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The majority of the work pieces have holes, either through or blind holes. Drill holes serve all purposes, e.g. to take up rivets, screws, bolts, shafts, pistons and furthermore to pass through gases, fluids, etc. Drilling and boring are cutting operations and produce round holes in metallic and non-metallic materials. The holes are cutout of the material with a cutting tool. In most of the cases drilling and boring machines are used for this purpose. How ever lathe capstan lathe and automates are also used. Besides by drilling and boring other methods can be used for making holes in work piece, e.g., by punching, perforating, enlarging with a drift, gas cutting, casting etc. How ever by none of this method the diameter of holes, centre to centre distances and the surface can be obtain as accurately as by drilling and boring. The drilling and boring, therefore, is very important operations in all kinds of metal working industries. Very often, drill holes are finish by refining procedures, such as reaming, grinding, and honing.
Fig. Various Holes (a) Cylindrical through hole, (b) Blind Hole, (c) Tapered Hole Movements while Drilling on the Drilling Machine:The tool used for cutting holes in the solid materials is called Twist Drill. This is provided with two cutting edges in order that the cutting edge can cutoff chips, two movements required simultaneously. 1. The Drill rotates: The rotary motion is called cutting or main motion. In special cases, this action is effected by rotating the work piece, e.g., while drilling on the lathe.
As main motion, the cutting speed is measured in m/min.The highest cutting speed is on the periphery of the drill and it decreases towards the centre of the drill. 2. The Drill is moved in a straight line towards the fixed work piece. This movement is called feed and it controls the thickness of the chips. The feed operations can also be effected by moving the fixed work piece towards the rotating drill, as it is done with some small bench types Drilling Machines where the table is raised. The feed is measured in mm/rev. as the drill is provided with two cutting edges, the thickness of the chip is half the feed. By the simultaneous double action of the cutting or main motion and the feed, each cutting edge of the drill describes a spiral and thereby produces a constant flow of chips.
Fig. Drilling action on drill machine (a) Cutting motion (b) feed motion
(2) TYPES OF DRILLING MACHINE
Drilling machines are made in many different types and sizes, each designed to handle a class of work or specific job to the best advantage. The different types of drilling machines are as follows.
2.1. Portable drilling machine. 2.2. Sensitive drilling machine. 2.3. Upright drilling machine. 2.4. Radial drilling machine. 2.5. Gang drilling machine. 2.6. Multiple spindle drilling machines. 2.7. Automatic drilling machine. 2.8. Deep hole drilling machine
2.1. PORTABLE DRILLING MACHINE
As the name implies this type of drilling machine can be operated with ease any where in the workshop and is used for drilling holes in work pieces in any position which cannot be drilled in a standard drilling machine. Some of the portable machines are operated by hand power, but| most of the machines are driven by individual motor. The entire drilling mechanism including the motor is compact and small in size. The motor is, usually of universal type which may be driven by both A.C. and D.C. The maximum size of the drill that it can accommodate is not more than 12 to 18 mm. The machine is operated at high speed as smaller size drills are only used. Some of the portable machines are driven by pneumatic power.
2.2. SENSITIVE DRILLING MACHINE
The sensitive drilling machine is a small machine designed for drilling a small hole at high speed in light jobs; the base of the machine may be mounted on a bench or on the floor. It consists of vertical column, a horizontal table, a head supporting the motor and driving mechanism, and a vertical spindle for driving and rotating the drill. There in no arrangement for any automatic feed of the drill spindle. The drill is fed into the work by purely hand control.
High speed and hand feed are necessary for drilling small holes. High speeds are necessary to attain required cutting speed by small, diameter drill. Hand feed permits the operator to feel or sense the progress of the drill into the work, so that if the drill becomes worn out or jams on any account, the pressure the drill may be released immediately to prevent it from breaking. As the operator senses the cutting action, at any instant, it is called sensitive drilling machine. Sensitive drilling machines are capable of rotating drills of diameter from 1.5 to 15.5 mm. Super sensitive drilling machines are designed to drill holes as small as 035 mm in diameter and the machine is rotated at a high speed of 20,000 r.p.m. or above. Figs. illustrate a sensitive drilling machine.
