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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 4. Conjugate roots : Irrational roots and complex roots occur in conjugate pairs i.e. if one root α + iβ, then other root α iβ if one root α +

**QUADRATIC EQUATION & EXPRESSION
**

1. Quadratic expression : A polynomial of degree two of the form ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 is called a quadratic expression in x. 2. Quadratic equation : An equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0, a, b, c ∈ R has two and only two roots, given by α= 3.

−b + b2 − 4ac 2a

β , then other root α

β

5.

Sum of roots : S=α+β=

and

β=

−b − b2 − 4ac 2a

−Coefficient of x −b = Coefficient of x2 a

Nature of roots : Nature of the roots of the given equation depends upon the nature of its discriminant D i.e. b2 4ac. Suppose a, b, c ∈ R, a ≠ 0 then (i) (ii) (iii) If D > 0 If D = 0 If D < 0

Product of roots : P = αβ =

cons tant term c = Coefficient of x2 a

⇒ ⇒

roots are real and distinct (unequal) roots are real and equal (Coincident)

6.

.ormation of an equation with given roots : x2 Sx + P = 0

roots are imaginary and unequal i.e. ⇒ non real complex numbers. Suppose a, b, c ∈ Q a ≠ 0 then 7.

⇒

x2 (Sum of roots) x + Product of roots = 0

(i) (ii)

If D > 0 and D is a perfect square ⇒ roots are rational & unequal If D > 0 and D is not a perfect square ⇒ roots are irrational and unequal.

Roots under particular cases : .or the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, a ≠ 0 (i) (ii) (iii) If b = 0 ⇒ roots are of equal magnitude but of opposite sign. If c = 0 ⇒ one root is zero and other is b/a If b = c = 0 ⇒ both roots are zero

.or a quadratic equation their will exist exactly 2 roots real or imaginary. If the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 is satisfied for more than 2 distinct values of x, then it will be an identity & will be satisfied by all x. Also in this case a = b = c = 0.

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(iv) If a = c ⇒ roots are reciprocal to each other.

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I O N S

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If a > 0, c < 0 or a < 0, c > 0 ⇒ roots are of opposite signs (vi) If a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 or a < 0, b < 0, c < 0 ⇒ both roots are ve (vii) If a > 0, b < 0 , c > 0 or a < 0, b > 0, c < 0 roots are +ve. 8. Symmetric function of the roots : If roots of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 are α and β, then (i) (α β) =

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (vi) α4 + β4 = (α2 + β2)2 2α2β2

={(α + β)2 2αβ}2 2α2β2

.b =G H

2

− 2ac a2

I J K

2

2c2 a2

⇒ both

(vii) α4 β4 =(α2 + β2) (α2 β2) =

−b(b2 − 2ac) b2 − 4ac a4 b2 + ac a2

(viii) α2 + αβ + β2 = (α + β)2 αβ =

(α + β) − 4αβ = ±

2

b2 − 4ac a

(ix)

α α 2 + β2 (α + β)2 − 2αβ β + = = β αβ αβ α

(ii)

α2 + β2 = (α + β)2 2αβ =

b2 − 2ac a2 −b b2 − 4ac a2

(x)

.G α IJ H βK

2

+

. βI G αJ H K

2

=

α4 + β4 [(b2 − 2ac)2 − 2a2c2 ] = α 2 β2 a2c 2

(iii)

α2 β2 = (α + β)

(α + β) − 4αβ =

2

9.

Condition for common roots : The equations a1 x2 + b1 x + c1 = 0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2 = 0 have (i) One common root if

−b(b2 − 3ac) (iv) α3 + β3 = (α + β)3 3(α + β) αβ = a3

(v) α 3 β3 = (α β) [α2+ β2 αβ] =

b1c2 − b2c1 c1a2 − c2a1 c1a2 − c2a1 = a1b2 − a2b1

(α + β)2 − 4αβ [α2+ β2 αβ] (b2 − ac) b2 − 4ac a3

(ii)

a1 b1 c1 Both roots common if a = b = c 2 2 2

=

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 10. Maximum and Minimum value of quadratic expression :

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) If both the roots lies in the interval (k1, k2) D ≥ 0, a.f(k1) > 0, a.f(k2) > 0, k1 < (vi) If k1, k2 lies between the roots

In a quadratic expression ax Where D = b2 4ac (i) If a > 0, quadratic

2

L. b I + bx + c = a MG x + 2a J K MNH

2

−

D 4a2 ,

OP PQ

−b < k2 2a

expression has minimum value

**a.f(k1) < 0, a.f(k2) < 0 (vii) λ will be the repeated root of f(x) = 0 if f(λ) = 0 and f'(λ) = 0 12. .or cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 : We have α + β + γ =
**

−b c −d , αβ + βγ + γα = and αβγ = a a a

**−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no maximum value. 2a 4a
**

(ii) If a < 0, quadratic expression has maximum value

−b 4ac − b2 at x = and there is no minimum value. 2a 4a

11. Location of roots : Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, a ≠ 0 then w.r.to f(x) = 0 (i) (ii) If k lies between the roots then a.f(k) < 0 (necessary & sufficient) If between k1 & k2 their is exactly one root of k1, k2 themselves are not roots f(k1) . f(k2) < 0 (iii) (necessary & sufficient) If both the roots are less than a number k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,

where α, β, γ are its roots. 13. .or biquadratic equation ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e = 0 : We have α + β + γ + δ =

**−d b , αβγ + βγδ + γδα + γδβ = a a
**

c e and αβγδ = a a

αβ + αγ + αδ + βγ + βδ + γδ =

−b <k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

**(iv) If both the roots are greater than k D ≥ 0, a.f(k) > 0,
**

−b >k 2a

(necessary & sufficient)

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i = 1 → * * 4. y ∈ R.6450883. i = i ... where r = |z|...G z IJ Hz K 1 2 = . r = |z| = (ii) Exponential form : z = reiθ ... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. θ = amp.) Ph.. x = Re(z) and y is called an imaginary part i. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..+zn = z 1 + z 2 + .. i4n+2 = 1. 608-A. y = Im(z). y = r sinθ. Complex Number : A number of the form z = x + iy (x. i4n+3 = i. y) then its vector representation is z = OP 2. i = −1 ) is called a complex number.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .) Ph.z I Gz J H K 1 2 (provided z2 ≠ 0) ez j n = ( z )n = z x2 + y2 * * c zh If α = f(z). Integral Power of lota : i= 2 3 4 −1 . |z| ≥ 0 z z = |z|2 = | z |2 z1 = z is the mirror image of z in the real axis. then α = f( z ) Where α = f(z) is a function in a complex variable with real coefficients. z + z = 0 or z = z ⇒ z = 0 or z is purely imaginary z= z ⇒ z is purely real Modulus of a complex number : Magnitude of a complex number z is denoted as |z| and is defined as |z| = (i) (ii) (iii) Hence i4n+1 = i. 608-A. Complex conjugate of z : If z = x + iy.e. |z| = | z | z + z = 2Re(z) = purely real . 2405510 I O N S ... x * * .e. where x is called a real part i. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . amplitude or amp(z) = arg(z) = θ = tan1 (i) Polar representation : x = r cosθ.6450883.POCKET BOOK * * * * * z z = 2i Im(z) = purely imaginary z z = |z|2 COMPLEX NUMBER 1. P(x. + z n z1 − z2 = z 1 z 2 z1z2 = z 1 z 2 Modulus |z| = x2 + y2 . i = 1. 2405510 PAGE # 7 E D U C A T z |z|2 |z1 ± z2|2 = |z1|2 + |z2|2 ± 2 Re (z1 z2 ) PAGE # 8 . z1 + z2 +. i4n or i4(n+1) = 1 3.(z) (iii) Vector representation : y .. then z = x iy is called complex conjugate of z * * * E D U C A T I O N S (Re(z))2 + (Im(z))2 .

.) = 0 arg (any real ve no. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if z is non real (i) (ii) L . z ∈ 3rd quad. arg z = θ. (i) (ii) (iii) z ∈ 1st quad... where eiθ = cosθ + isinθ and eiθ = cosθ i sinθ ∴ (iv) arg (z1. ω2 where ω= −1 + i 3 and 1 + ω + ω2 = 0. 2405510 . arg (any real + ve no. Euler's formulae as z = reiθ.) Ph. if z is real (vii) arg ( z) = arg z + π. = θ. De-Moiver's Theorem : It states that if n is rational number.) Ph.POCKET BOOK 6. z ∈ 2nd quad. 0] = arg z π. nth roots of complex number z1/n = r1/n cos (vi) arg ( z ) = arg z = arg . arg z ∈ (0. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 9 E D U C A T I O N S . arg z ∈ ( π .G z I Hz J K 1 2 = arg z1 arg z2 + 2 k π 9. 1I G zJ H K ..POCKET BOOK (iv) |z1 + z2|2 + |z1 z2|2 = 2 [|z1|2 + |z2|2] (v) |z1 ± z2| ≤ |z1| + |z2| (vi) |z1 ± z2| ≥ |z1| |z2| 5.. for b > 0 2 2 |z|+a |z|−a −i . Square root of a complex no. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. 0744 . = θ π . ω3 = 1 2 PAGE # 10 . K H KQ N H = arg z. z ∈ 4 quad. th MATHS FORMULA . where m = 0.(n 1) Sum of all roots of z1/n is always equal to zero Product of all roots of z1/n = (1)n1 z 10. 2mπ + θ I + i sin.6450883. 608-A.) = π arg (z z ) = ± π/2 7. π ] (viii) arg (zn) = n arg z + 2 k π (ix) arg z + arg z = 0 argument function behaves like log function. 0744 . ω.6450883. a + ib = ± L M M N L M M N |z|+a |z|−a +i . . Cube root of unity : cube roots of unity are 1. for b < 0 2 2 O P P Q = ± O P P Q = π θ .z2) = arg z1 + arg z2 + 2 k π (v) arg eiθ + eiθ = 2cosθ and eiθ eiθ = 2 isinθ . then (cosθ + isinθ)n = cosθ + isin nθ and (cosθ + isinθ)n = cos nθ i sin nθ 8. 2.MATHS FORMULA . 2mπ + θ I O M G n J G n JP . 1. Argument of a complex number : Argument of a complex number z is the ∠ made by its radius vector with +ve direction of real axis.

608-A.or internal division = 1 1 1 + + =0 y x z x +y +z =0 2 2 2 m1z2 + m2 z1 m1 + m2 MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA .or external division = (iii) m1z2 − m2 z1 m1 − m2 Equation of straight line. 0744 . 0744 .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.) Ph. Let |z| = r be the given circle.6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 12 .z − z I Gz − z J H K 1 2 π = ± . * Parametric form z = tz1 + (1 t)z2 where t ∈ R * Non parametric form z z1 z2 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 = 0.P 12. Some important result : If z = cosθ + isinθ (i) z+ MATHS FORMULA . . then equation of tangent at the point z1 is z z 1 + z z1 = 2r2 diametric form of circle : arg . z2. z3 are collinear if z1 z2 z3 z1 1 z2 1 = 0 z3 1 or slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC. y = cos β + i sin β & z = cosγ + isinγ and given x + y + z = 0. 608-A. z z + a z + a z + b = 0 represents a general circle where a ∈ c and b ∈ R. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Equation of Circle : * * * * * * |z z1| = r represents a circle with centre z1 and radius r.POCKET BOOK 11.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 2 * Three points z1. PAGE # 11 E D U C A T I O N S . Some important points : (i) (ii) (b) yz + zx + xy = 0 (d) x + y + z = 3xyz 3 3 3 (iv) If x = cosα + isinα . then (a) (c) Distance formula PQ = |z2 z1| Section formula . 13. z2 are end points of diameter and z is any point on circle.POCKET BOOK or z − z1 z − z1 z − z2 + z − z2 = 0 z− z1 + z 2 2 1 = 2cosθ z 1 = 2 isinθ z 1 = 2cosnθ zn or or = |z1 − z 2 | 2 (ii) z |z z1|2 + |z z2|2 = |z1 z2|2 (iii) zn + Where z1. |z| = r represents circle with centre at origin. |z z1| < r and |z z1| > r represents interior and exterior of circle |z z1| = r.

PAGE # 13 E D U C A T I O N S (xi) .6450883. z2. having the points z1 and z2 as its foci and if |z1 z2| = λ ..) Ph. then (ix) (x) . z3 is equilateral if 1 1 1 z2 − z3 + z3 − z1 + z1 − z2 = 0 i. 0744 . right angled at z2.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA ... then z lies on the line passing through z1 and z2 excluding the points between z1 & z2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z4 are vertices of a parallelogram then z1+ z3 = z2 + z4 z − z1 (iv) The complex equation z − z 2 (v) = k represents a circle if k ≠ 1 and a straight line if k = 1. represents an ellipse if |z1 z2| < λ . then z12 + z22 + . then they lie on a straight line in the complex plane. z3 are the vertices of an isosceles triangle.. z3. If z1. then z12 + z22 + z32 = 2z2 (z1 + z3). having the points z1 and z2 as its foci. 608-A. then z12 + z22 + z32 = 3z02. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .. z3. if z12 + z22 + z32 = z1z2 + z2z3 + z1z3. z2. 0744 . (xiv) z1. (vi) |z z1| = |z z2| = λ ... z3 be the vertices of a triangle. z2. (xiii) If z1. and if |z1 z2| = λ .POCKET BOOK (xii) If z1. 608-A. (viii) If four points z1.P. then the triangle is equilateral iff (z1 z2)2 + (z2 z3)2 + (z3 z1)2 = 0. z2... then z lies on a line segment connecting z1 & z2 (vii) |z z1| ~ |z z2| = λ represents a hyperbola if |z1 z2| > λ . z2. z3.6450883.z J Gz K H 3 3 − z4 − z2 I J K is purely real. + zn2 = nz02. zn be the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides & z0 be its centroid.e.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G z Hz 1 1 − z2 − z4 I . z2.. The triangle whose vertices are the points represented by complex numbers z1. z3 . z4 are concyclic.. z3 be the vertices of an equilateral triangle and z0 be the circumcentre.. If z1. 2405510 PAGE # 14 ..) Ph.. If three complex numbers are in A.

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) If out of n objects, 'a' are alike of one kind, 'b' are alike of second kind and 'c' are alike of third kind and the rest distinct, then the number of ways of permuting the n objects is 4.

PERMUTATION & COMBINATION

1. .actorial notation The continuous product of first n natural numbers is called factorial i.e. n or n! = 1. 2. 3........(n 1).n n! = n(n 1)! = n(n 1)(n 2)! & so on or

n! a! b! c!

Restricted Permutations (i) The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken r at a time, when m particular things always occupy definite places = nmprm The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time, when m particular things are always to be excluded (included) =

nm

n! n (n 1)......... (n r + 1) = (n − r)!

Here 0! = 1 and (n)! = meaningless. 2. .undamental principle of counting (i) Addition rule : If there are two operations such that they can be done independently in m and n ways respectively, then either (any one) of these two operations can be done by (m + n) ways. Addition ⇒ OR (or) Option (ii) Multiplication rule : Let there are two tasks of an operation and if these two tasks can be performed in m and n different number of ways respectively, then the two tasks together can be done in m × n ways. Multiplication ⇒ And (or) Condition (iii) Bijection Rule : Number of favourable cases = Total number of cases Unfavourable number of cases.

(ii)

Pr (nmCrm × r!)

5.

Circular Permutations When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as different. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things taken r at a time (ii)

n

Pr r

**The number of circular permutations of n different things taken altogether
**

n

Pn = (n 1)! n

3.

Permutations (Arrangement of objects) (i) The number of permutations of n different things taken r at a time is npr = (ii) (iii)

**When clockwise & anticlockwise orders are treated as same. (i) The number of circular permutations of n different things
**

n

n! (n − r)!

(ii)

taken r at a time

Pr 2r

n

The number of permutations of n dissimilar things taken all at a time is npn = n! The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when repetition of objects is allowed is nr.

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The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all together

1 Pn = (n 1)! 2 2n

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E D U C A T I O N S

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 6. Combination (selection of objects) The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is denoted by nCr or C (n, r)

n

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) Total number of selections of zero or more objects from n identical objects is n + 1. (v) Total number of selections of zero or more objects out of n different objects =

n

Cr =

n! r !(n − r)!

=

n

Pr r!

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... +

n

Cn = 2n

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)

n n n n n

**Cr = nCnr Cr + nCr1 = n+1Cr Cr = nCs
**

n

⇒

r = s or r + s = n

(vi) The total number of selections of at least one out of a1 + a2 + ...... + an objects where a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ......... an are alike (of nth kind) is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) + ...... + (an + 1)] 1 (vii) The number of selections taking atleast one out of a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an + k objects when a1 are alike (of one kind), a2 are alike (of second kind), ........ an are alike (of kth kind) and k are distinct is [(a1 + 1) (a2 + 1) (a3 + 1) .......... (an + 1)] 2k 1 9. Division and distribution (i) The number of ways in which (m + n + p) different objects can be divided into there groups containing m, n, & p different objects respectively is (ii)

C0 = Cn = 1 C1 = nCn1 = n Cr = Cr =

n r

n1

n

Cr1

n

1 (n r + 1) nCr1 r

7.

Restricted combinations The number of combinations of n distinct objects taken r at a time, when k particular objects are always to be (i) (ii) (iii) included is nkCrk excluded is nkCr included and s particular things are to be excluded is

nks

(m + n + p)! m! n! p!

Crk

The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into r groups of group sizes n1, n2, n3, ............. nr respectively such that size of no two groups

8.

Total number of combinations in different cases (i) (ii) The number of selections of n identical objects, taken at least one = n The number of selections from n different objects, taken at least one = nC1 + nC2 + nC3 + ....... + (iii)

n

n! is same is n ! n !............n ! . 1 2 r

(iii) The total number of ways in which n different objects are to be divided into groups such that k1 groups have group size n1, k2 groups have group size n2 and so on, kr groups have group size nr, is given as

Cn = 2n 1

**The number of selections of r objects out of n identical objects is 1.
**

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n! (n1 !) (n2 !) .............(nr !)k r k1 ! k 2 !............ k r !

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k1 k2

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MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (iv) The total number of ways in which n different objects are divided into k groups of fixed group size and are distributed among k persons (one group to each) is given as (number of ways of group formation) × k! 10. Selection of light objects and multinomial theorem (i) (ii) The coefficient of xn in the expansion of (1 xr) is equal to n + r 1Cr 1 The number of solution of the equation x1 + x2 + .......... + xr = n, n ∈ N under the condition n1 ≤ x1 ≤ n'1, n2 ≤ x2 ≤ n'2 , ................ nr ≤ xr ≤ n'r where all x'is are integers is given as Coefficient of xn is

n1

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (b) Number of total triangles formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(< n) are collinear is

n

C3

m

C3.

(c) (d)

**Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is
**

n

C2 n.

If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a family of other n parallel lines. Then total number of parallelogram so formed is mC2 × nC2. Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then number of straight lines nC2 number of triangles nC3 number of quadrilaterals nC4

(e)

(f)

Lex M N

+x

n1 +1

+...+x

n'1

j ex

n2

+x

n2 +1

+...+x

n'2

j...ex

nr

+x

nr +1

+...+ x

n'r

jOQP

If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three lines are concurrent. Then the number of part into which these lines divide the plane is = 1 + Σn Number of rectangles of any size in a square of n × n is

n

11. Derangement Theorem (i) If n things are arranged in a row, then the number of ways in which they can be rearranged so that no one of them occupies the place assigned to it is

(g)

r =1

∑ r3

n

and number of squares of any size is

r =1

∑ r2 .

L 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 −....+(−1) 1 OP = n! M1 − n!Q N 1! 2! 3! 4!

n

(h)

Number of rectangles of any size in a rectangle of n × p is

(ii)

If n things are arranged at n places then the number of ways to rearrange exactly r things at right places is

n! = r

np (n + 1) (p + 1) and number of squares 4

LM1 − 1 + 1 − 1 + 1 +....+(−1) N 1! 2! 3! 4!

n− r

1 (n − r)!

OP Q

of any size is

r =1

∑

n

(n + 1 r) (p + 1 r).

12. Some Important results (a) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m(<n) are collinear is n C2 mC2 + 1.

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E D U C A T I O N S

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, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

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our suits : Heart. Odds for an event : If P(A) = m n−m and P( A ) = n n Then odds in favour of A = P(A) m = P(A) n−m P(A) n−m = P(A) m (xii) When n cards are drawn (1 ≤ n ≤ 52) from well shuffled deck of 52 cards. the probability of each simple event is (xi) 1 . 6n 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . the probability of each simple event is 52 1 . Cn and odds in against of A = (xiii) If n cards are drawn one after the other with replacement. the probability of each simple event is 1 . P(A) + P( A ) = 1 When a dice is rolled n times or n dice are rolled once.) Ph. the probability of each simple event is 3. of favourable cases to event A Total no. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 4 queens. spade. 608-A. 4 kings. 4 jacks) Honour cards : 16 (4 Aces. club (13 cards each) Court (face) cards : 12 (4 kings. diamond.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . (52)n (xiv) P(none) = 1 P (atleast one) (xv) Playing cards : (a) (b) (c) (d) Total cards : 52 (26 red.e. 26 black) .6450883.POCKET BOOK (vi) P(AB) ≤ P(A) P(B) ≤ P(A + B) ≤ P(A) + P(B) (vii) P(Exactly one event) = P(A B ) + P( A B) (viii) P( A + B ) = 1 P(AB) = P(A) + P(B) 2P(AB) = P(A + B) P(AB) (ix) (x) P(neither A nor B) = P ( A B ) = 1 P(A + B) When a coin is tossed n times or n coins are tossed once.6450883.) Ph. Set theoretical notation of probability and some important results : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) P(A + B) = 1 P( A B ) 1 . P(A) + P(Not A) = 1 i. 4 Jacks) PAGE # 22 P(AB) P(A/B) = P(B) P(A + B) = P(AB) + P( A B) + P(A B ) P( AB ) = P(B) P(AB) PAGE # 21 E D U C A T I O N S (iv) A ⊂ B ⇒ P(A) ≤ P(B) . 4 queens. 2n PROBABILITY 1. Mathematical definition of probability : Probability of an event = Note : No. 2405510 . 0744 . 0744 . of cases (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1 Probability of an impossible event is zero Probability of a sure event is one. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

Conditional probability : P(A/B) = Probability of occurrence of A. ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2/E1) P(E3/E1 ∩ E2) P(E4/E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3) .....MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK (xvi) Probability regarding n letters and their envelopes : If n letters corresponding to n envelopes are placed in the envelopes at random. 1 [(1 P1) (1 P2). Probability of at least one of the n Independent events : If P1. .. P(B).. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 5.. An then the probability of happening of at least one of these event is.. in B If A and B are independent event... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ... + An) = 1 P ( A 1 ) P ( A 2 ) .... 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 24 .. then P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ ... 608-A.6450883.. then P(A/B) = P(A) and P(B/A) = P(B) Multiplication Theorem : P(A ∩ B) = P(A/B)....... P(A) ≠ 0 (d) Probability that exactly r letters are in right 1 envelopes = r! L 1 − 1 + 1 +. P(A ∩ B) = P(A) P (B) .. Pn are the probabilities of n independent events A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .... 0744 . + (1)n 2! 3! 4! n! likely. If events are independent.. of sample pts.) Ph. P(En) 6.... .e.. Addition Theorem of Probability : (i) When events are mutually exclusive i.(1 Pn)] or P(A1 + A2 + . A2.. of pts.... then P(A/B) = (i) (ii) No. P(B) ≠ 0 or P(A ∩ B) = P(B/A) P(A)..6450883...) Ph... 608-A.e..e....+(−1) M2! 3! 4! N n− r 1 (n − r)! OP Q Generalized : P(E1 ∩ E2 ∩ E3 ∩ .. ∩ En) = P(E1) P(E2) . in A ∩ B .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. No. then (a) Probability that all the letters are in right envelopes = (b) MATHS FORMULA ... P2.... n (A ∩ B) = 0 (ii) ⇒ P(A ∩ B) = 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) When events are not mutually exclusive i.. given that B has already happened = P(A ∩ B) P(B) 1 n! P(B/A) = Probability of occurrence of B... P( A n ) 4. given that A has already happened = Note : Probability that all letters are not in right envelopes = 1 1 n! P(A ∩ B) P(A) If the outcomes of the experiment are equally (c) Probability that no letters are in right envelope 1 1 1 1 = + .... P(A ∩ B) ≠ 0 ∴ P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A ∩ B) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) P(AB) P(A + B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A) P(B) PAGE # 23 E D U C A T or (iii) ∴ When events are independent i.

. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 25 E D U C A T I O N S . A1 ∪ A2 ∪ A3 = sample space & A1 ∩ A2 ∩ A3 = φ) an sample space S and B is any other event on sample space then. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.. A2..) Ph..e.. x2.xn with probabilities P1. q = 1 p ... then the probability that they are speaking truth will be given by r =1 ∑ P(Ar) P(A/Ar) 8.. P2... Total Probability : Let A1. A3 be any three mutually exclusive & exhaustive events (i.. (ii) If A and B both assert that an event has occurred.POCKET BOOK (a) (b) (c) (d) (i) mean E(x) = np E (x2) = npq + n2 p2 Variance E(x2) (E(x))2 = npq Standard deviation = npq 10.6450883... 1 1 2 2 3 3 i = 1.. probability of occurrence of which is α then the probability that event has occurred. 2405510 PAGE # 26 .... then the probability of r success is nCr Pr qnr atleast r success is n k =r ∑ n Ck Pk qnk where p is probability of success in a single trial..6450883.. .POCKET BOOK 7. + P(A ∩ An) = n MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . A2.MATHS FORMULA ...) Ph... Pn respectively then (a) (b) (c) (ii) mean E(x) = Σ Pixi 2 αp1p2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) (iii) If in the second part the probability that their lies (jhuth) coincides is β then from above case required probability will be P1 + P2 + P3 + . p2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2.. then probability of occurence of A P(A) = P(A ∩ A1) + P(A ∩ A2) + .. + Pn = 1 Variance = Σx Pi (mean) = Σ (x ) (E(x)) 2 2 2 αp1p2 + (1 − α) (1 − p1) (1 − p2 ) β . Baye's Rule : Let A1. Truth of the statement : If two persons A and B speaks truth with the probability p1 & p2 respectively and if they agree on a statement. P(B / A i)P(A i ) P(Ai/B) = P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) + P(B / A )P(A ) . 0744 . ... 608-A.. αp1p2 Binomial distribution : If an experiment is repeated n times... Given that the probability of A & B speaking truth is p1.. Probability distribution : (i) If a random variable x assumes values x1.. An are n mutually exclusive & set of exhaustive events and event A can occur through any one of these events.. p1p2 p1p2 + (1 − p1 ) (1 − p2 ) . ... 3 9. the successive trials being independent of one another...

P. a + 2d A. ar. An = a + nd. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. = (ii) Sum of an infinite G.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. between two given nos. a + (n 1) d where a is the first term and d is the common difference General (nth) term of an A.. where d = (v) b−a n+1 n (a + b) 2 PROGRESSION AND SERIES 1. .... Arithmetic Progression (A... . Sn is given then Tn = Sn Sn1 where Sn1 is sum of (n 1) terms... a d. S ∞ = Supposition of terms in G. having m terms... Tn = arn1 If a G....) : (a) (b) General A. An is defined as A1 + A 2 +. ar.P.M... ar. (d) Supposition of terms in A. ar r (iii) a a . (i) (ii) (iii) (e) (i) Three terms as a . of middle term..M. . having m terms then nth term from end = armn (c) Sum of n terms of a G.ive terms as a .M. 608-A.) Ph. If A is the A. r < n 2 nr Note : If sum of n terms i. a.P. then A1 = a + d.P. . then nth term from end = a + (m n)d (c) Sum of n terms of an A...6450883.6450883.M.. a.M's between a and b. .P.P. Sn = n n [2a + (n 1)d] = [a + Tn] 2 2 Sum of n A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA ..e. of n numbers A1.... 1 (a + an+r).M's inserted between a and b is (vi) Any term of an A.P. a + d.P. an = 2. a. 2405510 . where a is the first term and r is the common ratio (b) General (nth) term of a G.. 0744 .M.P. (except first term) is equal to the half of the sum of term equidistant from the term i. a + d .POCKET BOOK (iv) If A1..) : A..... ar2 . a + 2d.e.. ..P. Sn = = (d) (e) a − Tnr a(1 − r n ) = ... r<1 1−r 1−r Tnr − a a(r n − 1) = . A2. a + 3d . 0744 .r>1 r −1 r −1 Arithmetic mean (A.. 608-A. a d. ar2 r2 r PAGE # 28 a+b i. Tn = a + (n 1)d [nth term from the beginning] If an A.) (a) General G.P. a + d. a. a. ar3 r3 r a a . (i) (ii) (iii) Three terms as .. An are n A.P.P.) Ph. of the terms taken symmetrically from the beginning and from the end will always be constant and will be equal to middle term or A.. then A= a ..our terms as . A2. a. 2 2A = a + b PAGE # 27 E D U C A T I O N S .+ A n ΣA i Sum of numbers = = n n n Geometric Progression (G.e.d.or an A.. A2 = a + 2d.P... a + d.MATHS FORMULA . 1−r |r|<1 .ive terms as a 2d.P.our terms as a 3d.M.... a and b. A...

. (i) If G is the G.. 4. G2..M. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.... G.Hn are n H. 0744 . a + (n − 1)d (c) Harmonic Mean (H.. ..M's. H2. and H.M.. d(1 − r n−1) a + r.... G2 = ar . a a + d a + 2d . respectively between two +ve numbers..... and G. then H1 = ab(n + 1) ab(n + 1) ....M. = (x1 x2 .. Gn are n G.) Ph..) (i) Geometrical mean of n numbers x1. 0744 ... . x2. Sum standard results : (a) (b) Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .M. (a + 2d) r2.P.....M's between a and b.M.. + n = Relation Between A.. Σn = 1 + 2 + 3 + .P) (a) (b) General H..) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 29 E D U C A T I O N S . then H = 2ab a+b 3...M..6450883. (i) (ii) (iii) AH = G2 A ≥ G ≥ H If A and G are A. xn is defined as G.M.. 1 1 1 . then G2 = ab ⇒ G = (ii) ab MATHS FORMULA ........ then their a b dr a + (1 − r)2 1−r 6.M.'s inserted between a & b is (ab)n/2 1 1 = th n term coresponding to A. 2405510 PAGE # 30 .) : (a) (b) (c) (d) General form a.MATHS FORMULA . (1 − r)2 1−r General (nth) term Tn = [a + (n 1) d] rn1 Sum of n terms of an A.... . ...P Sn = Sum of infinite terms of an A. then G1 = ar... Arithmetico ... between two given numbers a and b..P........... + 2n = n (n + 1) If G1. . where r = G J H aK n 1/n+1 General (nth term) of a H.M. Gn 2 Harmonic Progression (H..........M...P. 608-A. then these numbers are A± Σn2 = 12 + 22 + 32 + .P... 608-A. n(n + 1) 2 or first find n A.G..M's between a and b.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (2n 1) = n2 Σ2n = 2 + 4 + 6 + .G.M.. S∞ = If H1. +. + n2 = n(n + 1)(2n + 1) 6 A 2 − G2 .P..Geometric Progression (A. + (n times) = na Σ(2n 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 + ......POCKET BOOK (c) (d) (e) (f) 5..G.POCKET BOOK (f) Geometric Mean (G.6450883.. Tn = (iii) Product of the n G..'s between reciprocal will be required H..) (i) (ii) If H is the H. (a + d)r. Hn = bn + a na + b 1 1 & .M. + n 3 3 3 3 3 Ln(n + 1) O = M N 2 P Q 2 Σa = a + a + .. between a and b. xn)1/n.... bI = ar .

= Binomial coefficient of middle term is the greatest binomial coefficient.POCKET BOOK 3. n Cr . + Cn = 2n C0 C 1 + C2 C3 + ...... 2405510 PAGE # 32 ..) Ph.. 608-A. + C n = 0 C0 + C 2 + C4 + ........ n Cn are usually denoted by C0. n C1 .2n1 C1 2C2 + 3C3 .G n + 3I K H 2 J 2.... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 31 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883... * * * * C0 + C1 + C2 + ... + nCr xnr ar + ... 608-A. Properties of Binomial coefficients : ...n I (a) If n is even then middle term = G + 1J H2 K (b) If n is odd then middle term = n n −1 nn−1 Cr −1 = r r r −1 2n! n−r ! n+r ! n−2 Cr −2 and so on . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .........) Ph...... = C1 + C 3 + C5 + . (m + 1) term from the end = (n m + 1) from beginning = Tnm+1 th middle term Cr = ....G n + 1IJ H 2K Cn + r = n th c hc h and * * * * * * n Cr + Cr − 1 = n+1 Cr . = 0 C0 + 2C 1 + 3C2 + .. 0744 .Tr+1 = nCr xnr ar is the (r + 1)th term from beginning. C r ..+ (n + 1)Cn = (n + 2)2n1 C02 + C 12 + C22 + .6450883.. Binomial Theorem for any +ve integral index : (x + a) n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn1 a + nC2 xn2 a2 + .... n α r (α + β) = 0 α ± 1 xβ I J K c2nh! cn!h 2 = 2n Cn n .... Let the given expansion be G x H and for x0.... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if xn occurs in Tr+1 (r + 1)th term then r is given by n α r (α + β) = m R | Sc−1h | T n/2 n 0. th term C1 + 2C2 + 3C3 + ... C1 .... + nCn = n... = 2n1 n ∑ r=0 th n n Cr xnr ar General term ...or the sake of convenience the coefficients n n BINOMIAL THEOREM 1... Cn respectively. C2 .... + nCn an = (i) (ii) (iii) C0 . if n is odd Cn/2 ..MATHS FORMULA .. th term * 2n . To determine a particular term in the given expasion : ...POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . + Cn2 = C02 C 12 + C22 C32 + . if n is even .

+ = 2 3 n+1 n+1 C1 C2 C3 (−1)n C n + . 2n + 1 C2n + 1 = 2 Generalized (x1 + x2 +.. Multinomial Theorem : (i) (x + a)n = ∑ n n n r =0 Cr xnr ar.. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA .... These are kth and (k + 1)th where x & a are +ve real nos... + 2 3 4 n+1 r1 +r2 +. 608-A...] denotes greatest integer less than or equal to x} 5. Total no.. xn)m is m+n1 C n1 4. + 2n 2n + 1 Cn = Cn + 1 + (ii) (x + y + z)n = r + s + t =n ∑ Cn + 2 + . xk)n = 1 n+1 ∑ n! r1 r2 rk r1 ! r2 !..6450883.) Ph. (ii) If (n + 1)a ∉ Z then the expansion has only one greatx+a est term.. N x+a Q {[.6450883.POCKET BOOK n! xr ys z t s! r !t ! Note : 2n + 1 2n + 1 C0 + 2n + 1 C1 + ... of terms in the expansion (x1 + x2 +.rk =n * C0 = 6..... Greatest term : (i) If (n + 1)a ∈ Z (integer) then the expansion has two x+a greatest terms.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ....POCKET BOOK 2n + 1 MATHS FORMULA .. 0744 .. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.. This is (k + 1)th term k = LM(n + 1)aOP . n ∈N = ∑ r =0 n! n! xnr ar = r +∑=n x s ar . xk * C0 + C1 C2 Cn 2n+1 − 1 + + .... 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 33 E D U C A T I O N S .. 2405510 PAGE # 34 .rk ! x1 x2 . s (n − r)! r ! s! r ! where s = n r .

0744 . 608-A.or a regular polygon of side a and number of sides n (a) (b) (c) (d) Internal angle of polygon = (n 2) Sum of all internal angles = (n 2) π Radius of incircle of this polygon r = Radius of circumcircle of this polygon R a π = cosec 2 n (e) (f) Area of the polygon = Area of triangle = 1 na2 cot 4 .) Ph. Trigonometric identities : (i) sin2θ + cos2θ = 1 (ii) cosec2θ cot2θ = 1 (iii) sec2θ tan2θ = 1 Sign convention : y II quadrant sin & cosec are +ve x' O III quadrant tan & cot are +ve y' 5. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.POCKET BOOK 3. 608-A.6450883. a πI Area of incircle = π G cot J H 2 nK Area of circumcircle = π m sinθ m cotθ m sinθ cosθ ±tanθ cosθ ±sinθ ±sinθ cosθ ±tanθ (h) .6450883. 0744 . Relation between system of measurement of angles : Sum & differences of angles of t-ratios : (i) sin(A ± B) = sinA cosB ± cosA sinB (ii) cos(A ± B) = cosA cosB ± sinA sinB (iii) tan (A ± B) = D G 2C = = π 90 100 & π radian = 1800 tan A ± tanB 1 m tan A tan B PAGE # 36 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . T-ratios of allied angles : The signs of trigonometrical ratio in different quadrant. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 35 E D U C A T I O N S . a cos ec π IJ G2 H nK 2 ±cotθ ±cotθ m tanθ secθ ±cosecθ secθ m cosecθ secθ cosecθ secθ ±cosecθ m cosecθ sec θ m cotθ m tanθ 2. Allied∠ of (θ) 900 ± θ 1800 ± θ 2700 ± θ 3600 ± θ T-ratios sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ secθ cosecθ 6.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . Some important results : (i) Arc length AB = r θ Area of circular sector = (ii) 1 2 r θ 2 π n π a cot 2 n 4. . sinθ cosθ tanθ cotθ cosθ IV quadrant cos & sec are +ve I quadrant All +ve x TRIGONOMETRIC RATIO AND IDENTITIES 1. 2405510 .G π IJ H nK π 1 2 a cos 4 n 2 (g) .

.. . 2 4 6 8 Where S1 = Σ tan A S2 = Σ tan A tan B...POCKET BOOK 7. C − D I G 2 J G 2 J H K H K . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .. C + D I cos . T-ratios of multiple and submultiple angles : (i) sin2A = 2sinA cosA = 2 tan A 1 + tan2 A 3 +1 2 2 3 −1 2 2 = (sin A + cos A)2 1 = 1 (sin A cos A)2 = cos15 0 ⇒ sinA = 2sinA/2 cosA/2 = = sin150 0 2 tan A / 2 1 + tan2 A / 2 (ix) (x) (xi) E D U C A T I O N S cos750 = 0 (ii) cos2A = cos2A sin2A = 2cos2A 1 = 1 2sin2A = tan75 = 2 + cot750 = 2 3 = cot15 1 − tan2 A 1 + tan2 A 0 3 = tan15 . 608-A. ) S1 − S3 + S5 − S7 +. 608-A.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ..) Ph.. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . = 1 − S + S − S + S −. C + D I cos .ormulaes for product into sum or difference and viceversa : (i) (ii) (iii) 2sinA cosB = sin(A + B) + sin(A B) 2cosA sinB = sin(A + B) sin(A B) 2cosA cosB = cos(A + B) + cos(A B) (v) sin(A + B) sin(A B) = sin2A sin2B = cos2 B cos2 A (vi) cos(A + B) cos (A B) = cos2A sin2B = cos2B sin2A (vii) tan(A + B + C) = (iv) 2sinA sinB = cos(A B) cos(A + B) S1 − S3 tan A + tanB + tan C − tan A tan B tan C = 1−S 1 − tan A tan B − tanB tan C − tan C tan A 2 Generalized tan (A + B + C + .6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 38 .. C + D I sin .POCKET BOOK (iv) cot (A ± B) = cot A cot B m 1 cot B ± cot A MATHS FORMULA ... D − C I (viii) cosC cosD = 2sin G H 2 J G 2 J K H K (v) sinC + sinD = 2sin (ix) tanA + tanB = sin(A + B) cos A cos B Σ tan A = Π tan A Σ sin A = Σ sin A cos B cos C 1 + Π cos A = Σ sin A sin B cos C (viii) sin75 = 0 8.. C + D I .. 2405510 PAGE # 37 E D U C A T I O N S . S3 = Σ tan A tan B tan C & so on (viii) sin (A + B + C) = Σ sin A cos B cos C Π sin A (ix) = Π cos A (Numerator of tan (A + B + C)) cos (A + B + C) = Π cos A Σ sin A sin B cos C = Π cos A (Denominator of tan (A + B + C)) for a triangle A + B + C = π . C − DI (vi) sinC sinD = 2cos G 2 J sin G 2 J H K H K .) Ph....... C − D I (vii) cosC + cosD = 2cos G H 2 J G 2 J K H K .

n − 1I βO sin nβ M G 2JP 2 N H KQ β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 sin 2n α . cos22α . β ≠ 2nπ sin β 2 (ix) tanA/2 = (ii) cosα + cos(α + β) + cos(α + 2β) + . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 608-A. 0744 ... C are angles of triangle i.. B. + to nterms 9. then (i) sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 4sinA sinB sinC i.e. n − 1IβO sinLnβ O M G 2 J P M2P N H K Q N Q .6450883. + to nterms sin α + = (viii) cosA/2 = L .. Σ sin 2A = 4 Π (sin A) PAGE # 39 E D U C A T I O N S = 1 . Maximum and minimum value of the expression : acosθ + bsinθ Maximum (greatest) Value = a2 + b2 Minimum (Least) value = a2 + b2 (iii) cos α + = L .MATHS FORMULA . Some useful series : (i) sinα + sin(α + β) + sin(α + 2β) + .e.cos(2n1 α) = 10. A + B + C = π. 2405510 PAGE # 40 ..) Ph. α ≠ nπ 2n sin α cosα .. A ≠ (2n + 1)π sin A 1 + cos A Σ tan A/2 tan B/2 = 1 Σ cot A cot B = 1 Σ cot A/2 = Π cot A/2 11. α = (2k+1)π .POCKET BOOK 2 tan A tan2A = 1 − tan2 A MATHS FORMULA . Conditional trigonometric identities : If A.. α = 2kπ = 1 .6450883.cos2α .) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 .POCKET BOOK (ii) (iii) (v) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 4cosA cosB cosC sinA + sinB + sinC = 4cosA/2 cosB/2 cosC/2 sin2A + sin2B + sin2C = 1 2sinA sinB cosC (iii) 2 tan A / 2 ⇒ tanA = 1 − tan2 A / 2 (iv) sin3θ = 3sinθ 4sin3θ = 4sin(600 θ ) sin(600 + θ ) sin θ = sin θ (2 cos θ 1) (2 cos θ + 1) (v) cos3θ = 4cos3θ 3cosθ = 4cos(60 θ ) cos(60 + θ ) cos θ 0 0 (iv) cosA + cosB + cosC = 1 + 4 sinA/2 sinB/2 sinC/2 (vi) cos2A + cos2B + cos2C = 1 2cosA cosB cosC (vii) tanA + tanB + tanC = tanA tanB tanC (viii) cotB cotC + cotC cotA + cotA cotB = 1 (ix) (x) (xi) = cos θ (1 2 sin θ ) (1 + 2 sin θ ) 3 tan A − tan3 A (vi) tan3A = 1 − 3 tan2 A = tan(600 A) tan(600 + A)tanA (vii) sinA/2 = 1 − cos A 2 1 + cos A 2 1 − cos A 1 − cos A = .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.

divide both side by a2 + b2 and put a a +b 2 2 = cosα.or general solution of the equation of the form a cosθ + bsinθ = c.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. Some important points : (i) If while solving an equation. n∈I 2 now solve using above formula 3. where c ≤ a2 + b2 . 0744 . then the roots found after squaring must be checked wheather they satisfy the original equation or not. 608-A.6450883. n∈I π . θ = (2n + 1) θ = nπ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. If two equations are given then find the common values of θ between 0 & 2π and then add 2nπ to this common solution (value). b a + b2 2 = sinα.MATHS FORMULA . PAGE # 41 E D U C A T I O N S .) Ph. 0744 . θ = 2nπ + θ = 2πn θ = 2nπ n∈I (iv) sinθ = 1 (v) cosθ = 1 π 2 (ii) (vi) sinθ = 1 (vii) cosθ = 1 (viii) sinθ = sinα (ix) (x) (xi) cosθ = cosα π 3π or 2nπ + 2 2 θ = (2n + 1)π θ = nπ + (1)nα ⇒ θ = 2nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α θ = nπ ± α tanθ = tanα ⇒ sin2θ = sin2α θ = nπ + α ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ (xii) cos2θ = cos2α (xiii) tan2θ = tan2α 2. 608-A. General solution of the equations of the form (i) (ii) (iii) sinθ = 0 cosθ = 0 tanθ = 0 = cosβ(say) ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ θ = nπ. .POCKET BOOK Thus the equation reduces to form cos(θ α) = c a + b2 2 TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS 1. 2405510 PAGE # 42 . we have to square it. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .

unction sin 1 ≤ θ < 0 π 2 or 0 < θ ≤ (ii) sin (sin1 x) = x provided 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 cos (cos1 x) = x provided 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2.) Ph. x ≥ 1 Range (R) π 2 x ≤ θ ≤ π 2 tan (tan1 x) = x provided ∞ < x < ∞ cot (cot1 x) = x provided ∞ < x < ∞ sec (sec1 x) = x provided ∞ < x ≤ 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cosec (cosec1 x) = x provided ∞ < x ≤ 1 or 1 ≤ x < ∞ cos1 x tan1 x cot1 x sec1 x cosec1 x 0 ≤ θ ≤ π π π < θ < 2 2 (iii) 0 < θ < π 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. 2 ∀ x ∈ [ 1.) Ph. 608-A. x ≥ 1 x ≤ 1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 43 E D U C A T I O N S .UNCTIONS 1. 1] π π < θ < 2 2 tan1 x + cot1 x = (cot θ ) = θ provided 0 < θ < π ∀ x ∈ R sec1 (sec θ ) = θ provided 0 ≤ θ < π π or < θ ≤ π 2 2 sec1 x + cosec1 x = π . θ ≠ π 2 sin1 ( x) = sin1 x. 2 π . 2405510 PAGE # 44 . 1] ∪ [1. x ∈ ( ∞ . 0744 . cos1 ( x) = π cos1 x tan1 ( x) = tan1 x cot1 ( x) = π cot1 x cosec1 ( x) = cosec1 x sec1 ( x) = π sec1 x π π . θ ≠ 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2 2 3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. similarly for other inverse Tfunctions.MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Properties of Inverse T-functions : (i) sin1 (sin θ ) = θ provided π 2 π ≤ θ ≤ 2 cos1 (cos θ ) = θ provided θ ≤ θ ≤ π tan1 (tan θ ) = θ provided cot 1 (iv) sin1 x + cos1 x = π . 608-A. If y = sin x. 0744 . then x = sin1 y.6450883. Domain and Range of Inverse T-functions : .POCKET BOOK cosec1 (cosec θ ) = θ provided π 2 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC .6450883. ∞ ) 2 ∀ . Domain (D) 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 ∞ < x < ∞ ∞ < x < ∞ x ≤ 1.

