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The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0
Ab bout ICS SG
The International Copper Study G T Group (ICSG) was formally established as an autonomo inter‐governmental organiza ous ation on 23 Jan nuary 1992, following a series of Ad Ho meetings spon oc nsored by the Un nited Nations (UNCTAD in 1986 and 1987 to review th world situatio of N D) he on copper and discuss the need for s such a body. ICS serves to incr SG rease copper market transparency and promote inter d rnational discuss sions and cooperation o issues related to copper. on d In order to fulfi its mandate, the Study Gro n ill oup has three main objectives: o • Increase ma arket transparen ncy by promoting an exchange of information o production, co on onsumption, stocks, trade, and p prices of copper, b forecasting pr by roduction and consumption, and by c assessing the present and future capacitie of copper m e es mines, plants, smelters and refinerie es. Promote inte ernational coope eration on matte related to cop ers pper, such as health and the environment, research, techno ology transfer, regu ulations and trad de. Provide a glo forum where industry and go obal e overnments can m meet and discuss common proble ems/objectives. The ICSG is the only T inter‐governm ment forum solely dedicated to copper. c The current member of ICSG are: rs Belgium Chile China European Union Finland France Germany y Greece India Italy Japan Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands Peru Poland Portugal ration Russian Feder Serbia Spain Sweden United States
As p of its manda to provide a global forum w part ate where industry an nd gove ernments can meet and discuss c common problem and objective ms es, ICSG meetings are h G held twice per ye typically in t Spring and Fa ear, the all at IC Headquarte in Lisbon, Portugal. The meet CSG ers tings of the Stud dy Group are open to g government mem mbers, their industry advisors an nd invit observers. ted
In nternational Cop pper Study Group p
The World Copper Factbook 2010
ICSG Officers and Secretariat
INTERNATIONAL COPPER STUDY GROUP OFFICERS FOR 2009 Chairman Vice-Chairman Vice-Chairman STANDING COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Finance Committee Chairman Mr Salim Bhabhrawala (U.S.A.) Mr Alejandro Alarcón Garza (Mexico) Mr Henrique Santos (Portugal) Mr Erik Heimlich (Chile) Mr Carlos Caxaria (Portugal) Mr Bian Gang (China) STATISTICAL COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman INDUSTRY ADVISORY PANEL Chairman SECRETARIAT Secretary General Chief Statistician Head of Environment and Economics Economist Secretary Mr Don Smale Ms Ana Rebelo Mr Carlos Risopatron Mr Joseph Pickard Ms Fatima Cascalho Mr Mark Loveitt (IWCC) Mr Daniel Edelstein (U.S.A.) Mr Juan Cristóbal Ciudad (Chile)
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COMMITTEE Chairman Vice-Chairman Ms Ajita Bajpai Pande (India) Ms Magdalena Kopijkowska-Gozuch (Poland)
Contacts: International Copper Study Group Rua Almirante Barroso, 38‐6º 1000‐013 Lisbon, Portugal Tel: +351‐21‐351‐3870 Fax: +351‐21‐352‐4035 e‐mail: email@example.com website: www.icsg.org
Acknowledgements and Copyright: ICSG would like to thank the International Copper Association, the Copper Development Association, the European Copper Institute, the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. National Park Service, the British Museum and Mr. Luis Hernán Herreros Infante for their contributions to the Factbook. The International Copper Study Group's World Copper Factbook © 2010 is published by the ICSG.
International Copper Study Group
The World Copper Factbook 2010
• COPPER BULLETIN (monthly). The ICSG Copper Bulletin includes annual and monthly statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription. ICSG 2010 STATISTICAL YEARBOOK (July 2010). The ICSG Copper Bulletin yearbook includes annual statistics on copper and copper products, their production, usage and trade by country, as well as stocks and exchange prices, providing a global view of supply and demand for the past 10 years. The Yearbook serves as a useful tool for consultations and analysis on the longer term evolution of world copper production, usage, stocks and prices. Subscribers to the Copper Bulletin receive the Yearbook as part of their annual subscription. ICSG GLOBAL COPPER SCRAP RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT (August 2010). Copper scrap generation, trade and use are playing a key role to balance the growth observed in recent years in the global copper market. If the demand for copper continues the dynamic growth related to electrification, infrastructure development and urbanization observed mainly in developing countries, and led by China in the last two decades, then the domestic supply, demand and international flows of copper scrap are expected to remain important issues for all copper related business in the medium and long term. This report presents a comprehensive picture of the global copper scrap market and its determinants, synthesizing the findings of ICSG research project on the copper and copper alloy scrap market. • DIRECTORY OF COPPER MINES AND PLANTS (September 2010 edition). The Directory of Copper Mines and Plants highlights current capacity and provides a five year outlook of forecasted capacity for over 1,000 existing and planned copper mines, plants and refineries on a country by country basis, including separate tables for SX‐EW plants. Salient details for each operation are included and the Directory separates operations between Operating & Developing and Exploration & Feasibility stages. The Directory is published twice per year. • DIRECTORY OF COPPER & COPPER ALLOY FABRICATORS (FIRST USE) 2010 EDITION. This directory provides a systematic global overview of companies and plants involved in the first use of copper. First users are mainly semis fabricators that process refinery shapes into semi‐finished copper and copper alloy products. The Directory covers wire rod plants, ingot makers (for castings), master alloy plants, brass mills, and electrodeposited copper foil mills. Published September 2010. ICSG STATISTICAL DATABASE. The ICSG maintains one of the world's most complete historical and current databases with statistics on copper production capacities, data on copper production, consumption, stocks, prices, recycling and trade for copper products. Historical data series and other data are available on custom request.
