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Title: The First Six Books of the Elements of Euclid Subtitle: And Propositions I.-XXI. of Book XI., and an Appendix on the Cylinder, Sphere, Cone, etc., Author: John Casey Author: Euclid Release Date: April 14, 2007 [EBook #21076] Language: English Character set encoding: TeX *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ELEMENTS OF EUCLID ***

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Transcriber’s Note: The Index has been regenerated to ﬁt the pagination of this edition. Despite the author’s stated hope that “few misprints have escaped detection” there were several, which have here been corrected and noted at the end of the text.

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BY J O H N C A S E Y. REVISED AND ENLARGED. LL. GRAFTON-ST. ETC. AND AN APPENDIX ON THE CYLINDER. CONE.. OF BOOK XI. 1885. MEMBER OF COUNCIL.. DUBLIN: HODGES. AND PROFESSOR OF THE HIGHER MATHEMATICS AND OF MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS IN THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND. AND PROPOSITIONS I. D.-XXI. ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY.. & CO. F. . R. SPHERE. & CO. THIRD EDITION. MEMBER OF THE MATHEMATICAL SOCIETIES OF LONDON AND FRANCE. S. GREEN.THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID. FELLOW OF THE ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND.. FIGGIS. LONDON: LONGMANS.. WITH COPIOUS ANNOTATIONS AND NUMEROUS EXERCISES.

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important examination questions on each of the books. undertaken at the request of the principals of some of the leading Colleges and Schools of Ireland. and it is hoped that few misprints have escaped detection. and its general adoption in schools.f. Every person who has had experience in tuition knows well the importance of such examinations in teaching Elementary Geometry.d. which is not given. for it will be found to contain. some are original. have been all selected with great care. s. and to that distinguished Geometer it is largely indebted for whatever merit it possesses. This edition of the Elements of Euclid. and to which it is in reality the best introduction. which the teacher ought to follow through the entire work. and may be regarded as common property. the ﬁrst twenty-one propositions of Book XI.. several are due to the late Professor Townsend. The Exercises at the end of each Book are more advanced. that it is likely to i . e e e The second edition has been thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged.PREFACE. The Questions for Examination in the early part of the First Book are intended as specimens. Those in the body of each Book are intended as applications of Euclid’s Propositions. The Exercises. Cylinder. Pyramids. of which there are over eight hundred. would also contain the modern conceptions and developments of the portion of Geometry over which the Elements extend. The present Edition has been very carefully read throughout. not only more actual matter than is given in any of theirs with which he is acquainted. In compiling his work the Editor has received invaluable assistance from the late Rev. to enable him not only to read with advantage. is intended to supply a want much felt by teachers at the present day—the production of a work which. and a large number have been taken from two important French works—Catalan’s Th´or`mes et Probl`mes de G´om´trie El´mentaire.t. The new matter includes several alternative proofs. Professor Townsend. while giving the unrivalled original in all its integrity. by Rouche and De Comberousse. The great extension of geometrical methods in recent times has made such a work a necessity for the student. but even to understand those mathematical writings of modern times which require an accurate knowledge of Elementary Geometry.c. A cursory examination of the work will show that the Editor has gone much further in this latter direction than any of his predecessors. nearly every one of them having appeared already in previous collections. so far as he is aware. an explanation of the ratio of incommensurable quantities. and Cone. The Editor is glad to ﬁnd from the rapid sale of former editions (each 3000 copies) of his Book. Sphere. and e e e e e e ´ the Trait´ de G´om´trie. They are for the most part of an elementary character. in any former work on the subject. The book was rewritten and considerably altered in accordance with his suggestions. but also much of a special character. and an Appendix on the properties of the Prism.

and introduce them. at the same time. viz. November. to supply students with a Manual that will impart a thorough knowledge of the immortal work of the great Greek Geometer. 1885.accomplish the double object with which it was written. South Circular-road. Dublin. JOHN CASEY. to some of the most important conceptions and developments of the Geometry of the present day. 86. ii .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. Questions for Examination. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xvi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xxxvii. . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . Triangles. and parallelograms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 101 101 112 112 BOOK V. . . Theory of Rectangles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . Inscription and Circumscription of Triangles and of Regular Polygons in about Circles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . 1 BOOK I. Theory of Angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . 2 2 8 45 46 BOOK II. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel Lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents Introduction. . Theory of Proportion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 68 69 97 98 BOOK IV. Questions for Examination. . 49 49 50 65 66 BOOK III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xlviii. Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . Exercises. . Theory of the Circle. . . . . . .–xiv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . 194 194 195 196 197 197 198 199 200 202 iv . . . . . . . . . . 171 171 171 181 APPENDIX. . . . .—To inscribe a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle—Ampere’s solution simpliﬁed. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Newton’s solution. . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . 116 116 121 133 134 BOOK VI. . . . . . . . . . . . Coplanar Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xxxiii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—To ﬁnd two mean proportionals between two given lines—Philo’s solution. . . . . . . . . .—Legendre’s proof of Euclid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—On the trisection of an angle by the ruler and compass. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Solid Angles. . . . . . . . . . .. .—Mc Cullagh’s proof of the minimum property of Philo’s line. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. . . . . .. . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Conclusion. . . Exercises. . . . . . Prism. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 183 183 183 192 NOTES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory of Planes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sphere. .. . . . . . . . . . D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. . . . . Cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—Modern theory of parallel lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines. . . . . . . . . xxxii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 135 135 163 BOOK XI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . . . . . . . . .–vii. . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .—On the quadrature of the circle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . .–xxi. . . . Application of the Theory of Proportion. . Pyramid. . . . . . . . . . . . . .–xxv. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propositions i. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deﬁnitions. . . . . . . . . and Cone. . . . C. . . . . . . Hamilton’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. . . . . . . . A. . . . . Exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Questions for Examination. . . . . . .

−. when ﬁgures are not drawn. Figured Space is of one. is Geometry of Three Dimensions. This is the part of Geometry on which the oldest Mathematical Book in existence. according as it consists of lines. is the introduction to Geometry. lines. namely. and of the ﬁgures described on surfaces. or solids. and by reading them. The student will ﬁnd in Chasles’ Aper¸u Historique a valuable history of the origin and the c development of the methods of Geometry. Parallel lines .. and also the sign of congruence.. is written. and the ﬁgures described on curved surfaces. By omitting the letters enclosed in parentheses we have the general enunciation. Geometry is the Science of ﬁgured Space. of Algebra.. the most comprehensive of all the Sciences. two. Thus it is the province of Geometry to investigate the properties of solids. The annotations will be printed in smaller type. of surfaces. and of lines. The number of the Book will be given only when diﬀerent from that under which the reference occurs. The following symbols will be used in them:— Circle will be denoted by Triangle . and that department of Geometry which is occupied with the lines and curves drawn on a plane is called Plane Geometry. and the circle. &c. of which it forms an extensive and important department. points. Euclid’s Elements. INTRODUCTION. The general and the particular enunciation of every Proposition will be given in one. 1 . that which demonstrates the properties of solids.THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID. The simplest of all surfaces is the plane. and will be referred to by Roman numerals enclosed in brackets. Perpendicular . and the study of the properties of the point. the student should construct them from the given directions. In the following work. surfaces. and is the subject of the present volume.] will denote the 32nd Proposition of the 3rd Book. This symbol has been introduced by the illustrious Gauss. of curved surfaces. The Propositions of Euclid will be printed in larger type. the right line. ⊥ In addition to these we shall employ the usual symbols +.. or three dimensions. of surfaces. Thus [III. The simplest lines that can be drawn on a plane are the right line and circle. The conic sections and other curves that can be described on a plane form special branches. Parallelogram . and complete the divisions of this. the particular. The boundaries of solids are surfaces. xxxii. namely ≡.

A plane is perfectly ﬂat and even. and we say it is straight. no matter how small. 2 . It has no thickness. it has neither length. is a solid. such as AB. The direction in which a point moves in called its “sense. length. A line which lies evenly between its extreme points is called a straight or right line. iv. AND PARALLELOGRAMS. The Point. breadth. is a surface. and thickness. it would be space of three dimensions. that which has two dimensions. the string becomes stretched.” The Plane. however small. such as length and breadth. it is called a plane. which we call a straight line. we obtain the notion of the simplest of all lines. and that which has but one dimension is a line. and if in addition it had any thickness it would be space of three dimensions. TRIANGLES. A surface is that which has length and breadth. v.— Newcomb. A geometrical magnitude which has three dimensions. hence it has no dimensions—that is. But a point is neither a solid. that is. A point is that which has position but not dimensions. A surface is space of two dimensions. it would be space of two dimensions.” If the moving point continually changes its direction it will describe a curve. hence it follows that only one right line can be drawn between two points. iii. If we mentally abstract from this string all thickness. The following Illustration is due to Professor Henrici:—“If we suspend a weight by a string.BOOK I. breadth. nor a surface. THEORY OF ANGLES. The Line. like the surface of still water. vi. When a surface is such that the right line joining any two arbitrary points in it lies wholly in the surface. The intersections of lines and their extremities are points. i. hence a line has neither breadth nor thickness. A line is length without breadth. PARALLEL LINES. nor a line. A line is space of one dimension. ii. nor thickness. If a point move without changing its direction it will describe a right line. by which we mean to express that it has assumed a peculiar deﬁnite shape. If it had any breadth. for if it had any. DEFINITIONS. or of a smooth ﬂoor.

If a ﬁgure be formed of points only it is called a stigmatic ﬁgure. formed by applying the side QP to the side BC. from the position of coincidence with one leg to that of coincidence with the other. ix. when one line stands on another. or of points and lines in a plane. they are called supplements of each other. is said to turn through the angle. The inclination of two right lines extending out from one point in diﬀerent directions is called a rectilineal angle. 3 . and the other two along the legs. Points which lie on the same right line are called collinear points. AD form one right line. Any combination of points. Thus if AB. A light line drawn from the vertex and turning about it in the plane of the angle. so that the vertex Q shall fall on the vertex B. called a re-entrant angle. Designation of Angles. A ﬁgure formed of collinear points is called a row of points. the two angles which it makes on the same side of that on which it stands are supplements of each other. a line may turn from the position AB to the position AC in the two ways indicated by the arrows. of which the middle one. The two lines are called the legs. x. The angle is then read BAC. is called a plane ﬁgure. two angles are formed by two lines drawn from a point. A. and if of right lines only. seldom occurs in the “Elements. is at the vertex. Again. and the side QR on the opposite side of BC from BA. Hence. AC be the legs. Thus the sum of the two angles ABC. The angle formed by joining two or more angles together is called their sum. and the point the vertex of the angle. xii.—A particular angle in a ﬁgure is denoted by three letters. When the sum of two angles BAC. The smaller of the angles thus formed is to be understood as the angle contained by the lines.Figures. viii.” xi. vii. P QR is the angle AB R. as BAC. of lines. The Angle. CAD is such that the legs BA. xiii. a rectilineal ﬁgure. and the angle is the greater as the quantity of turning is the greater. The larger. since the line may turn from one position to the other in either of two ways.

Three or more right lines passing through the same point are called concurrent lines. An obtuse angle is one which is greater than a right angle. as BAC. Hence a right angle is equal to its supplement. as A. A triangle whose three sides are unequal is said to be scalene. to be equilateral .xiv. Concurrent Lines. xvi. and makes the adjacent angles at both sides of itself equal. The supplement of an acute angle is obtuse. the supplement of an obtuse angle is acute. xx. A right-angled triangle is one that has one of its angles a right angle. DAC are complements of each other. as C. The three lines are called its sides. xix. a triangle having two sides equal. When the sum of two angles is a right angle. xviii. xvii. if the angle BAC be right. to be isosceles. A triangle is a ﬁgure formed by three right lines joined end to end. and and having all its sides equal. The Triangle. and the common point through which the rays pass is called the vertex . and the line which stands on the other is called a perpendicular to it. 4 . A system of more than three concurrent lines is called a pencil of lines. The side which subtends the right angle is called the hypotenuse. and conversely. each of the angles is called a right angle. An acute angle is one which is less than a right angle. as A. Thus. the angles BAD. Each line of a pencil is called a ray. When one line stands on another. xxii. each is called the complement of the other. as B. xv. xxi. as D.

xxviii. one which has six sides. This point is called the centre. xxiv. Postulates. Hence a triangle has six exterior angles. xxxiv. A terminated right line may be produced to any length in a right line. greater than. and so on. xxxi. also that any point P in the plane is inside. xxix. A lozenge which has a right angle is called a square. Let it be granted that— i. xxxii. outside. An obtuse-angled triangle is one that has one of its angles obtuse.xxiii. or on the circumference of a circle according as its distance from the centre is less than. A circle is a plane ﬁgure formed by a curved line called the circumference. xxxiii. xxvi. A radius of a circle is any right line drawn from the centre to the circumference. A right line may be drawn from any one point to any other point. A polygon which has ﬁve sides is called a pentagon. and is such that all right lines drawn from a certain point within the ﬁgure to the circumference are equal to one another. From the deﬁnition of a circle it follows at once that the path of a movable point in a plane which remains at a constant distance from a ﬁxed point is a circle. as E. such a portion is called a ﬁnite straight line. The Circle. the radius. or equal to. An exterior angle of a triangle is one that is formed by any side and the continuation of another side. as F . ii. xxx. xxv. A polygon is said to be convex when it has no re-entrant angle. When we consider a straight line contained between two ﬁxed points which are its ends. such as CD. An acute-angled triangle is one that has its three angles acute. xxvii. 5 . A polygon of four sides is called a quadrilateral. such as AB. The Polygon. a hexagon. A quadrilateral whose four sides are equal is called a lozenge. A diameter of a circle is a right line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the circumference. and also each exterior angle is the supplement of the adjacent interior angle. A rectilineal ﬁgure bounded by more than three right lines is usually called a polygon.

and also some breadth and thickness. ix. If two right lines (AB. such as a line on a line. whenever we please. that is. Magnitudes that can be made to coincide are equal. Axioms. vii. iii. of which. The placing of one geometrical magnitude on another. The whole is equal to the sum of all its parts. It is in these cases called an indeﬁnite line. founded on other problems or on the foregoing postulates. &c.” ix. we infer by this axiom that the ﬁrst is equal to the second. ACD) on the same side less than two right angles. Superposition involves the following principle. Two right lines cannot enclose a space. by the present axiom. If equals be taken from equals the remainders will be equal. or a circle on a circle. This is equivalent to the statement.. GH. but viii. If there be two points A and B. ii.Every right line may extend without limit in either direction or in both.. This axiom is included in the following. and if with any instruments. into an indeﬁnite right line. If equals be taken from unequals the remainders will be unequal. Euclid makes frequent use:—“Any ﬁgure may be transferred from one position to another without change of form or size.. which is a fuller statement:— ix . we draw a line from A to B. i. This can be proved as follows:—Let there be two right lines AB. If equals be added to equals the sums will be equal. the line EF must coincide with GH. The doubles of equal magnitudes are equal. Things which are equal to the same. CD. these lines being produced shall meet at some ﬁnite distance. This axiom relates to all kinds of magnitude.. “If two right lines have two points common to both.. For if it could be accurately done there would be no need for his asking us to let it be granted. then if AB. Hence it will not be a geometrical line no matter how nearly it may approach to one. without explicitly stating it.. All right angles are equal to one another. is called superposition. we conceive one magnitude placed on the other. vi. if we can prove that they coincide. It is also worthy of remark that Euclid never takes for granted the doing of anything for which a geometrical construction. CD be made to coincide by superposition. CD) meet a third line (AC). so as to make the sum of the two interior angles (BAC. xii. This is the reason that Euclid postulates the drawing of a right line from one point to another. so that the point E will coincide with G. and then. A circle may be described from any centre.. this will evidently have some irregularities. namely. iii. iv. Hence the angle AEF is equal to CGH. EF . 6 .. If equals be added to unequals the sums will be unequal. vi. iv. be each equal to the third. a triangle on a triangle. then since a right angle is equal to its supplement. that they are equal.. The superposition employed in Geometry is only mental. x. and the second. they form but one line. or to equals. xi. and two perpendiculars to them. Similar observations apply to the other postulates. they coincide in direction.. v. and if the ﬁrst. By this postulate a ﬁnite right line may be supposed to be produced. are strictly geometrical. The halves of equal magnitudes are equal. and this holds true even when one of the points is at inﬁnity. x. iii. are equal to each other. xi. Thus. xii. v. such as a ruler and pen... and with any distance from that centre as radius.” that is. we infer. if there be three things. The same is true of Axioms ii. vii. can be given. viii. The whole is greater than its part.

the hypothesis. or a ﬁgure to be constructed. they are incapable of demonstration. and (iii. A Theorem is the formal statement of a property that may be demonstrated from known propositions. xvii. it is an axiom. If X is Y. such as a line to be drawn.) the hypothesis is that X is Y . called their contrapositives. in the typical theorem.) is— If Z is W. A Problem is a proposition in which something is proposed to be done.” and.) is. and which are so fundamental. under some given conditions. of (ii.). that they cannot be inferred from any propositions which are more elementary.) is called the obverse of (i.—“Elements of human reason. Thus the converse of the theorem (i.) From the two theorems (i. are certain general propositions..) (iv. but we can give no proof of the proposition that “things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. inasmuch as it can be inferred by demonstration from other propositions. when the hypothesis of either is the conclusion of the other. or that which is assumed.) the obverse of (ii. in other words. Thus. each of the other. They are divided into theorems and problems. Propositions which are not axioms are properties of ﬁgures obtained by processes of reasoning. perhaps. but it is not an axiom.This axiom is the converse of Prop. If Z is not W .) and (ii. or that which is asserted to follow therefrom. the truths of which are self-evident. “That two sides of a triangle are greater than the third” is.) we may infer two others. If X is not Y . (i. (iii. These propositions may themselves be theorems or axioms. Book I. then Z is not W . Axioms.) is. Thus the contrapositive of (i. A theorem consists of two parts.). self-evident. then X is not Y . Explanation of Terms. and the conclusion. then Z is W. (ii. Converse Theorems.” according to Dugald Stewart.) The theorem (iv. and the conclusion is that Z is W . being self-evident. then X is Y.—Two theorems are said to be converse. 7 .

Postulates are the elements of geometrical construction. With B as centre. iii. and BA as radius. CB (Post.. AC is equal to AB (Def. a circle. The Enunciation of a problem consists of two parts. Again.—Because A is the centre of the circle BCD. which was required to be done. I. Dem. Hence we have proved. BC = AB. that the conclusion follows from the hypothesis. Congruent ﬁgures are those that can be made to coincide by superposition.—With A as centre. Hence it follows. A Corollary is an inference or deduction from a proposition. then.). Hence the triangle ABC is equilateral (Def. On a given ﬁnite right line (AB) to construct an equilateral triangle. therefore AC is equal to BC. 8 .—Under this name the following principle will be sometimes referred to:—“If there is but one X and one Y . that the construction accomplishes the object proposed. therefore the three lines AB. BC. and occupy the same relation with respect to problems as axioms do to theorems.—Problem.). Rule of Identity. AC = AB. and in the case of a problem. or things required to be done.The Solution of a problem is the method of construction which accomplishes the required end. or things supposed to be given. CA are equal to one another. xxi. by Axiom viii. namely. xxxii.). BC is equal to BA. describe the circle ACE.). A Secant or Transversal is a line which cuts a system of lines. Join CA. and But things which are equal to the same are equal to one another (Axiom i. A Lemma is an auxiliary proposition required in the demonstration of a principal proposition. from the fact that X is Y . in the case of a theorem. that corresponding parts or portions of congruent ﬁgures are congruent. or any other geometrical ﬁgure. They agree in shape and size. because B is the centre of the circle ACE. cutting the former circle in C.”—Syllabus. Sol. PROP. Then ABC is the equilateral triangle required. and the quaesita. but diﬀer in position. i. the data. and AB as radius. describe the circle BCD (Post.). The Demonstration is the proof. and it is described on the given line AB. and that congruent ﬁgures are equal in every respect. it necessarily follows that Y is X.

because B is the centre of the circle ECH. and DE as radius. What is a ﬁnite right line? 4. iii.). xxxii. H are collinear. In what part of the construction is the third postulate quoted? and for what purpose? Where is the ﬁrst postulate quoted? 6.). If CF be joined. describe the circle ECH (Post iii. and things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another (Axiom i. the ﬁgure ACBF is a lozenge. 5. If the lines AF .). What is the quaesitum? 3. the triangles CDF and CEF are equilateral. 2.—Join AB (Post. What use is made of the deﬁnition of a circle? What is a circle? 8. BF be joined. Dem. What is the datum in this proposition? 2. With B as centre. and we have proved that AF is equal to BE. Where is the ﬁrst axiom quoted? 7. The following exercises are to be solved when the pupil has mastered the First Book:— 1.). DA is equal to DB (Def.—Because D is the centre of the circle EF G. And because DAB is an equilateral triangle. the remainder AF is equal to the remainder BE (Axiom iii. Produce DA to meet this circle in F .). PROP. on AB describe the equilateral triangle ABD [i. Sol. DA = DB.). xxi. Produce DB to meet the circle ECH in E (Post. Hence AF 9 . Hence we have DF = DE. the points G. II. From a given point (A) to draw a right line equal to a given ﬁnite right line (BC). With D as centre. ii. 4. If CA. If AB be produced to D and E. describe the circle EF G (Post. Again.]. 3. What is an equilateral triangle? Exercises. 1. i. and BC as radius. CF 2 = 3AB 2 . F . and and taking the latter from the former.—Problem.Questions for Examination.).). AF is equal to BC. DF is equal to DE (Def. and the triangle GCH is equilateral. BC is equal to BE. What is the opposite of ﬁnite? 5. CB be produced to meet the circles again in G and H. bounded by the line AB and the two circles. Describe a circle in the space ACB.

is equal to BC. F at the end of this work. and the only things he postulates are the drawing of right lines and the describing of circles. and with A as centre. the triangles shall be equal in every respect—that is.]. C) at the base of one shall be respectively equal to the angles (E. What postulate? 3. Euclid’s object was to teach Theoretical and not Practical Geometry. If he allowed the mechanical use of the rule and compass he could give methods of solving many problems that go beyond the limits of the “geometry of the point. iii. therefore AE is equal to C.). and the angles (B. D) included by those sides equal. Solve the problem when the point A is in the line BC itself.—Theorem. has been out oﬀ equal to C. their bases or third sides (BC.). DF ) of the other. and circle. AE shall be equal to C. What axiom in the demonstration? 4. namely. the greater of the two given lines. EDF ) have two sides (BA. IV. and things which are equal to the same are equal to one another (Axiom i. The fact is. xxxii. Therefore from the given point A the line AF has been drawn equal to BC.) cutting AB in E. Exercises. 2. If two triangles (BAC. one of the extremities of AB. Dem.”—See Notes D. Show how to produce the less of two given lines until the whole produced line becomes equal to the greater. AC) of one equal respectively to two sides (ED. F ) at the base of the other.—Because A is the centre of the circle EDF . III. and C is equal to AD (const. 1. 10 . EF ) shall be equal. Wherefore from AB. What previous problem is employed in the solution of this? 2. and AD as radius. the less. Questions for Examination. From the greater (AB) of two given right lines to cut oﬀ a part equal to (C) the less. and have also the angles (A. draw the right line AD equal to C [ii. PROP. Sol. line. 1. PROP. Were such the case this Proposition would have been unnecessary. It is usual with commentators on Euclid to say that he allows the use of the rule and compass. Inﬂect from a given point A to a given line BC a line equal to a given line. AE is equal to AD (Def.—From A. a part. those shall be equal to which the equal sides are opposite. AE. State the number of solutions.—Problem. describe the circle EDF (Post.).

ECB) below the base shall be equal. the angle B is equal to the angle E.—Let us conceive the triangle BAC to be applied to EDF . how many parts of one must be given equal to corresponding parts of the other? Ans. and if each bisect the other..). and xxvi. 2. Questions for Examination. and the line AB with DE. xxxii. then because AB is equal to DE. Again. What technical term is applied to ﬁgures which agree in everything but position? Ans. 4. Exercises. the angle C to the angle F . What axiom is made use of in superposition? 6. How many parts in a triangle? Ans. taken along with iv. The line that bisects the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle bisects the base perpendicularly. the point B shall coincide with E. How many in the conclusion? Name them. the point C shall coincide with F . Six. 1. three sides and three angles. If two adjacent sides of a quadrilateral be equal. the distances between the vertices of the original triangle and the opposite vertices of the equilateral triangles are equal. What property of two lines having two common points is quoted in this Proposition? They must coincide. BC must coincide with EF . so that the point A shall coincide with D. and since two right lines cannot enclose a space. 7. In general. the external angles (DEC. the line AC shall coincide with DF .) PROP. This will be established in Props. They are said to be congruent. V. Name them. Hence the triangles agree in every respect. ACB) at the base (BC) of an isosceles triangle are equal to one another. and if the equal sides (AB. What is meant by superposition? 5.Dem. any three except the three angles. 3. 11 . and that the point C shall be on the same side of DE as F . If equilateral triangles be described on the sides of any triangle. How many parts in the hypothesis of this Proposition? Ans. AC) be produced. (This Proposition should be proved after the student has read Prop. 3. 2.—Theorem. and the triangle BAC to the triangle EDF . 4. 1. because the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF . 8. therefore BC is equal to EF . and since AC is equal to DF (hyp. and the diagonal bisects the angle between them. The angles (ABC. If two lines be at right angles. then any point in either is equally distant from the extremities of the other. viii. namely. Hence two points of the line BC coincide with two points of the line EF . and we have proved that the point B coincides with E. When it is required to prove that two triangles are congruent. Three. their other sides are equal.

CGB have the two sides BF . F C in one equal to the two sides CG.). CAD have the sides BA. and angle ACF = angle ABG. Cor. round the line AC. GAB have the sides F A. and from AE. the two s BAC. and the angle BF C equal to the angle CGB. until it falls on the other side. the angle AF C is equal to AGB. without alteration. angle AF C = angle AGB. GB in the other. AC = AB. as in the annexed diagram. cut oﬀ AG equal to AF [iii]. and the angle ACF is equal to the angle ABG. because AF is equal to AG (const. is equal to CG (Axiom iii). but the angle ADC is equal to ABC. and these are the angles below the base. Again.). CF (Post. the two triangles F AC. Again.—In BD take any point F . AD of the other. The following is a very easy proof of this Proposition. and we have proved that F C is equal to GB. Let ACD be its new position. therefore ACB is equal to ABC. i. so as to bring them into coincidence. AC in one respectively equal to the sides GA.). then the angle ADC of the displaced triangle is evidently equal to the angle ABC. Also the angle F CB equal to GBC. and the included angle A is common to both triangles. and the included angles equal. The teacher should make these triangles separate. the remainder.]. and point out the corresponding parts thus:— AF = AG.] the angle ACB opposite to the side AB is equal to the angle ADC opposite to the side AC. and AB to AC (hyp. AB in the other. with which it originally coincided. Therefore [iv. Hence the remaining angle ACB is equal to the remaining angle ABC. and these are the angles at the base. therefore [iv.] the base F C is equal to GB. BF . but the whole angle F CA has been proved equal to the whole angle GBA. Join BG.). ABG overlap each other.] these triangles have the angle F BC equal to the angle GCB. Hence [iv. The student should also be shown how to apply one of the triangles to the other.—Every equilateral triangle is equiangular. AC of one respectively equal to the sides AC. CGB. and AC is equal to AB (hyp. angle F AC = angle GAB. 12 . Conceive the ACB to be turned.). the greater. Because AF is equal to AG (const.—The great diﬃculty which beginners ﬁnd in this Proposition is due to the fact that the two triangles ACF . and the angle BF C contained by the two sides of one equal to the angle CGB contained by the two sides of the other.Dem. Hence the two triangles BF C. Similar Illustrations may be given of the triangles BF C. Hence [iv. Observation.

Therefore the two sides DB. 6. ACB have BD equal to AC.—If AB. 1. 4. such as AC in the preceding diagram. and that the part BD is equal to AC. VII—Theorem. AD) equal to one another. VI. 7. Questions for Examination. which is absurd. the sides (AC. If two triangles (ACB. one must be greater than the other. AB) opposite to them are also equal. 4. What is the hypothesis in this Proposition? What Proposition is this the converse of? What is the obverse of this Proposition? What is the obverse of Prop. i. 1. v. CB in the other. Prove that the angles at the base are equal without producing the sides. 5.—A line in any ﬁgure. the lines joining them form a new equilateral triangle. Each diagonal of a lozenge is an axis of symmetry of the lozenge. Show how to prove this Proposition by assuming as an axiom that every angle has a bisector. 5. Prove that the line joining the point A to the intersection of the lines CF and BG is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure. the line joining their vertices is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure formed by them. If two angles (B. one part of the diagram will coincide with the other. PROP. 2. that is. and BC common to both. 3. 8. namely. 3. ADB) on the same base (AB) and on the same side of it have one pair of conterminous sides (AC. and the angle DBC in one is equal to the angle ACB in the other (hyp). Then the two triangles DBC.—Theorem. BD) must be unequal. 13 . and be either at the same or at opposite sides of it. C) of a triangle be equal. Therefore [iv. Dem. If three points be taken on the sides of an equilateral triangle. one on each side. AB are not unequal. Also by producing the sides through the vertex. which is such that. Suppose AB is the greater. Join CD (Post.Def. at equal distances from the angles.? What is meant by an indirect proof? How does Euclid generally prove converse Propositions? What false assumption is made in the demonstration? What does this assumption lead to? PROP. Exercises. AC are not equal. they are equal. the other pair of conterminous sides (BC. hence AC. If two isosceles triangles be on the same base. 2.] the triangle DBC is equal to the triangle ACB—the less to the greater.). 6. BC in one are equal to the two sides AC. by folding the plane of the ﬁgure round it. is called an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure.

therefore BC cannot be equal to BD. therefore [v. and [v. 3. 2.). Let the vertex of each triangle be without the other.? Ans. show where. but ECD is greater than BCD (Axiom ix. Then if the vertex A fall on the same 14 . 1.].] the external angles ECD. Now if the side BD were equal to BC. Then because AC is equal to AD (hyp. the triangle ACD is isosceles. and the angles of one shall be respectively equal to the angles of the other—namely. the angle BCD would be equal to BDC [v. DF ) of the other. the point C shall coincide with F . v. AD to E and F . Produce the sides AC. then because BC is equal to EF .—1.). Dem. but if BC were equal to BD. DEF ) have two sides (AB. Questions for Examination. 3. and have also the base (BC) of one equal to the base (EF ) of the other. viii. If the vertex D of the second triangle fall on the line BC. then the two triangles shall be equal. and hence that two circles cannot have more than two points of intersection.]. As a lemma to Prop. In the demonstration of Prop. the triangle ACD is isosceles. more is BCD greater than BDC. but it has been proved to be greater. vii. it is evident that BC and BD are unequal.Dem. VIII. so that the point B will coincide with E. Hence BD is not equal to BC. Therefore F DC is greater than BCD: much more is BDC greater than BCD. therefore ACD is greater than BDC: much.). and the line BC with the line EF . F DC at the other side of the base CD are equal. What use is made of Prop. PROP. the contrapositive of Prop.] the angle ACD is equal to the angle ADC. If two triangles (ABC. those shall be equal to which the equal sides are opposite. the angle BDC would be equal to BCD [v. Show that two circles can intersect each other only in one point on the same side of the line joining their centres.—Theorem. 2.—Let the triangle ABC be applied to DEF . Then because AD is equal to AC (hyp. vii. occurs.). but ADC is greater than BDC (Axiom ix. Join CD. AC) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. Let the vertex of one triangle ADB fall within the other triangle ACB.

and this is impossible [vii. but BGC = EDF therefore BAC = EDF . and the two triangles are equal. and the triangle ABC agrees in every respect with the triangle DEF . EAF have the side AD equal to AE (const. describe the equilateral triangle DEF [i. because they are the sides of an equilateral triangle (Def. 15 . and BA is equal to ED (hyp. Join DE (Post. Philo’s Proof. AF are respectively equal to EA.—The triangles DAF . and C to F . then we have EG equal to BA.side of EF as the vertex D. To bisect a given rectilineal angle (BAC). and the base DF is equal to the base EF . and therefore the three angles of one are respectively equal to the three angles of the other—namely. Hence (Axiom i.—Problem. PROP.]. B to E. Dem. and is the second case of the congruence of triangles in the Elements. Hence the point A must coincide with D. A to D. let it take a diﬀerent position G. F G is equal to F D.) and AF common. Cor.). i. on the side remote from A. Sol.. AF bisects the given angle BAC. IX. but let the vertices be on the opposite sides.] the angle DAF is equal to the angle EAF . AF . In like manner the angle CAG = CGA. hence the angle BAC is bisected by the line AF .). Join AG. and upon it. therefore the two sides DA. the point A must coincide with D. Hence the whole angle BAC = BGC. for if not.). xxi.] Join AF .—In AB take any point D. the angle BAG = BGA. Then because BG = BA.—The line AF is an axis of symmetry of the ﬁgure. This Proposition is the converse of iv. and cut oﬀ [iii. then let BGC be the position which EDF takes.—Let the equal bases be applied as in the foregoing proof.) EG is equal to ED: in like manner. Therefore [viii.] AE equal to AD.

From a given point (C) in a given right line (AB) to draw a right line perpendicular to the given line. and the base DF is equal to the base EF .—In AC take any point D. To bisect a given ﬁnite right line (AB). that any point in AF is equally distant from the points D and E. Then CF shall be at right angles to AB. and the angle ACD is equal to the angle BCD (const. CF in one are respectively equal to the two sides CE. therefore the two sides CD. CD in one are equal to the two sides BC.—Upon AB describe an equilateral triangle ACB [i. that any point in AF is equally distant from the lines AB.) each of them is a right angle. Show how to bisect a ﬁnite right line by describing two circles. B is in the line CD. ECF have CD equal to CE (const. XI. Sol. xxi.]. being the sides of an equilateral triangle. Therefore the two sides AC. that AF is perpendicular to DE. In what case would the construction fail.—The two triangles DCF . 3. viii.—Problem. PROP. if the equilateral triangle were described on the other side of DE? Exercises.) and CF common. BCD. have the side AC equal to BC.]. xiii. Hence AB is bisected in D. and CF is perpendicular to AB at the point C. 2.—Problem. being the sides of an equilateral triangle (Def. and they are adjacent angles.). meeting AB in D. Bisect the angle ACB by the line CD [ix.). and CD common. 1.]. Upon DE describe an equilateral triangle DF E [i. AC. 16 . X. Every point equally distant from the points A. 1. Dem. 4. Therefore the base AD is equal to the base DB [iv.—The two triangles ACD. Prove Prove Prove Prove this Proposition without using Prop. and make CE equal to CD [iii. Join CF .Questions for Examination.].] the angle DCE is equal to the angle ECF . Exercises. Therefore (Def. Dem. CF in the other. 1. Why does Euclid describe the equilateral triangle on the side remote from A? 2.]. CD in the other. then AB is bisected in D. 2. PROP. Sol. therefore [viii.

they are right angles (Def. Exercises.—Problem. and the base CF equal to the base CG. XII. Therefore the angle CHF is equal to the angle CHG [viii. the triangle can be divided into the sum of two isosceles triangles. and. xxxii. Prove that the circle cannot meet AB in more than two points. Dem. the angle formed by the joining lines shall be bisected by the given line. with C as centre. Prove Prop.]. Join CH (Post.]. Bisect F G in H [x.—Join CF . PROP. meeting AB in the points F and G. Find a point that shall be equidistant from three given points. and HC common. 17 . GHC have F H equal to GH (const. To draw a perpendicular to a given indeﬁnite right line (AB) from a given point (C) without it. CH shall be at right angles to AB. being radii of the circle F DG (Def. 3. Find a point in a given line such that. without using Prop. if it be joined to two given points on opposite sides of the line. Therefore CH is perpendicular to AB.) a circle. and describe (Post. 6.). 4. xiii. The diagonals of a lozenge bisect each other perpendicularly. PROP. If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two. ABD) which one right line (AB) standing on another (CD) makes with it are either both right angles. or their sum is equal to two right angles. iii. 2. Find a point in a given line that shall be equally distant from two given points.—Take any point D on the other side of AB. viii. xi.). being adjacent angles. and the base is equal to twice the line from its middle point to the opposite angle. The adjacent angles (ABC. 2. 5. 1. Erect a line at right angles to a given line at one of its extremities without producing the line.). CG. Sol. 1.—Theorem. XIII. Then the two triangles F HC. i. and CD as radius.).Exercises.

). since CBE is a right line. ABD are right angles. Cor. Cor. EBA. then evidently the angle the angle therefore CBA = right angle + θ. the sum of the angles CBE. the sum of the angles CBA. EBA. EBD. draw BE perpendicular to CD [xi. Cor.). 4. but CBE.–Theorem. the sum of the angles CBA. EBD are right angles. let BE be its continuation.—The angle EBA is half the diﬀerence of the angles CBA.—If BD be not the continuation of CB. Cor. Now the angle CBA is equal to the sum of the two angles CBE.—If AB is perpendicular to CD. as in ﬁg. xi. these two right lines form one continuous line.). ABD. and the sum of the angles CBA.]. the angles ABC. 18 . 5. ABD) together equal to two right angles. ABD is equal to the sum of the angles CBE. 3. And things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. EBD is equal to the sum of the three angles CBE. PROP. If not. therefore the sum of the angles CBA. Hence. ABD.—The bisectors of two supplemental angles are at right angles to each other. ABD is equal to the sum of the three angles CBE. Now. Therefore the sum of the angles CBA. 1. ABD. If at a point (B) in a right line (BA) two other right lines (CB. adding the angle ABD. ABD is two right angles (hyp. CBA + ABD = two right angles. In like manner. BD) on opposite sides make the adjacent angles (CBA.—Two right lines cannot have a common segment. XIV.—The bisector of any angle bisects the corresponding re-entrant angle. and BA stands on it. EBA (Def.Dem. Or thus: Denote the angle EBA by θ.—The sum of two supplemental angles is two right angles. 1. ABD = right angle − θ. ABD is two right angles. ABE is two right angles (xiii. 2. Cor. Dem.

the opposite angles are equal (CEA = DEB.? State the converse of Prop.).]. Prove it. the exterior angle (ACD) is greater than either of the interior non-adjacent angles. xv. xiv. 3. a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. xv. xiii. xiii. AED is equal to the sum of the angles BEC. Join CF . 6. EB in the other. the angle CEA is equal to DEB. the sum of the angles BEC. and EF is equal to EB. If two right lines (AB. 7. and from the produced part cut oﬀ EF equal to BE [iii]. which is common. Now because EC is equal to EA (const.] the angle ECF is equal to EAB. and because the line CE stands on AB. Therefore [iv. xiii. 4. Questions for Examination on Props... bear to Prop.—Theorem. i.. 1. only the axioms.? What theorem? Ans. XIII. therefore the angle ACD is greater than EAB.]. the triangles CEF . 2. If any side (BC) of a triangle (ABC) be produced. 5. The foregoing proof may be brieﬂy given. CD) intersect one another. Join BE (Post. are concurrent? What caution is required in the enunciation of Prop. AED is two right angles [xiii. ABD. xiv. ABE is equal to the sum of the angles CBA. Hence BD must be in the same right line with CB. Reject the angle CEA. Angles at a point. 8. and BEC = AED). which is common. XV. XV. CEA.therefore the sum of the angles CBA. EF in one equal to the sides AE. Dem. Dem.—Theorem. AEB have the sides CE. In like manner.. PROP. What problem is required in Euclid’s proof of Prop.]. PROP.? What three lines in Prop. by saying that opposite angles are equal because they have a common supplement. the sum of the angles CEA. XIV. but the angle ACD is greater than ECF . how many pairs of supplemental angles do they make? What relation does Prop. therefore the sum of the angles CEA. What is the subject of Props. CEA is two right angles.—Because the line AE stands on CD. 19 . and we have the angle AED equal to BEC.—Bisect AC in E [x. and the angle CEF equal to AEB [xv. XVI. No theorem. xiv.? Ans. xiv. If two lines intersect. Produce it. and we have the angle ABE equal to the angle ABD—that is.). Reject the angle CBA.

xvii.). Cor. Now since AB is equal to AD. or of the angles A. 1.—The sum of the three interior angles of the triangle BCF is equal to the sum of the three interior angles of the triangle ABC. Exercise. C. C) of a triangle (ABC) are together less than two right angles. 1. Dem. Cor. Any two angles (B. ACB greater than the sum of the angles ABC. but the sum of the angles ACD. B. that the exterior angle BCG is greater than the angle ABC. Cor. Dem. therefore ABD is greater than ACB. if the side AC be produced. cannot meet at any ﬁnite distance. and we have the sum of the angles ACD. then the exterior angle ACD is greater than ABC [xvi. For. PROP. but BCG is equal to ACD [xv. If in any triangle (ABC) one side (AC) be greater than another (AB). if produced. Therefore ACD is greater than either of the interior non-adjacent angles A or B of the triangle ABC. if they met at any ﬁnite point X. PROP. In like manner we may show that the sum of the angles A. but the angle ADB is greater than the angle ACB [xvi. ACB.—The lines BA and CF . 3. XVIII. Hence ACD is greater than ABC. the triangle CAX would have an exterior angle BAC equal to the interior angle ACX.—Theorem.—Theorem. Therefore the sum of the angles ABC.—If two angles of a triangle be unequal. Much more is the angle ABC greater than the angle ACB.].]. is less than two right angles. Cor.—From AC cut oﬀ AD equal to AB [iii].] the angle ADB is equal to ABD. without producing a side. ACB is less than two right angles.—Produce BC to D.]: to each add the angle ACB. Join BD (Post. 20 .In like manner it may be shown. i. Cor. therefore [v. Prove Prop. XVII. the angle opposite to the greater side is grater than the angle opposite to the less. the lesser must be acute.—The area of BCF is equal to the area of ABC. 2.—Every triangle must have at least two acute angles. ACB is two right angles [xiii. 2. the triangle ABD is isosceles.].

For the angle ACB [xviii. 2. 2. Now since AB is equal to AE. the triangle ACB would be isosceles. but it is not by hypothesis. If in the second method the circle cut the line CB produced through B. but AEB is greater than ACB (xvi.]. Dem.. 3. 1. BF is the greatest side of the F BC. with the lesser side AB as radius. In any triangle. but it is not by hypothesis. A line from the vertex of an isosceles triangle to any point in the base is less than either of the equal sides. and of all others that may be drawn to it.]. prove the Proposition. is less than AC. If ABC be a having AB not greater than AC. Three equal lines could not be drawn from the same point to the same line. 2. Hence AC is greater than AG. 5. therefore AC is not less than AB. and the angle BF C is less than half the angle ABC. 21 . If two of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral be respectively the greatest and least. therefore AGC is greater than ACG. it must be greater. but AGC [xvi. therefore AB is not equal to AC. the perpendicular from the vertex opposite the side which is not less than either of the remaining sides falls within the triangle. If in the ﬁg.—If AC be not greater than AB. it must be either equal to it or less than it. the angle AEB is equal to ABE.. Exercises. that which is nearest to the perpendicular is less than any one more remote. XIX. therefore ABE is greater than ACB. the angles adjacent to the least are greater than their opposite angles. the side (AC) which it opposite to the greater angle is greater than the side (AB) which is opposite to the less. 6. cutting BC in E.] is not greater than ABC. If AC were equal to AB. PROP. and then the angle B would be equal to C [v. drawn from A to any point G in BC. a line AG. Let us examine each case:— 1. and since AC is neither equal to AB nor less than it. Prove this Proposition by a direct demonstration.] is greater than ABC. 4. xvi. 3. If AC were less than AB. AB be the greatest side of the ABC.—Theorem. the angle B would be less than the angle C [xviii. 4.Or thus: From A as centre. If one angle (B) of a triangle (ABC) be greater than another angle (C).). Join AE. 1. Prop. The perpendicular is the least line which can be drawn from a given point to a given line. Exercises. but greater if the point be in the base produced. This Proposition may be proved by producing the less side. describe the circle BED.

Join CD. Then because AD is equal to AC. 3. therefore the angle BCD is greater than the angle BDC.]. therefore the angle BEA is greater than EAB. lines be drawn to any point in the bisector of the vertical angle. the angle ACD is equal to ADC (v.]. CD) be drawn to a point (D) within a triangle from the extremities of its base (BC). 2. since AC is equal to AD.PROP. Dem. Exercises. In like manner AC is greater than EC. The sum of the diagonals of a quadrilateral is less than the sum of the lines which can be drawn to its angular points from any point except the intersection of the diagonals. Hence AB is greater than BE [xix. polygon of the same number of sides. If two lines (BD.—Produce BA to D (Post. XXI.] Then the angle BEA is greater than EAC.). ii. and less than that of any circumscribed. we have the sum of the sides BA. The sum of any two sides (BA. Therefore the sum of BA. 9. Therefore the sum of BA. 10. The perimeter of any triangle is greater than that of any inscribed triangle. AC is greater than BC.—Theorem. Any side of any polygon is less than the sum of the remaining sides. whose sides are unequal.]. If the lines be drawn to any point in the bisector of the external vertical angle.—A line drawn from any angle of a triangle to the middle point of the opposite side is called a median of the triangle.—Theorem. 4. AC is greater than BC. If through the extremities of the base of a triangle. Def. Again. The sum of the three medians of a triangle is less than its perimeter.). their diﬀerence is less than the diﬀerence of the sides. AC equal to BD. but they contain a greater angle. AC) of a triangle (ABC) is greater than the third. and less than that of any circumscribed triangle. 8. 22 . their sum is less than the sum of the remaining sides (BA. In any triangle. hence the side BD opposite to the greater angle is greater than BC opposite to the less [xix. 7. PROP. the sum of the joining lines is greater than its semiperimeter. their sum is greater than the sum of the sides. 5. 6. The perimeter of a quadrilateral is greater than the sum of its diagonals. CA). If any point within a triangle be joined to its angular points. 1. The perimeter of any polygon is greater than that of any inscribed. adding BA to both. Or thus: Bisect the angle BAC by AE [ix. the diﬀerence between any two sides is less than the third. and make AD equal to AC [iii. XX.). but EAC = EAB (const.

2.—1. the sum of the sides BA.Dem. Therefore much more is the sum of BA.) to meet AC in E. XXII. The sum of the lines drawn from any point within a triangle to its angular points is less than the perimeter. and F DC is greater than F AC. Exercises. DC. and cut oﬀ [iii. the length of the former is less than that of the latter. EC.]: to each add EC. Sol. ii. and we get the sum of BE. describe the circle KHL. intersecting the former circle in K. iii. AE is greater than the side BE [xx. To construct a triangle whose three sides shall be respectively equal to three given lines (A. DC. (Compare Ex. the sum of the sides DE.—Take any right line DE. AC is greater than the sum of BE. AC greater than the sum of BE. terminated at D. C). but it has been proved that the sum of BA. EC greater than the sum of BD. PROP. AC greater than the sum of BD. If a convex polygonal line ABCD lie within a convex polygonal line AM N D terminating in the same extremities. is greater than BAC. and F D as radius.] DF equal to A.) 2. in the triangle BAE.]. 2. EC of the triangle DEC is greater than DC: to each add BD. Therefore much more is BDC greater than BAC. The external angle BDC of the triangle DEC is greater than the internal angle BEC [xvi. With F as centre. for a like reason. 1. Join KF . KG. and with G as centre. Then. Part 2 may be proved without producing either of the sides BD. and the angle BEC. Thus: join AD and produce it to meet BC in F . but unlimited towards E.]. and we have the sum of BA. 23 . and GH as radius. Again. EC. last Prop.—Problem. B. then the angle BDF is greater than the angle BAF [xvi. KF G is the triangle required. F G equal to B. describe the circle KDL (Post. DC. Produce BD (Post. the sum of every two of which is greater than the third. Therefore the whole angle BDC is greater than BAC.). and GH equal to C.

] the triangle BAC.) F K is equal to A. 24 . whose sides. What is the reason for stating in the enunciation that the sum of every two of the given lines must be greater than the third? 2. Hence it is the required angle.Dem.] be equal to DEF .—Since F is the centre of the circle KDL. In like manner GK is equal to C. Sol.—In the sides ED. Join DF . At a given point (A) in a given right line (AB) to make an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (DEF ). XXIII.). AC equal to EF . and construct [xxii. B. shall be equal to those of DEF —namely. 1. Questions for Examination. Under what conditions would the circles not intersect? 4.—Problem. AB equal to ED. Prove that when that condition is fulﬁlled the two circles must intersect. F K is equal to F D. and CB equal to F D. EF of the given angle take any arbitrary points D and F . 3. then the angle BAC will [viii. C. but F D is equal to A (const. therefore (Axiom i. would the circles meet? Prove that they would not intersect.) Hence the three sides of the triangle KF G are respectively equal to the three lines A. If the sum of two of the lines were equal to the third. and F G is equal to B (const. taken in order. PROP.

and the contained angles equal.]. XXIV. AC) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. Construct a triangle. AC. and the angle BAH equal to the angle EDF (const. one of which is in a given line.). but BH has been proved to be equal to EF . because AH is equal to AC (const. Again. Or thus: Bisect the angle CAH by AO. DF ) of the other. but AH = AC (const. and make AH equal to DF or AC [iii. In the triangles BAH. Then because AB is not greater than AC.. EDF . therefore AHC is greater than BCH: much more is the angle BHC greater than BCH. but ACH is greater than BCH. such that the sum or diﬀerence of its distances from the former points may be given. therefore BC + AH > BH + AC.Exercises. 1. AG + GC > AC [xx. 4. DEF ) have two sides (AB. 3.]. but the sum of BO.—Of the two sides AB. and with it make the angle BAG equal to EDF [xxiii. 6]. AO in one equal to the sides AH.] BH is equal to EF . being given two angles and the side between them. therefore the base [iv.]: to each add BO. that is. Construct a triangle.]. Therefore BC is greater than BH. OH is greater than BH [xx. Join OH. being given two sides and the angle between them. OH. Show that two such points may be found in each case. The concluding part of this Proposition may be proved without joining CH. Produce AG to H. PROP. Given two points.). AH equal to DF (const. 25 . being given two sides and the angle opposite to one of them. one of the angles at the base. therefore BC is greater than EF . Dem. If two triangles (ABC. we have AB equal to DE (hyp. and the greater angle is subtended by the greater side [xix. Therefore BC is greater than BH.]. but the contained angle (BAC) of one greater than the contained angle (EDF ) of the other. HAO we have the sides CA.). the triangle ACH is isosceles. therefore the angle ACH is equal to AHC [v. being given the base. Construct a triangle. AO in the other. Now in the s CAO. and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides. AG is less than AC [xix. greater than EF . and we have BC equal to the sum of BO. therefore BC is > BH. therefore the base OC is equal to the base OH [iv.—Theorem.]. Join BH. Construct a triangle. CH. 5. the base of that which has the greater angle is greater than the base of the other. thus:— BG + GH > BH [xx. Exer.).]. 2.].). let AB be the one which is not the greater. it is required to ﬁnd another point in the given line.

and we have proved that it is not equal to it.Exercises. Prove this Proposition by making the angle ABH to the left of AB. and the angle D contained by the two sides of one greater than the angle A contained by the two sides of the other.] BC would be equal to EF .—If the angle A be not greater than D. AH of one equal to the sides AG. If two triangles (ABC. and the base BH equal to GH. 1. therefore it must be greater. then D would be greater than A. DF of one respectively equal to the two sides AB.) the angle BGH equal to GBH. it must be either equal to it or less than it.] EF would be greater than BC. If A were less than D. CA shall be respectively equal to the three sides DE. BC is greater than CG. Hence [xviii. Then because BC is greater than EF . Join BG. the angle (A) contained by the sides of that which has the greater base is greater them the angle (D) contained by the sides of the other. but BC is. Then [vi. Hence [xxiv. Therefore [viii. Hence the angle BAC is greater than CAG. We shall examine each case:— 1.] the angle BAH is equal to GAH.] the angle BGC is greater than GBC. AC) of one respectively equal to two sides (DE. Therefore A is not less than D. AGH have the sides AB. and the angle A contained by the two sides of one equal to the angle D contained by the two sides of the other. DF ) of the other. 26 . EF . Prove that the angle BCA is greater than EF D. and therefore greater than EDF . by hypothesis. DF of the other. AC of the other. and make (xxiii. and the triangles DEF .].) is not greater than BC. 2. Hence [iv. PROP. GC. ABC would have the two sides DE. Dem. 2. DEF would have the two sides AB. hence the angle A is not equal to the angle D. the triangles ABC. and join AH. AC of one respectively equal to the two sides DE.—Theorem. greater than EF . Or thus. If A were equal to D. but the base (BC) of one greater than the base (EF ) of the other. directly: Construct the triangle ACG. F D of the triangle DEF [xxii.] BH is equal to GH. DEF ) have two sides (AB. AH of the other. Therefore the triangles ABH. XXV. whose three sides AG. but EF (hyp.

