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Why only negative 24 vdc supply give in vibration measuring
The principle is that analyzer supplies a negative voltage to transducer,who converts it into a frequency & sends it across the probe.Now as the probe comes into the area of rotor it creates a magnetic field & with it eddy current is produced on the rotor side.Which changes the amplitude of the frequency.It induces the voltage & remaining frequency comes to the transducer through the return way.Transducer converts it into the voltage . Now coming back to the question The gap voltage has a negative relation with the voltage induced i.e. as the gap increases the induced voltage decreases.So to make it to into a linear relation ship, negative voltage is supplied. i.e Gap Gap voltage 0 mm 0 vtg 1 mm -9 voltage 2 mm 18 voltage & when the probe is in air it will have no induced voltage so all -24 voltage without induced voltage will return back
an Extension Cable and an Oscillator /Demodulator. The gauge of the selected wire depends on the length of the instrument wire run. Common Point Grounding internal/external. This means that all determine the success of your commons. Conduit Dedicated conduit should be . including internal.Eddy Current (Proximity Probe) Transducer Installation Part-1 Radial Vibration Eddy Current Transducers (Proximity Probes) are the vibration transducer of choice when installing vibration monitoring on Journal Bearing equipped rotating machinery. In this case. the Transducers. In most cases. sent through Occasionally due to installation methods instrument wire shields are connected to ground at the machine case and not at the monitor. Eddy Current Transducers are the only transducers that provide Shaft Relative (shaft relative to the bearing) vibration measurement. Theory of Operation Eddy Current Transducers work on the proximity theory of operation. ground and instrument wire Before selecting the appropriate shield must be connected to ground at method of mounting Eddy Current one location only. creating system noise. special consideration needs to be given to several important recommendation is to connect commons. and external To prevent Ground Loops from mounting. system common. be floated or not connected at the machine. A high frequency RF signal @2 mHZ is generated by the Oscillator/Demodulator. and should be as follows to prevent loss of high frequency signal: Up to 200 feet 22 AWG Up to 1000 feet 20 AWG Up to 4000 feet 18 AWG The following wiring connection convention should be followed: Red -24 VDC Black Common Several methods are usually available White Signal for the installation of Eddy Current Transducers. grounds and shields must monitoring program. A Eddy Current System consists of a matched component system: a Probe. grounds and shields at the installation considerations that will Monitor location. all of the instrument wire shields must be floated or not connected at the monitor.
060" or 60 mils. For the Model CMSS65 and 68 gap On larger more critical machines. .Eddy Current Probes must be gapped properly. Calibration All Eddy Current Systems (Probe. Therefore.05 (1) Eddy Current Transducer system VDC for each 5 mils of gap change while the target is within the Systems per bearing may be adequate for linear range. The voltage method of gapping the installation should be mounted 900 Probe is recommended over apart from each other. This can be done by using a SKF-CM CMSS601 Static Special Considerations Calibrator. final Probe gap voltage should be their respective planes. a Eddy Current Transducer can be used for both Radial Vibration and distance measurements such as Thrust Position and Shaft Position. The CMSS601 Calibrator will produce a On smaller less critical machines. Gap When installed. the Eddy Current Probe should be mounted in the plane where the greatest vibration is expected. shaft motion either then rotated away from the Probe in directly away from or towards the 0. provided in all installations for both mechanical and noise protection. The motion in their mounted plane.the extension cable and radiated from the Probe tip. The Oscillator /Demodulator demodulates the signal and provides a modulated DC Voltage where the DC portion is directly proportional to gap (distance) and the AC portion is directly proportional to vibration. In micrometer with target attached is other words. graphed at each increment. two should be set for -12. one voltage change of 1. gapping the transducer to the center of the linear range is adequate. and rigid bonded metal conduit from the junction box to the monitor. In this way. Cable and Oscillator Demodulator) should be calibrated prior to being installed. The mounted Eddy Current Probe will be voltage reading is recorded and measured as radial vibration.005" or 5 mil increments. this corresponds to an approximate are normally recommended per bearing. Eddy currents are generated in the surface of the shaft. Since the Probes will measure the vibration in mechanical gapping. In most Radial Vibration applications. The Probes for this type of mechanical gap of 0. the shaft's total vibration within the journal The single Eddy Current Probe will then measure the shaft's vibration in that given plane. -24 VDC Power Supply and a Digital Volt Meter. The Probe Number of Transducers is installed in the tester with the All vibration transducers measure target set against the Probe tip. machine protection.0 VDC +-0.0 VDC using a (2) Eddy Current Transducer systems Digital Volt Meter (DVM). Flexible metal conduit should be used from the Eddy Probe to the Oscillator /Demodulator junction box. In all cases.