For more information about ICSG and ICSG publications, please visit our website at www.icsg.org
International Copper Study Group
The World Copper Factbook 2010
Table of Contents
About ICSG ICSG Officers and Secretariat ICSG Publications Table of Contents Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper Properties and Benefits Selected Copper Definitions Copper in History Copper Today Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Copper Mine Production: World Copper Mine Production, 1900‐2009 Copper Mine Production by Region: 1960, 1980 & 2009 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity, 2010 Constraints on Copper Supply Copper Smelter Production: World Copper Smelter Production 1976‐ 2009 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity, 1995‐2010 Copper Smelter Production by Region, 1990‐2009 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity, 2010 Refined Copper Production: World Refined Copper Production, 1960‐ 2009 Trends in Refined Copper Production Capacity, 1995‐2010 Refined Copper Production by Region, 1990‐2009 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity, 2010 Semis Production: Copper & Copper Alloy and Casting Production, 1980‐2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region, 1980 & 2008 i ii iii 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production by Country: Top 20 Countries, 2010 Chapter 3: Copper Trade Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and Concentrates Major International Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode Major International Trae Flows of Refined Copper Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi‐Fabricated Copper Products, 2009 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity "Copper" Copper Stocks, Prices and Usage Chapter 4: Copper Usage How is Copper Used? World Refined Copper Usage, 1900‐2009 Refined Copper Usage by Region, 1960, 1980 & 2009 World Refined Copper Usage per Capita: 1950‐2009 Intensity of Refined Copper Use Total Copper Usage, Including Copper Scrap, 2002‐2008 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Major Uses of Copper: Construction Major Uses of Copper: Transportation Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equiptment Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products Major Uses of Copper: Usage by End‐Use Sector and Region, 2009 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper Recycling Rate Definitions Global Copper Recyclables Use, 2002‐2008 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project The Flow of Copper ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage, 1960‐2009
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 53 53
International Copper Study Group
Copper and copper‐based alloys are used in a variety of applications that are necessary for a reasonable standard of living. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. Mining. As a nutrient and essential element. Its continued production and use is essential for society's development. As well. Copper will continue to contribute to society’s development well into the future. results in energy savings and contributes to ensuring that we have a sustainable source of metal for future generations. contribute to ensuring that materials are used efficiently and effectively. and supply and demand principles. recycling and the transformation of metal into a multitude of products creates jobs and generates wealth. chalcocite. Copper is an important contributor to the national economies of mature. animals and plants. Recycling copper extends the efficiency of use of the metal. International Copper Study Group 2 . and create trade and investment opportunities. The demand for copper will continue to be met by the discovery of new deposits. Recycled copper (also known as secondary copper) cannot be distinguished from primary copper (copper originating from ores).The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 1: Cu Basics What is Copper? Copper is a malleable and ductile metallic element that is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity as well as being corrosion resistant and antimicrobial. and by taking advantage of the renewable nature of copper through reuse and recycling. once reprocessed. bornite. is an important factor in ensuring society's sustainable development. These activities contribute to building and maintaining a country's infrastructure. How society exploits and uses its resources. Copper occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust in a variety of forms. efficient design. It is our ability to recycle metals over and over again that makes them a material of choice. technological improvements. while ensuring that tomorrow's needs are not compromised. processing. Life sustaining functions depend on copper. It can be found in sulfide deposits (as chalcopyrite. covellite). copper is vital to maintaining health. Organic life forms have evolved in an environment containing copper. in silicate deposits (as chrysycolla and dioptase) and as pure "native" copper. Copper also occurs naturally in humans. competition between materials. in carbonate deposits (as azurite and malachite). newly developed and developing countries.
in part. it can acquire new characteristics for use in highly specialized applications. Copper's chemical. Antimicrobial Properties. copper and copper alloy products can be used to eliminate pathogens and reduce the spread of diseases. Copper can improve the efficiency of energy production and distribution systems.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Key Physical Properties of Copper Copper Properties and Benefits Chemical Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Weight Density Melting point Specific Heat cp (at 293 K) Thermal conductivity Coefficient of linear expansion Young's Modulus of Elasticity Electrical Conductivity (% IACS) Crystal Structure Cu 29 63. Energy Efficiency. In fact.54 8960 kg m-3 1356 K 0. on copper. Copper is one of the most recycled of all metals.5 x 10-6 K-1 110 x 109 N m-2 1. Deficiencies. Virtually all products made from copper can be recycled and recycled copper loses none of its chemical or physical properties. society's infrastructure is based. physical and aesthetic properties make it a material of choice in a wide range of domestic.383 kJ kg-1 K-1 394 W m-1 K-1 16. for example. industrial and high technology applications. Alloyed with other metals. Copper makes vital contributions to sustaining and improving society. such as zinc (to form brass). or nickel. Due to copper’s antimicrobial properties. can be detrimental to health.673 x 10-8 ohm-m Face-Centered Cubic But copper’s benefits extend beyond mechanical characteristics: • • Copper is essential to the health of plants. • • International Copper Study Group 3 . as well as excesses. animal and humans. Recycling. aluminum or tin (to form bronzes).
Contained copper is defined as the analytical amount of copper outputted in concentrates and precipitates. It composes sulfide minerals and entrained material and contains one‐third each copper. and high‐purity copper is plated at the cathode.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Selected Copper Definitions • • Anode. Sources: ICSG and USGS. producers and governments. A method of separating one or more metals from a leach solution by treating with a solvent that will extract the required metal. An electrolytic refining process where less pure copper anode are dissolved. consumers. Items such as wire rod. A copper anode at 99 percent purity will dissolve. ICSG reports refined copper stocks as those held by the exchanges. Copper concentrate. Fire‐refined copper contains about 99 percent copper. The product of a fire‐refining furnace. or ICSG estimates an apparent usage using the following formula: Refined copper production + refined imports ‐ refined exports + refined beginning stocks ‐ ending stocks. or that has been converted to anode at the smelter level and then electrolytically refined. from which it is made. Copper usage represents refined copper used by semifabricators. Blister. Primary copper. The product of a converting furnace. • • • • • • • • • • • • Electrowinning. Usage data is either directly reported. the exact percentage depending on the process parameters. Fire‐refined copper. Electrorefining. leaving the others.99 percent pure. iron. both products requiring further processing to obtain copper metal. A product of flotation milling. An electrolytic refining process where the anode is inert. International Copper Study Group 4 . Usage. Copper extracted from ores and recovered as copper metal or copper‐bearing chemicals. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than matte. and sulfur. Only refined products at plant sites are included. Solvent extraction. Secondary refined material. and is usually transferred to another furnace for further concentration. The metal is recovered from the solvent by further treatment. Direct melt scrap. Direct melt. It is an intermediate. Stocks. tube and other semifabricated forms are not included. Contained Copper. more concentrated (with respect to the desired metal) material than blister. Cathode. Secondary refined material represents scrap that has been fire‐refined. Merchant stocks are included where it is certain that these are nonduplicative to those already reported. and rich (copper‐loaded) electrolyte continually replaces lean (copper‐depleted) electrolyte as copper is plated at the cathode. The positive terminal in an electrolytic cell where electrons leave a device to enter the external circuit. It can be processed pyrometallurgically in a smelter to produce matte or hydrometallurgically (pressure leaching) to produce pregnant leach solution. or Remelt scrap is secondary material that can be used directly in a furnace without cleanup through the use of fluxes and poling and re‐refining. Copper so plated is referred to as “cathode” and is generally about 99. The negative terminal in an electrolytic cell where copper is plated during electrowinning or electrolytic refining. from which it is made. It is an intermediate.
Israel's Tim Valley ed e mna provide copper to the Pharaohs (an Egyptian papyr records the use of copper to treat infection and to sterili water).The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0 Copper in History C Archa aeological eviden demonstrates that copper was one of the fir metals used by humans and was used at least 10. copper a bronze work flourished in China. i addition to go and silver. le to the Bronze Age. c. Du uring the prehistoric Chalcolith Period (der hic rived from chalkos the Greek wor for copper). f were familiar wi brass as a va ith alued copper all loy. Images courtesy o the British Museu the Copper Development Association and ICSG. copper con ntinues to serve society's needs. Farad and Ohm. rd m how to extract and use copper to produce ornam o ments and imple ements. Although copp has been in use for at per least 10 0. ed e rus o ns ize Cyprus supplied much of the Phoenic h cian. and ks nd The dis scoveries and in nventions relatin to electricity and magnetism of the late 18t and early 19 centuries by scientists ng m th 9th y such as Ampere. India an Japan. In South Am merica. Tod o day.000 years. As early as the 4th to 3rd m s millennium BC.500 BC. when alloye with tin. Greek and Roman needs f copper. workers extract copper from Spain's Huelva region. prod ed duces bronze. A Aztec and Inca civilizations exp ploited copper. the pre-Columbian Maya. of um. d literally Cyprian metal The Greeks of Aristotle's era w y l. D in old During the Mid ddle Ages. "Cop for pper" is derived from the latin Cyprium. and the products manufactured from copper. he s day a s elped launch the Industrial Re e evolution and pro opel copper into a new era. In nternational Cop pper Study Group p 5 . man discovered h s. 2. ted The dis scovery that copp per.000 nce rst d years ago for items suc as coins and ornaments in w ch western Asia. innovative applicat tions for copper are still being d developed as evi idenced by the d development of t copper the chip by the semi-conductors industry.