Fig. Sensitive drilling machine
2.3. UPRIGHT DRILLING MACHINE
The upright drilling machine is designed for handling medium sized work pieces. In construction the machine is very similar to a sensitive drilling machine for having a vertical column mounted upon the base. But this is larger and heavier than a sensitive drill and is supplied with power feed arrangement. In an upright drilling machine a large number of spindle speeds and feeds may be available for drilling different types of work. The table of the machine also has different types of adjustments. There are two general classes of upright drilling machine 1. Round column section or pillar drilling machine. 2. Box column section.
Moreover. The maximum size of holes that the machine can drill is not more than 50 mm. 5 . This permits setting of the work below the spindle. and a drill head assembly. an arm and a round table assembly. Heavy box column gives the machine strength and rigidity. These special features permit the machine to work with heavier work pieces. The arm and the table may be moved up and down on the column for accommodating work pieces of different heights. The construction of the machine being not very rigid and the table being supported on a horizontal arm. heavy and odd size work may be supported directly on the base of the machine and drilled after the arm is swung out of the way. The table and the arm may be moved in an arc up to 180° around the column and may be clamped at any position. Upright pillar drilling machine Round column section or pillar drilling machine:- The round column section upright drilling machine or pillar drilling machine consists of a round column that rises from the base which rests on the floor. The table may be rotated 360°about its own centre independent of the position of the arm for locating work pieces under the spindle. and holes more than 50 mm in diameter can be drilled by it. Box column section upright drilling machine:The upright drilling machine with box column section has the square table fitted on the slides at the front face of the machine column. this is particularly intended for lighter work. The table is raised or lowered by an elevating screw that gives additional support to the table.Fig. The arm and the table have three adjustments for locating work pieces under the spindle.
These three movements in a radial drilling machine when combined together permit the drill to be located at any desired point on a large work piece for drilling the hole.2. The work may be mounted on the table or when the work is very large it may be placed on the floor or in a pit. illustrates a radial drilling machine. the position of the arm and the drill head is altered so that the drill spindle may be moved from one position to the other after drilling the hole without altering the setting of the work. vertical column mounted on a large base. round. The machine consists of a heavy.4. The arm may be swung around to any position over the work bed. When several holes are drilled on a large work piece. RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE: The radial drilling machine is intended for drilling medium to large and heavy work pieces. Fig. The drill head containing mechanism for rotating and feeding the drill is mounted on a radial arm and can be moved horizontally on the guide-ways and clamped at any desired position. This versatility of the machine allows it to work on large work pieces. Fig. Radial drilling machine 6 . The column supports a radial arm which can be raised and lowered to accommodate work pieces of different heights.
In a gang drilling machine four to six spindles may be mounted side by side. and in others the position of the columns may be adjusted so that the space between the spindles may be varied. the machine is known as the gang drilling machine. Semi universal machine: In a semi universal machine. This fourth movement of the drill head permits drilling hole at an angle to the horizontal plane other than the normal position. 2. Each spindle may be set up properly with different tools for different operations 7 . axis.5. A series of operations may be performed on the work by simply shifting the work from one position to the other on the work table. in addition to the above four movements. This type of machine is specially adapted for production work. in addition to the above three movements. and circular movement of the arm in horizontal plan about the vertical column. the arm holding the drill head may be rotated on a horizontal. All these five movements in a universal machine enable it to drill on a work piece at any angle. horizontal movement of the drill head along the arm.Plain radial drilling machine: In a plain radial drilling machine provisions are made for vertical adjustment of the arm. GANG DRILLING MACHINE: When a number of single spindle drilling machine columns are placed side by side on a common base and have a common worktable. The speed and feed of the spindles are controlled independently. the drill head can be swung about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the arm. In some machines the drill spindles are permanently spaced on the work table. Universal machine: In a universal machine.