1. BG of one respectively equal to the two sides DE. If two triangles (ABC. BC of one respectively equal to the sides DE. BC of one respectively equal to the sides GE.). that is. C) of one equal respectively to two angles (E. the point C shall coincide with F . Part I. then the triangles ABC. Let the sides given to be equal be AB and DE. the exterior angle of the triangle ACG is equal to the interior and non-adjacent angle. EF of the other. since BC is equal to EF . therefore [iv. and since the angles B. and the angle ABG equal to the angle DEF . Demonstrate this Proposition directly by cutting oﬀ from BC a part equal to EF . and the same as in 1. together with iv. therefore [iv.) equal to DF E. This Proposition. Hence BC must be equal to EF . but the angle ACB is (hyp.] AC is equal to DF .). DEF ) have two angles (B. For it is evident if ABC be applied to DEF . includes all the cases of the congruence of two triangles. C are 27 . F ) of the other. Join GF . therefore AB and DE are not unequal. but the angle ACB is equal to DF E (hyp. so that the point B shall coincide with E. which is absurd. hence GF E is equal to DF E—a part equal to the whole.—Theorem. and viii. and the contained angles ABC and DEF equal. namely BC and EF . Dem. and the angle ABC equal to the angle GEF (hyp.) the angle AGB is equal to ACB. EF of the other. it is required to prove that BC is equal to EF .] the angle AGB is equal to DF E. PROP. Consequently the triangles ABC. If BC be not equal to EF . they are equal. and a side of one equal to a side similarly placed with respect to the equal angles of the other. therefore [iv. GEF have the sides AB. Join AG. suppose GE to be equal to it. Then the triangles ABG. may be proved immediately by superposition. Hence (Axiom i. and the line BC with EF . Let the equal sides be BC and EF .Exercise. the triangles are equal in every respect.] is impossible. that is. DEF have the sides AB. or those opposite equal angles. 2. then if DE be not equal to AB. DEF have the two sides AB. suppose BG to be equal to it..—This Proposition breaks up into two according as the sides given to be equal are the sides adjacent to the equal angles. and AC to DF . and the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF . which [xvi. XXVI. and the angle BAC is equal to the angle EDF .] the angle ACB is equal to the angle GF E. EF of the other. AC is equal to DF .

Def. and a side of one equal to a side of the other.respectively equal to the angles E. Def. the lines BA. and an acute angle of one equal to an acute angle of the other. If two right-angled triangles have equal hypotenuses. the triangle is isosceles. they are congruent.—The right line joining either pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral is called a diagonal . 8. The locus of a point which is equally distant from two ﬁxed lines is the pair of lines which bisect the angles made by the ﬁxed lines. which have received special names in relation to one another. the right line joining their points of intersection is called its third diagonal . Thus. ii. Through a given point draw a right line intersecting two given lines. Def. 5. F . such that perpendiculars on it from two given points on opposite sides may be equal to each other. 6. 7. 4. The extremities of the base of an isosceles triangle are equally distant from any point in the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. vi. If two right-angled triangles have equal hypotenuses. that ﬁgure is called the locus of the point satisfying the condition. Thus.—If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral be produced to meet. Exercises.—If every point on a geometrical ﬁgure satisﬁes an assigned condition. they are said to be parallel. The bisectors of two external angles and the bisector of the third internal angle are concurrent. the intercept between their feet is called the projection of the ﬁrst line on the second. 9. Parallel Lines. 1.—When a right line intersects two other right lines in two distinct points it makes with them eight angles. Def. when produced indeﬁnitely. they do not meet at any ﬁnite distance. they are congruent. v.—A quadrilateral which has one pair of opposite sides parallel is called a trapezium. iii. Def. If the line which bisects the vertical angle of a triangle also bisects the base. CA shall coincide with ED and F D. In a given right line ﬁnd a point such that the perpendiculars from it on two given lines may be equal. Hence the triangles are congruent. Def. both pairs of whose opposite sides are parallel. Through a given point draw a right line. 3. State also the number of solutions. Def. The bisectors of the three internal angles of a triangle are concurrent. in the 28 . iv. for example.—If two right lines in the same plane be such that.—A parallelogram is a quadrilateral. a circle is the locus of a point whose distance from the centre is equal to its radius. Def. 10. 2. vii. and forming an isosceles triangle with them.—If from the extremities of one right line perpendiculars be drawn to another. i.

7 are called corresponding angles. 2. 3. 5. and they are alternate angles. and the ﬁgure is symmetrical with respect to the point O. Or thus: Bisect EF in O. 5 are called alternate angles. Since AGH and BGH are adjacent angles. turn the whole ﬁgure round O as a centre. therefore AB is parallel to CD [xxvii. 3. 8 are called exterior angles. Hence [xvi.ﬁgure—1. PROP. Hence they are parallel. therefore AGH is equal to GHD. Again. but two right lines cannot enclose a space (Axiom x. 1. 6. CD) makes the exterior angle (EGB) equal to its corresponding interior angle (GHD). 4. and EF D a non-adjacent interior angle. XXVII. they must also meet on the other side.]. if AB. Dem. 6. Hence. so that EF shall fall on itself. therefore rejecting the angle BGH we have AGH equal GHD. 4. 5.—Theorem. the two right lines are parallel. 2.—If AB and CD are not parallel they must meet. the angle AGH is equal to EGB [xv. CD) makes the alternate angles (AEF. both equal and greater. PROP. XXVIII. but it is also equal to it (hyp.). CD interchange places. therefore they do not meet at either side. GHD) on the same side equal to two right angles. Since the lines AB. If a right line (EF ) intersecting two right lines (AB. or makes two interior angles (BGH.—1. and the line F D the place of EA.].). but the sum of BGH and GHD is two right angles (hyp. then the ﬁgure EGF is a triangle. which is absurd. the point E shall fall on F .). and the angle AEF is an exterior angle. therefore the lines AB. Dem. Hence [xxvii. if produced.] AEF is greater than EF D. 2. 3. 8. and because the angle AEF is equal to the angle EF D. EF D) equal to each other. If a right line (EF ) intersecting two right lines (AB. Hence AB and CD are parallel. lastly. at some ﬁnite distance: if possible let them meet in G. the line EA will occupy the place of F D.] AB is parallel to CD. but EGB is equal to GHD (hyp.]. 4. EF intersect. 7. 6. interior angles. these lines are parallel. and they are alternate angles. CD meet on one side of O. their sum is equal to two right angles [xiii. that is.—Theorem. 29 . then because OE = OF .).

it is equal to it. Let AGH be the greater. therefore the sum of the angles BGH. to each add BGH.). D are each equal to G [xxix. formed by drawing parallels to two sides of an equilateral triangle from any point in the third side. Exercises. is equal to twice the side. CD. GHD. add HGB to each. its diagonals are concurrent.PROP. If through the middle point O of any right line terminated by two parallel right lines any other secant be drawn. one must be greater than the other. but the sum of AGH. 2. the intercept on this line made by the parallels is bisected in O. without using Prop. 6. BCD be adjacent angles. CD) be parallel to the same right line (EF ). If a right line (EF ) intersect two parallel right lines (AB. AC be respectively parallel to DE. if produced. Hence the angle AGH is not unequal to GHD—that is. The perimeter of the parallelogram. GHD) on the same side equal to two right angles. will meet at some ﬁnite distance: but since they are parallel (hyp.) the lines AB. If two intersecting right lines be respectively parallel to two others.—Theorem. Demonstrate both parts of Prop. Dem. 2. the angles A.—Theorem. BGH is two right angles. HGB. PROP. 7.] is two right angles. therefore the sum of BGH. and GHD is equal to AGH (1). 8. XXX.) they cannot meet at any ﬁnite distance. 5. If the opposite sides of a hexagon be equal and parallel. xxvii. The parts of all perpendiculars to two parallel lines intercepted between them are equal. If ACD. 3. and therefore (Axiom xii.—If the angle AGH be not equal to GHD. GHD is two right angles. DE meet in G. 30 . For if AB. xxviii.]. and if AC. the exterior angle (EGB) equal to the corresponding interior angle (GHD). the two interior angles (BGH. Two right lines passing through a point equidistant from two parallels intercept equal portions on the parallels. and we have the sum of the angles AGH. they are parallel to one another. GHD is less than two right angles. Since the angle EGB is equal to AGH [xv.]. and we have the sum of the angles AGH. BGH greater than the sum of the angles BGH. If two right lines (AB. but the sum of the angles AGH. EGB is equal to GHD (Axiom i. 3. 4. it makes— 1. any parallel to AB will meet the bisectors of these angles in points equally distant from where it meets CD. 2. 3. Since AGH is equal to GHD (1). the angle between the former is equal to the angle between the latter. 1. HGB [xiii. CD). GHD) equal to one another. XXIX. the alternate angles (AGH. DF . HGB equal to the sum of the angles GHD.

and the sum of the three internal angles is equal to two right angles. F : E. 3. Therefore the angle AGK is equal to the angle GKD (Axiom i. B by the lines AD.]. Exercises. 4. XXXII.]. 5. C). PROP. Again. 7. i.—Problem. Show that there will be two solutions.). equal to the sum of the two intercepts on the sides from the extremities of the base. In like manner the angle GHF is equal to HKD [xxix. Sol. meeting in D. the angle AGH is equal to GHF [xxix. PROP. BD.].—Theorem.Dem. Bisect the angles A. the external angle (CBD) is equal to the sum of the two internal nonadjacent angles (A. 2. since AB intersects the parallels BE. construct it. ACB are equal [xxix.]. AC. Prove the following construction for trisecting a given line AB:—On AB describe an equilateral ABC. Now since BC intersects the parallels BE. having its base on a given side of the triangle. 2. Between two lines given in position place a line of given length which shall be parallel to a given line. Hence [xxvii. XXXI.—Take any point D in AB.—Draw any secant GHK. Dem. Draw a line parallel to the base of a triangle so that it may be—1. Show that there are two solutions. F are the points of trisection of AB. and make the angle DCE equal to the angle ADC [xxiii. 1. hence the whole angle CBD is equal to the sum 31 . equal to the intercept it makes on one of the sides from the extremity of the base. If any side (AB) of a triangle (ABC) be produced (to D). AC. the angle EBD is equal to BAC [xxix. Join CD (Post.] AB is parallel to CD. 6. Through a given point (C) to draw a right line parallel to a given right line. through D draw parallels to AC. Show that there are two solutions in each case. BC.].]. Inscribe a square in a given equilateral triangle.—Draw BE parallel to AC [xxxi. The line CE is parallel to AB [xxvii. meeting AB in E. the alternate angles EBC. Given the altitude of a triangle and the base angles.). equal to their diﬀerence. Through two given points in two parallel lines draw two lines forming a lozenge with the given parallels.]. Then since AB and EF are parallel. 3. From a given point draw to a given line a line making with it an angle equal to a given angle.

Exercises. xviii. 3. 2.—Each angle of an equilateral triangle is two-thirds of a right angle. 5. If the line which bisects the external vertical angle be parallel to the base.—If all the sides of any convex polygon be produced. 2. hence the sum of its angles is equal 2(n − 2) right angles. Any angle of a triangle is obtuse. Trisect a right angle. ABC equal to the sum of the three angles ACB. Cor. hence the sum of the three angles ACB. ABD be on the same hypotenuse AB. The bisectors of the external angles of a quadrilateral form a circumscribed quadrilateral. ABC is two right angles. Cor. Cor. If the sides of a polygon of n sides be produced. Cor. being given the hypotenuse and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides. prove that 1 (A + B). 1. the triangle is isosceles. 11. twice the median drawn from that angle. the sum of the angles between each alternate pair is equal to 2(n − 4) right angles. 1. 9. 6.—If a ﬁgure of n sides be divided into triangles by drawing diagonals from any one of its angles there will be (n − 2) triangles. 1 (C + A) will 2 2 2 be the angles of a formed by any side and the bisectors of the external angles between that side and the other sides produced.—Every right-angled triangle can be divided into two isosceles triangles by a line drawn from the right angle to the hypotenuse.—Since a quadrilateral can be divided into two triangles. The bisectors of two adjacent angles of a parallelogram are at right angles. 14. the sum of whose opposite angles is equal to two right angles. 12. Cor. BAC. Cor. 3. 7. BAC. BAC: to each of these add the angle ABC and we have the sum of CBD. equal to.—If two triangles have two angles in one respectively equal to two angles in the other.—If one angle of a triangle be equal to the sum of the other two. The three perpendiculars of a triangle are concurrent.of the two angles ACB. 10. their remaining angles are equal. 6. 8. the pair of angles subtended by any side of the quadrilateral thus formed are equal. Cor. 1 (B + C). 7. each base angle is half a right angle. or acute. The angles made with the base of an isosceles triangle by perpendiculars from its extremities on the equal sides are each equal to half the vertical angle. In the construction of Prop.]. according as the opposite side is greater than. the triangles are equiangular. B. 4. If two right-angled s ABC. Construct a right-angled triangle. 5. ABC is two right angles [xiii. C denote the angles of a . it is a right angle. 13. If the three sides of one triangle be respectively perpendicular to those of another triangle. The angle included between the internal bisector of one base angle of a triangle and the external bisector of the other base angle is equal to half the vertical angle. right. If A. 8. the sum of its angles is equal to four right angles.—If a right-angled triangle be isosceles. 32 . Cor. the sum of the external angles is equal to four right angles. and the vertices C and D be joined. or less than. ABC: but the sum of CBD. prove that the angle DBC is equal to half the diﬀerence of the base angles. 4.

The right lines which join transversely the extremities of two equal and parallel right lines bisect each other.—Join BC. Now since AB is parallel to CD. and BC intersects them. since BC intersects the parallels AC. and BC intersects them. the angle ABC is equal to the angle BCD [xxix. Dem. 4. PROP. CD) are equal and parallel. Since AB is parallel to CD. the angle BAC to the angle BDC. the triangles ABC. CBD in the other. and it has been proved equal to it. AC. and DCB equal to ABC. Exercises. and either diagonal bisects the parallelogram. and conversely. all its angles are right angles. XXXIV. but these are alternate angles. and the angles ABC.] the base AC is equal to the base BD.—If one angle of a parallelogram be a right angle.] AB is equal to CD. B. The right lines (AC. 33 . 1. the right line AC joining the extremities of the former pair is equal to the right line DF joining the extremities of the latter. the whole angle ACD is equal to the whole angle ABD. BD) which join the adjacent extremities of two equal and parallel right lines (AB. Therefore [xxvi. the angle ACB is equal to the angle CBD. and the triangle ABC to the triangle BDC. parallel right lines that have equal projections on another right line are equal. EF . DCB have the sides AB. BD. ACB in one respectively equal to the two angles BCD.—Theorem. Again. 3.] AC is parallel to BD. Cor. hence the triangles ABC. XXXIII. and the side BC common. 1. and BC common. DCB contained by those sides equal. Again. Right lines that are equal and parallel have equal projections on any other right line. C) of a parallelogram are equal to one another. DCB have the two angles ABC.PROP. Therefore AC is both equal and parallel to BD. BC in one respectively equal to the sides DC. BC be respectively equal and parallel to two other right lines DE. D. CD. BD) and the opposite angles (A.].—Theorem. hence [xxvii. since AB is equal to CD.]. Equal right lines that have equal projections on another right line are parallel. the angle ABC is equal to the alternate angle DCB [xxix.—Join BC. The opposite sides (AB. CB in the other. because the angle ACB is equal to CBD. If two right lines AB. 2. therefore [iv. Again. Dem. and AC to BD. and the angle ACB is equal to the angle CBD.

Cor. 2.—If two adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, it is a lozenge. Cor. 3.—If both pairs of opposite sides of a quadrilateral be equal, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 4.—If both pairs of opposite angles of a quadrilateral be equal, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 5.—If the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 6.—If both diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect the quadrilateral, it is a parallelogram. Cor. 7.—If the adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, its diagonals bisect its angles. Cor. 8.—If the adjacent sides of a parallelogram be equal, its diagonals intersect at right angles. Cor. 9.—In a right-angled parallelogram the diagonals are equal. Cor. 10.—If the diagonals of a parallelogram be perpendicular to each other, it is a lozenge. Cor. 11.—If a diagonal of a parallelogram bisect the angles whose vertices it joins, the parallelogram is a lozenge. Exercises.

1. The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. 2. If the diagonals of a parallelogram be equal, all its angles are right angles. 3. Divide a right line into any number of equal parts. 4. The right lines joining the adjacent extremities of two unequal parallel right lines will meet, if produced, on the side of the shorter parallel. 5. If two opposite sides of a quadrilateral be parallel but not equal, and the other pair equal but not parallel, its opposite angles are supplemental. 6. Construct a triangle, being given the middle points of its three sides. 7. The area of a quadrilateral is equal to the area of a triangle, having two sides equal to its diagonals, and the contained angle equal to that between the diagonals.

PROP. XXXV.—Theorem. Parallelograms on the same base (BC) and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—1. Let the sides AD, DF of the parallelograms AC, BF opposite to the common base BC terminate in the same point D, then [xxxiv.] each parallelogram is double of the triangle BCD. Hence they are equal to one another. 2. Let the sides AD, EF (ﬁgures (α), (β)) opposite to BC not terminate in the same point.

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Then because ABCD is a parallelogram, AD is equal to BC [xxxiv.]; and since BCEF is a parallelogram, EF is equal to BC; therefore (see ﬁg. (α)) take away ED, and in ﬁg. (β) add ED, and we have in each case AE equal to DF , and BA is equal to CD [xxxiv.]. Hence the triangles BAE, CDF have the two sides BA, AE in one respectively equal to the two sides CD, DF in the other, and the angle BAE [xxix.] equal to the angle CDF ; hence [iv.] the triangle BAE is equal to the triangle CDF ; and taking each of these triangles in succession from the quadrilateral BAF C, there will remain the parallelogram BCF E equal to the parallelogram BCDA. Or thus: The triangles ABE, DCF have [xxxiv.] the sides AB, BE in one respectively equal to the sides DC, CF in the other, and the angle ABE equal to the angle DCF [xxix., Ex. 8]. Hence the triangle ABE is equal to the triangle DCF ; and, taking each away from the quadrilateral BAF C, there will remain the parallelogram BCF E equal to the parallelogram BCDA.

Observation.—By the second method of proof the subdivision of the demonstration into cases is avoided. It is easy to see that either of the two parallelograms ABCD, EBCF can be divided into parts and rearranged so as to make it congruent with the other. This Proposition aﬀords the ﬁrst instance in the Elements in which equality which is not congruence occurs. This equality is expressed algebraically by the symbol =, while congruence is denoted by ≡, called also the symbol of identity. Figures that are congruent are said to be identically equal.

PROP. XXXVI.—Theorem. Parallelograms (BD, F H) on equal bases (BC, F G) and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—Join BE, CH. Now since F H is a parallelogram, F G is equal to EH [xxxiv.]; but BC is equal to F G (hyp.); therefore BC is equal to EH (Axiom i.). Hence BE, CH, which join their adjacent extremities, are equal and parallel; therefore BH is a parallelogram. Again, since the parallelograms BD, BH are on the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC, AH, they are equal [xxxv.]. In like manner, since the parallelograms HB, HF are on the same base EH, and between the same parallels EH, BG, they are equal. Hence BD and F H are each equal to BH. Therefore (Axiom i.) BD is equal to F H. 35

Exercise.—Prove this Proposition without joining BE, CH.

PROP. XXXVII.—Theorem. Triangles (ABC, DBC) on the same base (BC) and between the same parallels (AD, BC) are equal. Dem.—Produce AD both ways. Draw BE parallel to AC, and CF parallel to BD [xxxi.] Then the ﬁgures AEBC, DBCF are parallelograms; and since they are on the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC, EF they are equal [xxxv.]. Again, the triangle ABC is half the parallelogram AEBC [xxxiv.], because the diagonal AB bisects it. In like manner the triangle DBC is half the parallelogram DBCF , because the diagonal DC bisects it, and halves of equal things are equal (Axiom vii.). Therefore the triangle ABC is equal to the triangle DBC. Exercises.

1. If two equal triangles be on the same base, but on opposite sides, the right line joining their vertices is bisected by the base. 2. Construct a triangle equal in area to a given quadrilateral ﬁgure. 3. Construct a triangle equal in area to a given rectilineal ﬁgure. 4. Construct a lozenge equal to a given parallelogram, and having a given side of the parallelogram for base. 5. Given the base and the area of a triangle, ﬁnd the locus of the vertex. 6. If through a point O, in the production of the diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD, any right line be drawn cutting the sides AB, BC in the points E, F , and ED, F D be joined, the triangle EF D is less than half the parallelogram.

PROP. XXXVIII.—Theorem. Two triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels are equal. Dem.—By a construction similar to the last, we see that the triangles are the halves of parallelograms, on equal bases, and between the same parallels. Hence they are the halves of equal parallelograms [xxxvi.]. Therefore they are equal to one another. Exercises.

1. Every median of a triangle bisects the triangle. 2. If two triangles have two sides of one respectively equal to two sides of the other, and the contained angles supplemental, their areas are equal.

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3. If the base of a triangle be divided into any number of equal parts, right lines drawn from the vertex to the points of division will divide the whole triangle into as many equal parts. 4. Right lines from any point in the diagonal of a parallelogram to the angular points through which the diagonal does not pass, and the diagonal, divide the parallelogram into four triangles which are equal, two by two. 5. If one diagonal of a quadrilateral bisects the other, it also bisects the quadrilateral, and conversely. 6. If two s ABC, ABD be on the same base AB, and between the same parallels, and if a parallel to AB meet the sides AC, BC in the point E, F ; and the sides AD, BD in the point G, H; then EF = GH. 7. If instead of triangles on the same base we have triangles on equal bases and between the same parallels, the intercepts made by the sides of the triangles on any parallel to the bases are equal. 8. If the middle points of any two sides of a triangle be joined, the triangle so formed with the two half sides is one-fourth of the whole. 9. The triangle whose vertices are the middle points of two sides, and any point in the base of another triangle, is one-fourth of that triangle. 10. Bisect a given triangle by a right line drawn from a given point in one of the sides. 11. Trisect a given triangle by three right lines drawn from a given point within it. 12. Prove that any right line through the intersection of the diagonals of a parallelogram bisects the parallelogram. 13. The triangle formed by joining the middle point of one of the non-parallel sides of a trapezium to the extremities of the opposite side is equal to half the trapezium.

PROP. XXXIX.—Theorem. Equal triangles (BAC, BDC) on the same base (BC) and on the same side of it are between the same parallels. Dem.—Join AD. Then if AD be not parallel to BC, let AE be parallel to it, and let it cut BD in E. Join EC. Now since the triangles BEC, BAC are on the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC, AE, they are equal [xxxvii.]; but the triangle BAC is equal to the triangle BDC (hyp.). Therefore (Axiom i.) the triangle BEC is equal to the triangle BDC—that is, a part equal to the whole which is absurd. Hence AD must be parallel to BC.

PROP. XL.—Theorem. Equal triangles (ABC, DEF ) on equal bases (BC, EF ) which form parts of the same right line, and on the same side of the line, are between the same parallels.

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If AD be not parallel to BF . Join GF . and any pair of parallels drawn through the same points to meet the third side. The middle points of the four sides of a convex quadrilateral. The sum of the two parallel sides of a trapezium is double the line joining the middle points of the two remaining sides.)— that is. for the medians from the extremities of the base to these points will each bisect the original triangle. taken in order. are the angular points of a parallelogram whose area is equal to half the area of the quadrilateral. PROP. is equal to half the triangle.—Join AD. Dem. 38 . 6. The right line joining the middle points of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third. are concurrent.].Dem. 2. Now since the triangles GEF and ABC are on equal bases BC.]. and the right line joining the middle points of its diagonals. AG. the areas are equal. The right line joining the middle points of opposite sides of a quadrilateral.—Join AC. which is absurd. but the triangle ABC is equal to the triangle EBC [xxxvii. The lines of connexion of the middle points of the sides of a triangle divide it into four congruent triangles. EF . 1.—The altitude of a triangle is the perpendicular from the vertex on the base. 8. The parallelogram formed by the line of connexion of the middle points of two sides of a triangle. Therefore AD must be parallel to BF . Hence the two triangles whose base is the third side and whose vertices are the points of bisection are equal. 4. the parallelogram is double of the triangle.]. 7. and if the base of the triangle be double of the base of the parallelogram. Therefore the parallelogram ABCD is double of the triangle EBC. but the triangle DEF is equal to the triangle ABC (hyp. Exercises.—If a triangle and a parallelogram have equal altitudes. 1. Hence GEF is equal to DEF (Axiom i.—Theorem. Triangles and parallelograms of equal bases and altitudes are respectively equal. XLI. The line of connexion of the middle points of two sides of a triangle is equal to half the third side. The parallelogram ABCD is double of the triangle ABC [xxxiv.). The parallel to any side of a triangle through the middle point of another bisects the third. 3. a part equal to the whole. 5. 9. Cor. If a parallelogram (ABCD) and a triangle (EBC) be on the same base (BC) and between the same parallels. and between the same parallels BF . Def. let AG be parallel to it. they are equal [xxxviii.

The parallels (EF. KD) through which the diagonal does not pass. are equal.Cor. Therefore the parallelogram EG is equal to the triangle ABC. 2. Draw CG parallel to AB [xxxi. EG is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. Cor.—The sum of the triangles whose bases are two opposite sides of a parallelogram. XLII. is equal to half the parallelogram. the triangle AHK equal to AEK.—Because AE is equal to EB (const. but the parallelogram EG is also double of the triangle EBC [xli. Sol. because they are on the same base EB. and which have any point between these sides as a common vertex.—Bisect AB in E. Make the angle BEF [xxiii. Cor. 39 .—The parallelogram BH is equal to AF . XLIII. AK. of which the two (BK. and between the same parallels EB and CG.) the angle BEF equal to D.]. 2. the triangle AEC is equal to the triangle EBC [xxxviii. Join EC. 1. 2.].—Problem. PROP. K is a point in the diagonal AC. PROP. KB equal. and which are called the complements of the other two. Dem. supplies an easy demonstration of a fundamental Proposition in Statics. and having an angle equal to a given angle (D). KC we have [xxxiv. Hence. To construct a parallelogram equal to a given triangle (ABC).] equal to D. Hence EG is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. and BG parallel to EF .].] the triangle ADC equal to the triangle ABC.). therefore the triangle ABC is double of the triangle EBC.—If through a point K within a parallelogram ABCD lines drawn parallel to the sides make the parallelograms DK. subtracting the sums of the two last equalities from the ﬁrst. and BF to HC. GH) through any point (K) in one of the diagonals (AC) of a parallelogram divide it into four parallelograms. and the triangle KF C equal to the triangle KGC. Dem. we get the parallelogram DK equal to the parallelogram KB. and it has (const.—Because the diagonal bisects the parallelograms AC.—Theorem. Cor.

BD. 1. If EF . Now [xi. BC to meet M P . 2. Join EI. Now the complement OF = F J: to each add the F L. CD. 2. EF are collinear. EF are collinear. and Dem. CI parallel to AG. IH are concurrent (Ex. EH are the middle points of AC. Produce AD. therefore IH will pass through F . GH. BD. 40 . Hence the middle points of AC. Therefore they are about the same diagonal [xliii.—Let EH.. EH.. GF of two of the four which they divide it and one of the diagonals of ABCD are concurrent. and we get the ﬁgure OF L = CJ. and AB. EF of a quadrilateral ABCD are collinear. but [xxxiv. the complement P H = HK [xliii. the dis into agonals EH.—Complete the produce. through M draw M P . BG.Exercises. Join IH. XLIV. Ex. EF . and we get the P C = ﬁgure OF L. Ex. BC. 1] the middle points of EI. Hence AC produced will pass through M . 1]. Again. GF meet in M . PROP. Hence the P C = CJ. and have one of its angles equal to a given angle (D). 3] the middle points of EI. To a given. GH be parallels to the adjacent sides of a parallelogram ABCD.—Problem. Dem. then AB. BD. 1).]: to each add the OC. EH. DC to meet M J. AEBG. Draw DH.. The middle points of the three diagonals AC. right line (AB) to apply a parallelogram which shall be equal to a given triangle (C). Cor. M J parallel to AB.

PROP.]. Then AM is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. therefore the angle ABM is equal to D. but GE is equal to the triangle C (const.) the lines HB. and produce HA and GB to meet it in the points L and M .].—The parallelogram AM is equal to GE [xliii.] equal to the triangle ABD. Again. Through K draw KL parallel to AB [xxxi. HF E is two right angles [xxix. F E.]. To construct a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (ABCD). and so on for additional triangles if there be any. Construct a parallelogram EG [xlii. Dem. HF E is less than two right angles. therefore it is the parallelogram required.]. 41 . and to the right line GH apply the parallelogram HI equal to the triangle BCD. Then because HA and F E are parallels. and AM is constructed on the given line.—Join BD. therefore the sum of the angles BHF .).—Construct the parallelogram BEF G [xlii. will meet as at K. Sol. Through A draw AH parallel to BG [xxxi.]. and having the angle E equal to the given angle X.—Problem. and having an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (X).). and EBG is equal to D (const. the angle ABM is equal to EBG [xv. therefore AM is equal to the triangle C. and having the angle GHK equal to X [xliv. Join HB. and therefore (Axiom xii.Sol. Then EI is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions.] equal to the given triangle C. XLV. and having the angle B equal to the given angle D.]. and produce F G to meet it in H. the sum of the angles AHF . and so that its side BE shall be in the same right line with AB. and HF intersects them. if produced.

and in this special form they would be better understood by the student..]. It would simplify Problems xliv. HGI. HK are in the same right line [xiv. Construct a rectangle equal to the sum of two or any number of rectilineal ﬁgures. Again.—Erect AD at right angles to AB [xi. because EG and HI are parallelograms. because GH intersects the parallels F G. the sum of F EH. the sum of the angles GHK. HGI is two right angles.) is equal to the triangle ABD. then AC is the square required.).] EF is parallel to KI. Construct a rectangle equal to the diﬀerence of two given ﬁgures. 42 . Through D draw DC parallel to AB [xxxi. the alternate angles F GH. Dem. if they were stated as the constructing of rectangles. EK. but since GI is parallel to HK.]. Therefore AC is a square (Def. therefore F G and GI are in the same right line [xiv.]. Again. On a given right line (AB) to describe a square. and make it equal to AB [iii.).). therefore AC is a lozenge. 1. XLVI.—Problem. and we have the sum of the angles GHK. and the angle A is a right angle. but AB is equal to AD (const. 2. Exercises.]. Hence the sum of GHK. and through B draw BC parallel to AD. EF and KI are each parallel to GH. since rectangles are the simplest areas to which others are referred.]. GHE is two right angles [xxix. the whole parallelogram EI is equal to the rectilineal ﬁgure ABCD.]. xxx. and AD is equal to BC [xxxiv.]. GHE equal to the sum of the angles F EH. F EH are each equal to X (const. and we have the sum of the angles F GH. Hence EI is a parallelogram fulﬁlling the required conditions. xlv. and GH intersects them. Hence the sum of the angles F GH. AB is equal to CD [xxxiv. and because the parallelogram EG (const. GHE. Hence the four sides are equal. GHE is two right angles. HGI is equal to two right angles [xxix. but since HG is parallel to EF . GHK are equal [xxix. HGI equal to the sum of the angles GHK. they are equal to one another: to each add the angle GHE. and it has the angle E equal to the given angle X. and EH intersects them. hence [xxx.—Because AC is a parallelogram.]. and HI to the triangle BCD. Sol. PROP.].—Because the angles GHK. therefore EH. therefore AD is equal to CD. therefore EI is a parallelogram.. and the opposite sides EK and F I are parallel.]: to each add the angle HGI.Dem.

CD are in the same right line.]. ACH is two right angles.Exercises.—On the sides AB.]. KAB also equal. Divide a given square into ﬁve equal parts. Again. because they are on the same base AG. BK.] the triangles are equal. Join CG. points be taken equidistant from the four angles. Then because the angle ACB is right (hyp. &c.]. In like manner the parallelogram AH is double of the triangle KAB. AB in the other. The squares on equal lines are equal. Therefore [iv. hexagon. CH are in the same right line [xiv. and a square. four right-angled triangles. and between the same parallels AK and BH. XLVII. BA is equal to AG. PROP. 3. 4. the sum of the angles ACB. therefore BC. The parallelograms about the diagonal of a square are squares. because they are on the same base AK. Hence BAG is equal to CAK: to each add BAC.). since BG and CK are squares. and. If on the four sides of a square. the sides of equal squares are equal. In like manner AC. In like manner it can be proved that the parallelogram BL is equal to BD. 2. and similarly for a regular pentagon. and ACH is right. 1. BC). Draw CL parallel to AG. In a right-angled triangle (ABC) the square on the hypotenuse (AB) is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides (AC. but the parallelogram AL is double of the triangle CAG [xli. Hence the two triangles CAG. and we get the angle CAG equal to KAB. being the angle of a square. Hence the whole square AF is equal to the sum of the two squares AH and BD. AG in one respectively equal to the sides KA. Dem. CA describe squares [xlvi. conversely. and CA to AK. and the contained angles CAG. or on the sides produced.—Theorem. they will be the angular points of another square. namely. Again. 43 . KAB have the sides CA. the parallelogram AL is equal to AH. and since doubles of equal things are equal (Axiom vi. and between the same parallels AG and CL. BC. because BAG is the angle of a square it is a right angle: in like manner CAK is a right angle.).

18. and through P a line be drawn parallel to BC. having its side BG in the continuation of AB. a part of the side BC of a square ABCD. BAK can be turned round it in its own plane until it coincides with the other. The sum of the squares on lines drawn from any point to one pair of opposite angles of a rectangle is equal to the sum of the squares on the lines from the same point to the remaining pair. AO. 13. Find a line whose square shall be equal to the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines. they are equal. 15. xlvi. The transverse lines BK. it is required to divide the ﬁgure AGF ECD into three parts which will form a square. hence the whole square AF is equal to the sum of the two squares AH. This proof is shorter than the usual one. the sum of the squares on one set of alternate segments is equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining set. Exercises. The square on CO = AO . 44 . the remaining ∠s CAG. then the regular polygon of n sides. BD are equal. are concurrent. meeting AB in Q. three times the square on any side is equal to four times the square on the perpendicular to it from the opposite vertex. CB is less than the square on the hypotenuse by four times the area of the triangle. If AE be joined. if the vertical angle of a triangle be equal to the angle of a regular polygon of n sides. and the square on BC = AB . taking the ∠BAC from the right ∠s BAG. 5. and AG = AB. 2. Another simpliﬁcation of the proof would be got by considering that the point A is such that one of the s CAG. 9. More generally. dividing each side into two segments. If perpendiculars be let fall on the sides of a polygon from any point. exceeds the area of the regular polygon of n sides described on the base by n times the area of the triangle. In like manner the s BL. 3. OB.] the these triangles. BAK are equal. Join CG. CG are perpendicular to each other. The square on the diﬀerence of the sides AC. 7. 16. Each of the triangles AGK and BEF . then CP is equal to P Q. such that the diﬀerence between their squares shall be equal to the square on one of the sides. CL. and the ∠CAG = BAK. 14. 3). BAK have the side CA = AK. If AC and BK intersect in P . 10. is described the square BEF G. BO. AC 2 − BC 2 = AO2 − BO2 . Divide the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle into two parts. BK.. is equal to the right-angled triangle ABC. In an equilateral triangle. 6. and s AL. formed by joining adjacent corners of the squares.] they are equal. BD. Given the base of a triangle and the diﬀerence of the squares of its sides. since it is not necessary to prove that AC. the locus of its vertex is a right line perpendicular to the base. therefore [iv.. In a similar way the Proposition may be proved by taking any of the eight ﬁgures formed by turning the squares in all possible directions. Find a line whose square shall be equal to the sum of two given squares. On BE. its square is equal to AC 2 + 4BC 2 . described on a line equal to the sum of its sides. 4. 19. AH are respectively the doubles of since [xli. CD are in one right line. and through C draw OL parallel to AG. 12. 11. Four times the sum of the squares on the medians which bisect the sides of a rightangled triangle is equal to ﬁve times the square on the hypotenuse. 8. 17.Or thus: Let all the squares be made in reversed directions. Ex. Now. The square described on the sum of the sides of a right-angled triangle exceeds the square on the hypotenuse by four times the area of the triangle (see ﬁg. BK. If EG be joined. the lines AE. and hence that they are congruent. CAK. 1. The square on AC is equal to the rectangle AB . Hence the s CAG.

].—Erect CD at right angles to CB [xi. CB is equal to the square on BD [xlvii. let CD be perpendicular to it. vii. Therefore the square on AB is equal to the square on BD.20. Questions for Examination on Book I. and CB common to the two triangles ACB. and CD is equal to CB (const. PROP. Join BD. Dem. That which has extension in space. Hence AB is equal to BD [xlvi. The following is an indirect proof:—If CB be not at right angles to AC. This is contrary to Prop. How is a straight line generated? Ans. the square on AC is equal to the square on CD: to each add the square on CB. surfaces. How may a plane surface be generated. the angle ACB is equal to the angle DCB. Into planes and curved surfaces. By the motion of a point which has the same direction throughout. Why has a point no dimensions? 10. it can be proved that AD is equal to AB. lines. 7. CB is equal to the square on AB (hyp. CB).—Theorem. Hence the angle ACB is a right angle. prove that the sum of the rectangles contained by the sides and their lower segments is equal to the square on the base. By the motion of a right line which crosses another right line.). Then because AC is equal to CD. and the sum of the squares on CD. What is Plane Geometry? 45 . What is Geometry? 2. How may lines be divided? Ans. Then. Hence the angle ACB is a right angle. Again. 1. Into straight and curved. Ex. and make CD equal to CA [iii. Join AD. 3. Make CD = CB. Points. the angle (C) opposite to that side is a right angle.). Name the primary concepts of geometry. 6. as before. XLVIII. How many dimensions has a surface? 12.]. From the extremities of the base of a triangle perpendiculars are let fall on the opposite sides. CB. 9. By the motion of a point which continually changes its direction. The foregoing proof forms an exception to Euclid’s demonstrations of converse propositions. 8. and the base AB equal to the base DB.). and we have the sum of the squares on AC. and moves along it without changing its direction. What is geometric magnitude? Ans. CB equal to the sum of the squares on CD. because AC is equal to CD (const. 5. Ans. for it is direct. How is a curved line generated? Ans. If the square on one side (AB) of a triangle be equal to the sum of the squares on the remaining sides (AC.. 1]. Why has a line neither breadth nor thickness? 11. and solids. but the sum of the squares on AC.). Ans. How may surfaces be divided? Ans. but the angle DCB is a right angle (const. 4. DCB.].

such as the three sides. for instance. How many conditions are necessary to ﬁx the position of a point in a plane? Ans. How many conditions are required in order to describe a circle? Ans. which are particular cases of more general ones that follow. for it must be the intersection of two lines. How is a proposition proved indirectly? Ans. Give examples taken from Book I. What other name is applied to them? Ans. The three medians of a triangle are concurrent.. 9.. 31.. Exercises on Book I. in each of which. xii. Mention all the instances of equality which are not congruence that occur in Book I. Mention some propositions in Book I. 19. xxvi. What is the subject-matter of Book I. The medians of a triangle divide each other in the ratio of 2 : 1. 20. In order to construct a line.. 6. and greater than three-fourths of the perimeter. 21. Any triangle is equal to the fourth part of that which is formed by drawing through each vertex a line parallel to its opposite side. 8. is equal to half the diﬀerence of the base angles. The three perpendiculars of the ﬁrst triangle in question 1 are the perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of the second triangle. 2. In every triangle the sum of the medians is less than the perimeter. Construct a triangle. alternate angles respectively. are the obverse respectively of Propositions iv. or two sides and an angle. for instance. What is meant by the obverse of a proposition? 22.? 15. Classify the properties of triangles and parallelograms proved in Book I.13. as. 5. 46 . 18. By proving that its contradictory is false. What propositions in Book I. ix. or one point through which it must pass and a line to which it must be parallel or perpendicular. exterior. Two.? 23. 26. 29. &c. What are meant by the medians of a triangle? 33. 4. What problems on the drawing of lines occur in Book I. What proposition is an instance of the rule of identity? 24. Through a given point draw a line so that the portion intercepted by the legs of a given angle may be bisected in the point..? Ans. 17. What is the sum of all the exterior angles of any rectilineal ﬁgure equal to? 36. Deﬁne adjacent. and circle. except Problem 2. Construct a triangle. 7.). v. 16. Two. straight or curved. as. What portion of plane geometry forms the subject of the “First Six Books of Euclid’s Elements”? Ans. and the bisector of the vertical angle. the position of the centre (which depends on two conditions) and the length of the radius (compare Post.? 30. They are said to be identically equal. being given two sides and the median of the third side. 27. xxvii. ii.. xxiii. 35. Three. xxxi. What proposition is the converse of Prop. 14. What are congruent ﬁgures? 25. there are two conditions. Construct a parallelogram. What is the diﬀerence between the symbols denoting congruence and identity? 28. being given a side and the two medians of the remaining sides. Three. 11.. being given the three medians. &c. The geometry of the point.. What is meant by the projection of one line on another? 32. being given two diagonals and a side. Part I. iii. The angle included between the perpendicular from the vertical angle of a triangle on the base. 3. The direction in Problem 2 is indeterminate.. 1. How many conditions must be given in order to construct a triangle? Ans. interior. xi. 10. line.. two points through which it must pass. how many conditions must be given? Ans. and whose line of connexion shall be parallel to a given line. vi. 12. What is meant by the third diagonal of a quadrilateral? 34. Construct a triangle. Find in two parallels two points which shall be equidistant from a given point.

20. and between these lines we draw BED. 22. C . 32. 15. 47 . 29. 14. Find a point in one of the sides of a triangle such that the sum of the intercepts made by the other sides. both in magnitude and position. The perpendiculars of a triangle are the bisectors of the angles of the triangle whose vertices are the feet of these perpendiculars. OE be drawn perpendicular to BC. The bases of two or more triangles having a common vertex are given. so that AB + AC = AB + AC: prove that B C is greater than BC. prove that the locus of the vertex is a right line. 28. cutting AC in E. 33. 16. on parallels drawn from the same point to these sides. Find in two parallels two points subtending a right angle at a given point and equally distant from it. Find the locus of a point. the distance will be equal to half the sum of the sides. AC. Construct a quadrilateral. may be equal to a given length. Bisect a quadrilateral by a right line drawn from one of its angular points. from the middle point of the base. and if AO produced meet BC in D. 35. is equal to half the diﬀerence of the sides. 18.13. The sum of the distances of any point in the base of an isosceles triangle from the equal sides is equal to the distance of either extremity of the base from the opposite side. and the sum of the areas is given. and that their sum is a minimum if it bisects the supplement. The distance of the foot of the perpendicular from either extremity of the base of a triangle on the bisector of the vertical angle. The sum of the perpendiculars from any point in the interior of an equilateral triangle is equal to the perpendicular from any vertex on the opposite side. prove that the diﬀerence of AP and P B is a maximum when L bisects the angle AP B. B are two given points. if the bisector of the external vertical angle be taken. such that ED = 2AB. 36. 21. If O be the point of concurrence of the bisectors of the angles of the triangle ABC. the three external triangles formed on the sides of the original triangle are equiangular. ABC is an isosceles triangle whose equal sides are AB. 19. Inscribe a lozenge in a triangle having for an angle one angle of the triangle. 23. 26. 31. The angle made by the bisectors of two consecutive angles of a convex quadrilateral is equal to half the sum of the remaining angles. B C is any secant cutting the equal sides in B . 34. the four sides being given in magnitude. and perpendicularly by AC. and the middle points of two opposite sides being given in position. 37. 17. and P is a point in a given line L. If the exterior angles of a triangle be bisected. Hence prove that perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides are concurrent [see Ex. and from O. If the sum of the perpendiculars let fall from a given point on the sides of a given rectilineal ﬁgure be given. Inscribe a square in a triangle having its base on a side of the triangle. the sum or the diﬀerence of whose distance from two ﬁxed lines is equal to a given length. the locus of the point is a right line. The three perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. AD and BC are two parallel lines cut obliquely by AB. Inscribe in a given triangle a parallelogram whose diagonals shall intersect in a given point. 24. prove that the angle DBC is one-third of ABC. If two angles have their legs respectively parallel. 27. these lines meet on the other bisector of the vertical angle. prove that the angle BOD is equal to the angle COE. 25. 30. their bisectors are either parallel or perpendicular. and the angle made by the bisectors of two opposite angles is equal to half the diﬀerence of the two other angles. A. The smallest median of a triangle corresponds to the greatest side. If lines be drawn from the extremities of the base of a triangle to the feet of perpendiculars let fall from the same points on either bisector of the vertical angle. 2]. In the same case.

KG be joined. DG is drawn parallel to BF to meet EF . 42. construct the polygon. 50. and be bisected in the points F . meet on a given line perpendicular to the base. the second is a rectangle. E. 48 . and if BD be a perpendicular on AC. If two lines bisecting two angles of a triangle and terminated by the opposite sides be equal. when the base and diﬀerence of the sides are given. Given the base of a triangle. 43. the triangle is isosceles. construct it. 52. will pass through another given point. the rectangle under its side and the sum of the base and altitude is equal to twice the area of the triangle. G. 39. if the ﬁrst be a rectangle. prove that the sides of the triangle DCG are respectively equal to the three medians of the triangle ABC. the median that bisects the base. If squares be described on the sides of any triangle. prove that the perpendicular at either extremity of the base to the adjacent side. the second is a square. Given the middle points of the sides of a convex polygon of an odd number of sides. Find the path of a billiard ball started from a given point which. The bisectors of the angles of a convex quadrilateral form a quadrilateral whose opposite angles are supplemental. The middle points of the sides AB. If a square be inscribed in a triangle. (2) perpendicular to them. 51. 46. If the diagonals AC. 44. Given the base of a triangle in magnitude and position and the sum of the sides. 47. Given the base of a triangle. State and prove the Proposition corresponding to Exercise 41. EF 2 + KG2 = 5AB 2 . If the ﬁrst quadrilateral be a parallelogram. and the sum or diﬀerence of the sides. F . AC be equal sides of an isosceles triangle.. and the external bisector of the vertical angle. If in the construction of the ﬁgure. The sum of the equilateral triangles described on the legs of a right-angled triangle is equal to the equilateral triangle described on the hypotenuse. 48. prove that BC 2 = 2AC . the lines of connexion of the adjacent corners are respectively—(1) the doubles of the medians of the triangle. Proposition xlvii. BD of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect in E. and the area. 45. 40. 41. 49. EF .38. construct it. Trisect a quadrilateral by lines drawn from one of its angles. CA of a triangle are respectively D. BC. the diﬀerence of the base angles. 53. If AB. CD. after being reﬂected from the four sides of the table. then 4 EF G = (AEB + ECD) − (AED + EBC).

The rectangle contained by two separate lines such as AB and CD is the parallelogram formed by erecting a perpendicular to 49 . 4. the square foot contains 144 square inches. 3. will be rendered not only easy. Thus. v. the square on a line is four times the square on its half. Thus a square inch is the square described on a line whose length is an inch. as there are diﬀerent linear units in use. On account of this property the second power of a quantity is called its square. each containing 12 square inches. miles.BOOK II. Definitions. If a rectangular parallelogram be such that two adjacent sides contain respectively m and n linear units. the rectangle is expressed by AB . and so in general the square described on any line contains n2 times the square described on the nth part of the line. AD be two adjacent sides of a rectangle. iv. 1. i. so the square unit is that to which all superﬁcial measures are referred. and. If a point C be taken in a line AB. iv. but almost intuitively evident. If we take a linear foot. if AB. feet. THEORY OF RECTANGLES Every Proposition in the Second Book has either a square or a rectangle in its enunciation. inches. and draw parallels to the sides. divide two adjacent sides each into twelve equal parts. yards. metres. ii. the whole area is evidently divided into mn square units. describe a square on it. for if we multiply the length of one by the length of the other we have the area. AD. which is usually considered diﬃcult. In the same manner it can be shown that a square yard contains 9 square feet. &c. but C is called a point of external division. and in France. the parts AC. conversely. by dividing one side into m and the other into n equal parts. and this explains why we say (see Def.. a square foot is the square described on a line whose length is a foot. and C a point of division.) a rectangle is contained by any two adjacent sides. Thus the rectangle ABCD is said to be contained by AB. Again. Hence the area of the parallelogram is found by multiplying its length by its breadth. CB are called segments. As the linear unit is that by which we express all linear measures. A square unit is the square described on a line whose length is the linear unit. iii. &c. we evidently divide the square foot into square inches. If C be taken in the line AB produced. Before commencing it the student should read the following preliminary explanations: by their assistance it will be seen that this Book. and as there will manifestly be 12 rectangular parallelograms. Thus. BC. or by AB. the square on a line AB is expressed symbolically by AB 2 . &c. so diﬀerent square units are employed. A parallelogram whose angles are right angles is called a rectangle. such as in this country. A rectangle is said to be contained by any two adjacent sides. and drawing parallels to the sides. as a simple case. AD. and their multiples or sub-multiples. 2. AC. CB are still called the segments of the line AB.

A .. BC). one of which is divided into any number of parts (BD. the Proposition asserts that the rectangle contained by A. DE ≡ DH. vi. . D. EK (I.). Again. c. Complete the parallelogram BK (Def. at A. A . the remainder is called a gnomon. b.. A 50 . equal to CD. BC).. In like manner the rectangle contained by A and EC is the ﬁgure EK. is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the undivided line (A) and the several parts of the divided line. since A is equal to BF (const.). But BK is equal to the sum of BG.. . E draw DG. if we take away either of the parallelograms AO. A is equal to DG. CD. I. .AB. . Axiom ix. v. In like manner the rectangle contained by A and BD is BG.. EK is a rectangle. If we denote the lines BD.—Erect BF at right angles to BC [I. DH. DH.). A and EC. Hence we have the following identities:— Rectangle contained by A and BD ≡ BG. Dem.). since A is equal to BF (const. the rectangle contained by A and BC is the rectangle contained by BF and BC (Def.. If there be two lines (A. DE. A . . E are right angles. v. EC ≡ EK. EC by a. EC). PROP. Hence the rectangle contained by A and DE is the ﬁgure DH (Def. Through D.. and BF is equal to DG [I.—Theorem. and a + b + c is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by A and a.. . xi..] is called a gnomon. Because the angles at B.. xxxiv. A and DE. In any parallelogram the ﬁgure which is composed of either of the parallelograms about a diagonal and the two complements [see I. EH parallel to BF . and drawing parallels: the area of the rectangle will be AB . Hence the rectangle contained by A and BC is BK. Thus.). BC ≡ BK. the rectangle contained by the two lines (A. DE. v. but BK is the rectangle contained by BF and BC.].. OC from the parallelogram AC.). Therefore the rectangle contained by A and BC is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by A and BD. xliii.. Again. each of the quadrilaterals BG.] and make it equal to A.

II.]. 2. Cor.—Theorem. A and c. Dem. 30. AB . All these can be proved in the most simple manner by Algebraic Multiplication. Now. Hence the rectangle contained by AB and AC is equal to AE. the square on the whole line is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the whole and each of the segments (AC. AB = AB. is 72. xli. Dem. but AE is the rectangle contained by AF and AC. Illustration. We recommend the student to make himself acquainted with the proofs by this method as well as with those of Euclid. are subject to the same rules. BC = 6 × 12 = 72 square inches. The Second Book is occupied with the relations between the segments of a line divided in various ways. A . This corresponds to the distributive law in multiplication.—From the vertex C let fall the perpendicular CD. and shows that rectangles in Geometry.] the triangle ABC is = half the parallelogram AF .—The area of a triangle is equal to half the rectangle contained by its base and perpendicular. A(a + b + c) = Aa + Ab + Ac. Cor. Or thus: and Hence. then BC will be 12 inches. 3 inches. AC + AB . A . 24. and AE. Now the sum of the three last rectangles.. Then AF is the rectangle contained by AB and BF .. BF each parallel to CD. BD.. Draw EF parallel to AB. BC = A . but BF is equal to CD.and b. DE + A . If a line (AB) be divided into any two parts (at C). .—On AB describe the square ABDF [I.—Suppose A to be 6 inches. DE = 6 × 4 = 24 .. EC. xlvi. viz. as it may be written. 51 . 18. He will thus better understand the meaning of each Proposition. A . xxxi.. 5 inches. 1. but [I. since AB is equal to AF . CD. we get AB = AC + CB. Hence AF = AB . AC. and products in Arithmetic and Algebra. CB. BD = 6 × 5 = 30 . 2 PROP. A . or. AB 2 = AB .].—The rectangle contained by a line and the diﬀerence of two others is equal to the diﬀerence of the rectangles contained by the line and each of the others. Therefore the triangle ABC is = 1 AB . In like manner the rectangle contained by AB and CB is equal to the ﬁgure CD. the rectangle contained by AB and AC is equal to the rectangle contained by AF and AC. Therefore the sum of the two rectangles AB . Hence the rectangle A .. and the rectangles will have the following values:— Rectangle . 4 inches. . CB). and through C draw CE parallel to AF [I. BD + A . CD. multiplying. DE. EC = 6 × 3 = 18 . EC. CB is equal to the square on AB.