mils mV/mil to 5" Length Target Material/Target Area For added safety and reliability. documented and kept in a safe place.090") is more than adequate Provisions must be made for the for Radial Vibration measurements.. than 4000 series steels must be • True bearing relative specified at the time of order. As Advantages of Internal Mounting Eddy Currents are sensitive to the permeability and resistivity of the • Most economical installation. of exotic shaft material a sample may • Usually good viewing surface need to be supplied to the factory. This can be accomplished Model Range Output Size by using an existing plug or fitting. for Eddy Probe. In most cases. or otherwise prevented from working loose inside the machine. Internal Mounting Internal Mounting is accomplished with the Eddy Current Probes mounted internally to the machine or bearing Linear Range housing with a SKF-CM CMSS903 Several versions of Eddy Current Bracket or with a custom designed Transducers are available with a and manufactured bracket. SKF-CM's and gapped properly prior to the CMSS68 with a linear range of 90 bearing cover being reinstalled. An "Orbit" or cartesian product of the two vibration signals may be viewed when both Eddy Current Transducers are connected to an SKF-CM Information System or an Oscilloscope. shaft material any shaft material other • Less machining required. or 200 1/4"x28 UNF by drilling and tapping a hole above CMSS65 90 mils mV/mil 1" to 5" Length the oil line. Target Material Eddy Current Transducers are calibrated at the factory for 4140 Steel unless specified otherwise.. The variety of Linear Ranges and body Transducer system must be installed styles. A smooth (64 . all fasteners inside the bearing housing should be safety wired. In cases measurement. The Transducer's cables 200 3/8"x24 UNF must also be tied down within the CMSS68 90 mils mV/mil 1" to 9" Length bearing housing to prevent cable 240 50 1" x 12 UNF 1" CMSS62 failure from "windage". Mechanical Runout Disadvantages of Internal Mounting Eddy Current Transducers are also sensitive to the shaft smoothness for • No access to Probe while Radial Vibration. mils (0.bearing is measured. transducer's cable exiting the bearing housing.
Probe tip to be internal to the machine or bearing housing. accomplished when the Eddy Probes are mounted with a Mounting Another form of electrical runout can Adapter (SKF-CM CMSS911 or be caused by small magnetic fields 904). . These adopters allow external such as those left by Magna-fluxing access to the Probe yet allows the without proper degaussing. usually penetrating at a As most machine casings are oil return groove. Care Perpendicular to shaft centerline must be taken in drilling and tapping Care must be exercised in all the bearing housing or cover to insure installations to insure that the Eddy that the Eddy Probes will be Current probes are mounted perpendicular to the shaft center line. care External/Internal Mounting must be taken to avoid non homogeneous viewing area materials External/Internal mounting is such as Chrome. Eddy Probe replacement while machine is running. Cables must be tied down due to "windage". Gap may be changed while machine is running. mounting is accomplished by drilling or making use of existing holes in the Orientation of Transducer(s) bearing itself. In all cases orientation should be well • • • machine is running. horizontally split.015"). Mounting If possible transducer orientation should be consistent along the length of the machine train for easier machine diagnostics.micro-inch) area approximately 3 times the diameter of the Probe must be provided for a viewing area. Usually good viewing area for Eddy Probe. transducers are commonly found mounted at 450 Advantages of External/Internal both sides of vertical 900 apart. Care must be taken to avoid oil leakage. Deviation by more than 1-2 degrees In some cases due to space will effect the output sensitivity of the limitations External/Internal system. • Electrical Runout Since Eddy Current Transducers are • sensitive to the permeability and resistivity of the target material and • the field of the transducer extends into the surface area of the shaft by approximately 15 mils (0. Transducer cable exits must be provided. The prepared journal area on most shafts are wider than the bearing itself allowing for Probe installation immediately adjacent to the bearing. perpendicular to the shaft center-line.
