1.2K views

Original Title: Permutation - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK

Uploaded by Aditya Kumar

Permutation - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK

Quant ebook for CAT, MAT, XAT, IIFT, SNAP etc

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Quant Tips &Tricks
- Number - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK
- Algebra - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK
- Geometry - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK
- Combination Permutation
- Quantitative Aptitude
- Percentage - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOK
- 800 Permutation Combination Prob Lesson
- Permutation and Combinations
- Flashcards - Quantitative Aptitude Revision Maths Shortcuts
- Geometry Formulas
- Solution+G Level+V1+MaCNVC08+K1+Algebra+&+Functions
- Aptitude
- parabola of analytic geometry
- CAT-Quantitative-Reasoning Math
- Maths Number System
- Quant
- 8 Permutation & Combination Part 1 of 4
- Data Interpretation
- TSD 3

You are on page 1of 5

We have two principles of counting the “Sum rule” and the “Product rule”.

Event A can happen in = m ways.

Event B can happen in = n ways.

Then, the chances of either (A or B) happening are given by ⎯can

⎯occur

⎯⎯⎯in

→ m + n ways (Sum Rule)

⎯⎯ ⎯⎯→ m × n ways (Product

occur in

Rule)

n

Pr → Number of arrangements of n different objects taken ‘r’ at a time

n

Cr → Number of selections of n different objects taken ‘r‘ at a time.

Formulae of Permutation:

1. Permutations of n different things taken 'r' at a time is denoted by nPr and is given by

n n!

Pr =

(n − r ) !

2. The total number of arrangements of n things taken ‘r’ at a time, in which a particular thing always

occurs = n–1Pr–1.

E.g. The number of ways in a basketball game in which 5 out of 8 selected players can play at different

positions, such that the captain always plays at the centre position = 8 – 1 P5 – 1 = 7P4 = 210.

3. The total number of permutations of n different things taken ‘r’ at a time in which a particular thing never

occurs = n–1Pr.

E.g. The number of ways in which we can form a 4 letter word from the letters of the word COMBINE

such that the word never contains B = 7–1P4 = 6P4 = 30

4. The number of arrangements when things are not all different such as arrangement of n things, when p

of them are of one kind, q of another kind, r is still of another kind and so on, the total number of

n!

permutations is given by .

(p ! q ! r !.......)

E.g. The total arrangements of the letters of the word “M A T H E M A T I C S” in which M, A and T are

11!

repeated twice respectively =

2! 2! 2!

5. The number of permutations of n different things taking ‘r’ at a time when each thing may be repeated

any number of times in any permutations is given by (n × n × n × n × n……………..r times) i.e. nr ways.

E.g. The total numbers of ways in which 7 balls can be distributed amongst 9 persons (when any man

can get any number of balls) = 97 ways.

Circular Permutations:

In linear permutation, we fill first place by n ways and next in (n – 1) ways and so on, but in circular

arrangement we don’t have any first place. So fix any object as a first place and arrange the rest (n – 1)

objects around it. Hence, we have to arrange 1 less than the total number of things.

n

Pr

ii. Number of circular permutations of n different things taking ‘r’ at a time = .

r

iii. If there is no difference between clockwise and anticlockwise arrangements, the total number of circular

(n − 1)!

permutations of n things taking all at a time is & the total number of circular permutations n

2

n

Pr

when taking ‘r’ at a time all will be .

2r

Formulae of Combination:

1. Number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken 'r' at a time is denoted by nCr & is given by

n n!

Cr =

(n − r )! r!

2. Number of combinations of n different things taken ‘r’ at a time in which ‘p’ particular things will always

occur is n–pCr–p

E.g. The number of ways a basketball team of 5 players chosen from 8 players, so that the captain be

included in the team = 8 – 1 C5 – 1 = 7C4 = 35

3. Number of combinations of n dissimilar things taken 'r' at a time in which 'p' particular things will never

n–p

occur is Cr

E.g. The number of ways a basketball team of 5 players chosen out of 10 players, such that the player

named Saurav should not be included in the team = 10 – 1 C5 = 9C5 = 126.

4. The number of ways in which (m + n) things can be divided into two groups containing m & n things

(m + n) ! (m + n) .

respectively (m + n)Cn = = Cm

m! n!

5. If 2m things are to be divided into two groups, each containing m things, the number of ways =

( 2 m) !

.

[2 (m ! ) 2 ]

6. The number of ways to divide n things into different groups, one containing p things, another q things &

(p + q + r + .....) !

so on is equal to Where {n = p + q + r +…}

p ! . q! . r !......

The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each of whom can receive 0, 1, 2, or

more items (≤ n) is n + r – 1Cr – 1.

OR

The total number of ways of dividing n identical objects into r groups, if blank groups are allowed, is

n+r–1

Cr – 1.