And since things which are equal to the same are equal to one another. intersecting BE in G. Dem. Hence the angle CBG is equal to CGB. III. when the undivided line is equal to a segment of the divided line. the rectangle contained by AC. the square on the whole line is equal to the sum of the squares on the parts (AC. Join EB. together with the square on CB. together with twice their rectangle. Hence the rectangle AC . through C draw CF parallel to AE. CD is the ﬁgure AD. xxx. CB is equal to the ﬁgure AD.) it is a square. CB is equal to the ﬁgure AE. BE. Prop. CB is equal to the rectangle contained by AC.].—On AB describe a square ABDE. and the angle CBI is right. CF . is the particular case of Prop. CB + CB 2 . AB . Hence the ﬁgure CBIG is a lozenge. Now since AE is equal to AB.—Theorem. together with the square on CB. Hence the rectangle AC . iii.. and the square on CB is the ﬁgure CE. the rectangle AC . CB. xlvi. i. IV. Through A draw AF parallel to CD: produce ED to meet AF in F .—Theorem. CD.. In like manner the ﬁgure EF GH is a square. If a line (AB) be divided into two segments (at C). when the divided and undivided lines are equal. CB). the angle AEB is equal to CGB [I. Def. Hence (I. since CB is equal to BE. CB. is equal to the rectangle AB . v.—On BC describe the square BCDE [I. but since BE intersects the parallels AE. and through G draw HI parallel to AB. the rectangle AB . BE is equal to the ﬁgure AE.]. If a line (AB) be divided into any two parts (at C). but the rectangle contained by AC. but CG is equal to BI and CB to GI. CB = AC . CB is equal to the rectangle AB . the rectangle contained by the whole line and either segment (CB) is equal to the square on that segment together with the rectangle contained by the segments. Now since CB is equal to CD. and therefore [I. Hence the rectangle AB .This Proposition is the particular case of i. Or thus: Hence AB = AC + CB. hence it does not require a separate Demonstration. 52 . vi. CB. but the rectangle AB .] CG is equal to CB. is equal to the ﬁgure AE. PROP. the angle ABE is equal to AEB [I.]. xxix. CB = CB. Again. PROP. Dem.

Hence the parallelograms AG. Again. Cor. therefore But since the angle ADB is right. AG. and twice the rectangle AC . CBF . CI. GD. 1. Hence the whole ﬁgure ABDE = AC 2 + CB 2 + 2AC . Cor.]—that is.—The parallelograms about the diagonal of a square are squares. is the sum of the four ﬁgures HF . Or thus: On AB describe the square ABDE. being the complements about the diagonal of the parallelogram AD. AH (i. the square on the whole is equal to the sum of the squares on all the parts. For let AB = 2AC. 2)—that is. then AB 2 = 4AC 2 . and CI is the square on CB. therefore their sum is equal to four times the ACH. Join AD. but the whole ﬁgure AD. the rectangle AC . F G. the ﬁgure CF GH is a square [I.]. Join CF . GD are together equal to twice the rectangle AC . 2. Now the four s ACH. This Cor. Cor. CB.—The square on a line is equal to four times the square on its half. GEH are evidently equal. but the ACH is half the rectangle AC . CB. since CB is equal to CG. Or thus: Squaring. Cor. and equal to AC 2 + AH 2 [I. CG. CB is equal to the rectangle AC .—If a line be divided into any number of parts. therefore AB 2 = 4AC 2 . Now the ﬁgures AG. EG. DB. Therefore the square on AB is equal to the sum of the squares on AC. Then In like manner. AD2 + DB 2 = 2AC 2 + 2CB 2 = 4AC 2 . AD2 = AC 2 + CD2 = 2AC 2 DB 2 = 2CB 2 . xlvi. CB.). which is the square on AB. xlvii. DF each equal to CB. 3. CB. the ﬁgure HF is the square on HG. but AC . Therefore HF is equal to the square on AC. together with twice the sum of the rectangles contained by the several distinct pairs of parts. 53 . Therefore the sum of the four triangles is equal to 2AC . may be proved by the First Book thus: Erect CD at right angles to AB. CB. GH. AB 2 =AC 2 + 2AC . Again. AD2 + DB 2 = AB 2 . Cor. xliii. F DG. HC.. CB is equal to the ﬁgure AG. CB. we get AB = AC + CB. equal to half the rectangle AC . 3]. and make CD = AC or CB. Therefore the rectangle AC . CG is the ﬁgure AG (Def. GD are equal [I. and HG is equal to AC. and cut oﬀ AH. iv. CB + CB 2 . equal to AC 2 + CB 2 .Again.

In any right-angled triangle the square on the sum of the hypotenuse and perpendicular. DB) contained by the unequal parts. DH. is equal to the whole ﬁgure CBEF —that is. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD . 1. BD = (BC + CD)(BC − CD) = BC 2 − CD2 . DB = BC − CD. but AL is equal to CM [I. If from the vertical angle of a right-angled triangle a perpendicular be let fall on the hypotenuse. 4. PROP. Dem. the rectangle (AD .]. 2. therefore the rectangle AD . and between the same parallels. is equal to the square on half the line. BD + CD2 = BC 2 . meeting BF in H. from the right angle on the hypotenuse. exceeds the square on the sum of the sides by the square on the perpendicular. DB. to the square on CB. CB.. V.Exercises. Hence the diﬀerence of the 54 . Hence the rectangle AD . CD and their diﬀerence.—The rectangle AD . therefore AL is equal to DE: to each add CH. Or thus: therefore Hence AD = AC + CD = BC + CD. Cor. together with the square on the part (CD) between the points of section. because they are on equal bases AC.—On CB describe the square CBEF [I. and the square on CD is equal to the ﬁgure LG. but AH is equal to the rectangle AD . If a line (AB) be divided into two equal parts (at C). xxxi. 3.]. 2]. 5. Cor. and we get the parallelogram AH equal to the gnomon CM G. DB is the rectangle contained by the sum of the lines AC. Prove Proposition iv. From the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle portions are cut oﬀ equal to the adjacent sides. by using Propositions ii. DB. and through A draw AK parallel to CL [I. Through H draw KM parallel to AB.]. AD . The square on the perimeter of a right-angled triangle is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the sum of the hypotenuse and one side. since DH is equal to DB [iv. 1. DB is equal to the gnomon CM G.. AD . and iii. xxxvi. 1]. Join BF . Through D draw DG parallel to CF . Cor. xlvi.—Theorem. and we have proved it equal to the diﬀerence between the square on AC and the square on CD. prove that the square on the middle segment is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the extreme segments. and the sum of the hypotenuse and the other side. together with the square on CD. xliii. and also into two unequal parts (at D). its square is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the hypotenuse. The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I.

the rectangle AL is equal to CH [I. therefore AL is equal to HF . DM . Hence. To each of these equals add CM and LG.]. If a line (AB) be bisected (at C). 2. together with the square on CB. through B draw BHG parallel to CE [I.—The perimeter of the rectangle AH is equal to 2AB. Hence the rectangle AD . The diﬀerence between the square on one of the equal sides of an isosceles triangle. 55 . the rectangle will have the maximum area. therefore. VI. BD) contained by the segments made by the external point. PROP.—Theorem. The rectangle contained by the sum and the diﬀerence of two sides of a triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the base and the diﬀerence of the segments of the base. made by the perpendicular from the vertex. xliii. 5.—On CD describe the square CDF E [I. DB. 1. xlvi. not exceeding the square on half the given line. and divided externally in any point (D). xxxi. Exercises.]. and the area of the same rectangle is less than the square on half the line by the square on the segment between D and the middle point of the line. and CDF E is the square on CD. Dem. xxxvi. the square has the greatest area. and through A draw AK parallel to CL. of all rectangles having the same perimeter. since DB is equal to DM . 6. Divide a given line so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be equal to a given square. through H draw KLM parallel to AD. DB. also LG is equal to the square on CB. The diﬀerence of the sides of a triangle is less than the diﬀerence of the segments of the base. is equal to the square on the segment between the middle point and the point of external division. but AM is equal to the rectangle AD . Then because AC is equal to CB. HF are equal [I. is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the base.]. 4. Cor. but the complements CH. together with the square on half the line. and join DE. the rectangle (AD . 3. made by the perpendicular from the vertex. and the square on any line drawn from the vertex to a point in the base. The square on either side of a right-angled triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the sum and the diﬀerence of the hypotenuse and the other side.squares on two lines is equal to the rectangle contained by their sum and their diﬀerence.]. Divide a given line so that the rectangle contained by its parts may have a maximum area. and we get AM and LG equal to the square CDF E. meeting DE in H. it equal to the square on CD. 2. when D is the middle point. and is therefore independent of the position of the point D on the line AB. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD .

is reduced to Proposition v. Through H draw KM parallel to AB. 3.]. because they are on equal bases AC.]. 6. 7. Through D draw DG parallel to CF .. To each add CH. prove that CD2 − CB 2 = AD . The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I. Show that Proposition vi. and between the same parallels. xxxi. The rectangle contained by any two lines is equal to the square on half the sum. and vi. Therefore the rectangle AD . 5. 1]. DB = (CD + CB)(CD − CB) = CD2 − CB 2 . since DH is equal to DB [iv. VII.—On CB describe the square CBEF [I. DB. Or thus: Hence therefore AD = AC + CD = CD + CB. and the square on CB is the ﬁgure CE. Divide a given line externally. 1.]. DB is equal to the gnomon CM G. ﬁnd the lines. and therefore equal to the rectangle AD . AD .Or thus:— Dem. PROP. therefore AL is equal to DE. but AL is equal to CM [I. ﬁnd the lines. Exercises.—Theorem.]. CB) contained by the whole line and that segment. Join BF . together with the square on CB. xxxvi. xliii. by producing the line in the opposite direction. 4. DB + CB 2 = CD2 . CB. BD = CD − CB. meeting F B produced in H. Given the diﬀerence of two lines and the rectangle contained by them. 56 . and we get the parallelogram AH equal to the gnomon CM G. the sum of the squares on the whole line (AB) and either segment (CB) is equal to twice the rectangle (2AB . If from the vertex C of an isosceles triangle a line CD be drawn to any point in the base produced. 2. Through A draw AK parallel A to CL [I. is equal to the whole ﬁgure LHGF —that is. minus the square on half the diﬀerence. AD . DH. DB. DB. equal to the square on LH or to the square on CD. If a right line (AB) be divided into any two parts (at C). but AH is equal to the rectangle AD . so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be equal to the square on a given line. together with the square on the other segment. Cor. therefore the rectangle AD . Give a common enunciation which will include Propositions v. Given the sum or the diﬀerence of two lines and the diﬀerence of their squares. xlvi.

and vii. Cors. Now [I. F D. together with the square on the other segment (AC). and the sum of the four triangles is equal to twice the rectangle AB .). together with the four equal triangles HAB. Now the square AD is equal to the three ﬁgures AK.. If a line (AB) be divided into two parts (at C). viii.Dem. Now AK is the rectangle AB . Square on the sum + square on the diﬀerence of any two lines = twice the sum of the squares on the lines (Props. and therefore equal to the square on AC. BC + BC 2 . and AD is the square on AB. together with the ﬁgure GH. CK is equal to twice the ﬁgure AK. 3]. GH. BC.—On AB describe the square ABDE. square on diﬀerence = sum of squares-twice rectangle. The square on the sum − the square on the diﬀerence of any two lines = four times the rectangle under lines (Prop. for each triangle is equal to half the rectangle AB . BC. and GH is the square on HF .. Then the ﬁgure BF GH is a square [I. CD. BC. Or thus: therefore therefore AC = AB − BC. and vii. BCF . xlvi.–Theorem. DE. but BK is equal to BC. F DG. BC. Or thus: On AC describe the square ACDE. Comparison of iv. the sum of the squares. the ﬁgure BF GH is equal to the sum of the squares on AB. Hence the sum of the squares on AB and BC is equal to twice the rectangle AB . together with the square on AC. equal to the sum of the squares on AB. and GH: to each add the square CK. and the square on the diﬀerence of any two lines. Produce the sides CD. BC is equal to twice the rectangle AB . therefore the sum of the squares AD. Join BF . and x. BC. 3.. and we have the sum of the squares AD. therefore AK is equal to the rectangle AB . the square on the sum of the whole line (AB) and either segment (BC) is equal to four times the rectangle contained by the whole line (AB) and that segment. are in arithmetical progression. xlvii. 1. AC 2 = AB 2 − 2AB . Through C draw CG parallel to AE. square on sum = sum of squares + twice rectangle. EA. but CD is equal to AK.]. BK. and make each produced part equal to CB. PROP. intersecting BE in F . Join BE. Square on the sum. VIII. By iv. AH—that is. By vii. CK the square on CB. F G. BC. BC = AB 2 + BC 2 . 2. AC 2 + 2AB . GEH. HB. together with the square on AC.). 57 . ix. Through F draw HK parallel to AB. GH. Hence the sum of the squares on AB. CK equal to the sum of the three ﬁgures AK. and it is equal to the square on AC. from iv. Ex.

JF are all equal. Hence the whole ﬁgure. and make AD = BC. lines parallel to AB. hence their sum is equal to four times AG.. the ﬁgure P H is the square on P I. Therefore the four ﬁgures AG. and CK the square on CB. Hence the gnomon AOH is equal to four times the rectangle AK—that is. therefore four times the rectangle contained by any two lines = the square on their sum − the square on their diﬀerence. 1].]. and CB is the half of CD. IL. xliii. since CG. they are equal [I. On DB describe the square DBEF . Therefore the sum of the four rectangles is equal to 4AB . Make BD equal to BC. I draw M N . since BC is equal to BK. Again. xxxvi. but M I is equal to IL [I. xlvi. is equal to four times the rectangle AB . xxxi. AG. Again. the square on the diﬀerence = the sum of the squares − twice the rectangle. BC.Dem. (AB + BC)2 = AC 2 + 4AC . By vii. LA are all equal. Again. CO is equal to four times CK [iv. In like manner IL is equal to JF . Now it is evident that the four rectangles. Join DE. On AD describe the square AEF D [I. P O parallel to AD. Direct sequence of viii.—Produce AB to D. and therefore equal to the square on AC. Hence the whole ﬁgure AF . xlvi. or vi. GI are the sides of equal squares. Hence the parallelogram AG is equal to M I [I. the rectangle contained by any two lines is = the square on half their sum − the square on half their diﬀerence. and the square CO has been proved to be equal to four times CK. Through A and I draw lines parallel to DF .. 1]. Since by v. that is. BC. the ﬁgure N P is evidently equal to the square on AC. EI. IL. BC. Direct sequence from v.. Therefore. BL parallel to AE [I. and through K. Or thus: therefore AB + BC = AC + 2BC.]. BG or AB . GI. CB + 4BC 2 = AC 2 + 4(AC + CB) . Since CO is the square on CD.]. CB = AC 2 + 4AB . Or thus: Produce BA to D. and through G and L. or the square on the sum of AB and BC.. BC. By iv. equal to four times the rectangle AB . BC. is equal to 4AB . from iv. Cut oﬀ BG. and vii. together with the square on AC. 58 . but AG is the rectangle AB . Cor. the square on the sum − the square on the diﬀerence = four times the rectangle. B draw CH. Through C. Cor. F L each equal to BC. BC + AC 2 . the square on AD.]. or vi. the square on the sum = the sum of the squares + twice the rectangle. M I. which is the square on BD. by subtraction.

See note C. and their rectangle = 4R2 . xlvii. the sum of the squares on the unequal parts (AD. the angle EGF is equal to ECB. Again. therefore EGF is right. and CE intersects them. and F G parallel to CD. Therefore AF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 +2CD2 . 1 Given the diﬀerence of two lines = R. since AC is equal to CE. GK be joined.] if EF . and we get AD = AC + CD. Prove GK 2 − EF 2 = 3AB(AO − BO). CBE are half right angles. but AE 2 is equal to AC 2 + CE 2 [I. Again. xlvii. but AD2 + DF 2 is equal to AF 2 . 3 occurs in the solution of the problem of the inscription of a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle. DB = AC − CD.] GE is equal to GF . and on the segment (CD) between the points of section. In like manner EF 2 is equal to 2GF 2 or 2CD2 .]. Draw DF parallel to CE. DB) is double the sum of the squares on half the line (AC). therefore the angle GF E is half a right angle [I. Therefore AE 2 is equal to 2AC 2 . Because AC is equal to CE. because GF is parallel to CB.Exercises. 1 Ex. ﬁnd the lines. AC 2 is equal to CE 2 . 2. and make it equal to AC or CB. and GEF has been proved to be half a right angle. xxxii. but ECB is right (const. the angle CEA is half a right angle. In like manner F D is equal to DB. Or thus: Square and add. IX. therefore the whole angle AEF is right. and we get AD2 + DF 2 equal to AD2 + DB 2 . xlvii. since DF is equal to DB. Again. Join AE. In the ﬁgure [I. AD2 + DB 2 = 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . Therefore [I.).—Theorem. 1. EB.]. Therefore AD2 + DB 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . and the angle ACE is right. 59 . In like manner the angles CEB. 3. therefore AF 2 is equal to AD2 + DB 2 . but AE 2 +EF 2 is equal to AF 2 [I. vi. prove EF 2 − CO2 = (AB + BO)2 . PROP. Therefore AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . If a line (AB) be bisected (at C) and divided into two unequal parts (at D).—Erect CE at right angles to AB. Dem. DF 2 is equal to DB 2 : to each add AD2 . Join AF . and we have proved AF 2 equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .].

therefore the sum of the angles BDF . AC 2 is equal to CE 2 .—Erect CE at right angles to AB. Draw DF parallel to CE.] the lines EB. CBE are half right angles. DBF is less than two right angles. In like manner EF 2 is equal to 2GF 2 or 2CD2 . the sum of the squares on the segments (AD.]. DB) made by the external point is equal to twice the square on half the line.] GE is equal to GF . Therefore AF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 +2CD2 . 1. so that the sum of the squares on the parts may be equal to a given square. Join AE.—Theorem. In like manner F D is equal to DB. vi. xv. since AC is equal to CE. will meet. and therefore [I. and therefore [I. If a line be divided into any number of parts. Because AC is equal to CE. if produced. DB + 4CD2 . DF . and GEF has been proved to be half a right angle. xxix. the continued product of all the parts is a maximum. therefore the whole angle AEF is right. xxix. xlvii.] GF E is half a right angle. Now since DF is parallel to EC. Again. EB. and make it equal to AC or CB. Join AF . and state the limitation to its possibility. since DF is equal to DB.). Through F draw F G parallel to AB.] the angle DBF is = to EBC. AD2 + DB 2 = 2AD . DF 2 is equal to DB 2 : to each add AD2 . xxxii. and [I. because GF is parallel to CB. the angle EGF is equal to ECB [I. Dem. therefore [I.]. and the angle ACE is right. Let them meet in F . therefore EGF is right. the angle CEA is half a right angle. If a line (AB) be bisected (at C) and divided externally (at D). but ECB is right (const. and we get AD2 + DF 2 equal to AD2 + DB 2 . and GE intersects them. the angle BDF is = to BCE [I. 5. but AE 2 is equal to AC 2 + CE 2 [I.. Twice the square on the line joining any point in the hypotenuse of a right-angled isosceles triangle to the vertex is equal to the sum of the squares on the segments of the hypotenuse. If a line AB be bisected in C and divided unequally in D. therefore AE 2 is equal to 2AC 2 .Exercises. X. xvii. The sum of the squares on the segments of a line of given length is a minimum when it is bisected. therefore AE 2 + EF 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . Again. PROP.]. xlvii. and produce EB. 2. and produce EC to meet it in G. In like manner the angles CEB. Again.].]. Axiom xii. EBC is less than two right angles [I. and the sum of their squares is a minimum when all the parts are equal. 3. and twice the square on the segment between the points of section. 4. Divide a given line internally. but AE 2 +EF 2 is equal to AF 2 [I. but AD2 + DF 2 is equal to 60 . but the sum of the angles BCE.

so that the rectangle (AB .).AF 2 . and AF 2 has been proved equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 .—Problem. and the sum of their squares. Dem. 61 .—Produce GH to K. and x. If a line be cut into two unequal parts. the sum of the squares on the two unequal parts exceeds the sum of the squares on the two equal parts by the sum of the squares of the two diﬀerences between the equal and unequal parts. xlvi. Bisect AC in E. Therefore AD2 + DB 2 is equal to 2AC 2 + 2CD2 . and also into two equal parts. prove that the middle point of AD is equally distant from B and C. If in the ABC a point D in the base BC be such that BA2 + BD2 = CA2 + CD2 . H is the point required. Produce EA to F . BH) contained by the whole line and one segment may be equal to the square on the other segment.—On AB describe the square ABDC [I. The square on the sum of any two lines plus the square on their diﬀerence equal twice the sum of their squares. and we get AD2 + BD2 = 2CD2 + 2AC 2 . BD = CD − AC. 5. Given the sum or the diﬀerence of any two lines. 3. PROP. ﬁnd the lines. 2. CB of a triangle is equal to twice the square on half the base AB. The sum of the squares on two sides AC. Or thus: AD = CD + AC. On AF describe the square AF GH. Exercises . To divide a given ﬁnite line (AB) into two segments (in H). Join BE. The sum of the squares on any two lines it equal to twice the square on half the sum plus twice the square on half the diﬀerence of the lines.]. the rectangle CF . and the sum of the squares on the sides in magnitude. AF . together with the square on EA. but EF is equal to EB (const. If the base of a triangle be given both in magnitude and position. The sum of the squares on the sides of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares on its diagonals. 4. XI. the locus of the vertex is a circle. 1. and make EF equal to EB. is equal to the square on EF [vi.:— 1. 2. Then because CA is bisected in E. The following enunciations include Propositions ix. Square and add.]. Sol. and twice the square on the median which bisects AB. therefore AF 2 is equal to AD2 + DB 2 . 3. and divided externally in F .

and we get the ﬁgure F H equal to the ﬁgure HD. but HD is equal to the rectangle AB . if the square on one side be equal to the rectangle contained by the hypotenuse and the other side.] equal to EA2 + AB 2 . If CH be produced. which is common. 2) that AC is greater than CB. and CD is greater than AD. 8. and therefore not a common measure of AB and AC. AF . Hence. 7. then (Cor. it meets BF at right angles.therefore the rectangle CF . AB is divided in “extreme and mean ratio” at H. ABC is a right-angled triangle having AB = 2AC: if AH be made equal to the diﬀerence between BC and AC. to the ﬁgure CG. In like manner AD is not a common measure of AC and CD. 62 . Rejecting EA2 . F . is equal to EB 2 —that is [I. the rectangle CF . the hypotenuse is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” by the perpendicular on it from the right angle. 1. and in the same manner we have DE greater than EC. Hence. AF is equal to CF . K. it is evident that CA will be divided into parts respectively equal to AH. &c. being the sides of a square. Again. 1. and F H is the square on AH.—Let AB be divided in “extreme and mean ratio” in C.—The line CF is divided in “extreme and mean ratio” at A. in the construction of Proposition xi. Def. xlvii. 4. are parallel. and so on. the greater segment will be cut in the same manner by taking on it a part equal to the less. since AF is equal to F G. The diﬀerence between the squares on the segments of a line divided in “extreme and mean ratio” is equal to their rectangle. AO is perpendicular to CH. 2. In a right-angled triangle. AF equal to AB 2 . D. Cor. it is evident that CD is not a common measure of AC and CB. we get the rectangle CF . 2) AC is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at D. 3. 3. which is common. (2) (AB + BC)2 = 5AC 2 . therefore CG is equal to AD. Reject the part AK.” 2. cut oﬀ DE equal to AD.” Cor. Therefore the rectangle AB . and AB 2 is equal to the ﬁgure AD. and so on. prove that (1) AB 2 + BC 2 = 3AC 2 . because BD is equal to AB. BH. BH is equal to the square on AH. Cut oﬀ CD = CB.—If from the greater segment CA of CF we take a segment equal to AF . F G—that is. if a line be divided in extreme and mean ratio. Exercises. Now since CD is greater than AD. no matter how far we proceed we cannot arrive at any remainder which will be a common measure of AB and AC. and therefore not a common measure of AB and AC. together with EA2 .. If AB be cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at C.—A line divided as in this Proposition is said to be divided in “extreme and mean ratio. Next. 6. HB. Hence. the parts of a line divided in “extreme and mean ratio” are incommensurable. Cut a line externally in “extreme and mean ratio. A. If CH intersect BE in O. then it is evident (Cor. 5. and the less will be similarly divided by taking on it a part equal to the diﬀerence. B. The three lines joining the pairs of points G. Cor.

BC produced meet in E. I have found by experience that pupils more readily understand it than any other method. 63 . we get AB 2 = BC 2 + CA2 + 2BC . In an obtuse-angled triangle (ABC). the square on the side (AB) subtending the obtuse angle exceeds the sum of the squares on the sides (BC. Therefore AB 2 is greater than BC 2 + CA2 by 2BC . and AD. CA. ABC is a right-angled triangle. Cor. prove AE . Then it can be proved exactly as in the demonstration of [I. the rectangle AC . CE. XII.—Because BD is divided into two parts in C. AB 2 = BC 2 + CA2 + BC . DE = BE .]. 1. CD. CG perpendicular to the sides of the squares. If the square of a line CD. prove that AD is cut in “extreme and mean ratio” at B. by twice the rectangle contained by either of them (BC).—Theorem.] and AD2 = AD2 . by twice the rectangle BC . AG to AF . CD. Dem. ABCD is a quadrilateral whose opposite angles B and D are right. Prove AB .] BD2 + AD2 = AB 2 . drawn from the angle C of an equilateral triangle ABC to a point D in the side AB produced. CE 2 − CD2 may be equal to a given square. ﬁnd a point C in AB such that. Or thus: By the First Book: Describe squares on the three sides. since [I. that the rectangle BG is equal to BE. be equal to 2AB 2 . CD [iv. 2. we have BD2 = BC 2 + CD2 + 2BC . and CD2 + AD2 = CA2 . CB is less than the square on AB by twice the rectangle CE. 5. Draw AE. CA) containing the obtuse angle. xlvii. 3. 6. prove that AB 2 + BC 2 = 2AB . If the angle ACB of a triangle be equal to twice the angle of an equilateral triangle. If a line AB be divided in C so that AC 2 = 2CB 2 . Exercises. and its continuation (CD) to meet a perpendicular (AD) on it from the opposite angle. that is. 1. joining C to a ﬁxed point D in the circumference.—If perpendiculars from A and B to the opposite sides meet them in H and D.PROP. and BD is a perpendicular on the hypotenuse AC. DC = BD . BC. and erecting a perpendicular CE meeting the circumference in E. CD. Hence the sum of the two squares on AC. adding. Hence. xlvii. BF . The foregoing proof diﬀers from Euclid’s only in the use of symbols. CD. CH is equal to the rectangle BC . If AB be the diameter of a semicircle. AC. and CE to CF . 4.

CG perpendicular to the sides. it will be seen that they are virtually identical. adding. CD. CD. Hence the sum of the squares on AC. AG to AF . Hence. Draw AE. 64 . and we get BD2 + AD2 = AB 2 .—Theorem. Therefore AB 2 is less than BC 2 + AC 2 by 2BC . and x. In any triangle (ABC).]. CD. the rectangle BG is equal to BE. Or thus: Describe squares on the sides. by 2BC .]. v. xlvii.. by twice the rectangle (BC. xii.. the square on any side subtending an acute angle (C) is less than the sum of the squares on the sides containing that angle. ix. CD) contained by either of them (BC) and the intercept (CD) between the acute angle and the foot of the perpendicular on it from the opposite angle.—Because BC is divided into two segments in D. we have made some slight alterations in the usual proofs.—By comparing the proofs of the pairs of Props. and xiii. Observation. Dem.PROP. The pairs of Propositions thus grouped are considered in Modern Geometry not as distinct. and CE to CF .. xlvii. but each pair is regarded as one Proposition. then. BF . as in the demonstration of [I. and vi. since CD2 + AD2 = AC 2 [I. iv. XIII. CB exceeds the square on AB by twice CE—that is. and AD2 = AD2 .. and vii. CD [vii.]. In order to render this identity more apparent. BC 2 + CD2 = BD2 + 2BC . BC 2 + AC 2 = AB 2 + 2BC .

2. PROP. and the problem is solved. if not. Find a point C in a given line AB produced.—Construct [I. The sum of the squares on the diagonals of a quadrilateral. BE is equal to the ﬁgure AC. 1. which is common.Exercises. Cor. but since BE is equal to BC. BE. and we have the rectangle AB . to F G2 .—Problem. the rectangle AB . 65 . Exercises. describe the semicircle AGE. bisect AE in F . that is. if the adjacent sides AB. Therefore the rectangle AB . Reject F B 2 . 1. Therefore BG2 is equal to the ﬁgure AC. 2. 3. BC. so that AC 2 + BC 2 = 2AC . so that the rectangle contained by another given line and one segment may be equal to the square on the other segment. Given the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines and their rectangle. Sol. xlvii. The square described on BG will be equal to X. To construct a square equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X). but F G2 is equal to F B 2 + BG2 [I. BE = BG2 . produce AB to E.]. Dem. Divide a given line. AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 − AC . Then. XIV. If the angle C of the ACB be equal to an angle of an equilateral .] the rectangle AC equal to X. BC. ﬁnd the lines. xlv. BE + F B 2 is equal to F B 2 + BG2 .]. the rectangle AB . with F as centre and F E as radius. is equal to the sum of the squares on its sides. together with four times the square on the line joining their middle points. BC be equal. AC is a square.—The square on the perpendicular from any point in a semicircle on the diameter is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the diameter. and make BE equal to BC.—Join F G. Then because AE is divided equally in F and unequally in B. produce CB to meet it in G. together with F B 2 is equal to F E 2 [v. and therefore equal to the given rectilineal ﬁgure (X).

20. such that their extremities may be collinear. 17. The squares on the diagonals of a quadrilateral are together double the sum of the squares on the lines joining the middle points of opposite sides.60 square metres and its perimeter is 48. 24. 7. &c. What is the altitude of a parallelogram whose base is 65 metres and area 1430 square metres? 10. superﬁcial has two. How is a line divided so that the rectangle contained by its segments may be a maximum? 8. What is meant by incommensurable lines? Give an example from Book II. together with four times the square on the line joining the points of bisection. ﬁnd the lengths of its medians. What is a rectangle? A gnomon? 3. and 2x linear units. The area of a rectangle is 108. OB. 4. 6. How would you construct a square whose area would be exactly an acre? Give a solution by I. 2. and II.? Ans. If the sides of a triangle be expressed by m2 + n2 . The three sides of a triangle are 8. and that AB = BC. a foot. If in any quadrilateral two opposite sides be bisected. respectively. and xiii. 5. and CD any parallel chord. expresses the distributive law of multiplication? 13. xlvii. m2 − n2 . 3. How is the area of a rectangle found? 7. so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one segment may be equal to any multiple of the square on the other segment. prove that it has an obtuse angle. 5. and prove that all its angles are acute. Linear measurement has but one dimension. The square described on a line whose length is an inch.29 square perches we measure from the corners respectively a distance of 1. The sides of a triangle are 13. When is a line said to be divided internally? When externally? 6. Exercises on Book II.Questions for Examination on Book II. 14. What is the diﬀerence between linear and superﬁcial measurement? Ans. respectively. 1. xii. 66 . ﬁnd the area of the square formed by joining the points thus found. a perch. 15. On what proposition is the rule for extracting the square root founded? 14. What Proposition in Book II. If squares be described on the sides of any triangle. How is a line divided when the sum of the squares on its segments is a minimum? 11.25 perches.5 linear perches. OC of given lengths. ﬁnd its dimensions. 15.20 linear metres. Compare I. 19. 11. prove that it is right-angled. and its area is 7. If P be any point in the diameter AB of a semicircle. 22. 4. xlvii. x2 −1. the sum of the squares on the other two sides. Prove that a side and the diagonal of a square are incommensurable.50 square perches. Theory of rectangles. The diagonals of a lozenge are 16 and 30 metres respectively. If the medians of a triangle intersect in O. ﬁnd the length of a side. 23. 18. the sum of the squares on the lines joining the adjacent corners is equal to three times the sum of the squares on the sides of the triangle. What is a square inch? A square foot? A square perch? A square mile? Ans. If the sides of a triangle be expressed by x2 +1. and 2mn linear units. How is the area of a parallelogram found? 9. 16. prove that it is right-angled. Divide a given line into two parts. what are its dimensions? 21. What is the subject-matter of Book II. is equal to the sum of the squares on the bisected sides. then CP 2 + P D2 = AP 2 + P B 2 . If on each side of a square containing 5. AB 2 + BC 2 + CA2 = 3(OA2 + OB 2 + OC 2 ). The diagonal of a rectangle is 4. Through a given point O draw three lines OA. also the lengths of its perpendiculars. 12. 1. 15. 2. together with the sum of the squares on the diagonals.

14. BD2 − AB . and the sum or the diﬀerence of m times the square on one side and n times the square on the other side. 15. CD2 = AB . subtend a right angle at any ﬁxed point. B. CD2 = 2AB 2 . CA. Upon the segments AC.. BC . upon the greater segment AB of a line AC. 19. by four times the sum of the squares on the lines joining the middle points of the diagonals. the locus of its middle point is a circle. &c. Given the base of a triangle in magnitude and position. C. 12. 17. 11. AD2 + AC . If perpendiculars be drawn from the angular points of a square to any line. C. the sum of the squares on the perpendiculars from one pair of opposite angles exceeds twice the rectangle of the perpendiculars from the other pair by the area of the square. 9. in magnitude. a b p 21. the locus of the vertex is a circle. AB . be given in magnitude. prove that BC . AD = AC . 18. If. whose extremities rest on the circumferences of two given concentric circles. then mAC 2 − nBC 2 = mAD2 − nDB 2 + (m − n)CD2 . If a. Three times the sum of the squares on the sides of any pentagon exceeds the sum of the squares on its diagonals. 22. and CD joined. If the base AB of a triangle be divided in D. 67 . 16. 13. D be four collinear points taken in order. be any number of ﬁxed points. divided in extreme and mean ratio. its perimeter is a minimum when it is a square. CB of a line AB equilateral triangles are described: prove that if D. BD. ﬁnd the locus of P . p denote the sides of a right-angled triangle about the right angle. C. If a variable line. and the 1 1 1 perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. 2 + 2 = 2 . and P a variable point.. b. 10. an equilateral triangle ABD be described. If the point D be taken in AB produced. so that mAD = nBD. 6DD 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 + CB 2 . 20. if AP 2 + BP 2 + CP 2 + &c. B.8. In any triangle. If A. B three lines issuing from a point D. If A. If a transversal cut in the points A. Any rectangle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the diagonals of squares described on its adjacent sides. If the area of a rectangle be given. so that mAD = nDB. CD + BC . D be the centres of circles described about these triangles. three times the sum of the squares on the sides is equal to four times the sum of the squares on the medians. then mAC 2 + nBC 2 = mAD2 + nDB 2 + (m + n)CD2 .

they have contact of the ﬁrst. Circles are said to touch one another when they meet. follow as immediate inferences. The angle contained by two lines. Chords are said to be equally distant from the centre when the perpendiculars drawn to them from the centre are equal. i. consecutive points common. they are evidently congruent ﬁgures. When one is inside the other. If the chord be produced both ways. the whole line is called a secant.—Newcomb. When each circle is external to the other. There are two species of contact:— 1. 68 . 2. orders. A segment of a circle is a ﬁgure bounded by a chord and one of the arcs into which it divides the circumference. third. Euclid’s deﬁnition for a tangent is quite inadequate for any curve but the circle. Equal circles are those whose radii are equal. and those derived from it by projection (the conic sections). The following is the modern deﬁnition of curve-contact:— When two curves have two. which are placed in order along the curve. and therefore equal. and then the secant through two consecutive points is a tangent.BOOK III. and the point where it touches it the point of contact.–xxix. &c. ii. being produced both ways. and. &c. the line is called a tangent to the circle. and the lesser the minor conjugate arc. vi.. does not cut it. and not a deﬁnition. This is a theorem. vii. drawn from any point in the circumference of a segment to the extremities of its chord. and even for these the modern deﬁnition is better. is called an angle in the segment. xxvi. A chord of a circle is the line joining two points in its circumference. From this way of proving this theorem Props. but do not intersect. A right line is said to touch a circle when it meets the circle. v. four. and each of the parts into which a secant divides the circumference is called an arc—the greater the major conjugate arc. iii. second. In Modern Geometry a curve is considered as made up of an inﬁnite number of points.. three. THEORY OF THE CIRCLE DEFINITIONS. iv. For if two circles have equal radii.

namely. is called a ray.—Problem. in ﬁg. and has been partly given in I. the amount of the rotation from OA to OB is called an angle. 2.—Newcomb. A sector of a circle is formed of two radii and the arc included between them. 1 it is less than two right angles. in which the line OA turns. The angle of a segment is the angle contained between its chord and the tangent at either extremity. A ray which turns in the sense opposite to the hands of a watch describes a positive angle. xiv. To a pair of radii may belong either of the two conjugate arcs into which their ends divide the circle. 3 greater than two right angles. that the angles which the chord makes with the tangent at its extremities are equal. Def. xiii. A line such as OA. and one which turns in the same direction as the hands. To ﬁnd the centre of a given circle (ADB). a negative angle. 2 it is equal to two right angles. xi. until it comes into the position OB. if a line OA revolve about the point O. ix. but less than four. which turns about a ﬁxed point. in Mechanics—in fact. Similar segments of circles are those that contain equal angles. as it is technically termed. in ﬁg. 3. A cyclic quadrilateral is one which is inscribed in a circle. and the opposite negative. From the diagrams we see that in ﬁg. 69 . xv. Thus. We shall prove this further on. ix. This extension is necessary in Trigonometry. as in ﬁgures 1. An angle in a segment is said to stand on its conjugate arc. xii. It will be proper to give here an explanation of the extended meaning of the word angle in Modern Geometry. A theorem is tacitly assumed in this Deﬁnition.viii. and in ﬁg. 4 it is greater than four right angles. Points which lie on the circumference of a circle are said to be concyclic. Concentric circles are those that have the same centre. and then we have the following deﬁnition:— xvi. It is usual to call the direction indicated in the above ﬁgures positive. x. I. The arrow-heads denote the direction or sense. 4. PROP. in every application of Geometry.

CD. xvi.—Theorem. which is. GB. Join CA.—If A.—If possible. 2].] each is a right angle.—Take any two points A. hence the centre must be in ED. The segment (AB) of the indeﬁnite line through these points which lies between them falls within the circle. Bisect it in C.Sol. Hence [I. by hypothesis. and therefore [I.—1. Join CE. Erect CD at right angles to AB. Def. therefore CAB is greater than AEC. Ex. therefore the angle ADC is greater than CAD. Cor. xvi. it must be the middle point of DE. BC intersect in the centre. Cor.].]. 3. the centre. Join AB. every point equally distant from. GC. Then F is the centre.). Take any point E in AB produced either way. Hence no point can be the centre which is not in the line DE. let any other point G be the centre.). and the base GA equal to GB. xxiii. Hence CE is greater than CA. Def. 2. C be three points in the circumference of a circle. xix. the points A. B) be taken in the circumference of a circle—1. 2. B must lie in ED [I. xiii. If any two points (A.). 1. but the centre is equally distant from A and B. Take any point D in AB. viii. PROP.]. Bisect DE in F .] greater than ABC.—The locus of the centres of the circles which pass through two ﬁxed points is the line bisecting at right angles that connecting the two points. Therefore F . Dem. 2. CB. Hence AC is greater than CD [I. B. therefore CD is less than the radius of the circle. Dem. therefore ACD is equal to ACG—a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. II. the lines bisecting perpendicularly the chords AB. CG common. must be the centre. consequently the point D must be within the circle (note on I. but the angle ABC is equal to CAB [I. x. Produce DC to meet the circle again in E. The foregoing proof may be abridged as follows:— Because ED bisects AB at right angles. Join GA. Cor. because the triangle CAB is isosceles. Now the angle ADC is [I. and the point E is without the circle. BCG we have AC equal to CB (const. Let C be the centre. Then the angle ABC is greater than AEC [I. to the circumference. B in the circumference. but the angle ACD is right (const. Then in the triangles ACG. v. 70 . because they are drawn from G. and since it must be equally distant from E and D. The remaining parts of the line are without the circle. the middle point of DE.—The line which bisects any chord of a circle perpendicularly passes through the centre of the circle. In the same manner every other point between A and B lies within the circle.] the angle ACG is equal to the adjacent angle BCG.

]. III.—The three theorems. but Hence OC 2 =OD2 . 1. 4. 3. it is one of those absurd things which give many students a dislike to Geometry. xiii. Therefore CD is bisected in E. i. xxvi.]. Hence [I.—1. and CEO is equal to DEO (hyp. are so related.. the other two follow by the Rule of Identity. 2. Cor. If a line (AB) passing through the centre of a circle bisect a chord (CD). hence [I. Therefore [I. it bisects it. its intercepts between the circles are equal. Cor.—The line which bisects perpendicularly one of two parallel chords of a circle bisects the other perpendicularly. because each is right. Cor. EC 2 = ED2 . v. If it cuts it at right angles. and the side EO common. xlvii. 2. May be proved as follows:— OC 2 = OE 2 +EC 2 [I. Prop. of Prop. OD.] the angle CEO is equal to DEO. and they are adjacent angles. DEO have CE equal to ED (hyp. Cor. Therefore the triangles CEO. 71 . Cor.] each is a right angle. the angle OCD is equal to ODC [I. Cor. Hence AB cuts CD at right angles. Then the triangles CEO. which does not pass through the centre. and OD2 = OE 2 + ED2 . and Parts 1.—The line joining the centres of two intersecting circles bisects their common chord perpendicularly. ∴ OE 2 + EC 2 = OE 2 + ED2 . 1.—If a line intersect two concentric circles. PROP. Def.). 2.We have added the second part of this Proposition. and EC = ED. Cor. and OC equal to OD. Cor. 2. 2. because they are radii of the circle. The same construction being made: because OC is equal to OD. namely. 3. Join OC.. DEO have two angles in one respectively equal to two angles in the other. Let O be the centre of the circle. EO common.] the side CE is equal to ED. it cuts it at right angles.—A line cannot meet a circle in more than two points. viii.—The circumference of a circle is everywhere concave towards the centre. iii. The indirect proof given of the ﬁrst part in several editions of Euclid is very inelegant. 1.. 2.). Dem. Observation.—Three collinear points cannot be concyclic.—The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords of a circle is the diameter of the circle perpendicular to them all.–Theorem. that any one being proved directly.

Therefore the circles are not concentric. If two non-concentric circles intersect in one point. since OE passing through the centre bisects AB. 2. passes through another given point. Now. V. they are both diameters. O be the centres. CD are not both diameters. 1. they are not concentric. Therefore AB and CD do not bisect each other. ABD) cut one another in any point (A). CD) which are not both diameters cannot bisect each other.—If two chords of a circle bisect each other. though either may bisect the other. it is at right angles to it. Every circle passing through a given point. 3. they must intersect in another point. Let AB. If a chord of a circle subtend a right angle at a given point. Join OA. from A let fall the ⊥ AC on the line OO . CD intersect in E. Two circles cannot have three points in common without wholly coinciding. a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. A the point of intersection. which does not pass through the centre. and having its centre on a given line.Exercises. therefore the angle AEO is right. If two circles (ABC. If possible let AE be equal to EB. Cor. OA is equal to OD. making BC = CA: then B is another point of intersection. join OE.—Let O be the centre.—Theorem. Hence AEO is equal to CEO—that is. because O is the centre of the circle ABD. Again. For. and draw any other line OD. PROP. Then because O is the centre of the circle ABC. Produce AC to B. OA is equal to OC. Dem. let O. Hence OC is equal to OD—a part equal to the whole—which is absurd. and be parallel to a given line.—If possible let them have a common centre at O. Two chords of a circle (AB. 2. PROP. Exercises.—Theorem. cutting the circles in C and D respectively. Dem. 72 . then since AB. and CE equal to ED. Draw a chord in a given circle which shall subtend a right angle at a given point. IV. the locus of its middle point is a circle. In like manner the angle CEO is right. 1.

OP .] the base P B is greater than P C. 3.). Any two lines making equal angles with the diameter on opposite sides are equal. and OP common. If from any point (P ) within a circle.] the sum of OP .—Theorem. that which is nearest to the line through the centre is greater than every one more remote. Join P F . VII.]. Join OD. P OC have the side OB equal to OC [I. P OF have the two sides OP . Then [I. iv. lines (P A. xx. 4. xxx. OB and OD are each equal to OA. P D is greater than OD. and the angle OP D equal to the angle OP F .—Theorem. which is impossible. and we have AP equal to the sum of OB. The greatest is the line (P A) which passes through the centre. Join OA.]. Reject OP . then two triangles P OB. which is common. but the angle P OB is greater than P OC. OA is equal to OB: to each add OP . and let O be the centre of each. Join OB. Let O be the centre.—1. xxx.PROP. The production (P E) of this in the opposite direction is the least. be drawn to the circumference. If one circle (ABC) touch another circle (ADE) internally in any point (A). 73 . therefore OB is equal to OD. More than two equal right lines cannot be drawn from the given point (P ) to the circumference. Now since O is the centre. OP is greater than P B [I.]. Dem. 3. OD in one respectively equal to the sides OP . 2. then—1. Def. 5.—If possible let the circles be concentric. Def. PROP. Then the triangles P OD. but the sum of OB. Therefore P D and P F make equal angles with the diameter. &c. and we have P D greater than P E. and draw any other line OD. and the angle P OD equal to the angle P OF . one of which passes through the centre. xx. D respectively. P D is greater than OE. OF in the other. Join OC. P B.]. cutting the circles in the points B. therefore [I. VI. hence P D is equal to P F [I. which is not the centre. In like manner P C is greater than P D. Make at the centre O the angle P OF equal to P OD. Then because O is the centre of each circle (hyp. 2.). Hence the circles cannot have the same centre. but OD is equal to OE [I. P C. xxiv. Of the others. Therefore P A is greater than P B. Dem. it is not concentric with it. 4. Therefore the sum of OP .

OP . 74 . P C.5.) be drawn to the concave circumference. P B. aﬀords a good illustration of the following important deﬁnition (see Sequel to Euclid. supposed to revolve round P and meet the circle. Now since O is the centre. then—1. and then begins to decrease. OA is equal to OB: to each add OP . From the given point (P ) there can be drawn two equal lines to the concave or the convex circumference. is a maximum. the diameter through P bisects the angle DP F formed by these lines. If from any point (P ) outside a circle. and touches it in E. P B. The maximum is that which passes through the centre. Dem.—If P be the common centre of circles whose radii are P A. P A.—1. Of the others. Observation.]. Proposition viii. 3. which is impossible. supposed as before to revolve round P and meet the circle. P C. 6. 2. and we have AP equal to the sum of OB. 5. Let O be the centre. 2. Thus P E. 4.. but if it goes on increasing for some time. both of which make equal angles with the line passing through the centre. such as the radius of a circle revolving round the centre. if lines be drawn to the convex circumference—3. Cor. will give other illustrations. More than two equal lines cannot be drawn from the given point (P ) to either circumference. the line which is nearest to the one through the centre is equal to the one which is more remote. and touches it in A [Def. that which is nearer to the minimum is less than one more remote. then— 1. it is said to be a maximum at the end of the increase. iv. P F be drawn from a point P to the circumference of a circle. 13):—If a geometrical magnitude varies its position continuously according to any law. p. Hence three equal lines cannot be drawn from P to the circumference. A circle having any of the remaining lines (P D) as radius cuts ADE in two points (D. Cor. If possible let P G be equal to P D. A third line cannot be drawn from P equal to either of the equal lines P D. Again. Of the others. it is said to be a constant. lines (P A. and if it retains the same value throughout. The circle whose radius is the maximum line (P A) lies outside the circle ADE. if it decreases for some time. PROP. Join OB. VIII. then P G is equal to P F —that is. The circle whose radius is the minimum line (P E) lies inside the circle ADE. P F . and then begins to increase. 2. is a minimum. in the foregoing ﬁgure. &c. &c. Thus.—Theorem. it is a minimum at the commencement of the increase.—If two equal lines P D. F ).—Proposition vii. The minimum is that whose production passes through the centre. 1. that which is nearer to the one through the centre is greater than the one more remote. Again.

OH. OD. xxx. F OP have two sides GO. I). Make the angle P OI equal P OF [I. Cor.).]. The two triangles BOP . OP in one respectively equal to two sides F O. P C. which is absurd. 75 . from which more than two equal lines (P A.]. and the angle IOP equal to F OP (const. A third line cannot be drawn from P equal to either of the lines IP .] IP is equal to F P . For if possible let P K be equal to P F . Def. Now the triangles IOP . P L is equal to P B. then—1. Join OP . but the angle GOP is greater than F OP .]. P B. A point (P ) within a circle (ABC). 3. OP in the other. but OF is equal to OE [I. therefore the base BP is greater than CP [I. 3.]. Therefore AP is greater than BP . OP in the other. xx.—Theorem.] only two equal lines can be drawn from P to the circumference. OP is greater than BP [I. &c. therefore [I. 6. is the centre. xxiv. then P K is equal to P I—that is. COP have the side OB equal to OC.]. and P is a point in it which is not the centre: therefore [vii. xxiii. The circle whose radius is the minimum line (P E) has contact of the ﬁrst kind with ADE [Def.].—If P be not the centre. Join OF . F P is greater than OP [I. and the angle BOP greater than COP . 4. In like manner CP is greater than DP . Cor. 2. Join OC. The circle whose radius is the maximum line (P A) has contact of the second kind. Now in the triangle OF P the sum of the sides OF . In like manner HP is greater than GP . the diameter through P bisects the angle between them.—If P I be produced to meet the circle again in L. and F P will remain greater than EP . Hence P must be the centre. then DE is the diameter.—If two equal lines be drawn from P to either the convex or concave circumference. F OP have two sides IO. xxiv. F P . A circle having any of the remaining lines (P F ) as radius intersects HDE in two points (F. and produce it to meet the circle in D and E. Reject them. 2. one which is nearer to the minimum equal to one more remote—which is impossible.).) can be drawn to the circumference. iv.—If P be the common centre of circles whose radii are lines drawn from P to the circumference of HDE. 1. and OP common. 5. therefore [I. iv. &c.] the base GP is greater than F P . OP in one respectively equal to two sides F O. Cor. xx. but three equal lines are drawn (hyp. PROP.but the sum of OB. 2. The two triangles GOP . Dem. Join IP . Join OG. and the parts of them intercepted by the circle are equal. IX. 3. let O be the centre.

Again. 2] AP B in P . Hence EA is less than EC. Then since P is the centre of X. the point P . and if possible let another circle Y have three points. in common with X. Hence the centre of the smaller circle CP D must be in the line OP . Cor. being radii of the smaller circle. consequently the centre of the smaller circle must be in the line OP .. Axiom x.—Theorem. the line joining the centres must pass through that point. they must coincide. Hence X and Y are concentric. P must be the centre of Y . Dem. Find P . Join P A. Hence the point of intersection of these bisectors. which [v. but not forming part of the diameter through E. EA is less than EP [vii. Join OE. XI. PROP. 2]. from which three equal lines P A. P C can be drawn to its circumference. Cor.Or thus: Since the lines AP . A.. Dem. A.—Let O be the centre of AP B. and produce OE through E to meet the circles in the points C.—Let X be one of the circles. P B. but EP is equal to EC (hyp. Let it be H. let it be in any other position such as E. Cor.—Two circles not coinciding cannot have more than two points common. but it touches it (hyp. Or thus: Since EP is a line drawn from a point within the circle AP B to the circumference. P C. X. Compare I.). without coinciding with it. P B.) also in P . Now since E is a point in the diameter of the larger circle between the centre and A. since Y is a circle and P a point. P C are equal to one another. that two right lines not coinciding cannot have more than one point common. the line bisecting the angle AP B [vii. which is impossible. 1] must pass through the centre: in like manner the line bisecting the angle BP C must pass through the centre. 76 . EP . I say the centre of the smaller circle is in the line OP . the circle whose centre is E and radius EP cuts [vii.] is impossible. If not. then we see that the line joining the centres passes through the point P . If one circle (CP D) touch another circle (AP B) internally at any point P . PROP.. must be the centre. If two circles have more than two points common. B. Join OP . which is impossible.—Theorem. that is. C. P B. BP are equal. the centre of X. the three lines P A.

since the line OO always bisects AB. I say the centre of the second circle is in the line P E. Cor.. one side of a triangle greater than the sum of the other two–which [I.” Suppose the circle whose centre is O and one of the points of intersection A to remain ﬁxed.—Comberousse.. we see that when B ultimately becomes consecutive to A. 77 . Let it be G. and since B is the centre of the circle P DE. 4. Dem. BP is equal to BD. AP is equal to AC. and join BP . therefore AB is greater than the sum of AP . XII. let it be elsewhere. Join AB. 3].PROP. intersecting the circles in C and D. In consequence of the motion. their point of contact is the union of two points of intersection. and when produced does not pass through the centre. Observation. xx. Now since A is the centre of the circle P CF . the circle whose centre is B and radius BP must cut the circle P CF in P [viii. while the second circle turns round that point in such a manner that the second point of intersection B becomes ultimately consecutive to A. and produce it to meet the second circle again in E. that “The line joining the centres of two intersecting circles bisects the common chord perpendicularly. G´om´trie Plane. but AB is greater than the sum of AC and DB. P DE) have external contact at any point P .. but it touches it (hyp. Cor. DB.—Theorem.—If two circles touch each other. Hence a contact counts for two intersections. Hence the centre of the second circle must be in the line P E. xii. BP is equal to the sum of the lines AC. the line OO passes through A.” And this latter Proposition is a limiting case of the theorem given in Proposition iii. If not. and we see that the line through the centres passes through the point P . the common chord will become in the limit a tangent to each circle. the centres and that point are collinear.] is impossible. Hence the sum of the lines AP . the line joining their centres must pass through that point. Or thus: Since BP is a line drawn from a point without the circle P CF to its circumference.—Let A be the centre of one of the circles. If two circles (P CF. Hence the centre of the second circle must be in the line P E. P B—that is. Join AP . as at B. 1. as in the second diagram. which is impossible.—Propositions xi. may both be included in one enunciation as follows:— “If two circles touch each other at any point. then.) also in P . page 57. e e Cor.

