.

Interface Tank

The purpose of an interface tank is to improve mixed bed separation by eliminating the most likely source of cross contamination. The interface represents the region where there is the greatest likelihood of mixed resin. Although inert resin has been used to dilute interface region and reduce cross contamination, it is not nearly as effective as the use of an interface tank (or interface isolation) and often creates more problems than it solves.

Vessel Internals: Acid, caustic, and rinse water

In order to uniformly supply acid to the top of the cation

Stainless steel is generally used for the internals in

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component upper distribution laterals Backwash inlet and outlet (collector) Vent Purpose and Impact on Performance resin bed or caustic to the top of the anion resin bed there must be a sufficient number of nozzles or laterals that are appropriately wrapped with stainless steel mesh or wedgewire to prevent clogging with resin fragments. The same is true for the rinse water inlet. Adequate downward rinse water flow is required to perform effective rinses and prevent regenerant hideout. The rinse water upper distributor is also used as the backwash water collector. Uniform distribution of acid and caustic regenerant is important for several reasons including effective chemical usage and avoiding regenerant hideout. The acid distributor on a cation regeneration vessel that is also the mixed bed separation vessel is located directly above the anion resin outlet collector. One of the problems with dual use of a separation vessel (separation and regeneration of either cation or anion resin) is the potential for resin becoming hung up on acid or caustic distributors. A vent is necessary on regeneration vessels because of the need to perform air scrubs to remove corrosion products and clean the resin. Collector, Support and Underdrain The primary function of the underdrain on regeneration vessels is the same as on service vessels with the added duty to distribute backwash water and air during resin scrubbing and cleaning while also minimizing resin losses. Refer to Table 3-1 for details. Available Options regeneration vessels except when hydrochloric acid is used to regenerate the cation resin. The design of vessel internals should allow for convenient disassembly and removal though the manway. As with service vessels, upper distributors need to provide uniform flow distribution. Refer to Table 3-1 for further details.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Bulk Acid and Caustic Tanks Purpose and Impact on Performance Bulk acid and caustic tanks provide storage of high concentrations of regenerant chemicals that are transferred and diluted at the regenerant skid as needed. The bulk chemical tanks may also provide storage of acid and caustic for regenerating makeup demineralizer resin as long as specifications are met to assure that the quality is sufficient for polisher resin regeneration. For example, the chloride in 50% caustic for regenerating polisher anion resin should be <50 ppm. Acid and caustic day tanks are used at some locations for several reasons. They provide a much better indication of the amount of acid and caustic used for regeneration (act as measuring tanks) and reduce the frequency of transferring concentrated acid and caustic from bulk tanks which may be a significant distance from the regeneration skid. They also supply additional storage for one or two regenerations if the bulk tanks have to be repaired. Compressed air or nitrogen is used for scrubbing and cleaning resin for corrosion product removal prior to mixed bed separation. Additional air scrubs, rinses, and backwashes should be performed on separated resins before and after regeneration. The air scrubs, backwashes, and rinses after regeneration will help remove any fines generated during regeneration and any additional corrosion products loosened during regeneration. Air must be free of oil to avoid Available Options Bulk acid tank may be made of carbon steel as long as a sufficiently high concentration of sulfuric acid is used to mitigate corrosion. (For example, acid concentrations > ~96% with the tank also protected from drawing in moisture). Consideration should be given to using exotic alloys if acid transfer lines to regeneration skid are overhead. In colder climates, bulk caustic tank must be insulated with heat tracing of the transfer line. The use of acid and caustic day tanks is optional. Experience has shown that they are very useful when in good repair. If not maintained, they provide a source of concentrated acid and caustic in an area frequented by operations personnel.

Acid and Caustic Day (Measuring) Tanks

Supply of Compressed Air or Nitrogen (Oil Free)

Instrument air (compressed air followed by appropriate filter) is used at many locations because it is oil free and dry although dry is not necessary for resin cleaning. Nitrogen membrane systems that follow air compressors effectively separate nitrogen from oxygen and can supply nitrogen for many purposes including resin cleaning. The major drawback is cost.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Component Purpose and Impact on Performance fouling the resin. Some stations use compressed nitrogen instead of compressed air to minimize oxidative attack on the resins and reduce the amount of air in the polisher bed when it is put back into service. Vessel Lining Most regeneration vessels are composed of the same carbon steel as service vessels and, therefore, also need to be lined. On mixed-bed separation units with side take off of anion resin, it is critical to adjust the cation resin level so the interface is at the correct location. Excess cation resin needs to be removed or temporarily transferred out of the separation tank so that it is not transferred with the anion resin to the anion regeneration tank and contacted with sodium hydroxide. Cation resin addition may also be required to bring the interface up to the correct level so that excess anion resin is not left in the separation vessel and contacted with sulfuric acid. Anion resin addition and/or removal may also be required to balance a bed. In-service beds containing different volumes of resin will have different pressure drops across them and different condensate flow that may adversely impact polisher performance. Refer to Table 3-1 for further details. Available Options

Resin Addition and Removal Facilities

In units without resin removal capability on the separation vessel, temporary transfer of excess cation resin to the storage or hold tank may be performed to adjust interface level if vessel is available and controls allow cation resin to subsequently be returned to separation vessel. In units with resin sampling line and valve, but without a special resin removal facility, excess cation resin may be removed through the sample valve. At some locations adding resin to bring resin to correct volume or to replace mixed bed are very difficult to make. A valve can be installed in the manhole to be utilized with an eductor to easily add resin.

3.3 Operating and Maintenance Factors
Even the very best equipment can provide poor results if not properly operated and maintained. Selection of appropriate polisher resin media is vital to performance optimization. Resin selection must carefully consider site-specific requirements such as high condensate temperatures or high sulfate levels in the cooling water. 3-17

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

Almost all modern ion exchange resins designed for use in condensate polishing applications meet requirements for mechanical and physical stability and far exceed the physical quality of the resins available when condensate polishing was first introduced. In the past, when high condensate temperature was an issue, many locations automatically selected macroporous resins over gel type resins because early gel resins were not thought to be as resistant to thermal and osmotic shock. Field experience with the current generation of gel type resins demonstrates that this is no longer the case and that resin selection can be made on a more far-reaching basis that includes other important parameters. For locations with high sulfate circulating water, the particle size of cation and anion resins may be the overriding issue as it may also be for locations without a well designed separation system. Since both anion and cation resin particle size effects overall exchange kinetics, stations with high sulfate cooling water may opt for a smaller sized cation resin while other stations may find the use of a larger sized cation resin more suitable for their need for optimizing mixed-bed separation. Monitoring and evaluating condensate polisher performance, resin condition, and regeneration effectiveness comprise another critical requirement for optimizing deep-bed condensate polisher performance. Deep bed condensate polisher operation, despite the many technical improvements and innovations that have followed its first use, is a multi-faceted process. Training is very helpful for eliminating some of the mystery and many of the prevailing misconceptions about ion exchange resins used in polishing systems. For example, resin rarely fails catastrophically unless it has experienced a catastrophe such as oil incursion or prolonged exposure to very high temperature. With a little training, interest, and the appropriate instrumentation, plant personnel responsible for polisher operation and performance can make the difference between a well performing system and one that has many problems. 3.3.1 Resin Selection In contrast to the considerable time and effort typically devoted to designing and calculating costs for a new ion exchange system, proper evaluation and selection of ion exchange resins is often neglected. More often than not, resin selection for a new ion exchange system is left to the discretion of the equipment manufacturer who, for economic reasons, is inclined to select resin on the basis of price rather than on the basis of maximum reliability and long term performance. It is only down the road, after a deep bed condensate polisher fails to produce specified water quality or throughput, that many end users become concerned about the resin in their system. Selection of the appropriate condensate polisher resin for a particular site and set of circumstances requires a review of both the probable operating and regenerating conditions under which the condensate polishers will operate and determination of the most important ion (1,9,10) Table 3-3 provides a exchange resin properties for the specific conditions at the location. brief description of important resin properties with comments on how these properties impact resin and polisher performance.

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Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

Table 3-3 Properties of Ion Exchange Resins used in Condensate Polishing Resin Property Porosity Description Property of an ion exchange resin that allows solutes to diffuse in and out of the resin particles – Defined as ratio of the volume of pores (void space) to total volume of the bead. Several types of macroporous resin One type is made of agglomerated spheres; another is a porous gel produced by extracting a solvent previously introduced. Relates to the physical strength of the resin to handle load on the resin such as high flow rates, deep bed depths, resin transfer, and osmotic shock – Also relates to ability to withstand operating temperature Resistance to degradation from oxidative attack or heavy metals – Oxidative attack on cation resin may produce extractable organics that foul anion resin. The rates at which ion exchange reactions occur – Speed of transfer of ions across liquid boundary layer is considered rate-limiting step. Field data support the rate of transfer for divalent ion like sulfate slower than for monovalent ion like chloride. Comments Debate over macroporous versus gel resin – Both have merit and some disadvantages. Macroporous resin used for high osmotic shock conditions because of less shrinkage, but cation resin may also be subject to more desulfonation. Gel resin has higher volume capacity and more efficient regeneration conversion. Chatillion test, a single bead crush test, favors gel resins. Osmotic shock test that repeatedly cycles resins between exhausted and regenerated forms favors macroporous when only broken and cracked beads considered. However, some macroporous resin may produce colloidal sized particles. Kinetic removal efficiency is an inherent property of ion exchange resin associated with its manufacture and the type of resin. Resin kinetics subject to deterioration as a result of fouling of resin bead surface. Although anion resin is more prone to fouling, cation resin fouling impacts overall exchange kinetics. For H/OH operation, cation resin operating capacity to NH4 breakthrough important – Determines run length at operating pH Typically, very little of anion resin capacity is used. 10% crosslinked cation resin is currently preferred for use in deep bed condensate polishers at fossil plants because of lower organic leachables than 8% crosslinked cation resin. Greater the crosslinking, lower

Stability: Mechanical/Physical

Chemical

Ion Exchange Kinetics

Total and Operating Capacity

Total capacity equals number of exchange sites in a mass or volume of resin. Operating capacity is a function of regeneration level and end point selected under given conditions. Binding of linear polymer chains in resin matrix with a crosslinking agent to produce a 3 dimensional insoluble polymer In cation resin, equals % DVB In anion resin, difficult to determine because of methylene bridging.

Crosslinkage

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Resin Property Description Crosslinking effects water retention and exchange capacity and indicates gel porosity. Capacity of ion exchange resin to retain water in its fully swollen state – Increases with decrease in crosslinking Comments the swelling – Increased cation resin crosslinking associated with increased density. Increase in water retention of cation resin with time indicates decrosslinking and a probable increase in organic leachables from cation resin. Strong acid cation resins stable, but subject to oxidative attack on polymer network. Strong base anion resins show modifications of the functional group. Cation resin leachables may foul anion resin. The greater the difference in cation and anion resin bead diameter, the better separation, the more difficult the remixing. Better exchange kinetics with smaller resin bead diameter. Better filtration accomplished with smaller, non-uniform bead size. Better separation with larger uniform cation resin and smaller uniform anion resin. Hydraulic (backwash) separation of mixed bed takes advantage of the effect on terminal settling velocity of both volume and density differences between cation and anion resin. With true density separation processes, anion resin floated so cation resin particle size not important for separation. Can then optimize cation resin particle size for improving exchange kinetics. Guarantee of low level of metal impurities in the resin should be supplied by resin manufacturer and included on specification to avoid resin with short useful life. Clumping will create void spaces that allow some influent water to bypass resin. May result in poor quality effluent during a condenser leak In general, selectivity for multivalent ions such as SO4= greater than for monovalent ions

Water Retention Capacity (Moisture Retention Capacity)

Organic Leachables

Organic molecules released by resin – Resin breakdown products or residuals from manufacturing or results from oxidative attack

Particle Size

Measured for specific form of resin – Impacts ion exchange kinetics, mixedbed separability, recombination, pressure drop, and filtration

Particle Size Distribution

Uniformity coefficient indicates particle size distribution. The closer to 1, the more uniform

Resin Density

Increased crosslinking of cation resin associated with increased density. Density of resin must be specified for particular resin form. Density difference between anion and cation resins required for mixed bed separation. With hydraulic separation, the larger, heavier cation resin falls first.

Metal Impurities (New Resin)

Resin Surface Treatment

May be present from manufacture of both anion and cation resins and involved in accelerating resin degradation or in unexpected interactions. Declumping agent added or not added – Gel anion resins for use in mixed beds are most likely resins to be treated.

Selectivity

Relates to equilibrium between ions in solution and on resin – Varies from one ion to another and to some extent from

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Resin Property Description one resin to another Equilibrium Constant is also known as Selectivity Coefficient Comments such as Cl-. Higher selectivity ions more tightly retained on resin

Selection of the most suitable resin for a particular situation requires a careful balance of the physical and chemical properties of the resins, the water the resin is likely to treat, the quality of polisher effluent required, and the conditions to which the resins will be exposed during service and regeneration. The appropriate time to be concerned about resin performance is before the resin is purchased and installed in a system. For example, no amount of care will change an 8% cross-linked cation resin into a 10% cross-linked cation resin or increase the bead size of undersized cation resin. Although individual requirements vary, the major criteria for most mixed bed condensate polisher installations using regenerable resins are similar. A summary of the major selection criteria for polystyrene divinyl benzene (DVB) strong acid cation resin and Type 1 strong base anion resin and is listed below. • • Good Kinetics Characteristics: Kinetic performance is of special concern at locations with high dissolved solids in cooling water, especially if a high sulfate level is present Low Organic Leachables: Required from both cation and anion resins. Even with low organic leachables, new resin should still be conditioned prior to mixing the cation and anion resins together to prevent leachables accumulated during storage from fouling new resin. Bead Size and Uniformity Coefficient: To enhance separability or kinetics depending on regeneration equipment design and system requirements. At a minimum, recommend uniformity coefficient <1.25 with limits on % of resin at far end of harmonic mean sizes chosen. % Crosslinkage: The degree of crosslinkage affects resin physical strength, resistance to oxidative attack, ease of regeneration, and selectivity coefficient. Too high a crosslinkage makes resins brittle. For gel cation resins, 10% crosslinked. Macroporous cation resins more highly crosslinked. % Weak Base Sites on Strong Base Anion Resin: > 5% weak base sites on new condensate polisher strong base anion resin are undesirable. Mechanical and Osmotic Shock Stability: The generation of broken beads and fines in condensate polisher resin is undesirable. Practices of Resin Manufacturer/Supplier: The following aspects of quality assurance, and support should be considered: Do they test each and every batch of resin or use statistical quality control? Do they provide a certified analysis? Are they receptive to working with the end user on special needs? Form of the Resin: Hydrogen form cation resin is preferred because of stability in storage over ammonium form. Purchasing sodium form cation resin for condensate polisher operation should be avoided. Anion resin should be purchased in hydroxide or carbonate/bicarbonate form. Sulfate form anion resin is also acceptable, but requires regeneration with a high concentration of sodium hydroxide (6-8%) before use. Low metal residuals on the resin. Price. 3-21

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

Prudent specifications for purchasing condensate polisher cation and anion resins increase the likelihood that the full utilization and benefits of the polisher system will be obtained. Thus a low purchase price should only be considered when the product offered meets all of the technical requirements. On the other hand, every special item or restriction differing with supplier product standards generally adds to the cost of the resin. It is always important, therefore, to determine if a special limitation or specification of interest will provide an operating benefit worth the increase in price. 3.3.2 Resin Testing While the first and most crucial step in a good resin management program is to prepare (and use) appropriate specifications that assure the proper resin for the application and conditions under which the system will be operated, it is also beneficial to establish a meaningful testing program. Testing of new resins, whether performed in-house or by an independent outside laboratory, insures that the resins meet the important specified parameters. When properly designed, a good test program provides meaningful results, is inexpensive, and is not overly time consuming. Where possible the program should include performance monitoring of in-service resins and review of data from regenerations. For example, rinse requirement data obtained and recorded for individual resin regenerations are generally more meaningful and accurate than a single laboratory test result. An increase in rinse requirements over time is often an early indication of resin fouling and may allow extension of useful resin life through appropriate resin cleaning techniques. For new condensate polisher resin provided by a reliable manufacturer who also provides a certified analysis of each batch of resin with or preceding resin shipment, periodic statistical sampling and testing should suffice. For resin suppliers who use statistical quality control, it may be necessary to do a larger statistical sampling. However, if the resin manufacturer is less well known it is suggested that analysis of all pre-shipment resin samples as well as analysis of core samples of resin shipped should be performed until the end user is satisfied with the reliability of the supplier. Table 3-4 provides a summary of useful tests for new condensate polisher resin along with the principle involved in each test procedure.
Table 3-4 Tests for New Condensate Polisher Resin(10-12) Test Anion Exchange Kinetics Assessment Principle The anion resin kinetics test is based on measuring sulfate leakage through a mixed bed test column or an anion resin test column (whether or not followed by a cation resin column) when a sulfate solution is injected into the resin column. Mass transfer coefficient or % removal calculations may be used to determine anion resin kinetic performance. The cation resin kinetics test is based on measuring sodium leakage through a mixed bed test column or a cation resin test column (whether or not followed by an anion resin column) when a sodium solution is injected into the resin column. When using a mixed bed, sodium sulfate is the recommended challenge solution. Mass transfer coefficient or % removal calculations may be used to determine cation resin kinetic performance.

Cation Exchange Kinetics Assessment

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Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Test Ion Exchange Resin Water-Soluble Organic Extractables Principle Water-soluble organic extractables are determined on a known volume of as received (or quantitatively rinsed) resin. The specified volume of resin is contacted with a specified volume of deionized water at elevated temperature for 16 hours. The water is decanted off the resin and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC). The mg of TOC per liter of resin is calculated from the results. The distribution of bead sizes in a resin sample can be determined by particle counter or by passing the sample through a series of stacked sieves and measuring the volume of resin retained on each screen. With uniform particle size resin, testing for particle size distribution is no longer as prevalent as it once was. However the need to determine the % resin fines (one portion of size distribution test) is still very important. Resin particles that pass through a U.S. Sieve # 50 and are retained on a U.S. Sieve # 325 are considered to be fines. Particle sizes are determined for specified form of the resin (sodium form for cation resin and chloride form for anion resin) because the bead size is a function of the ionic form of the resin. When a particle counter is used, the instrument generally provides the uniformity coefficient. Otherwise, the uniformity coefficient may be calculated from particle size distribution. A sample of ion exchange resin is spread on a glass grid and visually inspected with the aid of a microscope. Each square of the grid contains ~100 beads. Cracked and fragmented beads in the five squares of the grid are counted and subtracted from the calculated number of particles in the five squares to obtain the number of perfect beads. Results are reported as % perfect beads. The equilibrium moisture content of the resin depends on the number of functional groups and the level of crosslinkage. In general, water content is directly proportional to the number of functional groups and inversely proportional to the amount of crosslinkage. Water retention is determined from the weight lost by a hydrated, dewatered resin sample that is dried in a drying oven at elevated temperature and allowed to cool in a desiccator. The dried and cooled resin needs to be weighed within a minute after removing from the desiccator. Crush test for mechanical strength uses single bead subjected to opposing pressure. This test reported by most resin manufacturers, but rarely performed by end users since physical stability of most currently used resins is adequate to prevent attrition losses in column operations. Large particles are more subject to mechanical attrition than smaller particles. Use of large resin beads or combination of very high flow rate with very deep resin beds may trigger need for test. Osmotic shock test cycles resins between exhausted and regenerated forms (10-25 cycles) or alternates exposure of resins to high and low concentrations of electrolytes. Rapid volume changes stress the resin. An example of a very severe, but indicative test uses alternate treatment of a resin column with 4% NaOH, water, 8% H2SO4, and again water. As with mechanical stability, particle size is a very important factor. Trace metal contaminants in ion exchange resins are quantified by ashing a known weight of as-received resin, dissolving the residue in acid and analyzing for specific metals by atomic absorption or plasma emission spectrophotometry. Results are reported in parts per million on a dry weight basis.

Bead Size Distribution, Resin Fines, and Uniformity Coefficient

Perfect Bead Count

Percent Crosslinkage (H+ form cation resin water retention)

Mechanical and Osmotic Shock Stability

Trace Metals

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Test Exchange Capacity of Hydroxide Form Anion Resin (Salt Splitting, Weak Base, and Total Capacity of Strong Base Anion Resin) Principle Salt splitting capacity indicates strong base sites on anion resin and can be determined by exhausting hydroxide (OH-) form anion resin with sodium chloride (NaCl) and measuring the total equivalents of OH- in the effluent. To determine weak base capacity, anion resin in which strong base sites have been converted to the chloride form with NaCl is further exhausted with a precisely measured amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The difference between equivalents of HCl entering the resin and equivalents found in effluent is weak base capacity of the resin. For condensate polishing, weak base sites are undesirable. Recommend weak base capacity in new resin be < 5%. Total capacity estimated by adding salt splitting and weak base capacity. Salt-splitting capacity is the ability of the hydrogen (H+) form resin to exchange its protons for sodium ions in a solution of NaCl passing through the bed. Salt splitting capacity is measured by exhausting the H+ form resin with NaCl and determining equivalents of H+ in the effluent.