if xy > 1 H K . if x > 0. 0744 .y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (iv) sin1 .ormulae for sum and difference of inverse trigonometric function : (i) tan1x + tan1y = tan1 1−x 2 x 1 − x2 = cot1 1 − x2 x 1 1−x 2 = cosec1 1 . = cosec1 x . N Q 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 if x. y > 0.) Ph. 1] ∪ [1. 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x 1 − x2 (iii) = sec1 1 = cosec1 x x 1 + x2 1 1 − x2 (iv) (iii) tan1 x = sin1 = cos1 1 1 + x2 = cot1 1 x (v) (vi) = sec1 1 1 + x2 = cosec 1 + x2 . ∀ x ∈ ( ∞ . x−yI tan x tan y = tan G 1 + xy J . x + y + z − xyz I tan x + tan y + tan z = tan G K H 1 − xy − yz − zx J L O sin x ± sin y = sin Mx 1 − y ± y 1 − x P . 608-A. ∞ ) L M N O P Q if x.G 1 I H xJ K 2 2 (vii) sin1x ± sin1y = π sin1 x 1 − y ± y 1 − x . if x > 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. ∞ ) 2 2 (viii) cos1x ± cos1y = cos1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y .y > 0 & x2 + y2 ≤ 1 (vi) tan1 = R cot x S− π + cot x | T −1 −1 for x > 0 for x < 0 2 2 (ix) cos1x ± cos1y = π cos1 xy m 1 − x 1 − y . xy > 1 tan x + tan y = π + tan G H 1 − xy J K . ∀ x ∈ ( ∞ .y > 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 . L M N O P Q if x.G 1 I H xJ K . 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.y ≥ 0 & x2 + y2 > 1 (v) cos1 = sec1 x. Value of one inverse function in terms of another inverse function : (i) sin1 x = cos1 = sec1 = tan1 MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 45 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. xy < 1 G 1 − xy J H K .G 1 I H xJ K . 1] ∪ [1. x ≥ 0 x . 608-A. x − y I . 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 x (ii) (ii) cos1 x = sin1 1 − x2 = tan1 1 − x2 = cot1 x .) Ph. xy < 1 tan x tan y = π + tan G H 1 + xy J K . 2405510 PAGE # 46 . if x > 0. x + y I . x + y I . . L M N O P Q if x.POCKET BOOK 5.MATHS FORMULA . y > 0. y < 0.POCKET BOOK 4.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 47 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK PROPERTIES & SOLUTION O. c + a > b (iii) 3.G 1 − x IJ G1 − x J G1 + x K H K H H1 + x K 2 1 2 1 (iv) 3sin1x = sin1(3x 4x3) (v) 3cos x = cos (4x 3x) 1 1 3 (vi) 3tan1x = tan1 . ∠ABC = ∠B. a > 0. TRIANGLE Properties of triangle : 1. AC = b A A c B B a b C C 2 2 1 − x2 ). we write BC = a. 0744 . 2405510 . b +c > a. c > 0 Sine formula : a b c = = = k(say) sin A sinB sin C or sin A sinB sinC = = = k (say) a b c 4. 0744 . ∠ACB = ∠C 2. In any ∆ABC. if 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2cos1x = cos1(2x2 1). Inverse trigonometric ratios of multiple angles (i) (ii) (iii) 2sin1x = sin1(2x MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . b > 0.POCKET BOOK 6. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if 1 ≤ x ≤ 1 2tan1x = tan1 . A triangle has three sides and three angles. 2x I = sin . Cosine formula : cos A = b2 + c2 − a2 2bc cos B = c2 + a2 − b2 2ac a2 + b2 − c2 2ab PAGE # 48 cos C = . AB = c. 608-A. In ∆ABC : (i) A + B + C = π (ii) a + b > c. 2x IJ = cos . 3x − x I G 1 − 3x J H K 3 2 and ∠BAC = ∠A.) Ph.6450883.

608-A. ∆. Projection formula : a = b cos C + c cos B b = c cos A + a cos C c = a cos B + b cos A Napier's Analogies : tan tan tan 7. tan A B s −c tan = 2 2 s B C s −a tan = 2 2 s C tan 2 A s −b = 2 s tan where 2s = a + b + c tan sin (b) cos A = 2 s (s − a) bc s (s − b) ca s (s − c) ab PAGE # 49 E D U C A T I O N S B cos = 2 cos C = 2 10.) Ph. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .In any ∆ABC : (a) sin A = 2 ∆ = s(s − a) (s − b) (s − c) (s − b) (s − c) bc (s − c) (s − a) ca (s − a) (s − b) ab sin B = 2 C = 2 9.6450883. 0744 . Area of triangle : (i) (ii) 1 1 1 ∆ = 2 ab sin C = 2 bc sin A = 2 ca sin B Half angled formula . 608-A.POCKET BOOK 5.) Ph.6450883. tan tan 8. Circumcircle of triangle and its radius : (i) R= a b c = = 2sin A 2sinB 2sin C abc 4∆ Where R is circumradius PAGE # 50 (ii) R= . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. A −B a−b = cot 2 a+b B−C b−c = cot 2 b+c C−A c−a = cot 2 c+a C 2 A 2 B 2 MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 .POCKET BOOK (c) tan A = 2 B = 2 C = 2 (s − b) (s − c) s (s − a) (s − c) (s − a) s (s − b) (s − b) (s − a) s (s − c) 6.

2405510 PAGE # 52 . 2 2 2 A B cos sin 2 2 C 2 C 2 A B C cos cos 2 2 2 a cos (x) r1 = B C C A b cos cos cos 2 2 2 2 .6450883. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.) Ph.6450883. r2 = . 0744 . 608-A. A B cos cos 2 2 A B cos 2 2 C cos 2 c cos r3 = (ii) r1 = s tan r1 = 4R sin r2 = 4R cos r3 = 4R cos (iii) . r2 = s tan . Incircle of a triangle and its radius : (iii) r= ∆ s A B C = (s b) tan = (s c) tan 2 2 2 MATHS FORMULA . The radii of the escribed circles are given by : (i) r1 = ∆ ∆ ∆ .POCKET BOOK 11. r3 = s−a s −b s−c A B . r2 = .POCKET BOOK (iv) r1 + r2 + r3 r = 4R (v) 1 1 1 1 r1 + r2 + r3 = r 1 2 r1 (iv) r = (s a) tan (vi) + 1 2 r2 + 1 2 r3 + 1 r2 = a2 + b2 + c2 ∆2 (v) r = 4R sin A B C sin sin 2 2 2 (vii) (vi) cos A + cos B + cos C = 1 + r R 1 1 1 1 + + = 2Rr bc ca ab (viii) r1r2 + r2r3 + r3r1 = s2 (ix) ∆ = 2R2 sin A sin B sin C = 4Rr cos B C A C B A a sin sin b sin sin c sin sin 2 2 = 2 2 = 2 2 (vii) r = A B C cos cos cos 2 2 2 12. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 51 E D U C A T I O N S . 2 2 2 A B C sin cos . r3 = s tan 2 2 A B C cos cos .

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.) Ph.6450883. ∠ BCD = β & ∠ BDC = θ then (m + n) cotθ = m cotα ncot β C α β A A m D θ n B B = ncotA mcotB [m n Theorem] . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Angle of elevation and depression : If an observer is at O and object is at P then ∠ XOP is called angle of elevation of P as seen from O.6450883. 608-A. 0744 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . then ∠ QPO is called angle of depression of O as seen from P. 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 53 E D U C A T I O N S . Some useful result : (i) In any triangle ABC if AD : DB = m : n ∠ ACD = α . 608-A. h α d β If an observer is at P and object is at O. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 54 .POCKET BOOK (ii) d = h (cotα cotβ) HEIGHT AND DISTANCE 1.

(i) If AB = CD. CD and AD. y1) and Q(x2. PAGE # 55 E D U C A T P (ii) . 0) = 3. my 2 + ny1 m+n I J K m n P Externally : AP m = = λ BP n A(x 1. y 1 ) B(x 2. CA (i) If AB = BC = CA.6450883.e.) Ph. y2 ) 2. (iii) If AB = BC = CD = AD. y2) is given by d(P. y1 ) P n B(x 2 . 0744 . Q) ≥ 0 (ii) d(P. BC. Here points are collinear. y 2 ) P . POINT 1. Q) = PQ = = (x 2 − x1)2 + (y2 − y1 )2 (Difference of x coordinate)2 + (Difference of y coordinate)2 Note : (i) d(P. (iii) Circumcentre of an obtuse angled triangle is outside the triangle. AD = BC and AC = BD. (iii) If sum of square of any two sides is equal to the third. Q) = d(Q. then ABCD is a rhombus. Section formula : (i) Internally : x2 + y2 AP m = = λ .G mx − nx H m−n 2 1 . 2 2 I J K (iv) The line ax + by + c = 0 divides the line joining the points (ax1 + by + c) (x1. y) from origin (0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y2) in the ratio = (ax + by + c) 2 2 . (i) Circumcentre of an acute angled triangle is inside the triangle. P) (iv) Distance of a point (x. AD = BC.) Ph. 608-A. Q) = 0 ⇔ P = Q (iii) d(P. Use of Distance . then ABCD is a parallelogram. then ABCD is a rectangle. PA = PB = PC. (iv) If AB = BC = CD = AD and AC = BD. Here λ > 0 BP n m A(x 1 . my 2 − ny1 m−n I J K (iii) Coordinates of mid point of PQ are . BC. Distance formula : Distance between two points P(x1.x G H 1 + x2 y1 + y2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.ormula : (a) In Triangle : Calculate AB.G mx + nx H m+n 2 1 .6450883. (b) In Parallelogram : Calculate AB. then ∆ is equilateral. AB = BC + CA or BC = AC + AB or AC = AB + BC. then ∆ is right triangle. 0744 . (ii) Circumcentre of a right triangle is mid point of the hypotenuse. (ii) If AB = CD.e. (iv) Sum of any two equal to left third they do not form a triangle i.MATHS FORMULA . then ABCD is a square. Here P is circumcentre and PA is radius.or circumcentre of a triangle : Circumcentre of a triangle is equidistant from vertices i.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . (ii) If any two sides are equal then ∆ is isosceles.POCKET BOOK (C) . 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 56 . y1) & (x2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.

. Points must be taken in order. (ii) If in a triangle point arrange in anticlockwise then value of ∆ be +ve and if in clockwise then ∆ will be ve. x1 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 M xn x1 6. 3 3 IJ K x1 x2 x3 = 1 2 y1 y2 y3 M yn y1 . in the ratio 2 : 1 (iii) In an equilateral triangle..6450883. (x2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1). 4.x G H 1 + x 2 + x 3 y1 + y 2 + y 3 ..or parallelogram midpoint of diagonal AC = mid point of diagonal BD MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .POCKET BOOK 5. 2ab . circumcentre. y2). (xn. 1 a+b+c I J K (viii) Coordinates of orthocentre are obtained by solving the equation of any two altitudes.. 608-A. y2) and C(x3. (iv) Orthocentre.) Ph. Area of Polygon : Area of polygon having vertices (x 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 57 E D U C A T I O N S .. centroid and circumcentre are always collinear and centroid divides the line joining orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1 (v) Area of triangle formed by coordinate axes & the line ax + by + c = 0 is c2 . yn) is given by area (vi) Coordinates of centroid G (vii) Coordinates of incentre I . x2 1 2 x3 x1 1 [x y + x2y3 + x3y1 x2y1 x3y2 x1y3] 2 1 2 Note : (i) Three points A. . y') then x x' → cosθ y' → sinθ ∆= 1 2 x2 x3 (Determinant method) B y sinθ cosθ B x1 = y1 y2 y3 y1 [Stair method] = 7. 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 58 . Some important points : (i) Three pts. B. y3) . Area of Triangle : The area of triangle ABC with vertices A(x1.POCKET BOOK (v) . y) with reference to new axis will be (x'.. B. y1). incentre coincide. A.) Ph. Rotational Transformation : If coordinates of any point P(x. B(x2. C are collinear. orthocentre.G ax + bx + cx H a+b+c 1 2 3 ay + by 2 + cy 3 ..6450883. y3). if area of triangle is zero (ii) Centroid G of ∆ABC divides the median AD or BE or C. C are collinear if area of triangle is zero. centroid. (x3.

y1) and STRAIGHT LINE 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Slope of a Line : The tangent of the angle that a line makes with +ve direction of the x-axis in the anticlockwise sense is called slope or gradient of the line and is generally denoted by m. y2) is x − x . y1) Normal or perpendicular form : Equation of a line such that the length of the perpendicular from the origin on it is p and the angle which the perpendicular makes with the +ve direction of x-axis is α . θ ≠ +ve direction of x-axis is π with the 2 y2 − y1 B(x2. y = y1 + r sin θ ⇒ Where r is the distance of any point P(x.) Ph. 2 1 (v) Slope of the line ax + by + c = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . 2.) Ph. 608-A. Thus m = tan θ . (vi) Slope Intercept form : Equation of a line with slope m and making an intercept c on the y-axis is y = mx + c. Angle between two lines : (i) Two lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are (a) (b) (c) a1 b1 c1 Parallel if a = b ≠ c 2 2 2 Perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 Identical or coincident if a = b = c 2 2 2 a2b1 − a1b2 If not above three. y1) & (x2. then θ = tan1 1 + m m 1 2 . (i) Slope of line || to x-axis is m = 0 (ii) Slope of line || to y-axis is m = ∞ (not defined) (iii) Slope of the line equally inclined with the axes is 1 or 1 (iv) Slope of the line through the points A(x1.6450883.6450883.POCKET BOOK (ix) Intercept form : Equation of a line making intercepts a x y + = 1. 0744 . b ≠ 0 is (vi) Slope of two parallel lines are equal. a b (xi) x − x1 y − y1 = = r cos θ sinθ x = x1 + r cos θ . is x cos α + y sin α = p. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 59 E D U C A T I O N S . (vii) Point slope form : Equation of a line with slope m and passing through the point (x1. 2405510 PAGE # 60 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . a b Parametric or distance or symmetrical form of the line : Equation of a line passing through (x1. (vii) If m1 & m2 are slopes of two ⊥ lines then m1m2 = 1. then θ = tan1 a a − b b 1 2 1 2 Two lines y = m1 x + c and y = m2 x + c are Parallel if m1 = m2 Perpendicular if m1m2 = 1 (d) (ii) (a) (b) (c) y − y1 x − x1 y2 − y1 = x2 − x1 m1 − m2 If not above two. 0 ≤ θ ≤ π . y2) is 3. y1) and and b respectively on x-axis and y-axis is (x) making an angle θ . y1) is y y1 = m(x x1) (viii) Two point form : Equation of a line passing through the points (x1. y) on the line from the point (x1. 0744 . Standard form of the equation of a line : (i) Equation of x-axis is y = 0 (ii) Equation of y-axis is x = 0 (iii) Equation of a straight line || to x-axis at a distance b from it is y = b (iv) Equation of a straight line || to y-axis at a distance a from it is x = a (v) Slope form : Equation of a line through the origin and having slope m is y = mx. 608-A.

Homogeneous equation : If y = m1x and y = m2x be the two equations represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 .y1) making an angle α with y = mx + c is y y1 = 7. Angle between pair of straight lines : The angle between the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 or ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 9. 3 is 2 h2 − ab is tanθ = (a + b) (i) The two lines given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 are (a) Parallel and coincident iff h2 ab = 0 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 The two line given by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are (a) Parallel if h2 ab = 0 & af2 = bg2 (b) Perpendicular iff a + b = 0 (c) Coincident iff g2 ac = 0 a1 b1 a2 b2 a3 b3 c1 c2 = 0 c3 (ii) 10.) Ph. 2 will be of same sign or of opposite sign according to the point A(x1. 2. b b 8. then m1 + m2 = 2h/b and m1m2 = a/b 13. 608-A.POCKET BOOK 12.POCKET BOOK 4. Equation of a line parallel (or perpendicular) to the line ax + by + c = 0 is ax + by + c' = 0 (or bx ay + λ = 0) Equation of st. yi) i = 1.MATHS FORMULA . lines through (x1. Combined equation of angle bisector of the angle between the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is x −y a−b 2 2 = xy h PAGE # 61 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . i = 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y2) lie on same side or on opposite side of L (x. 2 is |c1 − c 2| a2 + b2 14. a h g h b f =0 straight line if ∆ ≡ g f c If y = m1x + c & y = m2x + c represents two straight lines then m1 + m2 = length of perpendicular from (x1. Equation of bisectors of angles between two lines : a1x + b1y + c1 a +b 2 1 2 1 =± a2 x + b2 y + c 2 a2 + b2 2 2 11.6450883. m ± tan α (x x1) 1 m m tan α MATHS FORMULA . Distance between two parallel lines ax + by + ci = 0. 608-A.6450883. Position of a point with respect to a straight line : The line L(xi. y1) & B (x2. 6.amily of straight lines : The general equation of family of straight line will be written in one parameter The equation of straight line which passes through point of intersection of two given lines L1 and L2 can be taken as L1 + λ L2 = 0 . General equation of second degree : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of 5. y) respectively. 0744 . y1) on ax + by + c = 0 is |ax1 + by1 + c| a2 + b2 −2h a .) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. m1m2 = . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 13. . Condition of concurrency for three straight lines Li ≡ ai x + bi y + ci = 0. i = 1. 2405510 PAGE # 62 .

then its equation is (x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) = 0 Parametric equations : (i) The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 = r2 are x = rcosθ. Concentric circles : Two circles having same centre C(h. equation of chord joining θ 1 & θ 2 is 11. y = r sinθ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 10. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 64 . (ii) x2 + y2 = r2 . f and c are constants (i) Centre of the cirle is (g. of a diameter of a circle. f) i. y = f + g2 + f 2 − c sinθ 8. Diameter form : If (x1. 0) origin is circle centre and r is the radius. 608-A. a circle : A point (x1. General equation of a circle : x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 where g. 0744 . (ii) 2.t. 2 2 2 PAGE # 63 E D U C A T 1 + m2 .POCKET BOOK 5.e. Condition of Tangency : Circle x2 + y2 = a2 will touch the line y = mx + c if c = ±a x cos θ1 + θ2 θ + θ2 θ − θ2 + y sin 1 = r cos 1 .) Ph. 3. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . y = k + rsinθ The parametric equations of the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are x = g + (iv) g2 + f 2 − c cosθ.6450883. 6. k) is circle centre and r is the radius. y2) are end pts. D a . where (h. −1 coeff.G − 1 coeff.e. 0744 . y1 ) lies outside.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. Length of tangent = S1 4. r sin θ ) (ii) (iii) The parametric equations of the circle (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 are x = h + rcosθ.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. . Chord length (length of intercept) = 2 r2 − p2 Intercepts made on coordinate axes by the circle : (i) (ii) x axis = 2 g2 − c y axis = 2 f 2 − c CIRCLE 1. k) but different radii r1 & r2 respectively are called concentric circles.or circle x2 + y2 = a2. on or inside a circle S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 according as S1 ≡ x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c is +ve.r. zero or ve 7. 9. of yI J H 2 K 2 g2 + f 2 − c Radius is Central (Centre radius) form of a circle : (i) (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 . y1) and (x2. where (0.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Position of a point w. Length of the intercept made by line : y = mx + c with the circle x2 + y2 = a2 is 2 a2 (1 + m2 ) − c2 1 + m2 or (1 + m2) |x1 x2| where |x1 x2| = difference of roots i. where point θ ≡ (r cos θ . of x.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 65 E D U C A T I O N S . The line y = mx ± a 1 + m2 is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and its point of contact is MATHS FORMULA . . y1) is xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0 (ii) (iii) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at any point (x1. 608-A.) Ph. y1) is 20. . −a l −a mI are G n . the circle S = 0 is T = 0 13.t the circle x + y = a 2 2 2 .) Ph. Director circle : Equation of director circle for x2 + y2 = a2 is x2 + y2 = 2a2. 19. 0744 . Director circle is a concentric circle whose radius is 2 times the radius of the given circle. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.r. 608-A.6450883.POCKET BOOK 12. is given by T = S1 18.r. y1) is given as (x x1)2 + (y y1)2 + λL = 0. y1) is xy1 x1y = 0 2 2 2 21.t. 0744 .MATHS FORMULA . n J H K 2 2 y1 + f y y1 = x + g (x x1) 1 (ii) Equation of normal to the circle x + y = a point (x1.6450883. The point of intersection of tangents drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 at point θ 1 & θ 2 is given as . r cos θ + θ GG 2 θ −θ GH cos 2 1 1 2 2 θ1 + θ 2 2 . T = 0 : (i) Equation of tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point (x1. Equation of normal : (i) Equation of normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at any point P(x1. Equation of tangent. 2405510 .POCKET BOOK 15. ±a 1 + m2 I J K θ . PAGE # 66 14. a sin θ ) to the (iv) Equation of tangent at (a cos circle x2 + y2 = a2 is x cos θ + y sin θ = a. Coordinates of pole : Coordinates of pole of the line lx + my + n = 0 w. GH ±am 1 + m2 . Equation of a chord whose middle pt. Equation of the chord of contact of the tangents drawn from point P outside the circle is T = 0 17. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) is xx1 + yy1 = a2 In slope form : . y1) w. θ1 − θ2 cos 2 r sin I J J J K 16.amily of Circles : (i) at any (ii) (iii) S + λS' = 0 represents a family of circles passing through the pts. of intersection of S = 0 & S' = 0 if λ ≠ 1 S + λ L = 0 represent a family of circles passing through the point of intersection of S = 0 & L = 0 Equation of circle which touches the given straight line L = 0 at the given point (x1. Equation of pair of tangents SS1 = T2 . Equation of polar of point (x1.rom the condition of tangency for every value of m.