3. If two circles touched each other externally in two distinct points. and therefore [xi.). XIII. Now since the two circles touch each other in A. If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles externally. 2.—1.]..] is impossible. and that the point of contact is equivalent to two common points. the sum of the distances of its centre from the centres of the ﬁxed circles is equal to the sum or the diﬀerence of their radii. Dem. Hence the centres and the points A. PROP. 2. that it. take any other point B in the circumference of O. Two circles cannot have double contact. they cannot have any other common point. Exercises. 1] must pass through the centre of each circle. iv. Hence B cannot be common to both circles. 78 . they cannot have any other point common. cannot touch each other in two points. A the point of contact. the radii drawn to these points are parallel. since two circles cannot have more than two points common [x. which is impossible. This Proposition is an immediate inference from the theorem [xii. It also follows from Prop.] O B is greater than O A.. xii.]. the line joining their centres passes through A [xi. it passes through B. 2. If through the point of contact of two touching circles any secant be drawn cutting the circles again in two points. In like manner. if AB be bisected in E. If a variable circle be touched by one of two ﬁxed circles internally.—If two circles touch each other at any point.]. 1. that if two circles touch each other in a point A. therefore AB is a diameter of each circle. according as the contacts are of the same or of opposite species (Def. they cannot have any other common point but A. B are in one right line. Join O B. the diﬀerence of the distances of its centre from the centres of the ﬁxed circles is equal to the diﬀerence or the sum of their radii. and let O lie between O and A. but there cannot be more than two intersections [x. for then two contacts would be equivalent to four intersections. Cor. then [vii. Hence two circles cannot have double contact. The following is a formal proof of this Proposition:—Let O. xii. then [xii.Cor. E must be the centre of each circle—that is. Cor. therefore the point C is outside the circumference of the smaller circle. Or thus: Draw a line bisecting AB at right angles. Cor. which is impossible.] the line joining the centres should pass through each point. circles that touch cannot have any other point common. hence they cannot touch again in B.] must pass through each point of contact. that a point of contact counts for two intersections. 1]. If possible let two circles touch each other at two points A and B. Then this line [i. For. In like manner.—Theorem. Hence. 2. according as the contact with the second circle is of the ﬁrst or second kind. and touch the other ﬁxed circle either externally or internally.. O be the centres of the two circles. the circles are concentric—which [v.

Hence AB. PROP. we have.—Theorem. Let EO be equal to F O. Hence AB is equal to the sum of OC and OD. equal chords (AB. but AB is equal to CD (hyp. Exercise. If two diameters of two touching circles be parallel. vi. Dem. and since the 79 . therefore AE is the half of AB. Because the chord CD is nearer to the centre than EF . AE 2 + EO2 equal to CF 2 + F O2 . but the sum of OC. OD. OD is greater than CD [I. and draw the perpendiculars OG. CF is the half of CD. AO2 is equal to AE 2 + EO2 . the lines from the point of contact to the extremities of one diameter pass through the extremities of the other. OH. XV. Therefore AB is equal to CD. XIV. CO. the chord (CD) which is nearer to the centre is greater than (EF ) one more remote.—1. and AE is equal to CF . Then because AB is a chord in a circle. 2. PROP. and of the others. and the greater is nearer to the centre than the less. And because E is a right angle. In equal circles—1. OG is less than OH. The diameter (AB) is the greatest chord in a circle.]. Hence EO2 is equal to F O2 . and OE is drawn from the centre cutting it at right angles. chords which are equally distant from the centre are equal. 2. it bisects it [iii. Therefore AB is greater than CD. Join AO. 2. and CD double of CF . If a chord of given length slide round a ﬁxed circle—1. OE. In like manner. as before. but EO2 is equal to F O2 (hyp. then because O is the centre..). CD) are equally distant from the centre. the locus of any point ﬁxed in the chord is a circle. The same construction being made. the locus of its middle point is a circle. Axiom vii. and OB is equal to OD.—Theorem. Therefore AE is equal to CF [I. Therefore AE 2 + EO2 is equal to CF 2 + F O2 .]. OF . CO2 is equal to CF 2 + F O2 . xx. but AO2 is equal to CO2 .4. In like manner. xxxii. Hence AE 2 is equal to CF 2 .]. but AB is double of AE.). OA is equal to OC [I. 2. therefore EO is equal to F O.—1.) equally distant from the centre. and AE 2 has been proved equal to CF 2 .. it is required to prove AB equal to CD. Let O be the centre.]. Dem. CD are (Def. Def. Join OC. Draw the perpendiculars OE.

triangles OGC. therefore GC 2 is greater than HE 2 . Hence [note on I. Hence OG is less than OH. Therefore BC 2 is greater than CG2 . Draw CG perpendicular to HB.. C. Def. Let CD be greater than EF . and OE 2 = OH 2 + HE 2 . xlvii.—Theorem.] is without the circle. OHE are right-angled. 80 . 2. 2. Hence CD is greater than EF . cuts the circle. and GC is greater than HE. 1.]. and join it to the centre C. 3. we have OC 2 = OG2 + GC 2 . Def. prove that DE is a diameter of the third circle. every other point in BI. Dem. it is required to prove that OG is less than OH. is without the circle. and consequently the line BG produced must meet the circle again. Hence CI is greater than CB. Through one of the points of intersection of two circles draw a secant—1. In like manner. 4. and parallel to the line joining the centres of the others. To prove that BH. within or without a given circle. xxxii. 2. therefore OG2 + GC 2 = OH 2 + HE 2 . the chords AB. but OG2 is less than OH 2 . but CG2 is greater than EH 2 .—1. CI 2 is equal to CB 2 +BI 2 [I. but does not cut it. the sum of whose segments intercepted by the circles shall be a maximum. which is not perpendicular to AB. therefore CI 2 is greater than CB 2 . since BI meets the circle at B. we have OG2 + GC 2 equal to OH 2 + HE 2 . Then because the angle CBI is a right angle. 3. xxxii. Take any point I. Three circles touch each other externally at A. and must therefore cut it. This Proposition may be proved as follows: At every point on a circle the tangent is perpendicular to the radius. and the point I [note on I. 2. except B. it must touch it.] the point G must be within the circle. but CD and EF are the doubles of GC and HE. and BC is greater than CG. Any other line (BH) through the same point cuts the circle.. which shall be of any length less than that of the maximum. Now BC 2 is equal to CG2 + GB 2 . draw a chord of length equal to that of a given chord. Exercises. As before. therefore OG2 is less than OH 2 . Hence. AC of two of them are produced to meet the third again in the points D and E. 1. PROP. The shortest chord which can be drawn through a given point within a circle is the perpendicular to the diameter which passes through that point. Through a given point. The perpendicular (BI) to the diameter (AB) of a circle at its extremity (B) touches the circle at that point. B. XVI.

] is perpendicular to it. From a given point (P ) without a given circle (BCD) to draw a tangent to the circle. but the line through the centre which bisects the part of the secant within the circle [iii. 2.Let P and Q be two consecutive points on the circumference. Hence each of them is a right angle. Draw a parallel to a given line to touch a given circle. produce P Q both ways.—Problem. Find the locus of the centres of a system of circles touching two given lines. 2. namely. Describe a circle having its centre at a given point—1. 7. all chords of the greater which touch the lesser are equal. 4. XVII. CQ. the sum of the three angles of the triangle CP Q is equal to two right angles. PROP. and touching a given circle. Describe a circle of given radius that shall touch two given lines. Or thus: A tangent is a limiting position of a secant. or that shall touch two given circles. Hence. P Q is a tangent (Def. iii. Now since P and Q are consecutive points. 81 . 1. 3. but the angle C is inﬁnitely small. Join CP . hence. If two circles be concentric. and the others are equal. when P and Q come together each is a right angle.). Draw a perpendicular to a given line to touch a given circle. Exercises. and the tangent is perpendicular to the radius. in the limit the tangent is perpendicular to the line from the centre to the point of contact. when the secant moves out until the two points of intersection with the circle become consecutive. Or again: The angle CP R is always equal to CQS. Describe a circle of given radius that shall touch a given circle and a given line. Again. and touching a given line. How many solutions of this case? 5. Therefore the tangent is perpendicular to the diameter. P Q. How many solutions? 6.

4. P D (ﬁg. xvii. Erect CA at right angles to OP . iv.—If not. 82 . Two points. The two tangents P B. cutting the circumference in C. so that the intercepted chords shall be of given lengths. cutting the circle BCD in D.] P B touches the circle at B. 6. OB in the other.). Hence [I. such as F and P . Draw a common tangent to two circles. Hence. xxxii. intersecting the circle BCD in B. OE joined. and [xvi.—Since O is the centre of the two circles. and its diagonals intersect in the centre. XVIII. are called inverse points with respect to the circle. show how to draw a line cutting two circles. 7. therefore OBP is a right angle. DP will be another tangent from P . Exercises. the sum of one pair of opposite sides is equal to the sum of the other pair. but OC is equal to OF [I. it will be the tangent required. 1) be the centre of the given circle.] must be acute. Find a point such that tangents from it to three given circles shall be equal.] the angle OCA is equal to OBP . Then because the angle OGC is right (hyp. Cor. OP from the centre is equal to the square of the radius.) the angle OCG [I.) 8. but OCA is a right angle (const.]. xix. intersecting OP in F . Def. 2. Hence the two triangles AOC. Join OA. Let OG cut the circle in F . Def. If BD be joined. and OC equal to OB. The intercept made on a variable tangent by two ﬁxed tangents subtends a constant angle at the centre. a part greater than the whole. 9.] OC is greater than OG. Join BP . and OP as radius. the rectangle of whose distances OF . because the square of each is equal to the square of OP minus the square of the radius. which is impossible.—If AC (ﬁg. 5. Join OP . suppose another line OG drawn from the centre to be perpendicular to CD. and the contained angle common to both. OP is perpendicular to BD. PROP. describe the circle AP E. P OB have the sides OA. 1. and the line DP drawn. OP is equal to the square of the radius. Dem.—Let O (ﬁg.—Theorem If a line (CD) touch a circle. (This point is called the radical centre of the three circles. With O as centre. Hence OC must be perpendicular to CD. 2) are equal to one another. the line (OC) from the centre to the point of contact is perpendicular to it. 3. The locus of the intersection of two equal tangents to two circles is a right line (called the radical axis of the two circles). If two circles be concentric. OC in one respectively equal to the sides OP . The rectangle OF . If a quadrilateral be circumscribed to a circle. all tangents to the inner from points on the outer are equal. we have OA equal to OP . 2) be produced to E. Therefore [I. 10. If a parallelogram be circumscribed to a circle it must be a lozenge.Sol. Dem. therefore OF is greater than OG—that is.

If the centre be not in AC. the angle ACO is equal to OAC.]. the locus of their centres is the perpendicular to the line at the point.—Theorem.. and the others would follow. Then because OA is equal to OC.. XX..Or thus: Since the perpendicular must be the shortest line from O to CD. OA is at right angles to AB [xviii. PROP. 1. Again. namely. therefore OC must be perpendicular to CD. but the angle AOE is equal to the sum of the two angles OAC. xviii. Cor. therefore OAB is equal to CAB—a part equal to the whole.—Join CO. Hence the angle AOE is double the angle ACO. 2. Then because AB touches the circle. Cor. Join AO. the line (AC) drawn at right angles to it from the point of contact passes through the centre.—If a number of circles touch the same line at the same point. which is impossible. ACO. when the points in which the chord cuts the circle become consecutive. XIX.—Theorem. Dem. and the angle CAB is right (hyp.—Propositions xvi. of Proposition iii. these three theorems are limiting cases of Proposition i.. and produce it to E. and OC is evidently the shortest line.” Hence it would. xix. Hence the centre must be in the line AC. and Parts 1.. The angle (AOB) at the centre (O) of a circle is double the angle (ACB) at the circumference standing on the same arc. If a line (AB) be a tangent to a circle. in strict logic. therefore the angle OAB is right. Observation. and OA is drawn from the centre to the point of contact. be suﬃcient to prove any one of the three. let O be the centre.). In like 83 . PROP.. are so related that any two can be inferred from the third by the “Rule of Identity.

the angle in a semicircle is a right angle (compare xxxi. In other words—Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle. Join OA. the angle ACE is equal to ADE. (β).—If two triangles ACB. Cor.—If A.manner the angle EOB is double the angle OCB. Cor. 84 . and also double of the angle ADB. Join CO.—Theorem. PROP. Now since O is the centre. hence. ADB on the same base AB. ﬁg. when the arc AB is not greater than a semicircle. B be two ﬁxed points. without using angles greater than two right angles:— Let O be the centre. Then the angle AOB is double of the angle ACB [xx. C. D.—If AOB be a straight line. (α). Therefore the angle ACB is equal to the angle ADB. Dem.). The angles (ACB. OB. (α). and subtracting in (γ)). the segment ACE is greater than a semicircle. XXI. In like manner the angle ECB is equal to EDB. ACB will be a right angle—that is.—Let O be the centre. and on the same side of it. 1.]. Join DE. Hence (by adding in ﬁgs. Cor. the locus of the vertex is a circle. the four points A. and produce it to meet the circle again in E. by the ﬁrst case. B are concyclic. The following is the proof of the second part—that is. Hence the whole angle ACB is equal to the whole angle ADB. ADB) in the same segment of a circle are equal. have equal vertical angles. the locus of C is a circle. and if C varies its position in such a way that the angle ACB retains the same value throughout. the angle AOB is double of the angle ACB. 2.

Or again: Let O be the centre (ﬁg. (3) of the intersection of the external bisectors of the base angles. CDA is two right angles. BOC. Def. Of all triangles inscribed in a circle. In like 85 . The angle ABD is equal to ACD. being in the same segment ABCD [xxi. ABC is two right angles. Of all triangles having the same base and vertical angle. Therefore the sum of the angles CDA. Therefore the sum of ABC. the area is a maximum when the sides are equal. xxxii. If the sum of the squares of two lines be given. 2). the sum of the sides of an isosceles triangle is a maximum. OC (see ﬁg. XXII. Hence the whole angle ABC is equal to the sum of the two angles ACD. OB OC. but the sum of two angles AOC. 5. Of all concyclic ﬁgures having a given number of sides. Hence the angle OAB is equal to the angle OBA. ﬁnd the locus— (1) of the intersection of its perpendiculars. BD. note] AOC. 1. 2.].Exercises. and the angle DBC is equal to DAC. CDA of the triangle ACD. and the angle COA is double of ABC. ODA. the equilateral triangle has the maximum perimeter. Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle.—Theorem. 2). ABC. 4.]. and we have the sum of the two angles ABC.. DOA are each isosceles. COA is double of the sum of the angles CDA. Or thus: Let O be the centre of the circle. because they are in the same segment DABC. Join OA. Hence the sum of the angles [I. CDA equal to the sum of the three angles ACD. Now the angle AOC is double of CDA [xx. The sum of the opposite angles of a quadrilateral (ABCD) inscribed in a circle is two right angles.—Join AC. COD. (2) of the intersection of the internal bisectors of its base angles. therefore the angle BAD is equal to the sum of the angles OBA. COA is four right angles. OD. and the angle OAD equal to the angle ODA. Then the four triangles AOB. but the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles [I. Dem. 3. their sum is a maximum when the lines are equal. DAC. To each add the angle CDA. Join OA.]. PROP. DAC. ix. (4) of the intersection of the external bisector of one base angle and the internal bisector of the other.

6. 3. If a ﬁgure of six sides be inscribed in a circle. and hence each sum is two right angles. 12. Join AD.). ADC. A line which makes equal angles with one pair of opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral. If a hexagon be circumscribed about a circle. Then since the segments are similar. the line CE is parallel to DF .]. this perpendicular will bisect the angle between the diagonals. it is cyclic. If two pairs of opposite sides of a cyclic hexagon be respectively parallel to each other. If the opposite angles of a quadrilateral be supplemental.—If a parallelogram be inscribed in a circle it is a rectangle. Hence two similar segments not coinciding cannot be described on the same chord and on the same side of it. Join BC. xvi. 11. the lines joining the vertices of the original triangle to the opposite vertices of the equilateral triangles are concurrent. Take any point D in the inner one.—The line of collinearity is called Simson’s line. and any two lines ACD. Hence the sum of the two angles BAD. Two similar segments of circles which do not coincide cannot be constructed on the same chord (AB). be two similar segments constructed on the same side of AB. and produce it to meet the outer one in C. XXIII—Theorem. and a perpendicular be let fall on the bisector of the angle between them from the point of intersection of the diagonals. 5. The perpendiculars of a triangle are concurrent. BCD is equal to the sum of the two angles ABC. makes equal angles with the remaining pair and with the diagonals. be drawn through A and B. 86 . ODC. 2. and on the same side of that chord. F . 13. the sum of the angles subtended at the centre by any three alternate sides is equal to two right angles. Def. 7. Exercises. the angles at the centre subtended by the opposite sides are supplemental. In the same case prove that the centres of the circles described about the equilateral triangles form another equilateral triangle. If a quadrilateral be described about a circle. If two opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral be produced to meet. If two circles intersect in the points A. If equilateral triangles be described on the sides of any triangle. E. PROP. If a variable tangent meets two parallel tangents it subtends a right angle at the centre. 9. the angle ADB is equal to ACB (Def. and the other in the points D. B. the sum of any three alternate angles is four right angles. which is impossible [I. 8. the remaining pair of sides are also parallel. 10. The feet of the perpendiculars let fall on the sides of a triangle from any point in the circumference of the circumscribed circle are collinear (Simson). 1.—If possible. Dem. cutting one of the circles in the points C. let ACB.manner the angle BCD is equal to the sum of the angles OBC. BD. 4. ADB. x. Cor. BF E.

they are congruent. it is required to describe the whole circle. .. being similar. BC. of xxviii. are so like in their enunciations that students frequently substitute one for another. and therefore the segments. CD) are equal to one another. C in the arc. Cor. Sol.. and because the segments are similar. Hence the point F must be the centre. with F A as radius. B.. The following scheme will assist in remembering them:— In Proposition xxvi.—Theorem. An arc (ABC) of a circle being given. will be the centre of the circle.—Because DF bisects the chord AB and is perpendicular to it.—Since the lines are equal. The four Propositions xxvi.. Dem. In equal circles (ACB. XXVI. it passes through the centre [i. and BC in E. . Erect DF . the point of intersection. xxvii. 1]. so that the point A will coincide with C. to prove arcs =. chords =. and xxix. angles =. so that Proposition xxvii. Hence they are equal.–xxix. chords =. EF at right angles to AB. XXIV. must be congruent. . .. then F . . and the line AB with CD. arcs =. xxviii. PROP. Similar segments of circles (AEB.—Theorem. DHE) or at the circumferences (ACB. Join AB.. equal angles at the centres (AOB. . .]. .PROP.. the point B shall coincide with D. BC. xxix. will be the circle required. arcs =. are given angles =. arcs =.. is the converse of xxvi. PROP. In like manner EF passes through the centre.. .—Problem. DF E) stand upon equal arcs. CF D) on equal chords (AB. Dem. 87 .—Take any three points A. DF E).. and the circle described from F as centre. if AB be applied to CD. XXV. they must coincide [xxiii.. This demonstration may be stated as follows:—Since the chords are equal. Bisect AB in D.

DF E are [xx. which stand on equal arcs (AB. DHE. therefore [xxiv.—Parallel chords in a circle intercept equal arcs. Hence the arcs AGB.Dem. the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept on the circle is a semicircle. HE in the other. the diﬀerence of the arcs they intercept is equal to the arc which parallel chords intersecting on the circumference intercept. 2. the sum of the opposite arcs which they intercept is equal to the arc which parallel chords intersecting on the circumference intercept.) the segments ACB. DF E). Therefore the angle AOB is equal to DHE.). DF E are similar. Cor.—If possible let one of them. i. Therefore the two triangles AOB.—1.). If they intersect without the circle.—If the opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral be equal.—Theorem. x. one of its diagonals must be a diameter of the circumscribed circle. DE have been proved equal. the remaining segments AGB. DF E). DHE). Therefore (Def. DHE have the sides AO.]. 4. DKE are equal. 1. DKE are equal. or at the circumferences (ACB. DE). Now because the circles are equal their radii are equal (Def.] the halves of the equal angles AOB. and their chords AB.]. but AB is equal to DE (hyp. And taking these equals from the whole circles.). Suppose the angles at the centres to be given equal. Hence AL is equal to AB—that is. 2. and suppose a part such as AOL to be equal to DHE. OB in one respectively equal to the sides DH.—If two chords intersect at right angles. 3. Then since the circles are equal. which are equal (hyp. Therefore [I. and the angle AOB equal to DHE (hyp. iv. In equal circles (ACB. they are equal [I. Dem. The demonstration of this case is included in the foregoing. such as AOB.] the base AB is equal to DE. Again. Cor.). XXVII.—If two chords intersect at any point within a circle. DHE. which is absurd.). Cor.] the segments are equal. DHE at the centres are equal (hyp. 2. 88 . a part equal to the whole. the arc AL is equal to DE [xxvi. Axiom vii. and the angles AOL. are equal. angles at the centres (AOB. Cor. since the angles ACB. be greater than the other. PROP.

the Proposition is evident. are therefore equal. OB in one respectively equal to the two sides DH. OB. DHE at the centres. equal chords (AB. equal arcs (AGB.—Theorem. the base AB of one is equal to the base DE of the other.). DHE have the sides AO. DKE. HE in the other. they are congruent ﬁgures. DF E). being the halves of the central angles. DF E).—Since the two circles in the four last Propositions are equal.]. HE in the other. In equal circles (ACB. XXVIII. and the angle AOB equal to the angle DHE. Therefore [I. HE. DCK) are subtended by equal chords. 2. DHE have the two sides AO. then because the circles are equal their radii are equal (Def. which stand on the equal arcs AGB. the remaining arc ACB is equal to the remaining arc DF E. the angles AOB. let O. DH. Hence the arc AGB is equal to DKE [xxvi. H be the centres.). DE) divide the circumferences into arcs. Exercises. If a line of given length slide between two lines given in position. Join AO.—Theorem. If not. The angles at the circumference. then because the circles are equal. is given in magnitude. i. OB. because the triangles AOB. Join AO. Dem. 89 .—If the equal chords be diameters. PROP. and the greater to the greater. HE. OB in one respectively equal to the sides DH. 1. Hence the two triangles AOB. Observation. H be the centres (see last ﬁg. are equal [xxvii.].—Let O. on two diameters given in position. and the truth of the Propositions is evident by superposition.2. DH. the lesser to the lesser.) PROP. and since the whole circumference AGBC is equal to the whole circumference DKEF . which are equal each to each— that is. Dem.] the angle AOB is equal to DHE. In equal circles (ACB.). and the base AB is equal to DE (hyp. The line joining the feet of perpendiculars from any point in the circumference of a circle. viii. XXIX. Again. the locus of the intersection of perpendiculars to the given lines at its extremities is a circle. (This is the converse of 1.

Dem. In like manner. the arc AB is equal to three times CD. are equiangular. Therefore [xxviii. CBA of the triangle ABC. The internal and the external bisectors of the vertical angle of a triangle inscribed in a circle meet the circumference again in points equidistant from the extremities of the base. D . Dem.—(1). which meets the circle again in D.] the arc AC is equal to the arc BC. If the vertical angle ACB of a triangle inscribed in a circle be bisected by a line CD. CBA. (3). two chords ACD. 2. PROP. ABCD is a semicircle whose diameter is AD. AC D be drawn. XXXI. C any point in the semicircle. meeting the arc in C. BC D . each being right.—Join AC. If from A.]. Hence the arc AB is bisected in C. Sol. cutting the circles in the points C.] the angle F CB is equal to the sum of the two interior angles BAC. the triangles BCD. Hence the base AC is equal to the base BC. 4. and hence show that CE is equal to half the sum of AC. Hence the angle ACB is equal to its adjacent angle F CB. one of the points of intersection of two given circles.—Problem.PROP. and DC common to both. and therefore it is a right angle [I. C . BC. but [I. Then because AO is equal to OC. In a circle—(1). the chord BC produced meets AD produced in E: prove that if CE is equal to the radius. Hence the angle ACB is equal to the sum of the two angles BAC. CB. The angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Let AB be the diameter. The angle in a segment less than a semicircle is an obtuse angle.—Theorem. Def.—Draw the chord AB. BC. 3. 90 . the angle ACO is equal to the angle OAC. BDC have the side AD equal to DB (const. and from D perpendiculars DE. then the arc is bisected in C. erect DC at right angles to AB. Then the triangles ADC. D.). bisect it in D. Exercises. DF be drawn to the sides. The angle in a segment greater than a semicircle is an acute angle. (2). formed by joining these to the second point B of intersection of the circles. and produce AC to F . XXX. the angle OCB is equal to CBO. The angle ACB is a right angle. one of which must be produced: prove that EA is equal to BF . For let O be the centre. xiii. xxxii. and the angle ADC equal to the angle BDC. To bisect a given arc ACB. Join AC. 1. Join OC.

CAB is one right angle. join BD. Take any point D in the arc AC. CDA is two right angles [xxii. 91 . Hence the sum of the two remaining angles ABC. and therefore equal to the sum of the angles F AC. (2). but if not. PROP.—If a parallelogram be inscribed in a circle.]. but ACB is right. (3). Or thus: Take any point G in the semicircle AGB. Dem. 2. It is required to prove that the angle CAE is equal to CDA. Cor. Then because EF is a tangent to the circle. AB passes through this centre [xix. the angle ACD is obtuse. XXXII. Reject BAC. CAE.—(1). therefore ACE is acute.]. but the angles ABC. which is common. Since the quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic. Join CE. Cor. the angles made by this line with the tangent are respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. Reject them.). Therefore the remaining angle AGC = F AC. Then the angle ACE is evidently less than ACB. for the angles are right angles. The angle BDA = BAE. GC. GB. Hence the angle CDA = CAE. 1. 3. Cor. from the point of contact A draw AB at right angles to the tangent.(2).—Lardner.—Find the centre of a circle by means of a carpenter’s square. and from the point of contact (A) a chord (AC) be drawn cutting the circle. If the chord passes through the centre. Join BC. and AB is drawn from the point of contact perpendicular to EF . the sum of the opposite angles ABC. BAC is equal to BAF . from (1). therefore the sum of the angles ABC.]. its diagonals intersect at the centre of the circle.—Theorem. and CGB = CAB [xxi.]. CD. and we get the angle ABC equal to the angle F AC. Then the angle AGB = F AB. and we get the angle CDA equal to CAE.—From a point outside a circle draw two tangents to the circle. and CDB = CAB [xxi. each being right. If a line (EF ) be a tangent to a circle.]. but the angle BAF is right (const. Therefore the angle ACB is right [xxxi. then evidently. the Proposition is evident. Let the arc ACD be less than a semicircle. Join AG. F AC are equal (1). Let the arc ACE be greater than a semicircle. Again. each being right.

Or by the method of limits. Sol. If two circles touch. 1. If two circles touch at a point A. meeting the circles in B and C: prove that the tangents at B and C are parallel to each other. and its square is equal to the rectangle contained by their diameters. if AX be a tangent at A. meeting the chord AB produced in E. make with the given line AB the angle BAE equal to X. the tangent at B meets the outer circle in two points equidistant from C. their common tangent at either side subtends a right angle at the point of contact. 2. the angle which the tangent makes with the chord is equal to the angle in the alternate segment. 5. Now let the point B move until it becomes consecutive to A. see Townsend’s Modern Geometry. for the angle in a semicircle is a right angle. describe a semicircle on the given line. On a given right line (AB) to describe a segment of a circle which shall contain an angle equal to a given rectilineal angle (X). If two circles touch externally. vol. 4. the chord connecting their points of intersection with one circle is parallel to the chord connecting their points of intersection with the other circle. and the thing required is done. Hence. XXXIII. If two circles touch. 3. any line drawn through the point of contact will cut oﬀ similar segments. and BD will coincide with AD. PROP. On AC as diameter describe a circle: it will be the circle required. i. and BC at right angles to AB. 92 . The angle BAC is equal to BDC [xxi.. CE a tangent at C. ACB is an arc of a circle. that the arc AC = 2CB.]. then AB will be a tangent. AC any chord. and that when one circle is within the other.—If X be a right angle. and ABC be a chord through A. and any two lines be drawn through the point of contact.—Problem. and AD a perpendicular to AB in D: prove. Erect AC at right angles to AE. If not. and the angle BDC with ADC. if DE be bisected in C. page 14. Exercises. cutting both circles again.

but the angle BAE is equal to the angle X (const. Then the angle DAC is equal to ABC [xxxii. Let one of the chords AB pass through the centre O. which does not pass through the centre at right angles. 2. Perpendicular. 5. and any of the following data:—1. The median that bisects the base. 3. Join OC. In the same case. each rectangle is equal to the square of the radius. CE . If lines be drawn from a ﬁxed point to all the points of the circumference of a given circle. PROP.] is equal to the angle in the alternate segment.] and touches AE. Therefore the angle BAE [xxxii.—Theorem. If two chords (AB.]. AC will cut oﬀ the required segment. Dem. Construct a triangle. at right angles. 2. Sum or diﬀerence of the squares of the sides.Dem. BC. Again. the locus of all their points of bisection is a circle. CD) of a circle intersect in a point (E) within the circle.—Take any point A in the circumference. PROP.]. Sol. If the point of intersection be the centre. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. Side of the inscribed square on the base. but DAC is equal to X (const. being given base. and cuts the other chord CD. Hence they are equal. because AB is divided equally in O and unequally in E. Draw the tangent AD. ED) contained by the segments are equal. XXXV. ﬁnd the locus of the middle point of the line joining the vertices of equilateral triangles described on the sides. To cut oﬀ from a given circle (ABC) a segment which shall contain an angle equal to a given angle (X). 3.—Take any point B in the alternate segment. which does not pass through the centre. 4. The sum or diﬀerence of the sides.]. the rectangles (AE . Therefore the angle ABC is equal to X.—The circle on AC as diameter passes through B. ﬁnd the loci of the angular points of a square described on one of the sides. XXXIV. vertical angle.—1. Dem. and make the angle DAC equal to the given angle X.). 1. and cut the other chord CD. 4. Exercises. since the angle CAE is right [xvi. the rectangle 93 . 2.—Problem. it bisects it [iii. Join BA. since the angle ABC is right [xxxi. Now because AB passes through the centre. Therefore the angle X is equal to the angle in the segment described on AB. EB.).

EB + OE 2 = OB 2 [II. ED. which passes through the centre. Let AB pass through the centre. where they intersect. Then by 3. Cor. v. the four extremities are concyclic. Hence CE .—If the rectangle contained by the segments of one of two intersecting lines be equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the other. CE . since AB is bisected in O and divided unequally in E. 3. Hence the rectangle AE . is equal to OB 2 —that is. OD.—If a chord of a circle be divided in any point within the circle. Therefore the rectangle AE . it is bisected in F [iii. EB = EC 2 . to OC 2 [II. EB. Reject OE 2 .]. Then. v. and we have AE . ED + F E 2 = F D2 [II. and divided unequally in E. 3. since F E 2 + OF 2 = OE 2 [I. EG is equal to the rectangle AE . the rectangle F E . and also to the rectangle CE . xlvii. and cut CD.]. ED + OE 2 = OD or OB 2 . 2. xlvii.] Therefore AE . Cor. ED. AE . but CE 2 is equal to the rectangle CE .]. EB. EB is equal to the rectangle CE . Again. draw the diameter F G.]. and OF 2 = OF 2 . but OC 2 is equal to OE 2 + EC 2 [I. 1. ED. Join OC. ED = AE . Therefore Hence CE . the rectangle contained by its segments is equal to the diﬀerence between the square of the radius and the square of the line drawn from the centre to the point of section. and F D2 + OF 2 = OD2 .]. which does not pass through the centre obliquely. Through the point E. Cor. v. EB.AE . EB is equal to the rectangle CE .—If two triangles be equiangular. Hence. we get CE . adding. xi. Let O be the centre. 4. since CD is cut at right angles by OF . which is common. ED. Let neither chord pass through the centre. Draw OF perpendicular to CD [I. the rectangle contained by the noncorresponding sides about any two equal angles are equal. EB + OE 2 .]. EB + OE 2 = OE 2 + EC 2 . together with OE 2 . 94 . ED + OE 2 = AE . since CE is equal to ED.

5. Again.—The supplement of an arc is the diﬀerence between it and a semicircle. then the noncorresponding sides BO.]. OC is equal to the rectangle BO . and let them be placed so that the equal angles at O may be vertically opposite. CB.—Draw DE. OD [xxxv. and the sum of the sides. Hence BG is the supplement of the sum of the arcs AC. and therefore equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and 2CI. Def. Hence the rectangle AO . the rectangle contained by two sides is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular on the third side and the diameter of the circumscribed circle. 2. Hence the rectangle AC . the points A. 6. B.—Catalan. Hence—If the sum of two arcs of a circle be greater than a semicircle. the rectangle AC . and that the non-corresponding sides AO. and therefore = CD + EF . so that the rectangle contained by the segments intercepted between it and the line may be given. D are concyclic [xxi. 1). CB is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the diﬀerence between the chords CF . In any triangle. CB is equal to the rectangle contained by the diameter and CI. or a maximum. the diameter which is perpendicular to AB. Now (Ex. Dem. and the sum of the chords of the supplements of their sum and their diﬀerence. 1]. 8. 1. CB contained by their chords is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius. but the diﬀerence between CF and BG is evidently equal to 2CI. Hence the arc CBF is the supplement of the diﬀerence. and CF is the chord of that supplement. AC. F B equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and 2F I—that is. so that the rectangle contained by the intercepted chords may be given. BG parallel to DE. therefore the line BG is the chord of the supplement of the sum. the arc ABG is a semicircle. OD shall be in one line. BF we ﬁnd. If we join AF . If the sum of two arcs. 3. Now. If the base of a triangle be given. If the base and the diﬀerence of the sides be given. 95 . Cor. and the excess of the chord of the supplement of their diﬀerence above the chord of the supplement of their sum. as before. Now it is evident that the diﬀerence between the arcs AC. and draw the chords CF . since the angle ABD is equal to ACD. equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the sum of CF and BG. CO may be in one line. 7.. Exercises. BG. the rectangle AF . CB of a circle be less than a semicircle. The rectangle contained by the chord of an arc and the chord of its supplement is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius and the chord of twice the supplement. Through a given point draw a transversal cutting two lines given in position. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the internal bisector is given. the rectangle AC . since the angle ABG is right. DCO be the equiangular triangles.Let ABO. CB is equal to 2CD. the rectangle contained by their chords is equal to the rectangle contained by the radius. 4. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the external bisector of the vertical angle is given. C. Through one of the points of intersection of two circles draw a secant.

BP contained by the segments of any chord of a given circle passing through a ﬁxed point P . and OC 2 = OC 2 .PROP.—Theorem.]. vi. we have the rectangle AP . and rejecting the equals OB 2 and OT 2 .]. and the other (P A) a secant. BP + CB 2 = CP 2 [II. since CB 2 + OC 2 = OB 2 [I. the angle OT P is right [xviii. a line through the centre. AP . and OT drawn from the centre to the point of contact.]. Hence. For let O be the centre: join 96 . Let P A pass through the centre O. vi.. If AB does not pass through the centre O. since AB is bisected in C and divided externally in P . let fall the perpendicular OC on AB. either within or without the circle.]. XXXVI. BP + OB 2 = OT 2 + P T 2 . it bisects it [iii. we get rectangle but Therefore AP . Hence OT 2 + P T 2 is equal to OP 2 . which does not pass through the centre at right angles. xlvii. BP = P T 2 . OB. OT 2 + P T 2 = OP 2 [I. may be included in one enunciation. Join OT .. BP + OB 2 = OT 2 + P T 2 . The two Propositions xxxv. cuts AB. as follows:—The rectangle AP . the rectangle (AP. BP + OB 2 is equal to OP 2 [II. is constant. Then because OC. Therefore but Hence the rectangle AP . If from any point (P ) without a circle two lines be drawn to it.]. one of which (P T ) is a tangent. xlvii.—1. Join OT . xxxvi. But since P T is a tangent. OB 2 = OT 2 . the rectangle AP . adding. Hence. and CP 2 + OC 2 = OP 2 . the rectangle AP . BP ) contained by the segments of the secant is equal to the square of the tangent. BP + OB 2 = OP 2 . Dem. BP = P T 2 . Then because AB is bisected in O and divided externally in P . AP .]. OP . 2.

—Theorem. Ex. BP = CP . and making the angle BAD = ACB. hence [I. OQ. 3.). T P equal QP . meeting CB produced in D. prove DB . Describe a circle passing through a given point. and intercepting a given arc on a given circle. or touching a given ﬁle and a given circle. but OQP is a right angle. and fulﬁlling either of the following conditions: 1.—The common chords of any three intersecting circles are concurrent (compare xvii. Join OP . and therefore P T is equal to P Q.]. touching a given line. If the rectangle (AP . since P Q is a tangent [xviii. 1. Exercises. The diameter of the circle inscribed in a right-angled triangle is equal to half the sum of the diameters of the circles touching the hypotenuse. Then the rectangle AP . B. 3. having its centre on a given line and touching a given circle. touching a given circle. 5. or base produced. and therefore [xvi.]. Ex. 4. Describe a circle through two given points. the triangles OT P . Exercise. Describe a circle through a given point. 6). PROP. Dem.. Let O be the centre. the perpendicular from the right angle of the hypotenuse. and the circle described about the right-angled triangle. and is therefore constant.. Cor.] the angle OT P is equal to OQP . BP is equal to the square on P T (hyp. 1.OA. BP is equal to the diﬀerence of the squares of OB and OP . be equal to the square of a line (P T ) drawn from the same point to meet the circle. hence OT P is right. Cor.] P T is a tangent. Again. CD as diameters: prove that the triangles AEB.—If two lines AB. Cor. and equal to the square on P Q [xxxvi. BP ) contained by the segments of a secant. Then OAB is an isosceles triangle. the line which meets the circle is a tangent. C. If from the vertex A of a ABC. B. 2. and EF is a common tangent to the circles described upon AB. Now the rectangle AP . DP . Hence P T 2 is equal to P Q2 . 2. and touching two given lines. XXXVII. A. and if the rectangle AP . 2). CF D are equiangular. D are four collinear points. the points A.—Tangents to two circles from any point in their common chord are equal (compare xvii. and OP is a line drawn from its vertex to a point P in the base. viii.. OT . OP . and the base OP common. DC = DA2 . OQP have the side OT equal OQ. 6. CD produced meet in P . 2. 97 . Cor. 7). C. drawn from any point (P ) without a circle. D are concyclic (compare xxxv. Describe a circle passing through two given points.].—From P draw P Q touching the circle [xvii. OB. AD be drawn.

What is meant by an angle standing on a segment? 10. What does the line become when the points of intersection become consecutive? 14. and the distance between their centres 10. of Book III. Exercises on Book III. What is the reason that if two circles touch they cannot have any other common point? 16. What is Euclid’s limit of an angle? 20. What is the diﬀerence between a segment of a circle and a sector? 6.65 metres distant from the centre of a circle whose radius is 4. If an arc of a circle be one-sixth of the whole circumference. prove that the sum of one set of alternate angles is equal to the sum of the remaining angles. and their distance asunder is 2 perches. 1. What Propositions are these limiting cases of? 22. If through either of the points of intersection of two equal circles any line be drawn meeting them again in two points. Also the sum of the squares of perpendiculars on it from two other ﬁxed points (which may be found) is constant. 19. what is the magnitude of the angle in it? 8. Explain the extended meaning of the word angle. xix. If a chord of a given circle subtend a right angle at a ﬁxed point. What is the magnitude of the rectangle of the segments of a chord drawn through a point 3.? 2. If two chords of a circle intersect at right angles. 2. If a point be h feet outside the circumference of a circle whose diameter is 7920 miles. The radii of two circles are 6 and 8.. What is the locus of the centres of all circles touching a given circle in a given point? 28. 31. what part of the whole circumference is it? 30. Give one enunciation that will include Propositions xi. What is a cyclic quadrilateral? 12. 21.25 metres? 24. What Proposition is this a limiting case of? 18. 3h miles. the sum of the squares on their segments is equal to the square on the diameter. which are proved directly. Mention the converse Propositions of Book III. 3. 17. 98 . xviii. the rectangle of the perpendiculars on it from the ﬁxed point and from the centre of the given circle is constant. What are concyclic points? 11. What is the subject-matter of Book III. The radii of two circles are 4. ﬁnd the lengths of their direct and their transverse common tangents. 25. Deﬁne equal circles. xii.25 and 1.. 3. What is the diﬀerence between a chord and a secant? 4. State the relations between Propositions xvi. 33. If a ﬁgure of any even number of sides be inscribed in a circle.Questions for Examination on Book III.75 feet respectively. prove that the length of the tangent drawn from it to the circle is 2 26. If the angle in a segment of a circle be a right angle and a-half.. ﬁnd the length of their common chord. How many intersections can a line and a circle have? 13. 1. What are linear segments? 9. How many points of intersection can two circles have? 15. these points are equally distant from the other intersection of the circles. What is the locus of the middle points of equal chords in a circle? 32. and the distance between their centres 6. What is the condition that must be fulﬁlled that four points may be concyclic? 29.5 feet. What is meant by an angle in a segment? 7. When does a secant become a tangent? 5. ﬁnd the length of the diameter. How many common tangents can two circles have? 23. Two parallel chords of a circle are 12 perches and 16 perches respectively. 27.

cutting BC in E. D. the tangents at B and C intersect at a given angle. and another secant cuts them in the points D. C be three points in the circumference of a circle. 25. 12. Given two circles. the three circles about the triangles Y AZ. If through A. 28. 6. by the rectangle contained by the segments of the base. 22. 11. the rectangle AD . If a chord of a given circle pass through a given point. 14. If through the middle point A of a given arc BAC we draw any chord AD. The rectangle contained by the distances of the point where the internal bisector of the vertical angle meets the base. C E form a cyclic quadrilateral. the chord of contact passes through a given point. In every triangle the bisector of the greatest angle is the least of the three bisectors of the angles. 13. XCY pass through a common point. O . C. B. the locus of the intersection of tangents at its extremities is a right line. that point will bisect the part of the chord between the opposite sides of the quadrilateral. Four circles are described on the sides of a quadrilateral as diameters. B of two circles any two lines ACD. BEF be drawn parallel to each other. is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the same point on either pair of opposite sides.4. AE is constant. O. 18. 16. The square on the external diagonal of a cyclic quadrilateral is equal to the sum of the squares on the tangents from its extremities to the circumscribed circle. CE. the sum of the squares on whose distances from two given points may be a maximum or a minimum. If through one of the points of intersection of two circles we draw two common chords. 5. 8. 26. then CD = EF . The rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from any point in a circle. the four chords BD. Given the base of a triangle. 21. one of the points of intersection of two circles. is equal to the rectangle of the perpendiculars from the same point on the tangents. 10. the vertical angle. E the middle points of the arcs AB. then if any secant cut O in the points B. 15. we draw any line ABC. 23. the lines joining the points of contact are perpendicular to each other. If a variable circle touch a given circle and a given line. If through the point of intersection of the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral the minimum chord be drawn. 24. Draw a tangent to a given circle so that the triangle formed by it and two ﬁxed tangents to the circle shall be—1. If A. a maximum. ZBX. Y . The circles whose diameters are the four sides of any cyclic quadrilateral intersect again in four concyclic points. the lines joining the extremities of these chords make a given angle with each other. 7. and either the internal or the external bisector at the vertical angle. AC. D . then if the line DE intersect the chords AB. Find a point in the circumference of a given circle. and meeting the circles again in C. cutting the circles again in B and C. 20. The square on the perpendicular from any point in the circumference of a circle. is equal to the square on half the diﬀerence of the sides. If a cyclic quadrilateral be such that a circle can be inscribed in it. 9. The four circles circumscribing the four triangles formed by any four lines pass through a common point. B D . 2. construct it. If X. 19. 27. AC in the points F . C . on the diagonals of an inscribed quadrilateral. on the chord of contact of two tangents. G. The four angular points of a cyclic quadrilateral determine four triangles whose orthocentres (the intersections of their perpendiculars) form an equal quadrilateral. Z be any three points on the three sides of a triangle ABC. E. F . State and prove the Proposition analogous to 17 for the external bisector of the vertical angle. E respectively. a minimum. E. 17. and O in the points B . If through the points of intersection A. The rectangle contained by the sides of a triangle is greater than the square on the internal bisector of the vertical angle. 99 . AF is equal to AG. and the point where the perpendicular from the vertex meets it from the middle point of the base. The common chord of any two on adjacent sides is parallel to the common chord of the remaining two. and D.

44. G. BE = AB 2 . 33. then AB 2 + CD2 + 4OE 2 = 8R2 . 39. Construct the greatest triangle equiangular to a given one whose sides shall pass through three given points. the locus of the centre of the circumscribed circle is a right line. and the semicircle in G. (2) orthogonal to two others. forming another cyclic quadrilateral. 49. AD + BC . Circumscribe a square about a given quadrilateral. draw from the obtuse angle to the opposite side a line whose square shall be equal to the rectangle contained by the segments into which it divides the opposite side. If ABC be an equilateral triangle. CD on the circle. Inscribe a square in a given quadrilateral. The sum of the squares on the sides of a triangle is equal to twice the sum of the rectangles contained by each perpendicular and the portion of it comprised between the corresponding vertex and the orthocentre. 37. 100 . if DE. 45. 47. and the extremities of its base on two given circles. H. 38. EF G is a circle touching DB in E. another through B and C. 41. If ABCD be a cyclic quadrilateral. and conversely. if M A = M B + M C? 46. what is the locus of the point M . F . and the extremities of its base on a given circle. Place a given triangle so that its three vertices shall lie on three given lines. 36. 40. BE be drawn. also equal to 12R2 minus the sum of the squares of the distances of the orthocentre from the vertices. 48. 35. If two circles touch in C. and passing through a given point. DF be tangent from D. meeting in C. E. and if D be any point outside the circles at which their radii through C subtend equal angles. two perpendicular lines passing through O intercept chords AB. the three angles of the triangle XY Z are given. Being given an obtuse-angled triangle. Describe circles—(1) orthogonal (cutting at right angles) to a given circle and passing through two given points. DF = DC 2 . 30. Place a given triangle so that its three sides shall pass through three given points. Describe a circle—(1) through two given points which shall bisect the circumference of a given circle. (3) orthogonal to three others. DE . In a triangle. Describe a circle which shall bisect the circumferences of three given circles. If two sides of a given triangle touch ﬁxed circles. If two sides of a given triangle pass through ﬁxed points. F are concyclic. Place a given triangle so that its three sides shall touch three given circles. 51. 34. CD in F . If from the extremities of a diameter AB of a semicircle two chords AD. AC.29. these circles intersect successively in four other points E. (2) through one given point which shall bisect the circumference of two given circles. O is a point outside a circle whose centre is E. If the position of the common point in the last question be given. 43. a third through C and D. 55. 50. 32. the third touches a ﬁxed circle. and if we describe any circle passing through the points A and B. F . Construct the greatest triangle equiangular to a given one whose sides shall touch three given circles. 53. D. G are collinear. and a fourth through D and A. 42. AD are two chords meeting the tangent at B in the points E. CD is a perpendicular from any point C in a semicircle on the diameter AB. Find the locus of the centre of a circle which bisects the circumferences of two given circles. AC . given the sum or the diﬀerence of two sides and the angle formed by these sides both in magnitude and position. Construct the least triangle equiangular to a given one whose vertices shall lie on three given lines. F respectively: prove that the points C. Construct an equilateral triangle having its vertex at a given point. Construct an equilateral triangle having its vertex at a given point. 52. the third touches a ﬁxed circle. (2) that AC = AE. 54. prove—(1) that the points A. 31. AB is a diameter of a circle.

cutting the circle ABC in the points B. PROP. 3.—Draw any diameter AC of the circle. if AC be equal to D.—Problem.BOOK IV. A circle is said to be inscribed in a rectilineal ﬁgure when it touches each side of the ﬁgure. and with A as centre and AE as radius. F . to describe a circle about a triangle. INSCRIPTION AND CIRCUMSCRIPTION OF TRIANGLES AND OF REGULAR POLYGONS IN AND ABOUT CIRCLES DEFINITIONS. A rectilineal ﬁgure which is both equilateral and equiangular is said to be regular. we have the problems for squares and pentagons respectively. Observation. the thing required is done. describe the circle EBF . 2.]. iv. It contains sixteen Propositions. Reciprocally. 101 . If two rectilineal ﬁgures be so related that the angular points of one lie on the sides of the other—1. four to pentagons. (γ) To inscribe a circle in a triangle. the latter is said to be described about the former. i. If we substitute in (α). Reciprocally. (γ). A rectilineal ﬁgure is said to be inscribed in a circle when its angular points are on the circumference. (β) Its reciprocal. a circle is said to be circumscribed to a rectilineal ﬁgure when it passes through each angular point of the ﬁgure. Of the four Propositions occupied with triangles— (α) One is to inscribe a triangle in a circle. if not. of which four relate to triangles. then. iii. four to squares. Then AB is the chord required. (δ) Its reciprocal. 4. iii. (β).—The following summary of the contents of the Fourth Book will assist the student in remembering it:— 1. and pentagons for triangles. ii. a rectilineal ﬁgure is said to be circumscribed to a circle when each side touches the circle. (δ) squares for triangles. In a given circle (ABC) to place a chord equal to a given line (D) not greater than the diameter. Join AB. from AC cut oﬀ the part AE equal to D [I. 2. the former is said to be inscribed in the latter. I. to describe a triangle about a circle. Sol. and four miscellaneous Propositions. Every Proposition in the fourth Book is a problem.

Dem. and from the centre O of the circle draw any radius OA. PROP. Therefore [I.] Join BC. About a given circle (ABC) to describe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle (DEF ). Sol. In a given circle (ABC) to inscribe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle (DEF ). xxiii.—Problem.).—Problem.—Because A is the centre of the circle EBF . therefore AB is equal to D. N L to the given circle. III. II. Hence the triangle ABC inscribed in the given circle is equiangular to DEF . Dem. xxxii. then make the angle HAC equal to E. but AE is equal to D (const.] the remaining angle D is equal to BAC. Hence the angle E is equal to ABC. In like manner the angle F is equal to ACB. At the points A. xxxii. Def. B. LM N is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. PROP. ABC is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. and at it draw the tangent GH. xxiii. Sol. and GAB equal to F [I. xxxii. and HAC is equal to the angle ABC in the alternate segment [III.—Take any point A in the circumference. 102 .]. M N . AB is equal to AE [I. make the angle AOB equal to GEF [I.—Produce any side DE of the given triangle both ways to G and H.]. and the angle AOC equal to HDF .). C draw the tangents LM .—The angle E is equal to HAC (const.].

C of the triangle from the points of contact of the inscribed circle are respectively s − a. IV. OF on the sides of the triangle. in the triangles OAE. Exercises. because each is right. s. Hence “the bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent” (compare I. In like manner OD is equal to OF . C from the points of contact of the escribed circle which touches AB externally are s − b.] the remaining angle BN C is equal to DF E.Dem. O . 4. the angle C is bisected. s − b. xxxii. F ED is two right angles. xvi. s − c. and [I. the angle OAM is right. In like manner. Now. F ED. CA. of the triangle formed by the three bisectors will be the centres of three circles. Therefore the sum of AOB. xxvi. is the centre of the required circle.). OE.—Bisect any two angles A. s − a. therefore [I. OAF the angle OAE is equal to OAF (const. it will [III. and half their sum by s. BO. and the angle AEO equal to AF O. B. B of the given triangle by the lines AO. c. O . B. 2. 103 . Hence [I. Sol. but AOB is equal to GEF (const. OF are all equal. therefore the three lines OD. Ex. the three angular points O . and the other two produced. AM B is equal to the sum of GEF . If the external angles of the triangle ABC be bisected as in the annexed diagram. The distances of the vertices A. F are right. and therefore the circle DEF is inscribed in the triangle ABC. 1. the distances of the vertices A.] the sum of the two angles GEF . If the points O. If the sides BC. C be joined.—Because AM touches the circle at A.] touch the three sides of the triangle ABC. PROP. ALC is equal to EDF . Dem. b. and the side OA common. 7). their point of intersection. xiii.. In like manner. Hence AM B is equal to F ED. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle (ABC). AM B is two right angles. E. and since the angles D. xxvi.—From O let fall the perpendiculars OD. then O. OE. Hence the triangle LM N is equiangular to DEF . These three circles are called the escribed circles of the triangle ABC. the angle M BO is right. each touching one side externally. F . Therefore the sum of the two remaining angles AOB. but the sum of the four angles of the quadrilateral OAM B is equal to four right angles.] the side OE is equal to OF . And the circle described with O as centre and OD as radius will pass through the points E.—Problem.). AB of the triangle ABC be denoted by a. 3.