Hydrogen Form Cation Resin Exchange Capacity

As previously discussed, resin does not fail catastrophically under intended service conditions. Consequently, if one starts with good quality condensate polisher resin that is treated with reasonable care, only a slow gradual decline over time is likely to occur as resins become fouled or suffer some loss of strong base capacity. Resin fouling may occur as a result of corrosion products removed by the resin during in-service operation not being sufficiently removed from the resin during regeneration. Fouling may also occur because of organics in the makeup water not being removed by the makeup demineralizer or organic extractables from the cation resin fouling anion resin and vice versa.(13) Organic fouling because of inadequate removal of organics from the makeup water may require improvements in the makeup water system that, in the long run, could be less costly than premature condensate polisher resin replacement. For makeup demineralizers treating water that is high in organic content, pretreatment is an important part of the organics removal effort that may also utilize RO and/or organic scavenger resin. To minimize organic fouling of the anion resin from cation resin extractables and cation resin fouling from anion resin extractables, new anion and cation resins should be separately conditioned prior to mixing. At a minimum, each resin should be separately soaked for a few hours and well rinsed before the resins are mixed. If a resin is not in the regenerated form, regeneration of that resin will provide it with sufficient conditioning. Other sources of organic fouling include oil intrusion into the polishers or the condensate (e.g. lubricants or turbine lube oil following startup) and organics or organic treatment chemicals in the cooling water. Routine resin testing will often identify a potential problem before it becomes a performance issue that cannot be resolved without resin replacement. Some of the testing needs to be performed on collected resin samples while other testing can be accomplished as part of routine operation and regeneration. As previously discussed, merely keeping good regeneration records about the rinse requirements of cation and anion resin in each polisher batch that identifies how long it took the resin to rinse down to a given conductivity after regeneration provides significant information. An increase in rinse requirements to a given endpoint is a likely indication of resin fouling while no increase in rinse requirements generally indicates little or no fouling. 3-24

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Another opportunity to obtain valuable information on resin condition is present during a natural condenser leak. Simply recording influent and effluent cation conductivity and sodium values permits an easy calculation of percent sodium removed by the cation resin. Cation resin that is not kinetically impaired will remove > 99% of the influent sodium. The estimation of percent removal for anions is a little more complicated since conductivity is a non-specific measurement and several anions may be present. However, if polisher effluent cation conductivity stays within operating limits during the leak, it is likely that the anion resin is not seriously fouled. For those locations with an ion chromatograph available, collecting influent and effluent samples will provide specific kinetics data on percent removal for each anion species. As needed interpretation of test results should include review of regeneration data as well as inservice data, especially when premature polisher removal has occurred because of polisher performance issues. Using test results on new resin or the resin specifications as a baseline, periodic collection and laboratory analysis of polisher resin samples will go a long way towards maintaining polisher performance and providing protection against contaminant ingress into the system during condenser leaks. Table 3-5 provides a list of tests that should be considered for inclusion in polisher resin testing programs along with the reason for including the test in the recommended list and the estimated sampling frequency. The results of these tests will provide station chemistry and management with the ability to make informed estimates about when to budget for resin replacement or when to try resin cleaning.
Table 3-5 Test Parameters to be Considered for Inclusion in a Polisher Resin Testing Program(1,10-12) Test Anion Exchange Kinetics (laboratory analysis, monitoring of natural leak or on-line simulated condenser leak) Cation Exchange Kinetics is sometimes important, but generally a less frequent problem Rinse Requirement (performed on both anion and cation resins during regeneration – part of regeneration data collection) Resin Fines and Microscopic Analysis for Bead Integrity (broken, cracked, and whole beads) Reason for Recommendation To prevent unexpected system contamination during moderate to severe condenser leak (to anticipate how well resins are likely to perform) and to determine anion resin fouling for budgeting purposes Critical test for stations on high sulfate cooling water Increasing rinse requirement is early indicator of resin fouling Early information may permit successful resin cleaning and postpone resin replacement. Resin fines create problems during both regeneration and in-service operation. High levels of fines and/or broken or cracked beads indicate resin not handling operational or regeneration stresses. Resin fines also indicate backwashes during regeneration are not sufficient to remove fines. During in-service operation, ammonia Recommended Frequency 1 to 2 year intervals or sooner if polisher performance indicates problem

Every regeneration

Weak Base Capacity of

1 to 2 year intervals when anion exchange kinetics performed More frequently if resin cross contamination during mixed bed separation is a problem or if there is a high pressure drop across polisher vessel 1 to 2 year intervals or

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Test Strong Base Anion Resin Reason for Recommendation will regenerate bisulfate off any weak base sites present on anion resin. Bisulfate is put on anion resin as a result of anion resin entrainment in cation resin during mixed bed separation. This results in crossregenerant contamination of both strong and weak base anion resin sites during cation resin regeneration with sulfuric acid. Rearrangement of bisulfate to sulfate on strong base sites makes likelihood of equilibrium sulfate leakage from strong base anion resin very low although will have initial sulfate rinse out that can be addressed by 24-hour stand time. Periodic testing may reduce likelihood of anion resin fouling from cation resin leachables Since an increase in the water retention of hydrogen form cation resin indicates decrosslinking of the cation resin with an accompanying possibility of increased organic leachables. Critical test for stations on high sulfate cooling water Cation and anion resin entrainment tests are used to determine effectiveness of mixed bed separation. Cross regenerant contamination can lead to high polisher effluent sodium from ammonium form polishers. Recommended Frequency sooner if sulfate leakage increases significantly at ammonia breakthrough

Hydrogen Form Cation Resin Water Retention

2 to 4 year intervals or sooner if anion resin tests indicate anion resin fouling

Cation Resin Entrainment in Anion Resin and Anion Resin Entrainment in Cation Resin following Mixed Bed Separation

On startup of new mixed bed regeneration system and for troubleshooting resin separation problems as necessary

Closing Comments on Resin Testing As with any type of testing program, resin test results should serve some meaningful purpose. For new resins, the tests form a basis of acceptance and a baseline for comparison with the results of future tests on used resin. Analysis of used resins should: • • • • Be conducted on appropriately collected resin samples. Provide information on resin degradation to help prevent operating failures. Indicate where improvements in mixed bed separation or regeneration can be made and. Provide information on the condition of the resin for budgeting purposes or to determine if resin cleaning might be practicable.

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Laboratory analyses are typically designed to eliminate inconsistencies because of the form of the resin or the degree of resin exhaustion (unless that is what is being measured). For example, prior to determining anion or cation exchange kinetics in the laboratory, the resins to be tested are well regenerated and rinsed. If a simulated condenser leak on in-service polishers is utilized, it may be necessary to collect samples of resin when the polishers are removed from service to determine chloride and sulfate on the anion resin and sodium on the cation resin. These tests would be required if any of the polishers exhibited higher than expected leakage in order to distinguish between equilibrium and kinetic leakage. For example, if chloride leakage was high during the simulated leak test and the anion resin chloride capacity was less than 1%, anion exchange kinetics is the likely source of the high leakage. On the other hand, if the chloride capacity was on the order of 10%, both exchange kinetics and equilibrium leakage could be responsible for the high chloride leakage. Consequently, if simulated condenser leaks are utilized to determine exchange kinetics, it may be necessary to also perform specific capacity tests on resin samples collected after the polisher beds are removed from service. Resin testing is a tool to aid generating stations in maintaining optimum polisher operation and performance. Prudently used, a resin test program should help achieve these goals, without placing a burden on a station in terms of manpower or cost. In summary, these objectives may be satisfied as follows: • • • Write tight but reasonable specifications for ion exchange resins. Develop and implement a suitable program for new resins to insure that they meet important parameters specified or make use of independent outside laboratory to do testing. Develop and implement resin sampling program for in-service resins and perform routine quality testing or make use of independent, outside laboratory.

3.3.3 Regeneration and Waste Handling On-site regeneration allows the station to have full control over the care and conditioning of resins used in condensate polishing. However, there are disadvantages associated with maintaining this control. Regeneration equipment has to be maintained in good working order, bulk chemicals of the appropriate purity have to be stored, and regenerant waste has to be handled, treated, stored, or discharged. For mixed bed polishers, the design of the separation system can make a significant impact on in-service performance and determine whether the polishers can be operated beyond ammonium breakthrough. An overview of the key steps for optimization of regeneration is listed below: 1. Ensure full bed transferred to separation or regeneration vessel. 2. Ensure resins thoroughly air scrubbed for removal of corrosion products prior to resin separation and chemical application steps. 3. Backwash separated resins for removal of fines before and after chemical application. (Additional fines may be generated during regeneration.) 4. Ensure good separation of anion and cation resins (for mixed bed polishers) through the use of specially sized resins and, for hydraulic separations, through the addition of a stepped backwash or utilize an advanced separation vessel/system design. It should be noted that some of the specialized separation vessel designs utilize a tall and very thin separation tank 3-27

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

to minimize the interface. Other specialized designs include density separation and flotation of the anion resin, removal of large amount of interface region to separate interface tank, and bottom removal of cation resin. 5. As needed, use appropriate resin pretreatment to strip contaminants prior to regeneration. For example, sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate may be used to strip chloride from new or used anion resin. 6. Use sufficient regenerants at proper concentrations and contact time to regenerate resins as completely as necessary for specific operating conditions. 7. Ensure quality of regenerant chemicals meets specifications and that specifications are sufficiently tight. 8. Use appropriate post regeneration resin purification processes such as ammonia rinse of (1) anion resin or resin-on-resin. 9. Rinse cation and anion resin completely before recombining. 10. Verify good mixing obtained when resins recombined. 11. Allow sufficient stand time for regenerants to diffuse out of the resins before putting into service. 12. Transfer mixed bed resins to maintain well mixed bed and avoid fluidizing the bed or, where possible, remix in service vessel if oil free air and appropriate air distribution available. Although newer condensate polisher systems might include one of the advanced separation processes, the majority of systems in fossil plants use simple hydraulic (backwash) separation and side transfer of anion resin. Suggestions for optimizing mixed bed separation in vessels with (1) fixed interface laterals, include: • • • • • • • • • • • • Select uniform particle size resin with appropriate difference in harmonic mean size. Keep air, oil, and organics out of the system. Keep cation resin fines as low as possible. Use stepped backwash to allow cation resin to settle out of anion resin layer before anion resin transfer to the anion regeneration tank. Adjust backwash rate when water temperature changes. Assure that underdrain and backwash distributor holes are properly aligned. If separation is disturbed by loss of flow or sudden change of flow, perform additional separation. Prior to anion resin transfer, verify interface level proper. If necessary, adjust interface by adding or removing resin after slow backwash step. Backwash again using stepped backwash procedure. If no resin additions or removal, reestablish slow backwash flow and transfer anion resin. Assure top and bottom flow rates properly balanced.

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• • • • •

Establish up-flow last and turn off first. Check resin does not become too fluidized during transfer. After transfer, repeat slow backwash step. Repeat the anion resin transfer to get the residual anion resin out of the cation resin, but do not carry cation resin over to the anion regeneration tank. Flush transfer lines and check sight windows to assure transfer complete.

Advanced Separation Processes There are several ways used to achieve effective separation of mixed resins, as is needed for (1) effective ammonium form operation. Inclusion of an interface isolation tank in the design is one approach. There are also several proprietary separation approaches, including the following. • • Conesep®: bottom transfer of cation resin to dedicated cation regeneration vessel with interface identified by conductivity and maintained in piping between regeneration tanks. Seprex®: normal hydraulic separation and fixed lateral transfer of anion resin combined with anion resin flotation in 16% caustic that floats and regenerates anion resin and drops out cation resin SepraEight®: bottom transfer of cation resin with interface identified by pH and maintained in piping between regeneration vessels; may be combined with anion resin flotation of Seprex® process. Amsep®: anion resin floated out the top of the separation tank in benign amine salt such as ammonium sulfate; bottom transfer of cation resin to dedicated cation regeneration vessel permits enhanced removal of cation resin fines.

Use of these processes improves separation increases separation of the resins as compared to that possible with the earlier hydraulic separation techniques. Extent of industry usage and published experience with each process varies.(1) Handling Regenerant Wastes With the exception of some rinses, most regenerant waste is often considered hazardous because of either extremely low or high pH. Permitting and discharge regulations for regenerant wastes differ significantly from one location to another and current and prospective users of on-site regeneration must keep abreast of all requirements that apply to them. Some plant locations now require provision of an above ground tank for collection and neutralization of regenerant waste. Plants may also be limited to zero liquid discharge from the site. Off-Site Regeneration of Resins An obvious conclusion that can be made about the waste produced during on-site regeneration is that it will create environmental compliance issue at most if not all locations. Add to this the fact that many existing regeneration systems are in need of replacement or extensive refurbishing and further that many organizations are falling under increasing pressure to reduce or eliminate the 3-29

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

on-site storage of hazardous chemicals at their generating plants as well as the requirements associated with effective operation and maintenance of on-site regeneration systems the option of regenerating condensate polisher resin off-site often becomes worth investigating. Cost assessment indicates that under suitable conditions this approach can offer considerable positive net value. An earlier EPRI Guideline publication on off-site regeneration (OSR) goes into extensive detail about this technology option and the associated requirements, and also discusses the early (14) experience at some locations. A brief review of the more important aspects is presented here. EPRI Guidelines for OSR of condensate polisher resins were developed in consideration of the following fossil industry needs: • • • • • • Implementation of optimum cycle chemistry as is allowed with the use of condensate polishers. Elimination of chemistry induced failures in boilers and turbines. Reduction of the overall cost of condensate polishing permitting its wider use in all types of fossil units. Simplification of condensate polisher operation. Elimination of plant regeneration and disposal concerns. Improved reliability and consistency of regeneration (allowing more polishers to operate beyond ammonium breakthrough where this is possible and beneficial).

Possible benefits available to fossil plants include the following items. • • • • Reduced workload on operators Elimination (or reduction) of handling of bulk regenerant chemicals. Elimination (or reduction) of disposal of regenerant effluents (no need for neutralizing or storing polisher regenerant waste). Potential for optimization of condensate polisher resin separation, regeneration, and cleaning without the need for capital outlay. (The regeneration service provider should guarantee quality of regeneration, i.e., resins regenerated to the required level).

Possible disadvantages to OSR are as follows. • It may not suitable in all cases (specifically in units that startup frequently or are subject to frequent condenser leaks) as economical use of OSR often requires the ability to operate the polisher in the ammonium form. Dependency on a service provider to meet quality demands for regenerated resin. Dependency on a service provider to ensure resin availability. Operating costs are dependent on transportation costs and polisher run lengths (and variations should be minimized by appropriate on-site storage and polisher operation beyond

• • •

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ammonium breakthrough or at the lower condensate pH permissible with oxygenated treatment of units with once-through boilers.) Utilization of OSR in fossil units by an organization requires planning and coordination. Important steps in the process beyond basic feasibility and value assessment activities will usually include the following. • • Determination of fossil unit cycle water chemistry requirements and establishment of properly selected and optimized site-specific water chemistry programs. Review condensate polishing plant design and operating experience. (The actual design of the plant and mode of operation will effect effluent quality and resin usage - impacting both economics of OSR and polisher performance). Assessment and possible correction known problems with existing equipment. For example, poor inlet water distribution may result in inefficient use of the resins and poor removal of exhausted resins from the service vessel may impact effluent water quality even if the regenerated resin meets requirements. Evaluating plant water chemistry and operating records for existing units as conditions such as condensate pH and incidence and magnitude of condenser leaks or other impurity ingress events which will impact economics of OSR. Preparation of overall OSR requirements and specifications including determination of suitable resin regeneration targets and associated resin testing requirements. Design and provision of plant facilities needed for OSR implementation including vessels and components for resin cleaning and backwashing, resin mixing, resin transfer to and from the service vessel(s), new resin charge preparation, regenerated resin storage, and used resin storage. Assuring that the OSR service provider consistently meets all required specifications.

• •

For utilities that have multiple locations with condensate polishers, off-site regeneration does not necessarily mean using an outside vendor. It may be possible to select one of the locations and optimize the regeneration system at that location to handle all of the polisher regenerations. Onsite resin storage and the ability to clean resin would still be needed at each location, but there would be no need for acid and caustic or handling of regenerant waste at these locations. 3.3.4 Polisher System Instrumentation and Monitoring The purpose of a condensate polisher monitoring is to optimize performance through knowledgeable control while reliably and consistently protecting the cycle from any contamination present in the condensate. The program should foster an understanding of the overall polisher system including consequences of regeneration, resin aging, resin fouling, etc. in all those involved in polisher operation to enable them to take appropriate actions as needed. Examples of actions that an informed plant staff should be able to take include: • • Promptly identify adverse trends in CP performance. Correctly interpret data. 3-31

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

• • •

Predict and prevent possible consequential effects on unit cycle chemistry. Determine appropriate action/response and testing as may be needed. Minimize recurrence of similar problems.

A good polisher monitoring program will directly support optimized cycle chemistry control that enhances profitability through reliable operation and reduced corrosion and corrosion product transport. Advances in instrumentation and data acquisition now permit cost effective on-line monitoring of many parameters of interest. To control the performance of deep bed condensate polishers requires starting with suitable resins, separately conditioning new cation and anion resins, performing adequate regenerations, and effectively monitoring both in-service performance(15,16) and regenerations. Cycle Chemistry Monitoring Practices In fossil plants with full flow condensate polishing, feedwater and, in many cases, steam purity both depend on polisher performance. For supercritical once-through units, both feedwater and steam purity are determined by polisher performance. In drum boiler units, polisher performance is the main determinant of feedwater and boiler water purity. For drum units that use spray attemperation, condensate polisher performance also directly impacts steam quality. Discussion of polisher impacts on cycle chemistry is presented in Section 2.3.1. On-line monitoring should as a minimum include the EPRI Core Cycle Chemistry Monitoring parameters, cation conductivity and sodium. Ideally, it should be possible to monitor the combined polisher outlet as well as the outlet of each individual in-service polisher. Sodium monitoring is needed as it is, aside from ammonium, usually the main cationic contaminant in the condensate and (again aside from ammonium) the first to leak from the bed. Cation conductivity is a general indicator of anionic (aside from hydroxide) in the cycle. Supplemental monitoring may of course be provided and additional diagnostic testing can be performed as needed for performance assessment or troubleshooting. Specific conductivity is often monitored to indirectly track ammonia levels in the outlet water, when operating in either the H-OH or ammonium mode. Silica testing may be performed as needed. An overall summary of plant instrumentation that can, when available, be used to advantage when assessing polisher operations is noted in Table 3-6. The ability to measure low levels of individual anions in the inlet and outlet from polishers is a very effective and useful means of evaluating polisher performance. This is normally done by means of ion chromatography (IC), which is able to measure chloride, sulfate and other anions (as well as cations with the proper equipment setup) to low (ppb and sub-ppb) levels. Some organizations have an IC in the station laboratory while others have it at a central laboratory or obtain IC test support as needed from qualified commercial laboratories.

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Other In-service Monitoring Parameters Other parameters need to be monitored to ensure proper hydraulic and bed conditions. Comments on these parameters are also included in Table 3-6. Flow through the condensate polishers should be maintained between ~20 gpm/ft and 60 gpm/ft (~50- 150 m/h) for a 3 ft (0.9 m) bed depth to avoid channeling, gouging and bypassing within the bed. Flow should be reasonably balanced between vessels when more than one polisher is in service.
2 2

A change in flow through a vessel without a corresponding change in condensate flow usually indicates a problem. A decrease in flow through a service vessel is associated with high pressure drop across the vessel that could be caused by crud loading, mechanical problems or failure of the vessel lining where part of the detached lining inhibits flow. When the flow through one vessel in a multi-vessel system decreases, flow through other vessels will increase.
Table 3-6 On-Line Instrumentation for Deep Bed Condensate Polisher Monitoring Instrument or Device Sodium Analyzer Location(s) Single instrument may be used with a stream selector to monitor effluent of individual polishers on a unit and the combined polisher effluent and condensate pump discharge. Other sample points that could be included are EI, RH or MS. For drum units on AVT, boiler water may also be included. Purpose The concentration of sodium can not normally be inferred from specific conductivity because low levels of sodium are masked by the amine used for pH control (amine concentration typically >50 ppb). While cation conductivity indicates the total level of anions present and, in condensate entering polishers, could also indicate sodium based on the sodium to anion ratio in the cooling water, it does not indicate anything about sodium leakage out of a condensate polisher. Consequently, determining sodium out of individual polishers (when more than one is in service) is useful for indicating poor mixed-bed separation or kinetic leakage. Typically indicates level of amine used for pH control. In the effluent of H+ form polisher, indicates ammonium breakthrough. Indicates total level of anions present as their acids. Conductivity enhanced by presence of H+ ion. In the absence of organic acids and carbon dioxide, pH indicates the concentration of amine present. When organic acids and/or CO2 present, the pH will be depressed while the specific conductivity increases. Comparison of pH, specific conductivity, cation conductivity, and sodium values provides a reasonably good profile

Specific Conductivity Acid (cation) Conductivity pH

CPD, CPO, individual polisher effluent CPD, CPO (Individual and combined), EI, RH (or MS) CPD, CPO, individual polisher outlet

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Instrument or Device Location(s) Purpose of species present. Silica Makeup Silica influent to a condensate polisher should normally be very low unless the makeup water treatment process is not adequately controlled. Flow should normally be balanced between vessels when more than one condensate polisher is in service. A change in flow across a polisher without a corresponding change in condensate flow usually indicates a problem. Polisher beds may be removed on throughput. Short run lengths indicating a problem are quickly apparent. An increase in pressure differential indicates crud loading or a problem such as a torn lining inhibiting flow. Condensate temperature has an impact on polisher performance. Very high temperature may also impact resin life. Iron and copper corrosion products are removed to a great extent by the condensate polishers although magnetite is more readily filtered than hematite or amorphous iron. On-line monitoring of corrosion products has increased with the use of oxygenated treatment.

Flow

Individual polisher outlet

Flow Totalizer

Individual polisher outlet

Differential Pressure Temperature

Across individual polishers CPD

Corrosion Product Monitor

CPD, CPO

During normal operation, pressure differentials across individual service vessels should be similar. An increase in pressure differential suggests crud loading. During or shortly after startup, polisher beds are often removed on pressure differential rather than effluent quality. For condensate polisher systems that have pressure differential indication across individual beds but no individual polisher flow indication, flow though individual polishers can be inferred from total flow and pressure drop across the individual beds. Conversely, for systems that only have pressure indications across the entire polisher system, pressure differential across individual beds can be inferred from total pressure across the system and individual flow through each vessel. Sight glass observations of in-service polisher vessels should routinely be made to determine if the bed surface is level and if the appropriate volume of resin is present. Checking bed levels is especially important after transfer of a bed to the vessel, placing it in service, unit upsets, and changes in polished water purity. Sight glass observations should also be made following transfer of exhausted resin out of the service vessel and prior to transfer of a regenerated bed into the polisher vessel to avoid contamination of the newly regenerated bed and the formation of an unbalanced bed. An important part of maintaining optimum cycle chemistry that has already been discussed is monitoring and recording in-service polisher performance and operating parameters. Another 3-34

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important, but less obvious, part of cycle chemistry monitoring includes recording and reviewing polisher resin regeneration data and maintaining appropriate regeneration and resin transfer records. These records allow review of the most recent regeneration when a polisher does not perform as expected to determine if a problem during regeneration could be the cause of the inservice problem. Long-term regeneration and performance records provide a life history of the resin and, along with appropriate test data, enable a reasonable decision about when it is necessary to clean or replace the resin. Evaluation of the performance and regeneration data over time will also help determine whether the resins were properly selected. Regeneration Monitoring Monitoring is also very important during the regeneration of the whole bead ion exchange resins used in mixed beds and other deep bed polisher designs. Table 3-7 identifies useful instrumentation and visual aids for optimizing the regeneration in a typical regeneration system.
Table 3-7 Surveillance Techniques for Deep Bed Regeneration Systems Instrument or Device Specific Conductivity Location(s) Inlet and outlet of cation and anion regeneration vessels and storage vessel. Grab sample capability may suffice. Separation vessel and cation and anion regeneration vessels Separation vessel and anion and cation regeneration vessels Purpose To determine when rinses are completed. Specific conductivity determination is also needed if an ammonia rinse of the anion resin following sodium hydroxide regeneration is employed to reduce inservice sodium leakage. To assure proper water level for backwash and air scrubs, especially if sufficient sight glasses are not available The temperature of the backwash water affects the expansion of the resin bed during backwash. If the water is colder than usual, the resin bed may expand to the point that whole resin beads are backwashed out of the vessel. Conversely, if water temperature is warmer than anticipated, insufficient bed expansion may occur, preventing good mixed bed separation or fines removal. It is necessary to remove corrosion products from resin before regenerant chemicals are applied. Doing repeated air scrubs until backwash water turbidity meets requirements avoids inconsistencies between operators. Flow indication is necessary to assure appropriate rinse and backwash flows as well as proper regenerant flow. To monitor concentration of acid and

Level Indicators

Backwash Water Temperature

Turbidity Meter

Outlet of separation vessel and cation and anion regeneration vessels. Single meter with grab sample capability at each location will suffice. Rinse and backwash inlet to cation and anion regeneration tanks Influent to anion and cation

Flow Indicators

Concentration

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems Instrument or Device Indicators Sight Glasses Location(s) regeneration tanks At upper bed level and expanded level, interface, and bottom of separation vessel. Other vessels – at top and bottom of resin Purpose caustic regenerants To observe bed levels and interface are appropriate. Lower sight glass needed to determine if all resin has been transferred out.