External Mounting Pure external Eddy Probe mounting is usually a last resort installation. Internal External/Internal External 2. the hole must be counter bored to prevent side clearance interference. More machining required. As an example. and several system lengths are available. Model CMSS65 and 68 probe should never be installed with less than one (1) inch of Probe tip to tip clearance. Length is measured from the Probe tip to the Disadvantages of External/Internal Mounting • • • May not be true bearing relative measurement. Size of Target Area . Target Material. Failure to follow this rule will allow the Oscillator/Demodulator to create a "beat" frequency which will be the sum and difference of the two Oscillator/Demodulator RF frequencies. Eddy Current Probe tip to tip clearances Although Probe tip to tip clearances are not normally an issue on most machines. Disadvantages of External Mounting • • May be subject to "Glitch" or Electrical/Mechanical runout. Installation Checklist 1. X or X&Y 3. Long Probe/Stinger length (Resonance). Smooth Target Area 5. Special care must be given to the Eddy Probe viewing area and mechanical protection of the transducer and cable. Number of Transducers. Advantages of External Mounting • Most Inexpensive Installation. Larger Probes require more clearance. System Cable Length and Junction Boxes Eddy Current Transducer Systems are a "tuned" length. 4140 Other 4. Clearance must be provided on all sides of the Probe tip to prevent interference with the RF Field. Mounting Type.documented. As an example. if a bearing is drilled to permit installation. Transducer (Probe) side clearances The RF Field emitted from the Probe tip of a Eddy Current Transducer in approximately a 450 coned shape. Care must also be taken to avoid collars or shoulders on the shaft that may thermally "grow" under the Probe tip as the shaft grows from heat. Requires mechanical protection. it should be noted that Eddy Current Probes radiate an RF Field larger than the Probe tip itself. The only valid reason for using this method is inadequate space available within the bearing housing for internal mounting.
Oscillator/Demodulator. noise must be kept to an absolute minimum. Instrument Wire A 3-wire twisted shielded instrument wire (ie. 6. Splices should be avoided. Where possible. and special care needs to be taken to prevent unnecessary amounts of noise. Belden #8770) is used to connect each Oscillator/Demodulator to the Signal Conditioner in the Monitor. and many machines running speed is also 60 HZ. For example. the Model CMSS65 and 68 are available in 5 and 10 meter system lengths. Therefore. As most plant electrical noise is 60 HZ. Gap Set . Junction Box Location(s) 7. Metal Conduit (Junction Box to Monitor) 8. Calibration 12. Care must be taken to insure that the proper system length is ordered to reach the required Junction Box. Shielding Convention. and is measured electrically which can slightly vary the physical length. Grounding and Noise Electrical noise is a very serious consideration when installing any vibration transducer. a single run of wire from the Oscillator/Demodulator (Junction Box) to the Monitor location should be used. Correct Instrument Wire 10. it is difficult to separate noise from actual vibration signal. Flexible Conduit (Junction Box to Probe) 9. Monitor or Machine 11.
Control systems may be implemented using a variety of methods and philosophies. Under normal conditions. the primary objective of any surge-control system should be to predict and prevent the occurrence of surge so as to reduce possible damage to the compressor and ensure a safe working environment for all station personnel. gas When a compressor reaches its surge condition. operators will choose to verify . TX | September 2009 Vol. San Antonio. Compressor surge is sometimes viewed as a common occurrence but design of a proper surge control system should be regarded as both a necessary design practice and an effective risk-mitigation measure. Protection of the compressor through the surge-control system will help to avoid considerably more costly repairs or overhauls due to damaging surge conditions. Surge is most accurately described as a system phenomenon . However. 236 No. Compressor valves Compressors. 9 Figure 3: Recycle Valve Tested During ESD Event At SwRI MRF. Southwest Research Institute. the compressor operates to the right of the surge line.Compressor Surge Control: Design And Modeling For Performance Verification By Marybeth Nored. The surge-control system is an important element in the compressor system because it protects the compressor from surge over the range of compressor operations. Klaus Brun and Jeff Moore. Augusto Garcia-Hernandez. Buyer's Guide Compressor station pkgs.not a localized instability. it loses the ability to maintain peak head and the entire system becomes unstable. In order to ensure the system is designed properly for its various and often competing requirements.