0744 . |r1 r2| < C1 C2 < r1 + r2 ⇒ Intersection at two real points. 22. 4 common tangents. 2 common tangents. C1 C2 = r1 + r2 ⇒ Circles touch externally. C1 C2 < |r1 + r2| ⇒ one inside the other. (iv) C1 C2 = |r1 r2| ⇒ internal touch.6450883.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 24. 608-A. then 2gg' + 2ff' = c + c'. 0744 .POCKET BOOK (iv) Equation of circle passing through two points A(x1. C2 and radii r1.POCKET BOOK 25. 3 common tangents. r2 . 1 common tangent. (i) (ii) Equation of radical axis is S S1 = 0 The point of concurrency of the three radical axis of three circles taken in pairs is called radical centre of three circles. y1) & B(x2. Position of two circles : Let two circles with centres C1. y2) is given as x y 1 MATHS FORMULA . no tangent. 23. where d = C1C2 2r1r2 27. The angle θ of intersection of two circles with centres C1 & C2 and radii r1 & r2 is given by 2 2 r1 + r1 − d2 cosθ = . (v) Note : Point of contact divides C1 C2 in the ratio r1 : r2 internally or externally as the case may be . Equation of tangent at point of contact of circle is S 1 S2 = 0 26.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Radical axis and radical centre : (x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) + λ x1 x2 y1 1 y2 1 = 0. Then following cases arise as (i) (ii) (iii) C1 C2 > r1 + r2 ⇒ do not intersect or one outside the other. 2405510 PAGE # 68 .) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 67 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . Equation of Common Chord is S S1 = 0. Orthogonality condition : If two circles S ≡ x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and S' = x2 + y2 + 2g'x + 2f'y + c' = 0 intersect each other orthogonally.

6450883. at2) (2at. 0) x = a y = 0 4a x + a (0. a) y = a x = 0 4a a y y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay .) Ph. 608-A.ocal distance Parametric Coordinates Parametric Equations x = at2 y = 2at x = at2 y = 2at x = 2at y = 2at2 x = 2at y = at2 (at2. 608-A.ocus (f) Directrix (D) Axis L. 0) (0. 0) (a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0) x = a y = 0 4a a x (0.R. Standard Parabola : Imp. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 69 E D U C A T I O N S . . at2) y2 = 4ax y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay (0. 2at) (2at.) Ph. Terms Vertex (v) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2at) ( at2.6450883. 0744 . 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 70 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0) (0.MATHS FORMULA . 0) (a. a) y = a x = 0 4a y + a x2 = 4ay (0.POCKET BOOK PARABOLA 1.

) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 72 PAGE # 71 E D U C A T I O N S . at ) 2 Tangent of 't' ty=x+at2 ty=x+at2 tx=y + at2 tx =y+at2 of parabola (x 1.a Gm H 2 . kIJ H 4 K . 2a m I J K a m c = a m Note : Parametric equation of parabola (y k)2 = 4a(x h) are x = h + at2. G H I J K 2 . y1) and a line w. Special . 2at2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (at1t2.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. k).MATHS FORMULA .e. D = 0. Equations of tangent in different forms : (i) Point .M. am ) y = mx am2 y = mx + am c = am2 c = am2 = 4ay 5.Gh.with vertex . k). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. Combined equation of the pair of tangents drawn from a point to a parabola is SS' = T2.t. Position of a point (x1.Gh + l . = or < 0 * The line y = mx + c does not intersect.r.M. latus rectum l and axis parallel to x-axis is (y k)2 = l (x h) MATHS FORMULA . y1) Parabola which has vertex at (h. 2at) xx 1=2a(y+y 1 ) (2at. i. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S y2 = 4ax x2 = 4ay x 2 .6450883. y = k + 2at 3. 2at) (2at. (a(G. 608-A. 2at1) and Q(at22. 4ac − b I GH 2a 4a J K and axes parallel to y-axis . S' = y12 4ax1 and T = yy1 2a(x + x1) .)) 6.orm of Parabola * Parabola which has vertex at (h. we have c = a/m and for other parabolas check disc. a(t1 + t2)) i.orm / Parametric form Equations of tangent of all other standard parabolas at (x1. b 4ac − b2 y = a x+ 2a 4a 2 .) Ph. on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as y12 4ax1 >.POCKET BOOK 4. 0744 . .e. am2) (2am.)2. latus rectum l and axis parallel to y-axis is (x h)2 = l (y k) yy 1=2a(x+x 1 ) (at2. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 2. * The point (x1. parabola y2 = 4ax. y1) lies outside. at2) x 2 =4ay ⇒ * axis is x = h and focus at (ii) Slope form Equations of tangent of all other parabolas in slope form Equation of parabolas Point of contact in terms of slope(m) y2 = 4ax Equations of tangent in terms of slope (m) y = mx + Condition of Tangency Equation of the form ax2 + bx + c = y represents parabola. Point of intersection of tangents at any two points P(at12. intersect a parabola y2 = 4ax according as c > = < a/m Note : Condition of tangency for parabola y2 = 4ax. where S = y2 4ax. k + l IJ H 4K Tangent at yy 1 =2a(x+x1 ) xx 1 =2a(y+y1 ) Parametric coordinates't' (at2. a(2A. − b . touches. 2a m I J K 2 y = mx a m 2 c = a m (2am.− a G m H 2 . y1) / at t (parameter) Equation y 2=4ax y 2 =4ax x =4ay 2 ⇒ * axis is y = k and focus at .

of parabola y2 = 4ax y 2 The normals to y2 = 4ax at t1 and t2 intersect each other at the same parabola at t3. at1t2 (t1 + t2)) PAGE # 74 . If normal of y2 = 4ax at t1 meet the parabola again at t2 then t2 = t1 y2 = 4ax −y1 (xx1) (at2. at2) xty = 2at+at3 2 t1 (ii) (ii) Slope form Equations of normal. of parabola Normal at (x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A. 0) on x-axis to parabola y2 = 4ax (i) We get 3 normals if h > 2a (ii) (iii) We get one normal if h ≤ 2a. 2at) 2a y1 (xx1) 2a y+tx = 2at+at3 y2 = 4ax yy1 = (at2. y1) yy1 = Point 't' Normals at 't' MATHS FORMULA .) Ph. 2a . − a I Gm m J H K 2 (iii) y = mx2a a m 2 c = 2a a m2 Intersecting point of normals at t1 and t2 on the parabola y2 = 4ax is (2a + a(t12 + t22 + t1t2). and condition of normality in terms of slope (m) Eqn. Equations of normal in different forms (i) Point .6450883. point of contact.orm / Parametric form Equations of normals of all other standard parabolas at (x1. 2am) y = mx2amam3 c = 2amam3 = 4ax (am2. Condition for three normals from a point (h. then t1t2 = 2 and t3 = t1 t2 Equation of focal chord of parabola y2 = 4ax at t1 is y = 2 t1 10.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 73 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 . If point lies on x-axis. (iii) The centroid of the triangle formed by taking the foot of normals as a vertices of concurrent normals of y2 = 4ax lies on x-axis. at2) x+ty = 2at+at3 9. (i) 2t1 −1 Point of contact Equations of normal Condition of Normality (x a) (am2. (ii) Sum of ordinates (y coordinate) of foot of normals through a point is zero.6450883. 0744 . 0744 . 2am) y = mx+2am+am3 c = am+am3 (ii) If focal chord of y2 = 4ax cut (intersect) at t1 and t2 then t1t2 = 1 (t1 must not be zero) Angle formed by focal chord at vertex of parabola is tan θ = x2 = 4ay . 608-A. then one normal will be x-axis itself. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. (i) x2 = 4ay yy1 = 2a x1 (xx1) (2at. y1) / at t (parameter) Eqn. − 2a .MATHS FORMULA . 2at) ytx = 2at+at3 x2 = 4ay yy1 = 2a x1 (xx1) (2at. a I G m mJ H K 2 y = mx+2a+ a m 2 c = 2a+ a m 2 2 |t2 t1| 3 x2 = 4ay .POCKET BOOK Note : (i) In circle normal is radius itself.POCKET BOOK 7. 8.

yy1 = 2a(x + x1) Coordinates of pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.) Ph. If tangents drawn at ends point of a focal chord are mutually perpendicular then their point of intersection will lie on directrix.) Ph.t. m MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. .6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 76 . Important results for Tangent : (i) Angle made by focal radius of a point will be twice the angle made by tangent of the point with axis of parabola The locus of foot of perpendicular drop from focus to any tangent will be tangent at vertex.POCKET BOOK (v) Angle included between focal radius of a point and perpendicular from a point to directrix will be bisected of tangent at that point also the external angle will be bisected by normal. (vii) Circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch tangent at vertex. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 75 E D U C A T I O N S . y1) with respect to parabola y2 = 4ax is same as chord of contact and is given by T = 0 i. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Diameter : It is locus of mid point of set of parallel chords and equation is given by T = S1 15.r. 608-A.6450883. 13. 0744 . n . the parabola y2 = 4ax is . Equation of polar at the point (x1. −2amI Gl l J H K 14. 0744 . y1) is given by T = S1 12. Its equation is y = 2a .e. The locus of the mid point of a system of parallel chords of a parabola is called its diameter. Equation of chord of parabola y2 = 4ax which is bisected at (x1. (vi) Intercepted portion of a tangent between the point of tangency and directrix will make right angle at focus. (ii) (iii) (iv) Any light ray travelling parallel to axis of the parabola will pass through focus after reflection through parabola.MATHS FORMULA . (viii) Circle drawn on any focal chord as diameter will touch directrix.POCKET BOOK 11.

or b > a (0.oci Equation of directrices Relation in a.or a > b (0.) Ph. ± a . Standard Ellipse (e < 1) Ellipse Imp. b sin φ ) (a cos φ .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . b sin φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π . 608-A.6450883. ±ae. ±b) 2b 2a (0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0) 2a 2b (±ae. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y = b Sum of focal radii Distance bt n foci b > a Distance btn directrices Tangents at the vertices . b and e Length of latus rectum Rx | Sa | T . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 77 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . 0) x = ±a/e 2 2 + y 2 b2 U | = 1V | W . |yp| = p2 ⇒ 2 p1 ELLIPSE 1. ± beI GH b JK 2 Parametric coordinates (a cos φ .6450883.POCKET BOOK Note : If P is any point on ellipse and length of perpendiculars from to minor axis and major axis are p1 & p2. terms Centre Vertices Length of major axis Length of minor axis . 0744 . ± b I G aJ H K 2 . ±be) y = ±b/e a2 = b2(1 e2) 2a2/b a2 + p2 2 b2 = 1 a > b b2 = a2(1 e2) 2b2/a Ends of latus rectum .MATHS FORMULA .ocal radii SP = a ex1 S'P = a + ex1 SP + S'P = 2ae 2a/e x = a. 0) (±a. then |xp| = p1 . 0) (0. 608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 78 . x = a SP = b ey1 S'P = b + ey1 2a 2b 2be 2b/e y = b.) Ph.

the 2 + (y − k)2 b2 = 1. Auxillary Circle : The circle described by taking centre of an ellipse as centre and major axis as a diameter is called an auxillary circle of the ellipse. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . Special form of ellipse : If the centre of an ellipse is at point (h. 2405510 PAGE # 80 . Equation of pair of tangents from (x1.6450883.MATHS FORMULA . k) and the directions of the axes are parallel to the coordinate axes. y1 x1 . y1) to the ellipse x2 a 2 5. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Position of a point and a line w. the ellipse if a2m2 + b2 < = > c2 7.) Ph. Hence. Note : Ellipse is locus of a point which moves in such a way that it divides the normal of a point on diameter of a point of circle in fixed ratio. y1) to an ellipse x2 a2 a + b 1 > . b sin φ ) is x y cos φ + sin φ = 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. straight line y = mx ± Point of contact : Line y = mx ± x2 a2 y2 b2 a2m2 + b2 always represents the tangents to the ellipse. a2m2 + b2 touches the ellipse 3. 0744 . then c2 = a2m2 + b2. then its equation is MATHS FORMULA . y1) is xx1 a2 + yy1 b2 = 1. 608-A. 608-A. PAGE # 79 E D U C A T I O N S a2 x b2x = a2 b2. intersect.POCKET BOOK (ii) Slope form : If the line y = mx + c touches the ellipse x2 a2 cx − hh a2 + y2 b2 = 1. = or < 0 + y2 b2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect. ±b2 a2m2 + b2 I J. If x2 a2 + y2 b2 = 1 is an ellipse then its auxillary circle is (iii) + = 1 at .) Ph.r. 0744 . 4.POCKET BOOK 2. a b 6. touches. G H ±a2m a2m2 + b2 . on or inside the ellipse if S1 = * 2 x1 2 2 y1 2 Parametric form : The equation of tangent at any point (a cos φ . Equation of tangent in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the ellipse x 2 + y2 b2 = 1 is a2 + y 2 b2 = 1 at the point (x1. K x2 + y2 = a2. an ellipse : * The point lies outside.t. = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 Equation of normal in different forms : (i) Point form : The equation of the normal at (x1.6450883.

**MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (ii) Parametric form : The equation of the normal to the ellipse
**

x2 a2

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (v) Sum of square of intercept made by auxillary circle on any two perpendicular tangents of an ellipse will be constant.

+

y2 b2

= 1 at (a cos φ , b sin φ ) is

2 2

**ax sec φ by cosec φ = a b . (iii) Slope form : If m is the slope of the normal to the ellipse
**

x2 a2

(vi) If a light ray originates from one of focii, then it will pass through the other focus after reflection from ellipse. 9. Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1, y1) to an ellipse is given by

+

y2 b2

= 1, then the equation of normal

is y = mx ±

m (a2 − b2 ) a2 + b2m2

.

xx1 a

2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

The co-ordinates of the point of contact are

. GH

±a2 a2 + b2m2

,

±mb2 a2 + b2m2

I J. K

10. The equation of a chord of an ellipse mid point is (x1, y1) is T = S1.

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 whose

Note : In general three normals can be drawn from a point (x1, y1) to an ellipse

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1.

**11. Equation of chord joining the points (a cos θ , b sin θ ) and (a cos φ , b sin φ ) on the ellipse
**

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

8.

Properties of tangents & normals : (i) Product of length of perpendicular from either focii to any tangent to the ellipse will be equal to square of semi minor axis. The locus of foot of perpendicular drawn from either focii to any tangent lies on auxillary circle. The circle drawn on any focal radius as diameter will touch auxillary circle. (ii)

x cos a

(i)

θ+φ y + sin b 2

θ+φ = cos 2

θ−φ 2

(ii) (iii)

Relation between eccentric angles of focal chord

⇒

tan

θ1 , tan 2

θ2 ±e − 1 = 2 1±e

(iv) The protion of the tangent intercepted between the point and directrix makes right angle at corresponding focus.

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E D U C A T I O N S

Sum of feet of eccentric angles is odd π. i.e.

θ 1 + θ 2 + θ 3 + θ 4 = (2n + 1) π .

PAGE # 82

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**MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK 12. Equation of polar of the point (x1, y1) w.r.t. the ellipse
**

x2 a2

**MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK (c) If CP, CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
**

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is given by

xx1 a2

+

yy1 b2

= 0 i.e. T = 0.

+

y2 b2

= 1 and S, S' be two foci

**The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w.r.t. the ellipse
**

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

. −a l , −b nI G n n J. H K

2 2

of the ellipse, then SP.S'P = CQ2 (d) The tangents at the ends of a pair of conjugate diameters of an ellipse form a parallelogram.

13. Eccentric angles of the extremities of latus rectum of the ellipse 14. (i)

x2 a

2

+

y2 b

2

= 1 are tan1

. ± b IJ . G aeK H

15. The area of the parallelogram formed by the tangents at the ends of conjugate diameters of an ellipse is constant and is equal to the product of the axis i.e. 4ab. 16. Length of subtangent and subnormal at p(x1, y1) to the ellipse

x2 a2

**Equation of the diameter bisecting the chords of slope in the ellipse
**

b2 a2m x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 is

+

y2 b2

a2 = 1 is x1 & (1 e2) x1 x1

y = (ii)

x

**Conjugate Diameters : The straight lines y = m1x, y = m2x are conjugate diameters of the ellipse
**

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1 if m1m2 =

b2 a2

.

(iii)

**Properties of conjugate diameters : (a) If CP and CQ be two conjugate semi-diameters of the ellipse
**

x2 a2

+

y2 b2

= 1, then

CP2 + CQ2 = a2 + b2 (b) If θ and φ are the eccentric angles of the extremities of two conjugate diameters, then

θ φ = ±

π 2

PAGE # 83

E D U C A T I O N S

**, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
**

E D U C A T I O N S

, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510

PAGE # 84

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

MATHS FORMULA - POCKET BOOK

HYPERBOLA

1. Standard Hyperbola : Hyperbola

x2 a2

y2 b2

= 1

x2 a2 x2 a2

+

y2 b2 y2 b2

= 1

Imp. terms Centre Length of transverse axis Length of conjugate axis .oci Equation of directrices Eccentricity Length of L.R. Parametric co-ordinates .ocal radii (0, 0) 2a 2b (±ae, 0) x = ±a/e e = 2b2/a (a sec φ , b tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ex1 a S'P = ex1 + a 2a

or

= 1

(0, 0) 2b 2a (0, ±be) y = ± b/e

2

Hyperbola

.a + b I G a J H K

2 2 2

e = 2a2/b

.a + b I GH b JK

2 2

(b sec φ , a tan φ ) 0 ≤ φ < 2π SP = ey1 b S'P = ey1 + b 2b y = b, y = b x = 0 y = 0 Conjugate Hyperbola

S'P SP Tangents at the vertices x = a, x = a Equation of the y = 0 transverse axis Equation of the x = 0 conjugate axis

**, 608-A, TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. 0744 - 6450883, 2405510
**

E D U C A T I O N S

PAGE # 85

E D U C A T I O N S

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PAGE # 86

a hyperbola : The point (x1. b a (c) Slope form : The equations of tangents of slope m to the hyperbola x2 a 2 y2 b 2 = 1 x2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 are y = mx ± a2m2 − b2 and the 4. 0744 . x2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 is ax cos θ + by cot θ = a2 + b2 .± GH 6. touches.t.MATHS FORMULA . then its equation is (x − h)2 a2 MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.± b2 a2m2 − b2 I J. Equations of tangents in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of the tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 7. y1) to the hyperbola y2 b2 according as a2 b2 1 is +ve. > a2m2 b2. x2 a2 a2m a2m2 − b2 . b tan φ ) is 3. y1 x1 = 1 (b) Parametric form : The equation of normal at (a sec θ . 5. y2 b2 = 1 at (a sec φ . y1) is xx1 a 2 yy1 b 2 = 1.6450883.POCKET BOOK (b) Parametric form : The equation of tangent to the hyperbola x2 a2 (y − k)2 b2 = 1. = 1 is given by SS1 = T2 The line y = mx + c does not intersect. 608-A. on or outside the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 co-ordinates of points of contacts are = 1 2 x1 2 y1 . k) and axes are parallel to the co-ordinate axes.r. zero or ve. 2405510 PAGE # 88 .) Ph. y1) lies inside. Equations of normals in different forms : (a) Point form : The equation of normal to the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 at (x1. b tan θ ) to the hyperbola at (x1.POCKET BOOK 2. K Equation of pair of tangents from (x1. 608-A. y1) is a2 x b2y + = a2 + b2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. =. Parametric equations of hyperbola : The equations x = a sec φ and y = b tan φ are known as the parametric equations of hyperbola x y sec φ tan φ = 1. 0744 . Special form of hyperbola : If the centre of hyperbola is (h. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 87 E D U C A T I O N S . intersect the hyperbola according as c2 <. Position of a point and a line w.) Ph.

r. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S x2 a2 y2 b2 Asymptote to a curve touches the curve at infinity. 0744 . The equation of chord of the hyperbola whose mid point is (x1. b mI G n nJ K H 2 2 is condition of normality.m mb2 a2 − b2m2 I JK . 2 I J K Condition for normality : If y = mx + c is the normal of x2 a2 y2 b2 12. The equation of a diameter of the hyperbola x2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 is y = b2 a2m x.6450883. Points of contact : Co-ordinates of points of contact are . 8.POCKET BOOK 11.MATHS FORMULA . y1) is T = S1. = 1. 2 2 2 2 9.) Ph. 0744 . Equation of chord of contact of the tangents drawn from the external point (x1. . y1) w. Equation of polar of the point (x1. The diameters y = m1x and y = m2x are conjugate if m1m2 = b2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 is x + y = a b .± GH a2 a2 − b2m2 . − a l . Equation of chord joining the points P(a sec φ 1.φ G H 1 + φ2 2 I J K = cos . 13. which a2 y2 b2 = 1 is .t. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b tan φ 1) and Q(a sec y2 b 2 = 1 in terms of the slope m of m (a + b ) a2 − b2m2 2 2 φ 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. Asymptotes of a hyperbola : * The equations of asymptotes of the hyperbola x2 a2 xx1 a2 yy1 b2 = 1. = 1 * The asymptote of a hyperbola passes through the centre of the hyperbola. 608-A. 608-A. y2 b2 = 1 are y = ± b x.r. the hyperbola is given by T = 0. The equation of director circle of hyperbola x2 a2 14. m (a2 + b2 ) a2 − b2m2 then c = m (e) or c2 = m(a2 + b2 )2 (a2 − m2b2) x2 .POCKET BOOK (c) Slope form : The equation of the normal to the hyperbola x2 a 2 MATHS FORMULA .t. PAGE # 90 PAGE # 89 E D U C A T I O N S .φ G H 1 − φ2 2 I J K y sin b . a 10. The pole of the line l x + my + n = 0 w. b tan φ 2) is the normal is y = mx m (d) x cos a . y1) to the hyperbola is given by 15. 2405510 .φ G H 1 + φ2 .6450883.

2c t1 + t 2 I J K * Parametric equation of the hyperbola xy = c2 are x = ct. 608-A. y = c . * Equation of normal at t on xy = c2 is xt3 yt ct4 + c = 0. Equation of hyperbola Equation of asymptotes = Equation of asymptotes Equation of conjugate hyperbola = constant.) Ph. 0744 .6450883. 1 1 Equation of tangent at t is x + yt2 = 2ct x * * * 2 a 2 y b 2 2 = 1 is 2 tan1 y 2 b2 or 2 sec1 e. 0744 . where t is a parameter. 2c t t Gt +t H 1 1 2 2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK * Equation of tangent at (x1. Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola : * * A hyperbola for which a = b is said to be rectangular hyperbola. y1) to xy = c2 is xx1 yy1 = x12 y12 A hyperbola and its conjugate hyperbola have the same asymptotes. Equation of chord of the hyperbola xy = c2 whose middle point is given is T = S1 Point of intersection of tangents at t1 & t2 to the hyperbola xy = c2 is * .) Ph. y1) to xy x2 a2 y2 b2 = 1 is x2 a2 y2 b2 = 0. 608-A.POCKET BOOK * The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola * MATHS FORMULA . t2 on xy = c2 is x + y t1t2 = c(t1 + t2) . Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola is 2 and angle between asymptotes of rectangular hyperbola is 90º. The angle between the asymptotes of x y = c2 is x + y = 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. t * Equation of chord joining t1.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. 2405510 PAGE # 92 . (This results shows that four normal can be drawn from a point to the hyperbola xy = c2) * * * 16. y = 0. * Equation of normal at (x1. If a triangle is inscribed in a rectangular hyperbola then its orthocentre lies on the hyperbola. The bisector of the angles between the asymptotes are the coordinate axes. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 91 E D U C A T I O N S . its equation is x2 y2 = a2 xy = c2 represents a rectangular hyperbola with asymptotes x = 0.