including 2.2 million tonnes.visnu. China was the largest producer of blister & anode in 2009 (over 3. New copper applications being developed include antimicrobial copper touch surfaces. Images courtesy of CDA and Luis Hernán Herreros from www.5 million tonnes. trade.4 million tonnes). China was also the largest consumer of refined copper in 2009 with apparent usage of over 7 million tonnes. lead‐free brass plumbing. please visit our website at www. and consumer and general products. and consumer and general products.4 million tonnes) Refinery Production in 2009 increased to nearly 18. heat exchangers. In the chapters that follow. According to the International Copper Association (ICA). and new consumer products as well. high tech copper wire. building construction.cl. The largest producer of mined copper was Chile (nearly 5. followed by industrial use. industrial machinery and equipment. usage and recycling. International Copper Study Group 6 . For the most up‐to‐date information on the global copper market. Copper Production Highlights Preliminary figures indicate that global copper mine production in 2009 reached over 15. usage of copper in end‐use products totaled over 22 million tonnes last year.7 million tonnes.4 million tonnes. power utility.org. Some of the highlights of 2009 copper production and usage are listed below.icsg. Copper Usage Highlights Refined copper usage (usage by semis plants or the first users of copper) in 2009 reached nearly 18. © Copyright Anglo American (Faena Los Bronces y Mantos Blancos – Chile).9 million tonnes of secondary refined production. ICA figures indicate that electrical power was the largest copper end‐ use sector last year.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Today The global demand for copper continues to grow: world refined usage has surged by around 300% in the last 50 years thanks to expanding sectors such as electrical and electronic products. transportation equipment. Smelter production in 2009 reached over 14. more in‐depth information is presented on copper production.
sometimes preceded by a roasting step. In the next step. Under the right geological. environmental and legal conditions.99% of copper. re‐melted and cast into anodes for electro‐refining. After the ore has been mined. copper is extracted from mainly low grade oxide ores and also some sulphide ores. secondary copper refined production reached around 16% of total copper refined production. economic. the blister copper is fire refined in the traditional process route. The output of electro‐refining is refined copper cathodes. Secondary producers use processes similar to those employed for primary production. it is crushed and ground followed by a concentration by flotation. Alternatively. In the following smelting process. The output is the same as through the electro‐refining route ‐ refined copper cathodes. underground mining and leaching.5% copper content. in the hydrometallurgical route. copper is transformed into a “matte” containing 50‐70% copper. increasingly.5‐99. or. However. as obtainable from a primary raw material source. The molten matte is processed in a converter resulting in a so‐called blister copper of 98. Refined copper production derived from mine production (either from metallurgical treatment of concentrates or SX‐EW) is referred to as “primary copper production”. Refined copper production attributable to recycled scrap feed is classified as “secondary copper production”. Primary copper production starts with the extraction of copper‐bearing ores. there is another important source of raw material which is scrap. ICSG estimates that in 2009. refined copper production from SX‐EW represented 18% of total copper refined production. at the refinery level. but grades can range from 20 to 40 per cent. Open‐pit mining is the predominant mining method in the world. There are three basic ways of copper mining: surface. International Copper Study Group 7 . mining can proceed. ICSG estimates that in 2009. assaying over 99.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 2: Copper Production How is Copper Produced? Geologists look for signs and/or anomalies that would indicate the presence of a mineral deposit. The obtained copper concentrates typically contain around 30% of copper. Copper scrap derives from either metals discarded in semis fabrication or finished product manufacturing processes (“new scrap”) or obsolete end‐of‐life products (“old scrap”). through leaching (solvent extraction) and electrowinning (SX‐EW process).
000 0 0 19 0 0 19 4 0 19 8 1 19 2 1 19 6 2 19 0 2 19 4 2 19 8 3 19 2 3 19 6 4 19 0 4 19 4 4 19 8 5 19 2 5 19 6 6 19 0 6 19 4 6 19 8 7 19 2 7 19 6 8 19 0 8 19 4 8 19 8 9 19 2 9 20 6 0 20 0 0 20 4 08 19 Concentrates SX-EW Since 1900. virtually non‐existent before the 1960’s.000 15.000 13.000 7.3 million tonnes in 2009.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production World Copper Mine Production.000 1.000 11.000 3. International Copper Study Group 8 .000 10.000 5. 1900‐2009 (thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 16.000 8. when world production was less than 500 thousand tonnes .000 6. SX‐EW production. world copper mine production has grown by around 4% per year to reach nearly 16 million tonnes in 2009.000 9. reached nearly 3.000 14.000 12.000 4.000 2.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production by Region. copper mine production in Latin America surged to just over 7 million tonnes last year. 1960. International Copper Study Group 9 . 1980 & 2009p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 8000 Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin America North America Oceania 1960 1980 2009p From less than 750 thousand tonnes in 1960.
000 6.000 3.000 2. International Copper Study Group 10 .4 million tonnes.000 4.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Chile Peru United States China Indonesia Australia Russian Fed.000 5. Zambia Canada Poland Kazakhstan Congo Iran Mexico Brazil Papua New Guinea Argentina Mongolia Laos South Africa 0 1.000 Chile accounted for over one‐third of world copper mine production in 2009 with mine output of nearly 5.
T. ZCCM (20%) Anglo American (100%) Kazakhmys (Samsung) BHP Billiton KGHM Polska Miedz S. National Iranian Copper Industry Co.A.75%). (Grupo Mexico) Source Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Concentrates concentrates concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concentrates Concentrates concentrates Concs & SX-EW Concs & SX-EW concentrates Concs & SX-EW concentrates Concs & SX-EW SX-EW Concs & SX-EW Capacity 1. (PT-FI). PT Multi Daerah Bersaing 7% Codelco Chile First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%). (30%).5%.5%). Xstrata plc (33. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 9 10 10 10 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Escondida Codelco Norte (includes Chuquicamata.5%. Sumitomo Metal Mining & Mitsubishi Materials 31. Japan Escondida (12.5%) Codelco P. Rio Tinto Anglo American (44%). Teck (22. A. Mitsubishi Materials (15%) Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Mitsubishi (10%) Antofagasta Plc (60%). Radomiro Tomic.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity. Freeport Indonesia Co.5%).75%).. Sumitomo Corp. Rio Tinto Corp. Xstrata plc (44%). Mitsui + Nippon (12%) Codelco Chile Norilsk Nickel BHP Billiton (33./Sumitomo Kennecott (Rio Tinto) PT Pukuafu 20%. Newmont 41. Mina Ministro Hales project) Mine Country Chile Chile Indonesia Chile Chile Owner(s) BHP Billiton (57.300 920 780 520 454 430 400 400 390 280 280 280 270 241 230 225 220 204 200 195 Grasberg Collahuasi El Teniente Taimyr Peninsula (Norilsk/ Talnakh Russia Mills) Antamina Los Pelambres Morenci Bingham Canyon Batu Hijau Andina Kansanshi Los Bronces Zhezkazgan Complex Olympic Dam Rudna Sarcheshmeh Spence La Caridad Peru Chile United States United States Indonesia Chile Zambia Chile Kazakhstan Australia Poland Iran Chile Mexico International Copper Study Group 11 . Nippon Mining (25%). BHP Billiton Mexicana de Cobre S.