Although they will eventually require replacement, the useful service life of the resins can be maximized with proper care during service and especially regeneration. Personnel responsible for regeneration of the resins should be encouraged to regard them as if they are an important “renewable resource” that will provide the long life possible only if they are cared for properly during regeneration. To keep the ion exchange resins working well while the polisher is in service, all bed regenerations must receive proper, consistent attention. Along with recording critical regeneration data for subsequent review, the regeneration surveillance techniques identified in Table 3-7 assist plant personnel in routinely and repeatedly meeting regeneration requirements ranging from adequate cleaning of corrosion products off the resin to achieving good mixed-bed separation and maintaining balanced polisher beds. 3.3.5 System Inspection Maintaining equipment and instrumentation in good operational order is an essential part of an overall polisher optimization program. It is much easier to maintain any system if small repairs are made prior to their becoming major problems or causing a failure. At plants that perform onsite condensate polisher regeneration, the polisher system is more than service vessels. It also includes piping and pumps, resin transfer lines, monitoring instrumentation, regeneration and storage vessels and internals, and chemical storage and transfer facilities. For locations that use off-site regeneration, the scope of system inspection is reduced since regeneration vessels and chemical storage and pumping facilities are eliminated. Many components of the condensate polisher system can be visually or routinely inspected by operations and maintenance employees in the course of their normal daily activities. Potential problems can be identified and corrected when observed or tagged for later repair when the unit is off line. When a potential problem is caught early, the “fix” may be relatively simple and may also prevent a later emergency or catastrophe. Components that can be routinely or visually checked for obvious defects or deficiency include: • • • • • Sight Glasses: observe for cracks, signs of leakage. Resin Traps: plugged (Note that resin traps are installed to prevent major resin ingress into system in case of underdrain or lateral failure – not for resin fines.) Flow Meters: not reading or readings out of line. Pressure Gauges: not reading or readings out of line. Vessel Linings: observe through sight glass in empty vessel for bubbles or tears.

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• •

Flow Totalizers: throughput for each in-service polisher should be recorded daily and compared to estimated throughput based on average flow. Level Indicators: acid and caustic bulk storage tanks and regeneration vessels – note volume of acid and caustic used for regeneration and observe if bulk tank level indications correspond; for regeneration vessels, time the fill and multiply by flow rate to determine if volume is appropriate. Resin: observe performance during condenser leak (kinetic leakage); note rinse requirements during each regeneration (for separate resins, observe following chemical application and for mixed-bed, observe following remixing of regenerated resins). Cation Columns (used in Cation Conductivity Analyzers): routinely check and replace exhausted resins as needed consistent with plant criteria. Instrumentation: observe for any obvious malfunction. Piping: observe for leaks, especially on acid and caustic transfer lines. Eye Wash and Shower Facility at Regeneration Skid: test operation in accordance with plant safety requirements.

• • • •

Other system components such as vessel internals can not be visually inspected during system operation and, therefore, must be included in a scheduled outage; on-line monitoring instrumentation and desk-top instruments such as a turbidity meter and conductivity bridge require periodic calibration. Examples of on-line or panel mounted instrumentation that requires periodic calibration are listed below: • • • Conductivity and pH electrodes and meters. Sodium analyzers. Acid and caustic concentration meters.

In general, instrument manufacturers’ recommendations for calibration and maintenance should be followed. Some components should be scheduled for physical inspection during a maintenance outage although the frequency of inspections and list of components are site-specific. For example, polypropylene wrapped laterals require more frequent inspection (for tears) than wedgewire, especially as the system ages. As another example, an underdrain design that employs two perforated stainless steel plates with the holes offset to retain whole resin beads is prone to resin leakage if some of the tack welds that hold the two stainless steel plates together should break as this allows the plates to flex and creates a gap between them. Consequently, if indications of resin leakage out of a vessel employing this design are observed, the underdrain plates should be physically inspected. In cases where routine inspection is needed and no signs of resin leakage have been observed, visual inspection through the open hatch is preferable to physical inspection that requires standing on the screens.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

Pumps and valves should undergo periodic maintenance according to usage and manufacturers’ recommendations. Physical inspection of vessel internals should also include the vessel lining, especially if bubbles have been observed through a sight glass. It is also recommended that work orders placed by operations or maintenance personnel be given reasonable priority for inspection and repair during a maintenance outage. It is all too often the case that operators use their ingenuity and knowledge of the equipment to provide temporary solutions to help overcome an equipment malfunction or other deficiency that allows continued operation only to find that their temporary fix becomes viewed somewhat permanent because the system has been able to function. A well maintained polisher system will provide better and more economical service over the course of its useful operating life.

3.4 Summary of Practices for Optimizing Deep Bed CP Performance
The design of vessels and components for a condensate polisher system and the use of appropriate ion exchange resins are two important determinants of performance and reliability over the operating life of the system. Good equipment design simplifies and enhances the opportunity for cost-effective and reliable operation. Poor design requires operators and maintenance employees to compensate for equipment limitations. For current polisher systems, the plant generally needs to work with the existing design since it is difficult and much more costly to effect major changes after the polisher plant has been installed. (The cost for retrofitting improvements is usually much greater than if the improvement was incorporated in the initial design). If and when a new deep bed condensate polishing plant or major polisher system modification is under consideration, design specifications that include the essential elements for optimized operation and regeneration, consistent with the needs of the location, should be included in the benefit to cost analysis. In general, the cost differential between a minimally designed component and an excellent design is usually small compared to the overall cost of the system. Since many of the currently operating condensate polisher systems are older facilities that do not have the benefit of the latest or best designed components, simple techniques have been developed to help overcome a number of the most significant equipment or design deficiencies. The following listing is a summary of these techniques and good practices for optimized condensate polisher performance. The list also indicates identifies enhanced design features for those locations that are considering an upgrade to their existing system or installation of a new polisher system. • Prepare appropriate resin specifications (for site specific conditions) that include, but are not limited to: – Resin particle size: Hydraulic (backwash separation) requires particle size difference between anion and cation resins of ~100 microns to avoid cross contamination at the interface. Greater particle size difference is possible if remixing capability is available in service vessel. Pure density separation and separate bed polishers do not rely on particle size differences. Uniformity coefficient <1.1 with limit on number of resin beads at either end.

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Proper % crosslinking of cation resin – for gel resins 10% crosslinking provides lower organic leachables than 8% crosslinked gel cation resin. The % crosslinking is inversely proportional to moisture content. Capacity of H+ form cation resin -- for operation in H-OH form polisher. <5% weak base capacity for strong base anion resin (to minimize sulfate being regenerated off weak base sites during in-service operation). Low organic leachables, especially from cation resin. Minimal cracked beads (% whole beads > 99%). Osmotic shock stability; this is particularly important when the resin separation procedure requires use of a 16% caustic solution to float the anion resin. Low metals on resin. Type (macroporous versus gel) and form of resin; hydrogen form cation resin preferred for condensate polisher application.

– – – – – – – • •

Assure that all new polisher anion and cation resin is conditioned prior to mixing resins to avoid cation resin leachables from fouling anion resin and vice versa. Conduct resin testing program including periodic resin testing (in-house or through outside, independent laboratory) – to evaluate new resin and to monitor condition of used resin to determine when to try resin cleaning or budget for resin replacement. Specific parameters of interest are somewhat site specific although anion resin kinetics is generally of concern; rinse requirements can and should be determined for individual regenerations. Conduct polisher system performance assessment – full-flow deep-bed polisher should enable plant to consistently meet EPRI chemistry guidelines (not very difficult and purity from most polisher systems should be well below guidelines). For plants with on-site regeneration, QC program should include recording and reviewing both in-service and regeneration data as well as: – – – – – – Maintaining and calibrating monitoring instrumentation and regenerant concentration meters. Maintaining resin histories (e.g., resin test data, polisher run lengths, reason for removal from service, performance during condenser leak conditions). Performing visual inspections of sight glasses, bed levels, piping (for leaks), vessel linings through sight glasses, etc. Inspecting and maintaining valves and pumps. Minimizing resin remaining in service vessel following transfer of the resin. Predetermining the impact of using a new chemical in the cycle before it is introduced

– Planning for more detailed equipment inspection during planned outages • Optimize mixed bed polisher regeneration by focusing on: – Quality of regenerant chemicals – Low chloride caustic is of special importance for operation of polisher beyond ammonium breakthrough. 3-39

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

– –

Initial resin cleaning to remove corrosion products – use both air scrub and air bump/rinse until backwash water meets quality. Complete mixed bed separation and transfer of anion or cation resin to appropriate regeneration vessel – With hydraulic separation, utilize stepped backwash following high flow rate backwash. For side takeoff of anion resin following hydraulic separation, use low rate backwash to fluidize anion resin without disturbing cation resin. For bottom takeoff of cation resin, use piping between separation vessel and cation tank to hold portion of interface. Enhanced separation systems (e.g., Interface isolation, Conesep®, Seprex®, Sepra-Eight®, and Amsep®) are available that claim very low (typically <0.1%) cross contamination of cation in anion resin. The Amsep density separation process also claims <0.1% cation resin in anion. When needed, pretreatment of anion resin with sulfate or carbonate to strip chloride or organics. Proper regenerant concentration and sufficient contact time – Higher concentration of regenerant more efficient for removing divalent ions such as sulfate and calcium. Longer contact time is effective for monovalent ions such as chloride (maintain flow rate and use lower regenerant concentration). Techniques to compensate for incomplete mixed bed separation – Where feasible, the resin on resin technique (to reduce sodium throw from ammonium form cation resin) costs nothing other tan time and only requires transfer and remixing of regenerated and rinsed anion resin with unregenerated cation resin. Resins are separated again and the cation resin is then regenerated as usual. Ammonia rinse of anion resin following caustic regeneration is another technique for mitigating sodium leakage from ammonium form polishers. Final resin conditioning (air scrub and backwash) to remove loosened corrosion products and fines generated during regeneration. Thorough remixing of cation and anion resins and use of resin standing to minimize sulfate rinse out when the polisher is put into service. Same as for mixed bed polisher with the exception of the mixed bed separation steps Resin on resin and/or ammonia rinse also used to drive off residual sodium remaining on anion resin from caustic regenerant.

– –

– – •

Optimize regeneration of resins used in separate bed polishers. – –

• • •

When transferring resin from or to service vessel, assure resin is not left in transfer piping by observing empty vessel and vessel into which resin is transferred. Maintain regeneration log that includes notation of long and short beds and resin additions. Provide condensate polisher training to those involved in polisher operation (e.g., plant equipment operators and chemistry or engineering personnel).

While all of these options may not be suitable for a particular system design, most are possible for the majority of systems. Field experience has repeatedly demonstrated that the benefits of optimized condensate polisher operation typically far outweigh the minimal investment of time and effort required. 3-40

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3.5 References
1. Condensate Polishing Training Manual, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004933. 2. F. McCarthy and G. O’Connor, “Ammonium Form Operation of Condensate Polishing Plant th for Long Periods in High pH Systems at Moneypoint Power Station”, Proceedings:10 EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing and Water Purification in the Steam/Water Cycle, Phoenix, Arizona, June, 1991. 3. Condensate Polishers for Brackish Water-Cooled PWRs, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1986. NP4550. 4. D.C. Auerswald, F.M Cutler, S.S. Simmons, “Parts per Trillion Without Mixed Beds,” Proceeding of the 50th International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1989. 5. D.C. Auerswald, “Separate Bed Condensate Polishing,” EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop, 1989. 6. Condensate Polishing Guidelines: Ammonium Form Operation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001, 1004322. 7. D.C. Auerswald, F.M Cutler, “Two Year Study of Condensate Polisher Performance at Southern California Edison”, Proceeding of the 43rd International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1986. 8. F.M. Cutler, “Performance of Deep Bed Condensate Polishers during a Simulated Leak at Mohave Generating Station,” Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1998. TR-109568. 9. M. Abrams, L. Benezra, “Ion Exchange Polymers,” Reprinted from Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 1967, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 10. F.M. Cutler, “Maintaining Healthy Resin,” Eskom International Conference on Power Plant Chemistry and Process Water Treatment, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2001. 11. S.A. Fisher, “Kinetics Testing in Systems Using Volatile Amines,” Proceeding of the 56 International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1995. 12. F.M. Cutler, “Anion Kinetic Issues for Utility Practices,” Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1998. TR-109568. 13. F.M. Cutler, “Measurement of Cation Resin Extractables,” Ultrapure Water, September 1998.
th

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Deep Bed Condensate Polishing Systems

14. Guidelines for Off-site Regeneration of Condensate Polishing Resins, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1001502. 15. F.M. Cutler, “Instrumentation for Monitoring and Evaluating the Performance of a Separate Bed Condensate Polisher,” Proceedings: EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1989. 16. G. Finigan, “On-line Instrumentation for Cycle Chemistry Control,” 18th Annual Electric Utility Chemistry Workshop, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois, 1998.

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4
GUIDELINES FOR PRECOAT FILTER/DEMINERALIZER SYSTEMS

4.1 Introduction
Condensate filter/demineralizers were introduced in 1962 as an alternative to deep bed polisher designs (discussed in Section 3). The intent was to address certain deficiencies of early deep bed designs operated in the H-OH form coupled with the desire to reduce cost and space required, as well as to eliminate the need for regenerant chemicals and to improve filtration capabilities.(1,2) While precoat polishing systems are innovative in many ways, the available ion exchange capacity is much lower than in deep bed designs. As a thin precoat is used, the quantity of resin available to handle a condenser leak or other contamination is much smaller than the bed depth available in other polisher designs. Precoat systems are normally operated using ammonium form cation resin. If a precoat system continues to operate during a condenser leak the operating cost can be very high due to the need for frequent precoating with new resins. The resins are only used once since they cannot be cost effectively separated and regenerated A recent development has been the use of precoat filter/demineralizers on air cooled condensers at combined cycle plants that provide high purity steam to cool the turbine blades. In these plants corrosion product transport is often significant and must be controlled when steam cooling is needed. Some systems have been installed for this purpose.

4.2 Design Factors
The major mechanical components of these systems are the condensate polishing vessels (and associated internals), the precoat application system, and the precoat removal/septa element cleaning system. Service vessels may be either of bottom or top tubesheet design with the former generally used in fossil plant systems. A typical bottom tubesheet system arrangement is shown in Figure 4-1 and a typical top tubesheet system arrangement is shown in Figure 4-2. 4.2.1 Service Vessels Precoat demineralizer systems, though available from a limited number of suppliers, are less generic than mixed bed systems. Some design features of these systems are proprietary or at least specific to individual supplier. Sufficient septa (filter element) surface area should be provided to accommodate a design flow of 3 to 3.5gpm/ft2 (7.4 to 8.6 m/hr). As with mixed bed vessels, service vessels should be constructed to comply with local design codes such as ASME Section

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

VIII Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels. Design pressure should be based on the highest pressure the vessel could be exposed to, generally the condensate pump shut off head.

VENT DISTRIBUTION TUBE FEED IN

FEED OUT AIR IN WATER IN

AUXILIARY TANK

WATER IN

SLURRY TANK

ELEMENTS SUMP SUMP SERVICE VESSEL HOLD PUMP DRAIN PRECOAT INLET

SUMP

PRECOAT RECYCLE PUMP

PRECOAT INJECTION PUMP

SUMP

Figure 4-1 Typical Precoat Filter Demineralizer System(2) Source: Courtesy Graver Water Systems Inc, Cranford, NJ USA

Cylindrical vessels should be specified with flanged and dished heads. A removable head or large top manway is required to allow for installation, service and removal of the septa. The powdered ion exchange resin media has very limited contact with the vessels; therefore they do not require rubber linings. In most cases the vessel shells, heads and tubesheets are unlined. In a few instances they may be given limited coating. The internal hardware is normally stainless steel.

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Polished Condensate Out

Holding Pump

Condensate Filter Demineralizer Vessels (Generally 6 to 10 Units)

Condensate Inlet Header

Exhausted Resin to Waste

Backwash Air and Water Supply Precoat Inlet

Precoat Recycle

Precoat Application System

Figure 4-2 Typical Top Tubesheet Filter/Demineralizer System(3)

Bottom Tubesheet Design The bottom tubesheet vessel internal arrangement is shown in Figure 4-3. A drilled tubesheet with filter septa inserted in the holes separate the upper inlet chamber containing the filter elements from the lower outlet chamber. Fittings are welded to the drilled openings in the tubesheet to allow for the removal of the septa and screwed fittings are provided for a seal when the septa are in place. Air metering tubes protrude into the lower chamber beneath each septa element. The ends of the tubes should all be at the same elevation. The elements are normally placed on 3 inch (76 mm) centers. Older designs used 3½ inch (89 mm) centers and hook and guide rods to secure the septa elements. During operation, condensate enters the vessel upper 4-3

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

chamber, flows through the precoat on the outside of the septa and exits the vessel through the lower chamber. Typically, two inch (51 mm) diameter elements are attached to the tubesheet. The most common element length is 70 inches (1.78 m), though 60 (1.52 m) and 80 inch (2.03 m) lengths have been 2 2 used. The filter surface area of a 70 inch (1.78 m) long element is 3.05 ft (0.283 m ). The 2 surface area of the septa normally provides for a design flow rate of 3.5 gpm/ft (8.6 m/h). The current and preferred design uses a screwed fitting to attach the elements to the tubesheet. In the past the septa element was attached to the tubesheet with hook and guide rods. The screwed fitting connection design offers better flow distribution and provides a positive seal, preventing passage of the precoat media. To avoid bridging of precoat material between the elements the maximum recommended precoat dosage is 0.3 lb/ft2(1.5 kg/m2). If bridging occurs the flow will not be uniform and short runs will result.
Distribution Tube Vent

Precoat Element

Inlet
Figure 4-3 Internals of Bottom Tubesheet Vessel ( 2) Source: Courtesy Graver Water Systems Inc, Cranford, NJ USA

Outlet

Top Tubesheet Design As in the bottom tubesheet design, there are lower and upper chambers in the vessel separated by a tubesheet. The drilled tubesheet with septa inserted into the holes separates the upper chamber from the lower chamber containing the filter elements. During operation, condensate enters the vessels lower chamber, flows through the precoat on the outside of the septa and exits the vessel

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through the upper chamber. Typically, a hold down plate and o-rings on the septa hardware in the upper chamber, provide a seal between the chambers. Alternate septa attachments to the tubesheet are available. A cut away view is shown in Figure 44. Inclusion of a flow straightener plate improves flow distribution. At the bottom of the vessel the septa are held in place with a tube support grid. Typically 1 inch (25 mm) diameter elements are used on 2 inch (51 mm) centers. While various lengths are used the most common length is 57 ¾ to 60 (1.5 m) inches. This element would have a filter surface 2 2 2 2 area of about 1.25 ft (0.116 m ). Using a maximum dose of 0.3 lb/ft (1.5 kg/m )for two inch (51 mm) diameter septa elements on 3 inch (76 mm) centers, the maximum dose for 1 inch (25 mm) diameter septa elements on 2 inch centers would be about 0.35 lb/ft2(1.75 kg/m2).

Figure 4-4 Internals of Top Tubesheet Vessel with Flow Straightener Plate (3) Source: Pall Corporation

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Sight Glasses Provision of sight glasses on the polisher service vessel, if allowed by the design pressure is recommended to permit viewing of the precoat and the filter septa. While only a small portion of the septa can be viewed, observations can be useful in evaluation of performance. Sight glasses positioned at the top and bottom of the septa would be more informative than a centrally positioned sight glass. Sight glasses should be easily accessed and located away from interferences from valves, piping, pumps etc. Visual inspections made during precoat application and service will allow qualitative assessment of any operational or design changes made to improve precoat uniformity and eliminate possible precoat cracking, bridging or to minimize precoat washing off due to erosion by flowing condensate. After observation of precoat cracking or erosion loss, actions such as application of a new precoat, precoat overlay or utilization of body feed (where available) will improve overall operation. Visual inspection of the septa during and after backwash will allow a qualitative assessment of the effectiveness of the backwash and the cleanliness of the septa elements. Poorly cleaned septa elements should prompt the observer to take corrective action. Septa Element Design The septa design must allow for uniform precoating and complete removal of spent precoats and crud from septa. This is essential to ensure long service life for the septa elements. Septa design and hardware must also prevent precoat material leakage during transient and normal operation. Resin bypassing the septa will enter and decompose in the cycle to form decomposition products which can promote corrosion. Septa design, hardware and construction advances made in recent years have made to meet user needs for improved precoat distribution, reduced resin leakage, reduced fouling by particulate matter, improved backwash characteristics and low maintenance requirements.(4-6) The search for ways to improve septa performance and extend their service life has led to the development and use of different construction materials including various fiber types and metals, alternate winding patterns and porosity characteristics, better septa sealing and attachment hardware and more effective backwash methods. The most common septa media is a polymer media consisting of a continuous wound yarn. Other types of septa media are melt blown polymer, fiber matrix, porous metal, and stainless steel mesh, and wedgewire. These septa media are available for use in both upper and lower tubesheet vessels. Continuous wound septa elements are the type most commonly used in fossil plant polishing applications. Use of septa of the full required length is preferred. When joints are proposed to attain the required length of septa elements they should have a history of proven successful operation. Yarn wound elements have the longest history and have been used successfully in filter demineralizers in both nuclear and fossil stations. The yarn most used is polypropylene. Nylon has also been used. Element life for fiber wound septa elements typically can be 3 to 7 years, depending primarily on good backwash cleaning and precoat application.(7)

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Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

The melt blown and fiber matrix septa are usually constructed of polypropylene, though other material is available. Results with melt blown septa have been inconsistent and if proposed it may be useful to examine the performance history. There has been very limited use of porous meta septa, primarily due to its cost and the usual (8) requirement for periodic chemical cleaning. Mesh or wedgewire stainless steel septa elements are not in general use as they have been prone to precoat leakage and fouling. Fiber matrix septa are usually pleated and do not lend themselves to effective utilization of precoat material. In addition, they are normally more costly than the fiber wound or melt blown septa elements. The lower ionic removal efficiency of the pleated septa is probably attributable to non-uniform precoat and flow distribution over the available septa surface area. Their primary use is as non-precoat filters in nuclear plants and this appears to be a growing application. Additional details on the pleated septa can be found in Reference 3.(3) A perforated stainless steel core is normally used to support the septa media. In some designs, the core incorporates a pressure drop via the perforations to assist in flow distribution. The core forms the annulus in with the treated condensate flows. Pressure drop in this annulus should be minimized to improve radial flow distribution through the precoat.(9) New septa designs eliminate hardware within the annulus and design the inner surface of the annulus to be as smooth as possible to minimize pressure drop within the core. As was discussed earlier the use of screwed fittings to attach the septa element to the tubesheet results in a positive seal and minimizes media leakage. It also largely eliminates the pressure drop caused by the presence of the hook and guide rod hardware. Flow Distribution Devices Vessel internals should have baffles, a flow distribution plate or distribution tube to help avoid erosion of the precoat material and provide a more uniform flow pattern during precoat application and service. The flow pattern in precoat filter designs has been studied for both bottom (10) and top sheet designs.(11) Improvements have been adopted to achieve more uniform flow through the precoat and septa both during service and precoat material application. Further work on bottom tubesheet designs indicated that the flow patterns outside the septa element were non-uniform but could be improved with the introduction of a draft or distribution tube. The addition of the draft tube has measurably improved precoat utilization(6,10-12). The distribution tube is usually constructed of stainless steel and designed to redirect and distribute, during precoating, part of the precoat resin floc (and during service, the inlet service flow) toward the upper section of the service vessel and filter elements. The distribution tube is normally engineered and sized for individual service vessel design characteristics. The design takes into account the hydrodynamics of the distribution tube, open lattice, inlet baffle, septa filter elements and tubesheet fittings. Typically, an adjustable baffle on the top of the distribution tube allows for fine tuning of the distribution ratio between top and bottom. This optimizes the vessel hydraulics and precoat layer distribution, to maximize filter performance and element life and to minimize resin usage. It appears that on new polisher vessels this feature is often included as standard equipment.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

With the top tubesheet design, the flow patterns on the outside of the septa element were found non-uniform but this could be improved by the installation of a flow straightener (distribution plate or mesh pack) installed below the septa elements(13-15) as was shown in Figure 4-4. In one evaluation of a top tubesheet design the use of a flow straightener (mesh pack type) at the bottom (8) of the septa bundle assembly did little to improve performance. In another installation it was found that the flow distribution baffles had to be modified to prevent the accumulation of spent precoat material over its surface.(16) 4.2.2 Precoat Application System Precoat systems are normally designed with the option of semi-automatic or remote manual control of the precoating cycle. Semi-automatic operation constitutes initiation of the precoat cycle by pushbutton actuation with automatic timing and sequencing of the steps required in this operation. The control arrangement is such as to permit the operator to run the complete precoating cycle through to the standby mode (unit completely charged and ready for service with hold pump operating) by remote manual valve manipulation. The units will be removed from and returned to service by remote manual methods. There are two most common design methods for precoat application. The first is called closed loop recirculation employs three valves allowing recirculation in and out of the precoat tank, through the vessel and back to the tank or within the vessel being precoated. The three valves are designated as follows: precoat return (X), precoat recycle (Y) and precoat tank suction (Z) and are commonly collectively referred to as XYZ valves. A metered flow variant of this design is available. The closed loop system design is generally associated with the bottom tubesheet vessel design; a schematic is shown in Figure 4-5. This was the original precoat application system developed for bottom tubesheet systems. The other method is known as the open loop recirculation method which uses separate tanks for precoat mixing and transfer to the service vessel. Either an eductor or pump is used to meter the precoat flow rate. A metered flow design variation incorporating an open loop system is now available for bottom tubesheet designs.(2, 17,18) This approach was shown in the bottom tubesheet system arrangement shown in Figure 4-1, with a pump used for transfer of floc to the service vessel and circulation tank.