CA. AO . and be described about the triangle ABC. and the radius of the inscribed. CO are equal. or any of the escribed circles: construct it. r . r = s − c.—Since the perpendicular from O on AB bisects it [III. Hence [I. V. AO = bc. To describe a circle about a given triangle (ABC). s − b . are concyclic. B. PROP. r . The three triangles BCO .]. Erect DO. BO . is the centre of the required circle. ABO are equiangular. and two of the angular points of the triangle. we see that the rectangle contained by the sum of the three sides. we see that the perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of a triangle are concurrent. If r denote the radius of the escribed circle which touches the side a externally. r = s − a. 11. 12. Also any two of the escribed centres are concyclic with the corresponding two of the angular points of the triangle. COA. Cor. OB. BO = ca. The triangles BDO. and its centre the circumcentre of the triangle. rr = s − b . O . 10. 9. is equal to twice the area of the triangle. In like manner AO is equal to OC. iii. C. 14. because each is right. Since the whole triangle ABC is made up of the three triangles AOB.—Bisect any two sides BC. rs = area of the triangle. EO at right angles to BC. the vertical angle. 1. the centre of each escribed circle.—Join OA. iv. CO = ab. Sol. The centre of the inscribed circle. 6. CAO . Given the base of a triangle. its radius the circumradius. having the angle C right. Dem. Of the four points O. CDO have the side BD equal CD (const. The rectangle CO . the point of intersection of the perpendiculars. and OA as radius. 15. BOC. Square of area = r . then O. OC. Square of area = s . will pass through the points A. Hence. if r denote the radius of the inscribed circle. 7. BO. Def. Therefore the three lines AO.). 1. 104 . s − c. 13. Exercises. r = s − b. O . r = s. The three perpendiculars of a triangle (ABC) are concurrent. s − c. any one is the orthocentre of the triangle formed by the remaining three. s − a . and DO common.—Problem. AC in the points D. it may be shown in like manner that r (s − a) = area of the triangle. E. r .5.] BO is equal to OC.—The circle ABC is called the circumcircle. and the circle described with O as centre. and the radius of the inscribed circle. If the triangle ABC be right-angled. and the angle BDO equal to the angle CDO. O . 8.

Book I. Hence the distance of I from the foot of each perpendicular. Hence [I. Let fall the perpendicular CF .Dem. but GAF = GCB [III. 6. Observation. are concyclic. OC . and OP is bisected in I.—The point O is called the orthocentre of the triangle ABC. OP . xxi. 105 . IF = 2 the radius. Cor. hence the polar circle is imaginary. OQ. OG are bisected in I. are measured in opposite directions. OP . and have contrary signs. OQ = OC . 1 since OP . Again. Dem. The circumcircle of a triangle is the “nine points circle” of each of the four triangles formed by joining the centres of the inscribed and escribed circles. is = 1 the radius. iv.).. but OF A is right.—If the orthocentre of the triangle ABC be within the triangle. F . 16. because the lines OA . the intercepts between the orthocentre and the circle are bisected by the sides of the triangle. BE will be perpendicular to AC. IF = 2 P G— 1 that is. The radius of the “nine points circle” of a triangle is equal to half its circumradius. In like 2 1 manner. and from the middle points of the distances of the vertices from the orthocentre. and F OA = DOC. the square of whose radius is equal OA . if OC be bisected in K. The distances between the vertices of a triangle and its orthocentre are respectively the doubles of the perpendiculars from the circumcentre on the sides. OR are negative. but it is real when the point O is without the triangle—that is. then. if BO be joined to meet AC in E.—The circle through these nine points is called the “nine points circle” of the triangle. Produce AO to meet BC in D. and are concurrent. OR. OC . The point of bisection (I) of the line (OP ) joining the orthocentre (O) to the circumference (P ) of any triangle is equally distant from the feet of the perpendiculars. 7. Def. Def. hence OAF = OCD. it is easy to see that IH = IF . OB . OQ. P H are perpendiculars on AB. OP = OB . Hence we have the following theorem:—The nine points made up of the feet of the perpendiculars. 2. Hence the three perpendiculars pass through O.] the angle GAF equal OAF . This Proposition may be proved simply as follows:— Draw parallels to the sides of the original triangle ABC through its vertices.—The circle round O as centre. and these are evidently the perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite sides of the triangle ABC (compare Ex.—Draw the perpendicular P H. then IK = 2 the radius. Make F O = F G.—Describe a circle about the triangle. F A in one equal to the sides OF . then the three perpendiculars at the middle points of the sides of A B C are concurrent [v. OR are equal. and the middle points of the lines from the vertices to the orthocentre. from the middle points of the sides. OP . and from the middle point of each side. since OF . hence OF A = ODC. Produce CF to meet the circle in G. Def. If the perpendiculars of a triangle be produced to meet the circumscribed circle. The three rectangles OA . OB . and the contained angles equal. hence ODC is right. 3. is called the polar circle of the triangle ABC. forming a new triangle A B C described about ABC. 5. 1].]. when the triangle has an obtuse angle. Join AG. &c. AO. In like manner. F A in the other. the middle points of the sides. Then the triangles GF A. 4. the rectangles OA . OF A have the sides GF .

EH. PROP. Dem.].—Through the centre O draw any two diameters at right angles to each other. Again. EF in the points A. but EB is half the side of the given square. is the centre of the required circle. VI. which is right (const. BC. Dem. xxix.—Problem. CD. In like manner each of the ﬁgures BC. In like manner the remaining angles are right. the ﬁgure AOBE is a lozenge. Join AB. Hence the arcs on which they stand are equal [III. In like manner EB is parallel to AO. About a given circle (ABCD) to describe a square. Sol. BD. EF GH is a square. and therefore equal to BOC. 106 .—Problem. its opposite sides are equal. the point of intersection of these parallels. are equal. DA is a square. Hence AE is parallel to OB. D the lines HE. Then the four angles at O. therefore AO is equal to EB.—Let O be the centre. Hence the whole ﬁgure is a square. hence AOBE is a square. and draw at the points A.]. VIII. CD.—Because AOBE is a parallelogram. BD at right angles to each other.—Bisect (see last diagram) two adjacent sides EH. ABCD is a square.—Because AE touches the circle at A.]. C. xviii. B. B draw the lines AC. then O. and through A. and since AO is equal to OB. F G. the angle ABC is right [III.—Problem. In a given square (ABCD) to inscribe a circle. and hence the four chords are equal [III. and the angle AOB is right. Dem. GH touching the circle.). xxxi. VII. In a given circle (ABCD) to inscribe a square. respectively parallel to EF . because AC is a diameter.PROP. Cor. EF .—Draw any two diameters AC. xxvi. PROP. Sol. Sol. being right angles.]. B. Hence ABCD is a square. DA.—The circumscribed square is double of the inscribed square. the angle EAO is right [III. Therefore the ﬁgure ABCD is equilateral.

With A as centre. and OC to OD.]. and that AC is equal to BD (const. X. but the exterior angle BCD of the triangle ACD is equal to the sum of the angles CDA and A. BC is equal to BD2 .).]. BD intersecting in O (see diagram to Proposition vi. and therefore [I. therefore the four lines OA.—Since ABC is an isosceles triangle.] AO is equal to OB. and the angle B is right. Sol. Dem.).therefore AO is equal to half the side of the given square. ADB is a triangle fulﬁlling the required conditions. but BDA has been proved to be equal to the sum of CDA and A.] BD is equal to CD. C.—Take any line AB. OB. and we have the angle BDA equal to the sum of the angles CDA and A. Hence [III. therefore BAO is half a right angle. xi. BC is equal to AC 2 (const. Hence [I.—Problem. Then. Dem.). but since AB is equal to AD. but BD is equal to AC (const. OD. O is the centre of the required circle.—Problem.—Join CD. v.]. with O as centre and OA as radius. because the rectangle AB . About a given square (ABCD) to describe a circle. describe the circle BDE. each of the other angles is half a right angle. About the triangle ACD describe the circle CDE [v. To each add CDA. vi. PROP. OD are all equal. therefore the angle CBD is equal to BCD. vi. Hence the angle BDA is equal to BCD.]. and so in like manner is each of the lines OB. the angle BDA is equal to ABD. and since they are perpendicular to the sides of the given square.] the angle CDA is equal to A. so that the rectangle AB . Join AD. and be described about the square. the circle described with O as centre. 107 . Hence each of the base angles of the triangle ABD is double of the vertical angle. OC.). therefore the rectangle AB . In like manner ABO is half a right angle.—Draw the diagonals AC. PROP. Hence the circle described. D.] BD touches the circle ACD. therefore [I. xxxii. therefore AC is equal to CD. OC. and in it place the chord BD equal to AC [i. Hence BDA is double of A. To construct an isosceles triangle having each base angle double the vertical angle. BC shall be equal to AC 2 [II. IX. Divide it in C. and AB as radius. Sol. hence the angle BAO equal ABO. Hence the angle BDC is equal to the angle A in the alternate segment [III. will pass through the points B. and OA as radius. will be inscribed in the square. In like manner OB is equal to OC. xxxii.

Exercises.

1. Prove that ACD is an isosceles triangle whose vertical angle is equal to three times each of the base angles. 2. Prove that BD is the side of a regular decagon inscribed in the circle BDE. 3. If DB, DE, EF be consecutive sides of a regular decagon inscribed in a circle, prove BF − BD = radius of circle. 4. If E be the second point of intersection of the circle ACD with BDE, DE is equal to DB; and if AE, BE, CE, DE be joined, each of the triangles ACE, ADE is congruent with ABD. 5. AC is the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle ACD, and EB the side of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle BDE. 6. Since ACE is an isosceles triangle, EB 2 − EA2 = AB . BC—that is = BD2 ; therefore EB 2 − BD2 = EA2 —that is, the square of the side of a pentagon inscribed in a circle exceeds the square of the side of the decagon inscribed in the same circle by the square of the radius.

PROP. XI.—Problem. To inscribe a regular pentagon in a given circle (ABCDE). Sol.—Construct an isosceles triangle [x.], having each base angle double the vertical angle, and inscribe in the given circle a triangle ABD equiangular to it. Bisect the angles DAB, ABD by the lines AC, BE. Join EA, ED, DC, CB; then the ﬁgure ABCDE is a regular pentagon. Dem.—Because each of the base angles BAD, ABD is double of the angle ADB, and the lines AC, BE bisect them, the ﬁve angles BAC, CAD, ADB, DBE, EBA are all equal; therefore the arcs on which they stand are equal; and therefore the ﬁve chords, AB, BC, CD, DE, EA are equal. Hence the ﬁgure ABCDE is equilateral. Again, because the arcs AB, DE are equal, adding the arc BCD to both, the arc ABCD is equal to the arc BCDE, and therefore [III. xxvii.] the angles AED, BAE, which stand on them, are equal. In the same manner it can be proved that all the angles are equal; therefore the ﬁgure ABCDE is equiangular. Hence it is a regular pentagon. Exercises.

1. The ﬁgure formed by the ﬁve diagonals of a regular pentagon is another regular pentagon. 2. If the alternate sides of a regular pentagon be produced to meet, the ﬁve points of meeting form another regular pentagon. 3. Every two consecutive diagonals of a regular pentagon divide each other in extreme and mean ratio. 4. Being given a side of a regular pentagon, construct it. 5. Divide a right angle into ﬁve equal parts.

108

PROP. XII.—Problem. To describe a regular pentagon about a given circle (ABCDE). Sol.—Let the ﬁve points A, B, C, D, E on the circle be the vertices of any inscribed regular pentagon: at these points draw tangents F G, GH, HI, IJ, JF : the ﬁgure F GHIJ is a circumscribed regular pentagon. Dem.—Let O be the centre of the circle. Join OE, OA, OB. Now, because the angles A, E of the quadrilateral AOEF are right angles [III. xviii.], the sum of the two remaining angles AOE, AF E is two right angles. In like manner the sum of the angles AOB, AGB is two right angles; therefore the sum of AOE, AF E is equal to the sum of AOB, AGB; but the angles AOE, AOB are equal, because they stand on equal arcs AE, AB [III. xxvii.]. Hence the angle AF E is equal to AGB. In like manner the remaining angles of the ﬁgure F GHIJ are equal. Therefore it is equiangular. Again, join OF , OG. Now the triangles EOF , AOF have the sides AF , F E equal [III. xvii., Ex. 1], and F O common, and the base AO equal to the base EO. Hence the angle AF O is equal to EF O [I. viii.]. Therefore the angle AF O is half the angle AF E. In like manner AGO is half the angle AGB; but AF E has been proved equal to AGB; hence AF O is equal to AGO, and F AO is equal to GAO, each being right, and AO common to the two triangles F AO, GAO; hence [I. xxvi.] the side AF is equal to AG; therefore GF is double AF . In like manner JF is double EF ; but AF is equal to EF ; hence GF is equal to JF . In like manner the remaining sides are equal; therefore the ﬁgure F GHIJ is equilateral, and it has been proved equiangular. Hence it is a regular pentagon.

This Proposition is a particular case of the following general theorem, of which the proof is the same as the foregoing:— “If tangents be drawn to a circle, at the angular points of an inscribed polygon of any number of sides, they will form a regular polygon of the same number of sides circumscribed to the circle.”

PROP. XIII.—Problem. To inscribe a circle in a regular pentagon (ABCDE). Sol.—Bisect two adjacent angles A, B by the lines AO, BO; then O, the point of intersection of the bisectors, is the centre of the required circle. Dem.—Join CO, and let fall perpendiculars from O on the ﬁve sides of the pentagon. Now the triangles ABO, CBO have the side AB equal to BC (hyp.), and BO common, and the angle ABO equal to CBO (const.). Hence the angle BAO is equal to BCO [I. iv.]; but BAO is half BAE (const.). Therefore BCO is half BCD, and therefore CO bisects the angle BCD. In like manner it may be proved that DO bisects the angle D, and EO the angle E. 109

Again, the triangles BOF , BOG have the angle F equal to G, each being right; and OBF equal to OBG, because OB bisects the angle ABC (const.), and OB common; hence [I. xxvi.] OF is equal to OG. In like manner all the perpendiculars from O on the sides of the pentagon are equal; hence the circle whose centre is O, and radius OF , will touch all the sides of the pentagon, and will therefore be inscribed in it. In the same manner a circle may be inscribed in any regular polygon. PROP. XIV.—Problem. To describe a circle about a regular pentagon (ABCDE). Sol.—Bisect two adjacent angles A, B by the lines AO, BO. Then O, the point of intersection of the bisectors, is the centre of the required circle. Dem.—Join OC, OD, OE. Then the triangles ABO, CBO have the side AB equal to BC (hyp.), BO common, and the angle ABO equal to CBO (const.). Hence the angle BAO is equal to BCO [I. iv.]; but the angle BAE is equal to BCD (hyp.); and since BAO is half BAE (const.), BCO is half BCD. Hence CO bisects the angle BCD. In like manner it may be proved that DO bisects CDE, and EO the angle DEA. Again, because the angle EAB is equal to ABC, their halves are equal. Hence OAB is equal to OBA; therefore [I. vi.] OA is equal to OB. In like manner the lines OC, OD, OE are equal to one another and to OA. Therefore the circle described with O as centre, and OA as radius, will pass through the points B, C, D, E, and be described about the pentagon. In the same manner a circle may be described about any regular polygon.

Propositions xiii., xiv. are particular cases of the following theorem:— “A regular polygon of any number of sides has one circle inscribed in it, and another described about it, and both circles are concentric.”

PROP. XV.—Problem. In a given circle (ABCDEF ) to inscribe a regular hexagon. Sol.—Take any point A in the circumference, and join it to O, the centre of the given circle; then with A as centre, and AO as radius, describe the circle OBF , intersecting the given circle in the points B, F . Join OB, OF , and produce AO, BO, F O to meet the given circle again in the points D, E, C. Join AB, BC, CD, DE, EF , F A; ABCDEF is the required hexagon. 110

Dem.—Each of the triangles AOB, AOF is equilateral (see Dem., I. i.). Hence the angles AOB, AOF are each one-third of two right angles; therefore EOF is one-third of two right angles. Again, the angles BOC, COD, DOE are [I. xv.] respectively equal to the angles EOF , F OA, AOB. Therefore the six angles at the centre are equal, because each is one-third of two right angles. Therefore the six chords are equal [III. xxix.]. Hence the hexagon is equilateral. Again, since the arc AF is equal to ED, to each add the arc ABCD; then the whole arc F ABCD is equal to ABCDE; therefore the angles DEF , EF A which stand on these arcs are equal [III. xxvii.]. In the same manner it may be shown that the other angles of the hexagon are equal. Hence it is equiangular, and is therefore a regular hexagon inscribed in the circle. Cor. 1.—The side of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is equal to the radius. Cor. 2.—If three alternate angles of a hexagon be joined, they form an inscribed equilateral triangle. Exercises.

1. The area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is equal to twice the area of an equilateral triangle inscribed in the circle; and the square of the side of the triangle is three times the square of the side of the hexagon. 2. If the diameter of a circle be produced to C until the produced part is equal to the radius, the two tangents from C and their chord of contact form an equilateral triangle. 3. The area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle is half the area of an equilateral triangle, and three-fourths of the area of a regular hexagon circumscribed to the circle.

PROP. XVI.—Problem. To inscribe a regular polygon of ﬁfteen sides in a given circle. Sol.—Inscribe a regular pentagon ABCDE in the circle [xi.], and also an equilateral triangle AGH [ii.]. Join CG. CG is a side of the required polygon. Dem.—Since ABCDE is a regular pentagon, the arc ABC is 2 ths of the circumference; and since 5 1 AGH is an equilateral triangle, the arc ABG is 3 rd of the circumference. Hence the arc GC, which is the diﬀerence between these two arcs, is equal to 2 1 1 5 ths − 3 rd, or 15 th of the entire circumference; and therefore, if chords equal to GC [i.] be placed round the circle, we shall have a regular polygon of ﬁfteen sides, or quindecagon, inscribed in it.

Scholium.—Until the year 1801 no regular polygon could be described by constructions employing the line and circle only, except those discussed in this Book, and those obtained from them by the continued bisection of the arcs of which their sides are the chords; but in

111

For the case n = 4.? 10. Inscribe a circle in a sector of a given circle. With the same hypothesis. 8. and circumscribed about. If the two isosceles triangles in Ex. they are both equilateral. what is the area of its inscribed equilateral triangle?—of its inscribed square?—its inscribed pentagon?—its inscribed hexagon?—its inscribed octagon?— its inscribed decagon? 27. 1. 21. In reciprocal propositions. If r be the radius of a circle. Exercises on Book IV. If the sides of a triangle be 13. What is meant by escribed circles? 12. 4. 14. and conversely. What is the subject-matter of Book IV. regular polygons of 2n + 1 sides are inscriptable by elementary geometry. What is the circumcentre? 16. What regular polygons has Gauss proved to be inscriptable by the line and circle? 11.that year the celebrated Gauss proved that if 2n + 1 be a prime number. When is the polar circle imaginary? 18. 1. What is meant by reciprocal propositions? Ans. Why is it so called? 20. to every line in one there corresponds a point in the other. 6. What is the radius of the circumscribed circle? 24. What is the radius of its nine-points circle? 25. Give instances of reciprocal propositions in Book IV. 8. What is the polar circle? 17. When circumscribed? 4. 3. When is one rectilineal ﬁgure said to be inscribed in another? 3. 15. What three regular ﬁgures can be used in ﬁlling up the space round a point? Ans. When circumscribed about it? 6. the corresponding inscribed triangle is isosceles. Questions for Examination on Book IV. What ﬁgures can be inscribed in. 2. squares. Name the special nine points through which it passes. ADE touch at A. what are the values of the radii of its inscribed and escribed circles? 23.? 2. What is the distance between the centres of its inscribed and circumscribed circles? 26. If a circumscribed polygon be regular. 7. a circle by means of Book IV. which is the only ﬁgure of this class except the pentagon for which a construction has been given. What is the centroid of a triangle? 14. and hexagons. see Note at the end of this work. Inscribe a regular octagon in a given square. Divide an angle of an equilateral triangle into ﬁve equal parts. If a circumscribed triangle be isosceles. The diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral intersect in E: prove that the tangent at E to the circle about the triangle ABE is parallel to CD. 7. 112 . 22. and conversely. What is the orthocentre? 15. The line DE is parallel to the base BC of the triangle ABC: prove that the circles described about the triangles ABC. 5. Equilateral triangles. When is a circle said to be inscribed in a rectilineal ﬁgure? 5. the corresponding inscribed polygon is also regular. What is a regular polygon? 9. How many circles can be described to touch three lines forming a triangle? 13. conversely. What is the “nine-points circle”? 19. to every point in one there corresponds a line in the other. 2 have equal vertical angles. and. ﬁnd the sides of the same regular ﬁgures.

Given four points. r . F E is equal to the square of half the sum. either internally or externally. The radius of the inscribed circle. and the radius of the inscribed circle. ECD. The line joining the orthocentre of a triangle to any point P . Find a point such that. If a semicircle and its diameter be touched by any circle. twice the rectangle contained by the radius of the semicircle. 13. 25. Construct a triangle. describe a circle which shall be equidistant from them. and the radius of the tangential circle. being given— 1. if perpendiculars be let fall from it on four given lines. If F be the middle point of the base of a triangle. The orthocentres of the four triangles formed by any four lines are collinear. 12. their sum is equal to n times the radius of the inscribed circle. 3. we have the relations— r +r +r = 4R + r. Through a point D. r the radii of its inscribed and escribed circles. A line of given length slides between two given lines: ﬁnd the locus of the intersection of perpendiculars from its extremities to the given lines. their feet may be collinear. 11. E are points on the circumscribed circle. δ the perpendiculars from its circumcentre on the sides. If from any point within a regular polygon of n sides perpendiculars be let fall on the sides. and the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. the vertical angle. Find on a given line a point P . 2. 24. 14. 20. 10. In a given circle inscribe a triangle whose three sides shall pass through three given points. (1) (2) (3) µ + µ + µ = 2R − r. If the perpendicular to any side of a triangle at its middle point meet the internal and external bisectors of the opposite angle in the points D and E. 17. 113 . taken on the side BC of a triangle ABC. The base. the sum or diﬀerence of the other sides. DE the diameter of the circumscribed circle which passes through F . In a given circle inscribe a triangle having two sides passing through two given points. The centres of the escribed circles. and DF . prove that D. If R denotes the radius of the circle circumscribed about a triangle ABC. is bisected by the line of collinearity of perpendiculars from P on the sides of the triangle. 16. In every quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle. 22. r. 18. and circles described about the triangles DBF . The sum of the perpendiculars let fall from the angular points of a regular polygon of n sides on any line is equal to n times the perpendicular from the centre of the polygon on the same line. µ the segments of these perpendiculars between the sides and circumference of the circumscribed circle. 23. µ . is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any secant to the semicircle. 15. Through a given point P draw a chord of a circle so that the intercept EF may subtend a given angle X. and L the point where a parallel to the base through the vertex meets DE: prove DL . r . 21. through the point of contact of the diameter and touching circle. the middle points of its diagonals and the centre of the circle are collinear. is drawn a transversal EDF . no three of which are collinear. the sum or diﬀerence of whose distances from two given points may be given. The locus of their second point of intersection is a circle.9. in the circumference of its circumscribed circle. and the third parallel to a given line. δ. 19. δ . µ. δ + δ + δ = R + r. or of one of the escribed circles. The relation (3) supposes that the circumcentre is inside the triangle. LE equal to the square of half the diﬀerence of the two remaining sides. 26.

. the six perpendiculars thus obtained are concurrent. the sum of their squares is constant. 37. . ρ4 r4 = Rr8 . 40. A1 . 28. circumscribed about a regular polygon of n sides. 34. the sum of their squares is equal to 2n times the square of the radius. then ρ1 ρ2 ρ4 ρ8 = R4 . and ρ3 ρ5 ρ6 ρ7 = R4 .. . and AO be the diameter drawn from one of the points of division (A). . and of which α is the greater. 38. the constant is equal to 2 33. . A8 on one side of AO. . Therefore ρ3 ρ 5 ρ 6 ρ7 = R 4 . In the same case. 7]. If two sides of a triangle be given in position. If the circumference of a circle whose radius is R be divided into seventeen equal parts. 36. 31. For the inscribed circle. ρ1 ρ4 = R(ρ3 + ρ5 ) [III. If from the middle point of the line joining any two of four concyclic points a perpendicular be let fall on the line joining the remaining two. 35. The greater the number of sides of a regular polygon circumscribed about a given circle. 39. the less will be its perimeter. and each touching the circumscribed circle. 29. 2]. the centres of whose nine-points circles are concyclic. The area of any regular polygon of more than four sides circumscribed about a circle is less than the square of the diameter. ρ8 denote the chords from O to the points of division. β denote any two suﬃxes whose sum is less than 8. Ex. in the hypothesis and notation of Ex. For the circumscribed circle. r2 . Hence ρ1 ρ 2 ρ4 ρ 8 = R 4 . If from any point in the circumference of any concentric circle perpendiculars be let fall on all the sides of any regular polygon. then [III. 114 . be denoted by r1 . 3n times the square of the radius. prove 1 1 2 + = .—Let the supplemental chords corresponding to ρ1 . we have ρ1 r1 = Rr2 . ρ8 r8 = Rr1 . the locus of the centre of its nine-points circle is a right line. 34. &c. Dem. ρ2 . touching each other at the centre of the inscribed circle of a triangle.—Catalan. ρ be the radii of two circles. prove that the sum of their squares is equal to n times the sum of the squares of the radii of the inscribed and the circumscribed circles. and if ρ1 . If ρ. together with 2 n times the square of the radius of the circumscribed circle. . the constant is equal to n times the square of the radius 1 of the inscribed circle. 30. . xxxv. &c. Four concyclic points taken three by three determine four triangles. A2 . ρ2 . . 32. if the lines be drawn from any point in the circumference of the inscribed circle. If. ρ ρ r and state and prove corresponding theorems for the escribed circles. α. And it may be proved in the same manner that ρ 1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ 4 ρ5 ρ 6 ρ 7 ρ8 = R 8 . and if their included angle be equal to an angle of an equilateral triangle. xxxv. For instance. .27. lines be drawn to its angular points. .. State the corresponding theorem for the sum of the squares of the lines drawn from any point in the circumference of any concentric circle. ρα ρβ = R(ρα−β + ρα+β ). If from any point in the circumference of the circle. Ex. ρ2 r2 = Rr4 .

AB. r . and if R. and P Q any chord cutting AB in O. 47. if the number of sides be odd. C . D . respectively. prove that an equilateral inscribed polygon is regular. the middle point of the base. For instance.. The perpendiculars from the centres of the escribed circles of a triangle on the corresponding sides are concurrent. r be the radii of the circumscribed and inscribed circles. 6]. 52. 51. 55. and if the lines AP . DE. 44. In a given circle inscribe a triangle so that two sides may pass through two given points. E are concyclic. if the suﬃxes be greater than 8. Inscribe in a given circle a triangle having its three sides parallel to three given lines. and also an equilateral circumscribed polygon. ρ8 ρ2 = R(ρ6 − ρ7 ) [III. 53. Two lines are given in position: draw a transversal through a given point. and the foot of the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. In a circle. AE. 48. the points A. the radii of its escribed circles. 3. meet in the points A . B . r . 43. B. if the number of sides be odd. r r +r r + r r = s2 . in D and E respectively. the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. If the sides AB. &c. Given the vertical angle and perimeter of a triangle. The sum of the perpendiculars drawn to the sides of an equiangular polygon from any point inside the ﬁgure is constant. ﬁnd the locus of the centre of the circle passing through the centres of the escribed circles. BC. 46. E .In the same case. Express the sides of a triangle in terms of the radii of its escribed circles. The bisector of the vertical angle. Given the base of a triangle and the vertical angle. The feet of the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on either bisector of the vertical angle. and if the two pairs of alternate sides. If AB be the diameter of a circle. and an equiangular inscribed polygon. forming with the given lines a triangle of given perimeter. r . If the sides of a triangle be in arithmetical progression. xxxv. AQ intersect the perpendicular to AB at O. E . Ex. ρα . D. 54. Prove also that an equiangular circumscribed polygon is regular. BC. 50. of a regular pentagon be bisected in the points A . the radius of the inscribed circle. 2. 41.. are concyclic. then 6Rr is equal to the rectangle contained by the greatest and least sides. ρβ = R(ρα−β − ρ17−α−β ). and that the third side may be a maximum or a minimum. 45. prove A AE − A AE = pentagon A B C D E . If s be the semiperimeter of a triangle. 42. 49. construct it with either of the following data: 1. 115 .

It is evident that a fraction is an abstract quantity—that is. the fraction is less than unity. and if it be divided 1 2 into four equal parts in the points C. but 8 would be got from 3 by multiplying its terms (numerator 8 8 4 and denominator) by 2. or the sum of any number of these parts. and the upper. These deﬁnitions require explanation. called the numerator. AD. in the Theory of Proportion. Thus. If an integer be divided into any number of equal parts. that if the numerator be less than the denominator. when the less is contained a certain number of times exactly in the greater. at all events. his propositions are quoted by every writer. or prove them when necessary. and we have just shown that it is 8 3 6 equal to 6 . we saw in 1. THEORY OF PROPORTION DEFINITIONS. and then supply simple algebraic proofs of his propositions. and his nomenclature is universally adopted. for some are theorems under the guise of deﬁnitions. especially Def. which has the fault of conveying no precise meaning—being. the fraction is equal to unity. Now.—Every proposition in the theories of ratio and proportion is true for all descriptions of magnitude. If the numerator be equal to the denominator. when the less measures the greater—that is. 4 . 2. CD. the easiest and the most satisfactory. one. Hence it follows. Ratio is the mutual relation of two magnitudes of the same kind with respect to quantity.BOOK V. E. It is. denotes the number of these equal parts which are taken. possess at present none but a historical interest. Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one another when the less can be multiplied so as to exceed the greater. in fact. Thus. the lower. iv. a fraction 4 is denoted by two numbers parted by a horizontal line. AB. Hence 4 = 6 . it is greater than unity. Euclid’s proofs of the propositions. when the greater contains the less a certain number of times exactly. denotes the number of equal parts into which the integer is divided. If we divide each of the equal parts AC. explain them. A less magnitude is said to be a part or submultiple of a greater magnitude. The following annotations will make them explicit:— 1. i. EB into two equal parts. Introduction. that AE = 4 of the integer. if the line AB represent the integer. For these reasons it appears to us that the best method is to state Euclid’s deﬁnitions. then AC is 4 . unintelligible. AE. In like manner it may be shown that multiplying the terms of 116 . Hence we infer generally that multiplying the terms of any fraction by 2 does not alter its value. called the denominator. AE = 6 . will be divided into eight equal parts. the whole. and if greater than the denominator. D. 8 8 8 3 AB = 8 .. iii. is called a fraction. 3 . iii. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of a less when the greater is measured by the less—that is. But although his demonstrations are abandoned. ii. and we see that AC = 2 . AD = 4 . as no student reads them now. that its value is independent of the nature of the integer which is divided. DE. Hence it follows that the proper treatment is the Algebraic.

From this explanation we see that the ratio of any two commensurable magnitudes is the same as the ratio of the numerical quantities which denote these magnitudes. then this quantity must lie between some two na is greater than unity. such as mb. 15. conversely. and (m + 1)b. such as two lines AB. but not of 10. Hence the ratio 3 3 : 4 expresses the same idea as the fraction 4 . such as the diagonal and the side of a square.. but 10. such that na = mb. And as there are 3 parts in AB. where n can be made as large as we please. &c. we cannot ﬁnd two multiples na. Now if we denote the ﬁrst of any of the foregoing pairs of fractions by . . one of which is less n and the other greater than the true value of the ratio. are not. It is evident we may continue the series as far as we m please. that dividing the terms of a fraction by a whole number does not alter the value. its terms can be either multiplied or divided by any whole number.. Conversely. . b 2 When two quantities are incommensurable. and. such as na. 3 is a submultiple. In fact. and which ultimately becomes indeﬁnitely small. When written 3 : 4 it is called a ratio. By their means we can approximate as nearly as we please to the exact value of the ratio. mb. 17. the ratio of two commensurable lines is the ratio of the numbers which express their lengths. CD. measured with the same unit. although their ratio is not equal to that of any two commensurable numbers. and when 3 a fraction. And this may be extended to the case where the lines are incommensurable. such as 3. if 4 AB be divided into 3 equal parts.. namely. 17. &c. 12. 10 10 100 100 1000 1000 and the ratio is intermediate to each pair. and if we suppose that AB is equal to 3 of CD. such that the ratio of the incommensurable quantities is greater than one. 3. Thus. If we consider two magnitudes of the same kind. 13. because it is contained in each of these without a remainder. and we denote it thus. and less than the other fraction of each pair. because in each case it leaves a remainder. . and multiply it by any whole number. or √ . 4 In the same manner it can be shown that every ratio whose terms are commensurable can be converted into a fraction. 9. the product is called a multiple of 3. &c. becomes small as n increases. 12.. and CD into 4 equal parts. both are diﬀerent ways of expressing and writing the same thing. and 4 in CD. &c. or part of 6. Now. the following are the pairs of convergents:— 14 15 141 142 1414 1415 . since the diﬀerence (m + 1)b b n n m m+1 1 between and namely. 9. For let a and b be the incommensurable quantities. every fraction can be turned into a ratio.a fraction by any whole number does not alter its value. take any multiple of a. Hence we have the following important and fundamental theorem:—Two transformations can be made on any fraction without changing its value. 3 : 4. and consecutive multiples of b. then. we express this relation by saying that AB has to CD the ratio of 3 to 4. yet a series of pairs of fractions can be found whose diﬀerence is continually diminishing. . evidently. and in either case the value of the new fraction is equal to the value of the original one. that one of the parts into which AB is divided is equal to one of the parts into which CD is divided. In the case of the diagonal and the side of a square. If we take any number. or measure. the ratio of a : b is a 1 . the second n m+1 m will be . In this case. and in general. 13. Thus 6. . therefore mb na a m m+1 less than unity. if a be the side and b the diagonal of a square. in the case of two incommensurable quantities. we see that the diﬀerence n n n between the ratio of two incommensurable quantities and that of two commensurable numbers 117 . Hence it follows conversely. Hence lies between and . Thus. it is evident. 15. are multiples of 3. 4. &c. because the multiplication of 3 by any whole number will not produce them. These fractions are called convergents.. two fractions n n m+1 and can always be found.

The ﬁrst of four magnitudes has to the second the same ratio which the third has to the fourth. and the 2nd and 4th the consequents. equal to. are deﬁnitions of proportion. and each ratio can be written as a fraction. nd. and second and fourth. and vi. we can write it in the form of two equal fractions. v. they are equal to one another (I. and is not a deﬁnition but a theorem. If we multiply any two numbers. but it is not the usual one. Hence a proportion consists of two ratios which are asserted by it to be equal.. If we take two ratios. equal to. such as 6 : 9 and 10 : 15.” 7. Lardner. each by n. These correspond to the numerator and the denominator of a fraction. to the equality of ratios. b d Conversely. if equal. because it relates. we get the four multiples. 28 are called equimultiples of 5 and 7. an equation between two fractions can be put into a proportion. equal. mc is greater than nd. less. as 5 and 7. Hence we have the following deﬁnition:— “A ratio is the fraction got by making the antecedent the numerator and the consequent the denominator. whereas vii. 10 and 15 are equimultiples of 2 and 3. and v. “The ﬁrst is to the second as the third is to the fourth. and one which. Its four terms consist of two antecedents and two consequents. 4 : 3 is the reciprocal of the ratio 3 : 4. when any equimultiples whatsoever of the ﬁrst and third being taken. 118 . or less than the multiple of the fourth. the products 20. If we take the proportion a : b :: c : d. according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than.2 but it is evidently an inverted order. the multiple of the third is greater than. or less than the multiple of the second. Hence we have the following theorem:—“The product of a ratio and its reciprocal is unity. as v. Dem. When four magnitudes are proportionals. 3. ma. is put before vii. is only a test of proportion. The two terms of a ratio are called the antecedent and the consequent. is a test of their inequality.). Axiom i. for vi. 5. By means of these simple principles all the various properties of proportion can be proved in the most direct and easy manner. which are each equal to the same thing 2 (in this example each is equal to 3 ). 2. and if less. This would be the most intelligible way. and the two middle terms the means. whenever we have a proportion such as a : b :: c : d. each by m.m and n can be made as small as we please. and multiply the ﬁrst and third terms.” 6. Thus: a c = . Hence. Analogy or proportion is the similitude of ratios. The 1st and 3rd terms are the antecedents. as given by Simson. The following explanations will give the student clear conceptions of their meaning:— 1.—Since we have a : b :: c : d. and we want to prove that if ma is greater than nb. if. Magnitudes which have the same ratio are called proportionals. nb. In this form it is called a proportion. The reciprocal of a ratio is the ratio obtained by interchanging the antecedent and the consequent. instead of being taken for granted.” viii. by any number such as 4. We have given the foregoing deﬁnitions in the order of Euclid. Thus. and others. In like manner. Then we may write it thus— 6 : 9 = 10 : 15. requires proof. it is usually expressed by saying. mc.. a c = . and any equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth. Since a proportion consists of two equal ratios. ultimately. the ratio of incommensurable quantities may be regarded as the limit of the ratio of commensurable quantities. &c. Also the ﬁrst and last terms are called the extremes. b d 2 Except that viii. viii. and 18 and 30 of 3 and 5. which is as follows:— 6 : 9 :: 10 : 15. vi.

—Let. is greater than unity. md (m + 1)b (m + 1)d m m+1 c a lies between and . it is required to prove. We have altered the last clause from that given in Simson’s Euclid. according as the multiple of the ﬁrst of four magnitudes is greater than. when is greater than unity. Then. equal to. is less than unity. b d that is. multiplying each by m we get n ma mc = .” This is misleading. Therefore Hence. b d Next. = 1. as in a recent note. This.—Since ma is greater than nb. therefore c a = . or less than the multiple of the second. b n n mb nc na nc is greater than unity. and since n may be as large as we please. since b n n d a c 1 the diﬀerence between and is less than . since by hypothesis. it could not be made so by deﬁnition. and if less. Next. mb md Now. mc is greater than nd nd. nb nd a c therefore is greater than . suppose a and b are incommensurable. First suppose that a and b are commensurable. that the ratio a : b is greater than the ratio c : d. mc is equal to nd. is a theorem. but less than unity. such that is greater than unity. then it is evident that we can take multiples na. a. less. and when is less than unity. and m and n the multiples taken. nc na = 1. When of the multiples of four magnitudes (taken as in Def. that if ma be greater than nb. the b d n diﬀerence is nothing. The foregoing is an easy proof of the converse of the theorem which is contained in Euclid’s celebrated Fifth Deﬁnition. and if is greater than unity. that the ﬁrst ratio is greater than the second.Hence. which runs thus:—“The ﬁrst is said to have to the second a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth. We have made a similar change in the enunciation of the Fifth Deﬁnition. to prove Euclid’s theorem—that if. if ma be equal to nb. whereas. b. but mc not greater than nd. but if is nb nd nb mc greater than unity. v. c. in fact. d be the four magnitudes. the ratio a : b is greater than the ratio c : d. lies between the same quantities.) the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than that of the second. but the multiple of the third not greater than that of the fourth. Thus. we can ﬁnd two na na numbers m and n. such is not the case. nb nd mc ma ma is greater than unity. Dem. b d therefore vii. by hypothesis. the ratio of the ﬁrst to the second is equal to the ratio of the third to the fourth. b. nc = md. d be the four magnitudes. the multiple of the third is greater than. Dem. mb. such that na = mb. instead of being a deﬁnition. In like manner. Let a. it is evident that if a c = . equal to. and if it did not. Hence mb (m + 1)b m m+1 na a lies between and . as it implies that it is. it is evident that mc ma is greater than . or less than the multiple of the fourth. ma is greater than nb. by convention. 119 . Now. the ﬁrst has to the second a greater ratio than the third has to the fourth. for it follows from the hypothesis that the ﬁrst ratio is greater than the second. but mc not greater than nd. c. Hence.

so that 4. Hence we have the following deﬁnition:—“The ratio compounded of any number of ratios it the ratio of the product of all the antecedents to the product of all the consequents. for the full proportion is 4 : 6 :: 6 : 9. and since these ratios are equal. is a theorem. or 15 : 28. Hence we see that what Euclid calls triplicate ratio of two magnitudes is the ratio of their cubes. what is the same thing. b. are only inferences from it. c. 6. there are four terms. of the second to the third. Hence the duplicate ratio of two magnitudes means the square of their ratio. It is evident we get the same result if 28 we multiply the two antecedents together for a new antecedent. To prove the theorem contained in Def. xii. Let the magnitudes be a. &c. As an illustration. xi. but. xii. or the cube of their ratio. This may be proved exactly like 3. hence we have b a = . When three magnitudes are continual proportionals. We have placed these deﬁnitions in a group. If we have two ratios. the ﬁrst is said to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. but an inference. the ﬁrst is said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it has to the second. 120 . the ratio of the 1st : 3rd is equal to the square of the ratio of the 1st : 2nd. we get a result which is called the ratio compounded of the two ratios. of 3rd : 4th = abc a = = ratio of 1st : 4th. x. as we shall see. 9. and if we convert each ratio into a fraction. d. or. 1.. 4. When four magnitudes are continual proportionals. such as 5 : 7 and 3 : 4. viz. This has the same fault as some of the others—it is not a deﬁnition. in reality. so that. b. and xi. of 2nd : 3rd. Then the ratio of a . and the two consequents for a new consequent. the ratio compounded of them will be equal to the square of one of them. and. but their order is inverted. 1st : 3rd :: square of 1st : square of 2nd. in this example it is 15 .ix. It occurs when the means in a proportion are equal. and of the ratio of the 2nd : 3rd. by Def. and the ratio of 3 2 6 : 9 is 3 . Here the ratio of 4 : 6 is 2 . bcd d 3. Now. d 1st : 2nd = Hence the ratio compounded of the ratio of 1st : 2nd. that is. the ﬁrst is said to have to the last the ratio compounded of the ratios of the ﬁrst to the second. x. If four magnitudes be continual proportionals. Def. the ratio of 1st : 3rd is.” 2. of the third to the fourth. the duplicate ratio of 1st : 2nd. let a : b :: b : c. xii. c b or a : c :: a2 : b2 —that is. c b And multiplying each by a . we get b a a2 = 2. the ratio of 1st : 4th is equal to the cube of the ratio of 1st : 2nd. xx. For the ratio of the 1st : 3rd is compounded of the ratio of the 1st : 2nd. c c 3rd : 4th = . 6. in fact.). the ratio of their squares (see Book VI. let us take the numbers 4. When there is any number of magnitudes of the same kind greater than two. b b 2nd : 3rd = . Or thus: Let the proportionals be a. c. 9 are continued proportionals. and x. Proportion consists of three terms at least. and multiply these fractions together. If three magnitudes be proportional. there are four terms.

&c. If one proportion be given.). as also the consequents to one another. We shall indicate these terms by including them in parentheses in connexion with the Propositions to which they refer. &c. &c. In proportionals. &c. Dem. c . b = mb . from it an indeﬁnite number of other proportions can be inferred. PROP. b) be the same multiples of another (c) which two corresponding magnitudes (a . 121 . Then we have a = mc and a = mc . b. They are useful as indicating.—Let m denote the multiple which the magnitudes of the ﬁrst system are of those of the second system. If any number of magnitudes of the same kind (a. the deﬁnitions by squares and cubes are more explicit.) = m(a + b + c . In fact. Every Proposition in the Fifth Book is a Theorem. Geometers make use of certain technical terms to denote the most important of these processes. This Proposition is evidently true for any number of multiples. PROP. &c.We also see that there is no necessity to introduce extraneous magnitudes for the purpose of deﬁning duplicate and triplicate ratios. b ) are of another (c ). and a great part of the theory of proportion consists in proving the truth of these derived proportions. Then we have a = ma (hyp.). II.—Let m and n be the multiples which a and b are of c. Hence a + b is the same multiple of c that a + b is of c . xiii. If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. be equimultiples of as many others (a .) shall be the same multiple of the sum of the second which any magnitude of the ﬁrst system is of the corresponding magnitude of the second system.—Theorem.). by addition. c = mc . by one word. c. (a + b + c + &c. Hence. I. b = nc and b = nc . as Euclid does. b . Therefore (a + b) = (m + n)c.. Dem.). and (a + b ) = (m + n)c . the antecedent terms are called homologous to one another. then the sum of the ﬁrst magnitudes (a + b + c. &c.—Theorem. then the sum of the two ﬁrst is the same multiple of their submultiple which the sum of their corresponding magnitudes is of their submultiple. the whole enunciation of a theorem.

then any equimultiples of the ﬁrst magnitudes (a. c a = . Let a : b :: c : d. multiplying each fraction by . b ). V. and b = nc .—If a − b = c. Dem. b) be equimultiples of two others (a . m − n = 1.—Let m denote the multiples which a. PROP. and any other equimultiples of the second and fourth.).—Let m and n be the multiples which a and b are of c. therefore b d m Hence. b are of a . and a = mc . then we have a = ma . we get na = mna . b . Cor.PROP. we get n ma mc = . b ). then ma : nb :: mc : nd. a − b = c . Dem. If two magnitudes (a.). na. III. multiplying each equation by n. If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. 122 . nb nd therefore ma : nb :: mc : nd. b) be the same multiples of another (c) which two corresponding magnitudes (a . for if a − b = c. b = mb . b ) are of another (c ). and (a − b ) = (m − n)c . b . and if any equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third be taken. b = nc.—Theorem. IV.—Theorem.—We have a : b :: c : d (hyp. then the diﬀerence of the two ﬁrst is the same multiple of their submultiple (c). Hence a − b is the same multiple of c that a − b is of c . Dem. then the multiple of the ﬁrst : the multiple of the second :: the multiple of the third : the multiple of the fourth.—Theorem. nb are equimultiples of a . nb = mnb . which the diﬀerence of their corresponding magnitudes is of their submultiple (c ) (compare Proposition ii. b) will be also equimultiples of the second magnitudes (a . PROP. Then we have a = mc. If four magnitudes be proportional. Hence. Hence. Therefore (a − b) = (m − n)c.

or less than its consequent. (a − a ) = m(b − b ). a = mb .PROP. If two ratios be equal. therefore is greater than b d unity. Prop. In like manner. is greater than unity. then we have a = mb.—Theorem (Simson). Dem. b d b d = a c b : a :: d : c. and if less. b d a c 1÷ =1÷ . Let Dem. c a = . a are of b. c is equal to d. b d a c and if a be greater than b. B. Dem.—Theorem. the antecedent of the second ratio is greater than. then according as the antecedent of the ﬁrst ratio is greater than.—Let then a : b :: c : d. VI. equal to. equal to. a : b :: c : d. b .). A. If two ratios are equal their reciprocals are equal (invertendo).—Theorem (Simson). if a be equal to b. a c = . less. and c is greater than d. which a magnitude (a ) taken from the ﬁrst is of a magnitude (b ) taken from the second. 123 .—Since then therefore or Hence a : b :: c : d. Hence Prop. If a magnitude (a) be the same multiple of another (b). then b : a :: d : c.—Let m denote the multiples which the magnitudes a. or less than its consequent. the remainder is the same multiple of the remainder that the whole is of the whole (compare Proposition i.

a Dem.—Theorem (Simson). If the ﬁrst of four magnitudes be the same multiple of the second which the third is of the fourth. n PROP. and let a be a multiple of b. and if the ﬁrst be a multiple or submultiple of the second. Dem. the third is the same multiple or submultiple of the fourth. then = m.—Let a = mb. dividing each by c. = m. Let a and b be equal magnitudes. Then 1. D.—Theorem. Equal magnitudes have equal ratios to the same magnitude. 2. 2. 124 . the ﬁrst is to the second as the third is to the fourth.—Theorem (Simson). and c = md. c = md. Let a : b :: c : d. Let a = . we have = m. C. If the ﬁrst be to the second as to the third is to the fourth. Prop. therefore = m. VII. we have a b = . a : c :: b : c. a a = mb. and c any other magnitude. b c a c In like manner. 1.—Since a = mb. The same magnitude has equal ratios to equal magnitudes. d b d Hence a : b :: c : d. then a : b :: c : d. then = . b a c c but = . Let Dem. b d d b a 1 2. c : a :: c : b. n b n therefore Hence 1 c = . c c therefore a : c :: b : c. 1. d n d c= . therefore = . then c is the same multiple of d.—Since a = b.Prop.

to prove a = b.—Since b is less than a. any third magnitude has a greater ratio to the less of two unequal magnitudes than it has to the greater. Of two unequal magnitudes. then the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c. IX. 1. Dem.—Theorem. dividing c by each. c c therefore the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c.—2 follows at once from 1 by Proposition B. Magnitudes which have equal ratios to the same magnitude are equal to one another. a : c :: b : c.—Theorem. 1. to prove a = b. 2.—Since by inversion. PROP. 2. c c therefore is greater than . the greater has a greater ratio to any third magnitude than the less has. multiplying each by c. If a : c :: b : c. Dem. b a Hence the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a. a = b. If c : a :: c : b. a : c :: b : c. b a is greater than . Dem. 1.—Since 125 . we have c c = . c c Hence. a b therefore c : a :: c : b. 2. 2. dividing each by c. magnitudes to which the same magnitude has equal ratios are equal to one another. Dem.—Since a is greater than b. since a = b. VIII. PROP. and let c be any other magnitude of the same kind. [1]. we get a = b. a b = . therefore c : a :: c : b. the quotient which is the result of dividing any magnitude by b is greater than the quotient which is got by dividing the same magnitude by a.Again. Observation. Let a be greater than b. To prove that the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a.

PROP. X.—Theorem. Of two unequal magnitudes, that which has the greater ratio to any third is the greater of the two; and that to which any third has the greater ratio is the less of the two. 1. If the ratio a : c be greater than the ratio b : c, to prove a greater than b. Dem.—Since the ratio a : c is greater than the ratio b : c, a b is greater than . c c Hence, multiplying each by c, we get a greater than b. 2. If the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a, to prove b is less than a. Dem.—Since the ratio c : b is greater than the ratio c : a, c c is greater than . b a Hence that is, 1÷ c c is less than 1 ÷ , b a b a is less than . c c

Hence, multiplying each by c, we get b less than a.

PROP. XI.—Theorem. Ratios that are equal to the same ratio are equal to one another. Let a : b :: e : f , and c : d :: e : f , to prove a : b :: c : d. Dem.—Since a : b :: e : f , a e = . b f c e = . d f a c = [I., Axiom i.], b d a : b :: c : d.

In like manner, Hence and

126

PROP. XII.—Theorem. If any number of ratios be equal to one another, any one of these equal ratios is equal to the ratio of the sum of all the antecedents to the sum of all the consequents. Let the ratios a : b, c : d, e : f , be all equal to one another; it is required to prove that any of these ratios is equal to the ratio a + c + e : b + d + f . Dem.—By hypotheses, c e a = = . b d f Since these fractions are all equal, let their common value be r; then we have a c e = r, = r, = r; b d f therefore a = br, c = dr, e = fr ; therefore a + c + e = (b + d + f )r. Hence therefore and a+c+e = r; b+d+f a a+c+e = , b b+d+f a : b :: a + c + e : b + d + f.

Cor.—With the same hypotheses, if l, m, n be any three multipliers, a : b :: la + mc + ne : lb + md + nf . PROP. XIII.—Theorem. If two ratios are equal, and if one of them be greater than any third ratio, then the other is also greater than that third ratio. If a : b :: c : d, but the ratio of c : d greater than the ratio of e : f ; then the ratio of a : b is greater than the ratio of e : f . Dem.—Since the ratio of c : d is greater than the ratio of e : f , c e is greater than . d f Again, since a : b :: c : d, a c = ; b d a e is greater than . b f

therefore

or the ratio of a : b is greater than the ratio of e : f .

127

PROP. XIV.—Theorem. If two ratios be equal, then, according as the antecedent of the ﬁrst ratio is greater than, equal to, or less than the antecedent of the second, the consequent of the ﬁrst is greater than, equal to, or less than the consequent of the second. Let a : b :: c : d; then if a be greater than c, b is greater than d; if equal, equal; if less, less. Dem.—Since we have and multiplying each by b we get c a b c b × = × , b c d c a b = ; c d a : c :: b : d. a : b :: c : d. c a = , b d

or therefore

Hence, Proposition [A], if a be greater than c, b is greater than d; if equal, equal; and if less, less.