. but tend to be longer and less frequent in cool economic times and also when copper prices are down High domestic costs if there is “dutch disease” (resulting in higher exchange rates due in part to strong exports) Rate between imported inputs and domestic input costs affected by the currency strength of the producer Market power/concentration: risks have moved to the import demand side versus export supply side in recent years Peace and security is also a key factor • • • • • Falling Ore Grades: a serious issue in developed copper areas such as the USA and Chile Project finance: cost of capital is a central factor. with the final project report completed in October 2009.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Constraints on Copper Supply With copper concentrate in strong demand.org • • • • • Energy: coal is the fuel chosen to power main copper mines and processes… climate change may increase costs. Below are some of the operational and financial constraints identified from the study. Shipping costs: not an issue for copper. there has been growing interest in understanding the obstacles that can prevent copper mine supply from coming on‐stream. underestimations of US dollar inflation was source of many cost overruns Tax & investment regimes: recent research indicates these are less important than geological endowments Water supply: a critical issue in dry mining districts • • • • International Copper Study Group 12 . for now Sulphuric acid supply and price: 16% cost factor for SX‐EW projects Skilled labor: open labor markets would help address this constraint Labor strikes: tend to increase when refined prices are high and GDP is growing faster. During 2008‐2009. the ICSG Secretariat conducted a project on Constraints on New Copper Supply Coming On Stream. please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. For more information about ICSG research related to constraints on copper supply.. High interest rates may reduce supply significantly Capital cost overruns: in the past.
International Copper Study Group 13 . Recently. Primary smelters use mine concentrates as their main source of feed (although some use copper scrap as well).500 5. 1976-2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 15. Secondary copper smelters use copper scrap as their feed. world copper smelter production reached 14.000 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Primary Feed Secondary Feed Smelting is the pyrometallurgical process used to produce copper metal.500 10.5 million tonnes.000 12.000 7. In 2009.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production World Copper Smelter Production. the trend to recover copper directly from ores through leaching processes has been on the increase.
000 12. 1995‐2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.000 18.000 - Thousand tonnes copper 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Flash/Continuous Reverb/Blast/Rotary Electric Modified Reverb/Convert Low Grade EW International Copper Study Group 14 .000 6.000 8.000 10.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity.000 16.000 2.000 14.000 4.
000 6.000 0 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Asia’s share of world copper smelter output jumped from 27% in 1990 to 52% in 2009 as smelter production in China expanded rapidly. International Copper Study Group 15 .000 5.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production by Region.000 1.000 2. 1990-2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 8.000 3.000 4.000 7.
India United States Germany Korean Rep.500 In 2009.000 2. China accounted for around 24% of world copper smelter output.500 3.000 1.000 3.500 2. Chile (10%) and the Russian Federation (5%).The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Japan Chile Russian Fed. International Copper Study Group 16 . followed by Japan (11%). Poland Australia Kazakhstan Canada Peru Zambia Indonesia Bulgaria Spain Iran Philippines Brazil 0 500 1.
A. Mitsubishi Continuous Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter Outokumpu Flash Outokumpu. (Freeport McMoran) Kennecott (Rio Tinto) Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Vanyukov Reverberatory/ Kaldo Conv. Codelco Chile Xstrata plc Vedanta Southern Copper Corp. Ltd Aurubis Sumitomo Metal Mining Co.(31.A. Medny) Jinchuan (smelter) El Teniente (Caletones) Altonorte (La Negra) Sterlite Smelter (Tuticorin) Ilo Smelter Yunnan Onsan II Onahama/ Fukushima Huelva Garfield (smelter) Naoshima/ Kagawa (smelter) Mount Isa (smelter) La Caridad (smelter) Onsan I Gresik Country China India Chile Japan Germany Japan Russia China Chile Chile India Peru China Korean Republic Japan Spain United States Japan Australia Mexico Korean Republic Indonesia Operator/Owner(s) Jiangxi Copper Corp. Nippon Mining) Mitsubishi (75%). Nippon Mining) Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Ausmelt. Ltd.1%) Yunnan Copper Industry Group (Local Government) LS-Nikko Co. Reverberatory/ Teniente Conv. Furukawa Metals & Resources Co. (LS. Norilsk G-M Jinchuan Non. (Grupo Mexico 75. Ltd. (Grupo Mexico) LS-Nikko Co. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 3 4 4 4 7 7 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 19 19 19 19 Smelter Guixi (smelter) Birla Copper (Dahej) Codelco Norte (smelter) Saganoseki/ Ooita (smelter) Hamburg Besshi/ Ehime (Toyo) Norilsk (Nikelevy.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity.67%) Atlantic Copper S.15%). (LS. (12.29%). Xstrata plc Mexicana de Cobre S. Noranda Continuous Isasmelt Process Isasmelt Process Isasmelt Process Mitsubishi Continuous Reverberatory Outokumpu Flash Kennecott/ Outokumpu Mitsubishi Continuous Isasmelt Process Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter Outokumpu Flash Mitsubishi Flash International Copper Study Group 17 . (49. Contimelt. Ltd. Dowa Metals & Mining Co. Electric. Freeport (25%) Outokumpu Flash Process Capacity 900 500 460 450 450 450 400 400 400 390 380 360 350 340 322 320 320 306 300 300 300 300 Outokumpu Flash.Ferrous Metal Co. Electric Outokumpu Flash Reverb. Birla Group Codelco Pan Pacific Copper Co.
International Copper Study Group 18 . 1960‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.000 17.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production World Refined Copper Production.500 5.000 12.500 0 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 Refinery Primary Refinery Secondary Refinery SX-EW With the emergence of solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW) technology.500 15. increasing from less than 1% of world refined copper production in the late 1960’s to 18% of world output in 2009.000 7.000 2.500 10. refined copper produced from leaching ores has been on the rise.
000 22. At around 78% in 2009.000 12.000 18.000 8.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Trends in Refined Capacity.000 26.000 4.000 6.000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Electrolytic Electrowinning Fire Refining This chart shows world copper refinery capacity by refining process.000 14.000 Thousand tonnes copper 20. 1995-2010 28. the world refinery capacity utilization rate was lower than in recent years. The ratio between production and capacity is called the capacity utilization rate.000 24. International Copper Study Group 19 .000 10.000 16.000 2.
000 5.000 8.000 0 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 20 08 20 09 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Region with the highest output of refined copper in 1990: the Americas (4.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production by Region.250 kt).000 6.000 3. followed by Europe (3.000 7.000 4. 1990‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 9.050 kt) International Copper Study Group 20 .000 1.000 2.004 kt) Leading region in the world in 2009: Asia (8.