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Figure 4-5 Closed Loop Precoat Application System (3)

The open loop system is more commonly associated with the top tubesheet vessel designs; a schematic is shown in Figure 4-6. With this design an eductor, as shown in Figure 4-6 or pump (Figure 4-1) may be used to transfer the media floc from the mixing tank to the service vessel. A recirculation tank allows for recirculation of the precoat.

Figure 4-6 Open Loop Precoat Application System (3)

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

The precoat slurry mix tank must be sized to contain sufficient precoat material to handle the maximum dosage for one polisher vessel. The precoat tank is usual constructed of stainless steel. A covered mixing tank with a suitable agitator (stainless steel shaft) of adequate size to ensure complete suspension of the precoat material and a lid for addition of precoat material to the tank will help minimize contamination of the precoat. Only demineralized water or condensate should be used for slurry preparation. The slurry should be prepared immediately before precoat application and should not be allowed to remain in the mixing tank for an extended period of time. Agitators should not draw air into the slurry while in operation. Exposure of the slurry to air should be minimized since dissolution of carbon dioxide will lead to partial conversion of the anion resin to the carbonate form, thus diminishing its performance. The precoat slurry flow rate to the service vessel should be 1 to 2 gpm/ft2 (2.5 - 5 m/h). 2 2 Typically, 1.3 - 1.5 gpm/ft (3.25–3.75 m/h) is used for fiber wound septa and 2 gpm/ft (5 m/h) for other types of septa elements. The initial slurry concentration is 4 to 8% on a dry weight basis. Typically, it is 4% at the precoat dosage of 0.2 lb/ft2 (0.1 g/cm2) and 6% at the maximum 2 2 dosage of 0.3 lb/ft (0.15 g/cm ) Dilution of the slurry transferred to the filter vessel is accomplished by recycle and adjustment of the XYZ valve positions as shown in Figure 4-5 or by eductor, or preferably pump transfer as shown in Figures 4-1 and 4-6. The precoat and slurry transfer pumps wetted parts are normally stainless steel. The flow rates are adjusted to yield a feed slurry concentration of 400 to 1000 ppm on a dry basis, though some prefer to control the concentration in the range of 400 to 800 ppm if possible. Precoat time (typically 30~45 minutes) is variable depending on dosage and is adjusted to give the desired concentration of 400-1000 ppm. For some of the early closed loop systems the X,Y and Z valves supplied were not as needed to achieve the desired dilution and could not allow for constant concentration slurry injection. Typically, they are adjusted for about a 30 minute clearing time. To correct this, the metered or (2,17,18) Either an eductor (as constant rate system was developed for bottom tubesheet vessels. shown in Figure 4-1) or a pump may be to meter the precoat material. It should be noted that with premixed precoat material the method of addition with a closed loop system (with XYZ valves) is to add the precoat material gradually to the precoat slurry tank. Potentially the precoat material addition rate could be adjusted so that the concentration of the slurry at the vessel inlet approaches the desired concentration of 400-1000 ppm. Body Feed Application System The use of a body feed system to inject precoat material prior to the septa element during the filtering cycle is an old established practice in precoat filter systems. Its primary benefits in polishing are that it: • • • Reduces rate of pressure drop increase during service, by providing a fresh filter surface and minimizing surface filtration Increases service run length Reduces effect of precoat imperfections or cracks if present, by filling in imperfections with precoat material

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• •

Improves effluent quality by producing a more even flow across the length of the septa filter (as body feed precoat material goes to the area of highest flow) Adds precoat material to help address in-leakage or crud burst conditions

While the ability to inject precoat material into the service vessels of condensate polishers was demonstrated in 1971(19), the approach was not actively pursued until about 1985(20) when an improved body feed system was installed in a power plant. The early designs injected precoat material into the inlet header to all polishers. Subsequent designs (Figure 4-7) inject precoat material directly into each polisher vessel for a specified time to better ensure that a fixed quantity of body feed material is directed to each in-service polisher vessel. Since the precoat material used for body feed can be present in the mixing tank for many days, it is prudent to provide a covered tank with a nitrogen blanket to minimize air ingress and carbon dioxide contamination of the precoat material. The body feed mixing tank should be capable of holding precoat material for all the service vessels. A mixer and recirculation pump should be provided to maintain a uniform slurry concentration. The optimum injection time and frequency 2 2 to introduce the total body feed dosage of 0.05 to 0.1 lb/ft (0.025–0.05 g/cm ) has not been established. This should be discussed with supplier. A flush system should be incorporated to clear the lines of precoat material after the end of each injection. A water line connected to the discharge of the metering pump may be used to assure that all the precoat material reaches the desired service vessel and the lines do not plug. A body feed system is typically offered as an option with new equipment. Although the available benefits of body feed systems are significant this option has not been adopted at many plants.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Figure 4-7 Body Feed System (3)

4.2.3 Precoat Removal and Septa Element Cleaning System Coupled with the precoat application, this portion of the overall design is essential for consistent performance. The backwash and cleaning system supplied must remove the precoat from the system and return the filter septa to its original clean condition. If any precoat material or crud is not removed from the septa, fouling will occur, causing short runs and poor effluent quality. Therefore good precoat removal and septa element cleaning is required for ensuring: • • Uniform precoats Good water quality

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• • •

Effective precoat utilization Maintaining original pressure drop across septa elements Extending septa element service life

The air and water are used during backwash and should be of the appropriate quality. Oil and particulate free air is often specified; particulates should be minimized in the water. The water may be clean condensate or demineralizer water. Total volumes, supply rate capabilities and required pressure will depend on the backwash method. In the steady state methods (hydropneumatic), sustainable supply rates must be equal to the backwash delivery rates specified by the system supplier. With non-steady state (air surge or bump), supply rates may be less than the delivery rates during the backwash steps. While both the bottom and top tubesheet design use air and water to clean the septa element, there are significant differences after this point. Bottom Tubesheet Backwash The original cleaning procedure used a concurrent hydro-pneumatic backwash method which 2 2 was used successfully on many fossil plants. This method used 1.0 gpm/ft (40L/min/m ) water and 1.0 scfm/ft2 (0.3 m3/min/m2) of air. While it worked well, it required relatively large quantities of water. The air surge backwash method was developed to address the need to reduce waste water volumes, while at the same time maintain the septa elements in a clean condition.(4,21) The air surge backwash method simultaneously provides maximization of backwash efficiency and significant reduction of backwash water volume and air consumption. It reduces the total water consumed in backwashing by approximately 65% compared to the older backwash method and provides excellent septa cleaning. Typical design values are 0.25 gpm/ft2 of water, (8 L/min/m2) 12 scfm/ft2 (3.6 m3/min/m2) of air (instantaneous; 0.2 scfm/ft2 (0.06 m3/min/m2) average). When properly designed and applied, the air surge backwash method is superior to the conventional backwash method in keeping the septa clean. It extends the useful life of the septa elements and protects them from fouling during unusual or extreme operating conditions. The air surge backwash method is the best available technology for bottom tubesheet vessels and will maintain the precoat system at maximum efficiency with well-cleaned elements, thereby increasing the ability to obtain a uniform precoat. This method is typically offered as a standard design feature on new equipment Figure 4-8 depicts a typical air surge backwash.(22) An air surge tank is supplied to provide the necessary quantity of pressurized air (~80-100 psi/552–689 kPa) to the plenum chamber (lower part of tubesheet) of the polisher vessel. Typically, the volume of the plenum exceeds the volume in the core of all the septa elements in the vessel. A large quick opening air inlet valve is provided to assure there is no back pressure caused by the valve to impede the rapid flow during an air surge. An equally large vent is opened in the upper chamber throughout the air surge procedure. Use of screwed connections to attach the septa elements to the tubesheet improves performance and reliability. Air metering tubes in the lower chamber are attached to each element to assure equal flow to each element during backwash. 4-13

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Figure 4-8 Air Surge Backwash – Bottom Tubesheet Source: Adapted from Reference 22 (22)

Each air surge takes about 2 seconds and uses about 12 scfm/ft2 (3.6 m3/min/m2) of air. The air surge tank is sized to replenish itself in about 1-2 minutes. This should be the time for the next air surge. Essentially, multiple air surges take place at three different levels in the vessel. The three levels are accomplished by incorporating partial fill and/or drain steps between surges. The air surge drives the water in the plenum through the core of the element and out through the septa surface at a very high velocity. By conducting air surges at three levels, the high velocity backwashing takes place above the fill level, since the water to the fill level will offer more resistance to flow than the air above the fill level. This helps clean the entire septa element. The entire backwash cleaning procedure takes about 30 minutes to complete. Top Tubesheet Backwash An air bump method was first used for backwash and cleaning the septa elements in the top tubesheet design. In this method a portion of the water in the top effluent plenum (above the tubesheet) is drained. The space above the water level in the upper chamber is then pressurized with air to 80 - 100 psi (552–689 kPa). In sizing the top chamber it is important that the air

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volume of the chamber exceed the core volume of the septa elements to insure an adequate backwash. Once pressurized, a drain valve at the bottom of the filter is opened quickly. Air and water are then forced through the septa elements removing the precoat and associated crud. The vessel can be refilled and backwashed as many times as needed to clean the septa element. Normally two or three bumps are used. The time to complete the entire backwashing cleaning procedure is about 30 minutes. Figure 4-9 depicts the step in the air bump in which the air space is pressurized. Figure 4-10 depicts the step in the air bump when the air and water are discharging from the vessel. Once this step is complete the vessel is refilled for the next bump. The pressurized air and water in the upper chamber must push against water on the outside of the septa elements to dislodge the precoat and clean the element. This reduces the energy used to clean the septa elements. The energy could be increased if it pushed against air on the outside of the elements as occurs with air surge. Possible improvements have been proposed.

Figure 4-9 Air Bump – Top Tubesheet – Pressurize Step(23) Source: Courtesy Graver Water Systems Inc, Cranford, NJ USA

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Figure 4-10 Air Bump – Top Tubesheet – Discharge Step(23) Source: Courtesy Graver Water Systems Inc, Cranford, NJ USA

4.2.4 Other System Mechanical Components Precoat Pump The precoat slurry flow rate to the service vessel should be between 1 to 2 gpm/ft2 (40-80 L/min/m2). Its wetted parts should be stainless steel. The lower rate is used for septa elements with a relatively high pressure drop (no precoat) and the higher rate for septa elements with relatively a low pressure drop. Typically with wound septa elements the precoat rate is 1.3 -1.5 gpm/ft2 (52–60 L/min/m2). Hold Pump A hold pump must be provided on each vessel. Its wetted parts should be stainless steel. The precoat will not remain on the septa unless there is flow through the precoat causing sufficient pressure drop to hold it in place. After precoating, a polisher vessel may be held in standby until needed. The hold pump recirculates water through the septa during standby or low flow conditions to keep the precoat in place. The hold pumps must provide sufficient flow to retain the precoat material on the septa, i.e. ≥0.5 gpm/ft2 (20 L/min/m2) for metallic and non-wound 2 2 fiber septa and ~0.1 gpm/ft (4 L/min/m ) for fiber wound septa.

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Precoat Material Strainers/Traps Strainers should be provided at the outlet of each service vessel to provide a second line of defense against precoat media ingress into the system. They should be designed for easy removal, be capable of withstanding differential pressures equal to the total system pressure drop, and minimize the passage of solids in the event of septum failure. Resin traps are normally not designed to retain fine particles including fine crud that may pass through the septa. Their prime purpose is to stop a major ingress of precoat material into the system. It is difficult to justify inclusion of “fines filters” with modern demineralizer septa designs. Typically, the trap is constructed of stainless steel wedgewire having a slot opening of about 70 mesh (210 micron). Some designs use a 100 mesh (149 micron) or 120 mesh (125 micron) opening, but this may add to the system pressure drop while other designs use woven wire mesh. The differential pressure across a clean trap is typically 4 -5 psi (28–34 kPa), at a flow of 2 2 approximately 400 gpm/ft (16,000 L/min/m ). Some designs offer a clean trap pressure drop of 3 psid (21 kPa). The normally recommended high pressure differential alarm is approximately less than 15 psi (103 kPa). A low pressure drop inverted cone wedgewire design has been described and was reported useful.(24) If the septa elements should fail or become loose during service, the trap differential pressure will increase rapidly as precoat material collects on the strainer screen. The differential pressure across the trap should be monitored and inspection of the trap and precoat septa should take place whenever there is measurable increase in pressure drop across the trap. Traps may be backwashed to clean them when necessary. An increase in the trap differential pressure may be observed during initial service following an extended outage or after the performance of any maintenance work on the polisher vessels. Debris left in the vessel or piping or large corrosion product solids formed during the outage will be flushed out of the vessel into the traps when the vessel is placed in service. Flow Balancing Flow balancing capability is needed to achieve control of flow to each individual vessel independent of the differential pressure across the individual vessels. Without flow balancing, vessels with the lowest resistance (pressure drop) would have the highest flow while those with the highest resistance (pressure drop) would have the lowest flow. This may then result in precoats exhausting at about the same time and a less efficient precoat utilization. Controls/Instruments/Valves and Piping The controls are typically pushbutton automatic; this can place the vessel in standby; service, backwash clean cycle and fill or precoat application. Precoat preparation is a manual operation. A vessel can be removed from service due to high pressure drop, high acid conductivity, poor effluent quality (i.e. high sodium or silica), volume throughput or time. Typically the pressure drop alarm set point is 25 psi (162 kPa). As a minimum, acid conductivity monitoring and 4-17

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

recording should be provided on the effluent of each service vessel. The pH is normally monitored and recorded on the combined effluent. Other instruments commonly provided include silica and sodium. Bypass and isolation valves should be provided in case there is a problem with the service vessels. The automatic full flow bypass valve is used to protect the septa elements from excessive differential pressure which could damage the septa elements. The setting of the pressure to open the bypass valve will vary with the system design features such as flow balancing, resin traps, valve design and the piping configuration. Typically, it can vary from 35 to 65 psig (241 to 448 kPa). Interlocks, alarms and fail safe features must be incorporated in the system. The main valves on the service vessel and precoat system are normally butterfly valves with a carbon steel body and stainless steel disc and stem. Vessel piping is carbon steel. Sample lines and valves should be constructed of stainless steel. The piping configuration should be designed to prevent the possibility of precoat materials entering the backwash supply.

4.3 Operating and Maintenance Factors
Precoat filter/demineralizer performance is dependent on a good design, as was discussed in Section 4.2. Provision of operation and maintenance commensurate with the design is also needed to optimize performance and maximize the value of the system. It is very important to have a good understanding of the various media types available and this is reviewed in Section 4.3.1. Proper preparation and application of the precoat, as discussed in Section 4.3.2 is also crucial. Vessels in service should be monitored to ensure they are operating as intended and removed from service as needed; requirements for this are presented in Section 4.3.3. Effective backwashing to remove spent precoat media and solids collected during service is necessary to clean the septa thus ensuring proper application of the next precoat, efficient precoat utilization and long septa life. 4.3.1 Precoat Media The basic precoat media consists of unused fully regenerated powdered strong acid cation and strong base anion resins. Though production of bead resins of the required size is possible, resins for precoat applications are typically produced by grinding of larger bead resin to a size form appropriate for preparing the slurry used for precoating the filter demineralizer vessels. Inert fibers can also be used in precoats to enhance precoat filtration. Resins and fibers can be obtained individually for mixing by the operator. Premixed media at several cation to anion resin ratios is also available. Typically available are cation to anion ratios of 1/1, 2/1 and 3/1. In addition the premixes can be obtained containing various ratios of cation to anion resin as well as various ratios of resin to fiber. Typically available are premix resin to fiber ratios of 1/1, 2/1 and 9/1. Moisture or water content of these products should be specified. All premixed and fiber containing precoat products do not need any conditioning agent such as sol A (polyacrylic acid) to declump the resins, as this is done during manufacture. When mixing resins in the field a suitable declumping agent should be used.

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Powdered Cation Ion Exchange Resin Powdered cation resin is typically a strong acid cation exchange resin, which is 8-10% crosslinked (DVB) and is available either in the hydrogen or ammonium form. Most commonly, it is used in the ammonium form in fossil plants. It is highly regenerated and contains little impurities. New product should contain little if any free sulfonic acid, since this will interfere in the clumping of the resins and possibly impair the kinetics as it may foul the anion exchange resin. Specifications for cation media should include requirements for: • • • • • • Total Capacity; to maximize operating capacity. Metal Impurities; for Na, Fe, Cu, etc. Organics; most cation resins release sulfonated organics over time; stable resin which releases little if any sulfonated organics at a slow rate. Degree of Regeneration; to maximize capacity and eliminate trace leakage of impurities. Whole Bead Content ; there should be few if any whole beads as they are less effective and will reduce operating capacity. Average Particle Size; to control impurity removal and pressure drop. Average particle size should cover the range of about 45-70 microns.

Total cation exchange capacity of hydrogen form cation media is 4.8 meq/g (0.24 lb/lb). Total capacity in the ammonium form is 4.5 meq/g (0.2 lb/lb). Operating capacity of cation resin while in the hydrogen form will be about ~ 0.05 -0.1 lb/lb (1 -2 meq/g). In the ammonium form, the operating capacity will be roughly 50% of the equilibrium of the resin, which is dependent on (25,26) condensate pH. Sodium and other cation impurities are normally stated in ppm (dry weight basis). Currently the lowest known sodium available from a supplier is 25 ppm, with a specification maximum of 35 ppm. This maximum is equivalent to about 0.034% of total cation sites; at pH 9.3 this would result in an equilibrium sodium leakage of about 0.2 ppb. This leakage would be lower at (25,26) reduced pH and higher at increased pH. Powdered Anion Ion Exchange Resin Powdered anion resin is typically a standard type 1 strong base anion exchange resin. It is supplied in the fully regenerated hydroxide form and contains little impurities. The anion resin is produced in the chloride form. Since it is difficult to remove all the chloride with caustic, a two step procedure is used. First the chloride is stripped off the resin with a dilute solution of divalent anion (sulfate or carbonate). The divalent ion is then effectively removed from the resin with a high concentration of caustic. This is why sulfate and carbonate are needed in the specifications. Since a metal catalyst is used in the manufacture of this resin, specifications limiting the presence of this metal should be included. Metals that have been used are zinc, iron and in the past aluminum. The presence of aluminum should be avoided since it is poorly removed with 4-19

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

ammonium form cation resin and its presence in the cycle is detrimental to the performance of the system. Though most anion resins produced today do not use aluminum as a catalyst, an assurance from the supplier is prudent. The other concern is the possible presence of organic chlorides in anion exchange resin. This has been a problem for polishers serving nuclear plants. However the levels normally present should not pose a problem for fossil systems. The source of silica in the resin is thought to be the water used to prepare the anion resin. Specification requirements for anion media should consider total capacity, metal impurities (i.e. Na, Fe, Cu, Al, Zn etc.), ionic impurities (Cl, SO4, CO3, SiO2), degree of regeneration, whole bead content (should be minimal or none), and average particle size. The main difference from the cation resin requirements is that the ionic impurities present are different and organics are not typically specified in fossil applications. As with powdered cation resin, the typical specifications for various impurity levels in powdered anion exchange resin is significantly less than that allowed for the whole bead resins. Fiber Material Inclusion of fiber in precoats was introduced to obtain better filtration, longer runs to the allowable pressure drop end point, and to avoid possible precoat cracking,.(27-29) Fiber containing precoats can have various fiber to resin ratios as well as various cation to anion resin ratios. The fiber normally used is an alpha cellulose material (i.e. Solka Floc™). Typically a longer fiber would better resist cracking. Other fiber materials include polyacylonitrile and polyester types. These are higher cost specialty fibers, used only when a greater crud holding capacity is required (30) then is possible with cellulose fiber or when operating above 160°F (71°C). While in most cases fiber is used as part of a resin mixture, in some cases it has been used as an overlay to a resin precoat. Impurity specifications for fiber typically contain limits on leachable anions (F-, SO4-- and Cl-) and organics (TOC). Fibers are also used in backwashable filters. Declumping Agent The ability to use powdered resins for precoat applications in condensate polishing relies on the clumping characteristics of highly regenerated powdered resins. Mixtures of unused regenerated cation and anion resins tend to clump. Clumping increases as the resin particle size is reduced making its control of greater importance in precoat systems than in deep bed systems using whole bead resins. If separate powdered cation and anion resin are mixed in water, it will clump and produce a voluminous floc. This type of floc would not precoat uniformly. To control clumping, a declumping agent is added to the slurry. The most common way to control this clumping is with the addition of a very small quantity of a high molecular weight polyacrylic acid. The declumping agent typically used is a dilute solution of a high molecular weight polyacrylic acid (Sol A). The typical concentration used is 10%. This material has been in use since 1962 without any reported adverse effects. This material is normally supplied with the powdered ion exchange resin. Material data sheets should be supplied with this product. Viscosity of the 4-20