which allow the performance of the surge-control system to be evaluated. The function of the surge-control system is to detect the approach to surge and provide more flow to the compressor through opening the recycle valve to avoid the potentially damaging flow reversal period and surge cycling. the compressor rundown behavior is plotted over a head vs. The compressor flow begins to drop from 900 cfm to 500 cfm. The actual choice of design philosophy rests with the operating company and compressor manufacturer . the compressor may not be fully protected by the existing surgecontrol system. This signal to the valve is based on the compressor operation. The surge-control system should be designed for the three surge environments (which may have competing demands) and the compressor operating parameters as well as manufacturer specifications. to move the compressor away from its surge point. Restriction of the operating window of the compressor in order to avoid surge because of mistakes in the surge control system design should be avoided. A properly designed surge-control system can allow the operational range of the compressor to be extended based on the response of the surge-control system. Common surge-system design philosophies may include: 1. The recycle valve should be opened in a specified time to a valve set point determined by the control system. the recycle valve opens and the flow through the compressor increases. The majority of surge-control techniques restrict the operation of the compressor to flow rates above a defined surge-control line based on the surge margin for a particular compressor. the control system should actively measure the compressor head and flow through the compressor system controls and determine the resulting operating point.and may be based on experience with a particular compressor or station. A surge-control system should be capable of monitoring the operation of the compressor continuously. Shortly before reaching the measured surge line. to effectively avoid reducing the flow further to the left of the surge line. . its proximity and its movement (rate) relevant to the surge-control line. The allowable discharge piping volume should be determined by simple or more complex transient models of the compressor system. The principle of a centrifugal compressor surge-control system is based on ensuring that the flow through the compressor is not reduced below a minimum flow limit at a specific head. 2.component selection. At a minimum. In Figure 1. Various design philosophies are also provided through the use of surge-control system design criteria. flow map. Design To Permit Surge Under Specified Conditions: The design philosophy acknowledges that due to operational changes to the compressor station or costbased decisions. response time and behavior through a dynamic compressor surge model. Design To Avoid Surge: The philosophy requires control system design criterion based on a calculated allowable discharge system volume. Opening of the recycle valve in the surge-control system effectively avoids surge by providing more flow and reducing compressor head.
This operation requires distinctly different functionality from the surge-control system. lower gain signals should be used for adjusting the flow by opening or closing the valve in a controlled manner. the start-up period will be lengthened and cooling of the recycle gas may need to be considered. This requires precision control of the valve motion. Normal Process Control: The operation of the surge-control system under normal process operation is distinctly different. With the recycle valve fully open and the downstream check valve closed. The control signal and response of the recycle valve for normal process control will differ from the shutdown environment. In a typical start-up mode. The design of the surge-control system is more difficult than other station-control systems because of the high speed of disturbances and dynamic nature of surge. Operating in continuous recycle will cause the process gas temperature to increase until new gas can be supplied from upstream. Delayed shutdown or slowly decreasing speed is not possible as ESDs are intended to provide immediate shutdown of the unit due to safety considerations. A steeper line indicates that the compressor is more sensitive to flow-rate changes or uncertainties near the surge line. This operating point should govern . all compression horsepower will serve as heat input to the recycled gas. Start-up Environment: The challenge to the surge-control system in the start-up environment is to quickly bring the compressor up to design speed without overheating the discharge gas. the surge-control system must provide for smooth operation of the compressor. depending on whether the compressor is starting up. The worst-case emergency shutdown occurs when the compressor is operating at maximum head at the lowest allowable surge margin.3. with a gradual increase in flow through the recycle valve. In addition. Additional evaluation of the system may need to be performed. or undergoing a sudden shutdown. For steam turbine or single-shaft gas turbines. In either case. a variety of control system responses is required. The surge-control system must function quickly to open the recycle valve fully because the coastdown path is not being controlled by the station operator . The emergency shutdown requires more demanding control-system response and may alter the surge-control system design because a single valve may not provide sufficient flow quickly enough. During normal process control operation.only by the deceleration of the compressor based on the power train inertia and any residual power in the system. Design Based On Risk Evaluation: The surge-control system is evaluated against a set of risk factors developed for a particular compressor and dynamic simulation is not necessarily required because of previous modeling efforts or experience. which is typically gradual during normal process control. gas is continually recycled to bring the compressor online. Emergency Shutdown (ESD): In an ESD event. The challenge for the surge-control system in process control is to match the transition into surge (across the surge margin). operating in its normal operation at a low flow period. the compressor is suddenly shut down and driver power is removed. The surge-control system should not limit the operational range of the compressor. A relatively flat surge line equates to higher surge sensitivity to changes in compressor head.