PROP. XV.—Theorem. Magnitudes have the same ratio which all equimultiples of them have. Let a, b be two magnitudes, then the ratio a : b is equal to the ratio ma : mb. a ma Dem.—The ratio a : b = , and the ratio of ma : mb = ; but since the b mb value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying its numerator and denominator by the same number, a ma = ; b mb a : b :: ma : mb.

therefore

PROP. XVI—Theorem. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals they are also proportionals by alternation (alternando). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d, then a : c :: b : d. a : b :: c : d, a c = , b d 128

and multiplying each by

b , we get c c b a b . = . , b c d c a b = ; c d a : c :: b : d.

or therefore

PROP. XVII.—Theorem. If four magnitudes be proportional, the diﬀerence between the ﬁrst and second : the second :: the diﬀerence between the third and fourth : the fourth (dividendo). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d : then a − b : b :: c − d : d; a : b :: c : d, c a = ; b d a c − 1 = − 1, b d c−d a−b = ; b d a − b : b :: c − d : d.

therefore or therefore

PROP. XVIII.—Theorem. If four magnitudes be proportionals, the sum of the ﬁrst and second : the second :: the sum of the third and fourth : the fourth (componendo). Let Dem.—Since a : b :: c : d; then a + b : b :: c + d : d. a : b :: c : d, a c = ; b d a c + 1 = + 1, b d a+b c+d = ; b d a + b : b :: c + d : d.

therefore or therefore

129

which taken two by two in direct order have equal ratios. a b d c 1− =1− . Dem. c and d being less than a and b. E.].—Theorem (Simson). then a − c : b − d :: a : b. a c = . a : c :: b : d [alternando]. b d a a−b c c−d ÷ = ÷ . If there be two sets of three magnitudes.—Since therefore therefore or therefore PROP.PROP. then a : a − b :: c : c − d. the ﬁrst of the other set is greater than the third. Prop. a−b c−d a : a − b :: c : c − d. if equal. If four magnitudes be proportional. If a whole magnitude be to another whole at a magnitude taken from the ﬁrst it to a magnitude taken from the second. a b a−c b−d = . the ﬁrst : its excess above the second :: the third : its excess above the fourth (convertendo). XIX.—Since then and therefore and or Hence a : b :: c : d. b d a−b c−d = [Dem. Let a : b :: c : d. then if the ﬁrst of either set be greater than the third. d c = . Let a : b :: c : d. and if less. XX. the ﬁrst remainder : the second remainder :: the ﬁrst whole : the second whole. of xvii. a : b :: c : d. less. b b d d a c = .—Theorem. equal. c : a :: d : b [invertendo]. a b a − c : b − d :: a : b.—Theorem. 130 . Dem.

if a be greater than. taken two by two in direct order. XXII.—Theorem.—Since we have In like manner. c b a × . If there be two sets of three magnitudes. the ﬁrst of the other set is greater than the third. equal to. less. equal. = b c a = . c. b. Hence or a : b :: a : b . c be the two sets of magnitudes. or less than c . a b b c a b × b c a c a . a will be greater than. equal to. Dem. a b = . b b = . b c b a = . if a be greater than. PROP. have equal ratios. if equal. Then. or less than c . c be the two sets of magnitudes. if the ﬁrst of either set be greater than the third. if less. a is greater than c . which. multiplying a : b :: b : c .” or “ex aequo”). if a be greater than c.—Theorem. equal. b . which taken two by two in transverse order have equal ratios. a is greater than c . and let the ratio a : b = b : c . a . if equal. then the ﬁrst : the last of the ﬁrst set :: the ﬁrst : the last of the second set (“ex aequali. c c Therefore. XXI. then. and b : c = b : c . equal to. and b : c = a : b . then. and if less. Let a. less. less. Hence. c = Therefore if a be greater than c. or less than c. a will be greater than. Dem. If there be two sets of magnitudes. b. c b a a = .—Since we have In like manner. PROP. 131 .Let a. and let the ratio a : b = a : b . or less than c. b . equal. a . c. and if less. equal to. if equal.

—Since we have In like manner. Annotation 3]. Dem. . a b = b c a b = c b a a = c c a : c :: a . Let a.] 132 . c c a2 a2 = 2. c b c b but Therefore Hence. 2. c. Hence. c be the two sets of magnitudes. and let the ratio a : b = b : c . then a : c :: a : c . a .—If the ratio b : c be equal to the ratio a : b. .—Theorem. Dem. multiplying. [xxii. and if a : b :: a : b . Hence. their squares are proportional. Cor. and b : c = a : b . a2 a a2 a = 2 and = 2. taken two by two in transverse order. c c a : c :: a : c . b2 b a : b :: a : b . and similarly for any number of magnitudes in each set. b. therefore a : b :: b : c . a . then the ﬁrst : the last of the ﬁrst set :: the ﬁrst : the last of the second set (“ex aequo perturbato”). :c. and b : c :: b : c . if a a = . a a = b b b b = . c. b. XXIII. b .—If four magnitudes be proportional. which. a2 : b2 :: a 2 : b 2 Or if four magnitudes be proportional. then a : c :: a : c . xii. b . and so will a .Let a.—Since we have In like manner. then a. c c a a = . Therefore a : b :: a : b . b. c be the two sets of magnitudes. have equal ratios. their cubes are proportional. c . 1. b . multiplying. Cor. Hence [Def. c will be in continued proportion. PROP. If there be two sets of magnitudes.

Questions for Examination on Book V.. c c b b = .” PROP.—Theorem. PROP. c c a+b a +b = . If two magnitudes of the same kind (a. a : a − c :: b : b − d [E].—Since we have In like manner. 1. b) have to a third magnitude (c) ratios equal to those which two other magnitudes (a . therefore. a : c :: b : d [alternando].—Since therefore but therefore Hence a : b :: c : d. 5. a is greater than b (hyp. 4. [xiv. Dem. and a]. XXIV. then. a − c is greater than b − d a + d is greater than b + c. What are the terms of a ratio called? 133 . This Proposition and the preceding one may be included in one enunciation. Dem. d will be the least [xiv. 3.and similarly for any number of magnitudes in each set. XXV.—Theorem. 8. c c a + b : c :: a + b : c . What is the subject-matter of this book? When is one magnitude said to be a multiple of another? What is a submultiple or measure? What are equimultiples? What is the ratio of two commensurable magnitudes? What is meant by the ratio of incommensurable magnitudes? Give an Illustration of the ratio of incommensurables. Hence a : c :: a : c . Let a : b :: c : d. 7. the sum of the greatest and least is greater than the sum of the other two. a a = . b ) have to a third (c ).). if a be the greatest. 6. It is required to prove that a + d is greater than b + c. adding. thus: “Ratios compounded of equal ratios are equal. If four magnitudes of the same kind be proportionals. 2. then the sum (a + b) of the ﬁrst two has the same ratio to their third (c) which the sum (a + b ) of the other two magnitudes has to their third (c ).].

What are the Latin terms in use to denote some of the Propositions of Book V. If a line AB. prove OO 2 = OB 2 + O D2 .—A ratio whose antecedent is greater than its consequent is called a ratio of greater inequality. Def. How many ratios in a proportion? 19. and if we divide corresponding terms.9. And AB . BD. 3. I. the products are proportionals.. equality of ratios. AC AD AB 1 1 2 12. What is a ratio of greater inequality? 10. 22. When is a line divided harmonically? 21. or + = . What is the product of two ratios called? Ans. the ﬁrst is to the third as the square of the diﬀerence between the ﬁrst and second is to the square of the diﬀerence between the second and third. If four magnitudes be proportionals. CB. When a line is divided harmonically. What is Euclid’s deﬁnition of duplicate ratio? 14. 1 2 1 11. and if we multiply corresponding terms together. Def. If three magnitudes be continual proportionals. II. 15. prove OC. 7. 10. are proportionals. Give Euclid’s deﬁnition of proportion. If two sets of four magnitudes be proportionals. cut harmonically in C and D. The ratio compounded of these ratios. or + = . What is a ratio of lesser inequality? 11. the quotients are proportionals.? 20. In the same case. the remaining term of the ﬁrst is equal to the remaining term of the second. AD. 17. What is duplicate ratio? 13. A ratio of greater inequality is increased by diminishing its terms by the same quantity. Give one enunciation that will include Propositions xxii. A ratio of lesser inequality is diminished by diminishing its terms by the same quantity. 18. if O be the middle point of CD. 9.. 4. OB. of Book V. And AB(AC + AD) = 2AC . Exercises on Book V. a ratio of lesser inequality. 2. CD = 2AD . 16. what are corresponding pairs of points called? Ans. be bisected in O. BD AD CD 13. OD are continual proportionals. 5. xxiii. Give another deﬁnition. 6. 12. What is proportion? Ans. Harmonic conjugates. and increased by increasing its terms by the same quantity. 8. the sum of the ﬁrst and second is to their diﬀerence as the sum of the third and fourth is to their diﬀerence (componendo et dividendo). If four magnitudes be proportionals. and a ratio whose antecedent is less than its consequent. cubes. their squares. Deﬁne triplicate ratio. What are reciprocal ratios? 23. and diminished by increasing its terms by the same quantity.—A right line is said to be cut harmonically when it is divided internally and externally in any ratios that are equal in magnitude. And CD(AD + BD) = 2AD . 134 . If two sets of four magnitudes be proportionals. 1. &c. It two proportions have three terms of one respectively equal to three corresponding terms of the other.

ii. iv. 135 . and any number DK. each equal to CD.—Produce BD both ways. Now. When the place which a ﬁgure occupies is known. This is evidently equivalent to saying that a side of the ﬁrst is to a side of the second in the reciprocal ratio of the remaining side of the ﬁrst to the remaining side of the second.]. AL.—Theorem. xxxviii. each equal to CB. When the size of a ﬁgure is given. APPLICATION OF THE THEORY OF PROPORTION DEFINITIONS. GH. AK.. for instance. the two middle terms are called two mean proportionals between the other two. ABG. AH. 2. the triangles ACB. PROP. Hence similar ﬁgures are of the same species. i. 1. GH are all equal. &c. it is said to be given in species. Magnitudes in continued proportion are also said to be in geometrical progression. Triangles (ABC. iii. The altitude of any ﬁgure is the length of the perpendicular from its highest point to its base. Therefore the triangle ACH is the same multiple of ACB that the base CH is of the base CB. In like manner. Similar Rectilineal Figures are those whose several angles are equal. each to each. If four quantities of the same kind be in continued proportion. I. v. A right line is said to be cut at a point in extreme and mean ratio when the whole line is to the greater segment as the greater segment is to the less. AGH are also all equal [I. Dem. KL. Thus a triangle whose angles are given is given in species. 3. vi. and whose sides about the equal angles are proportional. CF ) which have the same altitude are to one another as their bases (BC. Join AG. it is said to be given in position. the middle term is called a mean proportional between the other two. Two corresponding angles of two ﬁgures have the sides about them reciprocally proportional. When the shape of a ﬁgure is given. CD). a square whose side is of given length. and cut oﬀ any number of parts BG. Similar ﬁgures agree in shape. when a side of the ﬁrst is to a side of the second as the remaining side of the second is to the remaining side of the ﬁrst.BOOK VI. BG. it is said to be given in magnitude. ACD) and parallelograms (EC. they are congruent. since the several bases CB. if they agree also in size. If three quantities of the same kind be in continued proportion.

and if less. the triangle ABC the third. If a line (DE) be parallel to a side (BC) of a triangle (ABC). equal to. xv. or less than the multiple of the second. Dem. less. but and Hence ADE : BDE :: AD : DB [i. Hence [V. xxxviii.] EC : CF :: the triangle ABC : ACD. II. ACD. i. respectively. measured from the opposite angle (A). 1]. equal to. and the triangle ACD the fourth. BC. the triangle HAC is greater than CAL. namely. and.] EC : CF :: the base BC : CD. also equimultiples of the second and fourth.—Theorem. equal. Now we have four magnitudes: the base BC is the ﬁrst. it is required to prove that DE is parallel to BC.. and therefore [V. Hence [V. namely. xxxiv. and between the same parallels BC. if equal. the base CH. Cor. the base CD the second. AD : DB :: AE : EC (hyp. and it is evident that [I. but ABC : ACD :: BC : CD (Part I. 2. Def.]. then and but Hence AD : DB :: the triangle ADE : BDE [i.—Let the same construction be made.] they are equal. Dem. conversely. CD. v.]. Hence [I. or A : A :: BC : CD.—Join BE. 2. Therefore [V. We have taken equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third. BC A = . CD. AE : EC :: the triangle ADE : CDE [i. and the triangle ACH. the base CL. The triangles BDE. DE.).] if the base HC be greater than CL. ADE : CDE :: AE : EC [i. The parallelogram EC is double of the triangle ABC [I. or less than the multiple of the fourth. 2 PROP. A denote the areas of the triangles ABC. Hence A CD In extending this proof to parallelograms we have only to use P instead of 1 P. and the parallelogram CF is double of the triangle ACD. xxxvii. Or thus: Let A. vii.] the triangle ADE : BDE :: ADE : CDE. It is required to prove that AD : DB :: AE : EC. 1. then [II. proportionally.]. AD : DB :: AE : EC. the multiple of the third is greater than. and we have proved that according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than. If two sides of a triangle. xi. If AD : DB :: AE : EC. and P their common altitude. A = 1 P 2 . it divides the remaining sides.the triangle ACL is the same multiple of ACD that the base CL is of the base CD. 136 .). A= 1 P 2 . be cut proportionally.]. CED are on the same base DE. ADE : BDE :: ADE : CDE.] the base BC : CD :: the triangle ABC : ACD. and the triangle ACL.]. the line joining the points of section is parallel to the third side. measured from an angle.

therefore the angle EDB is bisected. and ACE to DAC. Through C draw CE parallel to AD.]. 2. III. therefore AE is equal to AC [I. hence BAD is equal to DAC.—The line DE may cut the sides AB. one of the sides of the triangle BEC. 2. or through the angle A. the intercepts on one are proportional to the corresponding intercepts on the other. and hence [V.—Let the same construction be made.). Therefore BD : DC :: BA : AC. but AE has been proved equal to AC. AED are evidently congruent. xxix. ix. If two lines be cut by three or more parallels.—1. C. the angle BAC is bisected.] BA : AE :: BA : AC. ix. or BA : AC :: BD : DC. BA : AC :: BD : DC. therefore the angle AEC is equal to ACE. p. vi. Dem. it divides the opposite side (BC) into segments proportional to the adjacent sides.] AE is equal to AC. the angle DAC is equal to ACE. the angle BAD [I. DC) into which a line (AD) drawn from any angle (A) of a triangle divides the opposite side be proportional to the adjacent sides. Again. but AEC is equal to BAD [I. If BD : DC :: BA : AC.). Exercise 1 has been proved by quoting Proposition iii. 191). to meet BA produced in E. and conversely. therefore the angle ACE is equal to AEC.]. as an inference from it.]. but the angle BAD is equal to DAC (hyp. If the segments (BD. Dem. that line bisects the angle (A). Therefore [V. Therefore DE is parallel to BC. If the line AD bisect the external vertical angle CAE. The internal and the external bisectors of the vertical angle of a triangle divide the base harmonically (see Deﬁnition. xxxix.]. xi. BA : AE :: BD : DC [ii. Then the triangles ACD. AC produced through B. BD : DC :: BA : AE [ii. hence [iii. Exercise. Because BA meets the parallels AD. hence they are between the same parallels [I. 1. Dem. PROP.] BA : AE :: BD : DE. and prove iii. but evidently a separate ﬁgure for each of these cases is unnecessary.] the triangle BDE is equal to CDE. and the line AD bisects the angle BAC. If a line (AD) bisect any angle (A) of a triangle (ABC). Join ED. 3.]. Conversely.—Cut oﬀ AE = AC.Therefore [V. because AD is parallel to EC. xxix.—Theorem. but BD : DC :: BA : AC (hyp. and they are on the same base DE. Because AD is parallel to EC. and because AC meets the parallels AD. Exercises. 137 . EC. Observation. and on the same side of it.] is equal to AEC. EC. Prove it independently.

AB : BC :: DC : CE. ED will meet if produced. respectively. and CD is equal to AF . CDE) are proportional. therefore BA : CD :: BC : CE.. therefore BC : CE :: AC : DE. hence [V. BA : AF :: BC : CE [ii. prove DD = 2abc .] AD : DB :: AE : EC. Any line intersecting the legs of any angle is cut harmonically by the internal and external bisectors of the angle. xxviii. CED may not have a common vertex. Hence (ex aequali ) AB : AC :: DC : DE. ii. CE. and so that the equal angles BCA.]. prove 1 1 1 + + = 0. b2 − c2 8. IV. BC : CE :: F D : DE.] is parallel to EF .] the lines AB. but F D is equal to AC.. Thus (see ﬁg. and DD EE FF PROP. This Proposition may also be proved very simply by superposition. The sides about the equal angles of equiangular triangles (BAC. F . 5. Dem. Now.] AD : AE :: AB : AC. xvi. Therefore the sum of the angles ABE. since the angle ADE is equal to ABC. DD EE FF 2 2 2 b c a + + = 0. and those which are opposite to the equal angles are homologous. Now. xvi. b. and the ratio of the sides.] BC : AC :: CE : DE. the line CA [I. 6. Prop. the side DE is parallel to BC. xvi. In like manner. hence [I. because CD is parallel to BF .—Theorem. BED is less than two right angles. Again. AC. Therefore the sides about the equal angles are proportional. which are opposite to the equal angles A and D.]. Any line intersecting the legs of a right angle is cut harmonically by any two lines through its vertex which make equal angles with either of its sides. be conceived to be placed so as to form one continuous line. hence AC is equal to DF . therefore the ﬁgure ACDF is a parallelogram. and that BC : CA :: CE : ED. the sum of the angles ABC. BF is parallel to CD. Axiom xii. ADE. BCA is less than two right angles. but BCA is equal to BED (hyp. Hence [ii. so that its two sides AD. hence [V. E . the triangles being on the same side. if E. F be points similarly determined on the sides CA. DAE are proportional. hence AD : AB :: AE : AC. because the angle BCA is equal to BEF . AB. AE may fall on the sides AB. Let them meet in F . D the points where the internal and external bisectors of A meet BC.): let the two triangles be ABC. the locus of the vertex is a circle which divides the base harmonically in the ratio of the sides. because AC is parallel to F E. 7. If the base of a triangle be given in magnitude and position. but AF is equal to CD. and [V. If a.4. then. let the second triangle ADE be conceived to be placed on ABC. Therefore we have proved that AB : BC :: DC : CE.). and similarly for the others. Therefore the sides about the equal angles BAC. c denote the sides of a triangle ABC. In the same case. and D. 138 .—Let the sides BC. Again.

].] they are equiangular. V. the tangents to the circles at the points of intersection have a given ratio. 2. xiv. If two triangles (ABC. DF in one equal to the sides ED. 2. Therefore but BA : AC :: ED : DG [iv. DEG are equiangular.). such that the rectangle of the perpendiculars let fall on the line from the points of intersection of the circle with any chord through the point shall be given. and the base EF equal to the base EG. xxxiii. Observation. EDG have the sides ED. xxxii. A B on any secant.—At the points D. Being given a circle and a line. B of the triangle ABC. BA : AC :: ED : DF (hyp. Therefore DG is equal to DF . they also possess the other. DEG equal to the angles A. viii. the lines AA . DG in the other. 1. but the triangle DEG is equiangular to ABC. Def. draw through A a chord AF of the semicircle meeting CD in E. therefore AI : AB :: A I : A B . 3. A T to the circles at the points of intersection are to one another as the radii of the circles. DEF ) have their sides proportional (BA : AC :: ED : DF . BB [I. let I denote the point at inﬁnity through which the two given lines pass. Then [I. 4.] are parallel. and v. Thus. and. Hence the triangles EDF . the tangents AT . or vice versˆ. AC : CB :: DF : F E) they are equiangular. two conditions are laid down as necessary for the similitude of rectilineal ﬁgures. PROP. Triangles are unique in this respect. the ratio compounded of the direct ratio of the radii and the inverse ratio of the chords. B. namely. from Propositions iv.. prove that a point may be found. B . Dem.] the second term AB is equal to the fourth A B . then the triangles AIB. CD a perpendicular to AB. and draw any two parallels intersecting them in the points A. If two circles intercept on any secant chords that have a given ratio. and those angles are equal which are subtended by the homologous sides.–Theorem. Therefore the triangle DEF is equiangular to ABC. A . so that the ratio CE : EF may be given. The proportionality of sides. A IB are equiangular. Now. AB is the diameter of a semicircle ADB. For. we see that if two triangles possess either condition. In like manner it may be proved that EG is equal to EF . 1.] the triangles ABC. E make the angles EDG. The equality of angles. therefore [V. being parallel to it. two quadrilaterals may have their sides proportional without having equal angles. Hence [I. but the ﬁrst term of the proportion is equal to the third.It can be proved by this Proposition that two lines which meet at inﬁnity are parallel. Exercises.—In VI. In all other rectilineal ﬁgures one of the conditions may exist without the other. If two circles intercept equal chords AB. a 139 . i.

BA : AC :: ED : DF (hyp. Therefore but AB : BG :: DE : EF [iv.]. either both acute or both not acute).] equiangular. and have those angles equal which are opposite to the homologous sides. the triangles are similar. VI. but EDG is equiangular to BAC. is obtuse. and it has been proved that ACB is acute. Therefore but BA : AC :: ED : DG [iv. If two triangles (ABC. Therefore the triangles are equiangular. hence DF E. the angle EDG is equal to EDF . then the triangles ABG.—If the angles B and E are not equal.]. AB : BC :: DE : EF (hyp. therefore the angles ACB. which is equal to it. Suppose ABC to be the greater.PROP. and the remaining angles (C. BGC must be each acute [I. Therefore BG is equal to BC.—Theorem. xxxii. DF E are of diﬀerent species. E) proportional (AB : BC :: DE : EF ). that an immediate proof of this Proposition can also be got from Proposition ii. they are equal. and that the part ABG is equal to DEF . and it has been proved that DG is equal to DF . Therefore DG is equal to DF .]. but (hyp. DEF have two angles in one equal to two angles in the other.—Theorem. Dem.. because the angle EDG is equal to BAC (const. DEG are equiangular. and are [I. If two triangles (ABC. as in the case of Proposition iv. F ) of the same species (i.). one must be greater than the other. DEF ) have one angle (A) in one equal to one angle (D) in the other. Again. e.). and the sides about these angles proportional (BA : AC :: ED : DF ). that is. Hence the angles BCG. which is absurd.). Dem. DEF ) have one angle (A) one equal to one angle (D) in the other. and DE is common. hence the triangles EDG and EDF are equiangular. Hence the angles B and E are not unequal.) they are of the same species. then the triangles ABC. the triangles are equiangular. therefore AGB must be obtuse. and BAC equal to EDF (hyp.]. 1.). Cor. 140 . VII. and the angle between them. [It is easy to see. Therefore EDF is equiangular to BAC.—Make the same construction as in the last Proposition. PROP. the sides about two other angles (B. xvii.—If the ratio of two sides of a triangle be given. the triangle is given in species.

since the triangles ADC..—Theorem. Cor. DB of the hypotenuse. Draw AF . PROP. Cor. DB (Def. making any angle with AB.—The segments AD. Cor. 4. and therefore they are similar to one another. 2. and the angles A. for instance. to cut oﬀ the fourth part.) the parts CD. any other required submultiple may be cut oﬀ.—The perpendicular CD is a mean proportional between the segments AD.—BC is a mean proportional between AB. is a particular case of this Proposition. 2. AC : AF :: AG : AB [ii.—BA : AD in the duplicate ratios of BA : AC. In like manner it may be proved that BDC is similar to ABC. are similar to the whole and to one another. AD : DB :: AC 2 : CB 2 . Cor. PROP. D opposite one pair of homologous sides equal. and the angles ADC. DB are in the duplicate of AC : CB. EF each equal to AC.—If either of the angles C. BCD) into which a right-angled triangle (ACB) is divided. iii. In the same manner. hence DC is a mean proportional between AD. F opposite the other are either equal or supplemental. iii. DEF have two sides in one proportional to two sides in the other. Hence AG is the fourth part of AB [V.e. AG is the fourth part of AB. the angles C. xxxii. This Proposition is nearly identical with vii. and cut oﬀ (I. AB : BC :: DE : EF .]. 1. For.—Since CG is parallel to the side BF of the triangle ABF . Book I.] equiangular.Cor. F be right.. Proposition x. BD.).—Problem. they are [I. ACB equal.). and AC between AB. The triangles (ACD.] they are similar. and draw CG parallel to BF . and AB : BD in the duplicate ratio of AB : BC. Dem.—Let it be required. CDB are equiangular. hence [iv. 3. and in AF take any point C. d. AD. to cut oﬀ any required submultiple) . From a given right line (AB) to cut oﬀ any part required (i. we have AD : DC :: DC : DB. the other must be right. DE. 141 .—Since the two triangles ADC. Join BF . CDB are each similar to ACD.—If two triangles ABC. each being right. or in other words.. 1. Cor. but AC is the fourth part of AF (const. ACB have the angle A common. Sol. Hence ADC.]. VIII. IX. by the perpendicular (CD) from the right angle (C) on the hypotenuse. Dem.

To divide a given line AB internally or externally in the ratio of two given lines. 2. EF . M N is equal to LB. F D of the given divided line CD. and IG is equal to F D (const. 2. in the triangle HN G. 3.] HM is equal to KL. Cut oﬀ AC = m. but [I. Now in the triangle ALI. and BD = n. Hence [ii. If BD be drawn in the same direction with AC. This problem is manifestly equivalent to the following:—Given the sum or diﬀerence of two lines and their ratio. xxxiv. AB will be divided similarly to CD. Given the diﬀerence of the squares on two lines and their ratio. Cor. cutting IL in M .] AK : KL :: AH : HI. Join BG. To divide a given undivided line (AB) similarly to a given divided line (CD).—The two points E. E divide AB harmonically. is cut harmonically by the sides of the triangle and a parallel to the base through the vertex. ﬁnd the lines. HI. m. IG respectively equal to the parts CE. the sum of the squares on the sides. then CD will cut AB externally at E in the ratio of m : n. 4. through the middle point B of the base DD of a triangle DCD .—Problem. the vertical angle.—Through A and B draw any two parallels AC and BD in opposite directions.—Draw AG. 5. 142 . 3. Hence the line AB is divided similarly to the line CD. 4. that is :: CE : EF (const. and draw HK. Again. Sol. Dem. each parallel to BG. Given the sum of the squares on two lines and their ratio.). Exercises. HI is equal to EF . M I is parallel to N G. 1. as denoted by the dotted line. 5. making any angle with AB. HK is parallel to IL. ﬁnd the lines.] HM : M N :: HI : IG. Therefore [ii. Any line AE . Therefore KL : LB :: EF : F D. and cut oﬀ the parts AH. X.).PROP. construct it when any of the following data is given:—1. the area. and join CD. the diﬀerence on the squares of the sides.—Through H draw HN parallel to AB. Sol. Given the base and ratio of the sides of a triangle. to ﬁnd the lines. the diﬀerence of the base angles. 6. IL. n. the joining line will divide AB internally at E in the ratio of m : n.

AB will be the third proportional. &c. Join BD. making an angle.—Draw any two lines AC. therefore X : Y :: Z : DE. then DE is the third proportional required. XI. Exercises.. and BC. Another solution can be inferred from Proposition viii. AE. Join BD. CD. OD will be the fourth proportional required.]. Cut oﬀ AB equal X.—Draw any two lines AC. the series of lines AB. Or thus: Take two lines AD. C [IV. DE will be the fourth proportional required. AD equal Z. &c. This is evident by drawing through B a parallel to AΩ..] cutting AD in D. Make OA = X. if in the diagram.—Problem. BC. OC = Z. Z). Sol. but AB is equal to X. B. and draw CE parallel to BD.PROP. Dem. AE making an angle. XII. BC equal Y . we have [ii. and describe a circle through the points A. Therefore X : Y :: Y : DE. Z. therefore AB : BC :: AD : DE [ii. OB = Y . then if we cut oﬀ AB = AO. AB − BC : AB :: AB : AΩ. are in continual proportion. and draw CE parallel to BD. v. AD = X. Dem. Y ). Hence DE is a third proportional to X and Y. draw BB parallel to AO. Hence DE is a fourth proportional to X. BD is parallel to CE. To ﬁnd a third proportional to two given lines (X. having the side AΩ greater than AO. and AC = Y . BC equal Y . Or again. Hence may be inferred a method of continuing the proportion to any number of terms.] AB : BC :: AD : DE. 2. then DB will be the third proportional. The demonstration is evident from the similarity of the triangles AOB and COD. 143 . AD each equal to Y .—Problem. DC in that Proposition be respectively equal to X and Y . Y. BC intersecting in O. Proposition viii. cut oﬀ BC = BB . For if AD. PROP. Sol.. To ﬁnd a fourth proportional to three given lines (X.—Since BD is parallel to CE. If AOΩ be a triangle. 1. and AD equal Y .—In the triangle CAE. Y . then cut oﬀ AB equal X.

If through the middle point C of any arc of a circle any secant be drawn cutting the chord of the arc in D. since ADC is a right-angled triangle. BD is a mean proportional [viii. 2. for external contact of the circles. BC respectively equal to X. BD will be the mean proportional required. the perpendicular from the centre of the former on the diameter of the latter. If through any point within a circle the chord be drawn. Dem. 5. BD is a mean proportional between X and Y . XIV.—Theorem. its half is a mean proportional between the segments of any other chord passing through the same point. 7. PROP.—Join AD.—Problem. Dem. 1. and BD a perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse.PROP. If a circle be described touching a semicircle and its diameter. Equiangular parallelograms (AB. the diameter of the circle is a harmonic mean between the segments into which the diameter of the semicircle is divided at the point of contact. BC. Y ). 2. If a circle be described touching another circle internally and two parallel chords. The tangent to a circle from any external point is a mean proportional between the segments of any secant passing through the same point. 2. which is bisected in that point. Sol. 3. Another solution may be inferred from Proposition viii. that is.]. Since ADC is a semicircle. which bisects the chords. Y . the angle ADC is right [III. Equiangular parallelograms which have the sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional are equal in area. 6. XIII. and that the equal angles 144 . Cor. Exercises. To ﬁnd a mean proportional between two given lines. On AC describe a semicircle ADC. 4.. State and prove the Proposition corresponding to Ex. Hence. Cor. 1.—Take on any line AC parts AB. 5.—Let AC. CD) which are equal in area have the sides about the equal angles reciprocally proportional— AC : CE :: GC : CB. xxxi. is a mean proportional between the two extremes of the three segments into which the diameter is divided by the chords. CE be so placed as to form one right line. meeting the semicircle in D. Erect BD at right angles to AC. (X. the chord of half the arc is a mean proportional between CD and CE. DC. 1] between AB. and the circle again in E.

:: GC : CB [i. 2.—1. Let AC : CE :: GC : CB. 1.]. BCE is two right angles. HC = twice the HBE. F are collinear. but the sum of ACB. AB = CD [V.—Let the same construction be made.]. and we have the sum of the angles ACB. :: AC : CE [i. 2. ix. BE.). xxxix. PROP.] two right angles. Another demonstration of this Proposition may be got by producing the lines HA and DG to meet in I. and [I. CD : CF :: GC : CB [i. BCE. CD are equal (hyp. we have AB : CF :: AC : CE [i. CE form one right line. Hence [I. AB : CF AB : CF CD : CF AC : CE :: CD : CF [V.—Theorem. to prove the parallelograms AB. which have one angle (C) in one equal to one angle (C) in the other. and the CD = Or thus: Join HE. xiii. Then [I. to each add BCE. but and therefore that is. XV. which have one angle in one equal to one angle in the other. :: GC : CB. Dem. Dem. Two triangles. ECG may be vertically opposite. the parallelograms are equal. BCE is [I.].ACB. and the Proposition is evident. xliii. since the angle ACB is equal to ECG. Now. AC : CE :: GC : CB (hyp. HD. Complete the parallelogram BE.]. 145 . the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. and the sides about these angles reciprocally proportional.] the points I.]. have the sides about these angles reciprocally proportional. The twice the BDE.] HD is parallel to BE. CD may form one right line. BD. Therefore the HBE = BDE. and that AC. xiv. Again. CD are equal.] BC. Join BD.]. Two triangles equal in area (ACB. that is. then it may be demonstrated. that BC. are equal in area. AC : CE :: GC : CB. AB : CF :: CD : CF. DCE). and but Therefore Hence that is. vii.). 2. Therefore the sum of ECG. BCE equal to the sum of the angles ECG. CG form one right line. as in the last Proposition. C. since the parallelograms AB. Hence HB : BF :: DE : EF . Let the equal angles be so placed as to be vertically opposite. May be proved by reversing this demonstration.

CD. CK are equiangular. Therefore they are [xiv. EC : CB :: triangle DCE : BCD [i. Hence the triangle ACB = DCE [V.—1. E. we have AB : CD :: CI : AH.] equal. Hence the parallelograms AG. 2. PROP.]. AG is equal to the rectangle AB . the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the rectangle contained by the means. Erect AH. 146 . and showing that it is parallel to BD. : BCD :: EC : CB [i. the triangles are equal.). Dem. and equal to F and E respectively. AC : CD :: EC : CB (hyp. ACB ACB DCE AC : BCD :: DCE : BCD [V.]. and F to AH (const. that is. Hence AB . to the preceding. CK is equal to the rectangle CD .—Theorem. If AC : CD :: EC : CB. F . and have the sides about their equal angles reciprocally proportional. the four lines are proportional. 1. Then because AB : CD :: E : F (hyp. E.]—that is. but and Therefore that is.]. This Proposition might have been appended as a Cor.). : BCD :: AC : CD [i. : CD :: EC : CB. E.Now since the triangles ACB. In like manner.]. ix. or it may be proved by joining AE. and complete the rectangles. If four right lines (AB. 2. and but Therefore the triangle ACB : BCD :: DCE : BCD. DCE are equal. Dem. XVI. since the triangles are the halves of equiangular parallelograms. If the rectangle contained by the extremes of four right lines be equal to the rectangle contained by the means.].—Let the same construction be made. F ) be proportional. E) contained by the means.). to prove the triangle ACB equal to DCE. and that E is equal to CI. F = CD . but since AH is equal to F . F ) contained by the extremes is equal to the rectangle (CD . then we have AC : CD :: triangle ACB : BCD [i. the rectangle (AB . the sides about the equal angles are reciprocally proportional. vii. CI at right angles to AB and CD.

If the rectangle contained by the extremes of three right lines be equal to the square of the mean. DB contained by the segments of the base is equal to the rectangle contained by the sides. the triangles AOB. Exercises. Therefore [xvi. E. therefore AC . which is one of the fundamental Propositions in Mathematics. 147 . B. CB. CB = CE .] AC : CD :: CE : CB. the rectangle contained by the extremes is equal to the square of the mean. xxxv. 2. because AB . the sides about their equal angles are reciprocally proportional. This Proposition may be inferred as a Cor. to prove AB : CD :: E : F .]. D B is equal to AC . to the last. the three lines are proportionals. CD. is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any chord of the circumscribed circle passing through the centre of the inscribed. the rectangle (A .—Describe a circle about the triangle. but BD = B 2 . Hence the four points A. Or thus: Place the four lines in a concurrent position so that the extremes may form one continuous line. XVII. Join AB.] AO . Therefore AB : CD :: CI : AH. F = CD . C) be proportional. and since these parallelograms are equiangular. Hence [iv. OD. Therefore AC = B 2 .2. and the means another. DE = CD2 + AD . CD = CD2 + CD . C. and the angle AOB = DOC. Assume a line D = B. xxxv. C) contained by the extremes is equal to the square (B 2 ) of the mean. Dem. OC. F = CD . PROP.] AC = BD. ECB are equiangular. If the line CD bisect the external vertical angle of any triangle ACB. that is. the three lines are proportional. then because A : B :: B : C. 2. and the radius of the inscribed circle of any triangle. D. that is. Let the four lines so placed be AO. B. 1. Therefore [III. C = B . since AC = B 2 . D are concyclic. its square added to the rectangle AD . If AB . we have A . Dem.—Theorem 1. E. that is. Then because AO : OB :: OD : OC. and produce CD to meet it in E. we have A : B :: D : C. and E to CI. therefore A : B :: D : C. 2. DB [III. but D = B. If three right lines (A. The rectangle contained by the diameter of the circumscribed circle. OD. BO. COD are equiangular. The same construction being made. Hence A : B :: B : C. 3.—1. The same construction being made. and that F is equal to AH. OC = BO . AB : CD :: E : F. its square subtracted from the rectangle AD . If a line CD bisect the vertical angle C of any triangle ACB. then it is easy to see that the triangles ACD. we have the parallelogram AG = CK.

4. AH. 5. Dem. Join OB (see foregoing ﬁg. therefore EF . The rectangle contained by the side of an escribed square standing on the base of a triangle. AG = AF . EF : EB :: OC : OG. If through a point O within a triangle ABC parallels EF . Therefore AB : AH :: AF : AE. If a circle passing through one of the angles A of a parallelogram ABCD intersect the two sides AB. AK + CH . OL = BG . AG + AB . For. F AG are equiangular. 3 may be extended to each of the escribed circles of the triangle ACB. DC. GH.]. OK + GO . AE = AF . AF . and ABO = OBC. Ex. is equal to twice the area of the triangle. OH. The rectangle contained by the side of an inscribed square standing on the base of a triangle. OGC are each right. AE + AC . CH. AO . OBC = EOB. AK + AH . AG = AF . Hence AB . Therefore. the sum of the rectangles of their segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of any chord of the circumscribing circle passing through O. therefore BC : CH :: AF : AG. AE. OL = EO . 8. OGC are equiangular. AE + AD . and the diﬀerence between the base and altitude. and make the angle ABH = AF E. Hence EB = EO. This is an easy deduction from 6. then AB . Again. Dem. 2 (6) (7) 9. DCB are equiangular. AG = AC . But Hence or AO = AG . Join AE. but we have proved AB . then AB . hence AC : CE :: CD : CB. AE = AF . AE − GO . CH. hence BC . OG = EB . because EF B. CE. CB = CD . AF E are equiangular. ECB are equal. and EBF . OC = EO . or AD . OH. OF + IO . and the sum of the base and altitude. AC. AK + AC . AD again in the points E.—Join EF . xxvii. Again. AE = AF . G and the diagonal AC again in F . let fall the perpendicular OG. 10. AO . Then the triangles ACE. OH. DF be parallels to the sides of a triangle ABC from any point D in the base. AE + GO . AL = AB . If DE.—Let O be the centre of the inscribed circle. let CE be the diameter. The rectangle contained by two sides of a triangle is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendicular and the diameter of the circumscribed circle.Dem. F G. Then the triangles ABH. 148 . therefore AC . 6. the triangles EBF . IK to the sides be drawn. Now the angle ABE = ECB [III. draw the diameter EF of the circumscribed circle. therefore EBO = sum of OCB. Hence AD . AH.). it is easy to see that the triangles BCH. 7. AF = AD2 + BD .—AO . is equal to twice the area of the triangle. OC.

If O be the point of intersection of the diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD. BO. Hence AD . the triangles DAC. Dem. CF is a mean proportional between CD and CE. from any point in the circumference of the circumscribed circle. Def.11. BD. and the semicircle in F . DO. its square is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the chord on the tangent at P . and similarly placed as regards CD. and construct a triangle ABH on AB equiangular to CDE. therefore AD . and CD : AC :: BO : AB. and if a perpendicular to AB from any point C meet P A. BD are proportional to the three sides of a triangle which has an angle equal to the sum of a pair of opposite angles of the quadrilateral. DA. CD. BC. Prove by using Theorem 11 that if perpendiculars be let fall on the sides and diagonals of a cyclic quadrilateral. DO. that is. If AB be the diameter of a semicircle. BD .—Make the angle DAO = CAB. 13. 16.—Problem. and P A. The sum of the rectangles of the opposite sides of a cyclic quadrilateral ABCD is equal to the rectangle contained by its diagonals. therefore AD : DO :: AC : CB. 149 . the four rectangles AB . On a given right line (AB) to construct a rectilineal ﬁgure similar to a given one (CDEF G). If from any point P in the circumference of a circle a perpendicular be drawn to any chord. P B chords from any point P in the circumference. BC +AB . CO. then the triangles DAO. BC = AC . If the quadrilateral ABCD is not cyclic. 12. CD . AD. make. AC . when these lines are homologous sides of the ﬁgures. therefore AC . In like manner construct the triangle HAI 3 This Proposition is known as Ptolemy’s theorem. AB. the angle ABH equal to CDE. AO. BC . CAB are equiangular. OAB are equiangular.—Join CE. 15. XVIII. and similarly placed as regards any side (CD) of the latter. CD = AC . Sol. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars on the diagonals is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars on either pair of opposite sides. CF . DA . CD.3 14. Again. PROP. P B in D and E. CD = AC .—Similar ﬁgures are said to be similarly described upon given right lines. prove that the three rectangles AB . are proportional to the four lines BO. and BAH equal to DCE.

—Theorem. therefore the triangles are equal.]. the lines joining the points of division will form a new ﬁgure similar to. it will still be similar to the ﬁgure CDEF G. DEF are similar. and having the given line AB homologous to any given side CD of the given ﬁgure. also the sides BH. Cor.] AB : DE :: EF : BG. and from the triangles IHA. 3. I. then the points H. XIX.—Take BG a third proportional to BC. from the same triangles we have BH : HA :: DE : EC. Dem. hence the sides about the equal angles B and D are proportional.” page 112. the line AB is homologous to CD. Now because the triangle ABH is equiangular to CDE. and it is evident that we may take AB to be homologous to any other side of the given ﬁgure CDEF G. DEF are proportional.]. Cor. J will be respectively on the lines CE. The ﬁrst of the ﬁgures thus constructed is said to be directly similar. 2. in each case. i. Hence on a given line AB there can be constructed two ﬁgures each similar to a given ﬁgure CDEF G. CF . therefore (ex æquali ) BH : HI :: DE : EF .—If lines drawn from any point O in the plane of a ﬁgure to all its angular points be divided in the same ratio. AB : BH :: CD : DE [iv.—If the ﬁgure ABHIJ be applied to CDEF G so that the point A will coincide with C. EF [xi. CG. and that the line AB may be placed along CD. hence the sides of the triangles ABG. DEF ) have their areas to one another in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides. the triangle IAJ equiangular and similarly placed with F CG. E are reciprocally proportional. HA : HI :: EC : EF . AB : BC :: DE : EF . but BC : EF :: EF : BG (const. and the second inversely similar to the given ﬁgure. EF . PROP. Again. Observation. 1.—Twice as many polygons may be constructed on AB similar to a given polygon CDEF G as that ﬁgure has sides. DEF about the equal angles B. Then because the triangles ABC. and having every side parallel to.). Again. Cor. HI. Similar triangles (ABC.equiangular to ECF . Dem. and so in like manner are the sides about the other equal angles. Join AG. and similarly placed. hence (alternately) AB : DE :: BC : EF . and it is only required to prove that the sides about the equal angles are proportional. xi. IJ of the one polygon will be respectively parallel to their homologous sides DE. F EC. 150 . that is. it the ﬁgure ABHIJ be turned round the line AB until it falls on the other side. the homologous side of the original. the sides about the equal angles BHI. and lastly.) the ﬁgures are similar. therefore [V. These technical terms are due to Hamilton: see “Elements of Quaternions. F G of the other.—From the construction it is evident that the ﬁgures are equiangular.—In the foregoing construction. Hence (Def. Then ABHIJ is the ﬁgure required.

ODF are evidently equiangular. Now. and DE = DL.]. Def. x. Therefore the triangle ABC is to the triangle DEF in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF . makes use of a new deﬁnition of the duplicate ratio of two lines. OD : DL :: DN : square DM [i.) described on these lines. BG are continual proportionals. EF . and complete the rectangles AI. My experience with pupils is. DN . xvi. however. Therefore ABC : ABG in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF . AI : AH :: DN : DM . AI : DN :: AH : DM [V. ABC : DEF :: AB 2 : DE 2 . AC : AB :: DF : DE [iv. On this account I submit the following alternative proof.]. Def. Hence but Hence but therefore Again. JA : AG :: OD : DL.]. viz. and Hence therefore hence JA : AC :: OD : DF [iv. which.Again. x.].].]. but it has been proved that the triangle ABG is equal to DEF . JA : AB :: OD : DE (ex æquali ). JA : AG :: AI : square AH [i. but BC : BG :: triangle ABC : ABG. On AB and DE describe squares. 151 . AB = AG. the ratio of the squares (see Annotations on V. BC : BG in the duplicate ratio of BC : EF [V. since the lines BC. This is the ﬁrst Proposition in Euclid in which the technical term “duplicate ratio” occurs. that they ﬁnd it very diﬃcult to understand either Euclid’s proof or his deﬁnition. and through C and F draw lines parallel to AB and DE. the triangles JAC.

hence the angle B is equal to D. (3) the polygons are to each other in the duplicate ratio of their homologous sides. Join AH. CE. AHI : CEF = AIJ : CF G. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional [Def. PROP. but BHI is equal to DEF (hyp. Again. AHI : CEF in the duplicate ratio of AH : CE.].—Theorem.—Let ABHIJ. therefore [vi. hence the angle BHA is equal to DEC. Similar polygons may be divided (1) into the same number of similar triangles. 2. HB : HA :: ED : EC.). hence (ex aequali ) IH : HA :: F E : EC. AI. If one of two similar triangles has its sides 50 per cent. hence Similarly. 1.].Exercises. CDEF G be the polygons. (2) the corresponding triangles have the same ratio to one another which the polygons have. In the same manner it can be proved that the remaining triangles are equiangular. XX. Dem. we have [xix. In like manner. and AB : BH :: CD : DE. CD be homologous. therefore the triangles IHA. longer than the homologous sides of the other. they are equiangular. Since the triangle ABH is similar to CDE. because the polygons are similar. The triangles into which the polygons are divided are similar. CF . For. CDE are similar. 152 . the diﬀerence of their areas is less than the square of the side of the inscribed polygon. what is the ratio of their areas? 2. When the inscribed and circumscribed regular polygons of any common number of sides to a circle have more than four sides. since the polygons are similar. i. F EC are equiangular.]. and let the sides AB. ABH : CDE = AHI : CEF [V. xi. 1. ABH : CDE in the duplicate ratio of AH : CE. and since the triangles ABH. and the angle IHA has been proved to be equal to the angle F EC.] the triangle ABH is equiangular to CDE. IH : HB :: F E : ED. therefore the angle AHI is equal to CEF .

therefore the duplicate ratio of two lines is equal to the ratio of the squares described on them (compare Annotations. Def. 4. similar to AP B.—Let ABCD.—As squares are similar polygons.—The perimeters of similar polygons are to one another in the ratio of their homologous sides. BP . Cor. Def. 3. i. CF G the consequents. C.—The point O is called the centre of similitude of the ﬁgures. A B C D be the two ﬁgures. A B . OA B are similar and that either may be turned round the point O.—Similar portions of similar ﬁgures bear the same ratio to each other as the wholes of the ﬁgures.—Similar portions of the perimeters of similar ﬁgures are to each other in the ratio of the whole perimeters. x. therefore the triangle ABH : the triangle CDE :: the polygon ABHIJ : the polygon CDEF G. regarded as belonging to either ﬁgure. the triangles ABH. V.] any one of these equal ratios is equal to the ratio of the sum of all the antecedents to the sum of all the consequents. Cor. CEF . AHI. Cor. A . Through the two triads of points A. B . AIJ are the antecedents. then it is easy to see that lines from P to the angular points of A B C D are proportional to the lines from P to the angular points of ABCD. 153 . 2. 1. It is also called their double point. Hence (2) the polygon ABHIJ : the polygon CDEF G in the duplicate ratio of AB : CD. xii. C describe two circles intersecting again in the point O: O will be the point required. ii. The triangle ABH : CDE in the duplicate ratio of AB : CD [xix. P a point in the plane of ABCD. If two ﬁgures be directly similar. B. let AB. that lines drawn from them to the angular points of the two ﬁgures are proportional to the homologous sides of the two ﬁgures. For it is evident that the triangles OAB. will be parallel. For. 3. 1.—Homologous points in the planes of two similar ﬁgures are such. Join AP .].).In these equal ratios. and the triangles CDE. Cor. If two ﬁgures be similar. Two regular polygons of n sides each have n centres of similitude. so that the two bases. 3. to each point in the plane of one there will be a corresponding point in the plane of the other. A B be two homologous sides of the ﬁgures. is its own homologous point with respect to the other. 2. C their point of intersection. Def. and in the same plane. Exercises. there is in the plane a special point which. and [V. AB. Dem. and construct a triangle A P B on A B .

and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. A O B are similar.—Theorem. and a a if r. 11. Dem. whose diameter is the line joining the two points for which the two circles are homothetic. Again. which are similar to the same ﬁgure (C). Two circles are similar ﬁgures. Def. such as those in 5. The area of a sector of a circle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the arc of the sector and the radius of the circle. If two polygons be directly similar. 10. B). O be their centres. 9. PROP. the lines joining corresponding angular points are concurrent. and have a pair of homologous sides parallel. 12.—Let O. Rectilineal ﬁgures (A. iii. they have a common centre of similitude. If two ﬁgures be directly similar. The circumferences of circles are as their diameters (Cor. This is evident by dividing the circle into elementary triangles. The area of a circle is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference and the radius. and the point of concurrence is the centre of similitude of the ﬁgures. B O C are similar. Therefore they are similar. Sectors of circles having equal central angles are similar ﬁgures. As any two points of two circles may be regarded as homologous. and make B O C equal to it. make the angle A O B equal to AOB. r r 14. two circles have in consequence an inﬁnite number of centres of similitude. Dem. their locus is the circle. 15. For they are to one another as the similar elementary triangles into which they are divided. then the triangles AOB. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. Hence A and B are equiangular.4. are similar to one another. we see that the circles can be divided into the same number of similar elementary triangles. If any number of similar triangles have their corresponding vertices lying on three given lines. In like manner B and C are equiangular. = . and these are as the squares of the radii. so that the arc AB may be regarded as a right line. either may be turned round their centre of similitude until they become homothetic. they are equiangular. a denote the arcs of two sectors. r be their radii. every pair of homologous sides will be parallel. Proceeding in this way. make the angle BOC indeﬁnitely small. 13. The areas of circles are to one another as the squares of their diameters. let the angle AOB be indeﬁnitely small. 154 . 5.—Two ﬁgures. If two ﬁgures be homothetic. 8. as in Ex.—Since the ﬁgures A and C are similar. and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. Hence if a. are said to be homothetic. 7. 6. 8. and this may be done in two diﬀerent ways. which subtend equal angles at the centres. 1). Hence the circles are similar ﬁgures. the triangles BOC. XXI. The circumference of sectors having equal central angles are proportional to their radii.

GJ) on the third and fourth. CD. GH) be proportional. AB : CD :: EF : GH. AB : CD :: EF : GH. two by two. XXII—Theorem. Dem. ABK : CDL :: EI : GJ. AB 2 : CD2 :: EF 2 : GH 2 [V. Exercise.Cor. if any rectilineal ﬁgure described on the ﬁrst of four right lines: the similar and similarly described ﬁgure described on the second :: any rectilineal ﬁgure on the third : the similar and similarly described ﬁgure on the fourth. and But since therefore EI : GJ :: EF 2 : GH 2 [xx.]. the four lines are proportional.]. AB : CD :: EF : GH. If four lines (AB. Conversely. CDL) be similarly described on the ﬁrst and second. Dem. xxii. Cor. these ﬁgures are proportional. [xx.—ABK : CDL :: AB 2 : CD2 . and also any pair (EI. AB : CD :: EF : GH .]. 1.. If three similar rectilineal ﬁgures be homothetic. [xx. If ABK : CDL :: EI : GJ.]. PROP. 2. 155 . 1]. and any pair of similar rectilineal ﬁgures (ABK.—Two similar rectilineal ﬁgures which are homothetic to a third are homothetic to one another. their three centres of similitudes are collinear. EF.—ABK : CDL :: AB 2 : CD2 and therefore Hence EI : GJ :: EF : GH 2 2 2 2 2 2 [xx.

] AE : EF :: AB : BC. F C are similar. BC: hence the sides about the equal angles are proportional.The enunciation of this Proposition is wrongly stated in Simson’s Euclid. In any parallelogram (AC). : Z :: AB .—The parallelograms AF . CG) are to each other as the rectangles contained by their sides about a pair of equal angles. Triangles which have one angle of one equal or supplemental to one angle of the other. BG. EF . the triangles AEF . homothetic. Dem. : Y Z :: AB . BD form one right line. respectively. but it is more easily understood as we have put it. the enunciation is the same as if we said.—Theorem. Equiangular parallelograms (AD. the four ﬁgures should be similar. denoting the parallelograms AB. as in Prop.]. In the same manner the parallelograms AF . 1. since the lines EF . CBG. Y . Cor. ABC are equiangular. AB. be placed so as to form one right line. BD : BC . F C) which are about a diagonal are similar to the whole and to one another. XXIV. that the sides about the equal angles are proportional. BD : BC . BC are parallel. F C. they are equiangular [I. BG is compounded of the two ratios AB : BC and BD : BG [V. we have— X Y XY X : Y :: AB : BC [i. xiv. and in those that copy it. Dem. PROP. Now.” which is Euclid’s.—Let the two sides AB. xxxiv. : Z :: BD : BG [i. Two quadrilaterals whose diagonals intersect at equal angles are to one another in the ratio of the rectangles of the diagonals. Hence or Observation. 156 . “in the ratio compounded of the ratios of the sides. BD : BC . Now. BG. then it is evident. every two parallelograms (AF. BC about the equal angles ABD. 2. two by two. As given in those works.—Since the parallelograms AC. PROP. XXIII. therefore [iv. Def.—Since AB . AC are. that GB.. Exercises. Z. of compound ratio]. are to one another in the ratio of the rectangles of the sides about those angles.]. AC are similar. and the other sides of the parallelograms are equal to AE.—Theorem.]. and all that is required to be proved is. BF . Complete the parallelogram BF . CG by X. therefore the parallelograms AF . AF have a common angle.