long shafts. 2. The work is usually rotated while the drill is fed into the work. Such machines have several spindles driven by a single motor and all the spindles holding drills are fed into the work simultaneously. The machine may be horizontal or vertical type. DEEP HOLE DRILLING MACHINE: Special machines and drills are required for drilling deep holes in rifle barrels. The spindles are so constructed that their centre distance may be adjusted in any position as required by various jobs within the capacity of the drill head. honing and similar operations in addition to drilling and tapping 2. MULTIPLE SPINDLES DRILLING MACHINE: The function of a multiple spindle drilling machine is to drill a number of holes in a piece of work simultaneously and to reproduce the same pattern of holes in a number of identical pieces in a mass production work. the work will move from one machine to the other where different operations can be performed and the finished work comes out from the last unit without any manual handling.8. Feeding motion is usually obtained by raising the work table. for this purpose. In some machines step feed is applied. The machine is operated at high speed and low feed. In some machines both the work and the drill are rotated for accurate location. This helps in feeding the drill in a straight path. the drill spindles are connected to the main drive by universal joints. 8 .6. The drill is withdrawn automatically each time when it penetrates into the work to a depth equal to its diameter. A long job is usually supported at several points to prevent any deflection. Once the work is loaded at the first machine. crank shafts.2. etc. Sufficient quantity of lubricant is pumped to the cutting points for removal of chips and cooling the cutting edges of the drill. This type of machine is intended purely for production purposes and may be used for milling. This process permits the chip to clear out from the work. Drill jigs may be used for guiding the drills in mass production work. AUTOMATIC DRILLING MACHINE: Automatic machine can" perform a series of machining operations at successive units and transfer the work from one unit to the other automatically.7. But the feeding motion may also be secured by lowering the drill heads.
Column 3. Base 3.1. In some machines T. Radial arm: The radial arm that is mounted on the column extends horizontally over the base. An electric motor is mounted on the top of the column which imparts vertical adjustment of the arm by rotating a screw passing through a nut attached to the arm. Base: The base of a radial drilling machine is a large rectangular casting that is finished on its top to support a column on its one end and to hold the work table at the other end. When drilling is done on a job supported on any one of the bases. another job may be set up on the other for a continuous production. It supports the radial arm which may slide up or down on its face. Radial arm 3. Column: The column is a cylindrical casting that is mounted vertically at one end of the base. 9 .1. Drill head 3.3. It is a massive casting with its front vertical face accurately machined to provide guide ways on which the drill he may be made to slide.slots are provided on the base for clamping work when it serves as a table. In some machines two or more number of bases are provided.5. In son machines this movement is controlled by a separate motor. The arm may be swung round the column. Spindle speed and feed mechanism 3. 3. 22.214.171.124.(3) RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE PARTS: 3.2.
Grinding.8. It encloses all the mechanism for driving the drill at multiple^ speed and at different feed.3. 4. After the spindle has been properly adjusted in position the drill head is clamped on the radial arm 3. 4. Trepanning 10 .4. A constant speed motor is mounted at the extreme end! of the radial arm which balances partially the weight of the overhanging arm. fitted directly on the drill head and through gear box multiple speed and the feed of the spindle can be obtained.4. Spot facing.3. Counter boring 4. Boring. Feeds of the spindle are obtained.5. Tapping. Reaming. different.9. 4. In some machines. (4) DRILLING MACHINE OPERATIONS: 4. 4. 4. the speed of the spindle may be varied.1. Drilling.2. By train of gearing within the drill head. Counter sinking. Drill head: The drill head is mounted on the radial arm and drives tile drill spindle. 4.7. Spindle drive and feed mechanism: There are two common methods of driving the spindle. Through another train of gearing within the drill head. All the mechanisms and controls are house within a small drill head which may be made to slide on the guide ways of the arm for adjusting the position of drill spindle with respect to the work. 4. Lapping.10.5. a vertical motor is. The motor drives a horizontal spindle which runs along the length of the arm and the motion is transmitted to the drill head through bevel gears. 4.6.
5 mm oversize.375 mm and for accurate work this should not exceed 0.125 mm oversize and a 22 mm drill may produce one as much as 0. The material removed by this process is around 0.2. Fig. For this reason a reamer cannot correct a hole location. It simply follows the path which has been previously drilled and removes a very small amount of metal. The speed of the spindle is made half that of drilling and automatic feed may be employed. The drilling is one of the simplest methods of producing a hole. Drilling does not produce an accurate hole in a work piece and the hole so generated by drilling becomes rough and the hole is always slightly oversize than the drill used due to the vibration of the spindle and the drill.1. The tool used for reaming is known as the reamer which has multiple cutting edges. Before drilling the centre of the hole is located on the work piece by drawing two lines at right angles to each other and then a centre punch is used to produce an indentation at the centre.4. bring it to the accurate size. Fig. Drilling operation 4. In order to finish a hole and to. Reamer cannot originate a hole. Reaming operation 11 .125 mm Fig. the hole is drilled slightly undersize. Reaming: Reaming shown in Fig is an accurate way of sizing and finishing a hole which has been previously drilled. A 12 mm drill may produce a hole as much as 0. The drill point is pressed at this centre point to produce the required hole. illustrates a drilling operation. Drilling: Drilling is the operation of producing a cylindrical hole by removing metal by the rotating edge of a cutting tool called the drill.