M... ≥ G. ax2 . The mean of ax1. 2405510 PAGE # 94 (iv) Arithmetic mean is independent of origin i. i where A = assumed mean.M. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 93 E D U C A T I O N S . (i) .or ungrouped data H. Properties of A.. 0744 . is always zero.M. the sum of the deviation of items from A. i = 1 . Arithmetic mean : (i) . = x11 x22 . xnn e j n 1 N . If each of the n given observation be doubled. (i) (ii) (iii) In a statistical data.axn is a x where a is any number different from zero.. 0744 .) Ph.6450883. CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION 1.M. di = xi A = deviation for each term 4.or ungrouped data G.M and H.. then their mean is doubled If x is the mean of x1..f I 5.) Ph. xn. = ∑f n i= 1 i =1 n i ∑Gx J H K i i .M.1 I G. n be n observations and fi be their corresponding frequencies (b) .or grouped data H...or grouped data (continuous series) n . Harmonic Mean .. where xi .xn)1/n n MEASURES O.. = antilog G n ∑ log x J H K i i =1 x1 + x2 +.. where N = ∑f i= 1 n i (a) Direct method x = i =1 n Σ fixi i=1 n Σ fi .+ xn Σ xi = i=1 n(no. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.M..or grouped data f f f G.M.M.. .M. Relation between A.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. = n ∑x i=1 n 1 i 2. G. 608-A.Harmonic Mean is reciprocal of arithmetic mean of reciprocals.. .or ungrouped data (individual series) x = (ii) or .POCKET BOOK 3.. Geometric Mean : (i) . ≥ H. x2.MATHS FORMULA .. 608-A.. f log x I G∑ J G J = antilog G G ∑f J J H K i i i =1 n i i= 1 Σfidi short cut method : x = A + Σf .e..6450883. ..M. it is x effected by any change in origin..M.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . (ii) .. Equality holds only when all the observations in the series are same. = (x1 x2 x3 .. A.. of terms) n (ii) .M.

l = Lower limit of the median class. the class which has maximum frequency.requency of the class succeeding model i = Size of the model class.MATHS FORMULA . If n is odd. Mode & Median : (i) (ii) In symmetrical distribution : Mean = Mode = Median In Moderately symmetrical distribution : Mode = 3 Median 2 Mean PAGE # 96 Median = l + Where .irst find cumulative frequencies of the variables arranged in ascending or descending order and Median = (iii) . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. where n is cumulative (c) frequency. Mode : (i) . 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 95 E D U C A T I O N S . Median = [Value of 2 .POCKET BOOK 6. 0744 . N − CI G2 J H K f × i th observation th where u = upper limit of median class. N − CI G2 J H K f × i class.requency of the median class.or continuous frequency distribution : first find the model class i.6450883. .requency of the class preceding model f2 = . the value which is repeated maximum number of times is the mode of the series.e.6450883.or continuous series Mode = l 1 + 1 If n is even. 8. 7. i = The width of the median class C = Cumulative frequency of the class preceding to median class.or discrete frequency distribution series : In the case of discrete frequency distribution. class. mode is the value of the variate corresponding to the maximum frequency.or series in descending order . arrange in ascending or descending order and n be the no. Continuous distribution (grouped data) (i) . 608-A. Median : (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) : If data is raw.) Ph. G2 K H th (ii) (b) Discrete series : .G nIJ + value of H 2K . n + 1I G 2 J H K th observation. . Relation between Mean.) Ph. 0744 . f0 = .or individual series : In the case of individual series. f = .POCKET BOOK (ii) . . of observations. Median = Value of MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. .or series in ascending order L f −f O M2f − f − f P N Q 1 0 1 0 2 × i Where l 1 = Lower limit of the model class. N = Sum of all frequencies.requency of the model class. n + 1IJ ] observation. f1 = . 2405510 .G n + 1IJ H 2 K Median = u - .

Mean deviation : The arithmetic average of deviations from the mean.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Popular methods of measure of dispersion.e. I G J H K 2 or σ= Σd2 Σd − N N . 608-A. 2.POCKET BOOK Measure of Dispersion : The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about an average value is called variation or dispersion. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. I G J H K 2 Where d = x A = Derivation from assumed mean A f = . × 100 = (b) Where n = number of terms.6450883.or individual series (ungrouped data) σ = σ × 100 x Σ(x − x)2 N where x = Arithmetic mean of the series (b) N = Total frequency .MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . Standard Deviation : S. 2405510 PAGE # 98 . S = deviation of variate from mean mode. 0744 .requency of item (term) N = Σf = Total frequency.) Ph. median. Variance Square of standard direction i.)2 = (σ)2 Coefficient of variance = Coefficient of S. Continuous series (grouped data). Mean deviation = Σ f | x − s| Σf |x − s| = Σf N Note : Mean deviation is the least when measured from the median. (a) .) Ph. 0744 . (a) Individual series (ungrouped data) Mean deviation = Σ|x − S| n MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK fi = . median or mode is known as mean deviation.M.D.requency of the corresponding xi (ii) N = Σ f = Total frequency Short cut method σ = Σfd2 Σfd − N N .or continuous series (grouped data) (i) Direct method σ = Where Σfi (xi − x)2 N x = Arithmetic mean of series xi = Mid value of the class PAGE # 97 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.D.D. (σ) is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviations of the terms from their A. 1. variance = (S.

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 . Multiplication of Matrices : Two matrices A & B can be multiplied only if the number of columns in A is same as the number of rows in B. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS MATRICES : 1. Properties : (i) (ii) In general matrix multiplication is not commutative i. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = k for i = j i. 608-A.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. A(BC) = (AB)C [Associative law] PAGE # 100 PAGE # 99 E D U C A T I O N S .A system or set of elements arranged in a rectangular form of array is called a matrix. Matrix . Horizontal line is row & vertical line is column 3. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S 2. 608-A.. 5. Addition & subtraction of matrices : If A and B are two matrices each of order same. Trace of a matrix : Sum of the elements in the principal diagonal is called the trace of a matrix.. j or AT = A if m = n and aij = aji ∀ i. The number of rows is written first and then number of columns. K(A + B) = KA + KB (K1 K2)A = K1(K2 A) = K2(K1A) (K1 + K2)A = K1A + K2A = (Ka)m×n where K is constant. trace (A ± B) = trace A ± trace B trace kA = k trace A trace A = trace AT trace In = n when In is identity matrix.e.POCKET BOOK 4. then A + B (or A B) is defined and is obtained by adding (or subtracting) each element of B from corresponding element of A Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar : KA = K (aij)m×n Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) 7. a11 = a22 . AB ≠ BA. j or AT = A . trace On = O On is null matrix. Types of matrices : A matrix A = (aij)m×n A matrix A = (aij)mxn over the field of complex numbers is said to be Name A row matrix A column matrix A rectangular matrix A square matrix A null or zero matrix A diagonal matrix A scalar matrix Properties if m = 1 if n = 1 if m ≠ n if m = n if aij = 0 ∀ i j..) Ph.e.. if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j.) Identity or unit matrix Upper Triangular matrix Lower Triangular matrix Symmetric matrix Skew symmetric matrix if m = n and aij = 0 for i ≠ j = 1 for i = j if m = n and aij = 0 for i > j if m = n and aij = 0 for i < j if m = n and aij = aji for all i. 6. = ann = k (cons. 0744 . It is denoted by O..MATHS FORMULA .6450883. Order of matrix : If a matrix A has m rows & n columns then A is of order m × n.6450883.) Ph. trace AB ≠ trace A trace B..

ij and is equal to (1)i+j Mij or Cij = Mij. 2405510 PAGE # 102 .Hermitian matrix : if A = Aθ (iv) |KA| = Kn det A.) Ph.POCKET BOOK DETERMINANT : 1.21 + a12 . expansion of determinant of order 3 × 3 (iv) (KA)T = KAT IT = I a1 b1 a2 b2 ⇒ a3 b3 c1 c2 c3 b2 = a1 b 3 c2 a2 b1 a c3 3 c2 a2 b2 + c1 a b c3 3 3 Some special cases of square matrices : A square matrix is called (i) (ii) (iii) Orthogonal matrix : if AAT = In = ATA 2 or Properties : b1 = a2 b 3 c1 a1 + b2 a c3 3 c1 a1 b1 c3 c2 a3 b3 Idempotent matrix : if A2 = A Involutory matrix : if A = I or A 1 =A (i) (ii) (iii) |AT| = |A| By interchanging two rows (or columns). value of determinant differ by ve sign.e. aij = a ji (vi) Skew . A is matrix of order n × n . = Mij. 608-A. then it is not necessary A = 0 or B = 0 (vi) AI = A = IA (vii) Matrix multiplication is commutative for +ve integral i. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.22 + a13 .6450883.23 = 0 2.e. Transpose of a matrix : A' or A T is obtained by interchanging rows into columns or columns into rows Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) 9.11 + a12 . 0744 .6450883.) Ph.12 + a13 . if i = j if i ≠ j Note : |A| = a11. Am+1 = Am A = AAm 8. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 101 E D U C A T I O N S . Minor & cofactor : If A = (aij)3×3. then minor of a11 is / (iv) If AB = AC ⇒ B = C (v) If AB = 0. cofactor of an element aij is denoted by Cij or .POCKET BOOK (iii) A. 608-A. (AT)T = A (A ± B)T = AT ± BT (AB) = B A T T T a22 M11 = a 32 a23 a33 and so. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.MATHS FORMULA . Determinant : if A is a square matrix then determinant of matrix is denoted by det A or |A|. If two rows (or columns) are identical then |A| = 0 (iv) Nilpotent matrix : if ∃ p ∈ N such that Ap = 0 (v) Hermitian matrix : if Aθ = A i.(B + C) = AB + AC [Distributive law] MATHS FORMULA . 0744 .13 and a11 .

then the value of the new determinant remain unchanged. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Adjoint of a matrix : adj A = (Cij)T . |0n| = 0.6450883. |A| ≠ 0 | A| A1A = In = A A1 (A1)1 = A (iv) (AT)1 = (A1)T Multiplication of two determinants : Multiplication of two second order determinants is defined as follows. A nilpotent matrix is 0. 2405510 .e. A(adj A) = (adjA) A = |A|In |adj A| = |A|n1 (adjAB) = (adjB) (adjA) (adj AT) = (adjA)T (adj KA) = Kn1(adj A) (vi) Determinant of : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) 3. A zero matrix is zero i. (vii) If A & B are invertible square matrices then (AB)1 = B1 A1 Rank of a matrix : A non zero matrix A is said to have rank r. (vi) |A1| = |A|1 = 1 | A| a1 b1 l1 m1 a1l1 + b1l2 × l m = a l +b l a2 b2 2 1 2 2 2 2 a1m1 + b1m2 a2m1 + b2m2 3. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A.e. An identity matrix is one i. An orthogonal matrix is 1 or 1 A unitary matrix is of modulus unity.6450883. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS : 1. where In is a unit matrix of order n.) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 103 E D U C A T I O N S . |In| = 1.POCKET BOOK (v) If same multiple of elements of any row (or column) of a determinant are added to the corresponding elements of any other row (or column). 0744 . PAGE # 104 If order is different then for their multiplication. (iv) adj(adjA) = |A|n2 Inverse of a matrix : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) A1 exists if A is non singular i. MATHS FORMULA . where 0n is a zero matrix of order n A diagonal matrix = product of its diagonal elements. |A| ≠ 0 A1 = adjA . 608-A. where Cij is cofactor of aij . if (i) (ii) Every square sub matrix of order (r + 1) or more is singular There exists at least one square submatrix of order r which is non singular.POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) (iii) (v) 2. express them firstly in the same order. 0744 .e.) Ph. A Hermitian matrix is purely real. Skew symmetric matrix of odd order is zero.

0744 . if A is non singular. 2. if |A| = 0 (a) |A| = |Ai| = 0 (for determinant method) (for matrix method) (b) |A| = 0..POCKET BOOK 4. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph... 608-A. Consistent (with infinitely many solutions).. 2.. Homogeneous & non homogeneous system of linear equations : A system of equations Ax = B is called a homogeneous system if B = 0. then it is called non homogeneous system equations. NOTE : A homogeneous system of equations is never inconsistent.) Ph..MATHS FORMULA .. 608-A. (ii) Consistent (with infinitely many solution). (adj A) B = 0 det A i xi = . 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. .POCKET BOOK (b) Solution of homogeneous system of linear equations : The homogeneous system Ax = B. B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 105 E D U C A T I O N S . B = 0 of n equations in n variables is (i) Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 and for each i = 1. Consistent (With infinite many solution). (a) Solution of non homogeneous system of linear equations : (i) Cramer's rule : Determinant method The non homogeneous system Ax = B. . x = A1 B. where Ai is the matrix obtained det A from A by replacing ith column with B. 2405510 PAGE # 106 . n xi = 0 is called trivial solution.... if |A| = 0 and all det (Ai) are zero. Inconsistent (with no solution). if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a non null matrix. if |A| = 0 and (adj A) B is a null matrix. Inconsistent (with no solution) if |A| = 0 and at least one of the det (Ai) is non zero. 5.. . B ≠ 0 of n equations in n variables is Consistent (with unique solution) if |A| ≠ 0 i. MATHS FORMULA ... If B ≠ 0. (ii) Matrix method : The non homogeneous system Ax = B..6450883.e.. n.6450883.

TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. (vii) If a > 0 |x| = a |x| = a |x| > a |x| ≤ a |x| < a |x| > a 2. bI G cJ H K = loga . (vi) Base change formulae logc b loga b = log a c (vii) logam bn = 1 (viii) loga b or 1 loga b = log a b ⇒ x=±a ⇒ no solution ⇒ x < a or x > a ⇒ a ≤ x ≤ a ⇒ No solution.bn) (v) loga .UNCTION 1.. (iv) loga b > loga c b > c.b ≥ 0. 0744 ..6450883.) Ph. k = blogb k (iv) loga b1 + loga b2 + . b > 0. 0744 . i. Greatest Integer function : f(x) = [x].. ⇒ x∈R n loga b m . b ≠ 1 loga b = c loga b > c a>1 0<a<1 if a > 1 if 0 < a < 1 PAGE # 107 E D U C A T (ix) (x) log1/a .e.2] = 5 Period of [x] = 1 ..]denotes greatest integer function equal or less than x.. where [. ⇒ or b < ac.6450883.G bI H cJ K = loga b loga c (iv) |x + y| ≤ |x| + |y| (v) |x y| ≥ |x| |y| or ≤ |x| + |y| (vi) ||a| |b|| ≤ |a b| for equality a. defined as [4.POCKET BOOK .2] = 4. + loga bn = loga (b1 b2 . cI G bJ H K ⇒ b=a c alogb c = clogb a b > ac. 608-A. Modulus function : MATHS FORMULA ..unction : (i) (ii) (iii) logb a to be defined a > 0.. [4....MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 608-A..G I H J K = loga b = log1/a b Logarithmic . 2405510 I O N S b < c..) Ph. x > 0 | |x| = S−x. x = 0 T Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) |x| ≠ ± x |xy| = |x||y| x |x| = y |y| aloga b = b if k > 0. . ⇒ or E D U C A T I O N S 3. x < 0 |0. 2405510 PAGE # 108 .POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) (ii) (iii) loga 1 = 0 loga a = 1 Rx.

) Ph. x ∈R+ x +|x| x -|x| [x] (greatest integer function) x . ∞ ) (viii) [x] < I. I + 1] (vii) [x] > I. 0744 .no vertical line should intersect the graph of the function more than once. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x ∉ I (iv) [x] = I. I + 1) (v) [x] ≥ I.or all values of x. Table : Domain and Range of some standard functions . R−1 | |0 S f(x) = sgn (x) = | |1 T or f(x) = |x| x R R R R R [0. ∞ ) R R+ . ∞ ] R+ R PAGE # 110 x2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .e. x ∈ [0. x|x| Signum function 5. Graphically . all possible values of f(x).) Ph.POCKET BOOK Properties : (i) x 1 < [x] ≤ x (ii) [x + I] = [x] + I [x + y] ≠ [x] + [y] (iii) [x] + [x] = 0. x ∈R− .POCKET BOOK 6. I) 4. 2405510 I O N S . [x] ≥ I + 1. Properties : (i) {x}. x x ≠ 0 x=0 PAGE # 109 E D U C A T x ax (exponential function) log x (logarithmic function) = 0. . x=0 . x ∈ ( ∞ . x ∈ I = 1. Range = . {{x}} = {x}.6450883. {[x]} = 0 Signum function : MATHS FORMULA .. 0744 . 608-A. |x| (modulus function) x3. x ∈ ( ∞ . . Here set A is called domain and set of all f images of the elements of A is called range. Definition : Let A and B be two given sets and if each element a ∈ A is associated with a unique element b ∈ B under a rule f. 1] [0. 608-A. 1) (ii) {x + I} = {x} {x + y} ≠ {x} + {y} (iii) {x} + {x} = 0. [x] ≤ I 1. x ∈ [I. x ∈ I = 1. ∞ ) (vi) [x] ≤ I. 1} R+ ∪{x} R.{x} |x| . 0.6450883. Domain = All possible values of x for which f(x) exists. i.unctions Polynomial function Identity function x Constant function K Reciprocal function 1 x Domain R R R R0 R R Range R R (K) R0 R+ ∪{x} R {-1.MATHS FORMULA . where I is an integer x ∈ [I.ractional part function : f(x) = {x} = difference between number & its integral part = x [x]. x ∈ [I + 1. then this relation (mapping) is called a function.∪{x} 1 [0. x ∉ I (iv) [{x}] = 0.

(-1. 0744 . 1] [-1. R R R .A function which is both one-one and onto is called bijective function.e.1) LM− π . π OP N 2 2Q [0.6450883. x ≠ y but f(x) = f(y) Graphically . b ∈ A Graphically-no horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. f1(b) = a -1 ⇒ f(a) = b tan-1 x cot-1 x sec-1 x . π ]2 RU SV TW cosec-1 x R . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .1] R R R -(-1. 608-A.. 1] [-1. f(x) = y Many one function : f : A → B is a many one function if there exist x.} R - R. ± π .f : A → B is one-one if f(a) = f(b) ⇒ a = b or a≠b Domain R R R- Range [-1.(-1.t. a is ve it moves toward left.1) Range R. ± 3π .... If a is +ve it moves towards right.{0.) Ph.f : A → B is onto if R (f) = B i. ± 3π . upward if a is +ve downward if a is ve.t. π OP.. ± 2 π . Transformation of curves : (i) Replacing x by (x a) entire graph will be shifted parallel to x-axis with |a| units. . π IJ H 2 2K (0. the graph will be shifted parallel to y-axis.unctions sin x cos x tan x cot x sec x cosec x Inverse Trigo . a. 1] R± π .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.unctions sin cos -1 MATHS FORMULA .U S2 2 V T W R± π .. π ] 8. Inverse function : f1 exists iff f is one-one & onto both f1 : B → A.MATHS FORMULA . 608-A.{0. Similarly if y is replace by (y a). Kinds of functions : (i) One-one (injection) function . ± 2 π } Domain x x (-1.1) LM −π .POCKET BOOK Trigonometric .{0} N 2 2Q PAGE # 111 E D U C A T I O N S .(-1.) Ph.U S2 2 V T W ⇒ f(a) ≠ f(b). π ) 9.atleast one horizontal line intersects with the graph of the function more than once. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883.G −π .POCKET BOOK 7.1) R . (ii) (iii) Onto function (surjection) . y ∈ A s. ± π .. 0744 . 2405510 PAGE # 112 π [0. if to each y ∈ B ∃ x ∈ A s.. (iv) Into function : f is said to be into function if R(f) < B (v) One-one-onto function (Bijective) .

T is called period of f(x).C. If period of f(x) & g(x) are same T.M.POCKET BOOK (g) (h) (i) Zero function i. take reflection of entire curve is yaxis. y is present and mode is taken on R. (iii) PAGE # 113 E D U C A T I O N S .e. Decreasing function : A function f(x) is a decreasing function in the domain D if the value of function does not increase by increasing the value of x.6450883. Product of two even or odd function is an even function.) Ph. 10. then the period of af(x) + bg(x) will also be T. Increasing function : A function f(x) is an increasing function in the domain D if the value of the function does not decrease by increasing the value of x. MATHS FORMULA . There may be infinitely many such T which satisfy the above equality. 0744 . remove the portion of the curve corresponding to ve x (on left hand side of y-axis) and take reflection of right hand side on LHS. Sum of even and odd function is neither even nor odd function. Similarly if y is replaced by y then take reflection of entire curve in x-axis.S. .unction f(x) will be periodic if a +ve real number T exist such that 11. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S ∀ x ∈ Domain. If f(x) is odd (even) function then f'(x) is even (odd) function provided f(x) is differentiable on R.POCKET BOOK (ii) Replacing x by x. then Period of f(xn + a) = T/n and Period of (x/n + a) = nT (ii) If the period of f(x) is T1 & g(x) has T2 then the period of f(x) ± g(x) will be L. The graph of an odd function is always symmetric about origin. 14. A given function can be expressed as sum of even & odd function. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. i. Properties of even & odd function : (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) The graph of an even function is always symmetric about y-axis.6450883. 608-A. = even function + odd function. Similarly if y is replaced by ay (a > 0) then divide all the values of y-axis by a. Such a least +ve no.e.H. then divide all the value on xaxis by a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. f(x) = 0 is the only function which is even and odd both. then portion of the curve below x-axis will be reflected above x-axis. 2405510 PAGE # 114 .MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. Product of an even or odd function is an odd function.) Ph. (iii) Replacing x by |x|. 12. of T1 & T2 provided it satisfies definition of periodic function. Sum & difference of two even (odd) function is an even (odd) function. Periodic function: . if on L. 0744 . (i) If a function f(x) has period T. f(x + T) = f(x). f(x) = 1 1 [f(x) + f(x)] + [f(x) f(x)] 2 2 (iv) Replace f(x) by |f(x)|.S.H. 13. Even and odd function : A function is said to be (i) (ii) Even function if f(x) = f(x) and Odd function if f(x) = f(x). (v) Replace x by ax (a > 0).

then the composite function of f and g. gof : X → Z will be defined as gof(x) = g(f(x)). Composite function : If f : X → Y and g : Y → Z are two function.UNCTIONS : 2 3 x. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. cos x sec x.6450883. 0744 . ∀ x ∈ X In general gof ≠ fog If both f and g are bijective function.G x − π I H 3 J K 4 sin3 x + cos3 x sin x + cos x 3 sin x sin5x tan2 x cot2 x x [x] [x] NON PERIODIC . cosec x tan x. 608-A. Period 2π π 6π π/4 1 π π/2 6π 2π/3 2π 2π π 1 1 2 cos .POCKET BOOK .POCKET BOOK 15. 2405510 PAGE # 116 . 0744 .MATHS FORMULA .unction sin x. then so is gof.6450883. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 115 E D U C A T I O N S . cot x sin (x/3) tan 4x cos 2πx |cos x| sin x + cos x 4 4 MATHS FORMULA . 5 cos x2 x + sin x x cos x cos x . x . x .) Ph.) Ph.

POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . .g(x) = lim f(x). (vi) x→a lim [f(x) + k] = lim f(x) + k x→a (a) (b) (c) (d) x→0 lim x lim sinx = 1 = x → 0 x sin x x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x tan x lim sinx = 0 lim cosx = lim x→0 1 =1 cos x PAGE # 118 lim lim (vii) x → a log(f(x)) = log x → a f(x) lim (viii) x → a (f(x))g(x) = . x x (v) x→a lim f(g(x)) = f lim g(x) . then xlim− [x] = c 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x→a k is a constant. 0744 .POCKET BOOK 5. 2 . H I K x→0 L lim f(x)O M P N Q x→a x→0 x→a lim g(x) x→0 .6450883. & deno. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. lim Existence of limit : x → a f(x) exists iff xlim− f(x) = xlim+ f(x) = l →a →a Case II: If c is an integer. Limit of the greatest integer function : Let c be any real number lim Case I : If c is not an integer.actorisation method : If x → a 0 form. & devo. separately and cancel the lim .) Ph. deno or in both. then x → c [x] = [c] LIMIT 1. lim Limit of a function : x → a f(x) = l (finite quantity) 2. by the highest power of x present in the expression and then after removing common factor which is participating in making the indeterminate form. (ii) x→a lim (f(x) ± g(x)) = lim f(x) ± Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x).MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. replace lim (k f(x)) = k lim f(x). xlim+ [x] = c →c →c lim and x → c [x] = does not exist 6. When x → ∞ : Divide num.) Ph.. 2405510 . 608-A. 0 Rationalization method : If we have fractional powers on the expression in num. 1∞ 0 ∞ 4. Indeterminate forms : 0 ∞ . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 117 E D U C A T I O N S . 0744 . H I K (iv) (v) n n lim x − a = nan1 x→a x −a By using standard results (limits) : g(x) function f(x) is continuous. by 0. Theorems on limits : (i) (ii) (iii) x→a f(x) 0 is of form g(x) 0 then factorize num. provided x → a g(x) ≠ 0 g(x) x→a x→a (iii) (iv) x→a lim 1 1 . provided value of x→a . we rationalize the factor and simplify. ∞ 0 . 0∞ . Lim g(x) x→a x→a lim f(x) x→a f(x) lim = lim g(x) . ∞ × 0.. ∞ ∞ . Methods of evaluation of limits : (i) 3.6450883.

. 2 3 x2 x3 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 15 3 cosx = 1 =1 tanx = x + (n) x→∞ lim (o) x→0 lim (1 + x)1/x = e = lim x→∞ 1/x lim = ea x → 0 (1 + ax) (p) .POCKET BOOK (vi) By substitution : (a) If x → a. 2! 3! x2 x3 + .. aI = lim G1 + J H xK x x→∞ 7.. 2! 3! x2 x3 + .. x →a x →a x →a ⇒ PAGE # 119 E D U C A T I O N S l < lim g(x) < l. 608-A. 2 3 (x loge a)2 (x loge a)3 + + . 2! Sandwich Theorem : In the neighbour hood of x = a f(x) < g(x) < h(x) (1 + x)n = 1 + nx + lim f(x) = lim h(x) = l.. 0744 .....G1 + 1 IJ H xK .) Ph. x n(n − 1) 2 x + ....POCKET BOOK 0 lim sin x = π x→0 180 x −1 x lim sin x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 sin−1 x x −1 x lim tan x = 1 = lim x→0 x→0 tan−1 x x MATHS FORMULA . (b) When x → ∞ substitute x = t ⇒ t → ∞ (c) When x → ∞ substitute t = x2 x3 + + .. 3! 5! x2 x4 + ...... TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph... then we can substitute x=a+t ⇒ t=xa If x → a. then lim g(x) = l. 608-A....... 2! 3! (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 1 ⇒ t → 0+ x (vii) By using some expansion : ex = 1 + x + ex = 1 x + lim a − 1 = log a x→0 e x x lim e − 1 = 1 x→0 x x lim log(1 + x) = 1 x→0 x 1 lim loga (1 + x) = x→0 loga x x→0 log(1 + x) = x log(1 x) = x lim (1 + x) − 1 = n x lim sinx = lim cos x = 0 x→∞ x x sin 1 x 1 x n ex ln a = ax = 1 + xlogea + sinx = x x→∞ x3 x5 + . 2405510 ..6450883.. t → 0.MATHS FORMULA ..... 0744 . x →a PAGE # 120 ..... 2! 4! 2 x3 + x5 + ..6450883....

MATHS FORMULA .x ∈ R cot1 x 1 1 + x2 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . SOME STANDARD DI.6450883.) Ph. where c is a constant.POCKET BOOK 2.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. u = g(x) [chain rule or differential coefficient of a function of a function] then dy dy du = × dx dx du NOTE : d [x] does not exist at any integral Point.) Ph. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . u = g(v).ERENTIATION 1.. then PAGE # 122 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.ERENTIATION : .1|x|>| = a φ(ax + b) tan1 x 1 1+x 2 .|x|>1 cosec1 x 1 |x| 1 − x2 d d f(x) = φ(x). x ∈R (vi) d dx ... 2405510 . x≠ 0 | x| (vii) If y = f(u). 608-A. 0744 . (Product rule) or d du dv dw (uvw) = vw + uw + uv .ERENTIATION : (i) DI. dx = d f(x) ± dx d g(x) dx loga x ax sin x tan x cosec x 1 x loge a ax loge a cos x sec2 x cosec x cot x 1 1−x 2 loge x ex cos x cot x sec x 1 x ex sin x cosec2 x sec x tan x 1 1 − x2 (iii) cf(x) ± g(x)h (iv) d dv du (uv) = u + v .unction A cons.1<x<1 cos1x . dx dx dx dx sin1 x . dx PAGE # 121 E D U C A T I O N S llly If y = f(u). then f (ax + b) dx dx .UNDAMENTAL RULES . . 608-A. v = h(x).G u I H vJ K = v du dv −u dx dx 2 v (quotient rule) [x] 0.1<x<1 (v) sec1 x 1 |x| 1 − x 2 If . x ∉ I |x| x . where u & v are functions dx dx dx of x.OR DI.unction xn Derivative nxn 1 d f(x) = 0 if and only if f(x) = constant dx d dx d dx (ii) ccf(x)h = c d f(x). (k) Derivative 0 .

dx OR (viii) Differentiation of composite functions Suppose a function is given in form of fog(x) or f[g(x)]. then differentiate applying chain rule d f[g(x)] = f'g(x) . then (ix) d dx .r.e if y = un ⇒ dy du = nun1 dx dx dy at one side and find dx dy . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. where t is a parameter. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. differentiate w. u ≠ 0 dx (x) (xi) u du d |u| = ... z is u ≠ 0 Logarithmic Differentiation : If a function is in the f1 ( x ) f2 ( x ). 608-A. 0744 .6450883..r.G 1I H uJ K = −1 u2 du . (a) (b) (c) loge (mn) = logem + logen loge dy / dx f'(x) dy = = g'(x) dz / dx dz (xv) Differentiation of inverse Trigonometric functions m = logm logen n (d) (f) logn m aloga x loge (m)n = nlogem logm n = 1 using Trigonometrical Transformation : To solve the problems involving inverse trigonometric functions first try for a suitable substitution to simplify it and then differentiate. another function : Let y = f(x) and z = g(x).MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . m (e) logan xm = loga x n = x (g) loge e = 1 (h) loge m logn m = log n e PAGE # 123 E D U C A T I O N S .t. g'(x) i. We first take log on 1 2 both sides and then differentiate.. then differentiation of y w.t.r. y) = 0.POCKET BOOK (xii) Differentiation of implicit function : If f (x. dx [The relation f(x. 608-A. If no such substitution is found then differentiate directly by using trigonometrical formula frequently. y) = 0 in which y is not expressible explicitly in terms of x are called implicit functions] (xiii) Differentiation of parametric functions : If x = f(t) and y = g(t)...) Ph.) Ph.e.. form (f(x))g(x) or g ( x ) g ( x ).POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 PAGE # 124 . 0744 .t. |u| dx dx dy g'(t) dy dt = = f'(t) dx dx dt (xiv) Differentiation of a function w. x and collect the terms containing dy dy du dv = × × dx du dv dx i.

POCKET BOOK 3. for 0 ≤ x ≤ π tan1 (tan x) = x. for π π < x < 2 2 (ii) cos2x = 1 − tan2 x 1 + tan2 x = 2 cos2 x 1 = 1 2 sin2 x (viii) tan2x = (iii) 2 tan x 1 − tan2 x (xvii) sin1 (x) = sin1 x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. cot1 .ormula : (i) sin2x = 2sinx. x ± y IJ G 1 m xy K H I K (xix) sin1 (cos θ ) = sin1 (xiv) sin1 x ± sin1 y = sin1 x 1 − y2 ± y 1 − x2 . xy m H 1 − x2 1 − y2 IK cos1 (sin θ ) = cos1 .) Ph. 1I G xJ H K = tan1 x. (ix) (x) (xi) tan3x = tan1 = cot1 x.) Ph. sin1 x + cos1 x = π /2 sec1 x + cosec1 x = π /2 sec1 = cos1 x. cos1 . Important Trigonometrical . 1I G xJ H K = sec1 x. cosx = 2 tan x 1 + tan2 x MATHS FORMULA . H . 1I G xJ H K = sin1 x (xiii) tan1 x ± tan1 y = tan1 . for π 2 ≤ x ≤ π 2 cos1 (cos x) = x.cos .6450883. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.sin . 0744 . tan1 (x) = tan1 x. cosec1 (xii) tan1 x + cot1 x = π /2 . 0744 . 608-A. 1I G xJ H K . tan . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK .POCKET BOOK (xvi) sin1 sin (x) = x. 2405510 PAGE # 126 . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK = π θ 2 π θ 2 tan1 (cot θ ) = tan1 = . 1I G xJ H K = cosec1 x. 1I G xJ H K . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 125 E D U C A T I O N S . cos1 (x) = π cos1 x sin3x = 3sinx 4sin3 x (xviii) sin1 (vi) cos3x = 4cos3 x 3cosx 3 tan x − tan3 x 1 − 3 tan2 x .MATHS FORMULA . π − θI I G G 2 JJ H H KK = π θ 2 (xv) cos1 x ± cos1 y = cos1 .6450883.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 127 E D U C A T I O N S .POCKET BOOK Part B Expression Substitution x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ Substitution x = sinθ x = cosθ . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.r. 0744 .) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . 608-A.r.) Ph.ormula 3sinθ 4sin3 θ 4cos3 θ 3cosθ 3 tan θ − tan3 θ 1 − 3 tan2 θ Result sin3θ cos3θ a2 + x2 a− x a+ x or a+ x a− x x = a tan θ x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ a2 x2 tan3θ a+x or a−x a−x a+x x = tanθ x = a cos θ x = a sec θ or x=acosec θ 2x 1+x 2x 1−x 2 2 x = tanθ 2 tan θ 1 + tan2 θ 2 tan θ 1 − tan θ 1 2sin2 θ 2cos2 θ 1 1 sin2 θ 1 cos2 θ sec θ 1 2 sin2θ x 2 a2 x = tanθ x = sinθ x = cosθ x = sinθ x = cosθ 2 tan2θ cos2θ cos2θ cos2 θ sin2 θ tan θ 2 a2 + x2 a2 − x2 or a2 − x2 a2 + x2 x2 = a2 cos θ 1 2x2 2x2 1 1 x2 5.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 .t. Successive differentiations or higher order derivatives : (a) If y = f(x) then dy = f'(x) is called the first derivadx tive of y w. 608-A. Some Useful Substitutions : Part A Expression 3x 4x3 4x3 3x 3x − x3 1 − 3x 2 MATHS FORMULA .6450883. x d2 y dx 2 x 2 1 x = secθ x = cosecθ cosec2 θ 1 1 + tan2 θ 1 + cot2 θ cot 2 θ sec2 θ cosec2 θ ⇒ = d dx .t. 2405510 PAGE # 128 .POCKET BOOK 4. dy I G dx J H K = d f'(x) dx c h 1 + x2 x = tanθ x = cotθ is called the second derivative of y w. x .

. dy I G dx J H K (ii) = d dt 1 (t) = 1.. This process can be continued and we can obtain derivatives of higher order Note : To obtain higher order derivative of parametric functions we use chain rule i.. 0744 . then yn = an (ax + b)n+1 ax + b (−1) n−1 (v) (log x) = ( 1)n1 (n1)! xn If u = g(x) is such that g'(x) = K (constant) dn dx n NOTE : (e) If y = log (ax + b).MATHS FORMULA .an (iii) dn dx n (cos x) = cos x + . G H nπ 2 I J K Thus..ax + b + nπ I G J H 2K ⇒ dy = t dx d2 y dx 2 d dx ex j n = n! ⇒ (b) = . if x = 2t.unctions : dn dxn dn dx n .. 608-A.) Ph. y = t2 (i) 6. 608-A. then yn = m(m1) (m2) .6450883.) Ph. If y = cos (ax + b). then yn = an cos nth Derivatives of Some . (mn+1) (ax + b)mn .POCKET BOOK llly d3 y dx3 = d2 dx2 cf'(x)h etc. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883.. then yn = an sin ax + b + . 2405510 PAGE # 130 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.e. then yn = (n − 1)! (ax + b)n an then f g(x) c h = Kn Ld Mdu M N n n f(u) O P P Q u= g(x) .. then ym = m! am and ym+1 = 0 (iv) dn dx n dn dx n (emx ) = mn emx (d) (−1)n n! 1 If y = . 0744 . G H I J K (c) If m ∈I. = dx dx t csin xh nπ = sin x + 2 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .. G H I J K πn 2 If y = (ax + b)m m ∉ I.. (f) If y = sin (ax + b). 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 129 E D U C A T I O N S .

608-A. 2405510 PAGE # 132 . 0744 .6450883.POCKET BOOK 7.MATHS FORMULA . then L. x we get ∆ = R1 R2 R3 = |C1 C2 C3| 1 y dy 1 dy = y + logx dx dx x R'1 ∆' = R 2 R3 R1 R'2 + R3 R1 R2 + R'3 ⇒ dy = dx . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. rule can't be applied. then L.G 1 − log xI J Hy K y x y2 = x(1 − y log x) = |C'1 C2 C3| + |C1 C'2 C3| + |C1 C2 C'3| 8. But if value fluctuate on R. Differentiation of Determinant : then function becomes y = xy now taking log on both sides i. differentiating both sides w.6450883.H. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 131 E D U C A T I O N S .H. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.r. .H. exist or d'not exist because value → ∞.t.H rule can be applied. 0744 . If it is applied continuously then at each step 0/0 or ∞/∞ should be checked.e logy = y log x. 608-A.S. Differentiation of Infinite Series : method is illustrated with the help of example x if y = x x− −∞ MATHS FORMULA . then lim f(x) f'(x) = lim x →a g'(x) g(x) x →a (a) it can be applied only on 0/0 or ∞/∞ form (b) Numerator & denominator are differentiated separately not (c) u formulae. L-hospital rule : if as x → a f(x) & g(x) either both → 0 or both → ∞. v If R.S.POCKET BOOK 9.) Ph.

MATHS FORMULA . DERIVATIVES TANGENT AND NORMAL : 1. = 6. . then .6450883. π If the tangent is perpendicular to x-axis. dy I G dx J H K . then (x1 . dx . 608-A. y ) 1 1 U | | V | | W . Geometrically f'(a) represents the slope of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at the point (a. y1) = ± 1.POCKET BOOK 7. y1 ) (x1 . dx I G dy J H K (x 1 . 0744 . Slope of the normal = If the tangent line makes equal angle with the axes. 608-A. y1) Length of perpendicular from origin to the tangent : = 0. 2405510 PAGE # 134 .) Ph. dy I G dx J H K (x . Equation of the tangent to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. x intercept = x1 R | y | S . y1) = tan ψ = slope of the tangent.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. y1) → ∞ 9.G dy IJ H dx K 8. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 133 E D U C A T I O N S .G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . y intercept = y1 x1 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2.y1 ) (x1 . dy I | G dx J |H K T 1 (x . ψ = 0 ⇒ . y1) (x x1) dy = cot φ .6450883. If normal makes an angle of φ with +ve direction of x-axis. (x1 .G dy IJ H dx K 1 Slope of the tan gent (x1 . y 1 ) . y1) is y y1 = .G dy I H dx J K 10. 4. y ) 1 1 If the tangent is parallel to x-axis. f(a)) If the tangent makes an angle ψ (say) with +ve x direction then f'(x) = 3.G dy IJ H dx K . Length of intercepts made on axes by the tangent : APPLICATION O. ψ = 2 y1 − x1 = ⇒ 5.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 (x1 .

dy I 1−G J G J H dx K H dx K 1 1 2 2 where .y1 ) Length of sub-normal = y . If both curves intersect orthogoH dx J K .G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . dy I − . dy I G dx J H K 1 is the slope of first 2 . 2405510 PAGE # 136 . y1) = 0.y1 ) 16. dx I G dy J H K y 1+ Length of tangent = (x1 . The equation of the normal to the curve y = f(x) at a point (x1. Length of tangent. y1 ) 15.y1 ) dy dx .) Ph. If normal is equally inclined from both the axes or cuts equal intercept then . Length of intercept made on axes by the normal : x intercept = x1 + y1 . y1) = 0. dy I +y G J H dx K . 608-A. dy I G dx J G dx J H K H K . y1) is y y1 = .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . dy I . 14.POCKET BOOK 17. If the normal is perpendicular to x-axis ⇒ .6450883. Angle of intersection of the two curves : 11. dy I G dx J H K (x x1) 18. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G dy IJ H dx K (x1 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.G dy I of second. dy I G dx J H K 2 y intercept = y1 + x1 (x1 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 135 E D U C A T I O N S . dy I . dy I G dx J H K 1 = ± 1. tanθ = ± 12.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. dy I 1+G J H dx K 1 Length of sub-tangent = 2 y dy / dx dy dx (x1 . 608-A. Length of perpendicular from origin to normal : Length of normal = y 1+ . 13. 0744 . subtangent & subnormal : (x1 . dy I G dx J H K 2 x1 = .) Ph. If the normal is parallel to x-axis ⇒ . dy I G dx J H K . dy I nally then G dx J G dx J = 1 H K H K curve & 1 2 . normal.

to x and substitute the critical points in it and get the sign of f"(x) for each critical point. c . 2405510 PAGE # 138 7. 608-A. such that f(x) > f(b). provided f'(a) exists. then greatest or least values of this function occurs either at x = a or x = b or at those values of x for which f'(x) = 0.POCKET BOOK MONOTONICITY. 6. f(d)] Where x = c. Minima : A function f(x) is said to be minimum at x = b.. MATHS FORMULA . then the value of f(x) is maximum at x = 0 and if f"(a) > 0. In an interval [a. x ≠ a. b].. 5. Similarly a minimum value may not be the least value of the function.POCKET BOOK (ii) Sufficient condition : (a) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is maximum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) < 0. 2.) Ph. Remark : (a) (b) The maximum & minimum points are also known as extreme points. b) Strictly increasing if f'(x) > 0 Strictly decreasing if f'(x) < 0 4.r. a function f(x) is Monotonic increasing if f'(x) ≥ 0 Monotonic decreasing if f'(x) ≤ 0 constant if f'(x) = 0 ∀ x ∈ (a. ∀ x ∈ (b h. such that f(x) < f(a). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. if there exists a very small +ve number h. (ii) Solve the equation f'(x) = 0 and let its real roots (critical points) be a. f(b). TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 137 E D U C A T E D U C A T I O N S I O N S . (b) The value of the function f(x) at x = a is minimum if f'(a) = 0 and f"(a) > 0. . x ≠ b. b] = max [f(a). f(b).r. A function is said to be monotonic function in a domain if it is either monotonic increasing or monotonic decreasing in that domain At a point function f(x) is monotonic increasing if f'(a) > 0 At a point function f(x) is monotonic decreasing if f'(a) < 0 3. . f'(x) and equate it to zero.ind the differential coefficient of f(x) w. x = d are those points for which f'(x) = 0.. A function may have more than one maximum & minimum points. then the value of f(x) is minimum at x = a. (iv) If f"(a) < 0. if there exists a very small +ve number h. b + h). b] = min.e. b]. (ii) If a function f(x) is defined in an interval [a. MAXIMA & MINIMA : 1. c. [f(a). b. . b] is not necessarily its greatest value in that interval.6450883. Absolute (Greatest and Least) values of a function in a given interval : (i) A minimum value of a function f(x) in an interval [a. f(d)] Least value of f(x) in interval [a. a + h). 608-A..) Ph..) we can find the points of maxima and minima.MATHS FORMULA . f(c).to x. i. f(c).. 0744 . Working rule for finding local maxima & Local Minima : (i) . Maximum & Minimum Points : Maxima : A function f(x) is said to be maximum at x = a.. (iii) Now differentiate f'(x) w..6450883. ∀ x ∈ (a h.. Similarly by getting the sign of f"(x) for other critical points (b. Conditions for Maxima & Minima of a function : (i) Necessary condition : A point x = a is an extreme point of a function f(x) if f'(a) = 0.. 0744 . Thus greatest value of f(x) in interval [a.

then there exists at least one c ∈ (a. b) and (c) f(a) = f(b). 608-A. b] (b) It is differentiable on (a. then there exists at least one point c ∈ (a. Mean value theorem [Lagrange's theorem] : (i) If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a.POCKET BOOK 8. b) such that f(b) − f(a) = f'(c) b−a 3 (side)2. Rolle's Theorem : If f(x) is such that (a) It is continuous on [a. b) such that f'(c) = 0. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 140 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . b] (b) It is differentiable on (a. 608-A. 0744 . Some Geometrical Results : In Usual Notations Area of equilateral and its perimeter Area of square Perimeter Area of rectangle Perimeter Area of trapezium Results MATHS FORMULA .) Ph.6450883.POCKET BOOK ROLLE'S THEOREM & LAGRANGES THEOREM: 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.MATHS FORMULA .6450883. b). 0744 . 4 3 (side) (side)2 4(side) l × b 2(l × b) 1 (sum of parallel sides) 2 × (distance between them) πr2 2πr 4 3 πr 3 Area of circle Perimeter Volume of sphere Surface area of sphere Volume of cone Surface area of cone Volume of cylinder Curved surface area Total surface area Volume of cuboid Surface area of cuboid Area of four walls Volume of cube Surface area of cube Area of four walls of cube (ii) If for c in lagrange's theorem (a < c < b) we can say that c = a + θ h where 0 < θ < 1 and h = b a the theorem can be written as f(a + h) = f(a) + h f'(a + θ h). 2. h = b a 4πr2 1 2 πr h 3 πrl πr2h 2πrh 2πr(h + r) l × b × h 2(lb + bh + hl) 2(l × b) h l3 6l2 4l2 PAGE # 139 E D U C A T I O N S . 0 < θ < 1.

unction INDE.) Ph. 0744 .POCKET BOOK . 608-A.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . f(x) is the f x dx = f(x) f' x dx = f(x) + c. (i) d If .unction Integration z zc z x dx ax + b dx n x + c.(x) = f(x).6450883. 608-A. a n+1 c + c.6450883. c ∈ R k f x dx = k f(x) dx (f x ± g x ) dx = ch ch z zch zch h n+1 f x dx ± g x dx . 0744 .ORMULAE : . (integrating constant) d (ii) dx (iii) (iv) (v) 2. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. π + x I +c G 4 2J H K x log|cosec x cot x|+c = log tan +c 2 sin1 x + c = cos1x + c h n 1 ax + b .UNDAMENTAL . z z ch z ch zch zm r zch z cos x Integration sin x + c tan x + c cot x + c sec x + c cosec x + c log|cos x| + c = log|sec x| + c log|sin x| + c = log|cosec x| + c log|sec x + tan x|+c = log tan f x dx = . then dx Here integrand. n ≠ 1 sin1 x x + c = cos1 + c a a z z z z E D U C A T I O 1 dx x log|x| + c tan1x + c = cot1x + c x 1 x −1 tan1 + c = cot1 a + c a a a 1 dx ax + b ex dx ax dx sinx dx 1 (log|ax + b|) + c a ex + c dx a2 + x2 dx |x| x2 − 1 dx |x| x2 − a2 ax + c loge a cos x + c PAGE # 141 E D U C A T z z sec1x + c = cosec1x + c 1 x sec1 + c = a a x −1 cosec1 a + c a .MATHS FORMULA .(x) + c dx is the notation of integration. c is any real no. 2405510 N S .INITE INTEGRATION 1. 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 142 . n ≠ 1 n+1 n+1 z z z z z z z z z z z z dx sec2 x dx cos ec2x dx sec x tan x dx cos ec x cot xdx tanx dx cot x dx sec x dx cos ec x dx dx 1 − x2 dx a −x dx 1 + x2 2 2 .) Ph.

a+ x +c φ x dx φ(x) = t z ch 1 x a+ x . . x f(x) = t log|f(x)| + c x a−x . a− x a− x . 608-A. h x a− x x−a . x−a x x−a . x −a . a− x .unction a −x .6450883. x 2 a2 x = a tanθ or x = a sinhθ x = a sec θ or x = a cosh θ zc h zch ch z d c hi c h z cc hh fφx f' x f x dx f ax + b dx 1 .) Ph. x 2 . 2 2 Substitution 1 a2 − x2 1 x + a2 1 x2 − a2 a+ x . β−x c h x a− x a+x a−x c 1 h x = a sec2 θ f' x fx dx f(x) = t 2[f(x)]1/2 + c x = a cos 2θ x = α cos2 θ + β sin2 θ cx − αh cβ − xh .unction Substitution ax + b = t Integration z f x dx is changed ch . n ≠ 1 x .) Ph. 2 2 . Some following suggestions will prove useful. x c 1 h x = a sin2 θ z d c hi c h z cc hh f x n f' x dx f(x) = t cf(x)h n+1 n+1 + c. 608-A. a2 x 2 x = a sin θ or a cos θ x2 + a2 .MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK SOME RECOMMENDED SUBSTITUTION : into another variable t so that the integrand f(x) is changed into .(β > α) .(ax + b) + c a f x f' x dx f(x) = t dfcxhi 2 2 x .POCKET BOOK 3. a+ x x−α . x a+ x c c h c h x = a tan2 θ f t dt x . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 143 E D U C A T I O N S . 2405510 PAGE # 144 .(t) which is some standard integral. the variable x in MATHS FORMULA . INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION : By suitable substitution. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. x2 + a2 . 0744 .6450883. 0744 .