]. GHI is the ﬁgure required. Def.—The three lines BC. To describe a rectilineal ﬁgure equal to a given one (A). and on it describe the ﬁgure GHI similar to BCD [xviii.).]. and it is similar to BCD. and since the ﬁgures BCD. so that BC and GH may be homologous sides. CF are in continued proportion. but the rectangle BE is equal to the ﬁgure BCD. Hence rectangle BE : EF :: ﬁgure BCD : GHI. x. 157 . xlv.—Problem. BCD : GHI in the duplicate ratio of BC : GH [xx. Dem.]. but EF is equal to A (const. and on CE describe the rectangle EF equal to A. Therefore the ﬁgure GHI is equal to A. also BC : CF :: rectangle BE : rectangle EF . GHI are similar.—On any side BC of the ﬁgure BCD describe the rectangle BE equal to BCD [I. therefore BC : CF in the duplicate ratio of BC : GH [V. GH. Sol.].PROP. therefore the rectangle EF is equal to the ﬁgure GHI. Hence it is the ﬁgure required. and similar to another given one (BCD). CF ﬁnd a mean proportional GH. XXV. Between BC.

they are about the same diagonal. so that BC and GH may be homologous sides. Dem. LM N O equal to the ﬁgures BCD and A respectively [II.—Proposition xxvi. DH parallel to the sides. If two similar and similarly situated parallelograms (AEF G. the ﬁgure EF JK : LM N O :: BCD : GHI [xxii. 1.). therefore EO is greater than DK.]. xiv. xliii. P F parallel to the other sides of the triangle. AC. The following would be a simpler enunciation:—“If two homothetic parallelograms have a common angle. Therefore GHI is equal to A. Then because the parallelograms AEF G.—Draw the diagonals (see ﬁg. LM . by the area of the similar parallelogram whose diagonal is the line between the middle point P of the opposite side and the point D. and produce HD to meet P K in I. EK is also bisected in P ..). To each add BO.” PROP. but EF JK is equal to BCD (const.—Theorem. Now. GD to meet CK in K and J. has evidently been misplaced. On GH describe the rectilineal ﬁgure GHI similar to the ﬁgure BCD [xviii. XXVII—Problem. and CK parallel to AB.—Bisect the side AC opposite to the angle B. and BC [xii. Hence the line AC must pass through the point F .]. therefore LM N O is equal to GHI. they are about the same diagonal. but DK is equal to F D [I. and we have the parallelogram BP greater than BD. 158 . Prop. being the converse of xxiv. Cor. GHI is the ﬁgure required. Dem. To inscribe in a given triangle (ABC) the maximum parallelogram having a common angle (B) with the triangle.). Hence BP is the maximum parallelogram which can be inscribed in the given triangle. hence [I. and therefore the parallelograms are about the same diagonal. BP is the parallelogram required. and therefore the angle F AG is equal to the angle CAD.—The maximum parallelogram exceeds any other parallelogram about the same angle in the triangle. they can be divided into the same number of similar triangles [xx. since AC is bisected in P . but LM N O is equal to A (const. produce EP .—Because EF : LM :: BC : GH (const. xxxvi.].) AF . Dem. hence EO is greater than F D. PROP. XXVI. at P : through P draw P E. Sol. ABCD are similar ﬁgures. which is the corner of the other inscribed parallelogram. ABCD) have a common angle.] the parallelogram EO is equal to OK. xxiv.]. Hence the triangle F AG is similar to CAD. and it is similar to BCD...—Take any other point D in AC : draw DG. Observation.].Or thus: Describe the squares EF JK.]. then ﬁnd GH a fourth proportional to EF .

and having one angle common with it. XXVIII. made by the opposite corners of the parallelograms. Dem. PROP. then cut oﬀ P I equal to KL.) their homologous sides. BD is the parallelogram required. and KN is (const.—Bisect the side AC opposite to B. but EF is equal to P C.—Since the parallelograms P C. the problem is solved. DC. Cor. and having an angle (B) common with the triangle. 3.) the diﬀerence between P C and X.—Problem. 2. hence [xx.] BP is the maximum parallelogram that can be inscribed in the triangle ABC. and draw CJ parallel to P F . P D are about the same diagonal. draw IH parallel to AB. then [xxvii. Cor.] equal to the diﬀerence between the ﬁgure P JCF and X. are proportional to the rectangles contained by the segments of the sides of the triangle. To inscribe in a given triangle (ABC) a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X) not greater than the maximum inscribed parallelogram. at P . 1]. To escribe to a given triangle (ABC) a parallelogram equal to a given rectilineal ﬁgure (X). therefore the diﬀerence between P C and X is equal to the diﬀerence between EF and GH.Cor. they are similar [xxiv. If not. cutting AC in D. and having an angle common with an external angle (B) of the triangle. P I and KL.). but P C is similar to KP T (const. and draw DG parallel to BC. Now.] P D is equal to KN .—The parallelogram AC : GH :: AC 2 : AD . Hence GH is equal to X. produce EP . 159 . P D is the diﬀerence between EF and GH [xxvii. Draw P F . and so that the sides P J and KL will be homologous. and (const.—The parallelograms inscribed in a triangle. are equal. PROP.]. P E parallel to the sides AB. then describe the parallelogram KLM N [xxv. therefore P D is similar to KN . and if X be equal to it. BC.—Problem. and similar to P JCF . Sol. XXIX.

AB : AC :: AC : BC [xvii.—Theorem. and then make P I equal to KL. In the same case the greater segment of the hypotenuse is equal to the least side of the triangle. The square on the diameter of the circle described about the triangle formed by the points F . vi.Sol. Dem. 3. we make it equal to their sum. Hence the thing required is done. PROP. that is (const. 2. equal to the diﬀerence between the parallelograms P D and P C. Hence AB is cut in extreme and mean ratio in C [Def. is equal to six times the square on the line F D. In the form we have given them they are freed from their usual repulsive appearance. ii.—Because the rectangle AB .—The enunciations of the three foregoing Propositions have been altered. II.).—Divide AB in C. that is. as in II. the hypotenuse is divided in extreme and mean ratio by the perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. Exercises.] Then C is the point required. xi. that the parallelogram BD is equal to the gnomon OHJ. except that. or the diﬀerence (const. D (see ﬁg. xi.). If the three sides of a right-angled triangle be in continued proportion. Observation. Dem. BC may be equal to the square on AC [II. 1.—The construction is the same as the last.]. 160 .. BC is equal to the square on AC. in order to express them in modern technical language. Some writers recommend the student to omit them—we think diﬀerently. but slightly modiﬁed. and the rest of the construction as before.].) between KN and P C. and has an angle common with the external angle B. The constructions and demonstrations are Euclid’s. H. instead of making the parallelogram KN equal to the excess of the parallelogram P C over the rectilineal ﬁgure X. XXX. so that the rectangle AB .” Sol.—Now it can be proved. draw IH parallel to AB. equal to X. and BD is escribed to the triangle ABC. To divide a given line (AB) in “extreme and mean ratio.

BC. γ c a2 + b2 α+β = . be joined at an angle (C).]. and the ﬁgures by α. AB : BD :: ﬁgure described on AB : ﬁgure described on BC.].] α : γ :: a2 : c2 therefore In like manner. then because the ﬁgures are similar. β. PROP. Again. so as to have their homologous sides parallel. γ c2 but a2 + b2 = c2 [I. γ. a. therefore a2 α = 2. that is. Hence [V. because the ﬁgures described on BA. XXXII. xi. the sum of the ﬁgures on the sides is equal to the ﬁgure on the hypotenuse. 4].] the ﬁgure described on the line AB is equal to the sum of the similar ﬁgures described on the lines AC and BC. the ﬁgure on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of those described on the two other sides. 161 . they are in the duplicate ratio of BA : AC [xx. γ c β b2 = 2. and CD is drawn from the right angle perpendicular to the hypotenuse. If two triangles (ABC. BD : AD in the duplicate ratio of BA : AC [viii.—Draw the perpendicular CD [I. Or thus: Let us denote the sides by a.] AB : sum of AD and BD :: ﬁgure described on the line AB : sum of the ﬁgures described on the lines AC. the remaining sides are in the same right line. c.]. we have [xx. and the contained angles (B. In like manner. CDE) which have two sides of one proportional to two sides of the other (AB : BC :: CD : DE).] BA : AD :: ﬁgure described on BA : ﬁgure described on AC.PROP.—Theorem. If any similar rectilineal ﬁgure be similarly described on the three sides of a right-angled triangle (ABC). Exercise. Then because ABC is a rightangled triangle. xii. Dem. D) equal. xxiv. Therefore α + β = γ.—Theorem. but AB is equal to the sum of AD and BD. the sum of the areas of the two crescents thus formed is equal to the area of the triangle whose sides are the supplemental chords and the diameter. If semicircles be described on supplemental chords of a semicircle. Cor. XXXI. Therefore [V. b. Hence [V. AC are similar. xlvii.

]. namely. they are equiangular [vi. In like manner it may be proved that the arc EJ and the angle EP J are equimultiples of the arc EF and the angle EP F . Join OG. EF ) on which they stand. the arc EJ and the angle EP J.Dem. Def. each equal to EF . viz. the arc BH. and so also have the sectors (BOC. xiv. therefore the sum of DCE and ACD is two right angles. CDE have the angles B and D equal. Again. the angle BOC. the angles BOC. JP . EP F ) at the centres or (BAC. Now we have four magnitudes. 162 . Then because the arcs BC. or less than the arc EJ. Hence [V.] BC : EF :: the angle BOC : EP F .—1. To each add ACD. PROP. ACD is [I. OH. Hence [I. GH in the ﬁrst circle. and in the second circle take any number of arcs F I. COG. and we have proved that. therefore the angle BAC is equal to DCE. equal to. and the angle EP F .—Because the triangles ABC. In equal circles. equal to. namely. v. EP F ). according as the multiple of the ﬁrst is greater than. AB : BC :: CD : DE. EDF ) at the circumferences have the same ratio to one another as the arcs (BC. it is evident that the angle BOH is greater than. the arc EF .] AC.–Theorem. namely. each equal to BC. are all equal [III. IJ.. Therefore the arc BH and the angle BOH are equimultiples of the arc BC and the angle BOC. Take any number of arcs CG. angles (BOC. CG. and other equimultiples of the second and fourth. the angle BOH. according as the arc BH is greater than. equal to. GOH. or less than the multiple of the fourth.] two right angles. but the sum of BAC. or less than the multiple of the second. the arc BC.]. CE are in the same right line. xxix. xxvii. and the sides about these angles proportional. XXXIII. and we have taken equimultiples of the ﬁrst and third. Join IP . since the circles are equal. ACD equal to the sum of DCE and ACD. equal to. the multiple of the third is greater than. Dem. or less than the angle EP J. and we have the sum of the angles BAC. GH are all equal.

2. and since the circles are equal. v. When is a ﬁgure said to be given in species? 7. but Hence 2. Proposition xxix. What is a mean proportional between two lines? 10. Deﬁne reciprocal proportion. equal to. Book III. Hence there are as many equal sectors as there are equal arcs. Hence [V. What are similar rectilineal ﬁgures? 3. Hence the sectors BOC. the sector BOH is greater than. [V.Again. Hence. how do their areas vary? 13. What is meant by ﬁgures inversely similar? 20. therefore the arc BH and the sector BOH are equimultiples of the arc BC and the sector BOC. prove that their perpendiculars are reciprocally proportional to the bases. How many to deﬁne similar rectilineal ﬁgures of more than three sides? 6. since the angle BAC is half the angle BOC [III. The sector BOC : sector EP F :: BC : EF . In like manner the sectors COG. xv. and the radius of the circle ABC 2 1 [xx. 1. 19. Ex. What do similar ﬁgures agree in? 4. If both bases and altitudes diﬀer. When in position? 9. 11. their radii are equal. 18.—The same construction being made. and EDF is half the angle EP F . xi. If two ﬁgures be inversely similar. When in magnitude? 8. COG are congruent (see Observation.? Ans. or less than the sector EP J. Deﬁne two mean proportionals. GOH are equal.].. and it is evident. In the same manner it may be proved that the arc EJ and the sector EP J are equimultiples of the arc EF and the sector EP F . How many conditions are necessary to deﬁne similar triangles? 5. what property holds for the lines joining the other pairs of homologous points? 17.).] the arc BC : EF :: sector BOC : sector EP F . How do these areas vary if they have equal bases but unequal altitudes? 14. xx. Application of the theory of proportion. therefore they are equal. The second part may be proved as follows:— Sector BOC = 1 rectangle contained by the arc BC. 14] and sector EP F = 2 rectangle contained by the arc EF and the radius of the circle EDF . When are two lines divided proportionally? 16. since the arc BC is equal to CG. If two triangles have equal areas. Dem. how do the areas vary? 15. by superposition. the angle BOC is equal to COG. or less than the arc EJ. If two triangles have equal altitudes. Def. BAC : EDF :: BOC : EP F BOC : EP F :: BC : EF. If in two lines divided proportionally a pair of homologous points coincide with their point of intersection.]. BAC : EDF :: BC : EF [V. sector BOC : sector EP F :: arc BC : arc EF . that if the arc BH is greater than.]. Questions for Examination on Book VI. What is the altitude of a rectilineal ﬁgure? 12. What is the subject-matter of Book VI. equal to. how can they be changed into ﬁgures directly similar? 163 .

What proposition is xix. and the escribed circles of a plane triangle. are inversely similar.. How do the areas of similar rectilineal ﬁgures vary? 27. if K be the point of contact with BC of the escribed circle. 7. 12R2 = d2 + d 2 + d 2 + d 2 . a point C be taken such that the rectangle AB . Ans. Ans. r . a special case of? 28. If in a ﬁxed triangle we draw a variable parallel to the base. 29. p . are given in position: AB is divided in C in the ratio m : n. p p r 1 1 = − . 6. In the same case. AC is constant. 11. 10. B C . Find the locus of the point which divides in a given ratio the several lines drawn from a given point to the circumference of a given circle. prove AB . &c. C . If p . BK = BD . LH . &c. If on a variable line AC. How many centres of similitude have two circles? Exercises on Book VI. 23. B. In the same case. What point is it round which a ﬁgure can be turned so as to bring its sides into positions of parallelism with the sides of a similar rectilineal ﬁgure. Give an example of two triangles inversely similar. A . r r 164 . Deﬁne Philo’s line. 22. 8. B . d . If two lines passing through any point O outside a circle intersect it in pairs of points A. r be the radii of the circumscribed. &c.21. B . r r 1 1 = + . How many ﬁgures similar to a given rectilineal ﬁgure of sides can be described on a given line? 24. L the point where the bisector of the angle A meets BC. the locus of C is a circle. C . Three concurrent lines from the vertices of a triangle ABC meet the opposite sides in A . If R. the triangles OAB. HD. C A. d the distances of the centre of the circumscribed circle from the centres of the others. 3. are drawn in any direction meeting XY in the points A . p denote the perpendiculars of a triangle. H the point of contact of the inscribed circle with BC. which lie on a circle. drawn from a ﬁxed point A to any point B in the circumference of a given circle. which touches the other sides produced. CA = A B . and parallels AA . B . the inscribed. r. C . OA B . BC . prove AB . CC . CA = −A B . p p r 1 1 1 + − = . B . E the foot of the perpendicular. respectively. 1. 9. B C . 4. prove DE . HL = HE . then 1 p 1 (2) p 2 (3) p 2 (4) p (1) + 1 1 1 + = . BC . d. If D be the middle point of the base BC of a triangle ABC.. d . If a transversal meet the sides of a triangle ABC in the points A . XY . &c. r . 5. 2. BB . the locus of the points of intersection of the diagonals of the trapezium thus cut oﬀ from the triangle is the median that bisects the base. LE. C A. What are homothetic ﬁgures? 26. Two lines AB. prove (m + n)CC = nAA + mBB . then R2 = d2 + 2Rr = d 2 − 2Rr . How many centres of similitude can two regular polygons of n sides each have? Ans. 25. The centre of similitude of the two ﬁgures. n centres.

respectively: prove AB OC BC OA CA OB . the chord of contact passes through a ﬁxed point on the line connecting the centres of the ﬁxed circles. CA. may be in the ratios of three given lines. CD be the internal and external bisectors of the angle C of the triangle ACB. CB. C . 15. 23. 26. BE is perpendicular to AD. 165 . have the same ratio to each other. AC . measured from either diagonal. If a system of circles pass through two ﬁxed points. the locus of any point in its plane is a circle. BD are proportional to the squares of AD. AD. B. prove OB OC OA + + = 1. AA BB CC 24. One of the vertices of a triangle of given form remains ﬁxed. (2) in geometrical progression if one base angle be right. 27. E and F . 16. AD . If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles. In a given triangle inscribe another of given form. 14. ﬁnd the locus of the point which divides BD in a given ratio. A . OC be cut by two transversals in the two systems of points A. such that the diameters of the three circles. 13. (3) is divided by both pairs of opposite sides into segments which. (2) is divided by each pair of opposite lines into segments which. If three concurrent lines OA. then if the lines of connexion of A and B to any variable point in one of the parallels intersect the other parallels in the points C and D. If there be given three parallel lines. any two secants passing through one of the points are cut proportionally by the circles. Find the area of a triangle—(1) in terms of its medians. the three rectangles AD . 21. and two ﬁxed points A. The line joining the middle points of the diagonals of a quadrilateral circumscribed to a circle— (1) divides each pair of opposite sides into inversely proportional segments. = . B . AC. and are—(1) in arithmetical progression if the diﬀerence of the base angles be equal to a right angle. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral: the lines AB. OB. The angle A and the area of a triangle ABC are given in magnitude: if the point A be ﬁxed in position. A B OC B C OA C A OB 25. the locus of the point C is a circle. B. If three lines from the vertices of a triangle ABC to any interior point O meet the opposite sides in the points A . measured from the centre. AD . their common tangent is a mean proportional between their diameters. 22. the diameter through A. about the triangles OAB. = c . OBC. OCA. If a triangle of given form move so that its three sides pass through three ﬁxed points. respectively. and the point C. are given in position. the locus of another is a right line or circle. are proportional to the sides.12. 17. B . If two circles touch externally. 20. CB are two tangents to a circle. CF and DE pass each through a ﬁxed point. Find a point O in the plane of a triangle ABC. ﬁnd the locus of the third. If CD. and the point B move along a ﬁxed line or circle. C . (2) in terms of its perpendiculars. C. DB. (3) in harmonical progression if the sum of the base angles be equal to a right angle. and having one of its angles at a given point in one of the sides of the original triangle. 18. 19. prove that CD bisects BE.

If a. the locus of the point dividing A B in a given ratio is a right line. Then AO. If a line EF divide proportionally two opposite sides of a quadrilateral.. whose sides touch the circle at the angular points of the inscribed quadrilateral. DD . 166 . the choice of sign depending on the nature of the contacts. 13). Describe a circle which shall—(1) pass through a given point. 24. that is. formed by joining the feet of the perpendiculars from any of its angular points on the sides of the triangle formed by the three remaining points. DD 2 = AB . 40.. 42. Now. in a given ratio. 28.. then 12 . and A . B respectively. This follows from 28. DD 2 : AB 2 :: (R±ρ)(R±ρ ) : R2 . 34 + 23 . If the lines AD. and a line GH the other sides. A B.Dem. and if we denote by 12 the common tangent to the ﬁrst and second.]. O the centre of the variable circle. Being given the centre of a circle. AO.—Let O. 35. 29. b. 36. B two variable points. or pass through a given point. BD (see ﬁg. O be the centres of the two ﬁxed circles. such that the triangle whose angular points are the feet of the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the bisector of the vertical angle. 33. The four triangles which are determined by four points. D the diagonals of a quadrilateral. they meet in a point on the circumference of O . taken three by three. 43. If R denote the radius of O and ρ. Hence C is a given point. the angle O BA = O AB = OA A. Through two given points describe a circle whose common chord with another given circle may be parallel to a given line. the tangent to it from their centre of similitude. B be two ﬁxed points on two lines given in position. (2) touch three given circles. such that the ratio AA : BB is constant. 37. BO meet in O [III. O AB are isosceles. Hence OA is parallel to O B. are such that their nine-points circles have one common point. and the line O P is perpendicular to DD . If DD be the common tangent to the two circles. The inscribed and escribed circles of any triangle are all touched by its nine-points circle. describe it so as to cut the legs of a given angle along a chord parallel to a given line. BO . c. 38. each of these is divided by the other in the same ratio as the sides which determine them. are proportional to the three rectangles ac. Prove the converse of Ptolemy’s theorem (see xvii. and touch two given circles. Ex. O . Join A O. through which the chord of contact passes (27). 14 = 13 . d denote the four sides. Let AB and OO meet in C. 27) be produced. In a given circle inscribe a triangle. is of constant length. bd. and the foot of the perpendicular from the vertical angle on the base. In a circle. the point of intersection of the diagonals of any inscribed quadrilateral coincides with the point of intersection of the diagonals of the circumscribed quadrilateral. If four circles be tangential to a ﬁfth. 41. the radii of O. &c. 30. xi. 34. because the triangles OAA . 32. 39. prove that the sides of the triangle. If a variable circle touch two ﬁxed circles. B the points of contact. A. and D. and cut the ﬁxed circles again in the points A . Ex. therefore OC : O C :: OA : O B. If A. may be a maximum. ρ . 31.

. 49. 60. 50. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the vertex on two lines through the middle point of the base. the perpendiculars at P to these lines meet the opposite sides of the triangle in three collinear points. 61. in the circumference of a given circle are on the same side of a given diameter. AB. B. C. 55. and 3 1 divide HD in K. If the sides of any polygon be cut by a transversal. 62. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from its centre on the bisectors of the angle formed by the lines is given.. ﬁnd a point P in the circumference at the other side of the given diameter. the product of one set of alternate segments is equal to the product of the remaining set. the lines from the angles of the triangle to the middle points of the segments of the transversal intercepted by those angles meet the opposite sides in collinear points. A circle rolls inside another of double its diameter. 52. 51. and cutting a given circle at a given angle. so that the radii of the circles inscribed in them may have a given ratio.. so that HK = 4 HD. by nOP 2 . 58. is constant. exceeds the sum of the squares of lines from the same points to their centre of mean position. The sum of the perpendiculars let fall from any system of points A. divide GC in H. parallel to the internal and external bisectors of the vertical angle. C. D. If a circle make given intercepts on two ﬁxed lines. The last point found will be the centre of mean position of the given points. D. 64. O. so that GH = 1 GC. D. P D may cut AB at equal distances from the centre. ﬁnd the locus of the point. &c. The external bisectors of the angles of a triangle meet the opposite sides in three collinear points. Two points. A transversal being drawn cutting the sides of a triangle. If a triangle be inscribed in a circle. The rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base of a triangle. If lines be drawn from any point P to the angles of a triangle. 63. the product of one set of alternate segments is equal to the product of the other set. B. 54. B. 48. If concurrent lines drawn from the angles of a polygon of an odd number of sides divide the opposite sides each into two segments. 59. ﬁnd the locus of a ﬁxed point in its circumference. being given two opposite angles. Join H to a fourth point D. 57. to any point P . The centre of mean position of the angular points of a regular polygon is the centre of ﬁgure of the polygon. &c. 53. 45. Describe a circle touching a given line at a given point. Construct a quadrilateral. the sum of the squares of the perpendiculars is a minimum. 47. The sum of the squares of lines drawn from any system of points A. is a point which may be found as follows:—Bisect the line joining any two points A. on the internal bisector of the vertical angle. the diagonals. when the sum of the squares of the lines joining the feet of the perpendiculars is given. Divide a given semicircle into two parts by a perpendicular to the diameter. the tangents to the circle at its three angular points meet the three opposite sides at three collinear points. in G. is equal to n times the perpendicular from the centre of mean position on L. Def. D. such that P C. 167 . so as to be the centre of mean position of the feet of the perpendiculars drawn from it to the sides of the triangle. If a point be taken within a triangle. B. Join G to a third point C. and so on. 56. From a point within a triangle perpendiculars are let fall on the sides. whose number is n on any line L. If the base and the diﬀerence of the base angles of a triangle be given. State and prove the corresponding theorem for perpendiculars on the external bisector. &c. C. 46. is equal to the rectangle contained by the external bisector and the perpendicular from the middle of the base on the internal bisector. If a triangle be described about a circle.44. and the angle between the diagonals. C.—The centre of mean position of any number of points A. the lines from the points of contact of its sides with the circle to the opposite angular points are concurrent.

cutting the lines AF . In the same case the diameter of the circle circumscribed about the triangle ABC = AB . 76. C. 66. If on the sides AB. H. If four points A. 79. 72. and circumscribed to another. CB. F CH are homothetic. 77. the distance from C to the point of contact on either side is a fourth proportional to the semiperimeter. Therefore the points I. if c be the hypotenuse. construct it. If three concurrent lines from the angles of a triangle ABC meet the opposite side in the points A . ﬁnd the locus of a point such that tangents from it to the circles may have a given ratio. the circle described about the triangle touches a ﬁxed circle. then. B. I are collinear. AD CE EF prove the triangle BF C = 2ADE. Being given two circles. OD = OB . D be four collinear points. LI. C . KL. G are collinear. and on their line of connexion F . CA. if necessary. the square of its area is equal to the product of its four sides. ﬁnd the locus of the point P at which AB and CD subtend equal angles. CD produced. Describe a circle about the triangle ADI. c. Dem. Now. D be collinear. OC. CA : 2AB . 69. in K and L. If two sides of a triangle be given in position. Pascal’s Theorem. and s the semiperimeter. BC . d denote the sides of a cyclic quadrilateral. and s its semiperimeter. Hence they are equal. R denote the radii of the circles inscribed in the triangles into which a rightangled triangle is divided by the perpendicular from the right angle on the hypotenuse. BC . If R. If two sides of a triangle circumscribed to a given circle be given in position. 73. CB.] equal to the angle GAD. If a quadrilateral be inscribed in one circle. F CG are each [III. 67.—If the opposite sides of an irregular hexagon ABCDEF inscribed in a circle be produced till they meet. 78. of a triangle and its circumscribed circle. Hence the lines joining corresponding vertices are concurrent. B . such that BD AE DF = = . and the points A . BC . 70. C be joined.65. E. xxi. AC of a triangle ABC we take two points D. hence the triangles KLI. ABC : A B C :: AB . R2 + R 2 = (s − c)2 . ﬁnd a point O in the same line with them such that OA . CA . and CA. Therefore KL is parallel to CF . 75. B. b. 168 . forming a second triangle A B C . Join IK. the angles KLG. 71. 68. but the third side variable. prove its area = (s − a)(s − b)(s − c)(s − d). CA divided by the area of A B C . If A. H. LI is parallel to CH. 74.—Join AD. two points can be found. B . The four sides of a cyclic quadrilateral are given. at each of which the base subtends a constant angle. State and prove the corresponding theorem for a circle touching the circumscribed circle externally and two sides produced. and KI to F H. If a circle touch internally two sides. Similarly. C. and if the area be given in magnitude. the three points of intersection G. If a.

Π the areas of the corresponding polygons of double the number of sides. and r = √ 169 . and the diﬀerence between its diagonals. and double the number of sides. If the middle point of the base BC of an isosceles triangle ABC be the centre of a circle touching the equal sides. the sum of whose opposite parallel sides is given. and two circles are described touching CE. 100. construct the parallelogram. the sum of the reciprocals of the containing sides is constant. 86. 88. 96. 101. and Π. If lines be drawn from any point in the circumference of a circle to the angular points of any inscribed regular polygon of an odd number of sides. the locus of the remaining angle is also a right line. Inscribe in a given circle a polygon all whose sides pass through given points. And the circle described about the triangle formed by drawing tangents to X. In any triangle. 94. If a cyclic quadrilateral be such that three of its sides pass through three ﬁxed collinear points. the fourth side passes through a fourth ﬁxed point. Y be so related that a triangle may be inscribed in X and circumscribed about Y . the sum of the distances of the orthocentre from the base and from the middle point of the base is equal to half the base. r . Given the area of a parallelogram. the rectangle of the intercepts between the feet of these perpendiculars and the intersection of the tangents is constant. If through the middle points of each of the two diagonals of a quadrilateral we draw a parallel to the other. If the vertical angle and the bisector of the vertical angle be given. If at the extremities of a chord drawn through a given point within a given circle tangents be drawn. DF are perpendiculars to the diameter of a semicircle. and whose area is given. r denote the radii of the circumscribed and inscribed circles to a regular polygon of any number of sides. Given the base of a triangle. is equal to the area of that triangle. 84. 82. the sums of the alternate lines are equal. 98. the circle inscribed in the triangle formed by joining the points of contact on Y touches a given circle. touches a given circle. one internally and the other externally. prove r(R + r) . and Π a harmonic mean between Π and P . the sum of the reciprocals of the perpendiculars from the point upon the tangents is constant. one internally and the other externally. at the angular points of the inscribed triangle. and if the loci of all the angles but one be right lines. prove Π is a geometric mean between P and P . as the diﬀerence of the squares of the sides is to four times the area. 99. DE. 93. CE will be constant. 2 91. prove that any variable tangent to the circle will cut the sides in points D. and the point in the base whose distance from the vertex is equal half the sum of the sides. (2) inwards—on the sides of any triangle. DF . 85. and perpendiculars be let fall from its centre on the transverse tangents to these circles. CE. 83. If two circles X. The diﬀerence of the areas of the triangles formed by joining the centres of the circles described about the equilateral triangles constructed—(1) outwards. the lines drawn from their points of intersection to the middle points of the sides divide the quadrilateral into four equal parts. E. Inscribe in a given circle a trapezium. In the same case. P denote the areas of two regular polygons of any common number of sides. R = Rr. 92.80. 87. when the base and the ratio of the sides are given. inscribed and circumscribed to a circle. If all the sides of a polygon be parallel to given lines. 81. 89. such that the rectangle BD . If P . the sum of the squares of the sides of the two new triangles is equal to the sum of the squares of the sides of the original triangle. collinear with the three given ones. and the semicircle. 90. one of its angles. 97. the vertical angle. the radius of the circumscribed circle is to the radius of the circle which is the locus of the vertex. an inﬁnite number of such triangles can be constructed. If R. construct the triangle. 95. R . In the same case. If a variable circle touch two equal circles. If the altitude of a triangle be equal to its base. the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from their centres on AB is equal to CE . corresponding radii to a regular polygon of the same area.

bc ca ab 115. Find a point. a . B.s. (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 118. and the rectangle of the sides. 104. CA + A B . prove that EF divides the side BC in the ratio of 2 : 1. The rectangle contained by the segments of the base of a triangle. being given that the sides taken in order are divided in given ratios by ﬁxed points. 109. 112. If two secants at right angles to each other. 107. Four points A. the locus of the intersection of the tangents at its extremities is a circle. To construct a quadrilateral. b. B. If a chord of one circle be a tangent to another. made by the point of contact of the inscribed circle. on the tangent at the other end. passing through one of the points of intersection of two circles. If the external diagonal of a quadrilateral inscribed in a given circle be a chord of another given circle. 113. State and prove the corresponding theorems for the centres of the escribed circles. Two circles described to touch an ordinate of a semicircle. whose four vertices shall lie on four given lines.102. the sum of whose distances from three given points may be a minimum. cut the circles again. Construct a polygon of an odd number of sides. From a point P in the plane of a given polygon perpendiculars are let fall on its sides. 120. D are collinear. and the line through their centres in the two systems of points a. if the area of the polygon formed by joining the feet of the perpendiculars be given. 117. 116. making the angle AEF = EAB. If two circles touch. the same property is true of the three remaining points. construct the triangle. ﬁnd a point P at which the segments AB. the locus of P is a circle. 106. is 8abc. BC . to its point of contact with the second. A . portions whose rectangle is constant. the side CD is bisected in E. 105. 124. If O be the centre of the inscribed circle of the triangle prove OB 2 OC 2 OA2 + + = 1. C A is equal twice the triangle A B C multiplied by the diameter of the circle ABC. are equal to one another. If three of the six points in which a circle meets the sides of any triangle be such. similar to a given one. 123. 114. 108. 110. If a chord of a given circle subtend a right angle at a given point. the diﬀerence of the base angles.area . c. the joining lines cut oﬀ. In the same case the product of the alternate segments of the sides made by the bisectors of the angles is a2 b2 c2 . is equal to the rectangle contained by the perpendiculars from the extremities of the base on the bisector of the vertical angle. that the lines joining them to the opposite vertices are concurrent. and the line EF drawn. 103. The product of the bisectors of the three angles of a triangle whose sides are a. the semicircle itself. then ab : bc :: a b : b c . If a triangle A B C be inscribed in another ABC. b . c. c respectively. the line connecting the middle point of each arc which it cuts oﬀ on the ﬁrst. ABCD is a square. B C . 121. passes through a given point. 122. B . 170 . Given the base of a triangle. b. C. A line drawn through the intersection of two tangents to a circle is divided harmonically by the circle and the chord of contact. and through their point of contact two secants be drawn at right angles to each other. cutting the circles respectively in the points A. If any chord be drawn through a ﬁxed point on a diameter of a circle. 111. (a + b)(b + c)(c + a) 119. and the semicircles on the segments of the diameter. then AA 2 + BB 2 is constant. the locus of its middle point is a circle. CD subtend equal angles. BC. prove AB . To construct a quadrilateral similar to a given one whose four sides shall pass through four given points. and its extremities joined to either end of the diameter.

If a solid angle be composed of three plane angles it is called a trihedral angle. ABD lying in one plane have a common segment AB. For the same reason the line BC is in it. v. ii. The angle which one plane makes with another is called a dihedral angle.—Let any plane pass through EB. Def. if BC be not in X.. When two or more lines are in one plane they are said to be coplanar . it can be produced in it [Bk. meeting in a point. let any other plane passing through AD be turned round AD until it passes through the point C. BE) which form a triangle. PROP. CD) which intersect one another in any point (E) are coplanar. THEORY OF PLANES. I. I. Then. &c. and so also are any three right lines (EC. ii. Dem. BE are coplanar. and another part (BC) not in it. COPLANAR LINES. a tetrahedral angle. Post. in diﬀerent planes. Def. II. Two right lines (AB. CB. One part (AB) of a right line cannot be in a plane (X).]. Then because the points E. but AB and CD are two of these lines.—Theorem. the line BC [I. iv.]. Therefore. i. PROP. and if of more than four. AND SOLID ANGLES DEFINITIONS. Therefore the lines EC. A solid angle is that which is made by more than two plane angles. Therefore the two right lines ABC. a polyhedral angle. which is impossible.—Theorem.. vi.] is in it. Hence AB and CD are coplanar. C are in this plane. iii. because the points B.BOOK XI. if of four. Dem. C are in this second plane. Now. and be turned round it until it passes through C. The point is called the vertex of the solid angle. 171 . the right line EC is in it [I. let it be produced to D. vi. CB.—Since AB is in the plane X.

BF D enclose a space. Axiom x. 2].—Theorem. Then the right lines BED.PROP.. III. EC. x. and so as to be bisected in G. Dem. we have BF 2 = BE 2 + EF 2 . G.—Through any point G in GH draw a line BC intersecting AB. and join any point F in EF to B.] is impossible. BC) cut one another. it will be perpendicular to any line GH. ∴ 2BG2 + 2GF 2 = 2BG2 + 2GE 2 + 2EF 2 . BF 2 + CF 2 = 2BG2 + 2GF 2 [II.—If not from B to D. CD. Therefore the common section BD of the two planes must be a right line. IV. and in the plane BC the right line BF D. C.—Theorem. which [I. If two planes (AB. Dem. ∴ BF 2 + CF 2 = BE 2 + CE 2 + 2EF 2 . Ex. Again and and CF 2 = CE 2 + EF 2 . If a right line (EF ) be perpendicular to each of two intersecting lines (AB. their common section (BD) is a right line. ∴ GF 2 = GE 2 + EF 2 . because EF is perpendicular to the lines EB. BE 2 + CE 2 = 2BG2 + 2GE 2 . draw in the plane AB the right line BED. 172 . PROP. Then. which is both coplanar and concurrent with them. CD).

2. BDC are right. the angle ABE is right. BD. Dem.—Theorem. But AB is coplanar with AD. and EF is perpendicular to EG. and in the plane X draw DE at right angles to BD. Therefore the angle ABF is right. Hence AE 2 = AD2 + DE 2 . Therefore these lines are coplanar [XI. and of all others that may be drawn to it.] perpendicular to AB. Cor. Def. and the angle ABC is right (hyp. xlviii]. which is impossible [I. iii. Therefore the lines AD. And since CD is normal to the plane X. CD meet the plane X at the points B. D. Hence ABC is equal to ABF .]. BE.] BF is a right line. the locus of their feet is called the projection of the given line on the plane. BD [XI.—Theorem.. iv. they shall be parallel to one another. If two right lines (AB.—For if possible let BC be not coplanar with BD. is said to be perpendicular to the plane of these lines. DE is perpendicular to CD. AE. Dem.—If from every point in a given line normals be drawn to a given plane.—A perpendicular to each of two intersecting lines is normal to their plane. Therefore AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 = AB 2 + BD2 + DE 2 . BD. Join BE. take any point E in DE. VI.].]. AD. BE. vii. and since the angles ABD.—The normal is the least line that may be drawn from a given point to a given plane. BC intersect the plane of BD. since it is coplanar with BD. xxviii. If three concurrent lines (BC. Then [XI. BD. Hence DE is a common perpendicular to the three concurrent lines CD. 1. BE) have a common perpendicular (AB). AD. PROP. PROP. [I.—A line such as EF . Axiom ix.]. BD. they are coplanar. CD) be normals to the same plane (X). Therefore the angle ADE is right. and let the plane of AB. Then because AB is normal to X. Cor. But AB 2 + BD2 = AD2 . BE are coplanar. 173 . Def. BE in the line BF . Therefore the lines BC. and is called a normal to it. which are each perpendicular to AB. it is [XI. because the angle ABD is right.Hence the angle GEF is right. v. which is perpendicular to a system of concurrent and coplanar lines.).—Let AB. V. because the angle BDE is right. the line AB is parallel to CD [I. vi. ii. and. Join BD. CD are coplanar. the lines of any system making equal angles with the normal are equal to each other.

that is. Post. Now in the plane X. which [I. as EGF . CD). Dem.)). which is coplanar and concurrent with AD and BD. Therefore the angle ADE is right. the line joining these points is in that plane [I. 1. VIII. it is perpendicular to the line BE in that plane [XI. but ABD is right (hyp. of the parallels draw [I.]. BD. CD are coplanar. the other line (CD) shall be normal to the same plane. Two parallel lines (AB. Therefore [XI. CD) and any line (EF ) intersecting them are coplanar. F are in the plane of the parallels.] DE is perpendicular to CD.Exercises. 174 . If one (AB) of two parallel right lines (AB. Take any point E in DE. PROP. xxix. enclosing a space.—Let AB. Then we have two right lines EGF . iv. Hence the angle ABE is right.] it is normal to their plane. Hence CD is perpendicular to the two lines DB. and join BE. Again.)) = AD2 + DE 2 (because ABD is right (hyp. be normal to a plane (X). vi. PROP. draw DE at right angles to BD. Hence the two parallel right lines and the transversal are coplanar. Then because AB is normal to the plane X. therefore AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 = AB 2 + BD2 + DE 2 (because BDE is right (const. The projection on either of two intersecting planes of a normal to the other plane is perpendicular to the line of intersection of the planes. Def. CD meet the plane X in the points B. And in the plane. it is normal to X. vi]. 2. therefore BDC is right.]. to which AB is normal.] the right line EHF . AE. D. Join BD. since AB and CD are parallel. DE.] is impossible. Or thus: Since the points E. BDC is two right angles [I. Hence DE is at right angles both to AD and BD.—Theorem. Def. and therefore [XI. VII. iv. ii. The projection of any line on a plane is a right line.—If possible let the intersecting line be out of the plane.).—Theorem. Axiom x. the sum of the angles ABD. Dem. Then the lines AB. AD. EHF .

Join AD. xxx. they are parallel to one another. Hence. and cut oﬀ ED = BA. BC.). EF . If two intersecting right lines (AB. Observation.. Hence [I. Def.]. Then because AB is equal and parallel to DE. and x. Ex. Def. DEF . have the three sides of one respectively equal to the three sides of the other. Therefore the triangles ABC. AB.—Theorem. If not. On this account we have departed from the usual custom of placing them at the beginning of the book. of this book. and EF is normal to the plane GHK. Two right lines (AB. xxxiii. BE. iii. iv. Then because EF is perpendicular to each of the lines GH. PROP. it is normal to their plane [XI. take any points A. CD) which are each parallel to a third line (EF ) are parallel to one another.]. EF ). And because AB is parallel to EF (hyp. Hence [I. for a similar reason. IX—Theorem. 175 . xi. viii. the Proposition is evidently the same as I. the angle (ABC) between the former is equal to the angle (DEF ) between the latter.PROP. when the right lines drawn in one of them perpendicular to their common section are normals to the other. 2. Hence [XI.]. C in the lines AB. Dem. the proposition is the same as I. BC) be respectively parallel to two other intersecting right lines (DE. since AB and CD are normals to the same plane.] AD is equal and parallel to CF . ix.]. the lines GH. If they are not coplanar. GK.—If the three lines be coplanar. from any point G in EF draw in the planes of EF . CF . We have altered the place of Deﬁnition vi. Dem. AB is normal to the plane GHK [XI.—When two planes which meet are not perpendicular to each other. viii. iii.—If both pairs of lines be coplanar. AD is equal and parallel to BE [I. In like manner CD is normal to the plane HGK.] AC is equal to DF . xxix. X.—These deﬁnitions tacitly assume the result of Props.] the angle ABC is equal to DEF . GK each perpendicular to EF [I. viii. respectively. xxxiii]. ix. In like manner CF is equal and parallel to BE. CD. AC. DF .—Two planes which meet are perpendicular to each other. their inclination is the acute angle contained by two right lines drawn from any point of their common section at right angles to it—one in one plane. and the other in the other. and EF = BC [I.

]. and from A draw AF [I. Now let the plane of BA. To draw a normal to a given plane (BH) from a given point (A) not in it. on the same side. DA [XI. From the same point (A) there can be but one normal drawn to a given plane (X). the angle BAE is right. viii.] perpendicular to DE.]. viii. it is normal to the same plane [XI.]. AC be both normals to it.—Draw GH parallel to BC. and it is drawn from the given point. Sol.). vi. Let A be in the given plane. If not. If not. Def.—1. it is normal to the plane of ED.]. and from A draw AD perpendicular to BC [I.] BC normal to it. xi.]. AC cut the given plane X in the line DE. 176 . Hence AF is perpendicular to GH [XI. Dem. and if possible let AB. Then because BA is a normal. Then because AD and BC are parallel.—Problem. then if AD be perpendicular to the plane. XII. Therefore AF is normal to the plane of GH and ED—that is. from D draw DE in the plane BH at right angles to BC [I. iv. Sol.—Problem. Hence it is the required normal. and BC is normal to the plane.]. xi. XIII. XI.]. and since GH is parallel to BC.—From any point B not in the plane draw [XI. If this line pass through A it is the normal required. Dem. Then because BC is perpendicular both to ED and DA. In like manner CAE is right.PROP. xii. from A draw AD parallel to BC [I. Hence BAE = CAE. PROP. PROP. To draw a normal to a given plane from a given point (A) in the plane. and AF is perpendicular to DE (const. xxxi. which is impossible. AD is also normal to it [XI.—Theorem.—In the given plane BH draw any line BC. AF is normal to the plane BH. xii. to the plane BH. the thing required is done.

If a line be parallel to each of two intersecting planes.].—Theorem.] to one another. if two intersecting lines (AB. and AB to ED (hyp.). If a line be parallel to each of two planes. it is perpendicular to the line AK. Therefore from the same point there can be drawn but one normal to a given plane. XIV. In like manner 177 . Then because AB is normal to the plane CD. their common section being the line GH. Dem. they are parallel to the common section of any two planes passing through them. if there could be two. in which take any point K. vi. Exercises. which is absurd. since GH is parallel to ED (const. and GK to EF .). xi. ix. Planes (CD. Def. AB is parallel to GH [XI. Therefore the planes CD.]. they will meet when produced. In like manner the angle ABK is right. EF ) on the other. it is parallel to their intersection. which is impossible.—From B draw BG perpendicular to the plane DF [XI. there can be but one normal. EF ) which have a common normal (AB) are parallel to each other. If the intersections of several planes be parallel. vi. PROP.—Theorem. 3. 4. Join AK. Hence the sum of the angles ABG. therefore ABG is right. and let it meet that plane in G.2. PROP. they are parallel.). the sections which any plane passing through it makes with them are parallel. 2. Through G draw GH parallel to ED. Hence the plane triangle ABK has two right angles. which it meets in that plane [XI. XV. Let them meet. Dem. 5. BGH is two right angles [I. for. EF cannot meet—that is. DF ) are parallel. If the point be above the plane. Two planes (AC. The angle between two planes is equal to the angle between two intersecting normals to these planes. BC) on one of them be respectively parallel to two intersecting lines (DE.—If the planes be not parallel. xxix]. 1. the normals drawn to them from any point are coplanar. If two right lines be parallel.]. Therefore the angle BAK is right. but BGH is right (const. Now. BK. they would be parallel [XI.

since they are parallel. F. Parallel lines intersecting the same plane make equal angles with it. Hence the planes AC. A right line intersecting parallel planes makes equal angles with them. Exercises.—Theorem. they must meet at some ﬁnite distance. CD) be cut by a third plane (EF. Hence the planes AB. CD meet in K. vi. and it is normal to DF (const. K is in the plane AB. 1. and EF is in the plane AB. DF have a common normal BG.—Theorem. which is impossible. 2. GH) with it are parallel. PROP. PROP. HG). CD) be cut by three parallel planes (GH. M N ) in two triads of points (A. therefore they are parallel to one another. Therefore the lines EF . D). In like manner K is a point in the plane CD. XVI. If two parallel planes (AB. Def. GH must be parallel. 3.—If the lines EF . Now since K is a point in the line EF . their common sections (EF. E. 178 .]. Hence BG is normal to the plane AC [XI. Parallel planes intercept equal segments on parallel lines.).CBG is right. KL. XVII. GH are not parallel. C. If two parallel lines (AB. B. Let them meet in K. Dem. their segments between those points are proportional.

]. BD. BF G are equal to two right angles [I. xi. Now since F G is parallel to AB. is normal to the plane CI.]. Then because the plane AB is perpendicular to ADC. ADC.—Let CE be the common section of the planes DE. xxix. Hence every line in the plane DE. and in the plane BC draw BF perpendicular to the common section DC of the planes BC. PROP. Let AD meet the plane KL in X. drawn perpendicular to the common section of the planes DE. XF . PROP. If a right line (AB) be normal to a plane (CI). From any point F in CE draw F G in the plane DE parallel to AB [I. BD. M N are cut by the plane ABD in the lines EX.). CI.]. these lines are parallel [XI. the angles ABF . their common section (BD) shall be normal to that plane. to the plane CI. any plane (DE) passing through it shall be perpendicular to that plane. If two intersecting planes (AB. CI. ii.] the planes DE. XVIII.—Join AC. Then because the parallel planes KL. the line DE in AB 179 . In like manner. Hence AE : EB :: AX : XD [VI. AX : XD :: CF : F D. ADC. but ABF is right (hyp.]. xxxi.—Theorem.]. Therefore [V.—If not. hence F G is normal to it [XI.—Theorem. the common section of the planes AB. CI are perpendicular to each other. Then because AB and F G are parallel. F G is perpendicular to CE. AD.] AE : EB :: CF : F D.Dem. BC) be each perpendicular to a third plane (ADC). Join EX. viii. xvi. XIX. Def. Therefore [XI. but AB is normal. Dem. Dem. draw from D in the plane AB the line DE perpendicular to AD. therefore BF G is right—that is. viii.

Through E draw BC. but the base DC greater than EC. EAC have the sides DA. DC. Dem.). xxv. the normals drawn to these planes from any point of that line are coplanar. and the angle BAD equal to BAE. If three planes have a common line of intersection.] is impossible.] the angle DAC is greater than EAC.—Theorem. viii. XX. &c. Therefore from the point D there are two distinct normals to the plane ADC. 180 . AE in the other. XXI. AD in one equal respectively to the two sides BA. then we have [XI. cutting AB. CAD. Hence BD must be normal to the plane ADC.—Suppose for simplicity that the solid angle A is contained by ﬁve plane angles BAC. BAE have the two sides BA. Again. therefore [I. 1.]. DC is greater than BC. EAF . suppose it greater: take any point D in AD. DAC is greater than the angle BAC. CAD. EF . xxiii. C. DAE. If not. AC in the other. Dem. and let the planes of these angles be cut by another plane in the lines BC. Join DB. and at the point A in the plane BAC make the angle BAE equal BAD [I.—If the third angle BAC be less than or equal to either of the other angles the proposition is evident. but the angle DAB is equal to BAE (const. Then the triangles BAD. CD. In like manner DF is normal to it. and cut oﬀ AE equal AD.]. Exercises.—Theorem. the line of intersection of the former is normal to the plane of the latter. AC respectively equal to the sides EA. If two intersecting planes be respectively perpendicular to two intersecting lines. But the sum of the sides BD.) forming any solid angle (A) is less than four right angles. AC in the points B. xiii. because the triangles DAC. PROP. 3. DE. DAC) of a trihedral angle (A) is greater than the third (BAC).]. The sum of all the plane angles (BAC. F AB. The sum of any two plane angles (BAD. PROP. Hence the sum of the angles BAD. In the last case. therefore the third side BD is equal to BE. 2. Def. which [XI. hence DC is greater than EC. F B.is normal to the plane ADC [XI. show that the dihedral angle between the planes is equal to the rectilineal angle between the normals. xx.

Any face angle of a trihedral angle is less than the sum. Def. 13. CAD. C be points along the edges. 4. 8. The three lines of intersection of three planes are either parallel or concurrent. Draw a common perpendicular to two non-coplanar lines. Observation. d are coplanar. If two of the plane angles of a tetrahedral angle be equal. ﬁnd. greater than the sum of the interior angles of the pentagon BCDEF —that is. If any plane P cut the four sides of a Gauche quadrilateral (a quadrilateral whose angular points are not coplanar) ABCD in four points.—This Prop. But the sum of the base angles of the same triangles. OB.. c. of the supplements of the other two face angles. Hence.. b. prove that O—ABC is the supplementary of O—A B C . in such a manner that OA will be on the same side of the plane OBC as OA. and conversely. If on the edges of a trihedral angle O—ABC three equal lines OA. the angles contained in those planes are equal. . . &c. of the face angles of the trihedral. and show that it is the shortest distance between them. the trihedral angle O—A B C is called the supplementary of the trihedral angle O—ABC. 2. then the product of the four ratios Aa Bb Cc Dd . the sum of the rectilineal angles DOA. equal to ten right angles. Hence the sum of the angles forming the solid angle is less than four right angles. is equal to twice as many right angles as there are triangles BAC. and A. ∠ACB + ACD . except in the case of n = 3. If O—A B C be the supplementary of O—ABC. DOC is less than the sum. Given the three angles of a trihedral angle. If through the vertex O of a trihedral angle O—ABC any line OD be drawn interior to the angle. adding. &c. and conversely. &c. together with the sum of the plane angles BAC. but greater than the diﬀerence. CAD. OAB. OC to the faces OBC. d. 5. the orthocentre of the triangle ABC is the foot of the normal from O on the plane ABC. If in the last exercise the intersecting plane be parallel to any two sides of the quadrilateral. 3. . we get the sum of the base angles of the ﬁve triangles BAC.—that is. 7. b. c. DOB. greater than six right angles. by a plane construction. OB . 6.. forming the solid angle A. but greater than half the sum. may not hold if the polygonal base BCDEF contain re-entrant angles. respectively. &c. 11. 4. Through one of two non-coplanar lines draw a plane parallel to the other. BCD. each of these is greater than the radius of the circle described about the triangle ABC. a.∠ABC + ABF greater than F BC. the angles between the containing planes. or 5. 10. 9. 12. &c. OC be taken. OCA.—If at the vertex O of a trihedral angle O—ABC we draw normals OA . if the product Aa Bb Cc Dd . If two of the planes of a trihedral angle be equally inclined to the third plane. . A solid angle cannot be formed of equal plane angles which are equal to the angles of a regular polygon of n sides. B. aB bC cD dA is plus unity. it cuts the two remaining sides proportionally. CAD. If a trihedral angle O be formed by three right angles. Exercises on Book XI. = +1. 1.. aB bC cD dA the points a. 181 . x. the planes of these angles are equally inclined to the plane of the third angle.

14. 15. If two trihedral angles be supplementary. is a plane. 17. Draw a right line parallel to a given line. each dihedral angle of one is the supplement of the corresponding face angle of the other. such that the sum of the projections of the line OP on OA and OB may be constant. Through a given point draw a right line which will meet two non-coplanar lines. 182 . 16. which will meet two non-coplanar lines. Being given an angle AOB. the locus of all the points P of space.