5. The pilot fits into the small diameter hole having running clearance and maintains the alignment of the tool. To correct the location of the hole as the boring tool follows an independent path with respect to the hole.4. In precision machines. 4. 4.528 is performed in a drilling machine for reasons stated below: 1. the accuracy is as high as ± 0.00125 mm. For perfect finishing a hole. 3.4.3. This is necessary where suitable sized drill is not available or where hole diameter is so large that it cannot be ordinarily drilled. 12 . Boring operation The cutter is held in a boring bar which has a taper shank to fit into the spindle socket. The counter bores are made with straight or tapered shank to fit in the drill spindle. studs and pins. This is necessary in some cases to accommodate the heads of bolts. To enlarge a hole by means of an adjustable cutting tool with only one cutting edge. To finish a hole accurately and to bring it to the required size. The tool used for counter boring is called a coulter bore. The tool is guided by a pilot which extends beyond the end of the cutting edges. The cutting edges may have straight or spiral teeth. Fig. Boring: Boring illustrated in Fig. Counter boring: Counter boring shown in Fig. is the operation of enlarging the end of a hole cylindrically. It is a slow process than reaming and requires several passes of the tool. The enlarged hole forms a square shoulder with the original hole. To machine the internal surface of a hole already produced in casting. 2. the job is drilled slightly undersize. To correct out of roundness of the hole.
Counter boring operation 4. The tool used for countersinking is called a countersink. Fig. 82° or 90° included angle and the cutting edges of the tool are formed at the conical surface. is the operation of smoothing and squaring the surface around a hole for the seat for a nut or the head of a screw. Countersinking: Countersinking shown in Fig. Counter boring can give an accuracy of about ± 0. A counter bore or a special spot facing tool may be employed for this purpose. Countersinking operation 4.6. Fig. is the operation of making a cone-shaped enlargement of the end of a hole to provide a recess for a flat head screw or countersunk rivet fitted into the hole. The cutting speed in countersinking is 25% less than that of drilling.These pilots may be interchanged for enlarging different size of holes. Fig.5.050 mm. Standard countersinks have 60°. Sport facing 13 . The cutting speed for counter boring is 25% less than that of drilling operation. Spot facing: Spot facing shown in Fig.
The copper head laps are commonly used.8. 14 . Lapping: Lapping is the operation of sizing and finishing a small diameter hole already hardened by removing a very small amount of material by using a lap.g. Indian Standard Thread (IS) etc. Fig. B..7. 4.4. When the tap is screwed into the hole it removes metal and cuts internal threads which will fit into external threads of the same size. The amount to be subtracted from the tap diameter depends on the shape of the thread. T diameter of tap or bolt to be used and d is of thread. A tap may be considered as a bolt with accurate threads cut on it. B.W. Tapping operation Tap Drill size: The size of the tap being the outside diameter of its threads.F. There are many kinds of lapping tools.S. it is evident that the drilled hole must be smaller than the tap by twice the depth of the thread.S. The threads act as cutting edges which are hardened and ground. e.. Tap drill size may thus be derived from the following formula: D=T-2d Where D is the diameter of tap drill size. Tapping: Tapping shown in Fig is the operation of cutting internal threads by means of a cutting tool called a tap. The lap fits in the hole and is moved up and down while it revolves.
Fig. Drill: A drill is a fluted cutting tool used to originate or enlarge a hale in a solid material.2. Grinding: Grinding operation may be performed in a drilling machine to finish a hardened hole. Trepanning: Trepanning shown in Fig is the operation of producing a hole by removing metal along the circumference of a hollow cutting tool. The types of the drill commonly used are 5. 1. The grinding wheel is made to revolve with the spindle and is fed up and down. The tool may be operated at higher speeds as the variation in diameter of the tool is limited by the narrow cutting edge.10.1. Straight fluted drill 15 .9.1.0025 mm. A suitable grinding wheel may be selected for surface grinding operation. Trepanning operation (5) DRILLING MACHINE TOOLS: 5. Drills are manufactured in a wide variety of types and sizes. The tool resembles a hollow tube having cutting edges at one end and a solid shank at the other to fit into the drill spindle. Fewer chips are removed and much of the material is saved while the hole is produced. Grinding can also be done to correct out of roundness of the hole. The accuracy in grinding operation is quite high about ±0. 4.1. Trepanning operation is performed for producing large holes. This is one of the efficient methods of producing a hole. Flat or spade drill 5.4.