Example:

How many non – negative integral solutions are possible for the given equation?

x + y + z = 16

Hint: Here, if we look out to the problem we will find 16 objects have to be distributed among 3 different

persons (i.e. x, y, z).

16 + 3 −1 18

Hence n = 16, r = 3 and total number of non – negative solutions = C 3 −1 = C 2 = 153.

i. Number of lines with n points = nC2.

Q For making a line exactly two points are required. So the number of ways in which we can choose

two points out of n point is nC2.

Combination is used here because a line from A to B is the same as from B to A. So AB & BA are the

same.

(i) n lines can intersect at a maximum of nC2 points.

(ii) Number of triangles with n points = nC3.

(iii) Number of diagonals in n sided polygon = nC2 – n

ii. The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing

n objects and the order of the groups is not important, is

⎛ (mn )! ⎞ 1

⎜ ⎟

⎜ (n! ) m ⎟ m!

⎝ ⎠

iii. The number of ways in which mn different items can be divided equally into m groups, each containing

n objects and the order of the groups is important, is

⎛ (mn )! ⎞ 1 (mn )!

⎜ ⎟ × m! =

⎜ (n! ) m ⎟ m! (n! ) m

⎝ ⎠

iv. Total number of rectangles formed by n horizontal and m vertical lines in a plane = mC2 x nC2.

v. The total number of ways of dividing n identical items among r persons, each one of whom, can receive

0, 1, 2, or more items (≤ n) is n + r – 1Cr – 1.

OR

n+r

The total number of ways of dividing n identical objects into r groups, if blank groups are allowed, is

–1

Cr – 1.

PROBABILITY

If there are n-elementary events associated with a random experiment and m of them are favorable to an

event A, the probability of A happening is denoted by P (A) and is defined as the ratio m/n.

Number of favourable outcomes

Probability of an event occurring =

Number of all possible outcomes

m

Thus, P (A) = .

n

Probability always lies between 0 and 1

a. Probability of a sure event is 1.

b. Probability for an impossible event is 0.

m

Clearly, 0 ≤ m ≤ n, therefore 0 ≤ ≤ 1, so that 0 ≤ P (A) ≤ 1

n

Since the number of cases in which the event A will not happen is n - m, therefore, if A denotes not

()

happening of A, then the probability P A of not happening of A is given by

P A =() n−m

n

= 1−

m

n

= 1 – P (A) or ()

P(A) + P A = 1

If m is the favourable chances of an event and n be the total chances of the event,

()

the odds in favour of occurrence of the event A are defined by m : (n – m) i.e., P (A): P A and the odds

()

against the occurrence of A are defined by (n – m) : m, i.e., P A : P (A).

Two or more events are said to be mutually exclusive if these events cannot occur simultaneously. Two or

more events are said to be compatible, if they can occur simultaneously.

Two events (A and B) are mutually exclusive, if the intersection of two events is null or they have no common

element i.e. A ∩ B = φ . And are mutually inclusive, if they have atleast one of the elements in common i.e. A

∩B ≠φ .

E.g.

In drawing a card from a deck of 52 cards:

A: The event that it is a red card.

B: The event that it is a black card.

C: The event that it is a king.

In the above case events A and B are mutually exclusive but the events B and C are not mutually exclusive or

disjoint since they may have common outcomes.

More precisely we can use the following formula for these two types of events.

ule 1. If E and F two mutually exclusive events, the probability that either event E or event F will occur in a

single trial is given by:

P(E or F) or P (E ∪ B) = P(E) + P(F)

P(E or F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E and F together)

or

P(E ∪ F) = P(E) + P(F) – P(E ∩F )

Independent Events:

When two events, A and B are independent, the probability of both occurring is:

Example:

A coin is tossed and a single 6-sided dice is rolled. Find the probability of getting a head on the coin and a 3

on the dice.

Binomial Distribution:

If n trials are performed under the same condition and the probability of success in each trial is p, and q = 1 –

p then the probability of exactly r successes in n trials is:

n r n–r

P(r) = Cr p q

Example:

A dice is tossed 5 times. What is the probability that the number 5 shows up exactly thrice, on the dice?