—Theorem. A pyramid is a polyhedron of which all the faces but one meet in a point. called its side faces. AND CONE DEFINITIONS. vii. A prism is a polyhedron having a pair of parallel faces which are equal and similar rectilineal ﬁgures. The centre of the sphere is the centre of the generating semicircle. x. a hexahedron. The circles which terminate a cylinder are called its bases or ends. an octahedron. it is called a regular polyhedron. The others. are parallelograms. and which have equal altitudes. by six. v. 183 . which remains ﬁxed. which remains ﬁxed. This point is called the vertex . A polyhedron is a solid ﬁgure contained by plane ﬁgures: if it be contained by four plane ﬁgures it is called a tetrahedron. The other leg describes the base. ii. by twelve. all whose sides are squares. A sphere is the solid described by the revolution of a semicircle about a diameter. an icosahedron. PROP. and which is called the axis. A cone is the solid ﬁgure described by the revolution of a right-angled triangle about one of the legs. PRISM. If the plane faces of a polyhedron be equal and similar rectilineal ﬁgures. i.APPENDIX. and the altitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance between its ends. and are called its ends. I. iv. CYLINDER. the base. and the opposite face. Any line passing through the centre of a sphere and terminated both ways by the surface is called a diameter. A cylinder is a solid ﬁgure formed by the revolution of a rectangle about one of its sides. which is a circle. and if by twenty. A parallelopiped is evidently a hexahedron. iii. by eight. vi. viii. SPHERE. A B C D E ) that are equal and similar. any other is called an oblique prism. PYRAMID. and which is called its axis. A cube is a rectangular parallelopiped. A parallelopiped is a prism whose bases are parallelograms. xi. Right prisms (ABCDE–F GHIJ. ix. a dodecahedron. The altitude of a pyramid is the length of the perpendicular drawn from its vertex to its base. A B C D E –F G H I J ) which have bases (ABCDE. are equal. which remains ﬁxed. A prism whose ends are perpendicular to its sides is called a right prism.

we can suppose one of them. Cor. the proposition is evident. And since AF is equal to A F . I .Dem. and each is normal to its respective base. the point A with A . that is. H. and re-arranged so as to make them coincide with the other [I. ABCD–M N OP ). Parallelopipeds (ABCD–EF GH. 4. then these m prisms will be all equal.—Apply the bases to each other. I. II.—Since the bases are equal. to their areas. B. they will coincide— that is. Y ) having equal bases are proportional to their altitudes. Cor. This may be proved by dividing the bases into parts so that the subdivisions will be equal. Dem. C. 2.. H . xxxv. having a common base (ABCD) and equal altitudes.—In right prisms of equal altitudes the volumes are to one another as the areas of their bases. and since the prism on E F can be subdivided in the same manner by planes perpendicular to the base. E F ) and equal altitudes are equal in volume. and then the volumes proportional to the number of subdivisions in their respective bases. PROP. J . X can be divided into m prisms of equal altitudes by planes parallel to the base. Hence X : Y :: m : n. Hence the prisms are equal in every respect.—Right prisms which have equal bases (EF. B with B . &c. divided into parts A. Y can be divided into n equal prisms. For.—Theorem.—The volumes of right prisms (X. then. EF . 184 . J will coincide respectively with the points G . note]. Cor. are equal. the: point F will coincide with F . Cor. 1. if the altitudes be in the ratio of m : n. In like manner. since they are equal and similar ﬁgures. In the same manner the points G.—The volume of a rectangular parallelopiped is measured by the continued product of its three dimensions. but not similar. 3.

Now EF = M N . hence they are equal. 2◦ . and they have equal altitudes. Let the edges M N . and supposing them taken away from the entire solid. therefore the prisms AEM –DHP . then produce ON . P M to meet the lines EF and GH produced in the points J. M N be in diﬀerent lines. therefore M E = N F . PROP. III. A diagonal plane of a parallelopiped divides it into two prisms of equal volume.—Theorem. have their triangular bases AEM . Let the edges EF . OP must be in one right line. 185 . ABCD–M N OP are equal. I. Cor. K. BF N identically equal. L. because each equal AB. the remaining parallelopipeds ABCD–EF GH. Hence they an equal to one another.1◦ .—The volume of any parallelopiped is equal to the product of its base and altitude. then GH. EF be in one right line. Then by 1◦ the parallelopipeds ABCD–EF GH. and BF N –CGO. ABCD–M N OP are each equal to the parallelopiped ABCD–IJKL.

respectively. &c. Hence the pyramid A–IJCB agrees in everything but position with E–LM GF . xxxiv. J.] : CD :: bc : cd. the sections AB. L. Cor. Dem. [VI. 1. Therefore the polygons ABCDE. If a pyramid (O–ABCDE) be cut by any plane (abcde) parallel to the base. because it can be divided into triangular prisms. and we have the prism AIJ–ELM equal to the prism ABC–EF G. because it is half of a parallelopiped. In like manner the remaining angles of the polygon ABCDE are equal to the corresponding angles of abcde. When it is any parallelopiped. Hence IB = LF . Cor. abcde are equiangular. When the parallelopiped is rectangular the proposition is evident. iv. but (1◦ ) the prism AIJ–ELM = AJK–EM N .—Through the vertices A.] In like manner BC. the section is similar to the base. Dem.—The volume of a triangular prism is equal to the product of its base and altitude. M . the triangles ABO. because each is equal to AE.—Because the plane AOB cuts the parallel planes ABCDE. IV. [Ex æquali. bc are parallel. abcde.] we have IL = BF . and have the sides about their equal angles proportional. In like manner AJK–EM N = ACD–EGH. which has a double base and equal altitude. 2◦ .] : BC :: bO : bc. Hence ABC–EF G = ACD–EGH. K.1◦ .—Theorem. Hence they are similar. hence it is equal to it in volume. Hence the angle ABC = abc [XI. Again. because ab is parallel to AB. the diagonal plane bisects it. xvi. 2. E let planes be drawn perpendicular to the edges and cutting them in the points I. x. 186 . PROP.]. abO are equiangular. N . : BC :: ab : bc. Then [I.—The volume of any prism is equal to the product of its base and altitude. In like manner JC = M G. To each add the solid ABC–LM E. Therefore the diagonal plane bisects the parallelopiped. Hence In like manner therefore In like manner AB BO AB BC : BO :: ab : bO. ab are parallel [XI. ABCD–EF GH.

sections parallel to their bases. po) and bases (ABCD. which divide their altitudes in the same ratio. but the altitude of this prism is less than ox (const. abc) of equal areas. Dem. V. with an equal base. then let the equal altitudes P O. Cor.—The areas of parallel sections are in the duplicate ratio of the distances of their planes from the vertex. Then [iv. that each part shall be less than ox. by planes parallel to the bases of the pyramids.—The edges and the altitude of the pyramid are similarly divided by the parallel plane.). Then it is evident that the sum of the prisms in P –ABCD is less than that pyramid. p–abc). that is. 3. have equal volumes. let abc be the base of the greater. Cor. and let ox be the altitude of a prism. and the sum of those on the sections of p–abc greater than p–abc. above. Therefore the diﬀerence between the pyramids is less than the diﬀerence between the sums of the prisms. Now let prisms be constructed on these sections as bases and with the equal parts of the altitudes of the pyramids as altitudes. Pyramids (P –ABCD. Hence 187 . 2. and whose volume is equal to their diﬀerence.—In any two pyramids.Cor. po be divided into such a number of equal parts. having equal altitudes (P O. and let the prisms in P –ABCD be constructed below the sections. and in p–abc. PROP. less than the lower prism in the pyramid p–abc.—If they be not equal in volume. 3] the sections made by these planes will be equal each to each. Cor.—Theorem. are proportional to their bases. 1.

Hence. E–AF D are equal. The volume of this prism will be equal to the area of the triangle AOB by the height of the cylinder. and whose altitude is equal to ox. Because it may be divided into triangular pyramids by planes through the vertex and the diagonals of the base.the diﬀerence between the pyramids is less than the prism whose base is equal to one of the equal bases. the cylinder will be equal to the sum of all the prisms. having equal bases AF C. the volume of 188 . The volume of a cylinder is equal to the product of the area of its base by its altitude . and h the height of the cylinder. Cor. having a common base and equal altitudes. draw the plane EAF .—If ABCD be a rectangle. 2. having the same base and altitude. which is impossible. Then planes perpendicular to the base. PROP. VI. and cutting it in the lines OA. whose base will be the triangle AOB. of cylinder = πr2 h. Hence the pyramid E–ABC is one of three equal pyramids into which the prism is divided. AF D. OB.—The volume of every pyramid is onethird of the volume of a prism having an equal base and altitude. then the pyramids E– AF C. F –ABC are equal. X a line in its plane parallel to the side AB. For. and therefore its volume will be equal to the area of the base multiplied by the altitude. 1. and take the angle AOB indeﬁnitely small. Cor.—The volume of a triangular pyramid E– ABC is one third the volume of the prism ABC– DEF . 2. vol. and a common altitude. Cor. and the diﬀerence is equal to this prism (hyp. will be faces of a triangular prism. Therefore the volumes of the pyramids are equal. and the pyramids E–ABC. 1. Therefore it is one third of the prism. Dem.—Let O be the centre of its circular base. so that the arc AB may be regarded as a right line. O the middle point of the rectangle. dividing the circle into elementary triangles.—If r be the radius.—Theorem.). Cor. and whose altitude will be the altitude of the cylinder.

2) the volume of a pyramid is one-third of the volume of a prism. DE as radii. Cor. AB. AD. is a simple case of Guldinus’s celebrated theorem. and rectangles corresponding to EH. and AE − DE = AD. and since (v. 1) will be equal to twice the solid described by EH. that is = π(AE 2 − DE 2 ) . 3.—This Cor. and form two rectangles. if AC be divided into an indeﬁnite number of equal parts. Therefore the volume described by ABCD but = π . (AE + DE)(AE − DE). Now if O. Observation. EK. AB. F . AE + DE = 2OG. ADC. and since the parallelogram EK is equal to EH [I. Dem. Then when the rectangle revolves round X. OG . AB .—Produce the lines AD. the circumference of the circle described by O will ultimately be twice the circumference of the circle described by O. xliii. = rectangle ABCD multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by its middle point O. and it may be applied with equal facility to the solution of several other problems which are usually done by the Integral Calculus. the volume of the cone is one-third of the volume of the cylinder. Or thus: We may regard the cone and the cylinder as limiting cases of a pyramid and prism having the same base and altitude. Hence.—Let ABCD be a rectangle whose diagonal is AC. 189 . the diﬀerence between the cylinder and cone is equal to twice the cone. Hence volume described by the rectangle ABCD = 2π . by drawing lines parallel to AD. and the rectangle a cylinder by revolving round AB. By its assistance we give in the two following corollaries original methods of ﬁnding the volumes of the cone and sphere. and whose common altitude will be AB. the solid described by EK (Cor. Take two points E. the sum of the solids described by the rectangles in the triangle ADC is equal to twice the sum of the solids described by the rectangles in the triangle ABC—that is. The triangle ABC will describe a cone. F inﬁnitely near each other in AC. EH. Hence the diﬀerence between the volumes of these cylinders will be equal to the diﬀerences between the areas of the bases multiplied by AB.]. DCF E will describe cylinders whose bases will be circles having AE. Dem. Cor. O be the middle points of these rectangles. AB . having the same base and altitude. it is evident that.the solid described by the revolution of ABCD round X is equal to the area of ABCD multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by O. the rectangles ABF E. when the whole ﬁgure revolves round AB. BC to meet X in the points E.—The volume of a cone is one-third the volume of a cylinder having the same base and altitude. EK be inscribed in the triangles ABC. Hence the cylinder is equal to three times the cone.

as in the last Cor. vol. and produce to meet LN in M and L. Join EF . Hence N G : GP :: GQ : GR.. or M E : IE :: RP + RG : RG. Hence the solid described by EH equal twice the solid described by EK. ABCD the rectangle which describes the cylinder. N L parallel to AB. EH = 2(2πρ . Take two points E. because each is equal to GE 2 . ∴ EH : EK :: 2ρ : ρ. GR = P G . EK). draw EG. 3 Cor.—Let AB be the diameter of the semicircle which describes the sphere. Now. O by ρ. Dem. F indefinitely near each other in the semicircle. F K parallel to P Q. GQ.—If r be the radius of the base of a cone. and produce it to meet the diameter P Q perpendicular to AB in N . ∴ 2πρ . denoting the radii of the circles described by the points O. which will be a tangent. F H. Hence M E : IE :: 2ρ : ρ. but 2 M E : IE :: rectangle EL : rectangle EK :: [I. Now the rectangle N G . of cone = πr2 h . 4. Therefore we infer. 5.—The volume of a sphere is two-thirds of the volume of a circumscribed cylinder. and EI. xliii. Let R be the centre. EK. and h its height. ρ respectively.Cor. O be the middle points of the rectangles EH. Join RE. and let O.] EH : EK. we have ultimately ρ = GR and ρ = 1 (RP + RG). that the whole volume of the sphere is equal 190 .

Produce EI to meet AB in G. Cor. Let O be the centre. The surface of a sphere is equal to the convex surface of the circumscribed cylinder. and produce to meet the tangent CD parallel to AB in N . and IG : EG :: circumference of circle described by the point I : circumference of circle described by the point E.—Let AB be the diameter of the semicircle which describes the sphere. Hence the rectangle contained by EF . ii. F K parallel to P Q. Join EF . Draw EI. and circumference of circle described by I— that is.—If r be the radius of a sphere. Take two points. vol. Hence EF : IK :: IG : EG. 6. Join OE. F . EN : IN :: OE : EG. Therefore the sphere is two-thirds of the cylinder. Hence but F E : KI :: OE : EG. VII. indeﬁnitely near each other in the semicircle. Dem. OE = IG.to twice the diﬀerence between the cylinder and sphere.]. because the triangles EN I and OEG are similar.—Theorem. = 4πr3 . 3 PROP. the portion of the spherical surface described by EF is equal to the 191 . E. Now we have but F E : KI :: EN : IN [VI. and circumference of circle described by E is equal to the rectangle contained by IK.

If any number of lines in space pass through a ﬁxed point. The surface of a sphere is two thirds of the whole surface of its circumscribed cylinder. and the joining lines. Every section of a sphere by a plane is a circle. Therefore the volume of the sphere is equal to the whole area of the surface multiplied by one-third of the radius. c. Dd 6. The middle points of two pairs of opposite edges of a triangular pyramid are coplanar. and if parallels to the edges OA. b. the feet of the perpendiculars on them from another ﬁxed point are homospheric. 7. the sum of the ratios Pa . C. OB. Bb Pc . 11. Hence the whole spherical surface is equal to the cylindrical surface described by CD. If a point P be joined to the angular points A. The volume of the ring described by a circle which revolves round a line in its plane is equal to the area of the circle. d. 14. The convex surface of a cone is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference of the base and the slant height. made by a plane parallel to the base. OA Pb . then it is evident that each of these may be regarded as the base of a pyramid having the centre of the sphere as a common vertex. the sum of the ratios Pa . its total surface is to the surface of the inscribed sphere as 9 : 4. and whose common altitude is equal to one-third of the altitude of the frustum. 15. Cc Pd = 1. OB Pc = 1. The convex surface of a right cylinder is equal to the rectangle contained by the circumference of the base and the altitude. If the four diagonals of a quadrangular prism be concurrent. 10.. 13. 12. If the four perpendiculars from the vertices on the opposite faces of a pyramid ABCD be concurrent. Extend the property of Ex. and the circumference of a great circle. Hence it is evident. the area of the surface of a sphere is equal four times the area of one of its great circles. if planes be drawn perpendicular to the diameter AB—that the portions of cylindrical and spherical surface between any two of them are equal. Hence if S denote the surface. 9. and form a parallelogram. 5. meet the opposite faces in a. OC. D of a tetrahedron. If the slant height of a right cone be equal to the diameter of its base. 1. If P be a point in the base ABC of a triangular pyramid O–ABC.portion of the cylindrical surface described by IK. meet the faces in the points a. The volume of the frustum of a cone. B. b. 192 . The locus of the centres of parallel sections is a diameter of the sphere. produced if necessary. through P . c. OC 4. 8. That is. 16. we have S× therefore 4πr3 r = [vi. and the circle whose diameter is a mean proportional between the end diameters. 2. The surface of a sphere is equal to the rectangle by its diameter. 3. 6]. 4 to the pyramid. 3 3 2 S = 4πr . Cor. Or thus: Conceive the whole surface of the sphere divided into an indeﬁnitely great number of equal parts. multiplied by the circumference of the circle described by its centre. Aa Pb . is equal to the sum of the three cones whose bases are the two ends of the frustum. it is a parallelopiped. then AB 2 + CD2 = BC 2 + AD2 = CA2 + BD2 . Exercises.

17. sections whose radii are ρ1 . The volumes of two triangular pyramids. p2 OA2 OB 2 OC 2 29. In the same case. If the four sides of a gauche quadrilateral touch a sphere. The volume of a sphere: the volume of the circumscribed cube as π : 6. If O–ABC be a tetrahedron whose angles AOB. and ρ the radius of a segment of a sphere. If h be the height of an æronaut. are proportional to the rectangles contained by the edges terminating in that angle. If h be the perpendicular distance between two parallel planes. R+h 30. the sum of the squares of the six segments at three rectangular chords passing through P is = 6R2 − 2δ 2 . Planes which bisect the dihedral angles of a tetrahedron meet in a point. the extent of surface 2πR2 h visible = . ρ2 . the points of contact are concyclic. If δ be the distance of a point P from the centre of a sphere whose radius is R. The volume of a sphere : the volume of an inscribed cube as π : 2. 1 1 1 1 = + + . 19. Any plane bisecting two opposite edges of a tetrahedron bisects its volume. COA are right. the volume of the frustum is 1 2 6 25. BOC. having a common solid angle. the square of the area of the triangle ABC is equal to the sum of the squares of the three other triangular faces. 21. its volume is 6 24. A plane bisecting a dihedral angle of a tetrahedron divides the opposite edge into portions proportional to the areas containing that edge. 23. 26. Planes which bisect perpendicularly the edges of a tetrahedron meet in a point. which cut a sphere in πh 2 {h + 3(ρ2 + ρ2 )}. 22. if p be the perpendicular from O on the face ABC. 20. 193 . 28. 18. πh 2 (h +3ρ2 ). If h be the height. and R the radius of the earth. 27.

—Let ABC be a triangle. xix. Ex.). of which the side AC is the greatest. xvi. Two lines in the plane which meet the line at inﬁnity in the same point are said to have the same direction. they meet the line at inﬁnity in diﬀerent points. Again. it is self-evident. Legendre’s Proof. the founder of the Theory of Elliptic Functions. hence the angle B (n) A(n) will ultimately become inﬁnitely small. xvi. legendre’s and hamilton’s proofs of euclid. Cor. and are parallel. each independent of that theory. and AB = AC. I. if produced. We shall give here two demonstrations. having AC = 2AD . when they have diﬀerent directions. and AB = AC . In every plane there is one special line called the line at inﬁnity. Hence we may infer the following general proposition:—“Any two lines in the same plane must meet in some point in that plane. and so on. (2) The angle B AC is less than half BAC. The point where any other line in the plane cuts the line at inﬁnity is called the point at inﬁnity in that line. the angle B AC is less than half B AC .). This is a fundamental conception in Geometry. 5]. that is—(1) at inﬁnity. Axiom x. Hence. Two lines which have the same direction cannot meet in any ﬁnite point [I. when the lines have the same direction. &c. and form another triangle AB C .]. Book I. Propri´t´s Projectives. page 52. having the side AC = 2AD. the sum of the base angles A and C (n+1) is 194 . the other. ee NOTE B. These are due to two of the greatest mathematicians of modern times—one. and two lines which meet it in diﬀerent points to have diﬀerent directions. MODERN THEORY OF PARALLEL LINES. (1) The sum of the angles of the triangle ABC = the sum of the angles of AB C [I. I. All other points in the line are called ﬁnite points. since. bisect B C in D . independent of the theory of parallels.NOTES. Two lines which have diﬀerent directions must intersect in some ﬁnite point. NOTE A. and may be assumed as an Axiom (see Observations on the Axioms. if the annexed diagram represent the triangle AB (n+1) C (n+1) . 1] = the sum of the angles of AB C = the sum of the angles of AB C .”—See Poncelet. Join AD. was known. construct a new triangle AB C . Until modern times no proof of it. Now. &c. the discoverer of the Calculus of Quaternions. Then AD is less than AC [I. Bisect BC in D. xxxii. (3) The sum of the base angles of any triangle of the series is equal to the angle of the preceding triangle (see Dem. (2) in some ﬁnite point. The discovery of the Proposition that “the sum of the three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles” is attributed to Pythagoras.

On the surface of a sphere we should have. hence A + B + C = two right angles. Denote the exterior angles thus formed by A . in each of which a point describes an arc of a circle. Again. has informed me that this demonstration was ﬁrst given by Playfair in 1826. and make BE equal to BD. and the point E with F . so that Hamilton was anticipated. Produce CB to E.—The foregoing demonstration is the most elementary that was ever given of this celebrated Proposition. applied verbatim to a spherical triangle. Produce BA to D. Now. C . it is equal to two right angles. hence the point B (n+1) will ultimately be in the line AC. Mr. that is.t. corresponding to these. in which the same point describes a right line.. until BD coincides with BE. this angle is an inﬁnitesimal. then the point C will coincide with D. Abbott. The same method of proof will establish the more general Proposition. therefore A + B + C = four right angles. and returns to its original position. since rotation is independent of translation. it would lead to the conclusion that the sum of the angles is two right angles. it is evident that by these rotations the point C has been brought successively into the positions D. but A + A + B + B + C + C = six right angles [I. that the amount of the three rotations is equal to one complete revolution round the point A. Now let the leg AC of the angle A be turned round the point A through the angle A . and without making any use of the language of Quaternions. xiii. E. which being wrong. and when n is indeﬁnitely large. It has been objected to on the ground that. that the sum of the external angles of any convex rectilineal ﬁgure is equal to four right angles. Therefore it follows. and the angle AB (n+1) C (n+1) will become a straight angle [I. F . let the leg BD of the angle B be turned round the point B through the angle B .—Let ABC be the triangle. but the sum of the angles of AB (n+1) C (n+1) is equal to the sum of the angles ABC. I have reduced it to its simplest form. Lastly. followed by a motion of translation.].c. produce AC to F . In the proof given in the text there are three motions of rotation. three 195 . B .equal to the angle B (n) C (n) . x.d. f. hence. Hamilton’s Quaternion Proof. through the angle C . by a motion of mere translation along the line F C. A slight consideration will show that the cases are diﬀerent. Def. Observation.]. until CE coincides with CF . the line CA can be brought into its former position. ﬁnally. and make AD equal to AC. let CE be turned round C. then the point D will coincide with E. proves that the method is not valid. Hence the sum of the three angles of ABC is equal to two right angles. and make CF equal to CE.

NOTE C. ON . OM. 40]. . (2). to inscribe a regular polygon of seventeen sides in a circle. P S = (OM − ON )(OP − OQ) = (ρ3 + ρ5 − ρ6 + ρ7 )(ρ2 + ρ8 − ρ1 + ρ4 ). M R . ρ1 ρ4 = R(ρ3 + ρ5 ) = R . A8 the vertices at one side of AO. 34]. Ex.motions of rotation. ρ2 ρ8 = R(ρ6 − ρ7 ) = R . Again. and A1 Q = OA4 . A2 . Ex. . AO the diameter. Ex. the proof for a plane triangle cannot be applied to a spherical triangle. and OS = OQ. ON =R 2 [IV. and OA2 to P . Lastly. ρ1 ρ2 ρ4 ρ8 =R4 OM . in which the point should describe an arc of a great circle to return to its original position. and A2 P = OA8 . 196 .—Let A be one of the angular points. but therefore In like manner. Produce OA3 to M . Hence. ON = (ρ3 + ρ5 )(ρ6 − ρ7 ) = ρ 3 ρ6 + ρ 5 ρ 6 − ρ3 ρ7 − ρ 5 ρ 7 = R(ρ3 − ρ8 ) + R(ρ1 − ρ6 ) − R(ρ2 − ρ7 ) − R(ρ2 − ρ5 ) [IV. Analysis. A1 . cut oﬀ A6 N = OA7 . . (1). 40]. = R(OM − ON − OP + OQ) = R(M R − P S) : M R − P S = R. cut oﬀ OR = ON . Again. making A3 M = OA5 . followed by a motion of rotation about the centre of the sphere. OM . OQ =R2 Again. Then we have [IV. in each of which the point would describe an arc of a circle. OP .

—Let AB and L be the two given lines of which AB is the greater.] AF . Therefore AB. We have abridged and simpliﬁed Ampere’s solution. Therefore DE . BC be placed at right angles to each other. that is. and so adjusted that BE shall be equal to GF . The line EF is called Philo’s Line. AF . GF . and we have proved that the rectangle OM . Th´or`mes et Probl`mes de e e e G´om´trie El´mentaire. AB : AF :: DE : DF .—Since BE is equal to GF .and performing the multiplication and substituting. Hence the problem is solved. DC. CB are continual proportions. therefore OM and ON are each given. the seventeenth part of the circumference of a circle. BC. and describe a circle about it. It cannot be solved by the line and circle. and AF : CE :: CE : CB. Def. Join BD. ρ6 . OQ. it possesses the remarkable property of being the minimum line through the point B between the ﬁxed lines DE. since OQ and ON are each given. DF . The foregoing analysis is due to Ampere: see Catalan. but is very easy by Conic Sections. CE. CE are two mean proportionals between AB and BC. DE and F A are the mean proportionals required. Hence. and CE : CB :: DE : DF . Newton’s Construction. AF . 197 . OP and OQ are each given. The foregoing elegant construction is due to the ancient Geometer Philo of Byzantium. complete the rectangle ABCD. In like manner. With A as centre and AC as radius. The problem to ﬁnd two mean proportionals is one of the most celebrated in Geometry on account of the importance which the ancients attached to it. CD produced in the points E. GE = BF . Hence [VI. therefore we can draw these chords. so that the intercept EF will be equal to the radius of the circle. CE are two mean proportionals between AB. and ρ6 − ρ7 = ON. each is given. ON = R2 . describe a circle. the rectangle BE . and let a graduated ruler be made to revolve round the point B. Produce DA. therefore OM − ON is given. Sol. Hence. hence DE : DF :: AF : CE. we get 4R(OM − ON − OP + OQ) = 4R2 . The following is a mechanical construction by the Ruler and Compass. hence M R is given. F . and draw by trial through A a line meeting BD. Again. CE = DF . then AF . If we join DG it will be perpendicular to EF .—Let the extremes AB. iv. ρ7 = R(ρ1 − ρ4 ) = R . Dem. to find two mean proportionals between two given lines. and we have the arc A6 A7 between their extremities given. and in it place the chord CD equal to the second line L. but M R = OM − ON . ρ6 and ρ7 are each given. and by similar triangles. e e e NOTE D. Hence AB : AF :: AF : CE. the rectangle and the diﬀerence of the lines M R and P S being given. Bisect AB in C.

Dem. F A. therefore P S = P T . EC = EA2 − AC 2 = (F A + AC)2 − AC 2 = 2F A . or ACD is isosceles. AB. CD = DE . EF = CB . Again. Through the points N . AB FA CD = . therefore P S = CD. CD = DE . that AB is a minimum. NOTE E.—Through E draw EM parallel to BC. Through P draw ST perpendicular to EP . since the AB . make EN = EM . F A. we have ED . 198 . and we have AB . It is easy to see from the ﬁgure that the parallelogram QR is equal to the parallelogram M F . It is due to the late Professor Mac Cullagh:—Let AC. Hence QR is the maximum parallelogram in the triangle SV T . CD a perpendicular on AB. and through P draw P Q parallel to BC. I am indebted to Professor Galbraith for the following proof of the minimum property of Philo’s Line. but EF = CB. DE AB DE 2 = F A . since OP = AD. AB + F A2 . AC + F A2 = F A . F A. AB. we have AB . DE . DE. P draw N T . Now. if AE is equal to DB. BP is equal to DB. therefore Again. CD . DE 2 1+ CD DE = F A .—Join AD. AB 1+ AF . CB be two given lines. F A. E a ﬁxed point. and is therefore given. produce AB until EP = AB. it is required to prove. CD are in continued proportion. Hence or therefore Hence ED(ED + CD) = F A(AB + F A). since AE = DB. RP each parallel to AC. Dem. on philo’s line. Since the line BF cuts the sides of the ACE. P T is equal to CD.

Hence AB is a minimum. because the parallelogram Q R . The following mechanical method of trisecting an angle occurred to me several years ago. NOTE F. on the trisection of an angle. 199 . and produced to P . so that EP = AP .Again. and therefore equal to QR. corresponding to QR. or A B is greater than AB. if any other line A B be drawn through E. Hence the line EP is greater than EP . will be equal to M F . the point P must fall outside ST . it is valuable to the student as a geometrical exercise:— To trisect a given angle ACB. Apart from the interest belonging to the Problem.

if we use a jointed ruler—that is two equal rulers connected by a pivot—and make CB equal to the length of one of these rulers. A related to a .Sol. xxxii. xx. it is evident that CI will fall between CB and CA. Then. just as in extracting the square root we may proceed to as many decimal places as may be required. until the edge of the second ruler passes through B: it is plain that the pivot moves along the circumference of the circle.—Erect CD perpendicular to CA. then. describe the circle BAM . as a . the angle ACH is one-third of ACB. A denote the reciprocals of the areas of any two polygons of the same number of sides inscribed and circumscribed to a circle. while the extremity at C remains ﬁxed. Hence. It is now known that the value of π is incommensurable. or to half the angle HCB. if a and A be known. be the positions of the rulers when this happens. Therefore. if the rulers be opened out at right angles. the area will be πr2 . This value is tolerably exact. Dem. the other extremity at G. since ICG is half a right angle. are known for calculating the value of π. but IC equal CB. A . Hence ACH is one-third of ACB. A the corresponding quantities for polygons of twice the number. xxxii. that it cannot be expressed as the ratio of any two whole numbers.” and is one of the most celebrated in Mathematics. 87. and. on the quadrature of the circle. and since the area of a circle is intermediate between the reciprocals of a(n) and A(n) . Hence the angle HCD = HBC [I. It diﬀers very little from the ratio 3. therefore the angle ACH is equal to HBO. 355 : 113. Then. The next to this in ascending order. we can. bisect the angle BCD by CG. except where great accuracy is required. from a . the area of the circle can be found to any required degree of approximation. if the value of π be known.]. CBO are equal. let the other be made to traverse the line GF . and A the arithmetic mean between a and A. The following is an outline of a very simple elementary method for determining this important constant. the value of π will be known. given in our elementary books. cutting CG in G. and one extremity at C. and is the one used in ordinary calculations. therefore IC is equal to IG. namely.” Hence. viz. On this account the determination of the value of π is called “the problem of the quadrature of the circle. cutting CI in I: at I draw the tangent IG. because CH = HF .. and. and therefore that it can be found only approximately. equal to HM B. Hence. found by Vieta. Ex. that is [III. A are to a. it is evident that the point B will be between the two rulers.1416 : 1. that is. Let CH. Modern mathematicians denote the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter by the symbol π. a . the circumference will be 2πr. In like manner. and placed so that the pivot will be at I. A we can ﬁnd a . a is the geometric mean between a and A. if r denote the radius. and. but the approximation can be carried as far as we please. Hence. The simplest approximate value of π was found by Archimedes. HF . the angle HCF = HF C. conversely. IGC is half a right angle. is correct to six places of decimals. proceeding in this manner until we arrive at values a(n) . the area is known.). 200 .]. 15] is equal to half the rectangle contained by the circumference and the radius. draw the line CH. and make the angle ECI equal half a right angle. and the angle DCE = ECB (const. since the area of a circle [VI. if the area be known. It depends on a theorem which is at once inferred from VI. Join HM . namely “If a. A(n) that will agree in as many decimal places as there are in the degree of accuracy we wish to attain. Ex. 22 : 7.—Produce BC to M . Erect BO at right angles to BM . therefore IG = CB—equal length of one of the two equal rulers. and CIG is right. with C as centre and CB as radius. and the right angles ACD. NOTE G. Several expeditious methods. Then. depending on the higher mathematics. ﬁnd a and A . A. by the processes of ﬁnding arithmetic and geometric means.

equal to 3.3183099. 502.If for simplicity we take the radius of the circle to be unity. A = .25.25. that is. 279. a is the geometric mean between a and A . 793. and thirty decimals would give the circumference of the whole visible universe to a quantity imperceptible with the most powerful microscope. or between .3183099. a = . A = . 462.5. 589.3535533.1415926. 592.3183099.3017766.25. and A the arithmetic mean between a and A . carried the calculation to 707 places of decimals.1415926. Again.141. that is. between . Mr. 383. that mathematicians have devoted great attention to its calculation. Hence the area of a circle radius unity. These numbers are found thus: a is the geometric mean between a and A. A = . and commence with the inscribed and circumscribed squares.5 and .3264853. we have a = . The result is here carried far beyond all the requirements of Mathematics. correct to seven decimal places. or the value of π correct to seven places of decimals is 3. 201 . 653. an English computer. 238.3141315. we ﬁnd a(13) = . Proceeding in this manner. Shanks.3535533 and . Ten decimals are suﬃcient to give the circumference of the earth to the fraction of an inch. and A is the arithmetic mean between a and A. The number π is of such fundamental importance in Geometry. is equal to the reciprocal of . 884. 643. A(13) = . a = . The following are the ﬁrst 36 ﬁgures of his result:— 3.

the circle be continually enlarged. and points and planes limiting cases of spheres. This happens when the centre.CONCLUSION. circles. and become one when the radius becomes inﬁnite. instead of being distinct from. that points and lines. on the contrary. Thus. But it is important to the student to remark. If. In the foregoing Treatise we have given the Elementary Geometry of the Point. but not the circumference. that any portion of its circumference may be made to diﬀer in as small a degree as we please from a right line. and the Circle. a circle whose radius diminishes to zero becomes a point. goes to inﬁnity. and ﬁgures formed by combinations of these. 202 . the Line. are limiting cases of. it may have its curvature so much diminished.

153 Enunciation. 188 Demonstration. 5 interior. 4 dihedral. 135 Ampere. 5 sector of. 131 Ex aequo perturbato. 4 trihedral. 69 contact of. 6. 17 third of a quadrilateral. 5 circumscribed. 77 Componendo. 180 supplement of. 19. 68 Circumcentre. 69 exterior. 28 Dividendo. 5 escribed. 153 radical. 3 right. 8 Contrapositive. 82 Catalan. 8 Ex aequali. 28 middle points of. 171 extension of meaning. 105 polar. 5 arc of. 13 radical. 128 Altitude. 3 Antecedent of a ratio. 197 Centre. 4 solid. 118 Arc of a circle. 82 Chasles. 8 Cube. 103 nine-points. 1 Circle. 101 concentric. i. 69 segment of. 199 vertex of. 51. 132 203 . 3 obtuse. 68 chord of. 195 Alternando. 29 bisection of. 197 Angle. 8 Diagonal. 104 Circumcircle. 183 Double point. 7 Convertendo. 129 Dodecahedron. 129 Conclusion. 29. 105 radius of. 80 diameter of. 183 Cylinder. 183. 183 Congruent.Index Abbott. 5 of similitude. i. 104 Comberousse. 3 acute. 4 adjacent. 194 Axis of symmetry. 114. 4 alternate. 68 circumference. 154 Axioms. 171 trisection of. 5 re-entrant. 16 complement of. 68 Area. 171. 68. 31 legs of. 7 Cone. 130 Corollary.

183 Identically equal. mean. 28 segment of. 4 perpendicular. 195 Points. 2 Hexahedron. 100 parallelogram. 198 projection of. 2 collinear. 150. 5 Philo. 4 Coplanar. 69 homologous. 123 Lardner. 101 Invertendo. proofs by. 183 Homologous terms. 183 Pascal. 171 Incommensurable. 8 Locus. 135 given in species. 3 directly similar. 91 Legendre. 82 row of. 183 Problem. 135. 135 given in position. 121 Homothetic. 74 Multiples. 194 Lemma. 39 Parallelopiped. rule of. 3 similar. 28 Lozenge. 7 204 . 195 Harmonic conjugates. 116 Newcomb. 1 Gnomon. 150 rectilineal. 8 Line.Figures. 5 Prism. 22 Minimum. 3 concyclic. 197 Octahedron. 150 given in magnitude. 7 contrapositive of. 134 Henrici. 183 Orthocentre. 135. 183 Poncelet. 68. 5 Polyhedron. 135 inversely similar. 5 Maximum. 194 Postulate. 154 Hypotenuse. 197 Proposition. 50 Hamilton. 7 Projection. 8 Inscribed. 168 Pentagon. 28 Proportion. 28 complements of. 135 Galbraith. 144 Proportionals fourth. 117 normal to a plane. 69 Newton. 3 Polygon. 143 two mean. 105 Orthogonal. 198 Median. 118 extremes of. 7 Icosahedron. 4 Hypothesis. 28 pencil of. 198 Gauss. 2 divided harmonically. 49 transversal. 2 Playfair. 118 means of. 118 Proportional. 134 Lines Concurrent. 153 inverse. 62. 15 Plane. 143 third. 173 parallel. 4 Philo’s. 35 Identity. 2. 74 Mc Cullagh.

7 Ptolemy’s theorem. 4. 49 Rouch´. 191 Square. i e Secant. 4 205 . 7 converse of. 4 scalene. 68 Theorem. 8 Sphere. 117 antecedent of a. 64 obverse of. 181 Vertex of angle. 190. 2 Tangent. 7 Townsend. 118 Ray. 7 Propositions identical. 4 isosceles. 116. 5 Submultiple. 116 Surface. 86 Solution. 4 obtuse-angled. 69 Ratio. 166 Quadrature of circle. 166 extension of. 5 right-angled. 8 Simson. 5 cyclic. 92 Trapezium. 4 equilateral. 134 of lesser inequality. 3 of pencil. 69 Rectangle. 183. 149 converse of. 171 supplementary of. 118 duplicate. i. 62 of greater inequality. 4 Trihedral angle.converse of. 120 extreme and mean. 118 compound. 28 Triangle. 120 consequent of a. 200 Quadrilateral. 134 reciprocal of.

206 .THE END.

Pennsylvania. indispensable in Pure and Applied Mathematics. BY JOHN CASEY. &c.. xxiv. has just brought out a second edition of his unique ‘Sequel to the First Six Books of Euclid.’ “Eleven of the sixteen sections into which the work is divided exhibit most excellent specimens of geometrical reasoning and research. in the present state of Science. 219) two previous editions of this book. Green. Royal Irish Academy.. Figgis. and. Dr. “Nature.” April 17.” Erie. Revised and Enlarged—3/6. and in Mathematical Physics. Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland. ‘The principles of Modern Geometry contained in the work are. & Co. London: Longmans. p.THIRD EDITION. “We have noticed (‘Nature.S. as usual with him.’ vol. Casey. xxvi. 1884.. These will be found to furnish very neat models for systematic methods of study. cloth... has added several beautiful results of his own. p. LL. and are glad to ﬁnd that our favourable opinion of it has been so convincingly indorsed by teachers and students in general.’ in which he has contrived to arrange and to pack more geometrical gems than have appeared in any single text-book since the days of the self-taught Thomas Simpson. constructions for a quadrilateral. A SEQUEL TO THE FIRST SIX BOOKS OF THE ELEMENTS OF EUCLID. Casey has collected together very many properties of these circles. We only need say we hope that this edition may meet with as much acceptance as its predecessors. “Dr. . Here the earnest student will ﬁnd all that he needs to bring himself abreast 207 . F. He has done excellent service in introducing the circles to the notice of English students. an eminent Professor of the Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics in the Catholic University of Ireland. The novelty of this edition is a Supplement of Additional Propositions and Exercises.D. Vice-President. and a full account—for the ﬁrst time in a text-book—of the Brocard. The other ﬁve sections contain 261 choice problems for solution. and (what the author proposes to call) the cosine circles. Dublin: Hodges. 52. vol. &c.” The “Mathematical Magazine.R. triplicate ratio. This contains an elegant mode of obtaining the circle tangential to three given circles by the methods of false positions. . it deserves greater acceptance. EXTRACTS FROM CRITICAL NOTICES. and it is important that the student should become early acquainted with them. & Co.

with the amazing developments that are being made almost daily in the vast regions of Pure and Applied Geometry. On pp. 152 and 153 there is an elegant solution of the celebrated Malfatti’s Problem. “As our space is limited, we earnestly advise every lover of the ‘Bright Seraphic Truth’ and every friend of the ‘Mathematical Magazine’ to procure this invaluable book without delay.”

The “Schoolmaster.”

“This book contains a large number of elementary geometrical propositions not given in Euclid, which are required by every student of Mathematics. Here are such propositions as that the three bisectors of the sides of a triangle are concurrent, needed in determining the position of the centre of gravity of a triangle; propositions in the circle needed in Practical Geometry and Mechanics; properties of the centres of similitudes, and the theories of inversion and reciprocations so useful in certain electrical questions. The proofs are always neat, and in many cases exceedingly elegant.”

**The “Educational Times.”
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“We have certainly seen nowhere so good an introduction to Modern Geometry, or so copious a collection of those elementary propositions not given by Euclid, but which are absolutely indispensable for every student who intends to proceed to the study of the Higher Mathematics. The style and general get up of the book are, in every way, worthy of the ‘Dublin University Press Series,’ to which it belongs.”

**The “School Guardian.”
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“This book is a well-devised and useful work. It consists of propositions supplementary to those of the ﬁrst six books of Euclid, and a series of carefully arranged exercises which follow each section. More than half the book is devoted to the Sixth Book of Euclid, the chapters on the ‘Theory of Inversion’ and on the ‘Poles and Polars’ being especially good. Its method skilfully combines the methods of old and modern Geometry; and a student well acquainted with its subject-matter would be fairly equipped with the geometrical knowledge he would require for the study of any branch of physical science.”

**The “Practical Teacher.”
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“Professor Casey’s aim has been to collect within reasonable compass all those propositions of Modern Geometry to which reference is often made, but which are as yet embodied nowhere.. . . We can unreservedly give the highest praise to the matter of the book. In most cases the proofs are extraordinarily neat.. . . The notes to the Sixth Book are the most satisfactory. Feuerbach’s Theorem (the nine-points circle touches inscribed and escribed circles) is favoured with two or three proofs, all of which are elegant. Dr. Hart’s extension of it is extremely well proved.. . . We shall have given suﬃcient commendation to the book when we say, that the proofs of these (Malfatti’s Problem, and Miquel’s Theorem), and equally complex problems, which we used to shudder to attack, even by the powerful weapons of analysis, are easily and triumphantly accomplished by Pure Geometry.

208

“After showing what great results this book has accomplished in the minimum of space, it is almost superﬂuous to say more. Our author is almost alone in the ﬁeld, and for the present need scarcely fear rivals.”

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“Dr. Casey is an accomplished geometer, and this little book is worthy of his reputation. It is well adapted for use in the higher forms of our schools. It is a good introduction to the larger works of Chasles, Salmon, and Townsend. It contains both a text and numerous examples.”

**The “Journal of Education.”
**

“Dr. Casey’s ‘Sequel to Euclid’ will be found a most valuable work to any student who has thoroughly mastered Euclid, and imbibed a real taste for geometrical reasoning.. . . The higher methods of pure geometrical demonstration, which form by far the larger and more important portion, are admirable; the propositions are for the most part extremely well given, and will amply repay a careful perusal to advanced students.”

209

PREFACE.

Frequent applications having been made to Dr. Casey requesting him to publish a ”Key” containing the Solutions of the Exercises in his ”Elements of Euclid,” but his professorial and other duties scarcely leaving him any time to devote to it, I undertook, under his direction, the task of preparing one. Every Solution was examined and approved of by him before writing it for publication, so that the work may be regarded as virtually his. The Exercises are a joint selection made by him and the late lamented Professor Townsend, s.f.t.c.d., and form one of the ﬁnest collections ever published. JOSEPH B. CASEY. 86, South Circular-road, December 23, 1886.

210

Price 4/6, post free.]

**THE FIRST SIX BOOKS
**

OF THE

ELEMENTS OF EUCLID,

With Copious Annotations and Numerous Exercises.

BY

JOHN CASEY, LL.D., F.R.S.,

Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland; Vice-President, Royal Irish Academy; &c. &c.

Dublin: Hodges, Figgis, & Co.

London: Longmans, Green, & Co.

**OPINIONS OF THE WORK.
**

The following are a few of the Opinions received by Dr. Casey on this Work:—

“Teachers no longer need be at a loss when asked which of the numerous ‘Euclids’ they recommend to learners. Dr. Casey’s will, we presume, supersede all others.”—The Dublin Evening Mail. “Dr. Casey’s work is one of the best and most complete treatises on Elementary Geometry we have seen. The annotations on the several propositions are specially valuable to students.”—The Northern Whig. “His long and successful experience as a teacher has eminently qualiﬁed Dr. Casey for the task which he has undertaken.. . . We can unhesitatingly say that this is the best edition of Euclid that has been yet oﬀered to the public.”—The Freeman’s Journal. From the Rev. R. Townsend, F.T.C.D., &c. “I have no doubt whatever of the general adoption of your work through all the schools of Ireland immediately, and of England also before very long.” From George Francis FitzGerald, Esq., F.T.C.D. ”Your work on Euclid seems admirable, and is a great improvement in most ways on its predecessors. It is a great thing to call the attention of students to the innumerable variations in statement and simple deductions from propositions.. . . I should have preferred some modiﬁcation of Euclid to a reproduction, but I suppose people cannot be got to agree to any.”

211

. Londonderry. and ﬁnd that the arrangement of exercises after each proposition works admirably.” From the Nottingham Guardian. I have begun to use it already with some of my classes.” From Professor Leebody.” From Mrs. J. . At the end of each proposition there is an examination paper upon it.P. ”This work proves that Irish Scholars can produce Class-books which even the Head Masters of English Schools will feel it a duty to introduce into their establishments.. E. . Reffe. and study it for themselves. French College. Blackrock.” From the Practical Teacher. Poole. Principal of the North London Collegiate School for Girls. Cooke. Harcourt-street. would also contain the modern conceptions and developments of the portion of Geometry over which the elements extend.” ´ From the Rev.. and variety of demonstrations. ”The edition of the First Six Books of Euclid by Dr. it is far superior to any textbook yet published. J. . M. whilst the exercises are all that could be desired. Banbridge. while giving the unrivalled original in all its integrity. The illustrative exercises and problems are exceedingly numerous. with deductions and other propositions. Esq. ”The preface states that this book ‘is intended to supply a want much felt by Teachers at the present day–the production of a work which. stage by stage. ”There is a simplicity and neatness of style in the solution of the problems which will be of great assistance to the students in mastering them.C.” 212 . . .A. it seems to me a very valuable addition to our text-books of Elementary Geometry. and more than all. and have been selected with great care. Dublin. within so moderate a compass. .” From James A. ”I am sure you will soon be obliged to prepare a Second Edition.. puts the student in possession of such valuable results. Dr. and trains him. 29. Dr. They all like the book here. . ”The exercises left for solution are such as will repay patient study. to solve them. it professes to be... Casey has done an undoubted service to teachers in preparing an edition of Euclid adapted to the development of the Geometry of the present day. and a most suitable introduction to the ‘Sequel to Euclid. We recommend everyone who wants good exercises in Geometry to get the book. F. ”So far as I have had time to examine it. Bryant. ”I am heartily glad to welcome this work as a substitute for the much less elegant textbooks in vogue here. John Casey is a particularly useful and able work. I have ordered ﬁfty copies more of the Euclid (this makes 250 copies for the French College).. and the methods of proof are both simple and elegant.’ which I have found an admirable book for class teaching. The Academy. ”In the clearness. Magee College. Casey brings at once the student face to face with the diﬃculties to be encountered. neatness. The propositions suggested are such as will be found to have most important applications. We know no book which. .’ ”The book is all.” From the Leeds Mercury. by means of which the student is at once enabled to test himself whether he has fully grasped the principles involved. and those whose solution are given in the book itself will suggest the methods by which the others are to be demonstrated.From H.

’ where he will ﬁnd an excellent account of more modern Geometry. is given in an algebraical form. &c. short explanations. and we make bold to say that no one can study it without gaining valuable information. and can do no harm. 213 . ”The editor has been very happy in some of the changes he has made. To sum up. to the substance of Euclid’s demonstrations. Some of these are solved in the book. Hints of other proofs are often given in small type at the end of a proposition. we think that this work ought to be read by every teacher of Geometry. but the subject can be made inﬁnitely simpler and shorter by a little algebra. we do not know. The use of the contra-positive of a proved theorem is introduced with advantage. The collection of exercises. 1. and still more valuable suggestions. and naturally the more diﬃcult method has yielded place to the less. and. The use of letters in brackets in the enunciations eludes the necessity of giving a second or particular enunciation. We would also express a hope that everyone who uses this book will afterwards read the same author’s ‘Sequel to Euclid. where necessary. of nine-point circle. 1883. but whether the reforming spirit which is dominant there has left it. A KEY to the EXERCISES in the ELEMENTS of EUCLID. properties of orthocentre. a few years ago. by omitting the repetitions so common in Euclid. It is not studied in schools.’ is another feature which will commend the book to teachers. the more diﬃcult are given in collections at the end of each book. in some cases. and the shortening of the proofs. many of them being not only elegant but eminently suggestive.. however. in all but a few instances. The theory of proportion.From the Educational Times. The notes at the end of the book are of great interest. substituted) proofs are numerous. In every way this edition of Euclid is deserving of commendation. ”In the text of the propositions. and much of the matter is not easily accessible. This book has always appeared to us an exquisitely subtle example of Greek mathematical logic..” From the Journal of Education. giving way to a slavish following of his occasional verbiage and redundance. Sept. ‘of which there are nearly eight hundred.” NOW READY. Price 6s. without. Book V. The deﬁnitions are also carefully annotated. it still survived in one of the College Examinations at St. John’s. The book contains a very large body of riders and independent geometrical problems. The combination of the general and particular enunciations of each proposition into one is good. while the alternative (or. in place of the reductio ad absurdum. The simpler of these are given in immediate connexion with the propositions to which they naturally attach. the author has adhered. and these include many well-known theorems. is another improvement. it is not asked for even in the Cambridge Tripos.

“On CB describe the square CBEF I. misplaced space amended to “these circles intersect”.” in original.]” in original. Cor.. xlvi. p. p. p. 3]. xxxii. p. “Then the traingles ABO. p. wrong letter amended to “an”. XXV. 214 . p. 100. garbled phrase amended to “then if the”. p. p. 1]” in original. Prop. 1]. xxii. Cor. “About a given circle (ABCD) to describe a circle. viii.Typographical Errors corrected in Project Gutenberg edition p. of the current book and misnumbered. . xliii. 84. 2).—When a right line intersects .” in original. p. it should be (i. p. In (21) “the if then line DE intersect the chords . 70. p. The reference should be [I.” in sequence. amended to “Def. 133. 1)” in original.. 3. as p. 94. “4. 98. Def. 2. “Then this line [I. 28. 87. p. obvious error amended to “triangles”.—Problem.. .. Cor. The reference is to Prop. clearly this is nonsense and must mean “About a given square”. 78. obvious error amended to “through”. “the four points A. 79. I. amended to match every other occurrence as “parallelogram”. 115. “The parallelogram CM is equal to DE [I. p. 110. AH (I. . p. p. Heading “PROP. 53.. p. “ ACH is half the rectangle AC . amended to “31. evidently intended is “concyclic”.” in original.]. as p. Cor. “21. p. “Through tho point E” in original. “(Ex. The point of bisection (1) of the line (OP )” in original. 105. so amended. or touchlng a given ﬁle and a given circle. 97. In (44) “these circle sintersect” in original. What is the locus of the middle points . 73. obvious error amended to “remaining”.].. ” in original. ” in original. obvious error amended to “the”. B. p. 78. CBO” in original. 97. clearly meant to read [I. “The remainiug parts of the line” in original. The reference is to Prop. . 84. p.” in original. 95. 107. 2” following MS. Def. obvious error amended to “touching”. [xlvi. IX. I. “OA is equal to OC [I.]. vii” in sequence. 37. . 56. so it should be [i. 12 “bisects the parallellogram” in original. . p. . D. amended to “Cor. 54. C.” in original. C. from the diagram and following discussion this should be (I). of the current book. “the points A. D are concylic” in original. . B are concylic” in original. p. 99. Cor. In (52) “and also en equilateral circumscribed polygon” in original. “Def. the preamble to this book says that every Proposition in it is a Theorem and this one seems to be no exception.) . ” in original. correction: there is no Cor. “that which is nearest to the line throuyh the centre” in original. p.

header “subtended bg the homologous sides” in original. 150. 192. 136. p. p. “From the construction is is evident . 137 sqq. Cor. 165. p. obvious error amended to “perpendicular”. “the lines GH. amended to “[i. p. amended to “[ii. obvious error amended to “point”. Reference “[VI.]” (4 times).]” (4 times).. 215 . obvious error amended to “it is”. Find a poiat O” in original.]” is to Proposition I. GK each perpendiclar to EF ” in original. 139. 6]”. Prop V.]” corrected to “[xvi. These have been corrected (3 times). Reference “[XVI. of current book. 175. . 6]” corrected to “[vi. ” in original. p. Cor.]” is to Proposition II. “O” when associated with a lower case letter was wrongly printed as o.p. Reference “[I. of current book. obvious error amended to “by”. 147. p. “20.]”. . Reference “[II. p. p.. which is not deﬁned. 186.

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