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Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

polyacrylic acid is a good measure of its consistency. Attempts to operate without the use of a declumping agent have not met with success. Resin Media Testing and Storage Specifications for precoat resin media are typically tighter than for whole bead resins. Thus testing is necessary to ensure that the product supplied is in suitable condition for use. As the precoat is disposed and not regenerated there is generally no need to test it after use. The precoat supplier must maintain laboratory facilities staffed for quality assurance testing of precoat materials. Documentation as well as a certified analysis showing that each lot or batch of resin meets the specifications should accompany each precoat material shipment. Specifications for all precoat material should be included purchase documents. All precoat material should be tested before shipment to certify conformance to purchase specifications. All precoat material batches or lots should be sampled upon receipt and the samples archived for testing if performance problems arise. Testing of selected samples from new batches of resin by the user is desirable to verify quality. Purchased precoat material should be no more than one year old at the time of shipment from the vendor. Knowing the date of manufacture helps in determining rate of organic release and helps avoid undesirable storage of resins over one year old in site inventory. Oldest resins (in terms of time of manufacture) should always be used first to minimize effects of degradation in storage. If the shelf life of unused material in storage approaches the specified shelf life or conditions are not in conformance with recommended storage conditions, consideration should be given to retesting the material to verify conformance to original specifications prior to use. If the cation resin is stored for longer periods, especially at high temperatures, it should be checked before use to make sure it properly clumps and does not contain an excessive amount of sulfonic acids. In no case should precoat material be exposed to freezing conditions. Preferably, precoat material should be stored in an air conditioned warehouse. 4.3.2 Precoat Selection, Preparation and Application The floc formed when cation and anion resin are mixed is the key to the use of powdered precoats. The floc is agglomerate of cation and anion resin particles (and with fibers when used Floc size must be controlled to obtain a uniform precoat on the surfaces of the septa elements. All precoat materials are added on a dry weight basis. The composition of the precoat to be prepared depends on the contaminants to be removed from the condensate and the desired 2 2 effluent purity. The normal precoat dosage without body feed is 0.20 lb/ft (0.4 g/cm ). The 2 2 minimum dose required to ensure coverage of the septa is 0.15 lb/ft (0.3 g/cm ); this dose is usually applied when body feed can be applied during service. The maximum suggested dose is about 0.3 lb/ft2 (0.6 g/cm2); this is to prevent bridging between the septa, which will disrupt condensate flow during service and lead to reduced utilization. Precoating procedures must be tailored for individual plant conditions. Some general considerations are provided in Table 4-1.(3) Equipment and precoat material suppliers can provide support on proper precoating. 4-21

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Use of Separate Cation and Anion Resin Media When individual components are used, it is normal to apply ammonium form cation resin and hydroxide form anion resin. The cation to anion resin ratio on a weight basis is typically 2/1, for normal operation. The required quantity of anion resin is added to the slurry tank filled with clean demineralizer water or condensate, with the mixer on. After it is well dispersed the required quantity of cation resin is slowly added. A definite visual change takes place with the formation of small clumps that gradually get bigger as more cation resin is added. When the cation resin addition is complete, allow for 15 minutes of mixing. A sample should be taken to perform a settled volume and clarity tests. A high molecular weight polyacrylic acid (sol A) is added to the slurry tank to achieve the desired floc size and clarity. The level of slurry and approximate floc size is recorded as well as the supernatant clarity. In addition the bottom portion of the settled resin should be compact with little void volume. As always, recommendations from the supplier should be followed on the proper precoating of available formulations. The following is a general description. Declumping agent (sol A) is gradually added in dilute small increments to the slurry tank to achieve the desired floc size, floc volume (as determined by standard V/V assessment) and supernatant clarity. The quantity of declumping agent necessary to produce an acceptable V/V, particle size and clarity will vary with: • • • • • • • • • Cation to Anion Resin Ratio; more anion resin requires more sol A. Slurry Concentration; 4-7% range. Precoat Dosage. Resin Characteristics Variations; finer resin size will increase clumping. pH; low pH increases clumping. Water Temperature; high temperature increases clumping. Mixing Time; longer time typically reduces V/V, may increase floc fines. Use of Hydrogen Form Cation Resin; increases declumping dose. Age of Resin; older cation may decrease clumping.

The declumping agent is best diluted (10/1) before addition. The dose requirement is strongly influenced by the anion resin and is normally based on its quantity, typically 0.5 to 4 mL/lb (1.1– 8.8 mL/kg) of anion resin. The higher quantity is used when an all hydrogen cation resin containing precoat is prepared. If excess declumping agent was added when using ammonium form cation resin, this may be corrected by the addition of some hydrogen form cation resin to the slurry.

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Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Table 4-1 Precoat Preparation and Application Parameters Precoat Parameters Septum precoat loading Separate Components 0.15 to 0.30 lbs/ft2 (0.075–0.15 g/m2) Nominal 0.2 lbs/ft2 (0.1 gm/cm2) 4%a – 5% Most Plantsb 4%a – 8% Some Plantsb 5 to 15 minutes 30 to 60 minutes 25 to 60% < 5 NTU 0.5–4 mL/dry lb anion (1.1–8.8 mL/kg) 1.0 to 2.0 gpm/ft2 (25 to 5 m/h) 0.04 to 0.08% 400 to 800 ppm Premixed Resin 0.15 to 0.30 lbs/ft2 (0.075–0.15 g/m2) Nominal 0.2 lbs/ft2 (0.1 gm/cm2) 4%a – 5% Most Plantsb 4%a – 8% Some Plantsb 5 to 15 minutes 30 to 60 minutes 40 to 60% < 5 NTU NA 1.0 to 2.0 gpm/ft2 (25 to 5 m/h) 0.04 to 0.08% 400 to 800 ppm

Slurry tank resin concentration (Closed Loop Recirculation) Mixing time Precoat time (Clear Time) Slurry, V/Vo Slurry supernatant clarity Solution “A” (polyacrylic acid) Precoat flow rate Vessel inlet slurry concentration

Notes: a: Dry weight basis b: Dependent on precoat tank volume Source: Adapted from Reference 3 (3)

The desired V/V0 is obviously influenced by the slurry tank solids concentration. When using the 2 2 typical 0.2 lb/ft (0.4 g/cm ) and a 4% concentration in the slurry tank the normal V/V0 would be about 50%. This can be adjusted as experience dictates what V/V0 gives the best results. When using a 0.3 lb/ft2 dosage it is prudent to use a tight precoat (low V/V0) and low slurry concentration at the vessel inlet to avoid possible bridging between the septa elements. This V/V0 2 value may be 60-70%; again experience would dictate the best value. When using 0.15 lb/ft (0.3 2 g/cm ) the minimum V/V0 is about 40-50%. If a lower V/V0 is desired to obtain better crud removal and a more uniform precoat, the supplier should be consulted. Adjustments should be made accordingly as the above listed variables dictate. Too large a floc will cause an uneven precoat, while too small a floc will cause shorter runs to the allowable pressure drop end point. The ideal size of the floc should be small, about 1 mm in diameter; this will allow the low precoat flow velocity to distribute the floc uniformly on the filter element. Too large a floc would not be distributed uniformly on the filter element. The size of the floc is directly related to the concentration of the slurry entering the service vessel. Too high a concentration will produce a large floc, too large to be lifted up by the precoat pump rate to be uniformly distributed. 4-23

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Clarity of the supernatant water above the settled precoat material is very important. The presence of unclumped fines in the slurry may foul or plug the septa. This is the reason for the requirement to establish a clear supernatant in the precoat tank prior to precoat application At all times the final supernatant should be clear (<5 NTU).This is required to avoid high pressure drop with a subsequent decrease in service run length and possible plugging of the filter elements. Precoat System Operation As discussed previously, two different systems for precoat application are used; closed loop recirculation and open loop recirculation. Top tubesheet designs always use the open loop, metered precoat design, whereas a bottom tubesheet design can be either design. Typically, newer system designs offered have included metered precoat application system, at least as an option. With closed loop systems it is difficult to control the concentration at the inlet to the service vessel at the desired 400 -800 ppm concentration.(31,32) Experience indicates adjustiing the clearing time may be the best approach when this is experienced. To accomplish this, the precoat tank suction valve is fully opened. Clean water exiting from the polisher flows back to the precoat tank through the precoat return valve or the precoat pump suction via the precoat recycle valve. The positioning of the X and Y valves determines the quantity of precoat applied to the vessel. Normally, setting the X valve at ~10% open position and the Y valve at ~90% open produces the best precoats for this system. This should result in a clearing time of about 30 minutes; longer times have been found to work better at some plants. This equipment design continuously reduces the concentration of the precoat in the precoat slurry tank as clean water returns to the precoat tank through the X valve. In metered precoat (open loop) systems, the precoat material must be transferred to the service vessel to form a uniform precoat on the filter elements. Uniform thickness precoats provide the best filtration and ion exchange performance as well as longer run lengths. A low constant slurry concentration (400-800 ppm) at the vessel inlet and a long precoating time (30 to 60 minutes) generally provide a more uniform precoat. It is important to control the concentration of precoat material in the vessel since too high a concentration can cause further floccing of the material forming large floc which would be difficult to uniformly precoat the element. Typically this would cause little or no precoat material at the top of the element. This can occur even though the floc size in the V/V test is satisfactory. The porosity of the precoat can be adjusted to suit the results desired. One way is to vary the sol A dosage. The more sol A that is added to the precoat, the lower the porosity (lower V/V). Another way is to include fiber in the precoat. Addition of fiber to the precoat will increase the porosity. The presence of fiber can reduce precoat compaction during the service run, thereby maintaining the desired porosity. Fibers are also useful in minimizing precoat cracking and precoat erosion.(14) Fiber overlays or body feed can minimize the possibility of precoat cracking resulting from shrinkage of the precoat during use. In closed loop systems precoat porosity tends to decrease when using dilute precoats over longer clearing times.

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Use of Premixed Resins When premixes are used, field addition of sol A addition is not needed. Guidance is usually available from the supplier as to proper preparation and application of the material in the different precoat systems. In closed loop systems using premixed precoat media, the application of the precoat takes place by gradually adding the material to the precoat tank one box at a time. The rate of precoat addition is adjusted to approach the desired inlet slurry concentration of 400-800 ppm. When this method is used the V/V can be checked by making a 5% (50 dry grams premix) slurry in a liter of water. Far less operator attention is usually required when using premixed reins and results are normally more consistent. These benefits often provide sufficient value to justify the additional cost. Summary The quantity or dosage of the precoat material applied to a condensate polishing vessel is 2 2 normally about 0.2 lb(dry)/ft (0.1 g/cm ). The area referred to is the total surface area of the filter septa in the condensate polishing vessel. Dosages in excess of 0.3 lb(dry)/ft2 are to be avoided since the space between the septa elements could be bridged with precoat material, causing short circuiting and short runs. A lighter initial precoat is applied if a body feed system is in use. To reduce operator involvement premixed precoats are generally useful. Typically, a 2/1 cation to anion premix may be used. The use of premix can also improve the uniformity of the precoat. Premixed precoat material can typically be obtained in cation to anion resin ratios of 0.5/1 to 3/1 and combinations with resin to fiber of 9/1 to 1/1. Ammonium form resins are normally used. If operation with ionic contamination is needed it is of some benefit to use hydrogen form cation resin so as to reduce the pH and obtain better removal of sodium and other impurities. The use of fiber containing precoats is indicated when crud removal is the primary requirement and runs are terminated due to pressure drop, such as during startup. 4.3.5 Service Operation Effective operation requires attention to unit conditions, including chemistry. Operator monitoring, in combination with timely inspection and maintenance action will enable more consistent precoat run times. Effects of Unit Conditions on Polisher Service During the service run, the condensate passes through a thin layer of powdered resin or other precoat material, which is precoated on the tubular septa elements. The thickness of the precoat 2 is approximately 1/8 to 3/8 inches (~3–10 mm). The design flow is typically about 3.5 gpm/ft 4-25

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

(140 L/min/m2). To maximize utilization of precoat material all service vessels should be placed in service to reduce the velocity through the precoat. The initial pressure drop of a fresh precoat is typically 3 to 5 psi (21–34 kPa). If it is more than this, the possibility of septa element fouling should be investigated. If the initial pressure drop is significantly lower than this the element may be unseated or the vessel by-pass may not be fully closed. If unseated the differential pressure across the resin trap should be increase. Vessels are removed from service for any of the following reasons: high pressure drop, ionic breakthrough, and volume throughput (or time in service). Operating data reported for precoat filter/demineralizer systems in use at fossil plants are provided in Table 4-2 (2,14). It should be made clear that the long run lengths reported in these stations are normally possible only when a unit is in service for extended periods as stable conditions will result in low corrosion product loadings. Condensate contamination due to condenser leaks must not be of concern and air inleakage levels must be tightly controlled. The units with once-through supercritical boilers were employing OT chemistry, which makes operation at low pH (8.0-8-5) possible. This is important as it reduces the sensitivity to ionic leakage from a precoat when contamination develops.
Table 4-2 Typical Condensate Polisher Operating Data Boiler Type Velocity, gpm/ft2 (m/hr) Media Type Conductivity µS/cm Fiber/premix 1C+1A Fiber/premix Fiber/premix 1C+1A < 0.3 < 0.09 < 0.08 < 0.3 < 0.1 Effluent Quality Na+ ppb <1 < 0.5 < 0.5 <1 <1 SiO2 ppb <5 <5 <5 <5 <5 <1 <1 <1 < 0.1 Clppb Fe ppb < 0.2 Run Length, days

Drum SC* SC* Drum SC*

3.5 (8.4) 2.9 (7.0) 3.5 (8.4) 3.3 (8.0) 3.0 (7.2)

35-45 50** 60** DP 90**

* Supercritical with oxygenated treatment ** The end point termination is administrative, based on time in service

High Pressure Drop An audible alarm is annunciated when the pressure differential across the unit reaches a predetermined value, typically ≤ 25 psig (172 kPa). The exhausted vessel may then be removed from service after the condensate is permitted to bypass the unit. Low Flow Operation An automatic hold pump arrangement provides recirculation flow to maintain the precoat on the septa elements during periods of low or no flow. During periods of low (less than design) flow the pressure drop should be monitored to maintain the pressure drop below the allowed maximum value if the flow increases to the design rate. 4-26

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During periods of low flow, the precoat material on the septa element may crack, especially if it has been in service for an appreciable time prior to the low flow condition. This cracking occurs since the pressure drop across the precoat material is significantly reduced when the flow is reduced, causing the precoat material to expand or swell. Precoat cracking can: • • Cause poor effluent quality. Foul the septa elements (increase in initial pressure drop and poor precoat uniformity).

The inclusion of fiber in the precoat material can minimize this occurrence. Inspection of the septa elements though the sight glass may indicate if cracking is occurring. An actual physical examination of the septa element can confirm if it occurring by the varying intensity and streaks of the iron stains on the septa element. Layering of a precoat has also been practiced to obtain a more uniform precoat and minimize precoat erosion or cracking if it occurs. This is accomplished by first completing the precoat application at typically 0.15 lb/ft2 (0.3 g/cm2), followed by the application of 0.05 lb/ft2 (0.025 2 g/cm ). The overlay can be all fiber or a resin fiber mixture. Operation with a Body Feed System Body feed is normally applied after one third to one half of the anticipated run length. It can also be used minimize effects of precoat erosion and cracking as well as to improve overall resin utilization. The use of body feed in fossil systems has not been widely adopted. One possible reason is that added cost to include and operate the body feed system could not be justified by the value expected to result from increased precoat run length. The use of fiber containing premix precoats to increase run length appears to be sufficient to generally satisfy the needs of fossil plants. To minimize plugging problems the body feed slurry concentration was reduced to 1%.The following general observations were on body feed usage(15): • • • • Use fiber containing material for body feed. Introduce the body feed into vessel at a high concentration. Introduce body feed intermittently rather than continuously. Effluent quality is improved following application.

The time to initiate body feed and the quantity, type of body feed recommended and injection dose and interval is not the same for all plants. Optimization of body feed should be performed on a case by case basis. Service after Outages Most corrosion product transport takes place during startups and restarts. High levels of metal oxides (crud) are usually present in the condensate and feedwater during initial unit startup, when restarting the unit after maintenance outages, following unit trips and upon return to 4-27

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

service after unprotected shutdowns. Release of corrosion products is caused by changes in the chemistry at these times (for example, due to ingress of oxygen into cycles maintained under reducing conditions during service) and thermal and hydraulic stresses. Under these conditions the total suspended solids can be >1000 ppb. Oxygen ingress into the system should be limited during the outage. During startup or periods of high crud loading a high fiber content precoat material is normally used (1/1 Resin/Fiber ratio), typically containing a 1/1 cation to anion resin ratio at a dose of 0.2 lb/ft2 (0.1 g/cm2). If high crud is accompanied with high dissolved solids, less fiber (2/1 resin to fiber ratio) is used, typically containing a 4/5 cation/anion ratio. Hydrogen form cation resin may be used to reduce the pH, either as an overlay or part of the initial precoat. During initial unit startup and after long outages the condensate/feedwater circuit should be thoroughly flushed if possible to reduce the loading on the precoat filters. Contamination Due to Condenser Leaks or Other Causes Continued operation with confirmed cycle contamination is inadvisable in most cases; initiation of an orderly shutdown is generally recommended. In certain instances involving condenser leaks, it may be possible to reduce load and isolate the leaking condenser. Polisher operation may continue in such cases. Once it is determined that a condenser leak has occurred if possible, the unit should reduce load or shut down to isolate and fix the leak. During periods of operation with condenser leakage or other contamination a precoat dose of 0.3 lb/ft2 (0.15 g/cm2) is typically used with a 1/1 cation to anion ratio. Frequently the cation resin is in the hydrogen form. Fiber containing precoat may be used but will typically result in a shorter run time, since it contains less resin. Air Inleakage To maximize the utilization of anion resin, it is important that air in-leakage be controlled in low capacity precoat filter/demineralizer polishing systems. Air contains about 400 ppm of carbon dioxide that can react with ammonia when it enters the condenser to form ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate which will be removed by ion exchange. High rates of air inleakage can cause shortened runs to a conductivity end point caused by anion resin exhaustion. If possible, the air inleakage rate should be maintained at less than 1 scfm/100MW. Periodic testing should be conducted to check air in-leakage levels and initiate investigation and correction as required. Operation of a precoat filter/demineralizer system with high and uncontrolled air inleakage will inevitably result in shorter precoat life and increased operating costs. High Temperature Service The operating temperature limits for precoat systems are higher than normally permitted for deep beds since the resin is only used once before discarding. Normally, the maximum continuous

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operating temperature is 140°F (60°C). Temperatures of up to 160°F (71°C) can be tolerated for short periods. At temperatures above 140°F (60°C) the silica removal capability will be impaired and at 160°F (71°C) it will be essentially non-existent. Another concern is the increase in release of sulfonated organics from the cation exchange resins above 140°F (60°C). Note that at 140 F (60°C) the rate of release of organic sulfonate is about three times that which occurs at 110°F (43°C). The presence of catalysts, such as copper on the resin will accelerate the organic sulfonate release. 4.3.4 Backwash for Spent Precoat Removal and Septa Element Cleaning To backwash the septa elements, air and water are passed through the filter elements, in the reverse direction to the service flow. This is done to remove the precoat material and clean the elements. The backwashing function is to remove the spent precoat from the unit and return the septa to its original state. The spent precoat material is discharged to waste. In some instances, the backwash water could be recovered and only the solid waste is discharged. Insufficient cleaning of the filter septa during backwash leads to reduced run lengths and filter element life. If all of the precoat material and particulates are not removed from the septa and flushed out of the vessel during the backwash operation, progressive filter septa fouling is likely. Precoat material and impurities remaining on the element and in the vessel after backwashing can gradually become imbedded in the septa and thus increase pressure drop and reduce run length. Monitoring the backwash procedure and inspection of the filter elements (if sight glasses are provided) after backwash and prior to precoat application is good operating practice. In addition, the pressure drop of the service vessel during initial service should be tracked to confirm there is no significant increase over time. If it is suspected that the backwash is inadequate, the settings should be checked and adjusted if necessary and the cleaning procedure repeated. Recommended backwashing methods vary depending on the type of vessel design. Typically, the backwash cycle take between 20 and 30 minutes. Bottom Tubesheet Design
(4) For bottom tube sheet designs the air surge method should be used. The air surge method, as implied in the name, employs short duration; high velocity bursts of air to drive water for backwashing. Relatively low backwash/flushing water flow is used in support of the air surges to provide a means of localizing element cleaning as well as a vehicle for sluicing the spent precoat material from the vessel. Some older systems may use the original hydro-pneumatic backwashing method using air and water simultaneously.

The air surge procedure typically has a total of eight air surges to the service vessel during the backwash procedure. At the conclusion of the air surge backwash procedure, the vessel is filled with water. Up to this point the air surge will take about 20 minutes. The operator then advances the sequence to the precoat application sequence after having prepared a fresh precoat for 4-29

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

application. Precoat preparation would normally occur simultaneously with the backwash sequence to enable timely completion of the recoating operation. Top Tubesheet Design The air bump procedure has been in use for a long time. The vessel containing the exhausted precoat will have the top chamber partially drained. It is then pressurized with air. Once the desired pressure is reached a quick opening drain valve opens to evacuate the vessel. The procedure is typically repeated, typically, two more times and uses one vessel volume each time. Correct sizing of volume of the upper chamber is critical for the effectiveness of the backwash. An alternate approach using a “modified air bump” or “air pulse” has been developed at Hope (33) Creek Nuclear Station . Though reported to be more effective than air bump, this approach has not yet been applied to fossil fired plants. Chemical Cleaning of Fouled Elements If the septa backwash or precoating application is not effective, the initial pressure drop will increase with time resulting in short runs and poor effluent quality. This should be avoided by closely monitoring that the backwash is adequate and that the applied precoat is uniform. Oil contamination can also cause fouling. If multiple backwashes fail to restore the initial pressure drop and satisfactory performance, the septa should be inspected and/or tested to determine if replacement or chemical cleaning is required. The chemical cleaning is normally done at an outage. Chemical additions to the service vessel are made from a clean precoat slurry tank while the vessel is isolated from the system. The cleaning procedures are normally recommended by the supplier and are typically a ~0.3% hot detergent (low foam) and/or a hot ammoniated inhibited citric acid (~6%) cleaning. 4.3.5 Monitoring Requirements Individuals should be assigned the responsibility for collecting, trending, evaluating and assessing and recommending the need to modify the operation to improve performance. Basic cycle chemistry core instrumentation requirements described in Section 2.3.1 would of course apply. The following items should be monitored with vessels in service. • • • • • Individual vessel and system flow rates and pressure drop. Resin trap pressure drop Condensate chemistry and temperature. Estimated air inleakage rates. Individual vessel outlet chemistry conditions with primary emphasis on cation conductivity; sodium should be checked if there is increased sodium at the combined outlet.

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• • •

Boiler blowdown rate and chemistry in drum units. Unit load. Chemistry conditions before and shortly after new precoats are placed in service.

Surveillance of the polisher operation normally rests with laboratory technicians or plant operators. A record of system operating activities and control actions needed should be maintained by and for all involved in operation of the polisher. This log should note routine activities such as the following. • • • Time and date of placing each vessel in service. Precoat dosage and composition; it is good practice to log this information along with lot numbers, run number and total usage. Time and date of removing each vessel in service including reason run was terminated.