500 International Copper Study Group 21 . Poland Australia Peru Zambia Belgium Kazakhstan Canada Spain Indonesia Mexico Brazil Iran 0 500 1.000 1.500 2.500 4.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Chile Japan United States Russian Fed. India Germany Korean Rep.500 3.000 2.000 3.000 4.
5%.8%) Birla Group Hidalco Codelco Codelco Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Grupo Mexico Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc./Sumitomo BHP Billiton (57. Codelco Aurubis Vedanta Uralelectromed (Urals Mining & Metallurgical Co. Jinchuan Non Ferrous Co. Sharpline International 13%. Ltd.5%). 7. Itochu Corp. Sumitomo Corp. Rio Tinto Corp. Japan Escondida (12. 52 %. Nippon Mining) Norilsk Copper Owner(s) Process Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrowinning Electrowinning Electrolytic Electrolytic Electrolytic Capacity 900 500 500 490 470 450 450 415 400 400 395 380 380 380 360 350 350 350 345 330 330 International Copper Study Group 22 . (LS.) Xstrata plc Southern Copper Corp. Tongling NonFerrous Metal Corp.5%) Aurubis LS-Nikko Co.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity. 7. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Rank 1 2 2 4 5 6 6 8 9 9 11 12 12 12 15 16 16 16 19 20 20 Guixi Yunnan Copper Birla Chuquicamata Refinery Codelco Norte (SX-EW) Toyo/Niihama (Besshi) Amarillo El Paso (refinery) Jinchuan Las Ventanas Hamburg (refinery) Sterlite Refinery Pyshma Refinery CCR Refinery (Montreal) Ilo Copper Refinery Jinlong (Tongdu) (refinery) Morenci (SX-EW) Escondida (SX-EW) Olen Onsan Refinery I Norilsk Refinery Refinery Country China China India Chile Chile Japan United States United States China Chile Germany India Russia Canada Peru China United States Chile Belgium Korean Republic Russia Jiangxi Copper Corporation Yunnan Copper Industry Group (64.5% Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. (30%).
alloy wire mills. wire rod plants. master alloy plants.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Semis Production Copper and Copper Alloy and Casting Production.000 12. wire bar. billet slab and cake into semi‐finished copper and copper alloy products using both unwrought copper materials and direct melt scrap as raw material feed.000 24.000 3.000 21. foundries and foil mills. brass mills. International Copper Study Group 23 . 1980‐2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 27.000 6. ingot.000 0 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 Copper Semis Copper Alloy Semis Other Semis Foundry Castings Semis fabricators process refinery shapes such as cathodes.000 15.000 18. Semis fabricators are considered to be the “first users” of refined copper and include ingot makers.000 9.
up from 22% in 1980. 1980 & 2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 14.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region. International Copper Study Group 24 .000 8. or more than 13.000 1980 2008 6.000 0 Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America Asia accounted for 58% of semis production in 2008.000 12.000 10.000 2.4 million metric tonnes.000 4.
2010 (%) Source: ICSG Russian Fed.4% s 3% Ingot South Asia & Oceania 9% North Asia (ex-China) 14% Mainland China 30% Cu Alloy Wire 6% Cu & Cu Alloy Tubes 13% WireRod 49% Rods.4% Foil 1. Norway & Switzerland 22% Plate.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Semis Production Capacity by Region. or nearly 19. & Central Asia 5%+ Middle East 5% Africa 1% Semis Production Capacity by Product.1% Castings 0. 25 .6 Mt. Bars and Sections (RBS) 13%+ Americas 14% EU27. 2010 (%) Source: ICSG Powder 0. China accounted for the largest share of world semis capacity production (30%) and the largest number of semis plants (498). Sheet & Strips (PSS) 15% In 2010. International Copper Study Group Wire rod plants are estimated to have accounted for just under half of all first use capacity in 2010.
000 4.000 12. 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China United States Germany Japan Korean Rep.000 International Copper Study Group 26 .000 8. Italy India Taiwan (China) Russian Turkey Rest of World France Brazil Belgium Spain Thailand Indonesia Mexico Poland Iran 0 2.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production Capacity by Country: Top 20 Countries.000 10.000 14.000 6.
20 009p Thousand m metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise note ed) SG Source: ICS Concentrates Blister & Anode Refined Copper Copper Scrap /1 C Copper & Copper Alloy r Semis /1 0 1.The World Copper Fac ctbook 2010 0 Chapter 3: Copp Trade C per e Copper products a C across the value c chain are traded internationally.000 3.000 4 5.0 000 2.0 000 5.000 8.000 3. and v versa. formation about the t in nternational trade of copper and changes in regulations that can a e affect th trade of coppe please contact the ICSG Secretariat at firstname.lastname@example.org 9. electronic equipm ment and other pr roducts.000 Gross metal weight t. 1 he er. can have significant impact on s ts su as import du th international trade of coppe For more inf he er. co ountries where upstream cop pper production capacity exc n ceeds downstream production capacity w import the raw materials neede to will w ed meet their produc m ction needs. . 2 2009p Thousand m metric tonnes copper (unless otherwise not ted) CSG Source: IC Concentrates Blister & Anode B Refined Copper R Copper Scrap /1 C Image courtesy of the Copper Development Association.000 4. Major product categori of vice ies co opper traded inte ernationally includ de: • • • • • Copper concentrates Copper blister and anode thode and ingots Copper cat rap Copper scr and mis Copper sem World Copp Exports by Pro per oduct Category. In additi ional. Changes in trade regulat tions.org World Copp Imports by Pro per oduct Category.000 6. In nternational Cop pper Study Group p 27 2 .000 7. O i Often. but typica in ally much smaller qua m antities.000 4. 1 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis /1 S 0 1.0 000 2. copper is contained in end d‐use products that are traded globall including auto e ly omobiles.000 6.000 7.000 9.000 Copper powders a compounds a also traded glo C and are obally. uch uties or export qu uotas. appliances.000 8.
Canada 6. China 2. 5. Peru 3. Chile 2. Germany 6. Japan 3. Argentina 10. Mongolia Major Importers of Copper Ores and Concentrates. Australia 5. India 4. Korean Rep. International Copper Study Group 28 . Kazakhstan 8. Indonesia 4. Sweden 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Spain 7. Brazil 7. Bulgaria 9. 2009 1. 2009 1. Brazil 10. Philippines 8.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and Concentrates1 Major Exporters of Copper Ores and Concentrates. USA 9.
United States 4. 2009 1. Chile 2. Australia 9. China 3. Philippines Major Importers of Copper Blister and Anode. 8. Austria 10. Turkey 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Netherlands 5. Bulgaria 3. Canada 4. International Copper Study Group 29 . USA 10. Mexico 6. Spain 6. Finland 9. Slovakia 8. Turkey 7. 2009 1.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade of Copper Blister and Anode1 Major Exporters of Copper Blister and Anode. Korean Rep. Canada 5. Netherlands 7. Belgium 2.