MG MH N b 2a I J K 2 + 4ac − b2 4a 2 O P P Q x 1 = tanh1 a + c. 2405510 PAGE # 146 .) Ph.unction Integration MATHS FORMULA . Apply division rule and express it x − a dx 2 2 1 1 x x2 − a2 a2 log {|x + 2 2 1 1 x x2 + a2 + a2 log {|x + 2 2 where P(x) is a polynomial of degree 2 or more in form Q(x) + R x 2 ax + bx + c ch x2 + a2 dx The integral reduces to known form .MATHS FORMULA . xI + c G aJ H K x2 + a2 |} + c z z z dx or Express : px + q dx or = λ d (ax2 + bx + c) + µ dx dx x +a 2 2 log{|x + (px + q) (ax2 + bx + c) dx evaluate λ & µ by equat ing coefficient of x and = sinh1 . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.UNCTIONS USING ABOVE STANDARD RESULTS : .POCKET BOOK IMPORTANT RESULTS USING STANDARD SUBSTITUTIONS : .unction z z z z 1 x −a 2 2 x−a 1 log x+a 2a = + c x −1 coth1 a + c when x > a a 1 a −x 2 2 dx a+ x 1 log a− x 2a + c z z z Method 1 ax + bx + c 1 2 dx or Express : ax2 + bx + c = ax2 + bx + c dx or a x+ L. 2405510 PAGE # 145 E D U C A T I O N S . 608-A.G x IJ + c H aK x − a |} + c x2 + a2 |} + c 2 2 z ax P(x) 2 + bx + c dx . 0744 . the integral reduces to known form z z z E D U C A T I O N S a − x dx 2 2 1 1 2 x a2 − x2 + a sin1 2 2 . I G J H K x a + c constant.6450883. 0744 .POCKET BOOK INTEGRATION O. when x < a a dx x −a 2 2 (ax2 + bx + c) dx px + q ax + bx + c px + q ax2 + bx + c 2 then use appropriate formula log{|x + x − a |} + c 2 2 = cosh1 . . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.6450883.

on the left is normally chosen as first function] I Inverse trigonometric function L Logarithmic function A Algebraic function T Trigonometric function E Exponential function by x2 and put .) Ph. 2 z z zc z x2 x + kx 2 + a 4 4 dx Divide numerator & denominator by 2 and then add & sub. . dx Thus integral reduces to known form. 2nd fun. µ x 2 ± a2 x 4 + kx 2 + a 4 dx = (1st fun) (ii) 2nd fun. 2405510 PAGE # 148 . 608-A. ν. = λ(deno. 0744 . 1 a sin x + b cos x h 2 dx then put tanx = t & solve. by 2a2 and then add & sub x2.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . z 4. dx x + kx2 + a2 4 Divide num & deno. dx z LMN.x ± a I GH x JK 2 = t.6450883. the integral becomes one of standard forms.) + zc z z z LMN .GH d 1st fun. dx dx a sin x + b cos x + c Replace sin x = 2 tan x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 .6450883.z or MATHS FORMULA . . µ z u. 0744 . 608-A. Thus the form reduces to the known form. υ dx z z or a sin x + b cos x + c dx p sin x + q cos x + r Express : Num. dx I ez 2nd fun. Thus the form reduces as above. a2. υ dx = u. cos x = 1 − tan2 x / 2 1 + tan2 x / 2 INTEGRATION BY PARTS : when integrand involves more than one type of functions the formula of integration by parts is used to integrate the product of the functions i.e. [The fun. Thus dx integral reduces to known form. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 147 E D U C A T I O N S . µ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. dx h c h d (deno. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.POCKET BOOK 1 a sin x + b cos2 x + c 2 dx Divide numerator & denominator by cos x.) + d (deno. (i) then put tan x/2 = t and replace 1 + tan2 x/2 = sec2 x/2 a sin x + b cos x dx c sin x + d cos x Express : num. = λ(deno. should be choosen in the following order of preference (ILATE).) + ν Evaluate λ.dxjO dx J P K Q Divide numerator & denominator Rule to choose the first function : first fun.) Ph.) Evaluate λ & µ.Hz du dx υ dx I O dx KP Q 1st fun.

where px2 + qx + r he j Bx + C A + 2 x−a x + bx + c x2 + bx + c can not be factorised = a +b 2 2 cacos bx + b sinbxh c h + k ex h + k1. c are distinct hc h a +b [a sin (bx + c) b cos(bx + c)] + k1 cx − ah cx − bh . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. Q(x) are polynomials. may be represented in the form Px ex f x + f' x dx = ex f(x) + c e mx ch ch mf x + f' x dx = e ch ch mx f(x) + c emx f x + L f' cxh O dx Mc h m P P M Q N = emx f x m ch + c. c h. Types of proper rational functions Types of partial fractions A B + x−a x −b A B C + + x−a x −b x−c (v) eax sinbx dx and e ax a2 + b2 e 2 ax 2 z eax sin bx + c dx c h c c px + q x−a x−b . 0744 . 608-A.6450883. a ≠ b hc hc 2 h px2 + qx + r . Qcxh (iv) NOTE : Breaking (iii) & (iv) integral into two integrals. RATIONAL ALGEBRAIC . If deg (num. a px2 + qx + r ≠ b A + x−a cx − ah B 2 + C x−b (vi) z e ax cos bx dx and e ax z e ax cos bx + c dx c h c x − a x2 + bx + c .POCKET BOOK 5. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 150 .UNCTIONS USING PARTIAL . 0744 . 2405510 S .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . If degree of numerator is less than that of denominator.) apply division rule i. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. INTEGRATION O.) ≥ deg(deno. x2 + cx + d can not be factorised .e.(iii) (a) (b) (c) z z z MATHS FORMULA . resolve the gcxh gcxh r x fraction into partial factors. b. 2 je j Ax + B x + ax + b 2 + Cx + D x + cx + d 2 and eax a2 + b2 a cos bx + c + b sin bx + c c where x + ax + b. The following table illustrate the method. z z xf' x + f x dx = x f(x) + c. where P(x).) Ph. ch ch ch gcxh f x = q(x) + c h . Integrate one integral by parts and keeping other integral as it is by doing so we get the result (integral). is said to be proper other wise it is improper. 608-A. PAGE # 149 E D U C A T I O N px3 + qx2 + rx + s 2 + ax + b x2 + cx + d . for integrating rcxh . x−a x−b x−c = (a sin bx b cos bx) + k and a.) Ph. the rational fun.RACTION : Every Rational fun.

quad or z linear quad.6450883. quadratic x dx h h 2 1 + cos 2mx 2 mx mx cos 2 2 or linear .) Ph. linear I G quadratic J H K into partial fractions and z z z dx linear linear dx quad. 2405510 .6450883. (iv) To evaluate put linear = t2 7. 0744 . (ax + b)1/n and (ax + b)1/m then put (ax + b) = tp where p = (L. 608-A. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 151 E D U C A T I O N S .UNCTIONS : (i) (ii) If integrand is a function of x & (ax + b)1/n then put (ax + b) = tn If integrand is a function of x. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. of m & n). (iii) To evaluate MATHS FORMULA . IRRATIONAL ALGEBRAIC . 0744 . linear dx split the integral into two. each of which is of the put linear = t form : z dx linear quad. quad dx and if the quadratic not under the square root can be resolved into real linear factors.C. quadratic 2 sin mx = 2sin sin3 mx = cos3 mx = tan2 mx cot2 mx 2 cos A 2 sin A 2 sin A (vi) To evaluate z z dx pure quad.M. INTEGRATION O. put pure quad = u (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) = sec2 mx 1 = cosec2 mx 1 cos B = cos (A + B) + cos (A B) cos B = sin (A + B) + sin (A B) sin B = cos (A B) cos (A + B) PAGE # 152 . pure quad put x = 1 and t then is the resulting integral.) Ph. 608-A. then resolve 1 or quadratic .POCKET BOOK 6. quadratic dx put linear = 1/t INTEGRATION USING TRIGONOMETRICAL IDENTITIES : (A) To evaluate trigonometric functions transform the function into standard integrals using trigonometric identities as (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) sin2 mx = cos2 mx = 1 − cos 2 mx 2 or zc zc linear . pure quad put 3 sin mx − sin 3mx 4 3 cos mx + cos 3mx 4 pure quad = t (vii) To evaluate dx pure quad. (v) To evaluate linear.POCKET BOOK (viii) To evaluate z dx quad.MATHS FORMULA .

POCKET BOOK (B) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) z sinm x cosm xdx .) Ph. 608-A. 0744 . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 153 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883. 0744 . INTEGRATION BY SUCCESSIVE REDUCTION (REDUCTION . if m is odd put cos x = t if m is even put sin x = t if m & n both odd put sin x or cos x as t if m & n both even use the formula of sin2x & cos2x if m & n rational no. z xn−1eax dx xn sin x dx sinn x dx xn cos x + nxn1sin x n(n 1) In2 n−1 sinn−1 cos x + In2 n n cosn x dx n−1 cosn−1 x sin x + In2 n n tann x dx ctanxh n−1 n−1 n−1 In2 cotn x dx ccot xh n−1 In2 . 2405510 PAGE # 154 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n ∈ N 1 n ax n x e I a a n1 where In1 = NOTE : These formulae are specifically useful when m & n are both even nos. 608-A.n c cm + nh h 8.unction z z z z z z Integration xneaxdx .) Ph.MATHS FORMULA . n−2 sinm1x cosn+1x + (m 1) Im2. & put tan x = t m+n−2 is ve integer 2 z z z secn x dx n−2 secn−2 x tan x + I n − 1 n2 n−1 cos ecnx dx n−2 cos ecn−2 x cot x + I n − 1 n2 n−1 sinm x cosn x dx cosn−1 x sinm+1 x + n − 1 Im.ORMULA) : .6450883.

b zch zc f x dx = −a f a + b − x dx or h 0 zch a f x dx = zc a 0 f a − x dx h V. then PAGE # 155 E D U C A T I O N S .or integration by parts in definite integral we use following rule. Then nT I. of f(x) w.(b) .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .(x) + c. x + c ch ch b a = . if f 2a − x = f x VII. .r. if f x is an even function ch .irst obtain the indefinite integral of f(x) and then apply the upper and lower limit. We note that while changing the independent variable in a definite integral. if f cxh is an odd function * When we use method of substitution.GH z du . z a f x dx = ch z ch a 0 f x + f −x dx c h * z uv dx = a {uz v. .t.INITE INTEGRAL : If f(x) is a periodic function with period T.POCKET BOOK DE. greatest integer function & breakable function IV. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. dx dx dx IJ K = R2 f x dx |zch S | 0 T a 0 . z b a a b f x dx = zch c a a b f x dx + zch b c f x dx where a < c < b f x dx = .(a) is called definite integral This property is mainly used for modulus function. Remarks : * To evaluate definite integral of f(x).) Ph.) Ph. 2405510 PAGE # 156 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. the limits of integration must also we changed accordingly. 608-A. Definite Integration : If z b a f x dx = f x dx b ch ch zch a z b a z f x dx = .dx} b a b a z .MATHS FORMULA . v.INITE INTEGRATION II. 0744 . zch b a N S f x dx = z b a f t dt ch zch f x dx = n f x dx 0 zch T and further if a ∈ R+. DE. zch 0 0 f x dx = R |2 fcxh dx S | 0 | T z a 0 c h ch . 608-A.6450883. 2a VI. PROPERTIES O. 1. 0744 . if f c2a − xh = − f cxh .6450883. then ch III. 2405510 E D U C A T I O . x from x = a to x = b Here a is called lower limit and b is called upper limit.

. dx dx .. b]. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S u(x) z f(t) dt = z 0 π /2 n sin x dx or z 0 cosn x dx PAGE # 157 E D U C A T I O N S . Reduction . b]. z b a f x dx ch < z ch z a cosn x dx = z 0 sinn x dx |f x dx| = X... dx d d f{v(x)} {v(x)} f{u(x)} {u(x)}. 608-A.. then.POCKET BOOK (ii) If the function φ(x) and ψ(x) are defined on [a. 0744 . | n n−2 3 Sn − 1 n − 3 1 π | n .MATHS FORMULA . 2 .) Ph. v(x) are differentiable z 0 sinm x cosn x dx follow the following If m is odd put cos x = t If n is odd put sin x = t If m and n are even use sin2x = 1 cos2x or cos2x = 1 sin2x and then use π /2 d functions in the interval [a. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n − 2 .. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 2. zch b a b a 3. t) dt + Rdψ (x) U f(x. d dx nT zch f x dx = zch zch a nT f x dx . 2 . S dx V T W VIII. b]. f x dx = (n m) f x dx . t) dt O P= P Q ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x. then m(b a) < ψ(x)) Rdφ(x) U f(x.) Ph.6450883. If f(x) < g(x) on [a. then. | T π /2 if n is odd if n is even g x dx (ii) .1. b). n − 3 . 0744 . b] and differentiable at a point x ∈ (a. 0 0 mT zch T b +nT a+ nT zch zch b f x dx = f x dx a L M M N ψ (x) φ(x) z f (x. 608-A.POCKET BOOK a+nT MATHS FORMULA . 2 .. t) is continuous.6450883. S dx V T W π /2 φ(x)). then z b a f x dx ≤ ch zch b a v(x) R n − 1 . 2405510 PAGE # 158 .ormulae : π /2 f x dx < M(b a) (i) IX. and f(x..or integration steps (a) (b) (c) Differentiation Under Integral Sign : Leibnitz's Rule : (i) If f(x) is continuous and u(x). If m and M are the smallest and greatest values of a function f(x) on an interval [a.

POCKET BOOK 4.. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 608-A. 1 Mm+n m+n−2 3 +n 1+n M M m − 1 . 1 ...rI = L m − 1 . Key Results : π /2 = [(m − 1) (m − 3).... 2 Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 3 M Mm − 1. m − 3 ... n − 3...MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.e. n − 1. m − 3 . 608-A. m − 3 .....POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA ...] (m − n) (m + n − 2) ..) Ph. n − 1. 0744 . 2 .6450883. n − 3 . Summation of series by Definite integral or limit as a sum : (iii) z 0 ∞ e − ax cos bx dx = a a2 + b2 (iv) z 0 ∞ e−ax sinbx dx = b a + b2 2 (i) zch b a n→∞ lim f x dx = h→0 h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +. by π when m and n are both even 2 * z 0 π /2 logsin x dx = z 0 logcos x dx = −π log2 2 π /2 to be multiplied integers. exp. e −ax xndx = n! a +1 n (ii) lim π /2 (vi) z 0 r 1 f n r =1 n .... +f(a + (n 1)h] (v) z 0 ∞ where nh = b a. the given series in the form ∑ n f G nJ H K 1 . 1 ..I ∑G J HK n = zch 1 0 f x dx sinn x cosm x dx [i.... if m is enen and n is odd . if m is even and n is even OP PP PP PP Q replace r 1 by x and by dx and the limit of the n n sum is These formulae can be expressed as a single formula : π /2 zch 1 0 f x dx ] z 0 sinm x cos n x dx 5. 2405510 PAGE # 160 . * z 0 c h f csin xh + fccos xh dx = f sin x π /2 zc 0 f sin x + f cos x dx f cos x c h h c h . if m is odd and n may be even or odd ..) Ph. π Mm + n m + n − 2 2 + n n n − 2 2 2 N ..] [(n − 1) (n − 3) .. 1 . 0744 .. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 159 E D U C A T I O N S .6450883.

. 0744 .. 6. 2405510 E D U C A T I O PAGE # 161 E D U C A T I O N S . 4.. 7.. 2405510 PAGE # 162 .. 2n + 1 a c c h h * z a 0 π 1 dx = 2 a2 − x2 (i) * z a 0 z b a dx x−a b−x =π x a − x2 2 2 dx = a (ii) * z a 0 N S z a 0 a 0 x−a π b−a dx = a+x 2 c h x a2 − x2 dx = πa 3a + 6 8 2 2 (iii) zc x − a b − x dx = π b − a 2 2 hc h c h . then If a < b then ze a 0 a2 − x2 j n 2.MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .5 . 0744 ..POCKET BOOK π /2 = z 0 f tan x + f cot x c f tan x c h c h π /2 h dx = z 0 c h dx f csec xh + f ccos ecxh f sec x f cot x * ze a 0 x dx a2 + x2 j 3/2 dx = 1 2a2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2n 2n+1 dx = 3.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. n are different + ve int egers if m = n 2a * z 0 2ax − x2 dx = πa2 2 * z a 0 a2 − x2 dx = π 2 a 4 * * If n ∈ N.) Ph. fctan xh + fccot xh * z a 0 x2 a2 − x2 dx = πa4 16 π /2 * z 0 π /2 sinmx sin nx dx = z 0 cos mx . G H I J K if a > 0 = R0 |π S |2 T if m. 608-A.6450883. = zc f cos ec x f cos ec x + f sec x c h c h π /2 h dx= z 0 c h dx = π/4.. cos nx dx * z a 0 x2 π 2 a2 − x2 − dx = a3 4 3 a+ x .6450883... 608-A.

2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 163 E D U C A T I O N S . n ∈ N. i (iii) (iv) * z z a 0 a 0 a+ x a− x dx = 10 a a 3 * Q x [x] is a periodic function with period 1.t (iv) * z b a x cx − ahcb − xh dx = π ab 2 ab > 0 If a > 0 then (i) zch b a f x dx = f(c) [b a]. with period T. 2k a− x a π −2 a + x dx = 2 c h zd 0 a x − x dx = k.MATHS FORMULA . b) s. The above result is called the first mean value theorem for integrals. then a+ T a+ x a − x dx = . 0744 . then (i) z 0 zch z c 0 f x dx is independent of a. The no. b > 0) x . π + 1I a G2 J H K * π 2a a π /4 If a > 0. 608-A.POCKET BOOK * If f(x) is continuous on [a. b]. b] then there exists a point c ∈ (a.) Ph.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. z a 0 a a+x π +2 dx = 2 a−x c h * f(c) = 1 f x dx is called the mean value of the b−a a zch b (ii) z a 0 fun.6450883. log 1 + tan x dx = h π log2 8 ∞ x e −ax dx = a > 0 ∞ (ii) z e −r 2 2 x dx = 0 π (r > 0) 2r (iii) z 0 ∞ e−ax − e −bx dx = loge(b/a) (a.6450883. where k ∈ I. If f(x) is a periodic fun. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 164 .) Ph. f(x) on the interval [a. 0744 .