Responsible plant staff should promptly investigate any instance in which difficulty occurs in obtaining a proper V/V prior to precoating or if a given precoat results in a short run, poor effluent quality, high or very low pressure drop. Deviations from those normally observed require interpretation and possibly implementation of response to maintain cycle chemistry and protect the boiler and turbine. 4.3.6 Inspection and Maintenance The key to good performance is provision and operation with a uniform precoat. To do so requires that the septa elements remain clean and in as close to the original condition as possible. It also requires that the precoat material is properly prepared and applied to the septa elements. Operators monitoring the polisher should be keen to watch for situations that could interfere with precoat uniformity. Some observations and experiences will require that polisher inspection and maintenance and possibly further investigation to identify and correct problems. Condition of Precoated Septa/Cleaned Septa If possible, especially on initial startup of the equipment, the operator should observe the precoated septa after application of the precoat and the condition of septa after backwash. The precoat should be uniform and the septa should be clean. If observed through a sight glass it should be noted that only a small portion of the total septa surface area is visible. To observe the precoated septa with a bottom tubesheet design it is possible to isolate the vessel, place it in the standby mode and close the service inlet and outlet valves. The vessel can then be depressurized by slowly opening the vent valve. Once depressurized, the top manway is carefully opened and the precoated septa may be observed. The hold pump must be on at all times. If a distribution tube is used confirm it is at the desired baffle setting for uniform flow. The detailed isolation and inspection procedure should be obtained from the equipment supplier. The septa, after a backwash, can be observed in a similar manner or during a unit outage.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

It is suggested that with the bottom tubesheet design that the entire precoat be viewed periodically to confirm a uniform precoat is being achieved. Full visual inspection of the elements should at performed at least be yearly. If the precoat is not uniform, confirm that the elements are clean after backwash and the precoat preparation and application as required in the operating instructions. Discuss observations with supplier if corrective action is required. Continue close contact with the supplier until a satisfactory precoat is obtained. If it is confirmed that the elements are clean and the procedures are correct verify that all operating steps are working as intended. Repeat and monitor element cleaning, preparation and application of precoat possibly with a different lot of precoat material. If still unable to achieve a uniform precoat consult with the supplier to determine if changes should be made to the operating instructions. A more uniform precoat can sometimes be obtained by extending the precoat application time or reducing the precoat concentration at the inlet to the service vessel during precoat application. Typically the minimum concentration is 400 ppm. When using sol A, a more uniform precoat is obtained by increasing the quantity of sol A used to obtain a lower V/V. Again this is provided that the supernatant is always clear. Consult with the supplier if an intended V/V is below the recommended value. It should be noted that while these procedures can improve precoat uniformity they could lead to shorter runs to a pressure drop end point since the precoat is more compact upon application. If the septa elements upon inspection are not clean, i.e. mottled or irregular stain pattern, precoat adhering to elements etc., the backwash procedure should be monitored to confirm it functions as required by the operating instructions. Once confirmed or corrected, the backwash should be repeated to determine if it improves the cleaning of the elements. If unable to correct or obtain a uniform precoat, consult with the supplier for possible modifications to the backwash or remedial cleaning procedures. If an in-place chemical cleaning is suggested, at least one or more elements should be removed and tested to confirm the cleaning procedure will clean the elements. If the fiber is found to be weak or damaged or cleaning is not effective replacement of the elements should be investigated. Precoat Leakage through Septa Elements Resin leakage during service can cause a pressure drop increase in the resin trap or an unexplained drop in cycle pH. This pH drop may be transient, occurring only when the new precoat is first placed in service. If sulfates are analyzed, an increase in sulfates would occur in the drum or feedwater due to resin breakdown at high temperatures. A possible cause is deteriorated septa which require replacement. This may be due to extended use. Other possibilities include thermal degradation (high temperature spike) or physical abuse (i.e. severe pressure surge) during service, either of which can damage fibers of the septa elements allowing precoat material to pass into the effluent.

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Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

There is also a possibility that the hold pump circuit is faulty, since there is a direct connection between the filter and plenum chamber. An automatic valve or check valve prevents bypassing of flow when the hold pump is not running. This circuit can be checked by closing the manual block valves for the hold pump. It is prudent to always conduct a resin leak test upon installation of new septa elements in a service vessel to confirm proper sealing. The resin leak test procedure should be conducted during precoat application to avoid contamination of the cycle. For new bottom tubesheet service vessels the integrity of the tubesheet welds should be tested by placing water in the vessel and inspecting the plenum to confirm no leakage of water due to defective welds. This should be done in cooperation with the supplier.

4.4 Summary of Requirements for Effective Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Performance
Preceding discussions of precoat filter/demineralizer technology were largely adapted from Section 6 of the EPRI publication entitled Condensate Polishing Training Manual, which includes further discussion and details.(34) Use of precoat filter/demineralizers in fossil units generally requires the following conditions: • • • • Selection for use in situations where ionic contamination by condenser leakage and other sources is infrequent. Condenser cooling water should not have high dissolved solids content. Close control of cycle air inleakage. Selection for use in situations where the need for filtration exceeds the need for removal of ionic contaminants. There is a need for a simple system or system with a small footprint, such as for polisher retrofits.(35)

Selection of condensate polishing technology is discussed in Section 2.4 of these guidelines. Optimal performance is dependent on system design and operation. Important features and actions include: • • • • Automatic and semi-automatic controls with manual override capability are preferred. Proper selection, testing and storage of all powdered resin and fiber media. Standardization in preparation of precoat preparation requirements; this may be facilitated through use of premixed media products. A suitable precoat preparation and application system design that is well understood and operated consistently; effective manual control is possible with the closed loop design when used by qualified operators that can operate the XYZ valves as needed in suitable turnaround times. Metered feed of precoat media is a worthwhile design option that can improve precoat uniformity but will increase the system cost.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Guidelines for Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems

Service vessels of bottom tubesheet design are suitable but should be fitted with well designed distribution (draft) tubes to ensure effective uniform flow distribution during precoat application and service. Top tubesheet designs are also suitable; they are frequently used in fossil units due to higher costs. Service vessels with sight glasses and/or manways that can be easily opened as needed for inspection. Provision of balanced flow control capability to all vessels in service under all operating conditions. Inclusion of a body feed system should be considered as a possible design option that can extend useful precoat service times but will increase the system capital cost. Properly selected and installed septa elements that are maintained in a clean condition and do not permit precoat leakage during service. Selection and proper use of a backwash system that will effectively restore the septa elements to the cleanest possible condition by removing all spent precoat material and solid captured during service from the septa elements. Provision of necessary polisher system monitoring equipment, in combination with appropriate cycle chemistry monitoring for the chemistry in use. Performance of periodic inspections of the equipment general condition and as may be needed in response to situations such as unusual pressure drop and known or suspected resin leakage. Responsible staff that is given the necessary training, motivation and confidence to operate the system as needed so as to be able to promptly identify abnormal conditions so that they may be promptly investigated and corrected.

• • • • •

• •

4.5 References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. J. Levendusky, “Process for Purifying Liquids and Particulate Ion Exchange Material Used Thereof”, US Patent 3,250,702, issued May 10, 1966. E. Salem and T. LaTerra, “A Half Century of Condensate Polishing”, Power Generation Technologies, (China), December 1999. Condensate Polishing Guidelines for PWR and BWR Plants—1997 Revision, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1997. TR-101942-R1. D. Butterworth and J. Longo, “Design and Performance of Retaining Elements for Precoat Demineralizers”, EPRI Condensate Workshop, 1988. B. Weissman, “Pall Septa Optimization Studies”, EPRI Condensate Workshop, 1988. E. Salem and M. O’Brien, “Powdered Resin Equipment - Design Improvements”, EPRI Conference on Filtration of Particulates in LWR Systems, 1991.

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7. 8.

C. Diehl, “Analysis of Utility Industry Powdered Resin Survey”, Proceedings: Second Workshop of Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, January 19, 1990. W. Terrasi and L. Ryan, “Condensate Filter/Demineralizer Performance Improvement Program at Fermi 2 Nuclear Power Station of Detroit Edison Company”, EPRI Conference on Filtration of Particulates in LWR Systems, 1991. J. Giannelli, “One Dimensional Analysis of Flux Maldistribution Effects in In-Situ Coated Sorptive Media Utilization”, 90th National AICHE Meeting, Houston, TX, April 1981.

9.

10. K. Oikawa, et al., “Draft Tube Application in Powdered Resin Vessels”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 11. K. Maeda, et al, “Improvements of Condensate Precoat Filters Draft Tubes and Low Crosslinked Resin”, EPRI Conference on Filtration of Particulates in LWR Systems, 1991. 12. D. DeMarah, “Improvements in Condensate Polishing at WNP-2”, EPRI Optimum BWR Iron Removal Workshop, 1994. 13. S. Okuyama, et al,”Improvement of Precoat Filter Performance”, Proceedings of the 55 International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA, 1995. 14. A. Bhanot, “Flow Straightening Technology for Filter Demineralizer Systems”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 15. M. Nakamura, K. Maeda, et al, “Improvement of Precoat Type Condensate Filters”, EPRI Conference on Filtration of Particulates in LWR Systems, 1991. 16. A. Arnold, “Experience with Pall PMMTM Elements at Duane Arnold Energy Center”, EPRI: Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 17. R. Assay and J. Earls, “Modified Precoat Technique at Cooper Nuclear Power Station”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 18. E. Salem and T. LaTerra, “A Look at the History of Condensate Polishing”, Ultrapure Water, p. 30-36, November 2000. 19. R. Gedus, “The Use of Body Feed in Reducing CDE Copper Levels”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 20. H. Nix, et al, “Operational Experience with Continuously Feeding Resins and Fiber to a BWR Condensate Polishing Filter/Demineralizer System”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990.
th

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21. L. Nolan, “Evaluation of Filter/Demineralizer Precoat Material at Monticello Nuclear Station Condensate System,” Proceedings of the 40th International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA 1979. 22. E. Salem, et al, “Improvements in the Design of Powdered Resin Equipment”, EPRI Conference on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 23. E. Salem, “Precoat Equipment-Advances”, BWR Plant Chemist Meeting, Palo Alto, CA, February 25, 1993. 24. M. Campbell, “Use of Inverted Cone Wedge Wire Resin Traps in Condensate Polishing”, Proceedings: 1999 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR113281. 25. E. Salem, “A Study of the Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ion Exchange Media Used in Trace Contaminant Removal”, Proceedings of the 31st American Power Conference, 1969. 26. Condensate Polishing Guidelines: Ammonium Form Operation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1004322. 27. C. Halbfoster, “Charged Filter Aid Material and Ion Exchange Bed”, US Patent 4,190,532 issued February 26, 1980. 28. J. Knight and C. Halbfoster, “An Evaluation of New Filter/Demineralizer Precoat Materials”, Joint ASME/IEEE/ASCE Power Generation Conference, Dallas, TX, September 10-14, 1978. 29. C. Halbfoster, “Three Years Experience with Precoats Containing Fiber and Powdered Ion Exchange Resins”, Proceedings of the 41st International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA, 1980. 30. D. Ryan, “Comparing the Crud-Holding Capacity of Powdered Resin Mixes Containing nd PAN versus Cellulose Fibers”, Proceedings of the 62 International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA, October 2001. 31. N. Henzel and K. Kienberger, “Progress Report on Optimized Filter Demineralizer Performance at Isar-1 KWU-BWR Plant”, Second EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing with Powdered Resins, 1990. 32. Condensate Filter Demineralizer Performance Improvement Program, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1997. TR-107808. 33. J. Alfieri and M. Meltzer, “Hope Creek Generating Station; Condensate Pre-Filters”, BWR Condensate Filter User’s Group Meeting, Annapolis, MD, June 2000. 34. Condensate Polishing Training Manual, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004933. 4-36

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35. E. Lange, et al, “San Miguel: A Case for Drum Boiler Condensate Polishing Retrofit”, Proceedings of the 44th International Water Conference, Engineer’s Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA 1983.

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5
CONDENSATE POLISHER JUSTIFICATION AND ECONOMICS
The economics and justification of condensate polishing involves an understanding of the important benefits which accrue when water used in the cycle is maintained at a very high level of purity. Removal of corrosion products produced by the cycle materials and removal of ionic contaminants which find their way into the condensate and feedwater cycle is beneficial for economic operation of steam power cycles over their service lives. Section 5 considers these benefits and explains the value of polishing based upon improved fossil unit availability and efficiency. It reviews discusses the different technologies used to polish condensate; additional information and technical aspects of polishing technology options is presented in Section 2. The different cost and performance advantages and implementation advantages are discussed here. Sizing criteria for traditional application is also discussed. A discussion on cycle impacts is included and describes how polishing fits into the steam-water cycle, polisher bypass capabilities and a short review of ammonium form operation as it relates to costs and value. Means of cost reduction are briefly addressed. Because of the great importance of cost justification issues, there is a comprehensive discussion of system costs. Included are capital costs, installation costs, operating costs, and overall life cycle costs. The value of benefits is also included to show an overall cost benefit evaluation. Sensitivity to several important assumptions is also addressed.

5.1 Condensate Polishing Benefits and Value
Condensate polishing provides many benefits to steam power plant operation; all are related to the removal of contaminants from the treated condensate. Cleaner condensate results in lower levels of contaminant transport throughout the cycle. The major benefits accrue from improved availability, improved efficiency, and reduced component failures from corrosion and deposition. All units benefit from the significant time savings for cold and warm startups which can be realized since the condensate polisher removes contaminants (notably silica) from the condensate. This reduces the amount of time that the power plant is on hold or run at a reduced load due to silica limitations in power cycles. The time saved in startup pays by allowing faster on-line generation, reduced fuel costs during startup, and reduced contaminant impact to cycle components during startups. Units considering cycling duty will benefit greatly from these advantages provided by condensate polishing. Other benefits also accrue to units with condensate polishing. Units with polishing have the opportunity to operate with the best known cycle chemistries, Oxygenated Treatment (OT) or All-Volatile-Treatment (AVT-O or AVT-R). Without condensate polishing, power plants are 5-1

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

generally limited to using a boiler water additive treatment, using either phosphate or caustic. OT and AVT chemistries provide better performance for minimizing corrosion and for corrosion product transport throughout the cycle. Condensate polishing also serves to minimize the impact of minor to moderate condenser tube leak. Contaminants from cooling water can be removed by the polishing as soon as they enter the cycle. Contaminant ingress from makeup water is similarly removed. For larger leaks, the polisher minimizes the contamination which would occur between the time that the leak is identified and the power plant is shutdown for repair. The amount of contaminant ingress mitigation is dependent upon many design and operational factors. From the standpoint of contaminant ingress mitigation, the condensate polisher should be looked upon as insurance, not as a remedy for poor equipment integrity, poor quality makeup, and inadequate maintenance practices or poor operating practices but as insurance in case an accident happens. Using the analogy of car insurance, it isn’t good practice to drive a car into a wall because of the existence of car insurance. Instead it is good practice to put great effort toward good driving and good auto maintenance to minimize the chances of an accident. In the case of polishing, the existence of the insurance is there only to minimize the impact on the cycle for those times when the best efforts cannot prevent cycle contamination. 5.1.1 Improved Unit Availability The addition of condensate polishers into the steam cycle will result in operating costs savings based on improved plant availability. Improvements in plant availability result from fewer component failures, reduced deposition on critical components (this benefit can have the effect of improving both availability and efficiency), a reduced number of chemical excursions (as well as a reduction in the severity of such excursions), a reduction in component repair frequency and a reduction chemical cleaning frequency. The amount of benefit will depend upon the many circumstances and factors which effect corrosion and deposition. The corrosion and deposition will also have varied impact on plant operations and economics. Corrosion in certain areas such as relatively heavily sectioned, low temperature piping systems will have relatively little impact. However, certain types of localized corrosion (FAC included) can have great impact on plant safety and availability. The story is similar for deposition. Some deposition in low temperature non critical areas can be tolerated. However, deposition in high heat flux areas of the boiler and on turbine blades can have very serious consequences on plant operation. Reduction in Boiler Tube Failures Boiler tube failures (BTF) are an all-too-common cause of loss of generating availability. Obviously, repair of the failed area also adds to the cost of the failure. Typically, about one half of the boiler tube failures which occur are attributable to water chemistry. Virtually all of the chemistry related BTF are related to boiler deposits. The proper implementation of condensate polishing can help with boiler tube failures from several different ways. The presence of polishing will help minimize deposits. Further, the presence of properly implemented polishing can minimize cycle chemistry excursions, such excursions also participate in the under deposit 5-2

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boiler tube damage mechanisms. Yet another way polishing helps minimize BTF is by allowing operation in the most advantageous cycle chemistries like AVT and OT. Cycle chemistries recommended for operation in cycles with out polishing use boiler non volatile additives such as trisodium phosphate and caustic. Such additives can carry over and deposit in downstream components like superheaters, reheaters, and turbine components. Localized overheating failures and material failures can result from the presence of these non-volatile boiler additives. Reduction in Chemical Cleaning Frequency The frequency of chemical cleanings is expected to be reduced when condensate polishers are used or added and better performing chemistries are applied. These actions will greatly reduce buildup in steam generator tubes, allowing significantly less frequent chemical cleaning. The cost of chemical cleaning can vary considerably depending upon various station circumstances. One of the more important circumstances would be the ability to dispose of wastewaters generated by the cleaning activity. While the cost of the cleaning is significant, frequently the greater savings is in the elimination of the length of time (typically a three to seven day outage) required to accomplish the cleaning. This saving can easily amount to over $1 million every few years, a very significant savings. Reduction in Chemical Excursions There are a variety of chemical excursions which can causes losses for a power plant. With proper surveillance, the excursions can be detected and the losses due to these excursions minimized. The losses can come in the form of lost generating time during plant transient or during steady operation. Unit startup is a common transient which can cause loss of generation time. A common delay which occurs for units with drum boilers is for reduction of silica concentrations in the boiler water. During such a power plant startup, the silica content of the boiler water is closely monitored to maintain silica within limits which are defined for specific boiler pressures. This monitoring frequently results in “silica holds”, or stoppages in the startup and power ascension process. This is a typical industry practice used to minimize silica deposition in the steam turbine. The boiler pressure can be raised to design levels after a sufficient quantity of silica has been removed from the system through boiler blowdown. Similar silica problems can also occur following startup primarily due to load fluctuations. The presence of condensate polisher will greatly reduce and even eliminate “silica holds” during startups and load changes because of the polisher’s ability to remove silica from the condensate being treated. Other excursions which may occur include makeup excursions and contamination from maintenance outages. Again, for existing plants, historical data may be available to be used to determine baseline data for chemical excursions. The reduction in production losses can be a significant benefit when a condensate polishing system is available and properly used. 5.1.2 Reduction in Turbine Efficiency Losses Impurities in the boiler drum can be carried out of the drum by mechanical carryover (i.e. poor liquid/vapor separation in the drum) or by having a small portion of the impurities volatilize out 5-3

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

with the steam. Additionally, steam attemperation results in the direct injection of feedwater into the steam path which also leads to deposition. These impurities can then redeposit back onto the turbine which leads to inefficiencies in the performance of the turbine. Turbine deposit can be caused by impurities in the cycle due to cycle makeup quality (i.e. silica, sodium, chloride, sulfate and aluminum), impurities added as part of the steam cycle chemistry program (sodium and phosphate), as well as impurities from metal transport (copper oxide and iron oxide). Turbine deposition is a complex phenomenon. As the pressure of the steam decreases in passage through the turbine, impurities exceed solubility and deposit on turbine surfaces. Turbine deposits on the HP section of the turbine primarily consist of copper oxide and iron oxide as well as sodium and phosphate. The IP section deposits primarily consist of copper oxide, iron oxide, silica, sodium and phosphate. LP section deposits primarily consist of silica. Condensate polishers will reduce turbine deposition by adsorbing or filtering out steam cycle contaminants before they enter the boiler drum or are fed directly to the turbine through steam attemperation. Furthermore, the addition of condensate polishers allow the use of different steam cycle chemistries which both eliminate the need to add phosphate to the boiler drum which in turn eliminates phosphate turbine deposits and reduce metals transport. Condensate polishers do not capture all of the impurities that exist in the steam cycle. Corrosion products from equipment downstream of the polishers can still transport to the boiler and turbine. Although condensate polishers can be very effective at removing contaminants from the process, polishers are not completely effective and limited amounts of contaminants can pass through the polishers. For this reason, only conservative estimates of benefits of polishers will be applied in this analysis. As discussed later in this section, the deep bed designs have greater ion exchange capacity, while precoat filter/demineralizer designs perform filtration better. Based upon this one would expect better performance from mixed bed for removal of ionic species contaminants as compared to the other having better performance for removal of suspended species resulting from better filtration capability. For existing plants, steam turbine efficiency data can be determined directly from plant data. Real plant data can be difficult to evaluate. Steam path audit methods can be used to help evaluate losses from turbine deposition. However, the payoffs from increases in turbine efficiency (actually the payoff is from avoiding decreases in turbine efficiency) can be very large (1) and can quickly justify means to avoid the efficiency loss (such as condensate polishing).

5.2 Comparison of Polishing Technology Options
Condensate polishing is accomplished by several methods as discussed in earlier Sections 2-4 of the report. 5.2.1 Condensate Polisher Type Comparisons Most designs are compromises in order to make implementation both practical and economic. Condensate polishing systems are no exceptions. Mixed bed systems use are similar to makeup systems in their implementation of ion exchange technology. While there have been important 5-4

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developments in resin manufactured for condensate polishing, the resin is basically the same type as that used in cycle makeup treatment systems. However, when traditionally sized, mixed bed condensate polishing specific flow rates (flow rate per bed area) used are very much greater rate 2 2 of around 50 gpm/ft (35L/s per m ) than conventional cycle makeup treatment rates. These higher specific flow rates allow polishing more flow with less resin and less surface area. This reduces the diameter of vessels or the number of vessels required. Such reductions are effective in reducing system capital and installation costs. These higher specific rates can be accepted, because condensate is not as highly mineralized as water treated for cycle makeup. In addition to minimizing capital costs, the higher specific flow rate helps improve the filtering capabilities of bead resin. Deep bed systems are made up of exchangers and their associated valves, piping, and controls and regeneration equipment. For these types of exchangers, the option exists to use offsite regeneration. With this option, an external entity does the regeneration, often a contractor. These are described more fully in Section 3. The important considerations when selecting this type of system would be the number of primary treatment vessels desired and whether onsite or offsite regeneration is to be used. For onsite regeneration, important issues relate to selection of the features desired for the regeneration system. For offsite systems, the issues relate to the (2) extent and need for backup system capacity in the form of resin storage. As previously stated, powdered resin systems use relatively little resin. This allows the vessels to be relatively smaller in diameter than equivalent deep bed exchangers, when traditional sizing criteria are used, because of the flow geometry. Vessels are sized based upon the amount of surface area which can be contained within the pressure vessel. With precoat filter/demineralizer systems, resin is not reused. The resin precoat must be thin in order to minimize pressure drop across the coating, thus the force which each filter element must withstand. This also minimizes the amount of resin which will be discarded. These tradeoffs allow the capital costs of this type of system to be lower than mixed bed systems with regeneration, because there are smaller vessels and less equipment. The costs of comparative systems are further explored later in this section. Important choices for powdered resin systems include the number of service vessels to be used, selection of precoat equipment, some limited choices on backwash systems and some choices on resin disposal. 5.2.2 Others Systems The above options of either mixed bed or powdered resin cover the majority of applications of condensate polishing worldwide. Combinations of filters plus ion exchange systems as well as combinations of ion exchange vessels have been applied in condensate polishing systems. Some of the more common of these combinations of systems are listed below. • • • • Powdered Resin – Mixed Bed Cation Bed – Mixed Bed Cation Bed – Anion Bed – Cation Bed. Separate Bed – Single Vessel

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These systems have been conceived and used because they all are considered to have advantages over naked mixed bed systems. Such systems can overcome some of the disadvantages that a single type system (either limited filtration capability or limited ion exchange capability). These systems are further described in Section 2. Generally, when systems are combined or when additional vessels are provided the systems require much greater capital and installation costs. A more minor disadvantage would be in complexity of operation and maintenance. Separate bed single vessel systems may be an exception. It is thought that capital costs of these systems would be competitive with those of comparably sized naked mixed beds. They also appear to offer simplicity as compared to deep bed designs that include mixed beds. Thus they could conceivably offer reliable operation in the economical ammonium form without the need to achieve high levels of resin separation as is needed with mixed bed polishers.