Zambia 3. Australia 7. Netherlands 10. Japan 4. Russia 5. Taiwan 6. China 2. International Copper Study Group 30 . Kazakhstan 8. 7. Chile 2. USA 3. France 9. Poland 9.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major International Trade Flows of Refined Copper1 Major Exporters of Refined Copper. Germany 4. 2009 1. 2009 1. Thailand 1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes. Italy 5. Turkey 8. Netherlands Major Importers of Refined Copper. Belgium 10. Peru 6. Korean Rep.
Importers S K I U M O T Ch U G Ho S F S A C ina nited taly ng erm ranc nited exic zech ustr pain witz haila orea inga ther erl a s n R por e Ko Re i a Ki n o Sta and nd ng ny e ep. C Ho U R S J B O S P ng nite ussi elgiu apan pain wed anad olan ther dS en s an d Ko a m tat ng es Fed.200 1. Source: ICSG 1.000 800 600 400 200 0 1.600 1.200 Exporters 1. gd te s om International Copper Study Group 31 .000 800 600 400 200 0 Ko I Ge Ch T F rea aiwa ranc taly rm i an na nR e n y ep . p.400 1.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Leading Exporters and Importers of Semi‐Fabricated Copper Products. 2009 Thousand metric tonnes.
is traded between producers and consumers. copper is traded in 25 tonne lots and quoted in US dollars per tonne.000 5. In this process the participation of speculators.000 6. prices are settled by bid and offer.000 0 6 9 3 2 5 8 1 0 4 7 0 3 6 9 2 5 20 0 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 6 19 9 19 8 19 7 19 7 19 7 19 8 19 8 19 9 19 9 19 9 20 0 20 0 8 US$ per tonne Source: ICSG Current $ Constant 2005 $ International Copper Study Group 32 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Global Copper Market and the Commodity “Copper” Copper. On the LME. Contracts are unique for each exchange.000 7. Three commodity exchanges provide the facilities to trade copper: The London Metal Exchange (LME). the size of the lot. 1960‐2009 8. One of the most important factors in trading a commodity such as copper is the settlement price for the present day (spot price) or for future days.000 1. reflecting the market's perception of supply and demand of a commodity on a particular day. mini contracts of smaller lots sizes have been introduced at the exchanges. and on the SHME. Average Annual Copper Prices (LME. Exchanges The role of a commodity exchange is to facilitate and make transparent the process of settling prices. More recently. These allow producers and consumers to fix a price in the future. A futures or options contract defines the quality of the product. gives liquidity to the market.000 3. who transform the metal into shapes or alloys. copper is traded in lots of 5 tonnes and quoted in Renminbi per tonne. who are ready to buy the risk of price variation in exchange for monetary reward. copper is traded in lots of 25. Exchanges also provide for warehousing facilities that enable market participants to make or take physical delivery of copper in accordance with each exchange's criteria. the Commodity Exchange Division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (COMEX/NYMEX) and the Shanghai Metal Exchange (SHME).000 pounds and quoted in US cents per pound.000 4.000 2. as any other good or merchandise. thus providing a hedge against price variations. on COMEX. delivery dates. Producers sell their present or future production to clients. delivery warehouses and other aspects related to the trading process. Grade A. Exchanges also provide for the trading of futures and options contracts. The existence of futures contracts also allows producers and their clients to agree on different price settling schemes to accommodate different interests. In these exchanges. Cash). so that downstream fabricators can transform these into different end‐use products.
copper Jan 00 Jul 00 Jan 01 Jul 01 Jan 02 Jul 02 Jan Jul 03 03 Jan Jul 04 04 Jan 05 Jul 05 Jan 06 Jul 06 Jan Jul-07 07 Jan Jul-08 08 Jan Jul-09 Jan09 10 Exchanges Merchants Price LME (UScents/pound) Producers Consumers 3 mth moving average copper usage seasonally adjusted International Copper Study Group Price LME (US cents/pound) 33 .550 2.425 1.475 2.875 1.350 1.850 2.200 1.500 1.125 1.050 975 900 825 750 675 600 525 450 375 300 225 150 75 0 Thousand metric tonnes and US cents/pound Source: ICSG 400 390 380 370 360 350 340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Thousand metric tonnes.775 2.175 2.000 2.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Stocks.700 2.925 2. Prices and Usage 3.800 1.025 1.650 1.100 2.950 1.725 1.625 2.325 2.275 1.250 2.400 2.575 1.
major uses of copper and end‐use.icsg. sheet. Through extrusion. For the most up‐to‐date information on refined copper usage. and a whole range of other copper‐dependent products in order to meet society’s needs. melting. electrolysis or atomization. fabricators form wire. wire rod. forging. rod. billet. electronics.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 4: Copper Usage How Is Copper Used? Copper is shipped to fabricators mainly as cathode. This section provides a range of information about refined copper usage. strip. please visit the ICSG website at www. rolling. castings. powder and other shapes. drawing. The total use of copper includes copper scrap that is directly melted by the first users of copper to produce copper semis. Copper and copper alloy semis can be further transformed by downstream industries for use in end use products such as automobiles. tube. cake (slab) or ingot. The fabricators of these shapes are called the first users of copper. plate. appliances. total use.org International Copper Study Group 34 .
demand for refined copper increased from less than 500 thousand tonnes to over 18 million metric tonnes in 2009 as demand over the period grew by an average of 4% per year.The World Copper Factbook 2010 World Refined Copper Usage.500 15.500 10.000 17. International Copper Study Group 35 .000 12.500 5.000 7.500 0 19 00 19 04 19 08 19 12 19 16 19 20 19 24 19 28 19 32 19 36 19 40 19 44 19 48 19 52 19 56 19 60 19 64 19 68 19 72 19 76 19 80 19 84 19 88 19 92 19 96 20 00 20 04 20 08 Since 1900. 1900‐2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20.000 2.
1980 & 2009p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Thousand Metric Tonnes Copper 12.000 4. where demand has expanded more than five fold in less than 30 years. 1960.000 2. International Copper Study Group 36 .000 6.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Refined Copper Usage by Region.000 8.000 0 1960 1980 2009p Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Growth in refined copper usage has been especially strong in Asia.000 10.
000.000. master alloy plants. including ingot makers.000.0 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1950 World Population Refined Copper Usage per Capita *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.000.5 1.000.000 1.0 kg per person 5.5 6.The World Copper Factbook 2010 World Refined Copper Usage* per Capita: 1950‐2009p Sources: ICSG and US Census Bureau 8.000. wire rod plants.000 2.0 7.000 1.000 2. brass mills.000.000 population 4.000 0 0.000.000.000. International Copper Study Group 37 .000.000.000.000. foundries and foil mills.5 3.000. alloy wire mills. As a result.000 0. per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person.000.000 3.0 2.
000 40.000 50. per capita consumption of refined copper refers to the amount of copper consumed by industry divided by the total population and does not represent consumption of copper in finished products per person. foundries and foil mills.000 25. As a result. master alloy plants. United Arab Emirates 15 Germany 10 Italy Saudi Arabia Chile China Egypt Mexico Peru Poland Spain EU-27 Japan Australia France Canada USA 5 Turkey Russian Fed. brass mills.000 45.000 10. alloy wire mills. wire rod plants. Brazil Portugal 0 0 India 5.000 GDP per Capita (2009 US$/person) *Refined copper is consumed by semis fabricators or the “first users” of refined copper.000 30.000 35.000 20.The World Copper Factbook 2010 25 Intensity of Refined Copper Use* Sources: ICSG and International Monetary Fund Belgium Taiwan (China) Refined Copper Usage per Capita (kg/person) 20 Korean Rep. International Copper Study Group 38 . including ingot makers.000 15.