- Quant Tips &TricksUploaded bysameer_for_u_86
- Number - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Algebra - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Geometry - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Combination PermutationUploaded bySitiSaum
- Quantitative AptitudeUploaded byramavarshny
- Percentage - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- 800 Permutation Combination Prob LessonUploaded byimmaculatesahai
- Permutation and CombinationsUploaded byOmer Ali
- Flashcards - Quantitative Aptitude Revision Maths ShortcutsUploaded byCATMentor
- Geometry FormulasUploaded bypauldme
- Solution+G Level+V1+MaCNVC08+K1+Algebra+&+FunctionsUploaded byEpic Win
- AptitudeUploaded byFAZULUL RAHMAN
- parabola of analytic geometryUploaded byaerogem618
- CAT-Quantitative-Reasoning MathUploaded byhayathmail9375
- Maths Number SystemUploaded byCATMentor
- QuantUploaded bySarath Babu
- 8 Permutation & Combination Part 1 of 4Uploaded byAkhilesh Kumar Mishra
- Data InterpretationUploaded byDr. Trilok Kumar Jain
- TSD 3Uploaded byAbhishek Jain
- Berbarology - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- 11 Time Work and WagesUploaded byVikāso Jāyasavālo
- Permutation and Combinations Test 15 Problems and AnswersUploaded byapi-3839111
- 1 Number SystemUploaded byVikāso Jāyasavālo
- pnc_tgUploaded bysatyajit03
- All i Wanted to Say About Cat_mbaUploaded bybhu_300
- Quantz Tricks 1Uploaded byCATMentor
- Puzzles ReasoningUploaded byArun King
- Correction+Uploaded bySanthosh Iyer
- MatricesUploaded byamol_puranik2005

- Percentage - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Guide to Engineering Admissions in India - 2012 EditionUploaded byAditya Kumar
- An Intelligent Intrusion Detection SystemUploaded byAditya Kumar
- A Vectorizing Compiler for Multimedia ExtensionUploaded byAditya Kumar
- A Method of Tracing Intruders by Use of Mobile AgentsUploaded byAditya Kumar
- 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality in Urban ManagementUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Lap Lac Ian FaceUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Face Recognition Using Laplacian FacesUploaded byAditya Kumar
- cs6320-proj1-4Uploaded bylitpengu
- Project Report on Sales and Inventory Management SystemUploaded byAditya Kumar
- 20.Project-Inventry Management SystemUploaded bybhandari0148
- Maglev TrainsUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Maglev PresentationUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Maglev PPTUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Maglev Paper PresentationUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Driving Without Wheels, Flying Without WingsUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Autonomous Parallel Parking CarUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Quadratic Equation (2)Uploaded byrajesh_iitg
- Berbarology - Quantitative Aptitude for CAT EBOOKUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Mechanical Paper II Conventional - IES 2010 Question PaperUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Mechanical Paper II - IES 2010 Question PaperUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Mechanical Paper i ConvUploaded bygauravonnet4u
- Mechanical Paper i - IES 2010 Question PaperUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Gen Ability - IES 2010 Question PaperUploaded byAditya Kumar
- Electrical Paper II - IES 2010 Question PaperUploaded byAditya Kumar
- (Www.entrance-exam.net)-Engineering Services Examination Sample Paper 4Uploaded byAjay Krishnan

- S6 MS Ch1 Note Combination and Permutation NewUploaded byWallStreet HK
- Counting Theorem and ProbabilityUploaded byReynan Chua Rozul
- Tcs Written Exam Tcs 2013 Pattern NewUploaded byepynic
- PermutationUploaded byrj
- grafosUploaded byEduardo Muller
- Computational MathematicsUploaded byRAHA TUDU
- 10.1.1.39.1924Uploaded byAmilatul Husna
- LaTeX ExampleUploaded byTom
- ec1Uploaded byphoeberamos
- MODULE 6 Lesson 1Uploaded byirec
- CUploaded byGolden Dubey
- Rubik Cube Group Theory Lakeahd Canada Daniels_ProjectUploaded bybhar
- Camera LPS(ID 281)Uploaded byapi-3848062
- Test 3_ACMUploaded byVan Tuan Tran
- Chapter 7 PermutationUploaded bySue Yin
- Groups & Symmetries NotesUploaded byMichael Steele
- (Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications) Charalambos a. Charalambides-EnUploaded byDayal Kumar Pandey
- 11 Permutations and CombinationsUploaded byAhmad Fikry Iskandar
- kemh107Uploaded byknight1729
- Counting TechniquesUploaded byrenj
- combinatorics(1)Uploaded byhappymark2
- Local Graph Sparsiﬁcation for Scalable ClusteringUploaded byNitin Panj
- probability and Random Variables(Sheffield)Uploaded byHoo Suk Ha
- STA2023 Ch 4 Probability Sections 4 Thry 6Uploaded bynadire99
- 4_3Uploaded byamungralee
- Combinat or IcsUploaded byBeverly Paman
- Bijection Principle Hand OutUploaded byahmedsaninmv
- Sage Group Theory PrimerUploaded byMobashar Ahmad
- S. E. Payne - Applied Combinatorics (Student Version) - 2003 - 216p.pdfUploaded byElliot
- arkadii_m._slinko_-_mathematical_olympiad_math_olympiad_tutorials_-_62p.pdfUploaded byQomardePe