5.3 CP System Features - Cost, Value, and Benefits
5.3.1 System Issues This section contains discussion about overall system design, whether for retrofit or for new units. These guidelines are general and flexible, intended to allow individual, customization of systems to suit the expected uses in the generating unit. The design guidelines also provide what is believed to be the most economic usage of polishing, when considering that the most important economic factor is long life with limited maintenance of major generating unit components. Thus, some of the selections may cost slightly more, but are selected because the improved performance is considered, in life cycle terms, to provide the benefits needed to justify the capital expenditure. Flow Capacity Maintaining improved water quality, providing better availability and improved efficiency are the reasons that the use of polishing will be shown to be justified. In order to achieve these benefits, polishing should be used to the greatest extent possible. On this basis, polishing systems, whether using mixed bed resins or powdered resin precoat type polishing, should have full flow capability. The use of partial flow systems would compromise these advantages. There may be some limited circumstances for partial flow capability condensate polisher could be considered. This would be for situating when startup and low loads for an older generating unit are the justification for condensate polishing retrofit. Bypass All condensate polishing systems should have bypass capability. The bypass should be used only to provide the flow capability necessary to continue generation in the event of a malfunction of the condensate polishing system. This is considered a necessary operational feature to provide sufficient reliability for generating capability. The bypass should be designed to minimize the bypassed flow, but nonetheless be capable of passing all of the system flow required regardless of the state of the condensate polishing system. The general operation of such a valve would be 5-6

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to have the valve open to maintain the highest design pressure drop Consistent with the design pressure drop for the system. Direct Polishing Most U.S. experience with condensate polishing service vessels is with systems which directly treat the condensate in the condensate path. That is, the condensate from the condensate pumps is directed through the condensate polishing system. Effluent from the polishers is directed to downstream components. Direct polishing requires that the condensate polishing vessels be designed to meet condensate system pressure requirements. Systems designed to meet high pressure condensate systems will require that the vessels, piping, and valves designed to retain these pressures. The condensate design pressure can have a significant impact upon system design and is an important parameter. Booster Loop An alternative to direct in-line polishing is to include booster loop polishing, which has some technical merits, particularly for the retrofit case. Typical booster loop polishing is shown in Figure 5-1. The booster loop provides inherent, failsafe bypass in the event of failure. Additionally, the booster loop operates at a constant flow thus, eliminating any flow perturbations which can cause difficulties with filtration capabilities. Disadvantages include the cost and complexity of an additional set of pumps and energy losses again caused by increased pumping of the condensate system. Because vessels are still exposed to condensate pressure, the same issues about component design pressure apply to the booster loop situation. As noted above, this could be used in retrofit situations where the existing condensate pumps would not have the additional head capacity to pump through retrofitted condensate polisher. For the retrofit case, modification of the existing condensate pumps may also be an alternative to be considered.

TURBINE

CONDENSER

MAKEUP WATER

BOILER, STEAM GENERATOR, OR REACTOR

CONDENSATE PUMPS

CONDENSATE POLISHER

1

2 FEEDWATER PUMPS

3

4 LP FEEDWATER HEATERS

5 BOOSTER PUMPS

HP FEEDWATER HEATERS

Figure 5-1 Condensate Polisher Direct Polishing Configuration

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

An alternative is a booster loop configuration where condensate booster pumps draws off flow from the main flow path, passes it through the condensate polisher, and then returns it back to the main flow path. The condensate booster pumps supply the pressure that is required to overcome the pressure drop through the condensate polisher system. The flow through the booster loop is designed to be slightly higher than the condensate flow, thus, a small amount of flow recirculates to the booster pump inlet. Flow through the booster loop is independent of the condensate flow. Such a system is shown in Figure 5-2.

Figure 5-2 Condensate Booster Loop

Condensate Side Stream Treatment Yet another alternative for condensate polishing is to polish a side stream of the condensate from the hotwell. A portion of the condensate would be pumped from the hotwell, generally by the condensate pumps, through polishing vessels and the treated condensate being routed back to the condenser. A pressure reduction valve can be used to reduce the pressure. Such a system has limited use. It could be used with pressure vessels which are designed for lower pressure than the condensate pump discharge. Such systems have been used on unit commissioning startup to allow use of low design pressure, trailer mounted, makeup vessel supplied by temporary cycle makeup service contractors. Such systems have several disadvantages which would make them suitable only for temporary use. Because the condensate is recycled, this amount of condensate is not available to forward to the boiler feed and steam generator, thus, unit generating capacity is reduced. There are also lost efficiencies because this amount of water must be pumped again.

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Ammonium Form Operation System Features Operation in the ammonium form (AFO) is a very important consideration for mixed bed condensate polishing systems. AFO beyond ammonium break can be an important economic savings for mixed bed polishing which will help plant operating economics and ease justification of the polishing system. Operation beyond ammonium break is more fully described in Section 2 (3,4) and in other publications. Satisfactory AFO operation requires more stringent resin purity than hydrogen form operation; these requirements must be met by superior resin separation techniques, quality control of regenerants, post regeneration resin purification techniques and by greater levels of process surveillance. These more stringent purity requirements impact equipment selection for cases using onsite regeneration. Appropriate equipment must be procured to allow this more stringent means of operation. Equipment suppliers may not have equal understanding or capability (because of either licensing agreements or experience) to apply any chosen system for ammonium break operation. Competitive bidding is a very important and familiar process in the power industry for obtaining equipment for either new units or equipment for retrofits. Thus, when procuring systems for condensate polishing, some latitude in selection of the processes to provide high purity regenerated resin for AFO operation, may be required in order to get a competitive system price. Spare Vessels Generally the use of spare vessels has been considered good practice for many years. However, with condensate polishers, vessels are expensive to purchase and install. Additionally, other than for an atypical vessel outage, their usage would be limited. For a conventional case of mixed bed, operating with a 30 day run length, usage of this spare would be limited to one to two hours per month for the two vessel regenerations or exchanges. This amount of downtime equates to roughly 4 hours per 30 days or less than 0.6% of the operating time. If operation with more frequent regeneration is envisioned for the unit, such as hydrogen cycle operation in units using high pH condensate, the spare vessel would be more frequent used and thus more valuable to the unit. For a typical powdered resin case, the spare may be used on two hours per week, if weekly precoating operations are anticipated. While this usage would be somewhat higher rate, a little over 2 %, it would still be a relatively small usage rate. The need for spare vessels should be evaluated on an individual situation basis in order to evaluate the benefit which would be obtained from the additional expenditure for the spare vessel. 5.3.2 Cost Reduction Approaches Capital cost is considered to be the single greatest deterrent to the use of condensate polishing in units where polishing is considered optional. Therefore, minimizing capital cost while obtaining a level of benefits which allows a positive cost to benefit ratio is an appropriate goal. Operating 5-9

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

cost reduction is also important for condensate polishing once the choice to use condensate polishing has been made. Number of Vessels Previous studies have shown that minimizing the number of vessels in a system will generally reduce cost.(5,6) Conventional Vessel sizes are generally limited to sizes that can be shipped by conventional means, generally around 12 ft (4m) in diameter for mixed bed vessels. Thus, good design would dictate selection of the least number of service vessels commensurate with appropriate maximum vessel sizes plus any desired conservatism. A logical conclusion would be that a system consisting of a single vessel would be the most cost effective system. This conclusion is incorrect as it was shown previously. Additionally, many systems cannot be accommodated by a single vessel. Flows for moderate to large units exceed the flow capability. The other factor which makes this seemingly logical conclusion incorrect is the impact on support equipment. This is illustrated by the total installed costs for Alternative (5) Service Vessel Configurations from Reference 2, as summarized in Table 5-1. While these costs are somewhat dated, the comparison is consistent with current costs. Current costs for adding spare vessels exceed the differentials as shown in the table. As can be seen from this summary, the single vessel system is more costly for the case evaluated than the system with two one half capacity vessels. The impact is from the support equipment for the mixed bed system. This case is for a mixed bed with external regeneration facilities consisting of a three tank regeneration system and supporting pumps and controls. By comparison, the total system cost for a single service vessel system is $3,139,000 compared to a $2,653,000 for a system of two 50% capacity service vessels. For the first case, with the single service vessel, the regeneration equipment has to be sized to accommodate twice as much resin and therefore all regeneration tanks and pumps have to be twice as large. While there may be exceptions, for most commonly sized units, a system consisting of two 50% capacity exchangers will typically be the most economic selection. For powdered resin systems, a similar situation exists, but for somewhat different reasons. Single vessel systems are limited in flow capacity to about 4,500 gpm (17,100 L/min), using conservative flux limitations. Thus, use of single vessel systems is limited to smaller sized fossil units.

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Table 5-1 Total Installed Cost of Alternate Service Vessel Configurations Service Vessels One 100% Capacity Vessel Two 100% Capacity Vessels Two 50% Capacity Vessels Three 50% Capacity Vessels Three 33% Capacity Vessels Four 33% Capacity Vessels Cost, 1995 $ $3,139,000 $3,943,000 $2,653,000 $2,923,000 $2,816,000 $3,048,000

As mentioned earlier, the typical flux rate used for determining the number of vessels and size of 2 2 each vessel for a system is About 50 gpm/ft (35L/s per m ). The bulk of experience with condensate polishing is based upon flux rates of the approximate magnitude. Vessel diameters or number of vessels can be reduced (and thus the capital cost of a system) by considering the use of higher flux rates. However, it is expected that system capability to respond to a challenge such as condenser leakage will be diminished at such higher flux rates. Additionally, degradation of the kinetic response rate of resin is an important consideration. In order to achieve equivalent performance, more frequent resin replacement may be necessary for systems which use higher flux rates. Thus, use of systems based on higher condensate flux rates should be very carefully considered, as such use will be outside of the majority of the current experience base and performance and/or operating cost tradeoffs of unknown magnitude are probable consequences of the selection. Shared Service Vessels Sharing service vessels is a frequently considered means of reducing costs. This means can be used for situations where similar units are located adjacent to each other. Typical situations would be purchase sufficient service vessels for one unit and share them between two identical units. Thus full flow polishing could be used on one unit during startup or to minimize the impacts of a contamination event or other chemistry excursion. If both units were operating steadily in base load conditions, each unit could polish one half of the condensate of the two units. While this means of polishing has been used, the main thrust is to save capital costs. Unfortunately, it is also possible to have only one half or less of the benefits of polishing. Since for most plants polishing pays for itself through improved efficiency and availability, the use of partial polishing may result in less than one-half of the benefits. While startups are relatively predictable, contamination events and chemistry upsets are often not predictable (otherwise we would have prevented the chemistry excursion). This means of polishing is however, better than no polishing at all.

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Shared Regeneration Facilities The sharing of regeneration facilities is also a frequently considered means of reducing condensate polishing costs. This sharing can be successful in saving significant cost if two reasonably identical units are located close enough to make the resin transfers between the two units service vessels to the regeneration vessels practical. It would also reduce maintenance costs by having only one set of regeneration facilities to maintain. Potential drawbacks for sharing regeneration facilities would mainly be related to the capabilities of the regeneration vessels to handle the duties for both units. This might be a concern if hydrogen cycle operation were considered to be a primary means of operation and each unit had several vessels. Under this latter scenario, the facilities could be significantly challenged, particularly when cycle chemistry upsets or contamination events occurred. If operation beyond ammonium break were envisioned then overuse of the shared regeneration facilities would be much less likely. An additional consideration for shared regeneration facilities would be considerations based on chemistry differences or similarities between the two units. Polishing beds would be shared between one cycle and the other. Obviously, the two units would have to have the same feedwater treatment, likely OT. Additionally, very high purity regeneration cycles would be required for both units even is only one was operating in the ammonium cycle. Off-site Regeneration Off-site regeneration can provide significant capital cost reduction for mixed bed condensate polisher systems. This variation allows the user to eliminate the regeneration equipment and facilities and replace these with facilities to allow semi- truck loading and unloading facilities. Storage facilities for both fresh and exhausted resin may be used to provide conservatism for atypical operating circumstances. Life cycle economics have shown that the expected regeneration frequency must be relatively low (fewer that 30 or so per year) in order for the life cycle costs to favor off-site regeneration. This situation would fit a unit with good condenser integrity and good water chemistry practices which wanted to take the next step in achieving higher efficiency and availability. With the ability to operate with relatively few regenerations, this equipment selection for condensate polishing will generally be the lowest life cycle cost and the lowest first cost condensate polishing system. Off-site regeneration also has benefits for retrofit units because it is relatively simple and minimizes wastewater impacts on retrofit design. Ammonium form operation (AFO) is an important consideration for operating cost savings for mixed bed condensate polishing systems. As described in Sections 2 and 3, AFO, allows operation for extended periods of time between regenerations for mixed bed systems. AFO is virtually mandatory for economic operation using off-site regeneration, if cycle chemistry requires cycle operation at pH levels exceeding 9.0. AFO does require additional equipment to achieve required resin purity. Also, additional operating surveillance is required because AFO operation is not as robust as hydrogen form operation with respect to tolerance of contaminant ingress, poor resin kinetic performance, or less than optimum equipment operation. Equipment for AFO operation is generally a small percentage of total system costs. Because of the

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substantial operating cost benefits, new and retrofit equipment purchases should include appropriate features to allow AFO operation.

5.4 Comparative Condensate Polishing Costs
The following discussion shows the development of cost estimates for some condensate polishing system designs of interest and in use at generating plants. 5.4.1 Basis and Assumptions Two unit sizes and types were selected for evaluation and demonstration of condensate polisher costs. One involves installation of a condensate polisher in a new fossil unit, the other a retrofit system for an existing unit. Three designs were considered for each plant design. Two designs employ mixed bed polishers, with on-site and off-site regeneration of the resins. While many condensate polishing costs are generic and typical of costs for most units, there may be certain aspects which require analysis for the specific case. Such areas relate to the unique characteristics of the cycle and to equipment arrangement considerations. Polisher for New 700 MWe Unit with a Once-through Supercritical Boiler A new, coal fired supercritical unit was considered for evaluation. While a supercritical unit requires polishing, the selection of a system based upon economics and unit needs is still useful and valuable. Unit characteristics and features are listed below:
• • • • • •

700 MW coal fired base loaded supercritical unit 3,700 psig (260 bar)supercritical steam generator with reheat 4,360,000 lb/hr (1,980,000 kg per hr) steaming rate OT steam cycle treatment All ferrous feedwater system Condenser cooling water
– – –

Cooling towers Circulating water TDS of 13,000 mg/L Circulating water chloride concentration is 700 mg/L as Cl

Titanium Condenser

The three condensate polisher system designs and features considered for this application are listed as follows. Mixed Bed Polishers with On-site Regeneration: 5-13

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Full flow polishing system (6800 gpm (25,700 L/min) maximum condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity, rubber lined service vessels 3400 gpm (12,900 L /min)capacity per vessel 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 120-inch (3.0 m) diameter by 72-inch (1.8 m) side sheet 36-inch (0.91m) resin bed depth
3 3 152 cubic feet (4.2m ) of cation resin, 76 cubic feet (2.2 m ) of anion resin

3/16-inch (4.8 mm) thick rubber lining 30 psi (2.06 bar) pressure drop across newly regenerated vessels at 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min) per vessel Three vessel external regeneration system consisting of a cation regeneration tank, anion regeneration tank and resin storage tank. All vessels were rubber-lined. Two 1800 gpm (6,800 L/min)recycle pumps Acid and caustic dilution and feed system including pumps and water heater Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation Total of three resin charges provided

Mixed Bed Polishers with Off-site Regeneration: • • Full flow polishing system (6800 gpm (25,700 L/min) condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity, rubber lined service vessels, 3400 gpm (12,900 L/min) capacity per vessel – – – – – – • • • • 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 120-inch (3.0 m) diameter by 72-inch (1.8 m) side sheet 36-inch (0.91m) resin bed depth
3 3 152 cubic feet (4.2m ) of cation resin, 76 cubic feet (2.2 m ) of anion resin

3/16-inch (4.8 mm) thick rubber lining 30 psi (2.06 bar) pressure drop across newly regenerated vessels at 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min) per vessel

Two vessel resin storage tank system to contain 1,500 (42 m3) cubic feet of resin Two 1800 gpm (6,800 L/min)recycle pumps Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation

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Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

Precoat Filter/Demineralizer System: • • • • • • • • • • Full flow polishing system (6800 gpm (25,700 L/min) condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity service vessels 3400 gpm (12,900 L/min)capacity per vessel 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 72 inch (1.8 m) diameter vessels Two holding pumps Precoat/Resin tanks Precoat pump Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation

Retrofit Polisher for an Existing 600 MWe Unit with Drum Boiler A polisher retrofit to an existing unit with a drum boiler was also considered as part of the cost evaluation. There are many similarly sized units which have been in service for many years and are now requiring replacement and repair of major components to allow continued, reliable, operation of these units over their expected remaining useful service lives. These units may have been low cost, base loaded generating assets for many years and with some refurbishment, these units can often continue to be important revenue producers well into the future. Such units may have been operated on phosphate chemistry and there could be a desire to convert to the better cycle chemistry treatments such as AVT (O) and OT. Replacement of copper components within the cycle may also be needed as a part of a conversion to oxidizing treatment. Unit characteristics and features are listed below: • • • • 600 MW coal fired base loaded unit 2400 psi (165 bar) Drum-type boiler with reheat Condensate Flow Rate is 6,800 gpm (25,700 L/min) Conversion to OT treatment is envisioned following retrofit of condensate polishers. (Current/past operation with a lesser performing cycle chemistry may be used for justification of polisher addition and cycle chemistry conversion). The condensate pH is expected to be 9.2-9.6 if operated on AVT(O) and 9.0-9.4 if operated on OT. Condenser Cooling Water – – – • Cooling towers Circulating water TDS of 3000 mg/L Circulating water chloride concentration of <200 mg/L as Cl

Stainless Steel Condenser Tubes 5-15

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

The three condensate polishing system options considered are listed below. Mixed Bed Polisher with On-site Regeneration: • • • Full flow polishing system (6,800 gpm (25,700 L/min) maximum condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity, rubber lined service vessels 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min) capacity per vessel – – – – – – • • • • • • 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 120-inch (3.0 m)diameter by 72-inch (1.8 m) side sheet 36-inch (0.9 m) resin bed depth 152 cubic feet (4.3 m3) of cation resin, 76 (2.2 m3) cubic feet of anion resin 3/16-inch (4.8 mm) thick rubber lining 30 psi (2.06 bar) pressure drop across newly regenerated vessels at 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min) per vessel

Three vessel external regeneration system consisting of a cation regeneration tank, anion regeneration tank and resin storage tank. All vessels are rubber-lined. Two 1800 gpm (6,800 L/min) recycle pumps Acid and caustic dilution and feed system including pumps and water heater Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation Total of three resin charges provided

Mixed Bed Polisher with Off-site Regeneration: • • • Full flow polishing system (6,800 gpm (25,700 L/min) maximum condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity, rubber lined service vessel 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min) capacity per vessel – – – – – – • • 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 120-inch (3.0 m)diameter by 72-inch (1.8 m) side sheet 36-inch (0.9 m) resin bed depth 152 cubic feet (4.3 m3) of cation resin, 76 (2.2 m3) cubic feet of anion resin 3/16-inch (4.8 mm) thick rubber lining 30 psi (2.06 bar) pressure drop across newly regenerated vessels at 3,400 gpm (12,900 L/min)
3

Two vessel resin storage tank system to contain 1,500 cubic feet (42 m ) of resin Two 1800 gpm (6,800 L/min) recycle pumps

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material

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• • •

Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation Total of three resin charges provided

Powdered Resin: • • • • • • • • • • Full flow polishing system (6800 gpm (25,700 L/min) condensate flow) Two 50 percent capacity service vessels 3400 gpm (12,900 L/min)capacity per vessel 300 psig (21 bar) vessel design pressure 72 inch (1.8 m) diameter vessels Two holding pumps Precoat/Resin tanks Precoat pump Interconnecting piping and valves Controls and instrumentation

5.4.2 Capital Costs Capital costs were developed for each of the above described systems. The costs developed include equipment costs, installation costs and indirect costs for new systems installed in a new, 700 MWe, supercritical plant and the 600 MWe drum unit, retrofit plant. Because of similarities in the in flow rates for the two units the treatment requirements of the two cases are essentially the same. However, differences in expected operation (ammonium level present in the condensate to be treated) will have some impact on the designs and/or operating costs for the mixed bed systems. Capital costs provided in Tables 5-2 and 5-3 were developed based upon input from equipment costs from condensate polisher equipment suppliers. Costs for balance-ofplant equipment such as external piping, power supply equipment, control systems interconnection, and interconnection with other support facilities is included. These balance-ofplant costs can be significantly different for the new plant case as compared to the retrofit case. These costs can be very plant specific, depending upon plant layout and interfacing equipment design and operating margin. The costs reported below are considered to be median costs. Costs are also included for erection and construction indirect costs.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

Table 5-2 Capital Cost Comparison: New Polisher Cost Item Mixed Bed -Onsite Regeneration $1,680,000 $ 700,000 $ 480,000 $2,860,000 Mixed Bed -Offsite Regeneration $ $ $ 870,000 530,000 280,000 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer

Condensate Polishing System Equipment Equipment Installation and Support Facilities Indirect Costs Total Installed Cost

$1,220,000 $ 580,000 $ 360,000 $ 2,160,000

$ 1,680,000

Table 5-3 Capital Cost Comparison: Retrofit Polisher Cost Item Condensate Polishing System Equipment Equipment Installation and Support Facilities Indirect Costs Total Installed Cost Mixed Bed Onsite Regeneration $1,790,000 $ 850,000 $ 530,000 $3,170,000 Mixed Bed Offsite Regeneration $ 870,000 $ 640,000 $ 310,000 $1,820,000 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer $1,220,000 $ 700,000 $ 390,000 $2,310,000

As can be seen from the above developed costs, while equipment costs are similar for both evaluated situations, costs for installation and support facilities are expected to be more expensive due to the complexities of locating major equipment in an already existing facility and because of the loss of the economy of scale achieved for building activities during initial unit construction. As previously noted, retrofit activities are more uncertain and there is less consistency between units for retrofit work. Thus, caution should be used in determining what costs for retrofit applications of condensate polishing. Equipment costs are higher for the retrofit onsite regenerated mixed bed polisher to account for the necessity to add equipment to allow operation beyond ammonium break. Such equipment is not considered necessary for the new supercritical unit, but may be desirable for future operational flexibility.