000 5.000 TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP 15.000 0 2002 International Copper Study Group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 39 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Total Copper Usage. 2002‐2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 25.000 PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED PRIMARY REFINED 10.000 TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP TOTAL SCRAP 20. Including Copper Scrap.
motors and motor systems using more energy efficient high pressure copper die castings. In addition. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. in partnership with the Common Fund for Commodities. motors. medium and low voltage applications. either insulated or uninsulated. The project is designed to facilitate the transfer of technology related to the manufacture of rotors. for high. It sets the standard to which other conductors are compared. Copper is an essential component of energy efficient generators. wind. fuel cells and other technologies are all heavily reliant on copper due to its excellent conductivity. is supervising the Transfer of Technology for High Pressure Copper Die Casting in India project. transformers and renewable energy production systems. ductility and resistance to creeping and corrosion makes it the preferred and safest conductor for commercial and residential building wiring. geothermal. International Copper Study Group 40 . ICSG. copper's exceptional strength. Copper is also used in power cables. the International Copper Association and the International Copper Promotion Council (India).The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Electrical Copper is the best non‐ precious metal conductor of electricity as it encounters much less resistance compared with other commonly used metals. Renewable energy sources such as solar.
Copper heat sinks help remove heat from transistors and keep computer processors operating at peak efficiency. International Copper Study Group 41 . Copper is also used extensively in other electronic equipment in the form of wires. connectors and switches. mobile phones and personal computers. using less energy. microprocessors are able to operate at higher speeds. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and European Copper Institute." By using copper for circuitry in silicon chips. through the existing copper infrastructure of ordinary telephone wire. Semiconductor manufacturers have launched a revolutionary "copper chip. wide and local area networks. transformers. Copper and copper alloy products are used in domestic subscriber lines. HDSL (High Digital Subscriber Line) and ADSL (Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line) technology allows for high‐speed data transmission.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Electronics and Communications Copper plays a key role in worldwide information and communications technologies. including internet service.
International Copper Study Group 42 . The use of copper doorknobs and plates exploits copper's biostatic properties to help prevent the transfer of disease and microbes. copper does not burn. Major public buildings. melt or release noxious or toxic fumes in the event of a fire.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Construction Copper and brass are the materials of choice for plumbing. that gives copper the classic look of warmth and richness. Copper fire sprinkler systems are a valuable safety feature in buildings. valves and fittings. in addition to being attractive. canopies. Unlike plastic tubing. copper and its alloys. Copper roofing. The telltale green patina finish. is the result of natural weathering. taps. commercial buildings and homes use copper for their rainwater goods and roofing needs. is well known for its resistance to extreme weather conditions. Thanks in part to its aesthetic appeal. doors and window frames. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Association. is used in a variety of settings to build facades. such as architectural bronze. Copper tubes also help protect water systems from potentially lethal bacteria such as legionella.
6 km (1 mile) in length. International Copper Study Group 43 . Automobiles and trucks rely on copper motors.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Transportation All major forms of transportation depend on copper to perform critical functions. thereby reducing drag and improving fuel consumption. corrosion resistance and recyclability make it ideal for automotive and truck radiators. strength. Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association and the European Copper Institute. Electric and hybrid vehicles can contain even higher levels of copper. wiring. radiators. Copper‐nickel alloys are used on the hulls of boats and ships to reduce marine biofouling. the average mid‐size automobile contains about 22. New high‐speed trains can use anywhere from 2 to 4 tonnes of copper. Copper's superior thermal conductivity. Today. significantly higher than the 1 to 2 tonnes used in traditional electric trains. brakes and bearings. connectors. New manufacturing technologies. Copper is also used extensively in new generation airplanes and trains.500 copper wires totaling about 1. while luxury cars on average contain around 1. smaller and more efficient radiators. processes and innovative designs are resulting in lighter.5 kg (50 lbs) of copper.
and piping exposed to seawater. bearings and turbine blades. Due to their durability. propellers. all depend on copper's corrosion resistance for protection Images courtesy of the Copper Development Association. copper alloys are ideal for making products such as gears. oil platforms and coastal power stations. Copper's superior heat transfer capabilities and ability to withstand extreme environments makes it an ideal choice for heat exchange equipment. bronze. machinability and ability to be cast with high precision and tolerances. tanks. and copper‐nickel) make them especially suitable for use in marine and other demanding environments. International Copper Study Group 44 . pressure vessels and vats. it is a safe bet that copper and its alloys are present.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Industrial Machinery and Equipment Wherever industrial machinery and equipment is found. The corrosion resistant properties of copper and copper alloys (such as brass. Vessels.
in areas known to be copper deficient. Computers. International Copper Study Group 45 . respectively. the Euro coins. 1 Source: U. cookware. Images courtesy of the International Copper Association and the Copper Development Association.S. households and workplaces. In the United States.1 In the recently expanded European Union. electrical appliances. also contain copper. coins contain a pure copper core and 75% copper face.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Consumer and General Products From the beginning of civilization copper has been used by various societies to make coins for currency. countries are replacing lower denomination bills with copper‐based coins. while other U. one cent coins and five cent coins contain 2. and locks and keys are just some of the products exploiting copper's advantages. copper is used by farmers to supplement livestock and crop feed. Department of the Treasury. Today. Copper and copper‐based products are used in offices. as these coins last 10.S. In addition. brassware. 20 and even 50 times longer.5% and 75% copper. first introduced in 2002.
099 International Copper Study Group 46 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Major Uses of Copper: Usage by End‐Use Sector and Region.194 3.222 766 920 863 435 2. thousand metric tonnes Source: International Copper Association 2009 tonnes 000 China Japan South Korea India ASEAN Taiwan North America Latin America Western Europe Eastern Europe (excluding Russia Africa Rest of World World 7.873 1.477 22.468 1. 2009 Basis: copper content.133 751 464 534 1.