In drilling brass.1. Parallel shank (short series or “jobbers” twist drill) b. No such difficulty occurs in the use of a straight fluted drill when drilling sheet metal.2. Parallel shank (stub series) twist drill c.1.5.6. it cannot be relied upon to drill a true straight hole. The straight fluted drill does not tend to lift the sheet as does the twist drill. the twist drill tends to advance faster than the rate of feed and the drill digs into the metal. copper or other softer materials.3 Two-lip twist drill a.1.1. Flat or spade drill: A flat drill is sometimes used when a same sized twist drill is not available. This type of drill is inconvenient in standard practice as the chips do not come out from the hole automatically. since the point of the drill has a tendency to run out of centre.1. but tend to pack more or less tightly. 5.4 Taper shank core drill (Three or Four fluted) 5. The disadvantage of this type of drill is that each time the drill is ground the diameter is reduced. Further. Parallel shank (Long series) twist drill d. Another difficulty of using this type of drill ids that the chips do not come out from the hole automatically.1. Taper shank twist drill 5. The cutting angle varies from 90° to 120° and the relief or" clearance at the cutting edge is 3° to 8°. It is mainly used in drilling brass. A straight fluted drill may be considered as a Cutting tool having zero rake. Oil tube drill 5. 16 . Centre drill 5. if deep hole are to drill.5.1. then hardened and tempered. Straight fluted drill: A straight fluted drill has grooves or flutes running parallel to the drill axis. It is usually made from a piece of round tool steel which is forged to shape and ground to size.
3 mm in lower series to 0.25 mm in higher series.02 to 0. Fig. Fig. It was originally manufactured by twisting a flat piece of tool steel longitudinally for several revolutions. then grinding the diameter and the point. Different types. Twist drills: The most common type of drill in use today is the twist drill. The diameter-of the drill ranges from 05 to 40 mm increasing by 0.2 to 16 mm increasing by 0. illustrates the drill. Parallel shank (stub series) twist drill 17 . The present day twist drills are made by machining two spiral flutes or grooves that run lengthwise around the body of the drill. the shortening being on the flute length. length of the flute and overall length of the drill. The diameter of the drill range from 0. Parallel shank short series twist drill Parallel shank (stub series) twist drill: The drill is a shortened form of the parallel shank twist drill. Fig.1. Twist drill is an end cutting tool.25 to 05 mm in higher series.03 mm in lower series to 0. Fig illustrates the drill. Shank (short series or Jobbers") twist drill: The drill has two helical flutes with a parallel shank of approximately the same diameter as the cutting end. of twist drills are classified by Indian standard Institution according to the type of the shank.5.3.
Taper shank core drill (three or four fluted): These drills are ^fended for enlarging cored. by 05 mm in Morse taper shank No. Taper shank core drill 18 . and by 1 mm in Morse taper shank number 5 and 6.4.” The overall length of this the drill is the same as that of a taper shank twist drill of corresponding diameter. Taper shank twist drill: The drill has two helical flutes with a taper shank for holding and driving the drill.Parallel shank (long series) twist drill: The drills have two helical-flutes with a parallel shank of approximately the shank diameter as the cutting end. punched or drilled holes. which however does not exceed the diameter at the drill point. illustrates the drill. Fig. illustrates the drill. 1. Cored drills produce better finished holes than those cut by ordinary two fluted drills. These drills cannot originate a hole in solid material because the cutting edges do not extend to the centre of the drill. Taper shank twist drill 5. The diameter varies by 15 to 26 mm increasing by 03 mm in lower series to 025 mm in higher series. 4. The shank series having Morse taper shank No. by 025 mm in Morse taper shank number 2 and 3. A drill gauge enables any drill to be readily selected by trying in the holes of the gauge. The use of Morse taper shank below 6 mm size is not preferred. Fig. The metal is removed by a chamfered edge at the end of each flute. Fig. The cutting action of a core drill is similar to that of a rose reamer and it is often used as a roughing reamer. Fig.1. a two fluted twist drill is chosen to originate a hole half the required size and the rest is finished by a three or four fluted drill. In some cases.