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Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

5.4.3 Operating Costs Annual operating costs for each of the cases outlined above were developed and presented in Tables 5-4 and 5-5. Major costs for each of the systems include amortization of capital cost, chemicals for onsite regenerated system, contractor regeneration costs for offsite regenerated systems, resin precoat for powdered resin systems. Power consumption, maintenance, and operating labor are generally smaller factors. Because of the difference in capital and operating costs of the different systems, life cycle cost evaluations are required. These analyses were performed based upon typical investor owned utility economic models. Impacts of economic assumptions of utilities based upon utility structure are discussed further later. Many utilities have internally generated models which are used for evaluation of new projects and retrofits projects. Varying methods are used for justifying capital expenditures. Mixed Bed Systems with On-site Regeneration It was assumed that each mixed bed condensate polisher in service would need to be regenerated once every thirty days. Because of the relatively low level of ammonium in this supercritical cycle for the new unit situation, (pH 8.0-8.5) the polishers can be operated in the hydrogen cycle. For the retrofit situation, operation at a higher pH, initially 9.2 to 9.6 with AVT(O) chemistry and slightly lower following conversion to OT. is necessary and operation in the ammonium form is necessary. While this is the most economic means of operation, it requires a higher level of purity with respect to certain contaminants which could be present in the resins following regeneration. On-site resin regeneration costs were based on using ten pounds of 98% sulfuric acid per cubic foot of cation resin and ten pounds of caustic (on a 100% caustic basis) per cubic foot of anion resin. Sulfuric acid and caustic unit pricing is typical of current industry pricing. An allowance was made for the demineralized water consumed during regeneration. Mixed Bed Systems with Off-site Regeneration For offsite regenerated systems, again, mixed bed regeneration is expected to be required every thirty days. The new unit would still allow cost effective hydrogen cycle (H-OH) operation, because of the relatively low pH and ammonia levels of OT chemistry for supercritical units. However, the retrofit case would require operation beyond ammonium break because operation at a relatively high pH and ammonia level is used with drum units using AVT(O) and OT. AFO is more costly for offsite regeneration because higher levels of regeneration (and conversion from salt form) are required to allow satisfactory operation. This greater expense will show up as a difference in the off-site regeneration costs for the two types of units, even though both would need about the same amount of resin to be regenerated. Off-site resin regeneration costs were based on budgetary pricing obtained from resin regeneration contractors. It must be recognized that the higher level of purity requires a higher operating cost and a higher level of surveillance by the user.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

Powdered Resins used in Precoat Filter/Demineralizer Systems It is not feasible to regenerate powdered resins. Spent precoat material is disposed of and is replaced with fresh precoat material. It was assumed that the resin in the powdered resin polishers would have to be changed out once every seven days of operation. Estimated powdered resin pricing was based on typical industry pricing. Disposal costs of spent powdered resin were not included in the costs estimate. Such disposal cost could be significant in some circumstances. An allowance was made for the demineralized water consumed during removal of spent resin and loading of fresh resin.
Table 5-4 Comparative Annual Operating Costs: New Polisher Item Variable O&M Costs Regeneration Demineralized Water Cycle Chemical (NH3) Regeneration Chemicals Resin Replacement Electricity Subtotal Fixed O&M Costs Levelized Fixed Charges Operations and Maintenance Total Levelized Life Cycle Costs $348,000 $ 31,000 $443,000 $204,000 $ 16,000 $399,000 $263,000 $ 21,000 $446,000 $ 5,000 $ 1,000 $ 9,000 $16,000 $32,000 $63,000 $ 1,000 $ 1,000 $129,000 $ 16,000 $ 32,000 $179,000 $ 3,000 --$139,000 $ 20,000 $162,000 Mixed Bed -- Onsite Regeneration Mixed Bed –Offsite Regeneration Powdered Resin

Cycle chemical costs are for ammonia only; oxygen cost (OT) is equivalent for all units. As seen in the above table, the mixed bed system using offsite regeneration is the most cost effective means of polishing for the variables which were established for this analysis. This selection of variables is expected to be typical of new units. Operating costs for the retrofit case are developed below, and were similarly evaluated. Again, a major difference between the new unit and the retrofit unit is the assumption of a higher level of ammonium in the treated condensate, thus, operation beyond ammonium break will be assumed. This has impacts on regeneration costs; the greatest impact is for the off-site regenerated case.

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Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics Table 5-5 Comparative Operating Costs: Polisher Retrofit Item Mixed Bed -- Onsite Regeneration Mixed Bed --Offsite Regeneration Powdered Resin

Variable O&M Costs Regeneration Water Cycle Chemical (NH3) Regeneration Chemicals Resin Replacement Electricity Subtotal Fixed O&M Costs Levelized Fixed Charges Operations and Maintenance Total Levelized Life Cycle Costs $385,000 $ 31,000 $480,000 $221,000 $ 16,000 $454,000 $281,000 $ 21,000 $464,000 $ 5,000 $ 1,000 $ 9,000 $ $ 1,000 1,000 $ 3,000 --$139,000 $ 20,000 $162,000

$167,000 $ 16,000 $ 32,000 $217,000

$ 16,000 $ 32,000 $ 63,000

Again, for the evaluated situation, the offsite regeneration plan is the least costly to purchase and operate for the plant. However, the powdered resin system is also very close to the same evaluated price. One significant difference for the evaluated retrofit case is the need to operate beyond ammonium break for the offsite regenerated case. This need causes more stringent requirements on resin purity and therefore higher costs for regeneration services. Even though regeneration costs are significantly higher than either of the other options, the lower capital costs make this system most attractive overall. Again, it must be recognized that this evaluation is very sensitive to regeneration frequency. The evaluated regeneration frequency is believed appropriate for typical plants. 5.4.4 Rationale for Condensate Polisher Justification Approach The approach to justification of condensate polishing is to show that the installation of polishing will provide greater benefits to the plant, sufficient benefits to justify the cost of polishing. Development of the costs is a fairly straightforward engineering problem as was shown in the previous section. A system or multiple, comparative alternative systems, specifically designed and sized for the particular unit are developed. Equipment cost estimates are determined by contacting equipment suppliers. Estimates are developed for support equipment, space requirements, and installation. Such estimates are relatively simple for new unit situations, the design of the building and supporting equipment can be accomplished in the normal course of plant design.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

Retrofit situations require more care. Equipment cost development is similar, but cost determination for support equipment and space is complex. Identifying space in an existing plant may be troublesome. The condensate polishing systems can have pretty extensive space requirements and plants may not have adequate space in a convenient location. It may be necessary to locate space outside the building for the new equipment. Determination of whether the existing condensate pumps can continue to perform their function with the additional pressure loss which results from addition of condensate polishing. A detailed engineering analysis should be performed to assure that the additional head is available. If not, modification of the existing pumps may allow the development of the required pressure; otherwise booster pumps may be required. Sometimes the booster pumps can be added further downstream of the polishers to avoid the negative impact of the higher pressure upon the cost of the condensate polishing exchangers. Operating costs should be developed similarly to those which were developed for the example situations in the early section. Costs for regenerants, regeneration services or precoat resin are developed based upon operating expectations and whether hydrogen or ammonium form operation is selected. Maintenance and operating costs are estimated based upon experience with similar power plant equipment. Benefits and Value The savings associated with installing condensate polishers are difficult to absolutely justify. There is uncertainty in forecasting the improvement which will be achieved by initial use of condensate polisher versus new operation of a new unit without polishers. It is similarly difficult to quantify the savings which will result from retrofitting condensate polishers to existing units. The forecasted advantages (new unit) or improvements (retrofit case) must be based on expected operational benefits associated with properly designed and operated condensate polishers. For estimation of savings for new units, historical information from other units of similar type can be used. New units will have the operational cost benefit advantage (as compared to existing units which would have to retrofit condensate polishing) of a relatively long time to accrue operational benefits and also a relatively long time to amortize the cost of the condensate polishing system. Existing plant also have a relative advantage, they may have some history of events upon which to base anticipated savings. The extent of record keeping and identification of operational issues for existing plants is not consistent throughout the industry. Some plants will keep excellent records and will spend significant effort to identify root causes of operational problems, whereas other plants may merely repair any problems and continue to operate without identification of the cause or cost of the repair. Obviously, good records make the job of identifying and estimating savings which could be attributable to condensate polishing much easier. The major benefits and means for estimating such benefits are discussed below. The evaluation of benefits and the justification of capital projects will depend upon the economic conditions of the generating asset and the specific plant situation. Most organizations will have their own detailed financial models for determining the benefit of a capital expenditure. These models will already include the various economic factors associated with the particular generating entity and even particular to the station.

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The major benefits of condensate polishing are efficiency benefits, availability benefits, and operating cost benefits. While the amount of each benefit may vary depending upon specific plant situations, the sum of benefits will be substantial and will often justify condensate polishing over the life of the unit. Each situation is unique and deserves careful evaluation. Turbine Efficiency Benefits Minimization of turbine deposition and the economic benefits of such minimization is a major benefit of condensate polishing. Even very conservative benefits show significant contribution to the cost benefit balance for condensate polishing. Most plants will have very detailed information regarding the efficiency of the turbine and the benefit of maintaining high levels of turbine efficiency. A review of company history and procedures in this area should prove to be very useful. Long term data is the most beneficial, entire periods between turbine overhauls. Short term data can fluctuate significantly. Valuation of turbine efficiency improvement (actually a lack of loss of turbine efficiency) can provide a great portion of the savings necessary to show economic incentive for application of condensate polishing. Annual values for a 1% efficiency improvement are on the order of one-half million dollars per year. Actual efficiency losses of up to 4% per year have been seen in units, even units without copper materials present. Long term improvement data has been reported showing results in the neighborhood of 0.4% (7) based upon the installation of condensate polishing. Such an improvement when applied to typical efficiency savings will typically pay for much of the cost of condensate polishing. These benefits and the evaluation of these benefits are straightforward, once the complexities of evaluation mechanism are understood. Most generating entities will have established methods and computer models for such an evaluation. Use of Better Cycle Chemistries As previously discussed, better performing cycle chemistries require the implementation of condensate polishing. These chemistries in conjunction with condensate polishing provide reduced cycle problems because higher performing chemistries can be implemented. These chemistries allow fewer boiler tube failures, reduced corrosion produce transport and reduced chemical carryover. The benefits of using these chemistries are not evaluated individually, but are evaluated by establishing a numerical estimate of the value of the direct benefit which results from the chemistry implementation. For example, the use of OT instead of AVT allows significantly less iron transport. This results in fewer BTF and less frequent chemical cleaning. Thus, the benefits would be evaluated by availability savings resulting from fewer outages to repair BTF, lesser cost for BTF repair, less cost for chemical cleaning and increased availability from less frequent chemical cleaning. The benefits will generally be greatest for the availability increases as compare to repair or cleaning cost savings.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

Unit Availability Several benefits of condensate polishing result in significant benefits which can be evaluated as improvements in unit availability. These benefits include: • • • Faster unit startups Fewer chemistry outages or holds Fewer chemical cleanings

Evaluation of these benefits is straightforward once the benefit is quantified. However, as previously stated, quantifying the benefit requires estimation of the benefit that will need to be based upon industry experience or utility experience with other similar units. A few general guidelines are provided below for each category; individual utility experience can and should be applied where available. Unit Startups Availability savings as a result of startups and restarts can be a significant benefit for condensate polishing. Typically, between 12 and 24 hours can be saved with the use of polishing for every cold restart a unit experiences. Benefits for warm restart are about one half that of cold restarts. Restart savings can amount to several days per year of additional generation capacity, depending upon the frequency of such events. Chemistry Outages, Reductions, and Holds In addition to the damage which may be done to generating assets by chemistry upsets or chemistry related outages, availability losses can be substantial. Thus, substantial savings can be achieved by avoiding these losses. While condensate polishing cannot be expected to completely eliminate all of these problems, it can make a substantial reduction in the amount of generating time lost due to the problems, particularly those which relate to contaminant ingress. Generating losses caused by chemistry upsets can range from very high values (up to 3% of availability) to very low values (~0.1% of availability). Assuming that one half of these could be mitigated completely by condensate polishing is a reasonable assumption. Losses as a result of boiler tube failures may or may not be attributable to water chemistry issues. Some boiler tube failures result from fire side issues which would not helped by the addition of condensate polishing. All boiler tube failure mechanism and root causes should be properly (8,9) identified to determine if they are related to the cycle chemistry. Where appropriate, a portion of these losses could/should be considered to be saved by condensate polishing addition. Boiler Chemical Cleaning Frequency Chemical cleaning savings can provide a substantial benefit of both condensate polishing and of the high performance cycle chemistries as well. Chemical cleaning frequencies of ten years per cleaning can be supported with implementation of condensate polishing and OT to a drum unit. 5-24

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A typical frequency without these improvements would be twice as frequent. Outage durations of five days to a week are typical and avoided costs can be $100,000 to $200,000. Reduction in Boiler Blowdown The addition of condensate polisher reduces the need to remove contaminants from the system through the use of boiler blowdown. Typical drum unit boiler blowdown rates of about 1% of the steaming rate and can easily be reduced. This results in somewhat improved heat usage as well as reduced makeup requirements and thus reduced makeup costs. These are savings are valuable, but not as high a value as some of the benefits discussed earlier. It must be noted that there is both a heat savings by not having to heat the blowdown and a water savings from avoiding the amount of need to supply this volume of high quality makeup. Cumulative Benefits Table 5-6 is a summary of estimated benefits for the use of condensate polishing under the new and retrofit installations considered. Columns are provided for conservative, typical, and generous savings factors. These categories are intended to be self explanatory. Conservative means that the factors are believed to apply to most plants without condensate polishing are the savings are believed to be well justified. Typical means that the savings are believed to apply to the median plant and are justified for the average case. Substantial means that the savings realized could be more substantial in cases where high levels of chemistry related damage and loss of generating revenue are experienced. These plants could conceivably derive the most benefit from condensate polishing, but may need additional water chemistry improvements.

5-25

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics Table 5-6 Condensate Polisher Benefits Summary Savings Factor Turbine Efficiency Availability, Days --Chemical Outages --Startups --BTF Chemical Cleaning Frequency Improvement 0.4 0.5 0.5 12 years with polisher, 4 years without 0.25 2 1 1 12 years with polisher, 4 years without 0.5 11 6 10 12 years with polisher, 4 years without 1.5 Conservative 0.3% Typical 0.4% Substantial 1%

Boiler Blowdown, % of Steaming Rate (Drum Units Only) Levelized Annual Savings (New/Retrofit Systems) New Unit Savings, $1,000 Chemical Excursions Improved Availability Turbine Loss Prevention Chemical Cleaning (includes both chemical cleaning cost and availability loss) Total Savings (All New Polishing Systems)* Retrofit Unit Savings, $1,000 Chemical Excursions Improved Availability Turbine Loss Prevention Chemical Cleaning (includes both chemical cleaning cost and availability loss) Boiler Blowdown Reduction Total Savings (All Retrofit Polishing Systems)*

265 202 679 433 1,579

885 404 906 433 2,628

5,014 4,038 2,264 433 11,749

235 168 602 365 0 1,370

784 336 802 365 37 2,324

4,442 3,358 2,005 365 184 9,625

* Assuming equal performance, all polishing systems have equal benefits.

When benefits are compared to costs it is seen that benefits significantly overcome costs of installing and operating condensate polishing systems. Total costs and benefits of the new and retrofit systems are summarized in Tables 5-7 and 5-8; benefits outweigh costs of all system designs considered.

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Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics Table 5-7 Net Costs and Benefits Summary for New Condensate Polisher Units New Polisher Units Total Installed Cost Levelized Annual Costs Levelized Annual Benefits (Conservative Case) Total Net Annual Levelized Benefits Mixed Bed, On-site Regeneration $2,860,000 $ 443,000 $1,579,000 $1,136,000 Mixed Bed, Off-site Regeneration $1,680,000 $ 399,000 $1,579,000 $1,180,000 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer $2,160,000 $ 446,000 $1,579,000 $1,133,000

Table 5-8 Net Costs and Benefits Summary for Retrofit Condensate Polisher Units Retrofit Polisher Units Total Installed Cost Levelized Annual Costs Levelized Annual Benefits (Conservative Case) Total Net Annual Levelized Benefits Mixed Bed, On-site Regeneration $3,170,000 $ 480,000 $1,370,000 $ 890,000 Mixed Bed, Off-site Regeneration $1,820,000 $ 454,000 $1,370,000 $ 916,000 Precoat Filter/Demineralizer $2,310,000 $ 464,000 $1,370,000 $ 906,000

5.4.5 Sensitivity Analyses Of necessity, several assumptions are made for the above calculations. Variation in these assumed values will result in changes of the relative economics of condensate polishing. As previously stated there is uncertainty in some of the parameters used in these economic models. When parameters are uncertain, it is useful to evaluate the outcomes sensitivity by varying the important parameters. Several of the key economic parameters were varied in order to determine the sensitivity of the parameters. When looking for variable to consider, obvious choices are the variables which create the greater impacts on the overall cost-benefit balance. Inspection of Capital Cost Tables 5-2 and 5-3, show equipment cost as a major contributor to total installed cost. Comparative operating costs given in Tables 5-4 and 5-5 show the major contributors to the levelized fixed charges for all designs. This and other important economic parameters are a function of the economic models used by utilities to recover costs of capital installations. As previously stated, there is variability in these parameters. Regeneration chemicals for the offsite regeneration plan results from the cost of offsite regeneration services and is a major contributor to the costs for offsite regeneration systems. Resin replacement is a major contributor for 5-27

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

powdered resin systems and results from the cost of replacement precoat for those types of condensate polishing systems. These costs are the product of the precoating frequency and the cost of the precoat material used. Thus, variation of this parameter would cover uncertainty in either or these variables. Inspection of Table 5-6 shows that prevention of turbine efficiency loss is a major contributor. Analysis at three different levels within that table already shows that this variable is a major contributor to the benefit of condensate polishing. Equipment Cost The mixed bed offsite regeneration system case for a new unit was selected to show the variability in the overall benefit of installing condensate polishing. Costs were varied up to up to 20 % from the selected value to see what the effect upon total savings with this system. Results are shown in Figure 5-3. The conservative benefits case was used for comparison. As seen in Figure 5-3, errors in equipment cost, considering that the overall benefit is on the order of a million dollars per year, do not have a great deal of impact of the overall benefits.
50

Change in Net Plant Levelized Annual Benefit (1000$)

40

30

20

10

Base Case = +0%
0

-10

-20

-30

-40

-50 -25%

-20%

-15%

-10%

-5%

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

25%

Error In Total Installed Cost (%)

Figure 5-3 Sensitivity to Equipment Cost

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Off-site Regeneration Costs Similarly, offsite regeneration costs were seen to be an important factor in the cost for offsite regenerated systems. Again, the new unit model for offsite regeneration of a condensate polishing system was used; findings are shown in Figure 5-4. This figure indicates that differential benefits are relatively sensitive to off-site regeneration costs. While total benefits remain very positive (again on the order a one million dollars) the total change does exceed the differential between the selection of offsite regeneration and the other choices. In other words if the cost of regeneration services increases too much, it would have been better to have selected one of the other options. Powdered resin systems also have a high operating cost component (precoat cost and precoat frequency), and variation of this parameter would behave similarly.
40

30

Levelized Annual Benefit Differential (1000$)

20

10

0

-10

Base Case = $20.00 /ft3

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Offsite Regeneration Costs ($/ft3)

Figure 5-4 Sensitivity to Off-site Regeneration Costs

Economic Factors Key economic factors play an important role in justification of installation of condensate polishing. Major factors include the levelized fixed charge rate and the present worth discount rate. Base rates used in this evaluation are 12 % for the levelized fixed charge rate and 8.5% for the present worth discount rate. These are believed to be consistent with rates used by investor owned utilities. Cooperatives and municipal utilities, because of differences in financing, can 5-29

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

use somewhat lesser rates because of their differences in financial structure. Because of the impact these factors could have upon the appropriate selection of condensate polishing systems, the sensitivity of these economic parameters was investigated. Cooperatives and municipals can have fixed charge rates as low as 7% and present worth discount rates as low as 6%. The impact of varying these parameters was determined. Net levelized benefits for each selection of condensate polishing systems were evaluated in a range of economic parameters. The economic parameter combinations are shown in Table 5-9. Each combination was given a Condition Number, and the corresponding net levelized annual savings are shown in Figure 5-5. The above figure shows that for investor owned economics, savings for all plans are the lowest because of the higher charges for the capital improvement required to achieve the operating savings. The lowest capital cost plans, the offsite regeneration plan has the greatest savings for those economic conditions. However, the graph also shows that as economics become more favorable to capital investment, i.e. the cooperative or municipal utility conditions, the mixed bed system with on-site regeneration system becomes more favorable. This result shows that the lower operating costs overcome the higher capital costs for the life cycle conditions evaluated. It must also be noted that each of these systems shows savings greatly in excess of the fixed charges for the equipment, i.e. the savings greatly outweighs the costs for each of the economic situations evaluated. Each of the above sensitivity analyses were performed for new unit conditions. The results would be the same in a relative sense for retrofit situations. The important differences for retrofit units are the generally higher installation costs and a shorter operating life in which to generate savings. Thus, retrofit units would be somewhat more sensitive to the economic parameters and to installation costs, both because of the shorter payoff period.
Table 5-9 Present Worth Discount Rates and Levelized Fixed Charge Rates Condition Number 1 2 3 4 5 Present Worth Discount Rate, % 12.0 10.75 9.5 8.25 7.0 Levelized Fixed Charge Rate, % 8.5 8.0 7.5 6.5 6.0

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Net Levelized Annual Savings Versus Economic Parameters Net Levelized Annual Savings, $1,000's Offsite Regeneration Onsite Regeneration Powdered Resin

1350

1300

1250

1200

1150

1100 1 2 3 Economic Factor Condition 4 5

Figure 5-5 Net Levelized Savings for Five Assumed Economic Conditions Defined in Table 5-9

5.4.6 Conclusions Each of the methods of condensate polishing evaluated herein has advantages and disadvantages. Each has a great potential to provide operating savings following investment in the equipment and operation to provide the higher quality condensate that allows great savings in terms of efficiency and availability. These savings easily justify the installation of polishing in most situations.

5.5 References
1. R. Devalois, T. Gilchrist and K. Price, “Justification of the Retrofit of a Condensate Polishing System at Tri-State G&T’s Craig Station”, EPRI Condensate Polishing Workshop: Deep Bed and Powdered Resin Systems, New Orleans, LA., September 15-17, 1993. Guidelines for Off-site Regeneration of Condensate Polishing Resins, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1001502. Condensate Polishing Guidelines: Ammonium Form Operation, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001, 1004322. Condensate Polishing Training Manual, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2004. 1004933. 5-31

2. 3. 4.

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Condensate Polisher Justification and Economics

5. 6.

Condensate Polishing Guidelines, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1996. TR-104422. B. A. Larkin et al., “Developing the EPRI Condensate Polisher Guidelines”, Proceedings of the 55th International Water Conference, Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, PA, 1994. Tom Gilchrist, “The Cost Benefits for the Retrofit of a Powdered Resin Condensate Polisher on Craig Station Units 1-2”,16th Annual Electric Utility Chemistry Workshop, Champaign, IL, March 19 -21, 1996. Boiler Tube Failures: Theory and Practice, Volume 2: Water-Touched Tubes, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TR-105261-V2. Boiler Tube Failures: Theory and Practice, Volume 3: Steam-Touched Tubes, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: TR-105261-V3.

7.

8. 9.

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Boiler and Turbine Steam and Cycle Chemistry
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