Y = y k we shall get the solution. The given equation will have variables separable in v and x.IRST DEGREE : (A) Differential equation of the form dy = f(y) dx dy = f(x) or dx * ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx . g(x.) Ph. 0744 . Degree of a differential equation : The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest order derivative occurring in it when the derivatives are made free from the radical sign. After substituting y = vx or x = vy. 0744 . d yI G dx J H K 3 3 2 + .1 + dy I G dx J K H + 5y = 0 (D) Such an equation can be solved by putting y = vx or x = vy..6450883. y) dx y) are homogeneous functions of x and y of the same degree. 608-A.IRST ORDER AND . degree of (i) 1 (ii) 2 & (iii) 2 3. PAGE # 165 E D U C A T I O N S ... (i) d2 y dx 2 the form 2. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . y) dy = . where f(x. Ah + Bk + C = 0. SOLUTIONS O. y) is said to be homogeneous of the form y of degree n if it can be written as xn f x (ii) dy y = x + dx . dX AX + BY Solve it and then put X = x h. DI. (1) a b ≠ A B This is non Homogeneous Put x = X + h and y = Y + k in (1) ∴ dy dY = Put ah + bk + c = 0.POCKET BOOK (B) Variable Separable .ERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Order of a differential equation : The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative occurring in it.. k dY aX + bY = ..orm where order of (i) 2 (ii) 1 & (iii) 3. 2405510 PAGE # 166 . Integrate both sides i. 608-A. Eg. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph.. Equations Reducible to Homogeneous form and variable separable form ..... This is homogeneous..6450883. THE . A function f(x. dX dx find h. I G J H K x or yn f y . or z dy = f(y) z z dy = z f(x) dx Then dx to get its solution.orm : Differential equation of dy = f(x) g(y) dx This can be integrated as DI. z dy = g(y) (C) Homogeneous Equations : It is a differential equation z f(x) dx + c + dy + 5y = 0 dx f(x. dy I 1+G J H dx K 2 2 .. y) and g(x. .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .e.ERENTIAL EQUATIONS O. I G J H K (iii) .MATHS FORMULA .

dy dy + c ⇒ dy dz A + B = dx dx e z R. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 168 .6450883. 608-A.orm = f(ax + by + c) dx + Py = Qyn Put ax + by = z ⇒ a + b dy dz = dx dx where P and Q are functions of x or constant is called Bernoulli's equation. 608-A.POCKET BOOK * ... * dy . S are functions of y dy ax + by + c dy = Ax + By + C dx a b = = k say A B . alone or constant.. we get yn Put ∴ dz = a + b f(z) dx This is variable separable form and can be solved. On dividing through out by yn. its solution x e where k (Ax + By) + c dy = ∴ Ax + By + C dx Put Ax + By = z z R dy = z S.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.. 0744 . e z R. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 167 E D U C A T I O N S . Q are function of x dx ⇒ The given equation will be linear in z and can be solved in the usual manner. Note : In general solution of differential equation we can take integrating constant c as tan1 c. (...) Equation reducible to linear form : * Differential equation of the form dy dx ⇒ dz kz + c = A + B dx z+c This is variable separable form and can be solved.orm where MATHS FORMULA .MATHS FORMULA .POCKET BOOK * In x : dx + Rx = S. .) of the equation. 0744 . ec.) Ph. its solution ye z P dx = z Qe z P dx dx + c where e z P dx is called the integrating factor (I. (E) * Linear equation : In y : dy + pyn dx yn + 1 + 1 = Q = z dy + Py = Q. where P. where R. alone or constant. according to our convenience. (1).) of the equation.dy is called the integrating factor (I. log c etc...) Ph.

y2. Vectors in terms of position vectors of end points - VECTORS 1.v. of C is c = D where OC is a diagonal of the parallelogram OABC a A m1 b − m2 a m1 − m2 . r a Vector a $ (b) Unit vector : a = || = a Magnitude of a (c) Equal vector : Two vectors a and b are said to be equal if |a| = |b| and they have the same direction.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA .v. of the mid point of [AB] is 1 [p. y1.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Distance between two points : Distance between points A(x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. c = b (x2 − x1 )2 + (y2 − y1)2 + (z2 − z1 )2 A a B 3. 0744 .) Ph.v.MATHS FORMULA . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 169 E D U C A T I O N S .v.POCKET BOOK 4.v. then m a is a vector and r magnitude of m a = m|a| r $ $ i and if a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k r $ $ then m a = (ma1) $ + (ma2) j + (ma3) k i 2. of terminal pt p. z2) → c = a + b b + a C = Magnitude of AB = 7. the p. 608-A. AB = OB OA = Position vector of B position vector of A i.v. Types of vectors : (a) Zero or null vector : A vector whose magnitude is zero is called zero or null vector. Parallelogram law of addition : OA + OB = OC a + b = c B b C Position vector of a dividing point : r (i) If A( a ) & B( b ) be two distinct pts. of B] 2 If point C divides AB in the ratio m1 : m2 externally. Multiplication of a vector by a scalar : r r If a is a vector and m is a scalar. 2405510 PAGE # 170 . z1) and B(x2.e.v. then p.6450883.6450883. of A + p. 608-A. c of the point C dividing [AB] in ratio m1 : m2 is given by r r m1b + m2a r c = m +m 1 2 (ii) (iii) p. 0744 . Triangle law of addition : AB + BC = AC 6. 5. of initial pt. any vector = p.

Some results : (i) If D. a . 0744 . B( β ) and C( γ ) is ⇒ x = 0. b = |a| |b| cosθ Projection of a in the direction of b = a. c = λ a + µ b (iii) Any vector r can be expressed uniquely as inner combination of three non coplanar & non zero vectors a . b . The necessary and sufficient condition for three points with p. then OA + OB + OC = 3 OG = OH where G is centriod and H is orthocentre of ∆ABC. then GA + GB + GC = 0 If O is the circumcentre of a ∆ABC. b & Projection of b in the direction of a = | a| (iii) r.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. c be three coplanar vectors.v. Products of vectors : (I) (i) (ii) Scalar or dot product of two vectors : a . b and c i. MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . I G Ja H K .POCKET BOOK 10. $ = $ . remaining two vectors i. a Component of r on a = |a 2 | Component of r ⊥ . $ = $ . B and C are collinear if AB = λ AC for some non zero scalar λ.v. b . 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 171 E D U C A T I O N S . of centriod of triangle formed by the points A( a ). = 0 (ii) (iii) If G is the centriod of ∆ABC. l + m + n = 0 (iv) (v) a.v. b = |CA|. of the incentre of the triangle formed by the points r r r A( α ).MATHS FORMULA . Coplanar and non coplanar vector : (i) If a . then HA + HB + HC = 3 HG = OH 9. 2405510 PAGE # 172 . Collinearity of three points : (i) (ii) Three points A. r. r = x a + y b + z c 11.e. m.k = k . c to be collinear is that there exist three scalars l.6450883. $ = 0 $ i j $ i j . then AD + BE + C. CA & AB respectively. then a vector c can be expressed uniquely as linear combination of aα + bβ + cγ where a = |BC|. E. 608-A. c be three non coplanar non zero vector then x a + y b + z c = 0 r r a+b+c B( b ) and C ( c ) is 3 (v) p. 608-A. b | b| (iv) If H is orthocentre of ∆ABC.e.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. $ = k . are the mid points of sides BC. z = 0 (ii) If a . y = 0. . c = |AB| a+b+c 8.k = 1 $ $ j j i i $ . b .POCKET BOOK (iv) p. a I to a = r G H|a| J a K 2 $ . n all non zero such that l a + m b + n c = 0.) Ph.

608-A. then a . b = 0 (viii) ( a . then i i $ $ $ k j i a a2 a3 a × b = 1 b1 b2 b3 a. acting at a point A about O is Moment of force = OA × . 2405510 I O N S PAGE # 174 . b b. b ).) Ph.POCKET BOOK (vi) If a and b are like vectors. 0744 . b = b1 $ + b2 $ + b3 k and j j i i r $ c = c1 $ + c2 $ + c3 k then j i (vi) a × a =0 PAGE # 173 E D U C A T .6450883. ⇒ If a . a a.6450883.MATHS FORMULA . d . k × $ = $ j i i Area of triangle : (a) (b) (x) ⇒ a || b ⇒ a ⊥ b a ⊥ b 1 2 AB × AC (xii) | a + b | = | a b | work done = . then area = (II) Vector or cross product of two vectors : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) $ a × b = |a| |b| sinθ n if a . j j j i i i $ $ $ j × k = $.v.orce : Moment of the force . then a . b + b2 | a + b | = | a| + | b | | a + b |2 = |a|2 + |b|2 MATHS FORMULA . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. then area = | a × b | (b) If a and b are two diagonals of a parallelogram. b (III) Scalar triple product : r r $ $ (i) If a = a1 $ + a2 $ + a3 k . 608-A.POCKET BOOK (vii) a × ( b × c ) = ( a × b ) × c (viii) a × ( b + c ) = ( a × b ) + ( a × c ) (ix) $ $ $ $ × $ = $ × $ = k × k = 0. $ × $ = k . . b is not defined (ix) (x) (xi) ( a ± b )2 = a2 ± 2 a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. b are ⊥ ⇔ a . b (xiii) Lagrange's identity : | a × b |2 = a. b = | a || b | (vii) a . b . $ $ $ $ let a = a1 $ + a2 j + a3 k & b = b1 $ + b2 j + b3 k . b = | a || b | and If a and b are unlike vectors. c are p. 0744 .) Ph. is displacement vector. b are parallel ⇔ a × b = 0 a × b = ( b × a ) $ n =± 1 |a × b | 2 a×b | a × b| (xii) Moment of . then = (xiii) work done by the force : where . is force vector and d (xi) 1 |( a × b ) + ( b × c ) + ( c × a )| 2 Area of parallelogram : (a) If a & b are two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. of vertices of ∆ABC. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S . = r × .

b . C. r r r r r r (iv) ( a × b ). c . b . c ) b (b . c = a . AD | 6 r r r r (x) .6450883. then [λ a b c ] = λ[ a b c ] r r r r r r r r r r (vii) [ a + d b c ] = [ a b c ] + [ d b c ] r r r r r r (viii) a . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 0744 . r r r r r r r r r but [ a b c ] = [ b a c ] = [ a c b ] etc. b ) c r r r r r r Clearly in general a × ( b × c ) ≠ ( a × b ) × c but r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = a × ( b × c ) if and only if a . then so are r r r × c . 608-A.( b × c ) etc. r r r r r r ( a × b ). b . r a are also coplanar. a+b+c Orthocentre formula : The position vector of the r r r a tan A + b tan B + c tan C orthocentre of ∆ ABC is tan A + tan B + tan C (iii) [ AB AC AD ] = 0 r r r r (xii) (a) [ a + b b + c r r r r (b) [ a b b c r r r r (c) [ a × b b × c E D U C A T I O N S → → → r r r r r c + a ] = 2[ a b c ] r r c a] = 0 r r r r r c × a ] = [ a b c ]2 PAGE # 175 E D U C A T (iv) Vector equation of a straight line passing through a r fixed point with position vector a and parallel to a r r r r given vector b is r = a + λb . d will be coplanar if r r r r r r r r r r r r [d b c ] + [d c a] + [d a b] = [a b c ] (xi) . c are coplanar ⇔ [ a b c ] = 0 1 | AB × AC .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . c be any three vectors. c + a and a b . c are coplanar. Application of Vector in Geometry : (i) (ii) (ix) Volume of tetrahedron ABCD is → → → a b c r $ $ $ Direction cosines of r = ai + bj + ck are r . then ( a × b ) × c r r r and a × ( b × c ) are known as vector triple product and is defined as r r r r r r r r r ( a × b ) × c = ( a . c = [ a b c ] = a1 a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 c1 c 2 c 3 r r b c. D are coplanar if [$ $ k] = 1 i j $ (IV) Vector triple Product : r r r r r r If a . |r | |r | |r | Incentre formula : The position vector of the incentre r r r aa + bb + cc of ∆ ABC is . b .) Ph. . b r & c are collinear 12. b . b .) Ph. c ) a r r r r r r r r r and a × ( b × c ) = ( a . 2405510 PAGE # 176 .v.MATHS FORMULA . 0744 . c r r r r r r r r r (ii) [ a b c ] = [ b c a ] = [ c a b ]. r r r r r (iii) [ a b c ] = 0 if any two of the three vectors a . r . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. r c are collinear or equal. c × a and r r r r r r r + b . r .our points A.our points with p.6450883. b + c . c ) b ( a . r r r and [ a b c ] = volume of the parallelopiped whose r r r coterminus edges are formed by a . 2405510 I O N S . (v) r r r r r r (vi) If λ is a scalar. B.POCKET BOOK (d) If r b r a r c r r r a . 608-A. r r a × b. a .

[ b1 b2 a2 − a1 ] = 0 n1 . The perpendicular distance of a point having position r r r vector a from the plane r.n1 − d1| |r.( r − b ) = 0 or | r |2 r.MATHS FORMULA . |n| |n| |n| . |n| (xv) If the position vectors of the extremities of a diamr r eter of a sphere are a and b .n1 = d1 r r r r |r. n = r .n2 = d2 is given by cos θ = ± |n ||n | .) Ph. n = d to normal form we divide both sides by | n | r r n r d d $ r. Therefore. n2 r r r2 .n2 − d2| r r = r r and r2 . a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | h c h= b1 b2 a2 − a1 |b1 × b2 | c h (xi) The equation of any plane through the intersection r r r r of planes r .n = d touches the sphere | r − a | = R.POCKET BOOK (v) The vector equation of a line passing through two r r points with position vectors a and b is r r r r r =a+ λb−a . |b| c h constant. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S e j PAGE # 177 E D U C A T I O N S .b = 0. n1 + λn2 = d1 + λd2. r (vii) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and at a distance d from the origin is r $ r .6450883.n − d| r if = R. 608-A.6450883. a − b + a. 1 2 (xiii) The equation of the planes bisecting the angles r r between the planes r1 .n − d| r p= . (ix) Vector equation of a plane passing through a point r r r r rrr abc is r = 1 − s − t a + sbt + c r r r r r r r rrr or r. where λ is an arbitrary shortest distance between two parallel lines : The r r r shortest distance between the parallel lines r = a1 + λb r r r | a2 − a1 × b| r r r r and r = a2 + µb is given by d = . 0744 . MATHS FORMULA . r r |a. b × c + c × a + a × b = [ abc ].POCKET BOOK (viii) The equation of the plane passing through a point r r r having position vector a and parallel to b and c is r r r r rrr rrr r = a + λb + µc or [ r bc ] = [ abc ].n2 = d2 are |n1| |n2| r r r r (xiv) The plane r . then to reduce the equation r r r r . c h ⇒ r r r r [ a2 − a1 b1b2 ] = 0 c h ⇒ r ca 2 r r r − a1 . 608-A. r = r to obtain or r . n2 = d2 is r r r . n1 = d1 and r . then its equation is r r r r r r r r r r ( r − a ). r If n is not a unit vector. 2405510 PAGE # 178 . 0744 . where λ and µ are scalars. then the shortest distance between them is zero. e j (vi) Shortest distance between two parallel lines : Let l1 and l2 be two lines whose equations are l 1 : r r r r r r r = a1 + λb1 and l2 : r = a2 + µb2 respectively. b1 × b2 h e j = 0. n = d. Then. |n| r r (xii) An angle θ between the planes r1.n1 = d1 and c h If the lines r r r r = a1 + λb1 and r r r r = a2 + µb2 intersect.n = d is given by r r |a. shortest distance e c h j (x) PQ = cb 1 × b2 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.

z) from coordinate axes OX. 608-A. β . 0) Equation of x-axis is y = 0. Distance formula : (i) Distance between two points A(x1. my 2 + ny1 mz 2 + nz1 .POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . z1) and B(x2. mx + nx G m+n H . 608-A. Section formula : z2 + x2 and x2 + y2 4. 2405510 PAGE # 180 . 0) & point (x.G x H 1 + x2 + x3 + x 4 y1 + y2 + y3 + y 4 z1 + z 2 + z 3 + z 4 .MATHS FORMULA . Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line : * If α . mx − nx G m−n H 2 2 1 . 0. Distance between origin (0. z2) in the ratio m : n * Internally are * Externally are . l 2 + m2 + n2 = 1. OY. J m−n K 1 segment makes with the +ve direction of the coordinate axes. y = 0 (vi) Equation of ZOX plane is y = 0 (vii) Equation of XOY plane is z = 0 2. n = cos γ are called direction cosines of the line and cos2 α + cos2 β + cos2 γ = 1 i. 4 4 4 Note : * Area of triangle is given by ∆ = ∆2 + ∆2 + ∆2 x y z y1 1 y 2 Where ∆x = 2 y 3 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 and so. where 0 ≤ α. y1. m+n m+n my2 − ny1 m−n 2 1 .) Ph.) Ph. 0. y. β. γ are the angles which a directed line The coordinates of a point which divides the join of (x1. . z2) is given by AB = (ii) (x 2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y1 )2 + (z 2 − z1 )2 . OZ is given by * Volume of tetrahedron = 1 6 y 2 + z2 .6450883. y2. z) = 2 2 2 x1 + y1 + z1 * x1 − x2 y1 − y2 z1 − z2 Condition of collinearity x − x = y − y = z − z 2 3 2 3 2 3 x1 x2 x3 x4 y1 y2 y3 y4 z1 z2 z3 z4 1 1 1 1 (iii) Distance of a point p(x. y1. IJ K mz − nz I .POCKET BOOK * Coordinates of the centroid of a triangle are THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 1. y. 0744 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. γ ≤ π . Points in Space : (i) (ii) (iii) (v) Origin is (0. 3 3 3 I J K I J K * Coordinates of centroid of a tetrahedron (iv) Equation of z-axis is x = 0. 0744 . x = 0 Equation of YOZ plane is x = 0 . z = 0 Equation of y-axis is z = 0.6450883.x G H 1 + x 2 + x3 y1 + y2 + y 3 z1 + z 2 + z3 . 3. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 179 E D U C A T I O N S . m = cos β . . z1) and (x2. then l = cos α .e. y2.

MATHS FORMULA . Straight line in space : * Equation of a straight line passing through a fixed point and having d.POCKET BOOK * If l . y1. n = (x2 x1) l + (y2 y1)m + (z2 z1)n. n. z2) are x2 − x1 y2 − y1 z 2 − z1 .6450883.c. 1. n2 is given by cos θ = l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2. m.6450883. The lines are || if m n l = = =± a b c * l 2 + m2 + n2 a2 + b2 + c 2 =± 1 a + b2 + c2 2 . z1) and Q(x2. Shortest distance between two skew lines. If P(x1. y1. z) are coordinates of P then x = l r. m. m2. c are called direction ratios of the line and MATHS FORMULA . b2. y2. y2. n are direction cosines of a line and a. z2) be two points and L be a line with d. z1) and Q(x2. * Two straight lines in space (not in same plane) which are neither parallel nor intersecting are called skew lines. 608-A. n are d. c is x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = (is the symmetrical a c b The lines are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 Length of the projection of PQ upon AB with d. n respectively.s are a1.) Ph. where p(x1. Direction cosines of PQ = r. n1 and l 2. c1 and a2.c. b. m. 0744 . m. c2 is given by cos θ = ± * a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 * If a. then a2 + b2 + c2 need not to be equal to 1. similarly direction cosines of y-axis and z-axis are respectively 0. 1. of a line. * x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = and m1 n1 l1 x − x2 y − y2 z − z2 = = is given m2 n2 l2 * form) Equation of a line passing through two points is .) Ph.'s a. y = mr and z = nr where r = OP.r.'s are l 1. 2405510 PAGE # 182 . TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. c are proportional to l .c. r r r m1 n1 l1 l2 = m2 = n2 and * The lines are ⊥ if l 1 l 2 + m1m2 + n1n2 = 0 * The angle θ between the lines whose d. m1. 0. z1) & Q(x2. then projection of [PQ] on L = l (x2 x1) + m(y2 y1) + n(z2 z1) 5.s of a line OP and (x. z2). b1. 608-A. where P is (x1. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. m.POCKET BOOK x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 x2 − x1 = y2 − y1 = z2 − z1 * The angle θ between the lines whose d.r. Direction cosines of x-axis are 1. y1.c.'s l . If l . .. y. 0744 . * The lines are || if a1 b1 c1 = b = c and a2 2 2 Note : Direction cosines of a line are unique but the direction ratios of line are not unique. b. b. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 181 E D U C A T I O N S . b. c are direction no. 0 and 0. then a. y2. 0. 0. l .

6450883. B. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S .'s of a normal to the plane. 2405510 PAGE # 184 . y1. * ax + by + cz + k = 0 represents a plane || to the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 and ⊥ to the line x y z = = . y and z is x y z + + = 1. = ± l1 l2 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 m1 n1 m2 n2 (m1n2 − m2n1)2 + (n1 l2 − l1n2 )2 + (l1m2 − m1 l2 )2 * Two straight lines are coplanar if they are intersecting or parallel x2 − x1 condition l1 l2 y2 − y1 m1 m2 z2 − z1 n1 = 0 n2 * Equation of plane through three non collinear points is 6. * Equation of plane which cuts off intercepts a. 608-A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. straight line joining them lies wholly in the surface.) Ph. 608-A. where A. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. Equation of plane through origin is given by Ax + By + Cz = 0.c.POCKET BOOK * Normal form of the equation of plane is l x + my + nz = p.r.s proportional to A. C are d. Equation of plane passing through a point (x1. C. z1) is A(x x1) + B(y y1) + C(z z1) = 0. n are the d. a c b PAGE # 183 E D U C A T I O N S x x1 x2 x3 y y1 y2 y3 z 1 z1 1 z2 1 z3 1 = 0 or * x − x1 x2 − x1 x3 − x1 y − y1 z − z1 y2 − y1 z2 − z1 y3 − y1 z3 − z1 = 0 * The angle between the two planes is given by cos θ = ± a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 where θ is the angle between the normals. 2 2 2 . 0744 . a c b x2 − x1 s. * * * Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 represents a plane whose normal has d.6450883. B. m.POCKET BOOK MATHS FORMULA . plane are ⊥ if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 = 0 a1 b1 c1 plane are || if a = b = c = 0. Plane : A plane is a surface such that if two points are taken in it. 0744 .) Ph.c. where l . Equation of plane through the intersection of two planes P ≡ a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and Q ≡ a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is P + λ Q = 0.MATHS FORMULA . b.d.'s of the normal to the plane and p is the length of perpendicular from the origin. c respectively on the axes x.

POCKET BOOK 7. 0744 . .POCKET BOOK * If AP be the ⊥ from A to the given plane. z1) to the line * Bisector of the angles between the planes a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are x−α y−β z−γ = = is given by m n l + m(y1 β ) + n(z1 γ )]2 p2 = (x1 α )2 + (y1 β )2 + (z1 γ )2 [ l (x1 α ) a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 2 2 2 a1 + b1 + c1 = ± a2 x + b2 y + c2 z + d2 a2 + b2 + c2 2 2 2 if a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 is ve then origin lies in the acute angle between the planes provided d1 and d2 are of same sign. 608-A. then it is || to the normal. z1) and B(x2. y2.) Ph. y1.6450883. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ.6450883. br + β . 608-A.MATHS FORMULA . z2) lie on the same or different sides of the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. where A l + Bm + Cn = 0. according as the expression ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are of same or different sign. The line lies in the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0 and ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 The angle θ between the line and the plane is given by sin θ = p= * Distance between two parallel planes (ax + by + cz + d1 = 0. 0744 . y1. cr + γ ) * Length of the ⊥ from P(x1.) Ph. TALWANDI KOTA (RAJ. 2405510 PAGE # 186 . Line and Plane : If ax + by + cz + d = 0 represents a plane and x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = represents a straight line. Length of the perpendicular from a point (x1. 2405510 E D U C A T I O N S PAGE # 185 E D U C A T I O N S . * A(x x1) + B(y y1) + C(z z1) = 0. then m n l * * * * The line is ⊥ to the plane if a b c = = m n l Any point P on it is (ar + α . y1. z1) to a plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d a2 + b2 + c 2 The line is || to the plane if a l + bm + cn = 0. ax + by + cz + d2 = 0) is given by d2 − d1 a + b2 + c2 2 al + bm + cn a2 + b2 + c2 l2 + m2 + n2 * General equation of the plane containing the line x − x1 y − y1 z − z1 = = is n m l * Two points A(x1. so that its equation is x−α y−β z−γ = = = r (say) a c b MATHS FORMULA .

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