Cutting fluid or compressed air is forced through the holes to the cutting point of the drill to remove the chips.1.1. cool the cutting edge and lubricate the machined surface. Fig. Oil tube drill: The oil tube drills are used for drilling deep holes. Fig. illustrates the oil tube drill. Centre drill illustrates the drill. two fluted twist drills used when centre holes are drilled on the ends of a shaft. Fig. Centre drill: The centre drills are straight shank.6. They are made in finer sizes Fig. Centre drill 19 .5. Oil tube drill 5.5. Oil tubes run lengthwise spirally through the body to carry oil directly to the cutting edges.
other wise extending to the commencement of shank. 20 . Face: The portions of the flute surface adjust to the lip on which the chip impinges as it cut from the work. if present.5. Body clearance: That portion of body surface which is reduced in diametric to provide diameter clearance.2. Drill Tool Geometry: Body: That portion of drill extending form its extreme point to the commencement of the neck.
Shank: That part of drill by which is held & drive. 2. To form the cutting edge on point. To cause the chips to curl 4. The drill is full size only across the land at the point end. The most common type of shank is the Taper shank and straight shank. 21 . The taper shank provides means of centering & holding the drill by friction in tapered end of spindle. Land: The cylindrically ground surface on leading edge of the drill flutes. Land keeps the drill aligned. The functions of flutes are: 1. socket or drill holder. Tang: The flattened end of taper shank intended to fit in to a drill slot in spindle. The tang ensures positive drive of drill from the drill spindle. To allow chip to escape 3.Flutes: The groove in the body in drill which provides lip. To permit the Cutting fluid to Cutting edges Heel: The edge formed by the intersection of the flutes surface & the body clearance. The width of land is measured at right angles to the flute helix.
The usual value of rack angle is 30o. The angle is normally measures at the periphery of drill. The clearance angle should be minimum to add rigidity & strength to the cutting edge. Helix angle or Rack angle: The helix angle or rack angle is the angle formed by the leading edge of land with plane having axis of drill. greater will be the torque required to drive the drill at given feed. the angle increases. Point angle: This the angle included between tool lips projected upon a plane parallel to the drill axis & parallel to the two cutting lips.Chisel edge angle: The obtuse angle include between the chisel edge and lip as viewed from end of the drill. all thought it may vary unto 40o fro different materials. The usual point angle 118o. but fro harder steel alloys. 22 . Smaller the rack angle. The clearance angle is 12o in most cases. The usual value of this angle varies from 120o to 135o. Lip clearance angle: The angle formed by the flank & a plane at right angles to the drill axis.
(6) MODELING OF DRILLING MACHINE:- Helical Gears 23 .
Fig. Step cone Pulley Driven Fig. Step cone Pulley Driver 24 .
Arm and Support 25 . Saddle Fig.Fig.
Fig. Back Gear Mechanisms Box 26 .
Assembly Of The Machine 27 .Fig.
You can directly calculate stresses. showing you how your model will behave in a test lab or in the real world. thermal evaluates heat transfer characteristics. parametric solid modeling system with many extended design and manufacturing applications. and beams models. parametric modeling method. Complicated 3D geometry of parts would be easier to make in pro E or some other cad packages. The model geometry is generally created entirely in Pro-E. shell. The pro Mechanica product line features three modules structure.(7) INTRODUCTION TO PRO-E Pro Engineer is a computer graphic system for modeling various mechanical designs and for performing related design and manufacturing operation. This makes it simple to learn and utilizes even further casual user. 28 . It is possible to create some (non solid) simulation features while in Pro Mechanica. and applies the feature-based. Expert users employ Pro engineers “map keys“ to combine frequently used commands along with customized manus to expediently increase their speed in use. Pro engineer was design to begin where the design engineer begins features and design criteria. (8) INTRODUCTION TO PRO-MECHANICA Pro Mechanica is a multi discipline CAE (Computer added engineering) tool that enables you to simulate the physical behavior of the model and to understand and improve the mechanical performance of your design. structure focuses on structural integrity of your model. feature placement is simple and accurate. and motions each of which solve four different family of mechanical behaviors. such as datum points and curves. plain strain or axis symmetric). Because pro engineer provides the ability to scratch directly on the solid model. thermal. Pro engineer is the commercial CAD system entirely based upon the feature based design and parametric modeling philosophy. frequencies. deflections. Types of Models In addition to 3D solid. and both in to pro Mechanica in integrated mode.independent. today many software producer have recognized the advantage of this approach and started to shift their products on to this platform.pro engineer is feature based. heat transfer paths and other factors.1. 8. providing logic choice and pre selecting most common options. Pro engineer’s cascading menus flow in an intuitive manner . in addition to short Menu description and full online help. and motion analyze how mechanism move. in short . The system use a 3D modeling system as the core. pro Mechanica in both modes can treat 2D models (plane stress. Pro Mechanica contains a good set of tool to create both 2d and 3d geometry.