the key criteria is to match the valve characteristic to the compressor performance map to ensure that the compressor can come up to full speed as the recycle valve is closed. . Valve actuation system requirements primarily stem from the process control environment . One of the most critical components in the surge system design is the recycle valve type and design (especially in high horsepower compressor installations. > 100 MMscf/d). Test 7 on the performance map in Figure 2 corresponds to the normal operation of this valve. amplitude step response in both directions (opening and closing) is recommended for valves configured with custom pneumatic systems or particularly large recycle valves (>12 inch diameter). depending on the machine. In addition. Note these lines are actual test results from the Southwest Research Institute closed-loop test facility on a Solar C-160 compressor. This deceleration period can take as long as five seconds. Recommended maximum noise level for the recycle valve is 85 dBA or less during normal operations at 1 m distance. the recycle valve must begin to open within the first second after the downstream check valve is closed. High turbulence levels through a recycle valve have been shown to cause low-frequency turbulent excitation which can excite the recycle loop piping and structural support system. Noise requirements for the valve during partial or full recycle may be different than those during a compressor emergency shutdown event. Testing of the recycle valve for frequency response. To maintain flow through the compressor. the valve opening time is critical.as the maximum possible differential which must be overcome by the recycle valve flow. Response time or stroking time of the valve should not be used as the only criterion in selection of the recycle valve because this will impair the controllability of the valve and robustness of the design. Anti-Surge Valve Design Complicated actuation systems on large recycle valves will introduce new dynamics into the valve actuation system that may cause a departure from linearity in the response. The key requirements for the recycle valve in an ESD are response time and flow-rate capacity for the given discharge system volume. for various valve capacities and delays in opening time. noise attenuation characteristics and the turbulence through the valve can become major design issues for a station. Examples of the dramatic effects on the compressor rundown path are shown in Figure 2. needed for the process control environment. In the startup environment. It is necessary to specify the speed for which the valve is allowed to change position and the amount of overshoot permitted. The key parameter to the recycle valve in the process control environment is precise control of the valve position.the design of the surge control system .not the shutdown environment. the compressor deceleration will reduce the speed by approximately 30% and the head by 50 %. For an emergency shutdown. The 6-inch diameter recycle valve for the facility is shown in Figure 3. Typically for the first one-second period after shutdown.
the modeling effort would suggest that the surge-control system or downstream piping volume should be redesigned. Several basic empirical rules are sometimes used to determine if the surge-control system adequately protects the . This approach to surge-control system design is not often the most costeffective solution. If the transient model predicts the compressor operation to narrowly avoid the actual surge condition. Once the system-design criteria have been established. Surge Control System Modeling A surge model can be used to effectively design the surge-control system based on the particular compressor system. the use of multiple valves for each surge-control function will require additional testing to ensure that the transition into and out of each operation is smooth.The competing requirements for the recycle valve make use of multiple valve systems appealing. A more complex dynamic model may also be needed to model more complicated systems with multiple recycle loops or more than one compressor unit. The modeling process and interpretation of results should consider the high uncertainty associated with any numerical transient model and the assumptions governing the compressor surge model. process control and shutdown environment is recommended. A basic fixed volume model can be implemented to determine surge-control system dynamic response in the shutdown environment . the high uncertainty of the model results should indicate that surge is possible. In addition. the surge model should be used to verify the design criteria have been met. The shutdown case will produce the most stringent requirements for limiting piping volume and maintaining fast recycle valve response.as shown in Figure 4. Modeling the surge-control system in the startup. In this case.
An example of the amount of detail and component specifications to these models is shown in the basic 1-D Stoner model layout for the SwRI closed loop natural gas facility in Figure 5. 1 This work was published recently at the ASME Turbo Expo by J. system energy and bleed volume. Results from the transient analysis should be used to evaluate the system piping design. The dynamic model can also be a valuable tool in the design of a new compressor system installation. The model will predict pressure and flow rate based on the mass accumulation in the system because these effects are transient processes. In addition. These are useful in the design of the compressor anti-surge control for all three working environments. transient (dynamic) models may be warranted. A basic fixed-volume model can be used in a spreadsheet-based application to determine a more accurate system-specific discharge volume. the authors determined the sensitivity of the modeling software to changes in valve geometry. placement of the downstream check valve and anti-surge valve. Dynamic models will predict intermediate process conditions when the flow through the compressor is changed. piping selection. and the valve selection. In performing the recent testing of the Solar C-160 compressor. Moore et al. These empirical rules are not necessarily physics-based and only apply to a limited number of compressors and types of systems. and compressor deceleration curves. The dynamic model is a purely transient study. The study should confirm the safe design of the surge-control system to . several non-dimensional parameters were developed to compare different compressor piping systems in terms of deceleration. If properly modeled. Dynamic models of the compressor surge system are distinctly different from a steady state model.compressor. For more sophisticated systems and complicated piping geometries. friction factor. the dynamic model should provide a resource for the operating company and manufacturer in protecting the compressor prior to the installation of the surge control system.
A transient simulation of the surge-control system can be used to save time and expense in changing the system after installation. Many references in industry are available to provide examples on the use of dynamic modeling to optimize or predict the behavior of a surge-control system.adequately protect the compressor from surge. The transient modeling process should be employed in the design stage of a compressor installation and adapted to suit the range of application needed. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank the Gas Machinery Research Council for the funding and support given to the compressor surge control research program .
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