The World Copper Factbook 2010 Chapter 5: Copper Recycling Copper is among the few materials that do not degrade or lose their chemical or physical properties in the recycling process. If appropriately managed. In the recent decades. International Copper Study Group 47 . recycling has the potential to extend the use of resources. so we also rely on copper produced from the processing of mineral ores. and waste disposal. an increasing emphasis has been placed on the sustainability of material uses in which the concept of reuse and recycling of metals plays an important role in the material choice and acceptance of products. However. Closing metal loops through increased reuse and recycling enhances the overall resource productivity and therefore represents one of the key elements of society’s transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. In 2008. the existing copper reservoir in use can well be considered a legitimate part of world copper reserves. Images courtesy of the European Copper Institute. It is widely recognized that recycling is not in opposition to primary metal production. but is a necessary and beneficial complement. recycled copper alone cannot meet society's needs. Considering this. Some countries' copper requirements greatly depend on recycled copper to meet internal demands. ICSG estimates that 35% of copper consumption came from recycled copper. some emissions. and to minimize energy use.
processors. International Copper Study Group • The Overall Recycling Efficiency Rate (Overall RER) indicates the efficiency with which end of life (EOL) scrap. The RIR is mainly a statistical measurement for raw material availability and supply rather than an indicator of recycling efficiency of processes or products. product designers. metal traders and resource policy makers. The three International Non-Ferrous Metal Study Groups in conjunction with various metal industry associations agreed on the common definitions of the three following metal recycling rates: • The Recycling Input Rate (RIR) measures the proportion of metal and metal products that are produced from scrap and other metal-bearing lowgrade residues. new scrap. among other things. it may have limited use as a policy tool. and metal recyclers. Major target audiences for this type of “metallurgical” indicator are the metal industry. • The EOL Recycling Efficiency Rate (EOL RER) indicates the efficiency with which EOL scrap from obsolete products is recycled. on objectives. The RIR has been in use in the metals industry for a long time and is widely available from statistical sources. scrap processors and scrap generators. given structural and process variables. and environmental policy makers. life cycle analysts. This measure focuses on end-of-life management performance of products and provides important information to target audiences such as metal and recycling industries. 48 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 Copper Recycling Rate Definitions The recycling performance of copper-bearing products can be measured and demonstrated in various ways – depending. data availability and target audience. and other metal-bearing residues are collected and recycled by a network of collectors. The key target audiences of this particular indicator are metal industry. scope. However.
493 4.304 2.401 8.4% 2005 1.161 5.2% 41.2% 2005 33.5% 14.0% 1.468 35.1% 18.230 -2.425 11.869 36.7% 41.379 2.6% 2.345 4.058 22.062 23.5% 14.848 -3.6% 34.2% 2.941 35.711 68 7.159 15.375 16.176 33.638 50 8.296 2.1% International Copper Study Group 49 .1% 16.3% 34.4% 16.6% 2003 1.426 3.8% 2.1% 2008 34.8% 2.The World Copper Factbook 2010 Global Copper Recyclables Use.053 34.807 2.613 5.898 5.6% 33.056 1.1% 41.469 55 7.7% 33.1% 36.238 20.702 18. 2002-2008 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG Americas Asia Europe Africa & Oceania World / Total Scrap Use Total scrap use year-on-year Secondary refined production Cu content of Direct Melt Refined Usage Total copper usage Recycling Input Rate (RIR) Recycling Input Rate Asia Europe North America Rest of the World Total World 2002 1.476 4.1% 2.823 5.781 33.8% 35.5% 31.529 51 6.0% 42.4% 2004 31.3% 35.2% 17.845 22.445 0.882 2.7% 41.9% 44.529 52 8.257 2.812 17.677 22.0% 41.466 2.407 18.2% 30.4% 32.8% 2007 1.3% 34.0% 33.0% 2004 1.6% 2002 30.719 20.061 15.786 5.0% 16.0% 33.3% 2008 1.536 1.0% 2003 30.331 16.2% 2006 1.8% 2006 37.579 61 8.743 5.6% 31.069 5.239 23.396 34.324 2.594 51 7.575 2.429 3.3% 2007 34.
For more information about ICSG work related to copper scrap. The final report of the project was published in August 2010.The World Copper Factbook 2010 ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project Based on interest expressed by ICSG member countries.org Key Drivers of the Global Copper Scrap Market • Expanding Copper Mine Production and Refined Copper Substitution • Industrialization and Economic Growth • Prices o Copper Scrap Prices and Spreads o Refined Copper Prices and the Demand for Scrap • China • The Shift in Regional Scrap Processing Capacity • Regulations on Recycling and Trade • Technology International Copper Study Group ICSG Global Copper Scrap Project Reports • ICSG Global Copper Scrap Research Project Final Report (New!) • Japan Scrap Market Report • China Scrap Usage Survey • China Domestic Scrap Generation 2010‐2015 • India Scrap Market • China Scrap Market Report 50 . please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg. ICSG launched the copper scrap market project in 2007 in order to provide greater transparency on an increasingly vital component of the world copper market at a time when globalization is reshaping the copper scrap and copper alloy recycling business. Key drivers of the global scrap market are identified below as are some of the key project outputs.
Plant Direct Melt 987 refined Ingot Maker scrap alloys International Copper Study Group 51 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Flow of Copper Trade Concentrates/ Matte Blister/ Anode Refined Copper Alloy Ingot Alloy Metals Semis Net Trade Mining Production Wire rod SX/EW Refined Usage Fabrication Wire rod plant / Wire mill Brass mill Foundry Chemicals Semis Supply Mine Smelter Refinery New Scrap Low Grade Residues Tailings By-products/ slag/ashes Other Plants Scrap Recycling Scrap for Smelting incl. low grade Scrap for Refining Hydromet.
equipment Transport Consumer/ Gen. Recycling losses new scrap Recycling New Scrap Recycling International Copper Study Group Finished Products Net Trade Product Use (Lifetime) Copper Reservoir in Use EOL Products (EOL Management adjusted for export/reuse after collection) End-of-Life Management C&D Finished Products EOL Products INEW IEW Abandoned/ Stored/ Reused End-of-Life Products ELV WEEE MSW & Other Dissipative Uses Disposal/ Other Uses Old Scrap Scrap & Low grade Net Trade Other Metal Loops 52 .The World Copper Factbook 2010 The Flow of Copper (cont.) Semis Import Manufacture Construction Product Supply E&E Equipment Ind. Other Uses Low grade from Fabr.
832 12.918 16.The World Copper Factbook 2010 ANNEX World Copper Production and Usage.775 9.200 18.030 9.291 17.924 4.100 8.474 15.798 10.995 6.537 12.014 15.272 15.915 7.884 9.523 7.148 10.371 7. 1960-2009p Thousand Metric Tonnes Source: ICSG Mine Production 3.633 13.186 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009p International Copper Study Group 53 .306 7.632 Refined Usage 4.445 6.686 11.594 14.193 6.050 5.291 7.112 10.512 10.577 13.081 4.042 11.942 8.216 4.592 7.445 8.127 5.647 4.846 10.443 4.239 18.908 10.293 10.991 15.920 10.527 9.058 18.455 9.941 6.572 17.843 8.124 11.677 13.573 9.249 Refined Usage 9.553 Refined Production 8.930 9.075 14.226 9.668 11.400 5.934 18.372 9.636 13.539 Mine Production 7.004 6.626 5.090 9.444 7.230 7.266 8.010 5.210 15.200 9.097 11.497 9.396 9.877 Refined Production 11.683 17.979 Mine Production 9.717 16.048 5.796 15.319 9.286 4.478 14.059 12.775 13.056 18.301 15.522 9.195 6.998 5.084 11.057 9.872 4.261 9.185 15.735 7.804 10.440 9.833 16.562 5.138 8.248 12.404 8.536 15.653 7.638 15.740 8.296 5.519 14.212 7.187 8.500 5.900 5.420 12.084 9.310 7.721 7.757 14.203 13.578 14.745 7.354 15.544 8.356 Refined Usage 11.541 9.296 7.288 8.848 9.510 9.289 Refined Production 4.540 10.843 10.137 7.103 13.081 10.097 6.549 10.541 6.592 8.059 6.324 6.759 8.738 5.739 6.924 14.
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