create the elements. you need to specify the geometry . This iterative approach continues until either the solution coverage’s to a specified accuracy or the maximum specified edge order (default 6. Bucking analysis will compute the bucking loads on the body. and does a final pass with some element raised to an order that should provide reasonable reasons. For example. always base your final conclusions on the reasons obtained using this convergence method. the single pass adaptive method performs one pass at a low polynomial order. what will execute is design study-it is the topmost level of organization in Pro Mechanica. with edge orders of “Problem Elements” Being increased with each pass. It will include at least one but possibly several analysis study. but less than a complete convergence run. Multi Pass Adaptive:‐ The ultimate in converges analysis. determine the analysis and convergence type. and so on. The single pass adaptive analysis is available is for most model types. Multiple “p-loop” passes and made through the solves. assign material properties. Unless the model is very computationally intensive and /or is very well behaved and understood. Maximum 9) is reached at the conclusion of the rung the converges measures may be explain. several different analysis types are possible. unless you have very good reason not to. Convergence Methods Single pass adaptive:‐ More than quick check. These are typically the von mises stress and the total strain energy. Other analysis method is available but in this manual. 29 . Design studies:‐ A design study is a problem or set of problems that u defined for a particular models when u ultimately press the run button on Pro Mechanica. modifies the P-level of “problem elements”. assesses the accuracy of the solution. while the model analysis will compute the mode shapes and natural frequencies. and than display review the final results.3. set up loads and constrains . 8. the static analysis will compute the stresses and deformations within the models. we will only look at static stress and model analysis. Analysis Methods For given models. avoid this method. There are three types of design studies:‐ A standard design is a most basic and simple. 8.2.
Than proceeded to step 3.A sensitive design study can be setup so that results are computed for a several different values of designated design variables or material properties. and check the new buttons to display the static analysis definition dialog box. select Analysis from Design menu. Select one or more load sets. Requirements:• • One constrains set One or more load sets or enforced displacements To create a static analysis: This procedure is for integrated model. Click the following tabs on the dialog box to select additional option for the Static Analysis:• • • Load intervals (Available only if you selected a non linear option in step seven) Convergence Output 30 . The analysis and design studies dialogue box appears. Enter the name for analysis. select static from New analysis list. stresses. 2. A description is optional. Select Structure > Analysis/Studies from the MECHANICA menu. 6. If your constrain set includes and enforced displacement constrain. Finally. and the effect of load on any contact regions (contact analysis). (9) STATIC ANALYSIS OVERVIEW Description: Use to calculate deformation. 1. 3. and strain on your model in response to specified load and subject to specify constrains. The static analysis definition dialog box appears. For independent mode. A static analysis can tell you if the material in your model will stand stress and if the part might break (stress analysis). how much the shape of the model change (deformation analysis). where the part might brake (strain analysis). Select constrain set 5. Select New Static from the file Manu. the most powerful design study is an optimization. you do not need to select the load cell. 4.
mm) 1 2 3 550 610 690 4 5 5 Graphs: Speed Vs Thrust Speed Vs Torque 31 .Measurement of axial thrust & torque in drilling under different cutting condition using Drill Tool Dynometer. No. Cutting speed (Rpm) 75 120 180 Thrust(N) Torque(N. TABLE 1 Different Cutting speed Constant Feed = 5 Kg Sr.
TABLE 2 Different Feed Rates Constant speed = 75 rpm Drill size = 19.05 mm Sr.mm) 2 3 4 Graphs: Feed Vs Thrust Feed Vs Torque 32 . No. 1 2 3 Feed(Kg) 3 4 5 Thrust(N) 280 400 550 Torque(N.
TABLE 3 Different Drill Size Constant feed =5 Kg Constant cutting speed =75 rpm Sr.05 Thrust(N) 490 540 550 Torque(N.mm) 1 2 4 Graphs: Drill Size Vs Thrust Drill Size Vs Torque 33 .00 15. 1 2 3 Drill size (mm) 10.08 19. No.
Force acting on tool in cutting condition 34 . Fig. Twist Drill tool Fig.
Total Displacement 35 .0125 N/ sec C 6 Thermal Conductivity Fig.17e-05 / C 4.HSS as a Drill Tool Material: Properties of HSS: 1 2 3 4 5 Density Possion’s ratio Young’s modulus Co efficience of thermal expansion Specific heat capacity 7827.27 199948 Mpa 1.08e Kg/m^3 0.73341e+08 mm^2/sec^2 C 43.
Displacement in Y Direction in mm 36 . Displacement in X Direction in mm Fig. Fig.
Stress in Von mises 37 . Fig. Displacement in Z Direction in mm Fig.
246e-04 6.717215e+00 2.717e-03 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Properties of Analysis Displacement in X Dir Displacement in Y Dir Displacement in Z Dir Total Displacement Von Mises Stress Maximum Principal Strain Maximum Value 2.000e-05 -6.000e-05 -5. Fig.264e-06 38 .703e-04 3.130928e-04 2.940e-05 7.038e-05 Minimum Value -5.448e-05 3. Maximum Principal Strain Result Table: SR No.212103e-04 -6.
328 N/ sec C 6 Thermal Conductivity Fig.55032e+08 mm^2/sec^2 C 75.58e-06 / C 1. Tungsten as a Drill Tool Material: Properties of Tungsten: 1 2 3 4 5 Density Possion’s ratio Young’s modulus Co efficience of thermal expansion Specific heat capacity 16874. Total Displacement 39 .31 310264 Mpa 5.6 Kg/m^3 0.
Displacement in Y Direction in mm 40 . Fig. Displacement in X Direction in mm Fig.
Displacement in Z Direction in mm Fig. Fig. Stress in Von mises 41 .
933e-05 1. Maximum Principal Strain Result Table: SR No.179e-06 -9.47984e-04 1.9329600e+00 1.000e-05 3.542e-05 5.427e-05 42 .780e-06 3. Fig.422e-05 Minimum Value 9.771264e-04 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Properties of Analysis Displacement in X Dir Displacement in Y Dir Displacement in Z Dir Total Displacement Von Mises Stress Maximum Principal Strain Maximum Value 1.500e-04 3.440512e-04 -4.
940e-05 -4. Properties of Analysis Displacement in X Dir Displacement in Y Dir Displacement in Z Dir Total Displacement Von Mises Stress Maximum Principal Strain Maximum Value 2.422e-05 1.038e-05 2.246e-04 -6.933e-05 6 2.771264e-04 -9. We are concluding that Tungsten is better than High Speed Steel in all cutting conditions.47984e-04 Minimum Value 9.000e-05 Tungsten Maximum Value 1. High Speed Steel SR No.000e-05 4 6.179e-06 3 -6. Strain and Deflection are less in Tungsten material then High Speed Steel.780e-06 1 2 2.264e-06 1.500e-04 5 3. Maximum principal Strain etc are carried out for two material.717215e+00 3.9329600e+00 3. Displacement in Y.427e-05 43 . Displacement in Z.448e-05 4.000e-05 1.(9) Conclusion: The analysis results are obtain by considering two different cutting materials likes High Speed Steel and Tungsten analysis results like Displacement in X.717e-03 3.130928e-04 Minimum Value -5.703e-04 7.542e05 5. Displacement in all directions. The values of Stresses.212103e-04 -5.440512e-04 3. Von mises stress.
howstuffworks.Hajra Choudhury • All About Machine Tools By Heinrich Gerling • Workshop Technology By H.S.(10) Bibliography: BOOKS • Element Of Workshop Technology By S.com www.Bawa WEBSITE • • www.K.winkpidia. Hajra Choudhury and A.com 44 .K.
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